Company Overview Samsung is a South Korea based market player and electronics giant producing a range of innovative products and operating for than seventy years by carrying out successful business throughout the world with 337 offices facilitating in fifty-eight countries and employing about 222000 human resources worldwide; moreover, it is the second largest company of the world market, possessing extremely strong financial-position.
It is notable that Samsung is one of the giant players in the global market with operations in numerous countries; therefore, it possesses a complex organizational structure. However, the organizational structure of the company is illustrated in a simplified format below –
Figure 1: The organizational structure
Source: Samsung Electronics (7)
Samsung has experienced outstanding growth in spite of the adverse impact of global financial crisis and the management of this company has taken advance actions in order to reduce negative impact on the company and gain competitive advantages by using strong financial capabilities, long experience of the employees, and key strengths.
Key Variables 2007 (trillion) 2008 (trillion) 2009 (trillion) 2010 (trillion) Net Sales ₩98.5 ₩121.3 ₩139.0 ₩154.63 Operating Income ₩9.0 ₩6.0 ₩11.60 ₩17.297 Net Income (of holding company) ₩7.40 ₩5.50 ₩9.70 ₩16.147 Earnings Before Interest and tax ₩17.50 ₩16.10 ₩22.80 ₩19.32 Table 1: Financial Overview of Samsung for the year 2007 to 2010
Source: Samsung Electronics (21)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even though the after effects of the recession are still present to some extent, the sales trends of the business remained quite high as demonstrated in the chart below:
Figure 2: The sales trends
Source: Samsung Electronics (12)
According to its sustainability report 2011, Samsung is a highly ethical business, which operates in an ecologically friendly manner and conforms to its principles of corporate social responsibility. The CSR policy framework of the business has shown below –
Figure 3: The CSR policy framework
Source: Samsung Electronics (22)
The company believes that maintaining good communication with the stakeholders by formulating an ethical stakeholder communications framework is the key to operating successfully; the stakeholder policies of the company along with the major issues in 2010 include the following:
We will write a custom Report on Samsung Marketing Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Figure 4: The stakeholder-communications framework policy
Source: Samsung Electronics (23)
The company’s operations are carried out in terms of equal opportunities for all employees; it does not discriminate with the employees in terms of ethnic origin or race. For expatriate employees, the company follows the following diversity management framework:
Figure 5: Diversity Management Framework
Source: Samsung Electronics (30)
To manage the human resources efficiently, the company’s HR organizational configuration has simplified as much as possible:
Figure 6: HR organizational configuration
Source: Samsung Electronics (37)
Not sure if you can write a paper on Samsung Marketing Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ten years history and Product lines Samsung has a glorious history and events of its product development, here, this part of the report presented a small part of the company’s historical event for last ten years as follows-
Product line and Feature /Events
Product line and Feature /Events 2011 Samsung introduced industry’s first DDR4 DRAM module using 30 nm-class process technology In this year Samsung organized global conference, elicitations and participated on different workshops like international CES in Las Vegas, SSD conference, China CTO Workshop in Dubai, INTEL Channel Conference, Microsoft Tech Forum, Cambridge Tech Day In London, Sap Teched in Las Vegas 2010 Samsung Introduced 8-Gigabyte RDIMM based on TSV, a 3D chip stacking technology, developed industry’s first 4-Gigabit LPDDR2 DRAM using 30nm-class process technology and expanded ‘Green Memory’ initiative beyond DRAM and SSDs to include memory products for PC and mobile applications;
In addition, it Introduced high-performance, low power dual CORTEX™ A9-based application processor for mobile devices, first to begin mass production of 2-Gigabit Green DDR3 using 30nm class technology, and innovated high-speed 512GB SSD utilizing new toggle-mode DDR NAND memory;
However, it qualified foundry industry’s first 32nm low-power high-k metal gate logic process and design ecosystem and it introduced industry’s first multi-chip package with a PRAM Chip for handsets, and Xilinx with 28nm HKMG process;
Samsung first to begin production of 20nm-class NAND chips for Secure Digital memory cards and embedded memory solutions, and it introduced other products in 2011 like 32-Gigabyte memory modules, and Green DDR3 DRAM
Announces industry’s first production of 3-bit cell, 64 Gigabit NAND flash using 20nm-class process technology;
Announced 11 trillion won investment in semiconductor facilities as part of its 26 trillion won investment and declared to produce high-performance, high-definition CMOS image sensors for webcam (Samsung Electronics 1);
2009 In this year, Samsung developed 3-bit, multi-level cell (MLC) NAND flash chips using 30-nm process technology, first consumer memory cards in Taiwan, world’s first mobile display driver IC with embedded touch screen, 512 Megabit PRAM, the company’s next-generation memory technology, 2-Gigabit DDR3 using 40nm class technology and so on;
In addition, it introduced new 45nm application processor for personal navigation devices, SanDisk renew patent cross licensing and flash supply agreements
First and smallest high-density memory modules based on 2Gb, 50 nm-class DDR3, 40nm process technology adopted in 8Gb Flex-OneNAND, industry’s first 40nm class DRAM chip and module with Intel validation, advanced programmable logic Chips for Xilinx, and four gigabit (Gb) DDR3 DRAM chip with 50nm process (Samsung Electronics 1);
Mobile World Congress
Samsung Mobile Solution Forum
Intel Developer Forum
HP tech forum
SEMC Technical Forum Day
2008 In 2008, Samsung developed and introduced few products to save the company from global financial crisis, such as, 1.2 Megapixel, PC camera CMOS image sensor SoC for real-time HD video, 256GB solid state drives for use in notebooks and desktop PCs, smallest two gigabit (Gb) DDR3 devices, using 50nm class process technology, 1.8-inch SSD in launched ultra-portable notebook;
In addition, it focused on few products like ThinkPad X301 in 64GB and 128GB densities, 1.8- and 2.5-inch MLC-based SSDs with 128GB storage capacity, new, high-performance, low-power 65nm application processors for PND Market, mass production of 1.8- and 2.5-inch MLC-based SSDs with 128GB storage, start joint production of 300 mm silicon wafers in Singapore, SIM cards and mobile TV applications (Samsung Electronics 1);
Moreover, it introduced high performance Smart Card IC with 90nm, world’s fastest and largest capacity 2.5-inch, MLC-based 256GB SSD with SATA II interface, multi-level-cell (MLC)-based 128 Gigabyte (GB), and SATA II solid state drive (SSD) and new mobile application processor with advanced multimedia capabilities for smart phones and personal navigation devices
Major events for the Samsung was Japan International Nanotechnlogy Exhibition
Methods of Engagement in Afghanistan Essay college essay help
In a more instinctive manner, there is need to redefine Afghanistan’s security, economy and identity in order to minimize the increasing rate of poverty, tension and insecurity in the country (Kinsman, 2006). According to neoliberal theorists, Afghanistan has lost its ability to pursue self-interests in the international realm.
Evidence derived from comprehensive analysis indicates that lack of human security; poor narcotic economy and identity crises have affected the rate of development in all sectors of the economy. Underdevelopment in the country has been manifested through low gross domestic production, literacy level, low life expectancy, frequent attacks and identity tension. This implies that firm steps must be taken to eradicate insecurity, violation of human rights and economic decline.
By so doing, this guarantees increase in national security, economic growth and identity achievement (Kinsman, 2006). Furthermore, protection of human rights will help to overcome identity conflicts. Recently, economic relation theorists have raised concern on the state of economy, security and national identity in Afghanistan (Manley, 2007).
Moreover, the theories have constantly insisted on the essence of national security, economic development and identity in response against international pressures. It is on this ground that this paper attempts to address and recommend how the economy, security and identity in Afghanistan can be eradicated.
Theoretical approach From a theoretical perspective, it is evident that Afghanistan has lost its capacity to govern its self-interests in the international sphere (Kinsman, 2006). From a liberalist perspective, every country needs to have a central role to play in the international cooperation. Failure to this, the theorists perceive the state to have lost its power to the core states (Manley, 2007).
Due to problems related to security, identity and economy, Afghanistan is unable to govern its national interest and thus can not offer a direction of its policies without external influence. To some extent, it has become a threat to international security due to Al-Qaida terrorist groups (Manley, 2007. However, these problems have been discussed in details below.
It is apparent that security in Afghanistan has posed a great threat to the economy and identity of the citizens in particular (Ghaznizada, 2010). Evidence has been derived from the fact that the US army has been doubled to ensure security in the country as at 2009. For a long time, the US army has focused its effort in the country in order to eradicate the remnants of the warring groups (Manley, 2007. Frequent wars have left the country unstable for development and as well threatening the international community.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Numerous steps have been made in the effort to increase security. Such include establishment of a transitional government and consultative forums through which a new constitution have been formed (Kinsman, 2006). According to the liberalists, the survival of the country will only be determined by the present state.
An objective has been set on how to defeat armed insurgent and terrorist groups in Afghanistan. It is imperative to note that though efforts have been made to enhance national security, such agenda has been left in the hand of coalition allies and NATO forces (Kinsman, 2006). Nonetheless, security enhancement in Afghanistan requires comprehensive strategies in order to achieve better results.
From the perceived evidence external force from NATO and USA might not make a predominant change toward the current state unless the critical demands of the warring Taliban are met (Ghaznizada, 2010). Liberalist confirms that there can be no improvement in the security sector unless efforts are made to develop the economy and suitable political wing.
In this case, it is perceived that such sectors are likely to evoke violence whenever there is any form of imbalance. Nevertheless, there rose a huge controversy over who is responsible for enhancing security in Afghanistan. According to liberal theories, the state should take a legitimate position in ensuring the security of the population.
However, critics have given their views upon US, UN and NATO role in enhancing security in Afghanistan. Liberalists are against the idea through which the US army uses force to ensure security and protection of human rights in Afghanistan (Ghaznizada, 2010). To them, they perceive this as imperialism of the highest degree. In this case, they argue that great powers tend to assert their power over younger nations and thus they deprive them their self interests.
According to this theory, a country should be set free since it understands its indigenous problems better and freedom from the contemporary challenges lies on the hands of the nationals. For this reason, issue of security in Afghanistan has been of great concern in the international relation realm.
Recommendations have been made permitting the government to delegate some of its responsibilities to international agencies and external military forces. Additionally, commercial and non-government, organizations, should reinforce the government in bearing the ultimate responsibilities (Ghaznizada, 2010).
We will write a custom Essay on Methods of Engagement in Afghanistan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Notably, we can not ignore the fact that though liberalists insist that the indigenous government should assume the role of fostering security, there are some constraints. For instance, Afghanistan government has been prone to shortage of resources, poor political ideologies and historical needs.
In this case, there is a huge dilemma on how security can be enhanced through such a fragile political base. Therefore, external efforts from the US army, UN and NATO have made a tremendous mark in reinforcing the government to combat insecurity in Afghanistan (Kinsman, 2006).
From a status review, it is evident that the US troops has unlimitedly donated resources in order to reconstruct the country irrespective of several limitations face. In this case, liberalists do not dismiss the role played by the ally groups. Furthermore, they confirm that there is need for there to be an international consensus in order to foster unilateral actions of rebuilding the country’s security.
As mentioned earlier, it is therefore advisable to employ combined efforts where the indigenous government and the international organizations such as NATO, UN and US army will work together to enhance security in Afghanistan (Kinsman, 2006). In line with this, there are several recommendations in which this security as a major objective can be achieved in order to enhance ultimate success in Afghanistan.
One of the recommendation involve establishment of provincial reconstruction teams (Manley, 2007. These teams are essential in ensuring that security reforms are followed strictly. Such reforms include disarmament and demobilization policies. In line with this, such teams strengthen the government’s ability to administer at the provincial and district levels.
Another recommendation is use if international military to intervene and fight against terrorism. By so doing, this will help to establish both domestic and national security (Kinsman, 2006).
In addition to this it is recommended that programs of demilitarization, reintegration and demobilizations should be formulated. Moreover, the programs should be well designed in order to reduce heavy armaments and acceleration of training activities for the terrorist groups. Such programs also help to devise alternative means of training and employing middle-level forces.
That not withstanding, it is also recommended that the country’s national army should be adequately trained (Radek, 2004). This makes them to become more equipped to fight and combat terrorist groups. This also enhances their warlord power over the existing militia terrorists.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Methods of Engagement in Afghanistan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The government should also give them incentives in order to foster cooperation. In the long run, it will be possible to achieve national integration and security. Other than international organizations, there are other tools that can be used to ensure ultimate security in Afghanistan. For instance, the non-governmental organizations can be used to enhance a humanitarian security aid that is vital in rebuilding the nation.
In addition to this private sectors can also be used to reinforce the state’s efforts in providing security services and other primal responsibilities (Radek, 2004). It is also advisable to use numerous tools that are diplomatic, economic and military while addressing the problem of security.
International groups have used military tactics that has been successful in combating warring groups. Besides this, they have also used economic tactics such as providing the country with food donations and medicine for the population (Kinsman, 2006).
Insecurity in Afghanistan has resulted to grave challenges toward the country’s economy. It thus beyond doubt to comment that the economic development in Afghanistan lingers an outlying hope (Anon, 2009). The viability of the economy highly depends ultimately on the presence of a legitimate government.
Researchers conform that the current state of the economy is almost collapsing. It is imperative to note that Afghanistan economic trend is not sustainable to support the demands of the population. The lucrative trade of opium products has been posed by enormous international threats (Anon, 2009). In this case, there exist three categories of the economy.
There is the war, shadow and coping economy and each has its own dynamics. However, it is evident that the economy has been faced by stiff challenges thus making the rate of living to be very high. Since the economy highly relies on farming farmers lack incentives and economic security thus they tend to collaborate with criminals and terrorist (Anon., 2008).
Therefore, they purchase poppies which they later convert to narcotic drugs for sale. After a period of time Afghanistan economy was turned into an illicit one and has been countered by the west. It is important to note that under such an economy, the country has not been able to resist threat from military group and pressures from the west.
Furthermore due to the increased pressure, we can refer to the economy as a “war economy” (Anon, 2009). This is due to the fact that international power holders have always question Afghanistan government for allowing such an illicit economy. Moreover, the nationals put pressure to the government since it was unable to cater for their upkeep. Forcefully, they transited into the illegal economy in order to advance the opportunities for existence.
However, efforts have been made to transform the economy from drug dealing to a more legitimate one (Anon., 2008). That’s not withstanding, transforming the economy is not a smooth sail since it requires a collective efforts in order to enhance better systems of security and development. In this case, there are recommendations that should be taken into consideration in order to eradicate the illicit economy and as well promote sustainable growth.
According to liberalists, a change can not be achieved in the traditional ways always. Therefore, there is need to integrate multiple means In order to eradicate economic challenges. For instance, one of the most suitable tools involves use of economic tactics. Examples of such tactics include providing alternative means in which farmers would generate viable money, provide incentives and enhancing economic security (Anon, 2009).
Moreover, the government should also castigate opium growers and as well the distillers in order to eradicate risks associated with nominal illegality. Establishment of security institutions would also make it hard for traffickers to smuggle the drug. According to liberalists, the government should make the demands of the people to be superior and thus such illegal activities are justifiable since they are means of attaining basic amenities.
In this case, there should be economic incentives that need to motivate people to abandon the illicit activities (Anon, 2009). For instance, diversification of food crop might not be effective unless the government provide the people with infrastructural facilities. The international organizations have played a large part in fostering economic security in Afghanistan in the past 6 years.
International relation has established counternarcotics operations in Afghanistan. For instance, the USD agencies have declared a Jihad for the poppy production through sentiments such as drug control strategies. Instead, the US agency has tried to encourage licit agriculture and this has made poppy production to drop by 37% as at 2007 (Anon, 2009).
However, I recommend that non-governmental organizations to be used as tools that will reinforce the government in encouraging licit farming. Notably, efforts have been made to finance licit agriculture such as availing affordable farm equipments, quality seeds and fertilizers (Anon, 2009).
Moreover, other international agencies such as the NATO have encouraged small scale businesses by providing financial aids in terms of loans. This has facilitated toward the growth of agro-processing and crop exports. Foreign aid and engagement from external agencies have emerged crucial for rebuilding Afghanistan’s economy (Kinsman, 2006).
Due to the fact that the country still remains poor, liberalists confirms that there should be an increased role in which the indigenous government takes to promote economic growth (Kinsman, 2006). Therefore, it is recommended that for there to be economic progress the government of Afghanistan should be autonomous of eternal influence to determine the fate of its people.
Nevertheless, this can be very tricky since the government has been unable to eradicate the peace spoilers in favor of illicit activities. For this reason, no matter how much we try, it is impossible to do away with external organizations such as UN, US and NATO agencies (Anon., 2008). In this case, it is upon the government and international community to come together to foster comprehensive economic growth in the nation.
Identity: The issue of identity has been debated upon in the international relations arena. In this case, international relation has devised tools and recommendations concerning identity as a political problem. In the context of Afghanistan, there exist two components of identity namely ethnic and religious identity. According to liberalists’ view, identity crises are inevitable particularly when a country is at its initial stages of political, social and economic evolutions.
It is on this ground that the international relations aim to persuade Afghans to embrace religious beliefs that are not tied to violent extremist organizations. It is apparent that in Afghanistan there are several religions such as Islam and Christianity. However, Islam has the majority of the population. Ethnic identity guards the people toward their historical and social groups (Phillips, 2011). In this case, different ethnic groups have different values and relations.
From the period of independence, Afghanistan has faced identity crisis even though there are no clear boundaries distinguishing each group. However, different identities in line with ethnicity have been used as a political tool thus creating tension. However, there have been factors that have influenced people’s identity. For instance the central government has played a major role in influencing people’s identity in a way through education and the media (Radek, 2004).
The main goal of the government was to establish a common social identity referred to as the Pashtuns. The issue of identity has given rise to many challenges since there are people who decline to associate themselves to a particular identity. Due to identity tension, some people have denied their own identity and other have opted to keep it a secret for fear of confrontations.
Differing upon a common identity has made the country to lack a national familiarity and thus it become complicated to define Afghanistan in the international arena (Phillips, 2011). It is imperative to mention that by paying much attention on the traditional social groups people have been resented and thus decline to associate themselves to a particular social group.
Therefore, due to resentment these groups waste time in acrimonious activities rather that taking time to develop an identity. For instance, there had been a Jihad war among the communist coup during the evolution of national identity (Radek, 2004). This war caused division among social groups each undertaking its own national duty on its own volition.
However, the international relation agencies have tried to persuade the Afghans to embrace ethnic and religious beliefs that are not tied to violent extremist organizations. To achieve this goal several recommendations can be used to ensure success.
For instance the international community, Afghanistan’s government and non-governmental organizations should encourage education for all (Kinsman, 2006). Through a unified education system it becomes easier to integrate individuals of different identities to interact and thus accept individual differences without tension. In the long run, education will help to weaken ethnic divisions (Narayanan, 2010).
Moreover, it is recommended that international relation should try to persuade the Afghan’s government to increase large number of ethnic groups being represented in the central government (Manley, 2007. According to liberal theory, separate social groups have various demands to make depending on the national needs.
Therefore it is not enough to let few ethnic groups such as Pashtuns and Tarjik to represent other groups (Radek, 2004). In this case, to achieve an identity, there is need for a larger representation by strongly-developed ethnic and religious groups in the government. In a shift of focus, the only tool that is suitable in solving identity problem is the Afghan government. This is due to the fact that it is only the government that understands the indigenous difficulties concerning identity.
Conclusion Imperatively, liberal theory is the best theories when addressing and giving recommendations to be followed to achieve success in terms of security, economy and identity issues in Afghanistan (Manley, 2007. The theorists conclude that security in Afghanistan has gone past the call for auxiliary international forces to in the country.
However, It should not be enforces by increased armed force against the nationals but through a genuine reconciliation at the national level. This will help in addressing the grievances and demands of the Afghans. On the other hand, regardless of the wavering hope on the economy collective efforts can help to achieve sustainable growth of licit economy as opposed to the vast growing lethal economy. Concerning the issue of identity, Afghans need to identify themselves with non-extremist identity.
By so doing, the country will be able to bear the external critics in the international arena. In a nut shell, problems of security, economy and identity can only be addresses through integrated approaches. Therefore, a combined effort from the government, international agencies (NATO, US, UN) and non-governmental organizations are required to see these problems solved.
References Anon. (2008). Asia: No quick fixes; Afghanistan’s opium poppies. The Economist, 387(8585), 54.
Anon. (2009). Opium Takes Over Families and Villages in Afghanistan. News for You, 57(41), 3.
Ghaznizada, W. (2010). Afghan Air Force training facilities rebuilt after 20 years. Web.
Kinsman, J. (2006). Afghanistan comes home. Policy Options, 28(1), 58-61.
Manley, J. (2007). Afghanistan: meeting the development challenge. Policy Options, 28(9), 6-12.
Narayanan, D. (2010). Afghanistan: Emerging From the Rubble. Web.
Phillips, M. (2011). An Airline Magazine That Makes Travelers Want to Pull the Rip Cord: Safi Shows the Real Afghanistan, From Dog Fighting to Dry Swimming Pools. Web.
Radek S. (2004). Meanwhile, in Afghanistan. National Review, 56(19), 34-36.
France and Talleyrand Descriptive Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
According to Historical sources, Talleyrand was a unique and extraordinary person. To some people, he was regarded as an arrogant person because of his confidence which earned him the most successful diplomat of his time. Through his tactics, he managed to survive the regimes of Dictators Louis XVI through to the leadership of Napoleon and Louis Philippe.
As observed from his tactics, he had the ability to predict Political events and placed himself on the side of the political victors. One of the events that clearly illustrate this characteristic is the role he played in the Vienna Congress to restore the position of France as a political leader in Europe. Unlike Napoleon, the approaches he used were not dictatorial because he used legitimate advances and public policy laws.
The main role of Talleyrand in the Vienna conference was that of a protector and not a peace maker because peace was already prevailing in France. He entered the conference fully convinced that he had a duty to bring back France to its rightful position. Previously, he had actively participated in the signing of ‘The Treaty of Paris’ which ended the ‘Napoleonic Wars.’
When Talleyrand entered the conference, he had the sole purpose of maintaining the power of France among the countries of Europe (Cooper, 1967). Despite the fact that France had narrowly escaped destruction when it signed the treaty of Paris, Talleyrand was convinced that France had not gained her rightful political position in Europe.
Talleyrand arrived a week earlier before the meeting started and had gathered information that ministers of powerful nations had met privately to decide on submissions of the congress. In order to counter these advances, he gathered the ministers of smaller powers and convinced them to select France to represent them because it was in a good position to champion for their rights and defend them from oppression from powerful states.
As the congress progressed, his methods proved to bare fruits because the opinions of France were heard. He also participated actively in pressing for the start of the congress which earned him an invitation by Prince Metternich of Austria together with other four ministers of powerful nations.
During the meeting, he questioned why he was the only representative of France in the meeting yet other countries had more than one representative. He calmed down after it was explained to him that the Secretary of State for Spain was not in the congress while Humboldt was in the meeting because Prince Hardenberg had earring problems (Cooper, 1967).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Talleyrand went further and criticized the use of the word ‘allied forces’ in the meeting yet the word was only relevant in fighting Napoleon who was long gone. He argued that word should no longer be used against France because peace was prevailing and that France should be part of the Allied forces.
During the proceedings of the meeting, Talleyrand argued that the four Nations had no authority to assume authority over others. He did not agree to any of the proposals of the four powers without inclusion of France. He further argued that any agreements reached before the start of the congress would be ignored which was a big blow to the other representatives of the other nations.
To some level, he had succeeded in undermining the powers of the powerful nations. His main aim was to put France in the same position as other countries of Europe.
The meetings that the powerful nations had held in confidence led to more confusions and France, which was not included gained favor. The skills that Talleyrand used were exceptional, and can only be supported by the fact that he loved France and was determined to place it among the powerful nations of Europe. As seen from the proceedings of the meeting, his views were critical in determining the outcome of the meeting.
Reference Cooper, D. (1967). Talleyrand. California: Stanford University Press.
TQM in Dubai Metro System Report essay help online free
Serco emerged as part of the Radio Corporation of America in the United Kingdom in 1929. First, as a service provider to the cinema industry, Serco, after changing its name, branched out to become one of the most prominent London Stock Exchange listed company.
Serco’s areas of operations are extensive and range from home affairs to transport, scientific research, detention services, defense, aviation and health among a few of them. It has become one of the biggest industries in United Kingdom. Serco is currently operating in over 35 countries with more than 50,000 employees to date.
Serco has recently partnered with the Dubai metro system and involved in the Dubai government to create the world’s most advanced metro system. Inspired from the well planned and detailed railways systems of the UK, Dubai metro system aims to accomplish the same feat with more technical gadgetry.
The Roads and Transport Authority or RTA has joined the Dubai government in creating this transit system to expand not only within Dubai but also between Dubai and other Emirates of UAE. Serco stands out because it represents a major force of builders working on the Dubai metro system.
The primary reason why these three companies remain in an area of interest is their application of Total Quality Management principles in a successful manner (Ferretti and Parmentola, 2007, 137). Alongside, the innovation and integration of other concepts such Regional Innovation System or RIS are other efforts to create systems that are well integrated and planned to allow the best service provision (Ferretti and Parmentola, 2007, 137).
What Is TQM? The TQM or Total Quality Management concept has been in the application within Dubai for some time. In all of its developmental areas, Dubai has been involved in improving over all the quality of its products and services to its people (Shaaban, 2011).
TQM, in essentiality, means creating services and processes that enhance and improve the quality and quantity of production (Sashkin and Kiser, 1992, pp 27). In order to achieve a phenomenal result, all the levels of work and processing must be seen through the critical examination and investigation (Sashkin and Kiser, 1993, pp 28).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, Total Quality Management is a step by step process where weaknesses and faults are identified within the system which then reforms it to make it more effective (Sashkin and Kiser, 1993, pp 28). The Dubai Metro has been engaged in the same methodology to create the best metro system of the world. It has, therefore, spared no effort to hire the best professionals from all around the world to transfer its vision to them and put them on to work.
The benefit of TQM is that, contrary to other quality improvement systems, TQM can be applicable to all the kinds of systems and projects where technical or other features may not allow to apply some forms of improvement initiatives. In addition, many TQM managers and leaders within the Dubai metro system should show the government’s commitment towards its overall improvement.
The customer and the comfort with which he or she can travel in a metro system remain of primary importance. This method will help to reduce commute times and put Dubai on the map again. Alongside, the TQM principles will allow identification of major weaknesses in the system and how they can be overcome.
Conclusion TQM is a new concept to introduced principle of management. It allows to apply positive methods of identification of a problem and how each member of team can learn to perform at his or her best.
References Ferretti, M. and Parmentola, A. (2007). The Creation of Regional Innovation Systems in Emerging Countries: The Case of Dubai. International Journal of Globalization and Small Business 2(2), 137-165.
Shaaban, A.( 2011, November 30). Continuous Upgrading Must for Excellence. The Khaleej Times. Retrieved from https://www.khaleejtimes.com/article/20111130/ARTICLE/311309830/1002
Sashkin, M. and Kiser, KJ. (1993). Putting Quality Management to Work: What TQM Means, How to Use it and How to Sustain it Over the Long Run. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
We will write a custom Report on TQM in Dubai Metro System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Ruth St. Denis Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Background
The technique Ruth St. Denis brought to the fore
Are they first or second generation pioneers?
Background on their company
Background Ruth St. Denis was born in 1879 in New Jersey to Ruth Emma Denis who was a physician by training. Saint Denis was very strong willed and highly educated. She died in 1968.
Training St. Denis was encouraged to study dancing at the formative stages of her life. She learnt Delsarte technique in the early stages of her life. Her bullet lessons were conducted by an Italian ballerina Maria Bonfante. She also received training in social dance forms and skirt dancing. Her professional career began in New York in 1892. She worked as a skirt dancer in New York where she performed in dime museums and vaudeville houses.
Dime museums traditionally hosted leg dancers who did brief dancing routines. In a day, Ruth did more than eleven brief dance routines. David Belasco spotted Ruth in 1898. By then David was a Broadway producer and a director of repute. David then hired Ruth to perform as a featured dancer in his large company. In fact while working with David, Ruth earned her stage name St. Denis which stark with her forever.
She was later to be known as Ruth St. Denis. After the tour where ‘Zaza’ was being produced Ruth got to know many important European artists like Sado Tacco and Sarah Benhardt an English actress great of her time. These people positively impacted her life as evidenced by her desire for dance and drama of Eastern cultures. Her interaction with Bernhardt made her like her melodramatic acting style. This later influenced her acting career especially the tragic fate of her character (Sherman, 1983).
The technique Ruth St. Denis brought to the fore At the onset of the 20th Century St. Denis began formulating her own theory of dance and drama. These were greatly influenced by the drama techniques she had a brush with early in her dancing training. The theory of dancing was also influenced with her readings on scientology, philosophy , and the history of ancient cultures.
The works of Benhardt and Yacco also played a role in defining her theories. In 1904 when she was touring with David Belasco, she came a cross a poster of the goddess of Issis that advertised a cigarette for the Egyptian Deities. This poster overwhelmed her imagination and she later resorted to reading a lot about Egypt and India. St. Denis later quit David Belasco’s company to start her path to the career of a solo artist.
It is during this time that she designed her exotic costume and created a story of a “mortal maid who was loved by the god of Krishna, Radha”. This dance style was premiered in New York’s Vaudeville House. She intended to translate her understanding of the “Indian culture and mythology to the American dance stage through Radha”.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When plying her trade a solo artist Mrs. Orlando Rouland quickly discovered Ruth St. Denis. Ruth St. Denis began performing Radha in Broadway theatres when her wealthy patron started sponsoring her. Ruth had a conviction that Europe had more to offer than any other place would do.
That is why in 1906, together with her mother she went to London. She managed to travel in many European cities where she performed a series of translations until 1909. She later returned to New York to give a series of well received concerts in New City when she was touring United States.
Up to 1914 she still toured United States dong exotic dance. She was labeled as a classic dancer in the same category with Isadora Duncan despite the fact that they were two different dancers in the perspective of their approach to solo dance. In fact St. Denis sought the universe in the self whereas Isadora Duncan sought the self in the Universe. St. Denis interpreted exotic world through “the vantage point of her body” (Shelton, 1981).
After 1911, solo dance on the professional stage faced a eventual death. St. Denis therefore gave lessons to such women like Gertrude Whitney. Her problems were later compounded by the death of her major patron Henry Harris who died on the titanic. Her financial woes forced her back to the studios where she initiated new exotic dance. The difference however was that the new exotic dance had Japanese theme.
One of these exotic dance was O-MIKA which “was more culturally authentic than her other translations”. It was not successful though. This prompted St. Denis to include some other performers in her productions. Ted Shawn came on board in 1914. Ted was a stage dancer who had strong Dalsartean leanings. Hilda Beyer had ballroom preferences.
St. Denis continued with her solo translations where as Shawn brought popular dance forms like ragtime and tango. Shawn and Denis later became lovers and dance partners. This partnership marked the end of her career as a career solo artist (Shelton, 1981).
Are they first or second generation pioneers? Ruth St. Denis, Isadora Duncan, and Loie Fuller are considered some of the pioneers of the modern dance. They were against formalism and “superficiality of classical academic bullet”. These dancers wanted to introduce their audiences to both inner and outer realities.
We will write a custom Essay on Ruth St. Denis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ruth in particular employed pictorial effects that featured in her ritualistic dance of Asian religion. She specifically used elaborate costumes and improvised movements that characterized Egyptian and Indian descent. In fact because of her versatility, she integrated Native American dances and dances from other ethnic groups (Shelton, 1981).
Background on their company After her marriage to Shawn in 1914, they together formed Denishawn Company. The company was started in 1915 Los Angelus California. Through this company they managed to popularize modern dance throughout the United States and abroad. Through this company talents were nurtured and a second generation of modern dancers was conceived. The second generation dancers that passed through this company were Martha Graham, Doris Humphrey, and Charles Weidman.
The Denishawn School of dancing prioritized bullet and experimental bullet dance. The school was first housed in a Spanish style mansion in Los Angelus with spaces for technique classes and Denishawn technique. Technique classes were taken in bare feet and students had to put on one piece black wool bathing piece. The classes ran for three hours each morning. Shawn took the students “through stretches, limbering and ballet barre”.
Floor progressions and free form center combinations were also done by Shawn. St. Denis was in-charge of “oriental and yoga techniques”. Shawn’s classes were in fact laden with ballet terminology. The classes finally closed with the learning of another part of dance. Denishawn trainings were characterized by a theory that one learns to perform by performing and this made a part of concert repertory (Shelton, 1981).
Reference List Shelton, S. (1981). Divine Dancer: A Biography of Ruth St. Denis. New York: Doubleday.
Sherman, J. (1983). Denishawn: The Enduring Influence. 1. Boston, MA: Twayne Publishers.
Imagine that you are part of a local group developing a grant-funding proposal for a crime prevention program targeting businesses best essay help: best essay help
Imagine that you are part of a local group developing a grant-funding proposal for a crime prevention program targeting businesses in your community. After a rash of recent burglaries, thefts, and fraud schemes directed at businesses in the area, a local benefactor has offered $300,000 for a one-year crime prevention program. In your research, your group has determined that the $300,000 is helpful but will not cover the necessary funding. Your group will be submitting a proposal to obtain the funding. Describe common grant types and identify possible sources for your proposal. Identify funding agencies that could possibly fund the grant. Provide teamwork strategies you might implement when developing the proposal. Create a logic model for a fictitious, grant-funded project. Search the internet for sample logic models to use as an example. Include the resources needed for project implementation in your logic model in a 700- to 1,050-word paper. You should submit your logic model in addition to the paper. Format your paper in accordance with APA guidelines. Submit your assignment.
Workplace Ethics Report essay help
Introduction Ethics has been a major issue in the contemporary world in the field of business and the society. Madison defines ethics as acting in conscious of the policies of an organization, laws and regulation, morals and standards of a given country (41). Ethics is very vital for the prosperity of any given organization or individual. There are standard ways in which an individual is expected to behave when in a given context.
These expectations must be met so that the society may approve of the individual (Tribe and Dorf 36). However, an individual may find himself/herself in an awkward situation when there is need to balance between the expectations of the society and the demands for job. One may be forced to make a decision that may contradict what the society considers moral because of the requirements of job. The cases study below is a reflection of situations where one has to make hard decisions and remain ethical in the face of society.
Environment: Something is Rotten in Hondo- a Case Study Ethical Issues
George Mackee is a diligent man who is determined to make a positive differential change not only to his friends and relatives, but also to the entire society of Texas and the United States of America. He sees himself as a responsible citizen who should work hard in order to provide for his family and friends.
He also values the environment as the source of future livelihood. However, George finds himself in a difficult situation. The problems arise from the need to preserve the environment from pollution by his company. He has the following problems to face and handle carefully.
The company’s emissions are beyond the limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency. The company will therefore be fined in the meantime for the damage they have caused in the environment and for the breach of contract, they signed on environment protection. The company will then put preventive measures in order ensure that this pollution ends. However, the company is not in a position to buy new scrubbers due to the financial constrains. A solution must be found as soon as possible.
The second problem is the need to move out of Hondo as a measure to avoid the fines imposed by the environmental agency. This will not only deprive Hondo of infrastructural development, but also render many individuals of this area jobless, some being friends and relatives of George. He must be sensitive of the needs of the society and avoid a situation that may make it view him as one who does not care about their concerns.
In the first problem where the company is fined for environmental pollution, this manager may opt for of the two options: either relocate to Mexico or consider scheduling their heavy omission at night. By moving to Mexico, the company shall have eliminated the stringent rules put in place by the environmental protection agency.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They will be free to do their production at any time of the day without the worry of breaching any law or regulation. This will help them recover more margins so that they may be in a position to purchase new scrubbers to curb the pollution rate. Since the management is not able to find a solution to this problem as at present and the environmental regulator is continuing to issue fines that are hindering the company’s finances, this may be a very attractive solution to the management.
This is specifically so because the business owner has already made inquiries about the new locations and the authorities there have given him the green light. The other solution may be to reschedule the heavy omission to be at night. Other companies doing the same are getting away with it. The environmental agency has fined this company while other companies, which are in worse states, are doing their passing the set standards simply because they are doing their production at night.
The second problem is to move out of Honda hence rendering many people in this location jobless. There may be two alternatives to this problem. The company may decide to move out of this location for a while but promise the workers of a quick return the moment they are able to adhere to the demands of the environmental agency, or to compensate the workers as an appreciation and make a permanent exit from this town.
Ethics for the Alternatives
In the first problem, the first alternative was to move to Mexico. The ethics in this will be that the company shall have avoided the direct confrontation with the environmental agency. It will be going to a place that considers its rates of pollution as normal. This decision focuses on the properties inherent to the action; hence, it is based on non-consequential theory. The second alternative of rescheduling heavy omissions at night is considerable unethical.
However, this may be the only option if the company is to stay any longer in this location and continue offering the locals job opportunities, which they need most. This option is based on consequential theory as the stay will continue offering the locals job, but should the environmental agency realize the new strategy, the fine can be more severe.
The fist alternative in the second problem is very ethical. The company is very sensitive both to the needs of its current employees and the environmental body. It is a virtue based theory as it plans to move away for a while till it is able to abide by the law and then come back to offer the locals job opportunities. The other alternative of compensating the employees is also ethical. It is an appreciation for their good work. It is based on non-consequential theory, as the company may not directly feel the outcome of the compensation.
The Best Action Plan
In the first case, the company should consider moving to Mexico as the best decision. In so doing, it will avoid long court cases and huge fines that may arise if the environmentalists realize the new tactic of polluting the air at night. It will be sensitive to the need to have a clean environment.
We will write a custom Report on Workplace Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This leads us to the best alternative for the second problem of moving out of Hondo. The company should consider moving out of this location just for a while and come back when they are able to keep up with the regulations of the environmentalists. By moving to Mexico, they will still be polluting the environment, which is not ethical. This alterative is based on virtue ethics as it aims at restoring the jobs of those who will be laid off after some time.
Commercial Banking: The Curious Loan Approval – a Case Study Ethical Issues
Adam is concerned that his boss, Mary Ryan may be involved in unethical business practices as a commercial loans officer Farmwood National Bank. The issues that arise in this particular case study are as follows. Mitchell Foods was overleveraged in its application for a short-term loan.
This company did not meet the requirements necessary for it to be awarded the loan. When Adam tried raising the issue with the boss, he was brushed off and told that the criteria he was using in the evaluation was not always a priority to the credit committee. The memorandum he had Sure enough, it went through this committee and the loan was awarded.
The second issue concerns the same boss. She is awarded a personal mortgage loan at abnormally attractive rate. She is allowed a 100 percent, fixed rate financing for the next five years at a 2 percent below the normal rate.
Adam has two alternative course of action for the first problem. He can keep quite about the issue and try to work as per the advice of the boss. The credit committee has approved the request and things are running normally. Moreover, the boss is known for her shrewd approach to her work. She is a role model and for him to reach where she has reached, she will need to be an ally to her. It is only through this that they will be able to work as a team.
Alternatively, he can raise the concern with the management. It is weird that a company that has not qualified for a loan is awarded such in disregard to the laid down regulations. From his college he was taught to always maintain integrity in all his duties as a credit officer. The fact that the memorandum he had written about the issue was brushed off by the boss raises further suspicion. The management should therefore be alerted about the same and an investigation should be launched about the same.
In the second issue of awarding Mary a mortgage loan at abnormally low rates, he can take either of the two options. He can approach Mary and inquire from her how she managed to get the mortgage. He should inquire from her if the mortgage that was awarded to her is related to the loan that was awarded to Mitchell Foods. They can address the issue between them and if need be, he should advice her to always be ethical in her undertakings as a professional credit officer.
Alternatively, he can raise the issue with the management. He can decide to link the controversial loan awarded to Mitchell Foods to the mortgage loan given to Mary. This is because the chair of the board at Bay Street Savings (which awarded Mary the mortgage loan) is also the owner of Mitchell Foods.
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For the first case, Adam may keep quite because he is not sure of the irregularity. He is just a few months old in this firm and he is not aware of some of the modalities that take place in the department. The management approved the loan just as his boss had informed him.
It may be painful that the memorandum that he had written about the same was disregarded, but it is not very advisable to start brushing shoulders with everyone the wrong way. He will be avoiding the repercussions that may be accompanied with direct confrontation; hence, it is a non-consequential theory. He should take his time and learn the job. He will be able to know when there are irregularities in the operations in the bank. He shall have also known the best approach to take in case of such a situation.
The other alternative of raising the issue with the management is ethical, though the accompanying consequences may be devastating. He can talk to the management about the memorandum that was neglected and the omissions that were made when the board sat to approve the loan application. This is a consequential theory as this action may raise serious reactions that may result in a punitive action taken should there be a proof that there was a malpractice in the process of awarding the loan.
For the second issue of controversial award of mortgage loan to Mary, Adam can directly approach Mary and talk to her about his suspicion. This is ethical because the two will be able to talk as colleagues and settle the suspicion. They are teammates and should not loose trust of each other.
This approach will build trust and they will be able to approach future cases in an amicable way. The decision to involve the management is a sure way to fight unethical issues in running of the activities of the bank. He will be standing firm with the set rules and regulation set for the running of his job. It will be a clear show that he tolerates not, unethical behavior.
The Best Action Plan
For the first case, the best cause of action will be to keep quite and monitor the activities taking place in the department. He should not rush as this may result in actions that may be regrettable. He should therefore consider having an understanding of the department and the field in general, before he can take an active measure should the case happen again.
For the second case, it is recommendable that he talks to Mary in order to clear any suspicion. He should approach her and get the information concerning this reward in an amicable way. This will make them continue working as a team as the trust would be strengthened.
Product (Harmful Ecological Impact)-Case Study Ethical Issues
Robert is faced with an environmental issue that requires balance between the sustainability of the business and environmental concern (76). The two issues in this case are either to disregard environmental concern and produce aerosol stain remover, which is marketable, or continue with the production of the liquid stain remover and face the eminent danger of elimination from the market.
The two issues may be given two approaches. If Robert considers profits other than environmental concerns, then he may choose either of the two options. He may choose to produce aerosol dispenser as a way to get quick finance for his business. As a product manager, he should aim at building a customer base that is large enough to sustain the company. By giving marketing an outward-in approach, he should give the customer requirements a priority and provide them with what they value most.
Alternatively, she can produce both types of dispensers (pump and aerosol) in a bid to balance between the need for profits and the desire to maintain the environment. He can produce aerosols that are enough to cover for the costs of production, and produce the pumps to act as the margins.
If he considers environmental concern, he can then increase its promotional campaigns among the customers of the dangers of aerosols. The company should continue producing environmental friendly products but maintain promotion. Alternatively, he can petition the environmental agencies to put regulations on the industry. All the players should be limited to packaging their products in a manner sensitive to environmental concerns.
Ethics for the Alternatives
The decision to produce aerosols will have the best result in terms of profits. It will enable the company attract the customers they had lost because of the unattractive product.
This will enable it sustain itself in the competitive. However, this approach may not be ethical as it disregards the environmental concerns. Producing a certain percentage of aerosol dispensers and the other percentage as pump dispenser appears ethical as it shows that inasmuch as the company is determined to get profits, it is sensitive to environmental concerns (Bonheoffer 34).
If it considers environmental concern, the option of continuing to produce environmental friendly products is ethical as it give emphasis to the need for a clean environment at all cost. The alternative of seeking regulatory restrictions put in place by the government will be an indication that he is ready to defend the environment through all means.
The Best Action Plan
If Robert considers the need to generate profits, then he should consider producing both types of dispensers as a measure to reduce pollution. It is the best decision as it is sensitive to both the needs of the business and the environment. If he considers giving environment more concern, then it should consider government intervention on environmental preservations. This is to ensure that market competition is leveled, with everyone doing his/her part to conserve the environment.
Taking Credit for Work: Might Makes Right- Case Study Ethical Issues
Janice is a very successful executive who is lucky to have gotten a good job with a good salary. However, his assistant is very frustrated as the salary he gets is hardly enough to cater for his expenses. However, through his hard work, John develops a program that is relevant to the organization. Janice demands to present this program as her own, reward John with a promotion and pay rise. If John rejects the offer then he will be fired. He has to choose between his job and his integrity.
If John decides to maintain his job, he will have to allow his boss to use his work and present it as his. He will get what he had been yawning for so much-promotion and pay rise. Alternatively, he may refuse the usage his work by his boss and raise the concern with the senior authorities. If he decides to quit, he may decide to consider suing his former boss for harassment and demand for compensation. Alternatively, he may decide to quit this job quietly decide on a new path.
Ethics for the Alternatives
By allowing his work to be used by his boss, John will be employing consequential theory, as he will be expecting to be rewarded by job. It is worthy decision as John will be in a position get what he had been looking for in life. By deciding to stay in the firm but refuse to allow usage of the program, john will be fighting for his integrity.
Conclusion Ethics is a very broad issue that one needs to give attention to so that there is harmony in various workplaces. It is a responsibility of everyone to ensure that ethics is maintained, by doing all that pertain to morals. Through this, an organization may be able to develop a comprehensively and integrated work force that is dynamic and ready to help one another. This will make the organization have a peaceful working environment, devoid of direct confrontation.
Works Cited Bonheoffer, Dietrich. Ethics. New York: Macmillan publishers 1995. Web.
Madison, James. Champion of liberty and justice. New York: John Kaminski Parallel Press, 2006. Print.
Robert, John. On Strategic nonviolent conflict: Thinking about the fundamental. Boston: The Albert Einstein Institution, 2002. Print
Tribe, Laurence and Dorf, Michael. On reading the constitution. Utah: University of Utah Press, 1991. Print
Tourism Planning and Development of Margate Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help
Seaside resorts were created to cater for industrialization in the late 19th century railway era. Back then, they were frequented by wealthy visitors. In the years that followed the depression, they renewed their appeal and attracted a lot of visitors until the Second World War when most were closed.
They began to thrive again in the 1950s and were doing well until the 1970s (English Tourism Council 2001). The decline of the seaside towns began in the mid 1970s (Kennell 2011). In 1974, the world experienced the first international oil crisis. Domestic tourism fell and remained depressed until the late 1980s.
The reported numbers of English seaside tourisists showed a decrease from 32 million to 22 million staying visits and from 193 million to 104 million nights stays (Tourism insights info n. d.). In the 1980s, day visitors to seaside resorts increased tremendously. Most of this tourism market did not spend a lot, it did not contribute to accommodation spending, and it created car congestion eroding the quality of the environment and providing disincentives to better spending customers. (Middleton 2001).
A principal seaside town is one that has a population of more than 10,000 people and one where seaside tourism is a significant factor in the economy (Beatty
Women in Management Opinion Essay essay help
Does gender make a difference in leadership styles? Understanding gender as an essential element of all aspects of each day life has become more and more extensive. Gender makes a difference in leadership style. Every leader has his or her different leadership style and a different strategy of approaching their profession.
Both men and women have their unique and different leadership styles. Gender and leadership style is a subject that has been debated-on over the years. Some people believe that both men and women have similar leadership styles while others believe that their leadership styles vary.
Nonetheless, it is evident that both men and women have different styles of leadership. For instance; Women in leadership use their positions of authority to build a supportive and an accommodating atmosphere.
Men on the other hand use their positions of authority to build a hierarchal atmosphere where they give orders and expect compliance and respect. Men are believed to be autocratic, task and punishment oriented, commanding and controlling. Conversely, women are democratic, reward-oriented, participative or democratic and team players (Sherrill, 2011).
There are various fundamental qualities or features that most people link with leadership. They include; self-reliant, self-sufficient, self-confident, dominant, determined, go-getter and independent. Most people can concur that people who have these qualities are normally seen as leaders (Sherrill, 2011).
An effectual leader is someone who inspires and encourages others to achieve more than they would have otherwise achieved without the involvement of the leader. People believe that leadership is a conventionally masculine activity. Research has shown that just like there are similarities in the leadership styles of both men and women, there are also differences and they are all effective.
There are several leadership theories that help in understanding the concept of leadership. Leadership is not about being on top but it’s about being transformative, goal-oriented, focused and above all being a leader that creates affirmative change. Transformative leadership theory for instance, is about headship that creates confirmatory change in the subordinates whereby they look after each other’s wellbeing and act according to the interests and wellbeing of the entire group.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Leaders who practice this leadership style, boosts the performance, ethical and motivation of his subordinates (Van, 2000). Women are transformative leaders and they greatly focus on the interest of their subordinates. Men are more demanding, commanding and punishment-oriented.
Transactional leadership theory involves leaders who believe that followers are encouraged through punishment or rewards. Such leaders give orders and instructions to their subordinates regarding their expectations and when those expectations are realized, the followers are rewarded, if not, they are punished.
They assign jobs to the subordinates even when there are no resources; these leaders are self-centered. The majority of male leaders tend to employ this leadership style, they are task-oriented and dictatorial and domineering. Male leaders like to be in control and so they end up putting their interests first (Smith, 2004). Another leadership theory that relates to styles of leadership is Laissez-Faire Leadership; in this case leaders tend to give little or no supervision and direction to the subordinates.
Followers are allowed to be whatever they want: this leadership style works well in situations where subordinated are highly trained, skillful and experienced. Followers are required to solve problems on their own; this can be very risky if they are not skilled or knowledgeable in what they do. This leadership style is employed by both male and female leaders, leaders who are not focused or goal- oriented.
There are other well-established theories concerning leadership styles; such as “Green Man theories.” These theories presume that the ability to lead is intrinsic and that good leaders are not made but are born. They depict good leaders as being heroic, legendary and valiant. The word “Great Man” was utilized because long ago headship was believed to be men’s position. Women were not believed to be good leaders but this mind-set has changed because in the present day, women are been appointed as leaders (Moore, 2004).
The society has always believed that men are brave and authoritative unlike women and so they shouldn’t hold leadership positions. Trait theories also presume that people inherit traits that make them good leaders: there are certain qualities in people that make them good leaders. Just like Great Men theories, trait theories do not support women leadership (Kippenberger, 2002).
All leaders are supposed to be focused with group-members’ interests at heart regardless of their gender. In our society today, some organizations believe that there are female and male positions at work place; this shows that these organizations believe that gender makes difference in leadership style (Broadbridge, 2006).
We will write a custom Essay on Women in Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This may be perceived as some kind of discrimination but being different does not mean women are not good leaders and vice versa. This only means that their approach in leadership is different from that of men. Some believe that men leadership styles are better compared to those of women but the bottom-line is, good leadership styles are those that facilitate the accomplishment of set goals (Dereli, 2010). An effective leader is one who delivers quality work and leads professionally and competently regardless of the gender.
Men and women have their different style of leadership; all through history men have always been given higher positions but in the contemporary society, this is changing because women have proven to be good leaders too, they leadership style is slowly but surely being accepted in the business world.
References Broadbridge, A. (2006).Women in management: perspectives from the European academy of management. USA: Emerald Group Pub.
Dereli, M. (2010). Leadership Styles. New York: VDM Verlag.
Kippenberger, T. (2002). Leadership Styles. Chicago: John Wiley
Corporate Social Responsibility and Apparel Industry Term Paper essay help online free
CSR- History and Introduction Over the years, there has been contention among scholars and industry experts on what exactly CSR means. Unfortunately, the contention and the debate that ensues have not resulted in a standard definition yet. Consequently, different people have different definitions of the term, and some scholars have even accused some researchers of distorting the CSR concept, so much that, it has become “morally vacuous, conceptually meaningless, and utterly unrecognizable” (Orlitzky 48).
Although scholars argue that CSR dates back to the 1920s, its first conceptualization in literature began in 1953, when Howard Bowen, an American Economist stated that organizations had a social obligation “to pursue those policies, to make those decisions, or to follow those lines of action which are desirable in terms of the objectives and values or our society” (Bowen cited by Maignan and Ferrell 4).
Following the conceptualization of CSR by Bowen in the 1950s, other CSR-related concepts such as corporate citizenship, social audits and corporate stewardship came into focus (Maignan and Ferrell 4). From the 1960s onwards, scholars and researchers have been more concerned about defining the CSR concept.
Defining Sustainability and CSR The 1987 Brundlandt report closely ties sustainability to the sustainable yields concept. Specifically, the report argues that “sustainable yields development meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. In other words, the Brundlandt report argues that sustainability is possible if the organizations (and humankind in general) consider the social, economical and ecological aspects similarly.
According to the report, organizations need to be responsible for their actions and inaction in both the short-term and long-term; if at all sustainability is to be attained. The report posits that the present action or inaction by organizations have an impact not only on its stakeholders, but also on the larger humankind with the inclusion of future generations.
Even though there is no standard definition of CSR, a literature review conducted by Dahlsrud reveals that a definition by the Commission of the European Communities is the most prevalent in literature. The Commission defines CSR as “a concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis” (Dahlsrud 7).
Among other terms that are popular in CSR definition include adhering to ethical values, complying with legal requirements, respecting communities, the environment and people, and contributing to the quality of life of the stakeholders and the larger communities. Among the vital indicators that come out of the CSR literature is the fact that organizations should not just pursue profitability without paying attention to the effect that their activities have on the employees, shareholders, communities, and the environment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The importance of CSR for Textile and Apparel Industry The textile and apparel industry has an infamous reputation for its use of cheap labor often sourced from overworked employees or underage workers. Most notable is the fact that most such industries are now in developing countries where labor laws are virtually non-existent, while unemployment rates are remarkably high.
Such combination of factors means that organizations can maximize output by overworking employees who are desperate to eke out a living in whatever way, and compensating them with relatively low wages.
The lack of legal and political frameworks in developing countries means that major players in the textile and apparel industry need to take the CSR initiatives a notch higher in order to cover for the management gap created by such legal and political inadequacies. After all, (Maignan and Ferrell 4) indicate that CSR operates outside the legal entitlement of an organization, and is usually voluntary in nature.
Why is CSR needed?
The need for CSR in the textile and apparel industry is underscored by the fact that in view of the lacking political, social and legal guidelines, the organizations operating in the industry have societal obligations that they need to meet. Notably, the need for such organizations to deliver societal values amidst high levels of poverty and insecurity where their business interests are located cannot be overemphasized.
Besides, the CSR hype has alerted employees, government, consumers and larger societies of the social responsibilities that organizations have towards them. Hence, adopting CSR initiatives serves the strategic business interests of organizations operating in the apparel and textile industry since it enables organizations to forge good and beneficial relationships with not only the employees, but also governments, non-government organizations and consumers.
The nature of fashion industry
The nature of the fashion industry is such that there are high lead times that require organizations to produce fashionable clothes at relatively low costs. The CSR in the fashion industry is therefore more focused on the production processes whose end results are the clothes people dress in.
To this end, (Dickson and Eckman 188) argues that CSR in the fashion industry is “an orientation encompassing the environment, its people, the apparel/textile products… and the systematic impact that production, marketing and consumption…has on multiple stakeholders and the environment”. Among the key factors that influence CSR in the fashion industry include the production of raw materials at the farm level, the production processes at the firm level, and the operational factors such as sweatshop and child labor.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Corporate Social Responsibility and Apparel Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the environmental front, the extensive exploitation of natural resources such as water and farm land, and the use of chemical products impact negatively on the environment. Companies that have embraced CSR in the fashion industry therefore seek to address such issues though responsible and sustainable initiatives.
The background: conditions that propel companies to take sustainability into consideration
In literature, there are two basic reasons that propel companies to take sustainability into consideration: (I) the need to look good in the eyes of the employees, the consumers and other stakeholders; and (II) A genuine need to do well, and contribute to the welfare of all stakeholders affected by what the organization does.
In the first instance, organizations find adopting CSR initiatives necessary due to the reputational risk that comes with non-adoption. In the Nike case (explained elsewhere) for example, the firm was criticized for the use of child labor in its value chain, and the effect of such criticism in its sales volume in 2004 was far-reaching.
Internally, companies with a good social responsibility reputation are able to attract and retain employees more, while investors are willing to invest in such firms. In the second instance however, organizations adopt CSR/sustainability simply because “it is the right thing to do”.
The evolution of company’s initiatives- from merely safe guarding image to integrating it as part of their business strategy
CSR is no longer part of public relations practices for organizations. Rather, CSR is now being incorporated as part of the business strategy that organizations take. In the past, firms focused more in corporate communications and corporate philanthropy; nowadays however, CSR is viewed as an important differentiation tool especially in the competitive markets.
As Gildea notes, the consumers is at the middle of the revolution since contemporary purchasers boycott goods or services whose production harms the people, the society or the environmental resources (Gildea 21).
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have been on the fore front mobilizing and applying pressure on companies that violate what is considered as socially responsible/sustainable production or manufacturing processes. Among the most effective public pressure means are consumer boycotts. A 1990 article in the Economist, for example stated that “pressure groups are besieging American companies, politicizing business and often presenting executives with impossible choices.
Consumer boycotts are becoming an epidemic for one simple reason: they work” (The Economist 69). The public pressure through boycott is usually marked by negative publicity focusing on what a firm did or failed to do, and such sentiments usually affect its sales volumes and profitability. The public pressure is intended to coerce targeted companies to change their policies regarding an issue; or to communicate displeasure regarding how the target firm is handling an issue.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporate Social Responsibility and Apparel Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Global Sourcing Shift
The global sourcing shift is a product of globalization, where branded apparel manufacturers, lead firms, marketers and retailers in developed countries have all turned to bulk importation of their products from global suppliers, usually in developing countries (Gereffi 1).
Social and economic impact on countries
It has been argued that the relocation of apparel manufacturing industries to countries with cheap labor tantamount to moving jobs that would otherwise benefit local populations abroad. Incidentally, firms that have relocated their production to cheaper destinations usually have their largest markets in the same destinations they re-located from.
On the counter side however, developing countries where such factories are located benefit from foreign direct investments that creates jobs and earns such countries foreign exchange revenue from exports. However, such countries are now being forced to play catch-up with the developed countries as far as labor and environment-related laws are concerned.
Walmart The catalyst of the Walmart’s Sustainability strategy
A report by the Stanford Graduate School of Business indicates that the Sustainable Value Networks (SVNs) adopted by Walmart acts as catalysts to the chain store’s sustainability strategy. Through the SVNs, Walmart is able to focus on specific areas in its supply chain such as food packaging, transportation or buildings among others.
The chain store identifies and develops any change that may improve sustainability in focus areas. Through the SNVs, Walmart identifies areas where it can enhance efficiency and/or reduce waste either single handedly or through engagement with its suppliers and other stakeholders.
The details of the strategy – specifically to textile and apparel
In the textile and apparel industry, the SNVs strategy in Walmart entails extensive life-cycle analyses done on the apparel production processes with the intention of understanding the exact impact that such processes have on the environment.
According to the report by the Stanford Graduate School of Business (6), it was found that “soap was responsible for an alarming level of greenhouse gas emissions, primarily due to the palm oil used in soap products”. Consequently, Walmart started working with suppliers in view of introducing the sustainable use of palm oil in soap products.
Walmart and Patagonia
In 2010, news broke that Walmart and Patagonia were partnering in order to help the former “move up the sustainable business learning curve fast” (Kimball n.pg.).
Through the partnership, Patagonia would help Walmart in developing a sustainability index for its products like it (Patagonia) had done with other entities such as Nike and North Face. As Walmart sought to introduce a scorecard to rate all its products on social impact and eco-friendliness, Patagonia seemed like the most ideal partner (Kimball). It is worth noting that Patagonia is revered as a leader in sustainable business practices.
In just one year, the Walmart-Pantagonia partnership has opened up to include other players in the apparel industry leading to the formation of the Sustainable Apparel Coalition (SAC). SAC has 40 members, who include industry heavy weights such as Patagonia, Walmart, Nike, Gap, and JC Penney among others.
Together, the 40 member in SAC came up with the Sustainable Apparel Index, which is defined as an “Industry-wide tool for measuring the environmental and social performance of apparel products and the supply chains that produces them” (Kirsten n.pg.). Through the index, the SAC members hope to promote efficient use of water and energy; less use of chemicals; less waste production; and enhance the working conditions in the apparel industry (Kirsten).
Nike The initiatives that Nike have undertaken
Ever since the 1990s when Nokia took a hit from consumer boycotts and other forms of public pressure for the alleged use of child labor and sweatshop conditions by some of its suppliers in Asia, the company has taken up CSR initiatives to remedy its dented image. Key among such initiatives was the introduction of a Code of Conduct, which the company demanded that all its suppliers should abide to (Locke, Qin and Brause 8).
The company has further put the minimum age for workers to 18 years, and insists that the indoor air quality in all its supplier factories must meet the ‘Occupational Safety and Health Administration’ (OSHA) standards as used in the US. To boost compliance, (Locke et al. 9) observe that the company trains its suppliers, and has put together a team that monitors compliance in 21 countries.
By 2008, Nike has a further 1,000 production specialists employed to work with its suppliers globally for purposes of enhancing compliance to the Code of Conduct. But perhaps the most significant CSR initiatives by Nike are in the auditing systems, which include: (I) ‘Environment, Safety and Health (SHAPE) audit’; (II) ‘Management and Working Conditions Audit (M-Audit)’; and (III) annual inspections by the ‘Fair Labor Association (FLA)’ (Locke et al. 9).
The minimal impact in monitoring
While monitoring is one way of ensuring compliance of CSR and sustainability initiatives along the supply chain, its impact is often cited as inadequate (May, Cheney and Roper 413). In the apparel industry for example, questions are raised about whether CSR should just stop at ensuring that underage labor is not used, or whether organizations should go a step further and ensure that children go back to school.
Enforcing/ Monitoring CSR initiatives
Enforcing and monitoring of CSR and sustainability initiatives have been the subject of countless debates, both at the organizational level and on other social levels (May et al. 413). The European Union for example founded the ‘Business Social Compliance Initiative (BSCI)’ for purpose of monitoring how organizations complied with established social standards.
The monitoring is either scheduled or impromptu. While the enforcement of CSR initiatives especially in the Apparel industry is left to individual companies, monitoring is conducted by accredited monitors or independent monitoring agencies.
Lack of effectiveness
The lack of effectiveness in enforcement and monitoring of CSR initiatives is persistent in the apparel industry. Companies which shadow dress their production processes in order to create a positive feedback usually improve the working conditions whenever a scheduled audit is about to happen.
To increase effectiveness in enforcement and monitoring of CSR initiatives it is recommended that auditors should make impromptu visit to companies, establish complaint procedures for employees and other stakeholders, establish contact with local government agencies, and check and audit the company records regularly.
Generally, CSR initiatives lead to better working conditions for employees, cleaner production processes, energy efficiency and enhanced employee and consumer loyalty. Hence, organizations not only reap direct and indirect benefits from the CSR initiatives. Suppliers in the apparel industry are for example able to attract big clients and even financiers who are keen to protect their brand reputations. In the end, CSR becomes a business strategy, which effectively increases the gross returns in firms in the apparel industry.
Challenges still faced
One of the major challenges in CSR is contained in the fact that the concept is more of a fad than the reality in most contemporary firms. Hence, firms attempt to ‘look good’ by claiming to adopt CSR/sustainability initiatives, while the reality may be completely different. Additionally, the imprecise definition of the CSR concept may mean that different firms adopt different CSR initiatives, which as (May et al. 413) observe, may not be sufficient enough to address the contradictions caused by capitalism on societies. In the apparel industry for example, CSR may not be able to compensate indigenous people who have been of the receiving end of poor working environments, poor pay, long working hours and victimization at the work place.
Recommendations Awareness creation regarding CSR practices and issues is needed if at all companies regardless of their sizes or financial positions are to benefit from the concept. Additionally, solutions to the different challenges facing the textile and apparel industry need to be found. For example, the competing codes of conducts need to be rationalized.
Lastly, (May et al. 413) observe that implementation and evaluation of CSR initiatives is always done away from the public eye, and this may create room for organizations to whitewash their activities by initiating programs, which are never followed up, or implemented to the full. In future, the implementation and evaluation of such initiatives should be conducted in a transparent manner.
Works Cited Dahlsrud, Alexander. “How Corporate Social responsibility is defined: an Analysis of 37 Definitions.” Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 15 (2008): 1-13. Print.
Dickson, Marsha and Eckman Molly. “Social Responsibility: The Concept as Defined by Apparel and Textile Scholars.” Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 24 (2006): 178-191. Print.
Gereffi, Gary. “Global Sourcing in the U.S. Apparel Industry.” Journal of Textile and Apparel, technology and Management, 2.1 (2001):1-5. Print.
Gildea, Robert L. “Consumer Survey Confirms Corporate Social Action Affects Buying Decisions.” Public Relations Quarterly, 39 (1994-95): 20-22. Print.
Kimball, Jay. “Walmart Partnering with Patagonia on Sustainable Business Practices.” 8020 Vision, 01 Jul. 2010. Web.
Kirsten, Ann. “Promoting Sustainable Apparel.” Katerva, 2 Aug. 2011. Web.
Locke, Richard, Qin Fei and Brause, Alberto. “Does Monitoring Improve Labor Standards? Lessons from Nike.” Industrial and Labor relations Review, 61.1(2007): 3-31. Print.
Maignan, Isabell and Ferrell O.C. (2004). “Corporate Social Responsibility and Marketing: An Integrative Framework.” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32.1(2004): 3-19. Print.
May, Steve Kent, Cheney George and Roper Juliet. The Debate over Corporate Social Responsibility. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Orlitzky, Mark. “Payoffs to Social and Environmental Performance.” Journal of Investing, 14.3 (2005):48-51. Print.
Stanford Graduate School of Business. “Walmart’s Sustainability Strategy (B): 2010 Update.” (2010):1-21. Print.
The Economist. “Boycotting Corporate America.” The Economist, 26 May (1990): 69-70. Print.
Last Night I dreamt of Peace Response Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Lessons Learned from the Book
Introduction The Vietnam War is one of the fiercest wars that the United States of America has ever been involved in as an sole nation in modern history. This war was fought during the 1960s. The stakes of the war were high and as a result, a lot of properties were destroyed, many individuals lost their lives and many more had serious injuries.
The war also had a lot of psychological impacts on all those individuals who were directly or indirectly affected by its impacts. These included Vietnamese soldiers, war volunteers, doctors, politicians and the natives and the US soldiers. Thuy, the author of the book, Last Night I Dreamed of Peace, was among those individuals who were psychologically affected by the war. She was a young girl in her mid 20s who had just started practicing her medical her career.
However, in the course of the war, she had to ensure that her fellow citizens received quality medical care. At the same time, she was torn with her personal life as she was looking for love. The book was based on the entries that she had made on her diary. The main aim of this essay therefore is to critically analyze her thoughts as they were presented in the book and expound on the lessons learned from her encounters.
Lessons Learned from the Book There are several lessons that I have learned after reading the book. However, for the ease of explanation and expression, all these lessons can be simplified into one main lesson: the importance of patriotism. In the world that we are currently living in, almost all the countries are sovereign states.
All these countries have an independent government, a head of the state, a military to defend its boundaries, a constitution to govern the conduct of its subjects and the citizens who make the bulk of the nation or state. It is the citizens who are the main reason why the nation has a constitution, a head of state and a military to protect them from internal or external attacks.
Due to this fact, it is essential for an individual to have love for his/her nation and be ready to protect it at all times regardless of the cost that he/she has to pay. Most importantly, it is essential for an individual to be loyal to his/her state.
Dang Thuy exhibited a good example on the extent to which individuals should to loyal to their states. From the records of her diary, it is evident that she loved her country and would go to any extent to defend it. In 1966, Thuy joined other volunteers of the Vietnam War and to against the Americans.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The 25 year old took her backpack, filled it with medical supplies and set off to treat individuals who were injured in the process of the war. This included the soldiers who were fighting against the Americans and other civilians who were victims of circumstances. For three years, Thuy continued to offer her services to her people, risking her life each and every day. She was ready to go to any extent to ensure that her people received quality health services.
Despite the love that she has for her nation and the effort that she had put into place to ensure that all her personal goals of freedom and peace have been achieved, Thuy was also fighting hard with her emotions. Like any other human being, she felt that for her life to be complete, she should love someone and receive love from that individual in return. In the book, she says: “Why is a wound in my heart so hard to heal?” (Thuy 97).
She goes ahead to explain that while at school, many boys fell in love with her and even in the course of the war, most of the soldiers whom she had treated had fell in love with her. However, what she felt for them was brotherly love and that is why she cared that much for them hence is risked her life (Thuy 115).
In the process of providing her services to these individuals, Thuy risks her life as she fled from one village to the next while constructing mobile clinics that she used as a hospital to treat her fellow kinsmen. This put her life at risk since it is such clinics that the US army sought for their attacks. She says, “This is war… it spares no one, not a baby or an old woman, and the most hideous thing about it is the bloodthirsty Americans,” (Thuy 149).
Conclusion Thuys clinics were destroyed on numerous occasions. She was forced to evacuate her staff and patients in the process and construct a new shelter on safer grounds. These were the actions of an individual who truly loved her country and was ready to protect it and its citizens at any cost.
The efforts that Thuy put for her nation in during the Vietnam War were remarkable. They showed the amount of patriotism that she had for her nation. I therefore feel that we should all have the same level of patriotism for our countries. This will ensure that we will live in peace and harmony and protect the nations that we seek allegiance to at all costs.
Work Cited Thuy, Dang. Last Night I Dreamed of Peace: The Diary of Dang Thuy Tram. Boston: Harmony Books, 2007. Print
We will write a custom Essay on Last Night I dreamt of Peace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Organizational Challenges in the 21st Century Analytical Essay best essay help
Introduction In light with the developments of the 21st century, the business world has been in the heart of the revolutions. The key concepts of technology, liberalizations of markets and globalization have really transformed the world. As a result of these transformations, increased activity in the commercial and industrial sectors has been witnessed.
The world is presently operating as one village, whereby people are able to communicate efficiently and conveniently with one another. This has been facilitated by the growth of computer and internet technology. The growth of air transport has also been of significant influence to the enhancement of transport. With these developments, communication and transport have been heightened thus enhancing global relations in terms of business and other activities.
Nevertheless, the growth of globalization has not come singly, whereby it has been associated with various limitations. In this case, the issue of global recession is a factor of globalization, whereby nations directly depend on one another for business. This is unlike years, whereby nations operated independently.
With regards to the emergence of global recession, which refers to global economic slowdown, business organizations are obligated to undertake the most competitive leadership strategies so as to counter the situation. This is in response to the lost business and the diminishing market potentiality.
As noted by Northouse (2007: 101), business organizations have been significantly impacted by the issue of global recession. This refers to a period of global economic slowdown or down turn, whereby nations experience limited economic growth rates of 3% of less.
Combination of this situation with the overwhelming competition in the international markets, business organizations find it hard to survive. The situation can only be countered by adoption of the most efficient leadership styles. A good example is Nokia which has in the recent faced it rough in the technology and mobile phone industry.
The challenges facing the company are based on the issue of global recession and growth of competition in the industry it is operating in (Isaksen and Tidd 2006: 102). In reaction to the situation, the company is forced to adopt the most competitive and leadership techniques so as to overcome the challenges.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A study by Kotter (1996: 68) indicated that good leadership is the only solution to the challenges faced by business in the height of global recession among other challenges like increased competition. In this case, transformational leadership has been highlighted as the most appropriate leadership approach for organizations in recent days. Transformational leadership has been defined as a form of leadership style whereby leaders and their followers align themselves to higher moral and motivational levels (Fisher and Ury 1992: 29).
This is attained through impacting visions and personality among all individuals in the organizations. With regards to this leadership style, leaders have the obligation of inspiring their followers to change their perceptions and expectations.
With the challenges of global recession, this leadership style stands to be very efficient in the sense that it will bring every individual in the organization into focus and adjust to the prevailing situation. A point worth of consideration is that this leadership style demands leaders to motivate employees towards attaining a common goal (Weinstein et al 2004: 71). By so doing, the challenges facing the business will be countered.
Cherry (2011: 1) indicated that transformational leadership style is guided by various components which makes it efficient in countering business challenges. Firstly, the concept of intellectual stimulation is highly embraced in this leadership approach. In this case, the leaders do not only challenge the status quo, but also instill creativity among the employees.
Hacker and Roberts (2003: 45) depicted that leaders should encourage followers to be innovative and do things in new ways thus exploiting available opportunities. In the case of Nokia the company has in the recent been in its endeavors to intellectually stimulate its employees. This is an efficient approach in countering the economic slowdown, whereby new strategies of doing business as well as products will be attained.
The concept of individualized consideration is also addressed in this leadership style. In this case, leaders should offer encouragement and support to all individuals within the organizations. A point worth of consideration is that leaders should foster supportive relationships through open communication, where followers are free to share and seek ideas (Bass and Riggio 2006: 78). By undertaking these approaches, organizations will be able to acquire unique ideas and contributions from their followers.
Chase et al (2001: 49) depicted that leaders in the contemporary society should offer inspirational motivation to their employees. This is acquired through the provision of a clear vision which will help in guiding the followers. By inspiring the followers, leaders will help their followers to experience same motivation and passion which will help in realizing the common goal. Another core component of transformational leadership is the issue of idealized influence.
We will write a custom Essay on Organizational Challenges in the 21st Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Yukl (2001: 93) argued that leaders should be a role model to their followers. This concept can not be exempted from leadership in the contemporary society based the numerous challenges faced by businesses. Schein (1992: 62) noted that followers respect and trust their leaders and they will simply emulate them.
With this in mind, business organizations will be able to overcome the challenges they are facing in the height of global recession. Global recession is leading to loss of business hence calling for the adoption of best leadership strategies.
Alongside the adoption of transformational leadership style, the concept of total quality management (TQM) can not be exempted from organizational management in recent days. As noted by Hakes (2001: 22) the issue of quality and product leadership has been identified as key aspects of success.
With this in mind, business organizations are obligated to ensure that their products and services are of the best quality in the market. Every business organization should keep a watch of the products and services of its competitors (Wilson 2005: 102). The concept of TQM basically refers to an approach of management which entails on managing entire organization so as to produce quality goods and services. In the case of mobile phone industry, quality of the products has been of great importance.
In this case, each company is seeking to improve its services and products. In the midst of global recession, Nokia is obligated to ensure optimum quality of its products (Bass and Riggio 2006: 78). Based on this scenario, the adoption of TQM is inevitable for the success of Nokia during this period of economic slow down.
Pekar (2005: 42) outlined that employee involvement in the running of an organizations in recent days is inevitable. Employee involvement is a key element of TQM, whereby they are able to prevent problems before they occur. Organizations are also obligated to focus on their customers so as to determine the actual wants and needs of the customers.
This will help an organization to offer quality products and services which meet the needs of customers. In the case of Nokia, the need for Smartphone has been an overwhelming market trend in recent days. In order for the company to realize its dreams and counter the market challenges it has no obligation of adopting the market demands. This is part of TQM, whereby the company’s operations and product specifications are dictated by the market demands (Pekar 2005: 42).
The concept of benchmarking is also a key leadership and business management approach that can not be down looked. As observed by Hakes (2001: 22) benchmarking is an element of TQM in which an organization seeks out other organizations it is operating with. An organization uses the products and services of other companies as its benchmark or standard, thus being able to judge its performance.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational Challenges in the 21st Century by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is also worth noting that organizations are also required to adapt as well as improve processes adopted by other organizations. This will help an organization to attain the high quality and efficient products, thus being able to win the market. Presently, TQM has proved to be an efficient leadership and management approach which has helped many businesses to endure market excellence (Hakes 2001: 22).
Conclusion In consideration with the discussion and analysis of the business environment in the 21st century, it has been clearly evident that business organizations are faced with numerous challenges. The issues of global recession and increased competition in the corporate world have been overwhelming in recent days. In response to these challenges, business organizations are obligated to adopt the most efficient leadership styles.
In this case, the concepts f transformational leadership and TQM have been highlighted as the most suitable for business organizations in recent days. This will help business organization to be efficient and steadfast in offering the best products and services. For instance, the case of Nokia has been overwhelming, whereby it is facing numerous challenges following the issue of global recession and competition in the mobile industry. In response to this scenarios, the company is obligated to adopting the above highlighted leadership approaches.
Reference List Bass, B. and Riggio, R. (2006). Transformational Leadership. New York: Routldge, 78-102.
Chase, R. et al. (2001). Operations Management for Competitive Advantage. New York: McGraw Hill Press, 49-81.
Cherry, K. (2011). Transformational Leadership. Retrieved from: https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-transformational-leadership-2795313
Fisher, R. and Ury, W. (1992). Getting to Yes: Classic text on negotiation. New York McGraw Hill, 29-51.
Hacker, S. and Roberts, T. (2003). Transformational Leadership: Creating Organizations of Meaning. London: Routldge, 45-63.
Hakes, C. (2001), Total Quality Management: The Key to Business Improvement. London: Routldge, 22-36.
Isaksen, S. and Tidd, J. (2006). Meeting the Innovation Challenge: Leadership for Transformation and Growth. London: Wiley
Sustainability Reporting Benefits Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Executive summary Desire by stakeholders to keep track of organizational performance has led to emergence of sustainability reporting. The report is prepared focusing on social, economic and environmental issues that affect organizations as well as their positive and negative impacts. Implementation of sustainability reporting follows a certain sequence which ensures that final report captures all the relevant information. Management team and stakeholders are involved in identifying issues affecting their organization.
These issues are then evaluated and report compiled before it is communicated. Some of the reasons why organizations report include enhancing financial value and encouraging innovation to improve competitiveness.
The main features of the report include organization’s profile, strategies and analysis as well as parameters used in collecting data and compiling the report. Sustainability reporting helps organizations cut down on operations cost and improves on their profitability. Consequently, organizations ought to adopt it if they wish to continue improving their performance and profitability.
Introduction Stakeholders want to keep track of organizational performance so as to tell when their organization is making progress or failing. Desire to understand organizational performance is triggered by need of the business community to respond to matters affecting sustainable development (KPMG International, 2008, p. 14). Currently, business strategies, public disclosure and operational strategies are developed in line with enhancement of sustainable performance.
Overview of the task
As organizations turn to sustainability reporting, there are numerous reasons that have made them take this direction. This paper aims at looking at reasons why organizations are adopting sustainability reporting, some elements of the report and steps followed in implementing sustainability reporting process.
Reporting purpose and structure
This report aims at bringing out benefits associated with sustainability reporting thus explaining why organizations are adopting the practice. It will focus reasons for sustainability reporting, outline features of sustainability reporting and describe how it is implemented. Recommendation why organizations need to adopt sustainability reporting will also be given.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sustainability reporting reasons Exhibit transparency
Through sustainability reporting, organization is able to demonstrate its dedication to managing its environmental, economic and social impacts. This provides a platform for stakeholders to deliberate on what needs to be done to help the organization realize its goals (Commonwealth of Australia, 2010, p. 1).
Organizational reputation depends on how stakeholders view the organization with respect to social, environmental and economic dimensions. As sustainability reporting enlightens stakeholders on how an organization is performing in the market as well as strategies being used to achieve organizational goals, it facilitates in managing their perceptions (Commonwealth of Australia, 2010, p. 1). Consequently, sustainability reporting helps in maintaining and enhancing corporate reputation.
Creating financial value
At times, sustainability reporting process entails collecting and analyzing information regarding materials and resource usage as well as assessing organizational processes. Accordingly, organizations using this process are able to identify opportunities for cutting down on operations cost and at the same time boosting their revenues. Moreover, sustainability reporting helps in coming up with measures to ensure that organizational materials and resources are efficiently utilized.
Sustainability reporting leads to stakeholders coming up with strategies to improve organizational performance (Commonwealth of Australia, 2010, p. 1). This helps in enhancing competitive advantage. For instance, understanding various stakeholder concerns leads to creation of ground-breaking products and services.
Enhancing regulatory compliance
Sustainability reporting helps management identify emerging areas of compliance such as global warming thus ensuring that they comply with established guidelines. Besides, it may help organizations influence prospect regulatory responses such as mitigating regulations in areas where deliberate disclosure frameworks are found to be effective.
Sustainability reporting features Strategies and analysis
One of the elements of sustainability reporting is strategies and analysis. This contains statement from managers that are given the mandate to make final decisions in an organization (White, 2009, p. 125). The statement outlines relevance of sustainability reporting to the organization and measures put in place to ensure sustainability. Moreover, key impacts are describes as well as potential risks facing the organization and possible opportunities.
The second feature entails organizational profile. Name of the organization is given as well as brands offered by the specific organization. For a company offering services, the various services offered are described. In addition, operational structure of the organization is described paying attention to different divisions found within the organization if any (White, 2009, p. 125).
We will write a custom Report on Sustainability Reporting Benefits specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organization is fully described leading to stakeholders and public understanding it better. Features such as market served by the organization and awards received are brought out.
These include parameters such as reporting period, course for determining report scope and boundaries and any restrictions on report coverage. Tables indicating standard disclosures contained in the report; with respect to global reporting initiative are also included. Insight into the organization’s policies and practices regarding assurance for the report is also included in the parameters (White, 2009, p. 125).
Sustainability reporting implementation Preparation
The first step in implementing sustainability reporting is preparation. Here, an internal dialogue has to be done at the management level to identify social, economic and environmental issues affecting the organization. Positive and negative impacts of these issues are also identified (Geraghty, 2010, p. 145).
This is a very important part of implementation process. It entails collecting views from stakeholders on what features to be included in the report. It helps in ensuring that all vital information is included in the final report thus ensuring that a comprehensive report is achieved (Geraghty, 2010, p. 145).
Information gathered from stakeholders (in connect section) confirms if positive and negative features highlighted by management team (in preparation section) are the most vital (Geraghty, 2010, p. 145). This helps in defining the report’s focus. In addition, the reasons why various choices were made are made clear.
This involves collecting data that will be included in the final report. Global reporting initiative indicators help organizations in identifying what to monitor or what to look for during data collection (Geraghty, 2010, p. 145).
Information collected in the monitor section is included in the final report. Implementation process does not end here. Final report is prepared and compiled. Besides, decisions about how to communicate the report’s findings are made (Geraghty, 2010, p. 145).
Recommendation Enhancing financial value
Organizations are continuously looking for ways to improve their profitability by cutting down on operations cost. The fact that sustainability reporting facilitates in enhancing financial value of an organization underlines the reason why organizations need to adopt it. Through this, organizations will be able to assess how resources and materials are utilized. Apart from monitoring material and resource usage, organizations will effectively manage their operational processes thus improving overall efficiency.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sustainability Reporting Benefits by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sustainability reporting looks into both internal and external factors affecting an organization. Accordingly, the practice will help organizations identify novel opportunities for increasing their revenues.
Reference List Commonwealth of Australia, 2010. Sustainability reporting. Web.
Geraghty, L., 2010. Sustainability reporting – measure to manage, manage to change. Keeping Good Companies, 3, pp. 141-145.
KPMG International, 2008. KPMG International Survey of Corporate Responsibility Reporting 2008. Web.
White, G. B., 2009. Sustainability reporting: Managing for wealth and corporate health. New York: Business Expert Press.
Macroeconomics Descriptive Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Gross domestic product refers to the valuation of goods and services produced in a country which are done by the nominal gross domestic products which are reckoned to be the measurement of the value of goods and services produced and expressed as per the current prices and real gross domestic products. It all measures the value of all the goods and services produced and expressed in the prices of some of the base year (Moffat 2001).
Taking into account the collected data from the year 200, it is possible to note that the economic situation in the country has greatly increased and succeeded producing the goods and the necessary services of about 100 billion that had actually happened thanks to the prices of the same mentioned year (Blades and leguiller 2004).
Since we have taking the 200 year for the analysis, it can be noted that the nominal and the real GDP stand on the same level (Cliff Notes. com 2011). Looking back at the year 2001, the economy was actively developing constantly producing the services as well as the goods that were actually based on the prices of the 2001 year. The same goods and services are valued instead of 105 billion dollars, if year 2000 prices are used, then:
Year 2000 Nominal GDP=$100B, Real GDP=$100B
Year 2001 Nominal GDP =$ 110B, Real GDP=$105B
Nominal GDP Growth Rate=10%
Real GDP Growth Rate= 5%.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nominal GDP refers to the valuation of all goods and services produced in an economy during a given year, calculated by using the prices current in the year in which the output is produced and, on the other hand, Real GDP is the value of the final produce calculated using the prices of some base year (U.S commerce department 2002).
Real GDP has being of a great importance to the society because it measures what is really being produced; Nominal GDP is calculated at existing prices whereas Real GDP is nominal GDP adjusted to the inflation (U.S commerce department, 2002).
The Real GDP is an indicator of economic growth and also an indicator of recessions which is an indication that Real GDP should be used for economic analysis instead of Nominal GDP. The rate of growth of the economy is given as the annual rate of change of real GDP (Mankiws, 2000).
According to Lequiller (2004), much is expected of Real GDP which is perhaps a misunderstanding indicator. From the world statistics real GDP is a controversial icon. The reasons which explain why the Real GDP is not a good measure of economic welfare is because it measures rather income but not equality; it also measures the growth but not destruction and it ignores values such as social cohesion and the environment.
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Australia’s GDP real growth rate % 4.1 3.6 3 3.5 2.7 2.7 4.3 2.3 1.2 2.7 China’s GDP real growth rate % 8 8 8 9.1 9.1 10.2 11.9 9 9.1 10.3 Source: CIA World fact book 1st Jan 2011
Source: Australian Historical consumer price index (CPI)
When unemployment rate is high, the Real GDP is low and the inflation rate slows down. When the real GDP is constant, the inflation rate follows the same trend and the natural rate of unemployment is not necessarily constant (Mc Graw Hill Companies., 2002). When the Real GDP is high, the unemployment rate is low and the inflation rate accelerates. When the Real GDP is low, many people lose their jobs and the unemployment rate is high. Therefore, higher unemployment rate is necessary to keep inflation from accelerating.
We will write a custom Essay on Macroeconomics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Blades, D., and Lequiller F., 2004. Compatibilite nationale manuel pour etudiants. Paris: Economica.
Cliffs Notes.com., 2011. Nominal GDP, Real GDP and Price level, Cliffs Notes Web.
Mankiw, G. N., 2000. Principles of macroeconomics, 2nd ed. USA: Harvard University.
Mc Graw Hill Companies., 2002. U.S commerce department. The Mc Graw Hill Companies Web.
Moffat, M., 2011. Former About.com guide. About.com Economics Web.
Ethic and Contemporary Issues in Multimedia and IT Essay scholarship essay help
Professional code of conduct as well as ethics is important in an individual’s way of live and work. This is of great importance to the world of technology that includes multimedia and information technology sectors. The Multimedia and IT field in the recent years have shown great improvement due to advancement in internet through the use of optical fibber that have led to social networks sites such as the twitter, Facebook, and the bloggers.
In addition, the development of internet gadgets such as mobile phones, modems, laptops and the networking of computers have posed a great threat to the ethics of multimedia and IT. The increase in use of these sites and other IT related gadgets have brought the maintenance and integrity of ethics in the communication and media field to a threat.
According to the media associations, the work of the media and IT is to inform people about the happenings of the world and a means of communication that would bring growth rather than disasters. However, the main objective of the communication and media field has changed as in the recent cases of the Arab countries.
In Egypt, during the Anti-Mubarak protests, the protesters used the social networks to organize themselves, spread rumours, and keep each other informed of the progress of the protests Sharp (2011, p. 2). They used several forms of communication especially the use of social networks.
Sharp (2011, p. 2) asserts that after the government realized the role of the media to the protests, they blocked all forms of media including the use of internet. In addition, in 2009 the social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, and bloggers and Yu tube played a great role in organization of protests to show their feelings after the result Kamalipour (2010, p. 62).
Kamalipour (2010, p. 62) further asserts that this social media sites informed the world on the situation in Iran. Like in Egypt, the Iranian government responded by blocking the use of internet in Iran, especially the social network sites Kamalipour (2011, p. 62). The media was further used to send rumours of the situation on the grounds such as the magnitude of the people killed by the riot police as they tried to seek for sympathizers from the world Sharp (2011, p. 9).
During these instances, the media generally focus only on one of the parties involved. For instance during the Egypt protests the major focus was on the killings of the protestors by the riot police. The media and communication ethic on public matter has been to preach peace and unity but in several instances, the media has caused political instability. Further, media has spread hate speeches and rumours either between political affiliates or between countries.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Several nations have experienced political instabilities in the recent years due to the conflicting information passed through the media or through social networks. For instance in many countries after elections, tribal clashes are highly initiated by the tallying proceedings that are broadcasted in different stations. Communication and media ethics further dictate that media has the right to influence the people’s morals in a positive manner.
However, with the extensive use of internet, TV’s, video films and video games, media has influenced the moral behaviours of many youths. The use of media have exposed people to several programs, movies and sites that are not worth to be viewed by different kinds of people. For instance, young people who have access to internet on their phones and private laptops have been exposed to information that has influenced their behaviours.
Technology advancement has affected the morals of the people as they are exposed to them. Further, the media and IT ethics have been affected by the increase in media and IT crimes. With the improved technology, the knowledge of people has greatly changed causing a great threat in the media fields.
The cases of cyber crimes and cyber burying have tremendously increased with time. This has put the security of the people and government at risk. Cyber crimes such as cyber theft where thieves steal through the internet by getting access to other peoples accounts have increased.
Other cyber crimes include hackling of websites and email addresses, the use of email to send spam messages to other people. People use the media to send messages in request of ransoms for an internet crime committed or to con other people over the internet. Further, IT has been used to impersonate and in copyrights. Copyrighting being a crime has violated many people’s rights.
Those who perpetuate these crimes copy and sell the pirated copies for their own benefit. Further, there are media sources that cause fear to the audience or the people. In May 2006, an American TV (ABC) aired a movie in name “Fatal Contact: bird Flu in America” Perebinossoff (2008, p. 75-76) that had excessive and rumours of the H5N1 virus that causes bird flu. This movie was also made available in DVDs, which caused great fear to the people. The movie further exaggerated the threat of the H5N1virus.
Conclusion With the advancement in technology, the ethics in the communication and media has greatly fluctuated. This is due to the increase in the number of people using the media sources. There have been great efforts by the government and the media associations but to date their efforts have not brought good results.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethic and Contemporary Issues in Multimedia and IT specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Their efforts have been greatly affected by the fact that media and IT cannot be abolished completely. In day-to-day activities, media and IT has to be involved and in the government. However, more and more efforts need to be inputted to bring a long-term solution that will raise the ethics of media. This will help in maintenance of peace and order as well as to increase the security of the citizens through reduction of cyber crimes.
References Kamalipour, Y 2010, Media, power and politics in the digital age: The 2009 presidential uprising in Iran, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Maryland.
Perebinossoff, P 2008, Real-world media ethics: Inside the broadcast and Entertainment Industries, Elsevier, Oxford.
Sharp, J 2011, Egypt: the January 25 revolution and implication for US foreign policy, Congressional Research service, Washington DC.
Problem of Antisocial Networking in Modern World Argumentative Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
The onset of this decade will be remembered for the increased unrest in most world nations especially in the Arab world. While a set of underlying issues such as poor governance and human rights violation account for the main causes of the unrests, the role of social networking sites in exacerbating the unrests cannot be undermined.
Though the social networking sites have innumerable benefits to the subscribers, they can also form powerful tools for destruction. It is thus self evident that employing proper control measures cam help in managing uprisings in these destabilized countries. Employing control measures, however, is likely to jeopardize people’s right to privacy. With such situations, issues of national security should be prioritized over privacy issues.
While social networking sites provides a platform for exchange of ideas that can lead to socioeconomic empowerment of the subscribers, they have an organizational capability that is exceptionally rare and can be put to destructive uses. These social sites provide an instant form of communication at times of unrest and can easily influence likeminded individuals to act towards committing barbaric acts.
These social sites are tools that can benefit man in various ways. However, as tools they can also be used for destructive purposes. Other than their organizational influence, these sites provide avenues for sharing of media files that can further incite people to commit acts of violence. Some of these media files can be simulated and may not reflect the real situation, but they do have an enormous appeal to the masses.
The social networking sites reportedly played crucial roles in almost all the riots witnessed in the recent past. Facebook, twitter, blogs and blackberry messenger services have been highlighted as some of the most popular social sites. The latter has been touted as largely responsible for the recently witnessed London riots.
With their massive influence, the most relevant question is how the damaging effects of these sites and other information communication technologies can be controlled. It is evident that any ill minded individual is capable of using these sites to cause devastating harm. All it takes to influence people in facebook is a status update or a post in a popular page. Greater control and surveillance of these sites and communication technologies will protect issues of national security to a large extent.
In this modern era, virtually all countries can boast of achieving basic rights of expression, speech and right to privacy. Most free speech campaigners have strongly opposed the moves to restrict the use of these digital communication pathways. With the negative effects of these sites undeniably clear, surveillance moves are much warranted (Knapp, 2011 p. 47).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While control measures such as screening of messages that people send or post may seem to be an infringement of people’s right to privacy, they ensure public safety. Issues of public safety and national security are issues that are core to democracies just like the inalienable right to privacy.
Instituting greater control measures will enable governments control the adverse effects of violence and widespread unrest. Control of digital communications is unlikely to surmount to increased conflict and tension. This is because a significant proportion of users put these social sites to positive uses. Such users will, thus, not feel much infringed when the contents of their posts are screened (Downes, 2009).
While it is difficult to strike a balance between the right to privacy and control of these sites for national interest, the importance of national security and public safety cannot be underscored. In any case, the social networking sites cannot wholly guarantee privacy to their subscribers (Floridi, 2010). Many times, hackers have been able to obtain people’s data through the social sites. For public safety, it is imperative that control measures be ensured.
Bibliography Downes, L. 2009. The Laws of Disruption: Harnessing the New Forces that Govern Life and Business in the Digital Age. New York: Basic Books.
Floridi, L. 2010. The Cambridge Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Knapp, E. D. 2011. Industrial Network Security: Securing Critical Infrastructure Networks for Smart Grid, SCADA, and Other Industrial Control Systems. New York: Elsevier.
Contemporary Issues in Multimedia and Information Technology Essay college essay help
Media and the rising ease of information access have facilitated major legal and societal concerns in the past. Digital convergence and globalization in the present societies raise intricate legal, societal and ethical issues, regarding information access, privacy rights, intellectual property rights and freedom of expression (Gupta, 2005, p. 123).
Because information and Communication Technology is an instrumental tool for gathering information, it should be availed as a basic human right. However, this right is abused all over the world for various reasons such as political stability, anti terrorism campaigns, economic advancements, personal greed and for religious causes. Governments have had concerns over the liberty and use of technologies, in regard to national securities.
In addition to this, it is becoming more difficult for governments to control accessibility to the global information systems. Because if this, the fundamental concern over ICT is creating a balance between information access and marinating national security (Schultz, 2006, p. 118). The ethical issue is how a government can decide on controlling access, to what extent, and what kind of information they should control.
The media has made it possible for people to access information as well as communicate globally. An example of this is the happening in Egypt, in January 2011, when people use internet media and social sites to organize protests against the then Egyptian president. Because of these concerns, it has been important for governments to come up with strategies of combating incidences of malicious attacks, computer crimes, fraud, and violations of rights.
Governments need to inform citizens of the security risks involved in internet and media information access. While it is important for governments to control information flow for national security, it is also important for them to make their citizens aware of the need for the control.
Creating a balance between access and security should not be a difficult decision for governments to make because the ICT sector has recognised global ethical issues that affect the industry, and as such, devised ethical guidelines on how to handle such. In addition to these, there are legislations that guide information handling, access and use.
If a country recognises the citizen’s right to obtain information, as well as the importance of obtaining these information, it would not selfishly deny them the right. However, in cases such as the Egypt saga, they are globally recognised as selfish attempts by government leaders to deny citizens their right to access information (Liebowitz
Stop Aid to Africa Research Paper scholarship essay help
Most of foreign aid to Africa is aimed at promoting democracy in governments. Numerous donor agencies spend huge budget annually to fund democracy related programs in Africa. These programs include; elections support, strengthening of parliament, judicial and political parties and fostering growth and power of civil society organization such as labor unions and women human rights groups (Stephen, 2004).
Technical assistance is also targeted in democracy promotion. Small fraction of all aid the United States and other donors often conditionally grants to Africa is intended for general budget support on performance in the area of civil liberties, conduct of elections, and respect of the rule of law (Thad, 2004).
Over the past years donor funding to Africa has been marred by irregularities. There are many shortcomings related to donor funding in Africa and it is necessary for donors to stop funding Africa. Many scholars have argued that foreign country should stop donor funding to Africa because it is not serving the intended purpose (Carol, 1999).
Donor funding has encouraged dependency by African countries. They have relied so much on donor funds and failed to come up with strategies for mobilizing revenues to sustain their budget. African countries have accumulated large debts because they have always depended on foreign country donor funding for many years showing little efforts to look for alternative ways to sustain their economy.
Aid to Africa has distorted African countries economy by encouraging unhealthy competition between key economy sectors in African market. Additionally, there has been unfair competition between those getting donor support (governments) and those who do not get donor support (private sector) affecting African countries economy negatively.
Africa donor funding has been a key factor in fuelling inflation in Africa countries. Inflation in return has led to increased cost of living causing most of African people to languish in poverty. Ironically, most of donor funded African countries experience poor economic growth (Joseph, 2009).
Aid to Africa has created moral hazard for authoritarian local politician who pursue goals at odds with the aims of foreign donors. Aid to Africa simply provides a source of income with which autocratic leaders may repress local population (Bruce
Implementation of Recommendations Report essay help online: essay help online
Objectives and purpose of the report The objective of this reflective report is to establish the relationship between various labor issues as component of decision science in management. The paper reflects on how motivation and participatory decision making processes impact on performance of an organization.
Summary of important recommendation According to Bruce (1999), the best way to motivate employees is by giving them responsibilities for achieving something and the authority to do it in their own way. Through this approach, employees will be empowered and they will feel trusted and valued by the management personnel and the company as a whole. Naturally, human beings would wish for motivation through mutual consent and internalized empowerment and appreciation (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 27).
Empowerment unleashes plenty of energy and motivation (Bruce, 60). Reflectively, the motivational and energy aspects of appreciation functions simultaneously at micro and macro levels to facilitate optimal functionality or productivity. Empowering employees ensures a stable and sustainable a win-win situation as employees will be motivated to work without much supervision from the management or their supervisors.
When properly incorporated within and without different departmental segmentations as an active component of the company goals and vision, the complete manger between the management and other staff will contribute to value addition, good performance and healthy working environment (Bruce, 62).
In the end, the employees will form happy intra and inter personal working relationships and appreciate the need for quality service delivery along the production process channel. From the previous study conducted, the most important recommendations are summarized as stated below:
To empower the employees to participate more in the decision making process
To create more motivational programs involving outdoor activities such as sporting.
Illustration of the existing process The process of motivating employees currently being used by the Bank can be represented using a data flow diagram as shown below.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Figure 1.2 Data Flow Diagram for the process of employee motivation
The diagram above illustrates the existing process of employee motivation. The motivational activities are predetermined by the management. The activities entail use of suggestion boxes, points rewards programs, get motivated programs, use of employee evaluation forms, sporting activities and get together parties. The end result is a team of motivated employees.
Problems and ways of changing them From the previous study, there were still some problems with the motivational activities used by management. For instance, certain programs were viewed as a source of discouragement to employees while others were most preferred. For example, employee evaluation forms were seen as a doorway to retrenchment incase the employee was found liable.
From the sample picked, 75% rejected use of this method as a way of motivation. Further, the management was unable to motivate and retain employees with medicine qualifications. However, this was based on the assumption that maybe the employees with medicine qualifications were not well motivated to work in the banking environment and it was a wrong career choice for them therefore they had no choice but to quit.
Process of changing the problems From the analysis above, there are two major problems that are inherent with the existing system. First, some motivational activities are not accepted by the staff members and the Bank was unable to motivate some employees especially those with medicine qualifications. In order to change the problems, the Bank has involved the staff members in decision making process. The employees are part of the evaluation program.
The human resource department engages the employees in setting their own targets and they also agree on the interval for evaluation. Further, the design of the evaluation form is changed to reflect what best suit the management and the employees. With this improvement, the employees are aware of what is expected of them during the evaluation period.
We will write a custom Report on Implementation of Recommendations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Further, they are more prepared for the evaluations and therefore there is likely to be minimal resistance as compared to the earlier situation. The Bank may also be in a position to attract and retain the employees with medical qualifications by engaging the decision making. The employees may be given the freedom to choose duties that would keep them motivated.
Diagram illustrating new process after the recommendations
From the above diagram we note that the employees are involved in the decision making process. Therefore, the motivational activities are as agreed by both the management and the employees. The end result is a motivated workforce and delighted managers.
Benefit expected from each recommendation
The table below summarizes the benefits expected from each recommendation
Recommendation Benefit 1 Empowering employees to participate more in the decision making process Motivated employees who have authority and responsibilities. More positive with decisions made and therefore much acceptance and commitment in the implementation process. 2 Creating more motivational programs involving outdoor activities such as sporting. Physically fit employees. Upon empowering employees to participate more in the decision making process, culture of independence in reasoning and consultative approach when handling work related duties will be internalized. In fact, the employees will appreciate the need for free consultation rather than doing the same as a condition imposed on them by their superiors.
In the process of carrying out consultative functionalism, the mind will be tuned to appreciate the need for flexibility in decision making science which is compatible with the goals and vision of the organization. In addition, the entire workforce operating under this approach is likely to positively embrace change element that may be introduced in the organization.
Irrespective of the consequences of the change element, the dynamic essence of change proponent would not facilitate any state of quagmire or conflict as the unnecessary pressure associated with change would be integrated. Moreover, creation of more involving motivational activities outside the work schedule would facilitate team building and the spirit of self discipline. For instance, recreational activities such as an organizations sports day involve planning direct participation by all stakeholders of an organization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Implementation of Recommendations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More During such activities, employees are either divided in groups or assigned a part to perform. To make this more interesting, the management could involve themselves in this as equals.
Repeat of such fun days minimizes pressure and inferiority complex that might be hiding in the workforce due to the bureaucratic hierarchy ladder. In the end, the concept of physical, mental, and social heath would be activated and the company is likely to benefit from the same especially on the facets of value addition as a result of good health and fitness.
Action Plan Across the globe, organizations irrespective of their sizes or nature of activity they perform have direct need for top performance and optimal service delivery within sustainable and friendly limits. Supported by strong decision making science, the project of motivational functioning depends upon effective management strategies presented in a quantifiable action plan (Bloom, 30).
In order to actualize the above recommendations, that is, empowering employees to participate in decision making and organizing recreational activities, proper research should be developed to streamline goal setting as a factor of friendly working environment and motivation (Bloom, 32). Thus, an implementation action plan specifically focuses on goals identification which is effective on performance orientation and motivational improvement.
The table below represents the components of an action plan for the implementation of motivational insight recommendations. Components of an action plan includes: feedback channel, goal setting (specific and difficult), exception criterion, and evaluation of success or failure.
Motivational Recommendation Goal setting Feedback Channel Exception Criteria Evaluation Criteria Empowering employees to participate more in the decision making process Setting relatively hard assignments that are attainable and allowing employees to brainstorm and consult on the same. Workforce training. Establishing a confidential suggestion box for complaints and complements. Improving on communication network system and intranet. Creating interactive sessions for the workforce Defining the privacy parameter and expected code of conduct. Establishing the organization culture and ethics. Limiting the scope of activities to contain only relevant training Analyzing feedbacks from suggestion boxes Review of performance periodically after every stage of implementation. Carrying out random but inclusive sampling using questionnaires Creating more motivational programs involving outdoor activities such as sporting. Fixing motivational programs in annual calendar. Designing awards to be given in every event Encouraging medical tests and physical stamina. Performance comparison between teams. Defining the scope and making these activities part of performance responsibility. Defining limits for responsive training Testing team spirit and insight. In empowering employees to participate more in the decision making process, the organization should source for expertise training on consultative decision making process.
This expert will impart skills directly to the management and entire workforce. In the process of implementing this recommendation, training manager should be assigned the duty of organizing the workforce into groups and following up the success or failure of the training (Bowman, 23).
During the training process, simple activities such as solving puzzles and brainstorming in different topics are encouraged. In addition, every member of the workforce is expected to participate actively by assigning roles which are balloted. The implementation should be done in three phases with the first phase actively involving an outsourced expert in the field of decision making.
After a fortnight, the management should then design in house programs as a continuation of the first stage. In the last stage, the entire workforce is encouraged to internalize the concept initially introduced and deactivate fear and inferiority complex when addressing issues of interest to the organization and at personal level (Landsdale, 22).
Though this process should be continuous, the active part should not run for more than four months from commencement at a budget less than four percent of the company’s net revenue. In implementing the recommendation on motivation through participatory activities, the organization should factor in those activities which involve the entire workforce.
For instance, in the above example, the sporting event should be drawn in the annual timetable and everyone is to be encouraged to participate wholesomely. As the sporting event commences, management and the workforce may operate as small teams competing for prizes as designed by the organizing committee.
The organizing committee has power to decide on the prize to offer in consultation with the training manager. In the process of practicing this, team building and motivation spirit is revived and the entire personnel are likely to feel appreciated (Bowman, 21). Reflectively, a motivated workforce performs optimally within little or no supervision as work related activities are internalized and personalized. When the need to achieve is incorporated in the performance index, the organization is destined for sustainable productivity.
Action Plan Tabular representation
Motivational Recommendation Required Resources Leadership responsibility Steps taken Barriers Performance Indicators Time taken Empowering employees to participate more in the decision making process Outsourced expert. Training materials. Group leaders –implementing. Training manager-evaluation. Periodic training. Interactive forums Educational levels. Authority and responsibility Analyzing feedbacks from suggestion boxes 3 months Creating more motivational programs involving outdoor activities such as sporting. Sporting facilities. Entire workforce participation. Team leaders Team captains. Overall captain. Initiating sports day in the calendar. Resource allocation for awards Convincing the workforce to embrace the event. Divergent interest on sporting activities Testing team spirit and insight. continuous Summary In summery, these recommendations would directly impact on the feedback channel as employees will have motivational power to proactively participate in decision making process.
As a result, the learning oriented process will facilitate optimal performance which is specific to the goals and desires of the company as the workforce would have the feeling of being appreciated and recognized for every outstanding performance.
In addition, these recommendations facilitate detrimental creativity and positive attitude in organizational environment. In an organization setting, the need to motivate workers is essential to management team who aim at optimizing output within sustainable human resource functioning.
Generally, when these recommendations are actualized in the management system, companies are capable of predicting or forecasting the future and pillars of operation at optimal level. Employee motivation is necessary in managing labor retention.
Works Cited Bloom, Paula. Circle of Influence: Implementing Shared Decision Making and Participative Management. Lake Forest, IL: New Horizons, 2004. Print.
Bowman, Singh. “Corporate restructuring: Reconfiguring the firm.” Strategic Management Journal 1.4 (2003): 5–14. Web.
Bruce, Ann. “Helping employees to accept responsibility for motivation.” Motivating employees 1.2 (1999): 59-72. Web.
Landsdale, Bruce. Cultivating Inspired Leaders: Making Participatory Management Work. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press, 2000. Print.
Saunders, Mark., Lewis, P, and Thornhill, R. Research Methods for Business Students. New York: Pearson Education, 2009. Print.
Characteristics of Business Leadership: Steve Jobs Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Steve Jobs and Business Leadership
Introduction Modern human resource management has come to recognize the value of leadership in management. Leadership has been adopted in the modern organizational and business management to the level that it is replacing the word management. In the modern business world, there is need for business leadership more than we need business managers; because of the complexity of business environment.
The modern business environment is characterized by stiff competition, tough rules of taxation, changing forms of management that is moving away from personnel management and adopting human resource management as a form of managing employees, increasing logistics and costs of operating businesses among other challenges. All these aspects call for a lot of resilience in successful management of businesses.
Thus, this calls stronger leadership which goes well beyond what management can offer. Leadership can be defined as the progressive creativity; the ability to foresee the future basing on the present while at the same time putting in mind the past. It is the major component of vision. In business, effective leadership is defined in terms of the corporate culture. This leadership propels the business to maximize profits which is the major goal of all businesses (Scheer, 2009).
In the world today, there are a number of businesses that have achieved tremendous growth. These businesses have grown from scratch to become among the top leading businesses in the world. Most of the success in these businesses is associated with the leaders of the business. The leaders of those businesses have been argued to poses creativeness and excellent leadership skills that they have development with time (Cohen
Integration of Ethical and Responsible Practices in the Organization Exploratory Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction The primary objective of most global companies other than the non-profit organizations is profit maximization. As such, nearly all the companies’ operations are geared towards making profits. Nevertheless, it is also important that companies and organizations incorporate ethics in their operations by taking care of the society they operate in through corporate social responsibility (Moon). This is something not considered by most global companies who care less about their society.
Most of them forget that it is the same society, which comprises of the consumers of their goods and services. In fact, it was noted that the companies that fail to incorporate social responsibility in their policies and operations face insuperable problems (Sun). Corporate social responsibility otherwise referred to as CSR, is therefore, the process through which companies get back to the society by behaving in an ethical manner and improving the quality of life in the society via economic development (Carroll 2).
In this case, companies integrate ethical and responsible practices into their organizational operations. This paper will be an exploration of the corporate social responsibility issue by looking at the benefits that come in hand, as well as, how companies can effectively implement CSR in their community.
Benefits of Corporate Social Responsibility A company that practices corporate social responsibility not only benefits the society but also gains several advantages from it. It is evident that once a company practices effective CSR, it will definitely gain competitive advantage over others that do not.
This is because it will have created a positive image in the society making people prefer it to others. As a result, the sales of the company will shoot up leading to high profits. For instance, when Starbucks Coffee Company in the United States released its CSR report in 2006, the sales of the company increased tremendously.
Corporate Social Responsibility also looks at the welfare of the employees. As such, companies that uphold CSR in their policies will not collide with its employees as their needs will have been considered. This will in turn ensure smooth running of the organizational operations because there will not be cases of riots, strikes or go-slows.
Corporate social responsibility ensures that employees and the employers have a mutual relationship. Thus, the company will benefit from this by having increased productivity, which in turn results to profit maximization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the main themes of corporate social responsibility is environmental conservation (Noer, Ewait, and Weiss1). Therefore, a company that practices effective CSR will ensure that it takes good care of the environment. As such, the company will be following the regulations of National Environmental Boards hence free from cases of malpractices. This will save the company lots of money that could be spent on court cases and fines resulting from environmental degradation and pollution.
The implementation of CSR in a community Given the benefits that come in hand with practicing corporate social responsibility, it is of significant importance that companies try as much as they can to implement it in the society. There different ways through which, companies could effectively implement CSR in a community. Below are some of the possible methods of effective implementation of CSR.
As mentioned earlier in the paper, conservation of the environment is one of the main themes of corporate social responsibility. Therefore, companies can use it as one way of implementing CSR in a community. This can take two dimensions yet achieving the same objective. The companies could advocate for environment conservation by supporting and giving financial aid to organizations that deal with environmental conservation.
They could also recognize and appreciate such organizations by presenting them with awards. This will motivate the environmental conservation organizations, making them carry on with their activities of conserving the environment. In this case, the company will have participated indirectly to conserve the environment. At the same time, companies in the manufacturing industry who produce effluents to the environment should put control measures to ensure that what goes to the environment is safe.
For instance, they could treat their water effluents before releasing it to the water bodies so that it does not affect the life in the water environment. Companies could also incorporate filters in their smoke chimneys to filter the hazardous compounds before the smoke gets into the atmosphere. All this is done to ensure that the environment remains clean and safe for the survival of all living organisms.
This is another way through which, companies can implement CSR in the community. Again, this is twofold because it can be achieved in two ways. First, the companies should make sure that the products they manufacture have no health effects. For instance, the food companies should minimize the number and quantity of additives they add on food commodities during processing. In doing this, companies will ensure that the society consumes healthy products hence remaining healthy as well.
Companies could also actively participate in health promotion campaigns. This could be through funding, organizing the campaigns or being physically involved. The latter is achieved by having the employees of the company participate in health campaigns organized in the community.
We will write a custom Essay on Integration of Ethical and Responsible Practices in the Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Charity
In each society, there is bound to be needy people who require support from others. Most of this support normally comes from people with stable income and organizations. Therefore, companies could use this as a way of implementing corporate social responsibility in their communities. For example, companies could allocate a given percentage of their sales revenue to donate to the needy people in the society. In this, the whole society will appraise the company for their work hence gain a good reputation.
The aforementioned ways are just but some of the ways through which, companies are able to implement CSR in a community. Other ways include, presentation of awards to their employees, giving the leaves and off duties, organizing leisure trips for them and participating in community fundraisings among other methods (Visser et al).
Conclusion Based on the above discussion, it is clear that corporate social responsibility is one way through which companies can give back to the community. Through CSR, both the company and society will benefit (Matten and Moon 324). This is because companies that give back to the community they serve gain better reputation than those that do not.
As such, the people will prefer products from companies that practice effective CSR to those of companies that do not care about the community. The various ways through which companies can implement CSR in a community have also been mentioned, some of which include charity, health campaigns, and environmental conservation among others. Given, the benefits that come in hand with practicing CSR, it is important that all companies resort to effective implementation of CSR in their communities.
Works Cited Carroll, Archie. “Corporate Social Responsibility: Evolution of Definitional Construct.” Business Society. 1999. Web.
Matten, Dirk., and Moon, Jeremy.” Corporate Social Responsibility.” Journal of Business Ethics 54.4 (2005): 323-337. Print.
Moon, Chris et al. Business Ethics. London: The Economist, 2001. Print.
Noer, Michael., Ewait, David., and Weiss, Tara. “Corporate Social Responsibility.” Forbes. 2008. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Integration of Ethical and Responsible Practices in the Organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sun, William. How to Govern Corporations So They Serve the Public Good: A Theory of Corporate Governance Emergence. New York: Edwin Mellen, 2010. Print.
Visser, Wayne et al. The A to Z of Corporate Social Responsibility. New York: Wiley, 2007. Print.
The Adventures of Ezekiel “Easy” Rawlins Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
For this essay, the main topic will be the adventures of Walter Mosley’s private detective named Ezekiel “East” Porterhouse Rawlins. The discussion will be based on the three (3) novels by Mosley with regards to the escapades of Easy Rawlins. These novels are Devil in a Blue Dress, A Red Death and White Butterfly. I had personally selected this detective because I find the background of Rawlins intriguing with him being part of the black community and a World War II veteran at that draws me to the aura of his past and background.
Also I find the theme of Walter Mosley’s detective series significant in the study and understanding of history because racial inequalities and discriminations among the African-Americans and other colored peoples in the 1940s to the 1960s are being tackled.
In the tradition of hardboiled detective fiction, the character Easy Rawlins is clearly the same as that of Raymond Chandler and Ross MacDonald’s characters but Rawlins differs from these earlier fictional detectives because at the beginning of the novels he is not a licensed private investigator thus he has no background and training in law or being a detective. Rawlins only acquires his license in the latter part of the series.
I enjoy the writings of the author Walter Mosley because he relates historical events into his fictions which give a more real feel into his novels. I consider Easy Rawlins as a hard-boiled operative and a city gumshoe. He is a hard-boiled operative because he has the characteristics of a typical hardboiled detective, appearing cold and aloof on the outside but still remains ideal in the inside.
He is considered a city gumshoe because of his many connections in the African American community in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles California. Ezekiel “Easy” Porterhouse Rawlins is a black World War II veteran from Texas who becomes a private detective after helping the police solve the solve a mystery in the novel Devil in a Blue Dress.
Rawlins was born in Louisiana on November 3, 1920 but shortly moved and spent his childhood and adolescent days in Houston, Texas where he lived on his own. When he was only seven (7) years old his mother died and his father abandoned the family. After the war, we find Rawlins living in the neighborhood of Watts, Los Angeles.
In the first novel of the detective series, Devil in a Blue Dress, we find Rawlins interacting with his friends, Joppy a bar owner whom he met in Texas but later he kills Joppy because of his involvement with the enemy and betrayal. Another friend of Rawlins from Texas Coretta whom Easy had romantic relationship with but was killed also. Mouse who is Easy’s childhood friend from Texas is the embodiment of the latter’s dark-alter ego.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unlike Easy who as much as possible doesn’t want to do violence, Mouse kills anyone he comes in contact with especially if there is bad blood or conflict. Mouse relationship is decent with Rawlins although they had each other’s back in front of the enemy; Mouse was hungry for cash in Devil in a Blue Dress and violence for the rest of the novels read. In the last part of the novel Devil in the Blue Dress, Mouse took the stolen money from Daphne/ Ruby, split the money, took the half and gave the other half to Rawlins.
At the end of the novel, Devil in a Blue Dress we find Rawlins adopting a mute Mexican boy, Jesus as his son. Similarly in he also adopts a stripper’s baby girl named Feather at the end of the novel, White Butterfly. Easy Rawlins’ character wants to be good in society and live a peaceful life but it seems that situations and certain circumstances are stopping him, whether be the color of his skin or the tangling web of controversies he faces throughout the three novels.
In the novel A Red Death we find Easy being coerced by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) for his newly acquired real estate which was said to be bought by untaxed income and is connected with communism. We find that Rawlins is in conflict with FBI agent Darryl Craxton, Easy is not intimidated by authorities but he still respects the law and gives in to their requests. Easy Rawlins respects people in authority he possesses a kind heart with compassion.
This was evident in the novel, White Butterfly, when Quentin Naylor, a black detective from the Los Angeles Police Department asks help from Rawlins in investigating a serial killer who killed the former’s first white woman. Easy Rawlins takes on cases mostly related to investigations relating to the black Community of Los Angeles.
In the first novel, Devil in a Blue Dress, he was asked to find Daphne Monet who was hiding in African American bars after she stole a huge amount of money from Todd Carter. In Mosley’s second novel, A Red Death, Easy was investigated by the FBI for a property he has acquired through untaxed income, becoming a pawn in proving Chaim Wenzler a communist. He was considered the victim in this novel because of his color.
Last in the novel, White Butterfly, we find another black detective asking help from Easy in solving a crime not only relating to the former’s white woman murdered but also the killings of several black women. Most cases Rawlins tackles relate to the underground corruptions, racial discriminations among colored peoples of Los Angeles and the social injustice experiences of these peoples.
In the three (3) novels I had read the detective seems to have trusted companions in solving cases, in the first novel Devil in a Blue Dress, we find Easy Rawlins being assisted by his childhood friend Mouse in solving the case of Daphne/ Ruby and the stolen money. In relation to A Red Death, Mouse is again present in assisting Easy in solving the case. In the third novel, White Butterfly we find Easy being assisted by Quentin Naylor, a police detective.
We will write a custom Essay on The Adventures of Ezekiel “Easy” Rawlins specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Easy Rawlins works as an independent investigator but often times he is assisted by friends and associates of the police department in solving crimes. Easy is someone who had no background or training in law enforcement thus it is understandable that he would be needing help from other characters to guide him through the cases presented in the three (3) novels.
This idea further closes the gap of the detective’s short comings with his abrupt decision on becoming a private investigator. Easy Rawlins is a compassionate man with good connections. He is very keen in details thus with his know about in the neighborhood in Watts and his keen eye for details not to mention his very observant nature the Los Angeles police department often asks for his services in solving a crime.
He works in doing favors for the people in his community, finding a missing family member, protecting friends and other essential people and even finds illegal documents lost and could not be reported to the police. Easy Rawlins is not directly associated with law enforcement.
In the three (3) novels I had read, Easy seems to distance himself in being involved with crimes and solving mysteries. He would rather live a peaceful life with his family but it seems that the police department always finds its way to Easy’s door steps asking his service in the field of bringing justice to crimes committed. All of Walter Mosley’s novels on the adventures of detective Easy Rawlins are written from a first person’s point of view.
Easy Rawlins narrates his story in the novel with his voice of conscience evident in times of danger or if Rawlins is stressed and confronted with a dilemma. His narrative voice seems to show his good natured side, illustrating the character as someone who is very peaceful and loves his family very much but also he tries to give service to his local communities thus his constant involvement with crime investigations.
His narrative voice also showcases his inner thoughts making the character human in a sense that he is not considered perfect. He constantly battles with his inner thoughts. In the first novel, Devil in a Blue dress, Easy is always confused on what he is doing. He questions his acts as being moral or justifiable.
On the second novel, A Red Death, the shock of him being coerced by the FBI for his properties was brought out and his helplessness in the scene where he was first confronted and was linked to communism brought true human feelings to Easy’s character. The narrative voice informs the novel’s worldview in a sense that it grounds the novel making it realistic.
When I read all three (3) novels it puts me in the shoes of the detective, I could feel the conflicts he faced, the confusions and the horrors of tragedies he had encountered. After reading all there it gave me a deeper understanding of the character, his thoughts, actions, realizations and decisions in the later parts of the series.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Adventures of Ezekiel “Easy” Rawlins by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More I begun to have a profound perceptive and respect for detective Rawlins. Truly this is the power of Mosley’s writing making his readers not only connect but relate and empathize with his characters. In the course of the three (3) novels, the main character, detective Easy Rawlins gradually changed in terms of his attitude and skills. In the first novel, we see him as merely a laborer financially insecure because he could not pay his mortgage and was laid off.
He was afraid to be involved with people especially white men and was completely doubtful of what he was doing. Come the second and third novels, Easy Rawlins slowly becomes confident and matures along the way. He becomes more skilled in solving crimes and becomes keener in observing details. Reviews on Easy Rawlins show positive reviews on his character with James Hall comparing Easy to Philip Marlow but saying Easy is a much better character with his attitude being at home in the presence of the chilly tough world (Chrone.com).
According to the Marilyn Stasio, Easy Rawlins is described as a “charismatic fix-it man who helps his friends and neighbors out of compromising situations, all that destructive fury proves to be a life-altering experience”(NYTimes.com). According to Digby Diehl, the Easy Rawlins detective series:
“honors the hard-boiled tradition of Hammett/Chandler/Cain in its storyline and attitude, but Mosley takes us down some mean streets that his spiritual predecessors never could have because they were white. The insightful scenes of black life in 1948 provide a sort of social history that doesn’t exist in other detective fiction, and they lend an ambiance that heightens this story of crime and violence.” (LATimes.com).
Works Cited Diehl, Digby. “A Stiff Shot of Black and White.” Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times,. 29 July 1990. Web.
Hall, James. “James W. Hall hones crime-fiction art.” Chron Houston Chronicle Archieves. The Houston Chronicle., 2009. Web.
Stasio, Marilyn. “Crime.” The New York Times. The New York Times Company,. 25 July 2004. Web.
the first assignment is a 300-word discussion (about CAM and pain article) and a 200-word reply to student. ( wait until I upload the student reply). The second assignment is 300 words discussion. a level english language essay help
The first assignment is read the CAM and pain article, the article is a type of Complementary or Alternative Medicine. and answer the questions below ( I uploaded the article) 1. What is it and describe it. 2. What could it be used for 3. What are the benefits 4. What are the risks 5. Attach an article that focuses on this specific type of complementary or alternative medicine and state the key points of the article. The second assignment is( A physician is concerned about the long-term health of an obese patient with high blood pressure. The physician discusses diet changes with the patient. What type of diet should this patient consider?)
Last Night I Dreamed of Peace book Analytical Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Dang Thuy Tram’s masterpiece Last Night I Dreamed of Peace is a captivating informative chef-d’oeuvre that demonstrates the author’s love for her country based on the sorrowful situation that the country is undergoing.
As young as 23 years, she associates with the communists’ party in her quest to ensure that the Vietnamese people do not encounter the same situation (National Library Board Para. 3). Love and idealism, as well as the sense of shared humanity, all of which form part of today famous subjects, are crucial lessons with roots in Tram’s work.
Tram makes the decision to go to South Vietnam because of her love and youthful idealism that she has for her kindred. Despite the deadly circumstances and appalling conditions that her patients undergo, she opts to make the dreadful decision. In spite of the fatal situation, she vows to sacrifice her own life to secure the lives of the patients who have faced attacks and injuries from the American soldiers.
Her idealistic nature also plays a vital role in her decision to move to the South of Vietnam. She wishes to see her country in peace despite her age. She aligns herself with the communist party. It proves a tremendously difficult and trying time especially when the war rages on, kills, and destroys people without valid reasons. In fact, referring to the war, Tram says, “it spares no one, not a baby or an old woman, and the most hideous thing about it is the bloodthirsty Americans” (149).
Therefore, Tram makes the choice of moving to South Vietnam to extend her hand in saving the lives of those injured. She also makes her decision to move to South Vietnam because of her spirited heart of humanity, love, longing for the end of the war and the sufferings subjected to the citizens of Vietnam. Her compassion and wish to see the war end also makes her risk her own life to go to the South of Vietnam. She wishes that the war and the fighting in South Vietnam ended to allow people to have their peace and unity.
If Tram were alive to day, she would automatically qualify as one amongst the liberators and the heroes of Vietnam history, who assertively sacrificed, not only their time, money, and relationships, but also their own selves solely to cultivate freedom to the Vietnamese citizens.
Though dead, Tram speaks volumes and volumes through the marks she left to the people of Vietnam. She has contributed significantly towards the making of the country’s history, as it stands today. It seems quite unfortunate that she succumbed to death at that tender age. Tram stands out as a liberator who, from the evidence of her diary and documentation, shows that she had a vision and a passionate concern to her country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, she is worth acknowledging based on her thought and wish for an end of the inhumanity and brutalities that people of Vietnam were facing. It proves rather sad as Tram expresses her sympathy and concerns by noting that the people of Vietnam remain subjected to invalid pains and sufferings despite their innocence.
Therefore, Tram passes for a hero. If she could be alive, she could have gone in the records for understanding and having the courage to liberate the people of Vietnam from the unnecessary pains and killings (Guthrie Para. 3). She refers the Americans people to as merciless and thirsty of other people’s blood, descriptions that she notes bitterly and with sorrow.
Therefore, in no doubt, Tram stands out as a true hero. Vietnamese people who enjoy the freedom of today remember and appreciate Tram’s tireless works by acknowledging the cost attached therein. It cost the lives of protagonists such as Tram.
Works Cited Guthrie, John. Last Night I Dream of Peace by Dang Thuy Tram, 2007. Web.
National Library Board. Last Night I Dream of Peace: The Diary of Dang Thuy Tram, 2008. Web.
Tram, Thuy. Last Night I Dream of Peace. New York: Random House, 2008. Print.
A Business Strategy on Verizon Mobile Service Provider Case Study cheap essay help
Verizon is one of the leading mobile phone service providers in the United States of America with more than 106 million subscribers, the second largest and most competitive telecommunication market in the world.
The main purpose of this report is to study and analyze the internal and external environments of the mobile phone services industry in America. The analysis carried out in this report will enable us to assess the past, present and future economic strategies of the company and come up with a new strategy if any scope of optimization from the strategies presently being implemented.
It has been realized from the study that Verizon Mobile Provider has successfully established and implemented ‘Focused Low Cost’ strategies and through providing supreme value for the subscribers’ money has simultaneously forced the rivals to follow on the same outline hence creating a competitive market mood.
Nevertheless, it was also recognized that over the years Verizon communications has maintained to be the best cost provider in the industry and possess the largest network infrastructure, therefore, is now proficient of focusing and explore new fields and technologies while maintaining its low cost as well as a high-quality image.
Additionally, the report founded that Verizon communication is the core owner of world’s largest infrastructure of next-generation information technology infrastructures, one of the telecom industry pioneer in providing CDMA and GSM wireless services in the United States, it has the largest number of subscribers of more than 106 million customers and the company which has the good sales and marketing strategies as it focus on cost-effective mobile services which are affordable within the common man.
Although the company had done its best to cope with the market it faces several challenges in its quality service delivery, which included relatively new company in telecommunication industry in the USA, creating a severe competition environment and it lost a bid to acquire tender to provide its services outside American jurisdiction.
After appreciating the fact that focused low-cost strategies was faced by a number of challenges and would not be the most appropriate strategy in the current market situation where the consuming habit of consumer have hugely changed, it is recommended for the company to adopt a ‘Focused Differentiation Strategy ‘ and put emphasis on data services packages using new technologies such as 4G, maintaining its corporate image of being pioneer in innovating revolutionary changes in the market, it would not be unpractical to think of a future where subscribers pay for the data services and not the voice services in the American telecommunication industry.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, emerging of new technologies and aggressive strategies of new competitors has had a rigorous impact on highly competitive mobile service in America.
For any company to endure this uproar in the telecommunication market it has to establish additional competencies, discover new marketing areas by moving across the continent and the world where potential market exists and endeavor for the constant development. Verizon communication is not unique and it has to introduce new styles into the market and make the rivals to follow. Previous records have shown that Verizon has excelled in doing this regularly.
By observing and analyzing the enormous competence in aggressiveness and successful implementations of strategies that Verizon Communication has, we strongly recommend that it should focus ahead with assurance and set new styles in data services.
Verizon Communication being the only service provider to own 3G ready CDMA as well as GSM network infrastructure in the USA, is capable of establishing a new segment of providing high-speed data services using 4G technology if it makes use of the proposed strategies in this research.
Conflict Resolution Essay best essay help
Conflict resolution skills are invaluable source of establishing peace. However, conflict has for a long time been misconstrued to mean only the physical disagreements between two parties. This paper looks at conflict particularly in regards to personal mental conflict on a particular dilemma whereby an individual may be faced with difficult decision making options.
This kind of would require balancing between more important issues and those that are not of high priority. Such decisions include balancing relationships, loss of employment and the quest to settle for another job opportunity, what subjects to study at a college, careers to pursue, places to inhabit, business ventures options, health matters among others.
I chose to read this chapter of the book because it has immense information on what I actually needed to understand on improving my overall motivation towards my vision. Plans are important in the pursuit of our set goals in life. The book also provided me with the information I was looking for especially on the area of conflict resolution as an individual. These are discussed in details in the remaining section of the essay.
Research has shown that mental conflict and dilemma experienced by an individual may lead to stress. Additionally, distress may also manifest itself as an advance level of stress and depression. Finally, frustrations which may lead to an individual to be fixated, brain being rewired and even death in some cases through suicide Deutsch, Coleman
Self Evaluation and Management Essay best essay help: best essay help
Self evaluation and personal management have become some of the important components that assist to develop self esteem, identify performance abilities and establish better relationship with other people. Studies indicate that self evaluation goes beyond the view an individual has himself or herself to a continuous and constant determination of progress and personal growth.
Calás and Smircich (1999, p.650) argue that self evaluation can be lowered or enhanced by the behaviour of an individual who is psychologically close. Their argument advances the view that that happiness and self actualization are found in feeling being loved by others and by experiencing the sense of approval from the people around us.
As this paper analyses, self evaluation and personal management are vital for building personal relationship with others and for coexisting with others in the society. It is on this front that this paper succinctly analyses the concepts of self evaluation and management, and how they impact on relationships and the society.
This paper takes a critical analysis on self examination in order for an individual to best understand her/himself with regard to relating and managing other people around us. The paper thus outlines critical self reflexivity, its importance, and the held assumptions between an individual and those around. It also looks into the organizational values and the presumed values and personality traits that develop between an individual and an organization.
It asserts the importance of an organization and person fit as well as slightly looking at the relationship between and individual and the environment. The managers of organizations should demonstrate more ethical traits and humanity as they go about managing others since the interest of the led is equally very important.
This paper employs the approach of self reflexivity which makes it possible foe an individual to develop sensitivity and pay attention to the views of others. A self reflective person listens to an inner voice from the people who speak through his mind and he / she critically puts self into the shoes of others thus being able to feel for their needs and act appropriately.
Abraham Tesser advances in his self-evaluation maintenance theory that relationship with other people plays a pivotal role of influencing individual to carry out self-evaluation (Caproni
Importance of Sustainability Reports for Australian Firms Argumentative Essay college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Adopting Sustainability Reporting
List of References
Introduction Value creation is one of the many objectives that any firm wants to achieve. Performance measurement should be used as a tool of sustainability assessment by firms. According to Figge, Hahn, Schaltegger and Wagner (2002, 270), sustainability reporting is a process of a company understanding its impact on the people, the planet and the profit.
They further suggest that when a company discloses its economic, environmental, and social performance, it can easily access its impact on the community. This report seeks to identify the importance of sustainability reporting for the firms in Australia. There are rules that require the firms whether they are in public or in private sector to give their reporting according to GRI guidelines.
Adopting Sustainability Reporting Figge et al. (2002, p. 271) point out that in Australia, the federal government through the treasury has given funds to St James Ethic center in order to expand responsible business practice (RBP). Companies in Australia to enhance their brand reputation among the users also do sustainability reporting. Lack of company’s sustainability report is a global problem.
Therefore, all businesses regardless of their sizes should be at the first line to solve these problems. In conjunction to this, Australian government has released GRI reporting framework that has a global applicable standard suitable to meet the needs of different stakeholders.
According to Dwyer and Owen (2005, p. 212), the reporting process for GRI makes organization understand its impact on the economy, environment, and social life of the stakeholders. Any type of the company can apply the processes across the globe. For a good sustainability report, an organization should consider its purpose and experience.
Cch (2009, p. 68) claims that it should also consider the interest and expectations of the stakeholders or the customers. Therefore, the reporting organization should include the measures that they have used to satisfy the needs of its stakeholders. This is known as the stakeholders’ inclusiveness. Figge et al. (2002, p. 274) agree that the report should also meet the completeness aspect that is the provision of sufficient material to help he stakeholders to assess the performance of the reporting organization.
As noted by Dwyer and Owen (2005, p. 215), there are steps that accompany must follow to implement sustainability reporting process. The first step is to prepare, which is aimed to promote internal discussion by the management persons to identify the impacts of the organization on the stakeholders.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second step is connecting, which is how the stakeholder’s aspect should be included in the report. Definition is the third step; this is to identify what matters most in the report (Dwyer and Owen 2005, p. 215). Then the organization monitors and gathers the information that is to be included in the report. The GRI (Global Reporting Initiative guidelines) also developed reporting principles to enable the firms check their monitoring process and obtain the information that is of high quality.
To communicate is the final process that involves preparation, writing the final report and translating the result of the report. The number of organizations reporting there economic, environmental and social performance is increasing day by day in Australia. This is not because the government requires them to do so, but because they have seen the benefit of doing it like gaining popularity among the stakeholders (Figge, Hahn, Schaltegger and Wagner 2002, p. 270).
Perego (2009, p. 412) claims that for the sustainability report to be effective, the organization should present it first to the assurance providers to verify the report. An examination done on the sustainability report of 130 companies presented between 2002 and 2004 shown that characteristic of assurance providers differs with each type of the assurance providers. There are three major different types of assurors that are, accounting firms, and certification bodies and specialists consultancies (Perego 2009, p. 413).
The accounting firms are classified as the high quality assurance providers as compared to the other providers. This is because they offer internal mechanisms of control to ensure that the reports released by their members are good quality. Choi and Wong (2007, p. 20) posits the likely hood to chose a quality assurance provider in a country with a weaker legal regime is high than in a country with strong legal regime.
Oxfam Australia is one of the non-profit making organizations in Australia. Its vision is to make the world fair for every one to control his or her life without interference. This organization presented its environmental sustainability report for 2008 to 2013. They include the aim to use the resources that are People, finances and materials effectively and efficiently.
The organization also wants to be accountable to the communities, partners and allies that they work with and demonstrate the best practice in operational environmental management and reporting. Companies face pressures for them to disclose non-financial information. This drives are market, societal, stakeholder’s needs, to uphold the reputation of the organization among many others (Vormedal and Ruud, 2006, p. 208).
Oxfam organization aims at reducing the emitting of carbon to 0 % by the year 2015. The long-range plan involves generation of renewable source of energy for it to reduce the environmental pollution. In addition to using the drives mentioned above, the organization has used the internationalization degree to influence the level and quality of the reporting.
We will write a custom Essay on Importance of Sustainability Reports for Australian Firms specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The organization is aiming at reducing energy consumption by 15% of 2007 levels. This will be achieved by monitoring and evaluating actions from the previous years to indentify the initiatives that contributed to successful reduction of energy consumption. The organization reports on its environmental measures every quarter of the year. This is to assess the progress of the company and assures the best practice by the suppliers.
Salvation Army is another NGO and non-profit making organization in Australia and its aim is to provide care for the poor and disadvantaged people. They also provide the emergency assistance for the people who have the financial pressures. The organizations sustainability reporting is driven by the need for the organization to legitimate its operations and to meet the needs of the stakeholders.
They involve the auditing companies in their financial reporting and have chosen the best audit firm to be there assures. The organization reports their performance generally without grouping. The reports are based on departments that is, general corporate responsibilities, and management systems, codes of conducts, managements systems and supply chains.
Perego (2009, p. 412) argues that for an organization to give a quality reporting they must involve more than one assurance providers to verify the report. This is because for a company to exist for a long period, it should be aware of the impact it has on the stakeholders (Tencati and Perrin 2006, p. 298).
Both the Salvation Army and Oxfam Australia are driven internally and externally to give their reporting. These are national and international policies and pressure from the wider society. This has made them survive in the country for a long period since they are able to meet the policies of Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) (Vormedal and Ruud, 2006, p. 213).
According to Tencati and Perrin (2006, p. 299), the organizations must apply appropriate systems to control and measure their behaviors in order to get the assessment of the extent to which they are meeting the needs of the stakeholders and the need of the government.
Finally, for the organization to meet all the rules and the regulations related to the sustainability reporting especially those for the SMEs there should be a system that should be applied to monitor all the qualitative and quantitative performance. This reporting system includes the annual financial reports, social reports and environmental reports (Unerman and Bebbington 2007, p. 112).
The advancement of technology in the 21st centaury has been a booster to the reporting system of the organizations. The technology has lead to the invention of integrated reporting systems which groups the reports together for an easy access.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of Sustainability Reports for Australian Firms by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A significant benefit realized from annual financial reporting is the use of notes, which substantially assists, in explaining diverse monetary data presented in financial reports this becomes helpful to a user who is not familiar with financial reports regarding to a specified company. It also becomes important when making comparison of different firms that employs different policies in their operations.
For instance, if a company collapse while the director had assured employees and shareholders of going concern then director is liable to compensate the latter parties. In areas that require compulsory information regarding the preservation and conservation of the environment, companies find it difficult to hide their mission regarding to maintaining status of the environment (Perrini and Tencat 2006, p. 299).
Perhaps the rules and regulations governing annual financial reporting is more liberal compelling companies to outside some pertinent information, which could help an investor, make useful decision. Again, some firms take advantage of providing unnecessary details. The firm may also tend to go against the principle of releasing true and fair information.
While providing annual report, it is quite difficult to identify whether is presenting true and fair information or not. According to Financial Reporting Council (34), there is high tendency of the annual financial reporting relies so much on the positive matters leaving negative information hidden. Information relating to the operation of any company is fundamental in making useful and informed decision.
In conclusion, Australian organization must adopt sustainability reporting. The sustainability of an organization is determined by the sustainability of its stake holder relationship. The relationship is build by the ability of the organization to involve all of them including the suppliers, public authorities and civil society in general.
The stakeholder’s view of the firm is what should guide the organization to prepare a report this can change dramatically the role of the firm in the society. Therefore the entire firm should be ready to install the systems that will enable them to adopt the sustainability reporting without being pushed by the government. Although the process seems difficult, it is for the benefit of the organizations.
List of References Cch, C 2009, Australian master environment guide, CCH Australia Limited, Melbourne.
Maintaining Individuality in a Relationship Essay college essay help: college essay help
Individuality is the state of being independent, where one individual is separate from the other because they have their own needs, desires, and goals. Although some people try to maintain their individuality in a romantic relationship, others compromise and loose their sense.
They forget to take care of their needs and concentrate on the relationship and tend to think that their partners will take care of their needs. This may create a break up in a relationship. People who are in love often struggle to impress each other and loose their individuality in the process. Some of them may feel good after the compromise while others feel suffocated by it. Carver and Scheier (2004) argue that there is a need to maintain individuality, especially when one feels suffocated after losing individuality.
According to Giles (2000), it is always good to remember that a good relationship is one which you are not supposed to change yourself, but where you will grow together. Therefore, a person who is ready to accept you just as you are is a true partner and so, instead of striving to change your individuality try to accept the relationship. It is even possible to lose the interest of the other person after losing your own individuality.
However, self-care and strong sense of self may make the relationship become strong and enhance sustainability and happiness. It is always good to enter into a relationship as a whole person with your preferences and boundaries because the other partner will always be attracted with your individuality and self of sense.
When one starts to lose the sense of self, it is likely that the partner will loose interest. Brad (2007) says that when you loose a sense of self in a relationship, you are likely to start blaming your partner and the relationship as well. A person should try to maintain individuality in order to avoid self-blame in both personal and other things in life. It is always good to think positively in order to maintain individuality and also avoid getting obsessed with others and care for self.
According to Solomon’s views, love lets lovers to redefine themselves in a relationship. He supports this point by arguing that romantic love is a concentration and an intense focus of shared definition on an individual. Solomon sees love as a plan for individual’s recreation for himself/herself and for the sake of the relationship.
In essence, lovers combine their interests, virtues, role, and share the same identity without forgetting that each individual has a role in recognizing their identity (Halwani, 2010). However, Nozick’s theory does not recognize autonomy and individuality and he argues that both individuals’ identities are destroyed and they are ‘reborn’ to the world with the same senses to their partners.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People should always be involved in mature and stable love, instead of the symbiotic type. The difference between mature and symbiotic love is that mature love is stable and involves two people who respect each other. Symbiotic love on the other hand is needy and dependent and stipulates that one person should rule over another. As a result, both partners loose integrity (Fisher, 2004). LaFollete (2000) argues that mature love enhances individualism between partners as opposed to symbiotic love, where there is fear of separation.
Lewis, Amini, and Lennon (2000) conform that symbiotic relationship causes one person to give their major part to retain a successful relationship. However, the person who is driven by fear of being alone ends up sacrificing his or her identity to keep the relationship whole.
These individuals make sure that there are no conflicts in order to maintain the status quo, which leads to loss of independence. If one individual idolizes over the other, then he sacrifices himself for the sake of the other and ends up being under control of the partner.
When there is no balance in power, the relationship becomes unproductive for both and it is likely to end. Despite the fact that many people know the consequence of ending a relationship, they are still willing to give up their individuality in order to avoid being alone. They are ready to give up what they need and who they are just for the sake of love.
Moreover, individuals who lose their individualism when in a romantic love are unable to maintain a mature relationship. One should start with self-love to be able to love others because giving up individuality will bring anger, hatred and resentment at the end. When resentment comes in, the relationship starts deteriorating. Individuals need relationships that will bring in personal growth through achievement of their dreams together with their partners. Individuals should also understand that when one is in a relationship, their life does not stop just because they are with another person (Wood, Ellen, and Boyd, 2005).
In essence, a person has to maintain his/her own individuality and strive to achieve personal goals. This also means that you are is supposed to do the hobbies you used to have before you met as well as maintaining your self interests because if you give up on your interests you are likely to give up your life (Zimmer, 2008).
One should always keep in mind that when he/she met the partner, they were first attracted as individuals and thus there is need to retain your individuality because that the reason why your partner was attracted to you. Maintaining other’s individuality will build up a mature loving and healthy relationship (Halwani, 2010).
We will write a custom Essay on Maintaining Individuality in a Relationship specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Sterba (2001), there are many ways of making a relationship work; one is by speaking your truth. It is not advisable for lovers to keep quite and hence they should communicate their feelings to each other. Each individual should own his/her feeling – your partner needs to know when you are angry, disturbed or even when you are happy. Withholding your feelings to your partner will bring in more problems.
You should not let your partner speak for you or allow him/her to guess what is on your mind. Instead, you are supposed to share them and in case your partner takes liberty with them, you should be able to stop him/her and let him know what you are going through. Lastly, a person is supposed to reconnect with other friends for joy or fun rather than letting your partner dictate on what to do. This may involve going out with a group of friends whom you used to go out with to do some activities or hobbies.
Many relationships end because one person has surrendered to the other. Nevertheless, it is always good to love yourself first before loving another person. Giving up on all things that identify your individuality will make you lose your identity and you will not even be able to give into your relationship. Brad (2007) stresses that it is always good never to confuse flexibility with individuality when in a relationship: individuality is what makes people to be who they are.
Flexibility is all about compromise and is necessary in a relationship through honest communication of each other’s needs and feelings whenever you are together.
However, compromising too much will lead to anger and resentment, which is likely to end the relationship. Individuals should avoid giving up too much in their relationships because it will haunt them later. The get-togethers and friends bashes you decide not to attend just because you do not want to leave your boyfriend or girlfriend will make yourself left out since you have distanced yourself from your own friends.
In conclusion, honest communication is good because partners are able to solve their problems and build a mature loving relationship. Nobody should give up on anything that brings out uniqueness in each individual. Loving partners should find a balance that they both need to build a long lasting relationship. In addition, it is always good to determine what is needed in life and take actions accordingly.
This will help maintain individuality while also striving for personal happiness and contentment rather than trying hard to make a partner happy through sacrifice. Nevertheless, maintaining individuality right from the beginning of a relationship is healthy because it is one of the reasons for love.
However, if an individual takes away these traits through compromise, then they become a different person to their partner rather than the one he/she started dating. Nevertheless, this does not mean that one is not supposed to compromise in some circumstances in their relationship; things keep on changing as the relationship grows just like life itself, but one should never despair.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Maintaining Individuality in a Relationship by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Brad, H., 2007. Falling in love. Canada: Random Place.
Carver, C. and Scheier, M., 2004. Perspectives on personality. 5th ed. Boston: Pearson.
Fisher, H., 2004. Why we love. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company LLC.
Giles, L., 2000. A theory of love and sexual desire. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 24 (4), 339–357.
Halwani, R., 2010. Philosophy of love, sex, and marriage: An introduction. New York: Routledge.
LaFollete, H., 2000. Moral Psychology. In: The Blackwell Guide to Ethical Theory, Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Lewis, T., Amini, F., and Lannon, R., 2000. A general theory of love. New York: Random House.
Sterba, J.P., 2001. The moral self in the face of injustice. In: Social and Political Philosophy: Contemporary Perspectives, London: Routledge. pp. 45-67.
Wood, S.E., Ellen, W., and Boyd, D., 2005. The world of psychology. 5th ed. New York: Pearson Education.
Zimmer, C., 2008. Romance is an illusion. Time Magazine, [online] 17 Jan. Available at: .
The Adam Smith Problem is Not a Real Problem Critical Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction In the Wealth of Nations (WN), Smith argues that the societys prosperity can only be achieved if the society guarantees individuals the freedom to pursue their goals within the confines of natural justice. In a book that he had written earlier, ‘The Theory of Moral Sentiments’, smith explains both the origin of rules of justice and the emergence of moral sentiments.
The Adam Smith problem refers to the supposed contradiction between Smith’s argument in favour of self-interest in WN on one hand and his defence of sympathy in TMS on the other. On the face value, it may seem that the two works contradict each other (Adam Smith problem).
However, a detailed analysis indicates that no contradiction exists but rather, the two works support each other. In TMS Smith argues that in the pursuit of individual self-interest, the individual satisfies the interest of society. For example, a baker bakes bread for him to earn some monetary profits (self interest), but in turn he meets the societys demand for bread (societys interest). Under the capitalist system (WN), individuals pursue their goals through trade and production.
As they trade and produce, they must take into account the values of other society members (TMS). Smith argues that an individual or a company will make greater profits if the society (other individuals) place greater value on its activities. It is therefore evident that self-interest contained in the WN and moral sentiments in TMS work towards the same goal.
The market forces of demand and supply cannot function if there is no society, for without society, it is impossible for division of labour and its resulting efficiency to occur. This points to the fact that the market forces of demand and supply to some extent rely on the individuals ability to sympathize (role of justice in free trade). Smiths notion of self interest is therefore in line with his idea of sympathy.
Discussion In 1776, Adam Smith published his popular book, ‘The Wealth of Nations’ (WN). This book marked the beginning of the concept of market and free trade. To date The Wealth of Nations, remains one of the largely significant books in political economy. However, even before the wealth of nations, smith had published another important work in 1759, titled the Theory of Moral Sentiments.
This book is little known outside the philosophical spheres. TMS provides significant ideas into Smiths perception of human knowledge and nature. This work was the foundation of Smiths economic theory. A number of authors have argued that these two books contradict each other (they call them the two Smiths). They assert that in TMS, smith focuses on having a feeling for fellow humans (sympathy), while in WN; he argues that societies and individuals accumulate wealth by pursuing individual selfish interests.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Connecting Sympathy in TMS to WN
Smiths concept of sympathy is central to the Adam Smith Problem. According to Griswold (260), Smith asserts that one of humanitys original obsession is sympathy or having a feeling for fellow humans. Smith argued that no matter how selfish an individual may be, in his nature, there are certain inherent principles in a mans nature that will attract him to the welfare of his fellow humans and therefore their happiness.
He gains nothing from this other than the satisfaction of seeing it (Smith 1751). The idea of sympathy has been widely misinterpreted to mean concern or pity. However, Smiths idea of ‘sympathy meant the tendency to identify with not only others miseries, but also their fortunes.
So fellow feeling is any similar passion or emotion that arises in the mind of an observer who observes another individuals outward expression of inner feelings. It is therefore clear that inner feeling is not only a function of pain and sorrow but also the joy and happiness of the others (Smith 3).
Smith argues that is much easier to identify with your joy than with your sorrow. As a result, a person who has no envy can easily identify with the good luck of another. On the other side, it is usually hard to identify with grief and we enter into it while dragging our feet (Smith 1751, Book 1 Ch 9).
Smith argues that this is the origin of ambition and class structure that serves to maintain order and stability in society. An individual who has the necessities of life is better placed to seek fame and fortune because he attracts positive sympathy from other individuals. As an inherent characteristic among individuals, they always want to better their lifestyles beyond what is considered a reasonably comfortable lifestyle.
This is partly attributed to the fact that they value sympathy in the form of admiring others who have already achieved that status. This point connects TMS to WN in the sense that individuals are never satisfied with their possessions. In deed if we had such a society where individuals are satisfied with bare necessaries of life, it would have been a very stable society but with no economic growth making it unable to fit in the changing world.
Nations create wealth because of the individuals never-ending pursuit to improve themselves materially. This happens under a conducive environment. According to Smith, countries that have allowed their citizens to pursue their self-interest have grown in wealth while those that failed in the same have fell into poverty.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Adam Smith Problem is Not a Real Problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even though, the liberty to pursue self-interest cannot be without limit. This is because excess liberty by one individual is only achieved at the expense of others liberty. Therefore, there has to be a framework for regulating individual liberty. This is achieved by the rules of justice. Smith argues that justice is threatened from two sources; corruption in the society arising from the worship of riches and authority and the ambitions of rulers.
Smiths Criticism on the Worship of Wealth and Power
Smith was conscious that the worship of wealth and despise of poverty though important in maintaining social stability and driving industry, equally posed serious threats. He condemned the corruption of the princes and the political elite who ascend to power through intrigue, deception and crime but nowhere does he condemn the wealth creation.
What Smith was against was the careless accumulation of wealth that could corrupt the society, through continuous worship of wealth in total disregard to how wealth is created. He asserts that greatness and wealth in the absence of virtue and merit deserve no respect. In Smiths theory, the attitudes of people shape moral sentiments and passions.
Therefore, the tendency to worship and admire the rich and powerful, while looking down upon and neglecting the poor, though important in maintaining the class structure and order in society, corrupts the moral sentiments (Smith 3). When individuals continuously admire and adore the wealthy and the great, they tend to either ignore or excuse their faults.
This goes against the rules of justice, which is the foundation of social order. Therefore, as much as social class is created and maintained through the creation of wealth, social order is more important and the wealthy should not look down upon the poor.
Humanity in general longs for respect and admiration among his fellows. According to Smith, he can achieve this through two avenues; by studying wisdom and practicing virtue or by acquiring wealth and greatness. To Smith, the latter attract majority of humanity because they admire and worship material prosperity.
This view is similar to the modern celebrity culture in our society that is characterized by the lives of rich and famous. A society that internally undermines justice through blind worship of wealth and greatness is likely to be externally destroyed by the rulers. Absolute power, allows the rulers to manipulate the law for their own economic gains (Smith 9).
Justice as a Moral Basis of Trade in TMS
The central theme WN is that trade is the avenue to national prosperity. Trade is the direct opposite of robbery either by state or by individuals. Trade can only thrive where the security of persons and property is guaranteed. Security as a whole can be secured only through rules of justice.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Adam Smith Problem is Not a Real Problem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More TMS hypothesizes how these rules are possible and how they are formulated. Our major focus on this part will be on how sympathy transform into rules of justice. Smith puts forward two types of moral judgement; judgement of decency or indecency of an individuals passions in responding to events.
For example, if B steals As wallet containing $ 10, A has a right to be upset and resentful. However, if A responds with excessive grief as if he has lost his entire fortune, those around him may judge his conduct as indecent. Equally, if B boasts of his achievement, his conduct will be judged by others to be improper.
The second category of moral judgements involves the merits and demerits of actions. Judgement based on proper reward or punishment for an act. As noted earlier, sympathy is an instinct that all humans possess. Individual A can have sympathy for individual B only if A can imagine how B is feeling (Griswold 339).
Individual A cannot get into individual Bs mind, the best he can do is to imagine Bs feelings by way he would feel if in his situation. Using the earlier example of a stolen wallet, assume that individual W sees B stealing As wallet. W can have fellow feeling for A, because if he were the victim he would feel the same way.
Similarly, W can sympathise with As anger. Worth noting however, is that W can never fully associate with the feelings of A. His bitterness of BS act is likely to be weaker than As own bitterness of the act. This implies that if A over reacts, then W is not likely to approve it. According to Smith, the aggrieved party (A) should therefore match his passion (the extent of resentment) to that of the impartial spectator (W), if he is to capture his sympathy (Smith 22).
Therefore, the moral judgement about the decency or indecency of an act is that of the neutral spectator who is neutral and has no positive or negative inclination to the parties directly involved. Similarly, the impartial spectator can only issue proper judgement about reward or punishment for the act of stealing. Individual A may feel that the thief (B) deserves a life imprisonment but he will not find much sympathy from (W) the impartial spectator.
The Rules of Justice
From smiths point of view, sympathy forms the basis of justice. The impartial spectator identifies with the grief of the victim of violence and recommends for punishment, though not to that which the victim desires. According to Smith, rules emerge when our sense of justice disappoints us at the time when we need it most.
When this happens, then we have to judge our own actions. Smith argues that it is practically impossible for us to make reasoned judgements before we take every action as humans. This is because we often act so fast that there is no time to make judgements and that our judgements are usually full of our own passions. If we reflect upon our actions afterwards and discover that we made mistakes, we will forgive ourselves.
This necessitates the need for an external instinct in our nature that allows us to identify the proper rule of conduct. By continuously observing the conduct of others, we formulate to ourselves certain general guidelines or rules regarding what are proper and therefore should be done and what are wrong that we should avoid. When these individual perceptions coincide or merge, then the rules of just conduct come into existence.
Generally, were not originally designed with forethought, but rather developed through the accumulation of experience (Smith 23). That notwithstanding, the continuous existence of general rules, involves another element. The primary reason why rules of justice exist is that majority of the people observe them of their free will most of the time.
This element of observance originates from the virtue of self-command that Smith considers the source of all virtues. Understanding and knowing the rules by itself cannot guarantee their observance. This is because self-interest motivates individuals to violate the rules they know and approve of. Through self-command, our urgent temptations are suppressed and it directs us to observe the rules of justice (Smith 4).
According to Smith, when individuals predict disapproval (retaliation strategy in game theory), they are forced to formulate the rules of proper conduct; the rules so formulated have no author (Ferguson 122). Worth noting is that not all the rules formulated turn out to be just. Customary practices and fashion may promote or negate justice (Smith 8).
The Reduced Role of Government in Relation to Moral Sentiments
According to Smith, between the two outward moralities of beneficence and justice, justice is of more importance to the society. He argues that the state has a specific role in the administration of justice. Moral rules of justice receive recognition as lawful obligations in the last resort and the state has the task to enforce.
However, in the determination of rules of justice, Smith does not see any major role for the state because they are formed on impulse through the adaptation of humanity. Smith believed in limited role of government. He was against the idea that a ruler knows best what is good for his people and that a centralised government can better take care of all aspects of social life.
He notes that harmony in society can only be successfully achieved when laws enacted by the peoples representatives are in line with the communitys expectation and that they do not lead to either despair or anarchy. To Smith, the society is so unstructured that is impossible for it to be micro-managed by a central system of government.he further notes that the society should not try to create the best system of laws but instead focus on the best that people can bear (Smith 14).
In his writing, warns against state efforts in promoting beneficence (actions that promote the well-being of others). He notes that even though the lack of beneficence stimulates condemnation, any move to force it can be even more inappropriate (Smith 6). While the well-being of others is desirable, it cannot be achieved without endangering the more elementary morality that is justice. Both justice and beneficence are critical components of societys moral capital.
However, the state is only effective in the enhancement of justice. Beneficence can only be enhanced through urging and recommendation (Smith 16). The secondary importance of beneficence relative to justice is important in understanding the synchrony of the TMS and the WN.
Though Smith was aware and rightly worried about greed and lack of concern towards the poor in his time, he was convinced that the growth of nations is better served by stable adherence to the rules of justice that provide conducive environment for trade and industry, the way to the wealth of nations.
Conclusion Smiths theory of moral sentiments argues that human beings by nature possess the instinct of fellow feeling. In the wealth of nations, he illustrates that self-interest is the engine of the wealth for countries and that through free trade; nations achieve the best path to prosperity. The Adam smith problem is not a real problem because of the following points;
In TMS Smith stays clear about the importance of self-interest over sympathy, secondly, self-interest and sympathy augment each other. During war, what sets each individual against every other individual is the instinct of sympathy. An individual can relate to another individuals joy as well as misery.
This capability actually enhances individual interests. In the absence of social harmony, the gains made will be short lived. As Paganelli points out, self-interest plays a positive role in the enhancement of virtues and the enforcement of moral rules (Paganelli 369). Third, it is impossible to carry out trade in the absence of steady rules that safeguard property, life and liberty. Without the rules of justice, trade cannot go on and the rules of justice cannot be achieved without sympathy (fellow feeling).
Lastly, sympathy drives self-interest as individuals extend and long for sympathy. To Smith, why we aspire for riches and fame over and above what is necessary is because we long for praise from other people. In the course of doing everything in order to earn praise from others, people end up meeting the society’s needs. It is this broader view of Smiths sympathy that nations are driven to greater prosperity.
Works Cited Griswold, Charles. Adam Smith and the Virtues of Enlightenment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Print.
Paganelli, Maria. The Adam Smith Problem in Reverse’ 40:2 history of political economy. New York: Prentice Hall, 2008.Print.
Smith, Adam. The Theory of moral sentiments. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976.Print.
Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, 1981.Print.
Country Analysis and Foreign Market Entry Choice Report custom essay help
Abstract The purpose of this report is to analyze the foreign market and entry choices in relation marketing of pet care products in India. Various sources of theoretical framework have been used to gather secondary information. In addition, issues such as competition, culture and market have been researched.
This business report has analyzed foreign markets referred to as 5Cs by use of theoretical framework. These 5Cs are based on competition, culture, customers, constitution and company. This framework which is very broad has been used to analyze the real Indian market situation and pet care industry, though it can be used to analyze a variety of foreign markets.
The findings show the evidence of potential pets care firms to enter the Indian market, based on preferences of the consumers and the general market situation. In addition, it has been found that the future success of pets care firms in India will be determined by their strategic commitment.
The categories of pets food in India is increasingly becoming specialized along size, breed, and age of dogs, cats and other pets. Rising disposable income and humanization of pets are believed to be the key causes of rise in demand for these products. Royal Canin premium brand is one of the dog foods, which is highly specialized and cater for varied life stages, sizes and breeds.
In many urban centers, exclusively-packaged dog food is commonly fed on puppies less than six months. Flavors and life stages are the main categories of product specialization, though it is less profound in cats’ foods. This is attributable to the fact that cat owners are less interested in learning about a variety of breeds compared to dog owners.
The study recommends India as a potential international market for pets’ care products since the analysis of the facts shows that this environment has less risk factor and many opportunities as a result of increased benefits of pets’ foods, higher awareness of the dietary needs of pets and rising disposable income.
Introduction In future, pets care in India is expected to continue registering more popularity and growth. Several factors such as benefits of pets’ foods, higher awareness of the dietary needs of pets and rising disposable income are attributable to such growth and popularity. More consumers in India are increasingly finding the need to have pets for companionship and are spending more on their welfare.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The realization of the benefits of prepared foods is drawing a sharp shift from non-prepared foods. As the owners of the pets become more interested in improving their pets’ health and giving them comfort, strong popularity and growth within the pets’ products such as dietary and supplements and grooming products is expected take place (Ramesh, 2008).
Provision of pets’ care products in India is dominated by multinational companies. In year 2010, Mars International India Pvt Ltd was the leading player, followed by Royal Canin India Pvt Ltd and Provimi Animal Nutrition India Pvt. Strengthening of multinationals and Consolidation of pets’ care products resulted from a number of acquisitions that took place in 2009. Specifically, multinational Companies gained from loyalty and brand awareness.
In addition, availability of resources for education and marketing as well as provision of quality products also gave these companies a competitive edge. In 2010 and 2011, international brands like Hill’s Pet Nutrition Inc continued joining the pet food industry. The manufactures have seen a growing demand for pets’ products in urban areas and hence continues offering different wellness and health products for pets in India (Louis, Boone
Union or Not Proposal college essay help: college essay help
The workers’ union plays a great role in the workplace. Lack of union in the plant that SNCC is purchasing will automatically have disparities in the company. This is because of the nature of roles played by unions in companies. They ensure a positive function in addressing and preventing familial abuse via intervention and training.
In most work places, domestic abuse is one of the union agenda since it is majorly a public health issue, family issue, workplace issue, social justice issue and a community issue. This paper seeks to discuss the role of unions in workplace and their relationship with the human resources and management.
Lack of union in the SNCC plant will therefore have disastrous impact in the company as a whole. This is because unions are vital in helping its members stay healthy, employed and safe so that they may remain self sufficient economically and retain their dignity (Phanindra, 2009).
Various business issues are associated with unions. The absence of a union in a workplace may result into adverse effects in the company. Without the union, issues such as fear, embarrassment, and workplace gossip, abuse of rights, exploitation, demonization, workplace conflict and low self esteem among other issues may arise due to lack of protection by the union. In situations where there is a union, positive issues results.
Employers and employees would to thing such as: understand that embarrassment and fear can prevent a member from talking concerning job issues, respect the rights of the members and their decisions, daunt workplace gossip, enlighten the member about the role of the union on their confidentiality, assistance and their non judgmental support, consider reassignment of jobs, refer members to unions, recognize retirees, develop unions resolutions, make public statements against violence and safety, negotiate supportive contract language and sponsor workshops concerning domestic violence (Noe et al., 2010)..
In case the new plant had a union, the union would be subjected to play multiple roles in ensuring success of the company as far as the company employees and operations are concerned.
The union would perform functions such as: negotiating collective agreement, the union would bargain for the terms and conditions that would be considered in employment of the workers in the bargaining unit; consulting and informing, the union would be informed and consulted on the recruitment decisions made by the company concerning collective redundancies, transfers and pension schemes; representing employees at grievance hearing and disciplinary, where there is a situation concerning discipline, the union would accompany workers to the committee for hearings; and partly or non unionized workers, here the union is obliged to inform the company about those workers who have since withdrawn from membership. The company is also obliged to inform the union about those members who cannot be part of the union (Boeri, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The relationship that would exist between management, human resources, and the union if the new plant had a union would be a healthy and friendly one concerning the workers and the workplace. The management and the human resources both have roles and responsibilities towards the union.
The union representatives may be part of your employees and therefore considerable time off for their union duties should be awarded to allow them execute their administrative duties. The relationship between the union and the management should be consultative in that either of them informs and consults each other on matters concerning development of their interests and changes that are to be implemented in the company.
This enables the workers to adopt the stated changes without much opposition. The two could also enjoy a mutual relationship where the management allows the union to use the company facilities in their administrative functions (Noe et al., 2010).
In summary, the role of both the management and the union are directed towards a common goal. Achieving the objectives of the company and satisfying the needs of the workers. This paper has illustrated the role of unions at workplace and the relationship between the union, human resources and the management.
References Boeri, T. (2007). Role of Unions. London: Prentice Hall.
Noe, R. et al. (2010). Fundamentals of Human Resource Management. London: McGraw-Hill.
Phanindra, V. (2009). The Role of Union in Workplace. New York: Cengage.
We will write a custom Proposal on Union or Not specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Assess the view that Rousseau’s social contract is totalitarian Analytical Essay best college essay help
Introduction Many theorists suggest that a family forms the first model of political society. This is mainly because parents are relieved of their duties of caring for children once they reach adulthood. Similarly, children are relieved of complete obedience to their parents at adulthood. Moreover, family bonds and obligations are practically broken. In fact, whatever remains is voluntary. It signifies an opportunity for children to be masters of their own destiny.
This is the basic unit of political society, in which people are born free but everywhere they remain in chain. The expression is according to Rousseau who asserts that modern states have the habit of repressing freedom, which is everyone’s birthright. Moreover, he faults them for neglecting civil freedom, which is the main reason for joining civil society. He therefore believes that legitimate political power can only be achieved through social contract. This paper will assess the view that social contract is totalitarian (Rousseau, 1762 p. 1).
Rousseau’s social contract According to Rousseau, people are denied freedom, which is their birthright. He therefore believed that for considerable freedom to be exercised in any given society, it requires a legitimate government or political authority. Moreover, this authority must be attained through social contract. It is also quite important to note that the social contract must be accepted by all residents for mutual protection.
In this regard, he defines sovereign as a collective grouping of all individuals of a political society and maintains that it should be taken like an individual. In this sense, as far as an individual has a particular aim or goal in life for his or her best interest, a political society or sovereign have a general will that aims or fights for a common goal. Therefore, as much as the sovereign is absolute in its authority, it also has authority on issues of public interest or concern. In conclusion, Rousseau’s verdict to those who violate social contract is death.
According to Rousseau, an alien lawgiver is mandated with the responsibility of creating abstract as well as general laws. Moreover, it is in these laws that the general will is clearly expressed. In addition, he alludes to the fact that a government is required to perform executive duties along with sovereign in exercising legislative powers. The government is therefore mandated with the responsibility of running day-to-day activities in society. There are several forms of governments namely, monarchy, democracy and aristocracy, among others.
However, the form of government lies heavily on its size. For instance, monarchy is considered as the strongest of all forms of government. Moreover, according to Rousseau, it serves the largest population and is suited for hot climates. He also argues that aristocracies are the best form of government and usually more stable than the rest.
Rousseau also maintains those sovereigns is always distinct from government and therefore are always in constant friction. In this regard, this friction has the propensity of destroying a state. It is therefore important that the state remains healthy for stability and longer reign, which may last centuries.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rousseau continues by pointing out that citizens implement their sovereignty through periodic and regular meetings. It is quite important to note that rarely does everyone attend these meetings; however, this is necessary for a healthy state. He also insists that use of representatives in these meetings endangers well being of a state especially since the general will cannot be heard.
In essence, he thinks that citizens should note vote for their personal needs, rather they should do so in the interest of general will. Furthermore, results attained from these votes ought to approach unanimity. This is where the rule of supermajority links as it ensures that the general will is heard. Rousseau uses an example of Roman republic to sink his view of social contract and the concept of general will.
Social Contract can thus be defines as an agreement that enables an individual to join a civil society. It therefore binds that individual into society or community that exists in the interest of communal protection. In this respect, such individuals loose the right to do whatever they want albeit they get civil freedom, which allows them to act and think morally and rationally. Therefore, Rousseau maintains that we can achieve human status by going into social contract (Schwartzberg, 2008, p. 403-423).
The general Will Rousseau uses the concept of general will to assert his argument on a legitimate political society. He believes that a general will can only be achieved through inclusion of all members of society. This is contradictory to the current practices where representatives are elected to vote on behalf of citizens. He believes that this form of law making is contradictory to the needs of a people and therefore acts to serve personal needs and not the general will.
In this regard, he defines general will, as that will of sovereign, which aims at achieving a common good even though each member of a society is known to have his/her will. This is not expressed in the general will. In fact, general will express the will of a state, which covers everyone.
No wonder, he insists that everyone should be involved in such decisions since representatives may at times forward their own personal interests as is witnessed all over the world’s democracies. The general will is thus described as will of all, which can refer to the sum total of individual will.
However, this is only possible in a healthy state. In a state experiencing friction between sovereign and government, the general will differs from will of all. This is mainly because what is known to be general will, may sometimes be infiltrated by personal interests at the highest levels. This causes jittery and animosity between sovereign and government and may lead to fall of a state. General will is therefore very important and must concur with will of all, in order to achieve a healthy state (Schwartzberg, 2008, p. 403-423).
We will write a custom Essay on Assess the view that Rousseau’s social contract is totalitarian specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Democracy There are several forms of governments in the contemporary world. These include democracy, aristocracy, and monarchy, among others. According to Rousseau, the form of government depends on its size. For example, monarchy is considered as strongest of all the various forms of government.
Furthermore, he maintains that Monarchy serves the largest population and is suitable for hot climates. In addition, Rousseau argues that aristocracies are the best form of government, which last for centuries. Rousseau faults modern democracies for demeaning their subjects and sovereign. For instance, modern democracies have representatives that are supposed to enact laws on behalf of citizens. However, this is not entirely true.
In fact, while some legislators go for their own interests, other push for ideologies over and above what their constituents want. This has caused jittery and acrimony in most countries with continual replacement of representatives during elections. Nonetheless, it continues to haunt them, as the trend of presenting personal thoughts continues.
Rousseau tries to determine the possibility of achieving freedom, as it should be and not in its present form where self interest takeover power and utilize it, as they want. In fact, it is for this reason that he goes for concurrence between the general will and will of all.
However, current democracies do not offer such provisions. In fact, they claim that Rousseau’s theories are impracticable in modern world and require an ideal world that can heed to most people’s wants. In essence, as much as democracy tries to achieve concurrence in issues and freedom, it fails to reach its minimum threshold in Rousseau’s view (Estlund, Waldron, Grofman