This proposal to the patron shows a brief of some of the objectives, challenges and benefits of navigating the waters near the coast of Africa. The continent promises large amounts of potential, thus exploring and possibly ruling over the land may be of considerable prestige and honor as well as a benefit to his majesty the king. It is wise to highlight some of the major aspects of the trip.
This will show the details to the possibilities that are available to have a successful journey. His majesty Prince Henry has set the pace for this “Age of Discovery” (Ennals, 2007), and we as loyal servants and workmanship are ready to go beyond the known borders of our Portuguese kingdom, in orders to discover what our gracious Lord made on this world.
Specifically, I intend to lay out some of the technological barriers that we are going to overcome as we travel. Some new technological discoveries have made this happen, giving the travelers an easier moment as they gear up to venture unknown lands. At the same time, we do realize that there are some political and cultural challenges that we will have to overcome before, during and after the expedition in Africa.
This proposal also seeks to address the economic ramifications of the whole voyage. I hope that it will be convincing enough and that it will give a clear guideline to the importance of the excursion.
Travellers who use the sea will always be at the mercy of the raging waters. In our case, we are to travel round through the eastern sea route that lies south of the Mediterranean Sea, which brings about a few issues (O’Connor, 1995). The route is relatively new to us, and we will be in need of guiding aid.
Losing our direction in unknown waters is the main technical challenge that we will have to work our way around. The other challenge that arises is the ability to travel fast. The reason why we need to travel at a fast pace is because it will save us on resources. This will require a system that will assist us in using the eight winds to optimum capacity.
In order for the expedition team to know the direction to a finer detail, the development laboratory has come up with advancements of some of our rudimentary navigational tools. One of these tools is the known magnetic compass. Since the crew has knowledge of where the magnetic north is, it is going to be easier to navigate our way out of a situation. In addition to this, we are going to employ the use of the lead line.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This instrument measures the depth of the sea relative to some markings on the lead line (Burke, 2007). Combining the two instruments will give more guided information about our position in the sea. Our challenge in knowing the direction will also be overcome if we will use the cross staff and the astrolabe.
These are instruments that when used together will give us the latitude that we are travelling in relative to the position of the sun. Rudimentary navigational tools have made previous travelling expeditions a disaster. For example, the clocks used are inefficient since they lose up to 10 minutes a day, translating to more than 150miles lost in the sea.
The speed at which the ship will travel will also be a determining factor while considering our safety, our load and the general planning of our exploration.
For us to overcome the technicalities of speed, we will have to employ the use of caravels, which are faster, safer and contain wind sails and rope tying methods that are appropriately placed in order to maximize the effect of prevailing winds. The towers on the bows and sterns of the caravel will optimize the wind capacity.
As much as we are going to face all these challenges while travelling the western waters of Africa, we must focus on some of the economic benefits that we as a kingdom gain from such an expedition. As we know, this massive piece of land can be of use if some valuable minerals are present.
Since we have the capacity of searching for locating and excavating some of the minerals like gold iron ore, copper and silver, the team will bring back to the kingdom some of these possessions. The amount of supplies we will get will be beneficial to our kingdom.
In addition, we may have the capability of conquering the land there; especially if the residents of the land are not as equipped as we are. First, the team will interact with the environment, and understand the behavioral patterns of the natives of the land.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Sailing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If, in any case, there is a reason to make a conquest in the land, we shall sermon our motherland, informing it of the possibilities thereof.
Trading is also another way in which our people can benefit economically. Portugal is rich in technological advancement and heavy equipment, which is useful to the natives of Africa. In the past, we have had trouble in doing our trade with other communities since we had to deal with the Muslim intermediaries (Watson, 2009).
Having new conquest or discovering new lands means that the kingdom will discover a broader market for its traders. Trading partners in the Far East need the assistance of Arab intermediaries in order to complete their business with us. This poses a challenge to us since intermediaries interfere with relationship between consumer and producer.
In addition, trade becomes more expensive. The best way out is to find another route besides inland caravan distribution. The exploration that we are about to undertake has a high chance of providing this route for us.
We shall also benefit from the slave trade. The human resource necessary to run many of the affairs of the colony and the motherland will be of enormous use. After discovering and interacting with the natives, we will find out whether there is a system of trading slaves. If there is none, we will have the option of sparking conflict amongst the natives, or even conquering the land itself.
We shall do so by initiating the trade of firearms for goods that are of value to us. The natives shall destabilize since they will be living in fear of the neighboring communities. This way, it will be easy to subdue the few powerful strongholds, which rise against other people.
Slaves will be of use as human resource, since they will work with minimum wages or no pay at all. This reduces the kingdom’s expenditure while increasing the work force needed to accomplish some of the tasks done. Prisoners of war will be our slaves, and we shall ship them back in large numbers to commission them for their various activities.
Another way in which this exploration will benefit the economic state of Portugal is through amassing vast chunks of land, through conquering nations. If we get to subject nations under our authority, it will be easy to impose certain rules on them.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sailing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More We shall have a taxing system whereby these nations will have to pay taxes to Portugal in order to run their activities. Certain trusted men who are aware of the activities of these conquests shall stand as governors over these lands, and will coordinate these activities on behalf of Portugal.
The expedition is expensive. Nevertheless, anyone can agree that Portugal will gain positively form venturing these new lands. Nations shall respect and fear ours since the economic turnover is astounding. The long-term economic benefits nullify any prospects of the journey taking up too much resource from the motherland.
The expedition also seeks to confirm or even challenge some of the political and cultural norms that we have held on to for some time. There has been a belief that the earth-water ratio of the world is not as it seems. There are scientists in our time who have reason to believe that there is more land mass than waster mass.
We as a crew will want to challenge that line of thought by exploring how far our south Mediterranean waters reach. This is the only way we can prove the authenticity of this theory. There is also a belief that the earth is round, unlike the understanding that so many of us have.
The trip will also help us understand some of the geographic features of the earth, giving concrete proof as to whether or not this theory is true. Some certain factors will confirm this theory as true to us.
Our political stability as a nation is highly determined by our numbers against the fast growing Muslim nations. They pose a formidable threat to us as a Christian kingdom. If they increase their numbers through their conquests, we shall be weak against them.
One of our greatest gambles lays largely with the speculation of a Christian kingdom in Africa. As we all are aware of, there is a rumor that there might be a mythical kingdom run by a Christian called Prester John somewhere in Africa (Heng, 2003). This, if confirmed true, might be positive news for our kingdom.
It is politically strategic for us to gain more ground than our competitors or our enemies do since it places us at a position of command and respect. This position gives the kingdom the much-needed stability that it requires since the nations around will fear us.
The East Mediterranean area is currently under Muslim control. This seems to be the only route to the market in the Far East, yet they having this control interfere with our trade.
As speculated, the exploration is expensive. Since we are venturing grounds that we are not aware about, we may have to take precautionary measures, some of which may amount to heavy costs. We will have to employ the latest in our technology and use the best people in the land as human resource.
We have to take risks beyond our imagination, exposing ourselves to the harsh climates that are full of deadly diseases, only to achieve some of these goals.
Nevertheless, we have one focus in mind. We want to secure the future of our magnificent land. The input we make at this time will result in a secure future for our children. This is the reason why we are investing large amounts of time, money and technological resource into this excursion. If we do not do this, the Muslims will do it as they have already done in the northern area Africa.
Reference List Burke, J., (2007). Pete Culler on Wooden Boats: The Master Craftsman’s Collected Teachings. Chicago, IL:McGraw Hill Professional.
Ennals, J., R., (2007). From Slavery to Citizenship. Third Avenue, NY: John Wiley and Sons.
Heng, G., (2003). Empire of magic: medieval romance and the politics of cultural fantasy. New York, NY:Columbia University Press.
O’Connor, T., H., (1995). America is. Riverside, NJ: Glencoe.
Watson, A., (2009). The evolution of international society: a comparative historical analysis. Routledge, USA: Taylor
Create a 2 page newsletter for parents/guardians of your preschool classroom. In the first part, you will welcome them to best college essay help: best college essay help
Create a 2 page newsletter for parents/guardians of your preschool classroom. In the first part, you will welcome them to your class and invite them to become part of the learning experience. You may create special events or simply identify opportunities during the school day where they may participate. The second part of your newsletter will contain information on local resources and services that families may need or find helpful. Helping families connect to the community can further increase student success. Include resources that can be found in your area. · Be creative and make your letter visually engaging – use color and pictures · Use a newsletter format · Identify 5 different ways that parents can become involved in your classroom and describe each opportunity. Be sure to include a wide variety of ways parents can participate.. · Identify 5 different resources and services available to help families in the community. Briefly describe each service as well as provide pertinent contact information.
Fawville Public Library Efficient Director Coursework custom essay help
Table of Contents Defining the problem
Generating Alternative Solutions
Taking Action and Following Up
Defining the problem The key problem identified in this case is the inability of Fawville Public Library trustees to find a person who would be act as an efficient director of this organization. At the moment, they have already tried several candidates: one of them, Sam Grillo, proved to be entirely unsuitable for this position partly due to his character and partly due to his lack of managerial skills (Anderson, n. d. unpaged).
At this point, the members of the staff are acting on their own since there is no one to fill the vacancy of director. Trustees believe that such a situation is hardly permissible as because this organization is entirely deprived of leadership. It serves the needs of 14.000 people, and if the trustees to find a good candidate, it will fail to perform this task.
Causes In order to solve this problem, one should first understand why no one except Sam Grillo applied to this job and why the interviewers found him suitable for this job. To some extent, this issue can be explained by the external factors. First, Fawville is a relatively small town and this place attracted Sam Grillo because he associated it with “peace and quiet” (Anderson, n. d. unpaged).
However, a more ambitious person might have argued that this job does not offer any promotion opportunities. The second reason is inadequate compensation offered to the candidates. Judging from the case, the salary offered by the trustees could have suited only a very undemanding person. As it has been mentioned in the case study, a person, who has to sustain family, will not be interested in this position (Anderson, n. d. unpaged).
Furthermore, we should take into consideration that people who accepted the candidacy of Sam Grillo, did not know very much about the competencies and skills which a library director has to possess. This person must be able to act as administrator who organizes the work of employees and as a leader who brings innovation and change in the organization.
He/she must be skilled in information technologies, HR management, performance assessment and many other areas (D’Andraia, 1997, p 52; Stueart
Tesco: Case Study scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction The company, Tesco Plc, must prioritise its activities, decision, and other factors to resolve the effects of the current economic depression on the company with the resolve to avoid such pitfalls. Tesco Plc’s crisis management and communication management policy includes on maximizing the significant variables in generating revenue-generating balance scorecard recommendations.
The study focuses on the supply chain aspect of profitably resolving the current economic depression crisis affecting the United Kingdom grocery chain market segment. Tesco Plc’s crisis management and crisis communication includes the implementation of a customer-based supply chain crisis management delivery system that retains and increases the current accounting period’s revenues and profits.
Tesco Plc’s crisis management and crisis communication process must continue prioritising the most effective solution to the many factors propping up the current economic depression on the company’s maintenance and increase of its current revenues and profits. Company Profile Tesco PLC (or “Tesco”) is an international retailer.
Tesco Plc’s implementation of the company’s crisis management policies is very effective. The company is currently plagued by economic depression-based issues. The crisis management is tasked to innovatively create strategic plans to increase its decline revenues. The economic depression of 2009 continues to hover over the United Kingdom skies.
The Tesco crisis management issues communications to all interested parties reassuring everyone the innovative company crisis management and crisis communication policies are being implemented to retain and increase the company’s current profit ratios and prevent the company’s slow pull into the bottomless abyss of unprofitability (bankruptcy).
Tesco management correctly strives resolve all hindrances to its return to its former glory in terms of revenues and profits.
Tesco Plc’s implementation of the company’s crisis management policies is very effective. The company is currently plagued by economic depression-based issues. The crisis management is tasked to innovatively create strategic plans to increase its decline revenues. The economic depression of 2009 continues to hover over the United Kingdom skies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Tesco crisis management issues communications to all interested parties reassuring everyone the innovative company crisis management and crisis communication policies are being implemented to retain and increase the company’s current profit ratios and prevent the company’s slow pull into the bottomless abyss of unprofitability (bankruptcy).
Tesco management correctly strives resolve all hindrances to its return to its former glory in terms of revenues and profits.
The current economic crisis continuously triggers a relentless decline in the demand for the company’s products and services. The economic crisis started in 2009 within the United States. As a United States business partner, the United States economic crisis extended its outstretched arms towards the United Kingdom businesses.
Many United Kingdom businesses sold their products and services to the clients living within the United States. Thus, the United States depression created a decline in the demand for United Kingdom products. To increase its revenues, management focused on its biggest price-based advertising and promotion campaign within the past ten years.
ASDA’s advertising campaign to earmark 250,000 in prices triggered an increase in ASDA’s revenues. Being one of the major competitors of ASDA, Tesco realized that the ASDA advertising campaign may trigger the transfer of many of Tesco’s current and prospective clients to ASDA branch stores.
To resolve the profit decline crises, Tesco management rightfully focuses on first gathering crisis –related financial, economic, and other profit- related analytical data. The analytical data includes PESTLE analysis, SWOT analysis, and Porter’s five forces discussion.
Further, Brenda Sternquist (1994) reiterated the retailing market segments in the United States as well as in Western Europe, Japan, as well as in Australia have become highly mature and sophisticated. Many new retail marketing formats, techniques, and systems have emerged in the past 20 years and have significantly enhanced the nature and character of modern retailing.
We will write a custom Essay on Tesco: Case Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Older retailing procedures that include the presence of department stores and supermarkets have reached a stage of modernization and maturity and are today tackling the formidable competition from a new category of retailers classified as “category killers.”
The popular specialty warehouse outlets include competitors like IKEA and Toys R Us, membership clubs such as Costco and Pace, specialty niche retailers, off-price retailers and electronic home shopping.
There is no single variable that can probably explain the remarkable metamorphosis of the United Kingdom retail industry. A series of environmental factors — consumer affluence, new lifestyles, work culture, and technological advances – continue to affect the complexion of world retail industry.
The implementation of computerized data processing systems has helped retailing in many areas — site selection, merchandise planning, and inventory management. It has metamorphosed a retail operation into an automated system of consumer needs management.
In addition, some of the significant outcomes of these developments is what may be coined the internationalization of retailing. Markets are today being globalized. Parallel consumer profiles are emerging in all parts of the world, though in varying degrees.
Just as a new product idea gets parallel acceptance and becomes marketable in several social classes, just like the recent retail market segment theories do new retailing concepts. Innovative retail formats are finding their way into all parts of the world irrespective of disparities in income, culture, and political system.
One can find Benetton in Bombay, Warsaw, and New York. IKEA furniture outlets have created their network all over the world from Europe to North America, from the Middle East all the way to Australia.
Socio Economic Factor Tesco hires employees from communities where each Tesco retail outlet is strategically located; the company aids to government in reducing unemployment rate (Taylor, 2007).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Tesco: Case Study by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Economic Factor In terms of company’s significant macroeconomic situation, the current financial crisis during the past few years precipitated from the current economic recession enveloping the United Kingdom and other parts of the world.
Further, David Giibs (Gibbs 2002) emphasized in recent years the aspect of changing the current environmental change has become a major key area of debate. There is an increasing concern that the consequences of industrialisation are increasingly negative and that action needs to be taken to remedy this.
Although there is no absolute consensus that major environmental changes are occurring (see, for example, the stalwart pressures brought to bear on the US President in the run up to the Kyoto climate change summit in 1997 by representatives of the cars and automobile, steel and oil industries), there is a broad agreement that these changes are in train and that some form of response is needed.
David Gibbs proposed this agreement breaks down is in the form of the appropriate response to environmental change. There are many wide diversity of opinion here from deep green ecologists who require a wholesale restructuring of society, through to some economists who believe that market instruments are capable of restoring the ‘environmental equilibrium’ and that the basic socio –economic target forms can remain intact.
On the other hand, the increased influx of immigrants from European countries under the European Union charter increases the demand for Tesco Company’s grocery and other related products and services (Czinkota, 2006).
Technological In line with Tesco’s crisis management and crisis communication process, the company uses an online website, https://www.tesco.com/, to spread the many advantages of shopping at the nearest Tesco branch within the United Kingdom. The website displays some of the company’s major grocery products. Clients can make an order by emailing the company.
Payments can be down through PayPal, credit card, or other modes. With the advent of the internet, Tesco is currently reaping the laurels of the one borderless world economy through increased online sales of its products and services (Czinkota, 2007).
The Tesco Company pays each subordinate the minimum daily allowable by United Kingdom and other related laws. The company complies with all tax and other statues implemented in communities where each Tesco Company retail outlet is located (Baumueller, 2007).
Profitability of the U.K. Retail Market Segment Rosemary Varley (2001) reiterated profitability is compulsory if a retail business is to survive, but achieving profitability is a complex task, given the variety of transactions that take place within the retail arena. Profitability is a short term, a medium term and a long term issue.
For example, in the short term enough profits have to be generated on the sales of items to cover the costs of buying in the product; and in the medium term, enough profit has to be generated to pay the costs of running the business (rent, staffing costs, distribution costs and so on); but in order to develop the business a further chunk of profits will need to be set aside for reinvestment, for example, into an additional or larger outlet.
Eventually, there are two methods of increasing retail profitability; one is to increase the profit margins made on the products that are sold, and the other is to reduce the costs involved with selling the products. Chapter two outlined the role of the buyer and merchandiser who, in a traditional organisational structure, share the responsibility for profitability management within the department.
In some organizations, the merchandiser takes on the bulk of profitability issues, such as managing margins and price reductions, however the person who negotiates cost prices with suppliers will also make a significant impact on departmental profitability.
Trade-offs between product features and prices will be the selector’s concern. The role of the category manager, discussed in chapter three, puts a great emphasis on profitability in the guise of efficiency improvements, throughout the efficient consumer response.
U.K. Geography Hugh Matthews (2000) the key changes in the United Kingdom geography of leisure are introduced and outlined. In the last decade or so there have been significant changes in terms of the location of key types of leisure which have had dramatic impacts on city and country alike. These changes have been both physical and visual affecting the fabric and land-use of cities and countryside.
Certain kinds of leisure that two decades ago were in one kind of location in the UNITED KINGDOM’ now occupy very different locations. In addition there have been important changes in the ‘symbolic landscape’ of city and country. For example, the countryside has hitherto been regarded as a place of peace and quiet, a location for gentle leisure activity that is also small scale.
Current updates have reshaped the countryside in very significant ways, changing what we imagine the countryside to be. There have also been changes in the symbolism of cities, most notably in the revamping of many inner-city districts in response to new investment and demand for dance and music clubs, with zones of decline being transformed into symbols of new youth culture.
This review of changes in the geography of leisure in the United Kingdom makes particular reference to the process called consumption, which will be more fully explained in a later section (pp. 268-71). Here, suffice it to say, leisure has become much more commercialised during recent years and this has led to new patterns and locations of leisure development and activity.
The attraction of the United Kingdom leisure sites, in terms of global tourism, is an important influence on the kinds of places and sites that have been developed. Tourism and leisure overlap as activities and many attractions are valued for both.
Environmental The company does not throw its waste products into the crystal clear waters located near its display stores. With the current climate change issues, Tesco can reduce transportation delivery schedules to reduce Tesco’s vehicle pollution activity.
U.K. Retail Market Segment Demography Hugh Matthews (2000) theorized the United Kingdom demography provides an important backcloth to the developments taking place in the United Kingdom, but it is neither unchanging in its nature nor neutral in its effects.
The term is used here to refer to the size, distribution and composition of the population and the patterns of life-course events which maintain or alter these, notably the three basic components of change in population numbers (births, deaths and migration), but also the many factors that affect household formation and family building.
The demography of the United Kingdom’ has undergone some major changes over the past three decades, including greater longevity, lower fertility, higher divorce rate, accelerating cohabitation, later marriage and childbearing, increasing lone parenthood, larger numbers living alone, a fluctuating migration from the busy large cities, a switch from net emigration to substantial international migration gain and the increase in the number of persons belonging to the United Kingdom’s non-white population.
Each of these raises policy issues for society, most of them immediate and obvious in their implications but some with major long-term impacts such as the continuing passage of the 1960s/1970s baby boom and bust through the age structure.
Market Structure The grocery retail chain in the United Kingdom is focuses on serving the basic needs of clients. The three major players are Tesco Sainsbury, and ASDA.
The laissez faire economic environment influences the Grocery market segment. Ash Amin (2002) emphasized A central role that the local United Kingdom directory social economy is expected to play is that of creating new forms of employment in excluded communities. The European Commission (EC), for example, has identified nineteen fields of activity on the basis of which it has proclaimed an ‘Era of Tailor Made Jobs’ (CEC 1998a).
The other centre-right national governments for whom the local social economy offers the promise of ‘bottom-up’ regeneration with new sources of employment flowing from the conversion of ‘needs into markets’. The special hot economy organisations normally contribute to employment outcomes fall into two main categories: direct employers and labour market intermediaries.
The direct employers are expected to create jobs by exploiting new areas of anticipated growth. These include, for example, environmental schemes as a basis for socially useful employment
Each competitor influences the other competitors’ revenues and selling prices. The retail grocery chain market segment is giving its best to attract as many U.K. clients as possible. The company advertises its products in and sets up shops to reach current and future clients (Palmer, 2004).
In addition, Alfred Marcus reiterated (Marcus 1984) brainstorming and t mere discussions about regulatory changes involve fundamental questions about the power of the federal government and its relation to the private sector. An increase in federal authority over business and as well as the imposition or assertion of business power are among the most notable changes in business-government relations in recent years.
To date, the analyses of some regulatory changes has often been limited to obvious indicators–readily available statistics on the number of employees and the budgets of regulatory agencies, the cost of regulation to the private sector, and the number of agencies and regulatory enactments.
The effectiveness of the sales owners’ implementation of the new motives or usefulness of the measures, however, is limited in considering governmental activity and its impacts, as several crucial and interesting questions are tainted with tour political in nature. This chapter criticizes conventional measures and develops a political viewpoint on the topic of regulatory changes.
Conclusion Based on the above discussion, crisis management and crisis communication focuses on resolving the effect of the current economic depression on the company’s retention and increase of its revenues. Tesco Plc’s business organisation maximises many scarce but significant variables in generating balance scorecard recommendations.
For example, the financial statement ratio data shows Tesco gets a high passing grade for maximizing its assets to generate profits. To eliminate the crisis, Tesco Plc advertises the many benefits of its grocery brands. Next, Tesco Plc implements a customer based supply chain crisis management delivery system to increase revenues by increasing grocery inventory.
The company’s balanced scorecard indicates the company successfully resolved its major crisis issue, decline revenues, by maximising its scarce resource. The company continues to generate net profits for 2008 and 2009 alone from satisfied clients. The current favourable financial success must be continued by offering high quality products at the same affordable Tesco- style shelf prices.
In terms of the balanced scorecard’s customer crisis management and crisis communication aspect, the company correctly continues its current strategic direction of advertising the company’s picturesque image as the best client-based retail store over the next ten years.
To the other stakeholders, including the 2008 and 2009 Tesco income statement’s net income data as part of the crisis to support solutions to persuade the stockholders, suppliers, customers showing the company generated profits to persuade the stakeholders the company will be able to increase its revenues within the next five years.
The income statement indicates Tesco sold more than enough products and services to cover its daily store operating expenses. Definitely, the crisis communication correspondences will include audited income statements showing profitable sales figures for 2008 and 2009.
The advertisements will show that the company is slowly regaining its former lead in the United Kingdom grocery market segment by filling the discriminating needs of the local clients.
In terms of the balanced scorecard’s internal business crisis management and crisis communication process, Tesco management must continue its current strategic direction of improving the company’s current high quality supply chain strategy over the next ten years.
The Tesco Company’s internal business process balanced scorecard status indicates the company has a passing grade; the company offers high quality grocery and other related products and services at acceptable prices, Consequently, Tesco has a huge chunk of the Retail industry.
In terms of the balanced scorecard’s learning and growth crisis management and crisis The surveys will serve as starting point to enhance the Tesco currently economic depression crisis management and crisis communication process in terms of retaining the company’s brand image, service quality, and grocery customer loyalty.
Lastly, Tesco Plc must innovatively implement crisis management and crisis communication strategies to remove the current economic depression that incorporate the recording and avoiding actions, activities, and other factors that will precipitate to the decline in the company’s current revenues and net profit figures.
Indeed, Tesco was able to resolve its key issues of generating revenues and profits by managing (maximizing) its scarce but significant resources fully.
References Amin, A. Placing the Social Economy. London: Routledge Press, 2002.
Baumueller, M., (2007) Managing Cultural Diversity. London, Lang Press.
Gibbs, D. Local Economic Development and the Environment. London: Routledge Press, 2002.
Marcus, A. The Adversary Economy. London: Quorum Books, 1984.
Matthews, H. The Changing Geography of the United Kingdom. London: Routledge Press, 2000.
Sternquist, B. European Retailing’s Vanishing Borders. London: Quorum Press, 1994.
Varley, R. Retail Product Management. London: Routledge Press, 2001.
Czinkota, S., (2006) International Marketing. London, Wiley
Draw an EER diagram for the following problem using this textbook’s notation. [Note from Beckman: the textbook notation is what we used in class; do not use the “Visio” notation or the “subtypes insi argumentative essay help
[Note from Beckman: the textbook notation is what we used in class; do not use the “Visio” notation or the “subtypes inside supertypes” notation.]
A nonprofit organization depends on various distinct types of persons for its successful operation. The organization is interested in the following attributes for all these persons: SSN, Name, Address, City/State/Zip, and Telephone. Three types of persons are of the greatest interest: employees, volunteers, and donors. Employees have only a Date Hired attribute, and volunteers have only a Skill attribute. Donors have only a relationship (named Donates) with an Item entity type. A donor must have donated one or more items, and an item may have no donors or one or more donors.
There are persons other than employees, volunteers, and donors who are of interest to the organization so that a person need not belong to any of these three groups. On the other hand, at a given time a person may belong to two or more of these groups (e.g., employee and donor).
Has The Image Of The United States Become Negative? Argumentative Essay argumentative essay help
Money and power are among the main yardsticks which success in life is measured today. America has come to be known as the “land of opportunities” because it gives people an equal chance to prosper regardless of their social economic and political background. Americans have always been proud of their status and country. However, the United States is no longer regarded in high esteem as was the case a few years ago and many countries now view it in a negative way.
Americans are no longer as proud of their country because they have to struggle with the harsh economic conditions, compared with their counterparts in Europe. The line between the “American Dream” and capitalism is very thin and for this reason Americans have always known that through hard work they can become successful.
Although there are many ways to define success power and money are two of the generally accepted measures of success (World Public Opinion, 2007). The United States is supposed to be a country where everybody can attain the American dream through hard work and ingenuity regardless of their socioeconomic background. However in the last 30 years, the American dream has turned into the American nightmare. This is because the economy has not been doing very well, meaning that jobs are hard to come by.
An opinion poll that was conducted by the Pew Research Center revealed that many of the countries surveyed still dislike the United States. In addition, not many countries view Americans positively (Pew Research Center, 2007). The negative image of the United States and its people is so great that even the most popular policies in the country cannot repair it fully.
Majority of the traditional allies of America have an unfavorable opinion about the country and its people, with Canada and Great Britain as the only exceptions. According to the survey conducted by the Pew Research Center, China is gaining more popularity compared with the United States because of its constant economic growth, even in the face of the recent global financial crisis.
On the other hand, the economic growth of China has elicited mixed reactions with the pluralists and majorities in Spain and France arguing that the economic growth of China would impact negatively on their respective countries.
In spite of the recent negative views of the American people and their country, majority of the Western countries who took part in the survey associate Americans with such positive characteristics as “inventive”, “honest” and hardworking (Pew Research Center, 2007). On the other hand, a big number of the participants also associate the Americans with such negative characteristics “violent” and “greedy”.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More GlobeScan and BBC World Service commissioned a poll that was conducted by World Public Opinion in 26 countries to determine if the United States has impacted on the world negatively or positively. Of the 26 countries that took part in the poll, “30 percent say the US is having a mostly positive influence in the world while 51 percent say the US is having a mostly negative influence” (World Public Opinion, 2007).
In addition, 20 of the countries that took part in the survey had a negative view about the United States. Only four countries were of the opinion that the United States has impacted on the world positively. On the other hand, two of the countries had evenly divided views over the issue.
Many researchers have focused on the existing cross-country differences with regard to their subjective well-being. Many of these students have tried to compare the United States with Europe and in this case the United States seems to rank lower in regard to levels of satisfaction compared with countries in Europe, who have lesser per capita incomes. For example, because there is a great deal of mobility in the United States, Americans manifest a mild distaste for inequality compared to their counterparts in Europe.
In the last couple of years, trends in the well-being of Americans have declined tremendously and as a result, the incomes of most Americans have reduced (Wessle, 2005). Jobs in America are to come by and the available ones do not pay as much and as such, Americans can no longer enjoy life like they once did. As a result, most Americans have not changed their view about their country and they no longer see it as a land of opportunity.
Although Americans are thought to be extremely upwardly mobile, in reality, this is more complicated that we might imagine. Since 1970 the gap between the poor and the rich has increased tremendously and as a result, it remains exceedingly hard for a child born in poverty for example, to attain wealth and power.
Even with affirmative action social change in the community and increased opportunities for education, the economy is still not doing well, and this means that the upward mobility of Americans is limited. Already Americans are slowly realizing that their country is no longer a place for exceptional opportunity because they are faced with daily struggles.
Through years of research scholars and researchers have come to the realization that contrary to what they thought, the American society is less mobile. During the late 1980s, economists conducted numerous studies that revealed that children in America now only get a limited amount advantage that was the case years ago. Again this is proof that modern day America is very different from that of the 1960s.
We will write a custom Essay on Has The Image Of The United States Become Negative? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A report by Globalscan notes that “within Europe there has been a hardening of negative attitudes toward America compared to a year ago” (Globalscan n. d.). In France, negative views about the United States increased from 54 % to 65 %, according to the poll, while in Great Britain, the negative views increased from 50% to 57%. On the other hand, 46% of pluralists Italians view the United States and the Americans negatively.
This is in comparison with 2004, when only 40 percent of the respondent had a negative view of the Americans and America. The Chinese have also increased their negative view of the Americans (from 42% to 62 %), as well as the Brazilians (whose negative view of the Americans has increased dramatically from 51% to 60 %).
America was once regarded as the land of opportunities because anybody could enjoy increased social status regardless of their social, economic, and political background. However, this is no longer the case, seeing that the country’s social and economic structures are no longer as robust as they once were. Consequently, Americans now have a negative view about their country, while other countries in the world also are increasingly viewing Americans and America in a negative way.
Reference List Globalscan. BBC poll: attitude towards countries. Web.
Pew Research Center. (2007). America’s Image in the World: Findings from the Pew Global Attitudes Project. Web.
Wessle, D. (2005). Escalator Ride As Rich-Poor Gap Widens in the U.S., Class Mobility Stalls. Web.
World Public Opinion. (2007). America’s image in the world. Web.
History of Quality Management: Riyad Bank Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Selection and placement
Training and development
Performance management and CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility)
Recommendations and Conclusion
Introduction Quality management is a vital process in a firm, an organization or a business entity that will either accrue success or will deem the institution a failure. In relations to this, It is very important to take keen note of the selection, recruitment and employment of the people who are to work in the institution (Boxall,
Economics and Immigration Research Paper essay help online free
Introduction Migration of labor has already become an essential element of the global economic reality. Globalization, communication, transport, and opening borders facilitate the transfer of workforce from one part of the world to another. The United States has always been the world’s most attractive immigration target; and most studies were focused on the effects of immigration on the economic, social, and labor processes in the U.S.1 The effects of immigration on other countries, including Japan, were persistently overlooked. Given the growing inflow of foreign workers to Japan, their effects on wages and career prospects need to be better understood.
The main question to consider is why in the Japanese macroeconomic contexts, where the majority of foreign workers are limited to unskilled jobs, the skills and qualifications they develop over time have little effects on their economic and career advancement.
Economic advancement of immigrants as the function of wages Wages as the key indicator of immigrants’ economic integration
Japan is believed to be one of the “recently” immigrant countries.2 In the article on human capital, wages, and immigration to Japan Takeyuki Tsuda discusses the effects of immigrant skills on their wage prospects and career advancement. Tsuda believes that the level of wages is the central indicator of immigrants’ economic integration in Japan.3
This is mainly because immigrants bring their human and social skills to the host country, and the level of earnings they obtain in return reflects the degree to which these skills are accepted and used by the host society.4 It is no wonder that changes in wages and earnings are at the heart of the economic debate concerning the patterns of immigration to Japan.
The role of human capital in wage earnings
Human capital theories have long been at the center of the immigration debate. Human capital, or skills, is believed to be the main factor of professional and career growth among immigrants. Tsuda writes that the human capital construct encompasses individual skills, education and qualifications, and experiences.5
Previous studies of immigration to the United States showed that human capital determinants were the principal drivers of immigrants’ economic advancement in the host country.6 These findings reflect and build on traditional models of wage determination, in which human capital accumulation drives the subsequent growth in wages.7
However, Japan differs greatly from other countries of the world. Its immigration and macroeconomic contexts reduce the validity of traditional economic theories and models. It is possible to assume that skills, qualifications and experiences of immigrants to Japan play a minor role in their economic and professional advancement. Tsuda’s article and additional analysis will answer the following question: does human capital matter in immigrants’ economic and career advancement in Japan?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Macroeconomic contexts and immigration patterns in Japan Migrant workers in Japan: Statistical and pattern analysis
In 2002, a total of 1,851,758 foreign residents were registered in Japan.8 61.5% of them were temporary residents.9 A defeated nation, after WWII Japan did not introduce any foreign labor policies, as its rural territories exemplified an ample source of productive labor force.10
It was not until the middle of the 1980s that Japan faced the growing inflow of foreign labor force.11 Since the inception of the first immigration policies in Japan, all incoming workers were classified as either professional or unskilled.12
At the end of 2002, Japan had an estimated 554,200 unskilled workers registered and actually working.13 Estimating the number of illegal foreigners working in Japan does not seem possible, but the results of statistical analyses suggest that the number of unskilled immigrants coming to Japan constantly increases.
One of the main reasons why more immigrants come to Japan is because native working age population rapidly declines. Following the global recession of 2008-09, Japan slowly expands the pool of foreign labor force in the country.
The official data provided by the Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training suggest that the number of immigrants coming to Japan slowly but steadily increases. However, the current economic and social environment in Japan does not favor immigration.
Table 1: Changes in the number and percentage of native workers in Japan
1980 1990 2000 2005 2010 2025 2050 Working age population, 15-64 years old (thousands) 78,689 85,875 86,365 84,487 81,572 71,652 51,790 Working age population, 15-54 years old (proportion among the total population, %) 67.4 69.7 68.2 66.3 64.2 59.3 50.9 Source: The Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training (58).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Economics and Immigration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Immigration policies in Japan and human capital considerations
Japan remains increasingly exclusivist toward foreign entrants. Japanese immigration policies build on three important considerations: first, foreigners are admitted only as a measure of last resort; second, the entry of unskilled workers should be prohibited; and third, immigration must be temporary.14 Foreigners are treated differently from natives; and even amongst foreigners, the quality of relations and career patterns largely depends upon the immigrant’s family and ethnic origin.
Table 2: Changes in foreign labor inflows to Japan
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Changes in the stock of foreign labor force (thousands) 516 568 614 655 695 723 753 339 486 563 Changes in the stock of foreign labor force (% of total labor force) 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 0.5 0.7 0.9 Source: The Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training (84).
“Foreign workers are confined generally to dirty, dangerous and low status occupations. Besides problems in occupation, the workplace and public policy, foreign workers in Japan encounter specific social problems, such as language barriers, lack of health care, and other social benefits.” (Tigno 70)
These macroeconomic and policy conditions reduce the validity of traditional human capital considerations; the latter have dominated the economic theory for many years. Understanding Japanese macroeconomic environments is extremely important, as most developed countries rely on macroeconomic factors to filter migration.15 More often than not, employers in the host country disregard the skills and knowledge previously accumulated by foreign workers.16 One of the main questions is what exactly drives immigration to Japan.
Dual labor market theory and immigration to Japan Factors affecting international immigration to Japan
Previous models of wage and capital formation do not explain the nature and consequences of immigration to Japan. Dual labor market theory re-evaluates the patterns of immigration in macroeconomic environments. Based on the dual labor market theory, structural inflation, motivation, economic dualism and demography change the principles and patterns of international immigration. First, structural inflation greatly affects the quality of immigrant workforce.
Employers are particularly interested in low-skilled and unskilled workers, since it is cheaper than hiring native employees.17 Native workers typically avoid working in low paid jobs, and raising entry wages for native workers will necessarily require changing the entire structure of wages.18
Second, motivational factors of international immigration differ from those affecting native workers: native employees want more than just work; they want status and career growth, whereas immigrants perceive jobs as just a means to earn money.19
Not sure if you can write a paper on Economics and Immigration by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Third, most developed labor markets are characterized by inherent dualism, meaning that native workers are driven to the capital-intensive sector with higher wages, leaving the secondary sector with its low wages and job uncertainty to foreign newcomers.20
Fourth, advanced societies experience the growing demand for female labor, coupled with the rapid decline in birth rates; unable to satisfy the growing demand for labor, industrialized societies gradually realize the hidden benefits of attracting immigrant labor force.21
Skills and professional qualifications do not matter
In light of this information, Tsuda makes the final conclusion that, in the Japanese macroeconomic environments, human capital does not allow for greater wages and economic integration of immigrant workers. Japan is a recent country of immigration, and its immigrant labor markets are still in the state of infancy.22
Immigrants who come to Japan but cannot use local social resources have few opportunities to advance themselves in the Japanese labor markets.23 Based on the dual labor market theory, host country employers are not interested in hiring foreign workers to the jobs and positions requiring greater responsibility and higher levels of skills. Immigrants in Japan can successfully accumulate new knowledge, qualifications and skills.
These skills, as it appears, do not matter, unless these workers have access to social networks and resources that facilitate their search of better-paying jobs.24 As of today, Japanese employers are strongly in favor of hiring male workers of Japanese origin who were born and brought up abroad.25
The wage levels of immigrants indicate the degree of their economic integration with the host country, and it would be fair to say human capital plays only a minor role in the economic adjustment and career advancement of immigrant workers in Japan.
Conclusion Japan is becoming a popular object of macroeconomic and population analysis. A recently immigrant country, Japan is attracting more foreign workers. The number of foreign newcomers slowly but steadily increases; nevertheless, the country remains increasingly exclusivist in its immigration decisions.
Those who come to Japan seek decent employment and good earnings. Simultaneously, their career and wage growth prospects are rather modest. More often than not, foreign immigrants in Japan have few opportunities to advance themselves professionally; human capital plays only a minor role in immigrants’ wage and career growth in Japan.
The dual labor market theory suggests that international immigration is driven by four essential factors: structural inflation, motivation, economic dualism and demography. In this sense, Japanese employers are highly motivated to hire foreign workers, who are cheaper than native employees and seek nothing but money.
Contrary to the earlier models of wage determination, human capital alone does not help immigrants to achieve a better economic status in Japan. Immigrants require access to social networks and connections that facilitate their search of better-paying jobs. The wage levels indicate the degree of immigrants’ assimilation with the local economic environment, and it would be fair to say human capital plays only a minor role in the economic adjustment and career advancement of immigrant workers in Japan.
Works Cited Fiorio, Carlo and Christina Cattaneo. Immigration and Natives’ Skill Upgrade. Venice: Center for Economic Policy Research, 2010. Print.
Massey, Douglas S., Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, Ali Kouaouci, Adela Pellegrino and Edward Taylor. “Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal.” Population and Development Review, 19.3 (1993): 431-66. Print.
Sato, Makoto. “From Foreign Workers to Minority Residents: Diversification of International Migration in Japan.” Ritsumeikan Annual Review of International Studies, 3 (2004): 19-34. Print.
Solinger, Dorothy J. “Citizenship Issues in China’s Internal Migration: Comparisons with Germany and Japan.” Political Science Quarterly, 114.3 (1999): 455-478. Print.
Syed, Jawad. “Employment Prospects for Skilled Migrants: A Relational Perspective.” Human Resource Management Review, 18 (2008): 28-45. Print.
The Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training. Databook of International Labor Statistics 2011. The Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training, 2011. Web.
Tigno, Jorge V. “Migration, The Market and Society: issues in Philippine Labor Flows to Japan.” Philippine Social Science Review, 51.1 (1993): 57-78. Print.
Tsuda, Takeyuki. “When Human Capital Does Not Matter: Local Contexts of Reception and Immigrant Wages in Japan.” GeoJournal, 76 (2011): 641-59. Print.
Footnotes 1 Carlo Fiorio and Christina Cattaneo. Immigration and Natives’ Skill Upgrade. Venice: Center for Economic Policy Research, 2010, 2.
2 Takeyuki Tsuda. “When Human Capital Does Not Matter: Local Contexts of Reception and Immigrant Wages in Japan.” GeoJournal, 76 (2011), 641.
3 Ibid., 641.
4 Takeyuki Tsuda. “When Human Capital Does Not Matter: Local Contexts of Reception and Immigrant Wages in Japan.” GeoJournal, 76 (2011): 641.
5 Ibid., 641.
6 Ibid., 641.
7 Ibid., 642.
8 Makoto Sato. “From Foreign Workers to Minority Residents: Diversification of International Migration in Japan.” Ritsumeikan Annual Review of International Studies, 3 (2004): 22.
9 Ibid., 22.
10 Ibid., 22.
11 Ibid., 23.
12 Ibid., 24.
13 Ibid., 24.
14 Dorothy J. Solinger. “Citizenship Issues in China’s Internal Migration: Comparisons with Germany and Japan.” Political Science Quarterly, 114.3 (1999): 461.
15 Jawad Syed. “Employment Prospects for Skilled Migrants: A Relational Perspective.” Human Resource Management Review, 18 (2008): 31.
16 Ibid., 31.
17 Douglas S. Massey, Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, Ali Kouaouci, Adela Pellegrino and Edward Taylor. “Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal.” Population and Development Review, 19.3 (1993): 441.
18 Douglas S. Massey, Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, Ali Kouaouci, Adela Pellegrino and Edward Taylor. “Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal.” Population and Development Review, 19.3 (1993): 441.
19 Ibid., 442.
20 Ibid., 443.
21 Ibid., 443.
22 Takeyuki Tsuda. “When Human Capital Does Not Matter: Local Contexts of Reception and Immigrant Wages in Japan.” GeoJournal, 76 (2011): 641.
23 Ibid., 641.
24 Takeyuki Tsuda. “When Human Capital Does Not Matter: Local Contexts of Reception and Immigrant Wages in Japan.” GeoJournal, 76 (2011): 641.
25 Ibid., 641.
Collection Development Policy Report essay help online free: essay help online free
Executive Summary The paper evaluates Collection Development Policy and its overall benefits to libraries. It starts by introduction and the meaning of Collection Development Policy, its components and benefits. Then there is explanation on the general requirements for successful implementation CDP. Finally there is review and evaluation of the existing stock within the library and conclusion.
Introduction All libraries have got one primary task of making information available through collection, selection and preservation. Such process is normally made easier through application of relevant policies such as Collection Development policy. The policy assists libraries in organization through effective management of information and other resources (Strong, 1999).
Definition of Collection Development Policy A collection development policy presents a written statement of a library’s intention for building collections. The CDP describes collections components including strengths and weaknesses as well as providing clear guidelines for the library employees. The development of the document requires time and careful considerations for the purposes of proving its relevance to the subject.
Purpose of CDP
The main purpose for a library in normally to sort and provide necessary access to relevant information and resources. Improvement in technology has guaranteed libraries the chance to migrate from holdings method to access strategies which enable information to be provided efficiently and in time. Collection policies are on the increase therefore making libraries prepare in disseminating widely available information (Strong, 1999).
Explanation on Collection Development Policy (CDP)
The document is expected to provide updated information as well as being flexible when it comes to adapting to various changes. At the same time the guidelines provided should be modifiable in line with the library’s collection needs. Consequently, the collection development policy should be placed on the World Wide Web as a resource for the library’s patrons and source of reference for other libraries (Johnson, 1994).
Policy statements normally provide parameters through which employees and users of the library work. Collection Development Policy serves purposes such as; selecting materials, describing current collections, and at the same time makes the staff aware of the aims and objectives of the organization.
In addition it gives the various priorities attached to different activities and assists in the processing of budget and overall collection management activities. In general terms CDP prevents the library from being controlled by events as well as individual interests. The document also controls the purchase of resources preventing the cases of obtaining resources not in support of the library’s mission (Clayton and Gorman, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Components of a CDP
The collection development policy provides the necessary guidance to staff in the process of selecting and deselecting resources for collection. The various processes involved include; acquisition, housing, weeding, retention and archiving, placing all manner of material within their relevant subjects. Such organization helps in reducing the level of bias since all individual selection decisions are guided within the context of the objectives of collection practices.
This ultimately assists in identifying and filling the gaps within the responsibilities associated with collection development. Such practices ensure existence of consistency in the process of selection and revision done on materials. Collection Development Policy also helps in defining the purpose and scope of various collections as well as allowing deep evaluation on selection decisions. The guidelines provided makes it easier for the training of new staff and at the same time provides answers to most questions raised by selectors (Johnson, 1994).
The collection development policy also provides relevant base necessary for future planning. This assists in planning of the available financial resources making it easier when it comes to priority determination. There is provision for protecting library funds since the policy grants clear guidelines on acquisition bids based on fair allocation of resources.
The document in its formal presentation ensures continuity hence of great benefit in acquiring knowledge on collection as well as acting as reminder of library goals and objectives. The defined objectives are helpful in guiding other activities related to collection such as cataloguing, selection and de-selection and other relevant delivery activities (Johnson, 1994).
The other benefit of CDP is that it offers the required public relations amongst the library users, administrators and related funding organizations. The document gives clear objectives indicating the position of the organization on demonstrating accountability and following the stated goals.
Relevance of the document is determined by active participation of users and administrators which acts as source of strong relations between library users and the employees. The CDP serves as a contract document between the library and its users and at the same time giving clear functions of the library in terms of collections and various services offered to institutions. It makes it easier for the justification of individual selection based on standard objectives and also makes it possible to reject unwanted materials (Johnson, 1994).
Benefits of establishing a written CDP for the Limerick Institute of Technology Library
Limerick Institute of Technology Library policy document would identify various issues such as the level of access, content, and engagement of the community in which it will be established, also important is the education standards as well as the training programs which assists in achieving the mission and vision. Operating under the strategies of Limerick Institute Library requires specific initiatives for collection development, some of which are explained as below (Shenton, 2005).
We will write a custom Report on Collection Development Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The CDP will consider increase in the virtual space and easy access to the collections either manually or electronically on a twenty-four hour basis six days a week. This would also entail access to other materials such as Library catalogues and other services. There would be issues on subscription to several relevant electronic databases which would make it easier for clients to access services irrespective of the region where they are stationed free of charge.
Creation of more materials through digital processing would be given priority and these would entail cultural materials inform of music, manuscripts as well as pictures. The community would be engaged in online exhibitions and at the same time staff being educated and trained on the rural and remote communities, granting them the opportunity to have the skills required in operation of the internet and usage of online library resources (Shenton, 2005).
The library would offer sufficient space for readers making it capable of accommodating many people in one sitting. There would be improved access to collections and exhibition galleries. The project would grant the community the opportunity to access virtual library services with clients capable of adjusting available spaces to suite their needs. The internet services would replace paper-based resources making work and accessibility easier.
The method implemented on electronic storage of information would present various key benefits to Limerick Library some of which include; easier and timely delivery of information enabling clients to access information irrespective of their locations. There would be free access to all Limerick Library catalogues through their website making selection of titles easier to clients.
Collection Development Policy would also enable digitisation of heritage resources which enables scanning of various materials such as photographs and maps. This would promote access to wider range of materials which previously proved restrictive. The digitisation also enhances the library’s role in collecting, preserving and access to several materials linked to heritage (Tedd and Large, 2005).
However some few challenges are involved which include the right to ownership and access to materials. The problem of digital resources being accessed by anyone from all over the world provided they have authentic entry through database provider. The process of archiving presents some considerable challenge where the relative costs of archive and print versions differ (Tedd and Large, 2005).
Requirements for implementation and revision of the CDP
The first requirement for the implementation of the CDP is the library’s mission statement, the purpose for which the policy is drafted and the audience it should address. Some of the inclusions the document requires are statements on user groups, types of programs served by the CDP, the nature and size of the collection and detailed budget. The various cooperative agreements on policy and practices are also provided for (Dahl et al, 2006).
General and Narrative Statements
General statements would be required for implementation purposes. This comprises the listing of all characteristics which determine the nature of development required for the collection.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Collection Development Policy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These include such issues as current situation, acquisitions, the kind of resources involved in form of periodicals, monographs and the like, kind of language applicable, format whether in printed or electronic form, sources of funds, the various policies safeguarding collection and maintenance. Within these important subjects on relevant policies and rights of complaints are all necessary for complete implementation purposes (Evans and Saponaro, 2005).
Narrative statements are also important since it helps in defining the library services in relation to the community it serves. The statement should provide for languages and regions as well as intellectual coverage based on chronological order.
Also the library units responsible for the collections with the subjects being described based on the library classification scheme is a consideration. And finally the relationship between disciplines and the required policies should be followed for the purposes of acquiring information (Evans and Saponaro, 2005).
Subject profiles are necessary for the purposes of revealing and helping in collection evaluation. This proves important in the process of periodic updating of information reflecting on changing times. The overview of collection strength and intensities is very vital before implementation process.
The overview represents the general synopsis on the network’s coordinated collection policy. Such a collection is normally referred to as conspectus report which provdes evaluation on the library’s division, categories and subject. The information is useful in managing library resources hence making it possible to ascertain on relevant decisions required for the general operations of the library (Clayton and Gorman, 2006).
Review and evaluation of existing stock The library consists of printed books, manuscripts as well as archives of lasting value, antiquarian and modern books for intellectual and historical contents. The existing collection strength include availability of resources such as; History and Literary collections in Irish and other languages, Irish Literature, Celtic studies, Medieval studies, Religion in Ireland, Estate papers, Official Publications, Intellectual history of University College, Law and Comical artefacts.
The section on Special Collections and Archives involves collections in different formats which includes; printed materials, manuscripts, facsimile formats, maps, photographs, musical scores as well as microfilm. There are also copies of theses written from higher degree courses which include maters and PhDs fro Limerick Institute of Technology College (Tedd and Large, 2005).
All important records generated by Limerick Institute of Technology and which more so relates to the history of the institution are organized and preserved by the institute Archives. All the donations and other internal transfers are generally controlled by agreements as well as necessary transfer procedures. Relevance of overall Special Collections is reviewed for validity purposes (Tedd and Large, 2005).
Conclusion The collection methods and techniques are required to ascertain on the depth and strength of the existing collections. The useful techniques required for implementation of CDP are either collection-centered or client-centered. The work of the collection-centered is to assist in examining the content and nature of resources and their information for the purpose of determining their relevance with external standards.
On the other hand client centered techniques provides detailed descriptions on the collection’s effectiveness and relevance. The combination of the two techniques during implementation alongside quantitative and qualitative data gathering techniques provides accurate and reliable results for present and future use.
Reference List Clayton, P.
Promoting Library Collection Policy Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction All libraries face complex challenges in identifying, acquiring and managing appropriate information resources. Traditional formats and ever more technologically interesting information sources are expected by patrons in communities of all sizes. Small and rural public libraries have always faced unique challenges in this arena.
Some of these challenges include: limited budgets for materials, licenses, and equipment, limited staffs (sometimes only one person performs all library functions), too many inappropriate and unsolicited gifts, limited space for print material and limited computers for electronic access, time constraints, and limited opportunities for library training and education within easy access (Evans
Living as non-speaking English artist in English speaking country Research Paper essay help
Introduction Living as a non- English speaking artist in an English speaking country is a fascinating challenge and an advantage to a nation since aliens in a country are play pivotal role in promoting cultural activities as well as innovation. Empirical and past comparative studies indicate that in the history of civilization and human culture, aliens in any given country have always been known as one major source of social vibrancy since they share local traditions with the local people alongside passing their own cultural values to the local population.
In cases such aliens are quite intimate with the local population. Then it is indefinite that a lot of unprecedented cultural exchange will indeed take place leading to a positive outcome. Brandellero indicates that due to the uniqueness of strangers or immigrants, local milieus dealing with production have developed keen interest of attracting and retaining them for purposes of enhancing growth and sustaining their economies (10).
As this paper analyses, artists are important personalities in any cultural economy bearing in mind that they act as forerunners in harnessing and generating capabilities through their own artistic works. By so doing, they directly contribute towards economic growth of the respective countries they are living in. It is also against this scope that this paper explores non-English speaking artists living in English speaking countries, their impact on the economy and some of the challenges facing them.
Understanding cultural and ethnic diversity In her publication, Brandellero argues that cultural diversity and its link to the status of an outsider is a factor that creates tension, but has a positive effect towards innovative potential (11). While cultural diversity has myriad of similarities to ethnic diversity, it is prudent to mention that the former is a key driver and a potential source of innovation, creativity and building positive relationships. The latter are essential in enhancing mutual competitiveness.
In their cultural theory, Schwartz and Thompson elaborate that a new entrant into a foreign country may act as an intersection between the local community and outside world largely due to multiple ethnic and spatial ties. To emphasize on this, it is worth noting that contemporary immigrants, English or non-English speakers, are contributing immensely in strengthening of advanced urban economies by enhancing competitive advantages.
Effective understanding of cultural and ethnic differences have become some of the most fundamental requirements which businesses and immigrant artists need today since it assists them in building relationships by fostering understanding of the cultural values of members of different cultures alongside interpreting of their behaviors and actions.
The efficient performance of a non-English speaking artist as well as his or her participation in the growth of the economy of a host English speaking nation is to a larger extent, influenced by cultural differences experienced through complex interaction between the environment and individuals. Brandellero makes a significant contribution related to this argument by pointing out that an understanding of cultural diversity and ethnicity easily affect the degree of satisfaction, motivation results and behavior of individuals (35).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His argument concurs with Hofstede’s model and networking theory that demonstrate how cultural differences impact on the dimensions of an organization in terms of networking, gaining social capital, relationship marketing and development of human resource (Brandellero 54). Additionally, the differences also directly impact on intra organizational communication, problem-solving capabilities and creativity levels.
An artist who is living in the contemporary cultural economy has a greater advantage since the modern global economy has emerged as a thriving market offering colossal employment opportunities in many cities and countries globally.
Brandellero posits that the cultural economy offer potential support for artists of all nation whether English speaking or non- English speaking, and massive opportunities to generate artistic capabilities for productive purposes (20). This is made possible by the spatial manifestations created by the cultural economy, which play a pivotal role of attracting substantial and significant attention, which is an important playing field in the revolution of culture in a new economy.
Living as a non-English speaking artist Living as a non-English artist in another country as opposed to one’s own native land is a major challenge brought about by the diverse changes that are mainly structural, of global proportion and that continuously alter and impact on experiences. Research studies clearly indicate that living and working in a foreign country may affect a worker’s private realms and social life due to issues such as industrial capitalism and rational forms.
Scholars on modern sociology point out that a lot of transformations involving cultural, political, economic and social processes happen differently in diverse nations and result in the emergence, development and flourishing of new structures of social life that may affect an immigrant worker.
Brandellero argues that non-English speakers migrating to other English speaking nations in order to work ought to understand the culture of the country they are going to live in bearing in mind that this will shape how they relate with the locals and enhance their business performance (14).
Needless to say, cultural understanding in a foreign land is of great essence if an artist is to reap the optimum benefits out of his or her artistic work. It is also prudent to underscore the fact that should cultural differences between artists and locals clash at any given point, then the expected benefits either to the artist or host country will be null and void.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Living as non-speaking English artist in English speaking country specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Importance of effective understanding of cultural differences by non-English speaking artists National culture is a phenomenon that distinguishes one group from another. Therefore, different nations have unique cultures that affect or largely determine how they run their affairs. A country may express its culture through conceptual elements such as arts, rituals or beliefs. For non-English speaking artists living in English speaking countries, it is definite that they indeed encounter myriad of challenges brought about by national culture.
Besides, when employed, they serve, co-work and interact with workers and customers from different cultural backgrounds who manifest various gender, ethnic, regional and national beliefs. This calls for an effective understanding of the local or national culture of a host nation and development of coping strategies in order to be productive. Most importantly, the barrier posed by language differences may not be eluded in most cases since an artist may not be a multilingual speaker.
According to Brandellero, for individuals or companies to perform successful business ventures in countries different from their own, they must have an effective understanding of different cultures (12). Besides, they must apply knowledge in management as tactics which are important for success.
It is imperative to mention that non-English speaking artists have to be flexible and keep changing their strategies to meet the needs and challenges a new cultural environment presents. Those intending to innovate or invest in the cultural economy must incorporate knowledge in management with the strategies they have devised. With globalization taking rapidly taking effect, these artists must come up with ways to overcome organizational and national cultures and the diverse challenges posed by the same.
Using Hofstede’s model, it is important to note that special cultures of diverse nations are based on different independent dimensions that include short term or long term orientation, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity or femininity, individualism or collectivism and power distance (Brandellero 62).
Understanding of the different independent dimensions will greatly assist a non-English speaking artist to predict how societies or nations that host them culturally operate. It is imperative to note that the culture of a given society is the sum of its assumptions, beliefs and values.
The man-made part of the culture of a society is influenced by the perceptions individuals have of their social environment. As such, a prescribed behavior of a particular society is shaped by those shared perceptions (Brandellero 43). An artist may not be able to directly observe culture, but can easily infer it from verbal exchanges and daily societal activities.
Knowledge of different cultures enhances networking
According to Pettigrew Whipp’s model of dimensions of change, effective understanding of different cultures assists business owner to develop their social networking behaviors (Brandellero 18). This argument clearly indicates that a non-English speaking artist who intends to succeed in his or her operations in an English speaking host country must possess or develop positive patterns of behavior necessary for social networking.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Living as non-speaking English artist in English speaking country by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Indeed, many businesses today are operated with an intention of growth and maximization of profits. Positive networking behaviors should be enhanced by the non-English speaking artists as will not only aid them to effectively understand the cultures of the environment they are situated and build good relationship, but will also assist them to acquire scarce resources for business growth.
The effective understanding of factors such as masculinity and femininity cultures in a host country will enhance a positive networking behavior that will improve an artist’s relationship with the different cultures and aid it in obtaining external resources necessary to drive up arts business (Brandellero 19).
Brandellero supports the above notion and points out that effective understanding of different ethnic cultures of a host nation is a means of success for business owners who have developed networking skills (35). In fact, it is a common denominator underlying a business agenda and is suitable for establishing a higher networking behavior.
Mourkogiannis contributes to Brandellero’s argument by indicating in his moral purpose model that entrepreneurs, and in this case non-English speaking artists, should effectively and efficiently include social spheres in expanding their networks with a bid to develop a competitive advantage in a host nation (Brandellero 20). An artist can achieve this by raising his or her social status via vertical social mobility and learning the local language.
Additionally, studies have indicated that effective understanding of different cultures by a business creates for it a dyadic and interconnected relationship that has diverse ties such as influence, exchange and information. It is imperative to note that the aforementioned ties are part of a business’ assets that legitimizes the business, enables it to access resources and provides it with information.
In agreement, different scholars have used interactive perspective to link cultural and economic resources to economic opportunity structure in analyzing the effectiveness of businesses understanding diverse cultures. According to them different ethnic groups, depending on the structure of economic opportunities, brings income to a business.
From an interactive perspective, Brandellero points out that effective understanding of cultures helps in distribution of resources through built relationships (42).
Different societies vary in terms of status, power and class. As such a non-English speaking artist in an English speaking host country will be supplied with capital from ethnic networks depending on social relationships and ties built on social obligation and trust. It is imperative to note that customer relationship and ties with a business depend on a cultural enclave the business is in.
Knowledge of culture and relationship marketing
According to neoclassical microeconomic theory, relationship marketing is an important marketing activity that businesses having their operations in different countries carry out for successful establishment and sustenance of relational exchanges (Brandellero 32). An artist in a foreign nation can create a long-term relationship between his business and individuals or groups within a particular host culture in a relational market.
Neoclassical microeconomic theory presents a transactional school of thought that indicates that effective understanding of different cultures by a business will assists it in developing relational exchanges with the locals.
Consequently, this will aid it in the maximization of profits if it is found in a competitive market. Additionally, an artist living in an English speaking host country can develop exchanges with the locals and demonstrate rational behavior that shows a deep understanding of diverse cultures. Consequently, this will cause an artist to fashion his or her products to meet the cultural demands of the host country thereby making the artist to become a utility maximizer and a price taker.
Statistical literature revealing imbalance in art and theater
Past statistical research evidences have indicated that receive neglect in some countries. For instance, a report carried out in the nineties indicated that the Australian media failed to show a reflection of the diversity of the Australian people. Advertisement pictures and other programs conspicuously made exclusions to cultures that are not English speaking while portrayals in comedy only showed stereotypical images of the non-English speaking people.
Current statistics on non-English speaking representation in the media have shown estimations that slightly less than two percent of roles in the acting industry, especially in regards to mainstream drama in television, were directly played by other ethnic communities of Australia and the aboriginals (Bertone, Keating
Potato Chips Industry Term Paper essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
From monopolistically competitive market structure to a monopoly
Introduction The question of which market structure accrues most benefits for all stakeholders can be attributed to a number of factors. There are four major market structures, but for the purpose of this assignment, focus is on monopolistically competitive and monopoly markets structures. “Wonks” is a conglomerate of many potato chips companies, which initially operated as monopolistically competitive firms in potato industry in the Midwest in 2007.
These firms were that run on equilibrium such that they achieved a normal rate of return, improved efficiency and other advantages which accrue added benefits to all stakeholders. However, in 2008 the firm were conglomerated into “Wonks” by two lawyers and thus operated in a monopoly market structure. As a monopoly “Wonks” accrues a number of benefits ranging from long term economic profits, market protection among others.
However, in a monopoly market structure, the social cost of a monopoly to both the stakeholder and the consumer is much higher than the cost of monopolistically competitive firm. Both monopolistically competitive market and monopoly structures offer certain advantages to “Wonks”; however, the company needs to revert to monopolistically competitive structure to accrue more benefits to both the entrepreneurs and consumers.
From monopolistically competitive market structure to a monopoly To bring up all the potato chips producers together meant that the market structure was changed from monopolistically competitive to a monopoly. This shift in market structure significantly affects the relationship between the input, the output and commodity prices. In the monopolistically competitive markets, various potato chips makers established competition on production efficacy rather than on pricing.
Hypothetically, one of the competitors enhances production efficiency more than others, thus leading to competition. Efficiency is further enhanced by increasing the output (production) at minimum cost of production (Mankiw, 2011; Taylor, 2009). This has a direct impact on the cost and quantity of commodities; increasing output means only minimum increases in cost of production. Thus, the average cost of production is lowered.
In a monopolistically competitive market, price (which is equal to marginal revenue) is determined by market demand among other factors. This implies that each of the competitors may sell as much commodities as it can on the current market price. This is achieved by improving production efficiency (and thus lowered cost of production).
This phenomenon is further compounded by the existence of more than one type of demand; demand seen by a particular competitor and the actual demand for the commodity. As such, to survive in a monopolistically competitive market, potato chips makers had to product-differentiate.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This creates several types of demand for each of the products. Therefore, there are short term profits but on the long term there would not be any economic profits since with time, the demand for that differentiated product decreases while the cost of production increases. Thus, competitors are likely to increase prices of good without losing market share (since price must equal marginal cost).
The reorganization of the markets structure from monopolistically competitive to monopoly has several implications. While there are many determinants of monopoly, this type of monopoly is attained by having complete control of basic resources (potatoes) by one owner, “Wonks.”
To begin with, it is imperative to state that the shift in market structure affects the demand-supply mechanism. In a monopolistically competitive market structure there are various types of demands. These demands are determined, by the number of competing interests within this environment, thus production is based on product differentiation. However, in a monopoly, there is only one demand; the demand as perceived by the single seller (Mankiw, 1998).
As such, there is only one demand for potato chips, which is only defined by “Wonks”. This phenomenon is as a result of several factors. However, bringing all potato chips markers together mean that there is only one producer, in this case “Wonks”, who not only fails to product-differentiate but also becomes the only seller of potatoes chips. Monopolies esteem to produce as much goods as possible to supply the demand as they see it.
This also means that monopolies draw all the profits there is within their given markets (Lindeman, 2001). Since “Wonks” monopolizes production, demand and supply of potatoes chips, they are also able to monopolize prices with the aim of generating as much profits as possible. As such, for monopolistic business owners, there are direct financial returns.
In monopolistic markets structures, the government becomes a major stakeholder, either directly or indirectly. Regardless of this fact, the government stands to gain from market monopoly. In many countries, governments allow monopolies to operate, for both economic and political.
Controlling resources creates market entry barriers, since no competitor has access to those resources. However, most monopolies need government protection to create legal market entry barriers. This is usually aims at protecting monopolized markets from entry by external forces. While this to protect local entrepreneurs, it also benefits the government in two broad ways. First, the government protects local entrepreneurs, thus helping to build local production capacity.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Potato Chips Industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is usually good for economic growth. Secondly, in the process of protecting local markets from infiltration by external producers, the government negotiates higher taxes payable by monopolistic firms. As such, in most countries, companies that have market monopolies end up paying relatively higher taxes, in return for protection against competition (Mankiw, 2011). Thus governments benefit in form of increased revenue from higher taxes paid by companies within monopolized market structures.
With time, companies within monopolized market structure realize that while they have the absolute power to adjust prices to suit their profits targets, such adjustments do have a general effect on total revenues. For instance, monopolies have the power to adjust prices upwards since they do not have any competitor which might offer price competitive goods. While this is aimed at increasing profits, it also has a negative effect on total revenues.
Unlike in competitively monopolistic markets, in a monopoly Price increase means that fewer consumers will be willing to buy those goods. In the long run, this reduces a company’s total revenue due to reduced sales. In this regard, “Wonks” would realize the need to increase profits through efficient production.
There are two ways through which monopolies achieve this. They either lower the cost of production by reducing wastages or add value to their products by improving on the product quality. Since Quality goods ensure the best value for money, customers are likely to pay more for those goods (Mankiw, 2011). In this case, by improving the quality of potatoes chips, “Wonks” benefits its consumers. As such, similar to monopolistic competition, consumers benefit from high quality goods as well as improved efficiency of production and delivery.
However, by conglomerating all potato chips makers into “wonks”, the Midwest potato chips market structure shifted from monopolistically competitive to a single monopoly market structure. This means that the output-input-price mechanism is changed. As explained earlier, in a monopoly, there is only one demand (the demand seen by the producer) and thus no product differentiation (Lindeman, 2001).
Thus, “Wonks” would only produce its own brands of potato chips. Unlike a monopolistically competitive market where profits are only sustained on the short term, monopolies are able to sustain profits for a long time, since there is no price competition. This is facilitated by the fact that there are strict market entry barrier and thus no chance for sharing those profits. Unlike a monopolized competitor, a monopoly operates at a level where marginal revenue is equated to marginal cost of production.
This also implies that either reduction or increase in a unit of production leads to increased profits; adding a unit of production increases revenues more than the cost of production while reducing a unit of production reduces the cost of production, thus increasing the profits (Lindeman, 2001). This is in stark contrast to a monopoly where a reduction in a unit of production is likely to increase the cost per unit of production.
“Wonks” is formed with a monopoly market structure in mind. However, the major question is on the cost of both the monopoly as well as monopolistically competitive market, and which of the two is most efficient for both the company and consumers. A monopoly has several inefficiencies.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Potato Chips Industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, inefficiency is achieved through setting the price of commodities above marginal cost, leading to higher prices as compared to monopolistically competitive market (Mankiw, 2011).
As such “Wonks” is likely to hike its prices. Additionally, monopolies accrue added expenses in terms of higher than normal taxes paid to government as kickback for market protection. While monopolies achieve productive efficiency, the level of such efficiency cannot be compared to the type of efficiency achieved in monopolistically competitive markets.
In a monopolistically competitive market structure, efficiency is achieved mainly through product differentiation as well as one of the ways of reducing the cost of production. As such, the more the competitive the market is, the more efficiency production becomes (Taylor, 2009).
This results not only to higher quality commodities which assure consumers of the best value for money. Due to this “Wonks” is likely to produce potato chips at a higher cost per unit (and eventually priced higher) than a monopolistically competitive firm. Additionally, product differentiation is common in monopolistically competitive markets. Thus this is likely to result to innovative products, which also add value to consumers’ lives.
Additionally, product differentiation ensures that there are numerous alternative commodities (Taylor, 2009). This increases the choice of consumer products, unlike in a monopoly where commodities have absolute distinctions (thus no choice of consumer products). Monopoly markets only have one demand; the demand as seen by the monopoly firm.
However, for a monopolistically competitive market there at least two types of demand; demand created by each competitor and the actual market demand for the product. In this case, while it seems a smart move to conglomerate all potato chips makers into a monopoly, for more benefits to the firm as well as the consumers it would be imperative for them to revert back to monopolistically competitive firms (Lindeman, 2001).
Conclusion The purpose of turning “wonks” into a monopoly was to probably control the market and create a market barrier. This would have ensured increased profits, since price is slightly higher than the marginal costs. However, while monopolizing the potato chips market seems like a smart idea, it is more costly to both the firm and consumers of potatoes chips.
Therefore, the two lawyer need to rethink their decision and revert to monopolistically competitive markets structure, in a monopoly there are fewer benefits to all stakeholders, limited productive efficiency among others limitation. This will ensure a more stable consumer friendly market.
Reference List Lindeman, J. (2001). EZ-101 Microeconomics. Arkansas: University of Arkansas
Taylor, A. (2009). Principles of microeconomics: global financial crisis edition. Mason, OH: South Western Cengage Learning
Mankiw, G. (1998). Microeconomics. Orlando, FL: Ted Buchholz
Mankiw, G. (2011). Principles of economics. Mason, OH: South Western Cengage Learning
Cultivating Emotional Intelligence in the Work Place Report college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Executive summary
Distinguishing Emotional Intelligence from Intelligent Quotient
Emotional intelligence skills
Organizational Culture and Emotional Intelligence
Merging Organizational Culture and Emotional Intelligence
Executive summary This paper analyses emotional intelligence and its applicability at places of work. The introductory part defines emotions and explains what emotional intelligence, and distinguishes it from academic intelligence or intelligent quotient. In the main body, deeper discussions of the tenets of emotional intelligence are explored.
The causes and underlying reasons for emotional breakdown are discussed with concrete examples. The paper further explains how modern organizations are trying to adopt emotional intelligence, and how this component of modern human resource management can impact the performance of organizations.
Introduction Have you ever been angry with your workmate? What prompted your anger and how did you react? Do you think your reaction was justified? These questions introduce us to the subject of managing emotions which is also referred to as emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence commonly abbreviated as (EQ) or emotional quotient is one of the key tenets of modern human resource management.
Emotions occupy a very big part of human life, thus this subject deserves much attention. Emotion is defined as the disturbance of the mind and passion, and which excites the mental state of a person. It is usually marked by a strong feeling to act. On a daily basis, people experience different happenings in or out of work.
The modern world economy is dominated by economic constraint, for instance the economic recession that was experienced in early 2008 (Weiten, 2009). For a longer period of time, it has been believed that the success of a person at the place of work depends on the level of intelligence of that person known as intelligence quotient (IQ).
This is presumed to work in the academic field and not the real open work field. It has been noted that the performance of a person at the place of work goes far beyond the intelligence quotient. The modern workplace demands for varied resourcefulness. What is needed is a different kind of mental smartness; that is, emotional intelligence (Singh, 2006).
Since the start of 1990s organizations and researchers in the United Kingdom began to accept and implement emotional intelligence. From then, consultants in management and psychologists have dug deep into research to know how important emotional intelligence is at places of work in relation to productivity, the general management and in sales. They appreciated that emotional intelligence is a basic need more so in jobs where interaction between people is a must (Gold and Mumford, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Distinguishing Emotional Intelligence from Intelligent Quotient Chakraborty (2008) observes that many people have failed to separate these two subjects. They use these terms in similar contexts with assumptions that each is the antonym of one another. It is good to note that the two have a kind of a complex relationship. Emotional intelligence is based on emotion while rational or intelligent quotient is based on academics.
Nonetheless, the two interact in a certain manner and go together in some instances. Emotional responses can be managed well through conscious efforts. When this awareness is inexistent, rational thinking is overridden by emotional actions (Chakraborty, 2008).
Emotional intelligence skills There are a number of emotional intelligence skills that are very fruitful when they are learnt and adopted. They include being empathetic. When a leader in any organization has grasped this skill, he or she is able to feel and listen to the demands and complaints from employees (Stein, 2009).
Responsibility is also an important skill of managing emotions. Managers who have a grasp of social responsibility give room for a participatory approach in management. Such managers take good care of the community and the environment they are working in and respect the rules that govern that society (Stein, 2009).
Leaders who are emotionally intelligence know how to relate well with other people. Good interpersonal relationship skills help these leaders to maintain a positive relationship with all other people in the organization. Good interpersonal relation skills help leaders to cultivate relationships they want in the organization (Stein, 2009). Emotional intelligence has to come with the ability to control impulses.
This skill comprises of patience, and it allows a leader to listen to the employers of the company. Therefore, employers are able to clearly understand the views of employees and they can make an attempt to integrate these views in the organizational working framework thus drawing away bad feelings and protests at the place of work.
Happiness is another important emotional management skill that leaders need to have in order to manage emotions in the organizations that they lead. Happiness pulls people closer to the organization. Employees will always prefer to work with joyful and rejuvenated leaders. On the contrary, they will shun from leaders who are gloomy and unfriendly (Stein, 2009).
We will write a custom Report on Cultivating Emotional Intelligence in the Work Place specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Emotional intelligence has to be accompanied with tough mindedness. For any leader to gain success, he or she has to have a lot of resilience. This enables one to easily respond to tough and challenging situations. They manage to persevere when faced with obstacles. It is easy for them to overcome challenging situations and easily contain pressure arising from these constraints.
Tough minded leaders must have high self-regard because people with high self-regard have confidence and self-assurance. Leaders who possess the skill of self-regard have a strong understanding of their strongpoints and their weak points. They use confidence to counter tough situations and moments of the organization.
Tough minded leaders must have high levels of tolerating stress. This means that one must be ready and know how to deal with tough situations as they arise. Though attending to a taunting task, one is able to keep focus and control himself in relation to the activity that he or she is handling (Stein, 2009).
Organizational Culture and Emotional Intelligence The bottom line in operation of a business, companies or even the government are impacted by emotions that are derived from the work, the management and the customers. Organizational culture and climate are determined by emotions and how the emotions in the organization and how these emotions are managed. The feeling and performance of employees influences the feeling, satisfaction level and loyalty of customers to the company.
These in turn work to affect the performance of the organization. Emotions whether they are positive or negative affects everyone in the organization. In “What makes a leader” in the Harvard Business Review, Daniel Goleman (2005) states “When I calculate the ratio of technical skills, IQ and emotional intelligence as ingredients of excellent performance, emotional intelligence proved to be twice as important as others for jobs at all levels” (Stock, 2008, p.18).
He goes on to say, “When I compared star performers with average ones in senior leadership positions, nearly 90% of difference in their profile was attributable to Emotional Intelligence factors rather than cognitive abilities” (Stock, 2008, p.18).
There is evidence supported by many researchers that emotional intelligence lays at the centre of efficient leadership. Efficient leaders are modelled by their thoughts and state of mind as they perform their work. Good leaders have self awareness as well as the influence they have on other people.
Self awareness is more vital. Leaders who have performed well in management have high abilities to control or manage their emotions. They do not at any point let emotions control them but rather are always on top of their emotions are good in adjusting their feelings (Stock, 2008).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Cultivating Emotional Intelligence in the Work Place by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Organizational culture is a combination of different tenets that include values, beliefs and behaviours. These tenets work together to determine the climate of an organization. Analysts argue that emotions have economic value. Profitability of companies are determined by behaviours of employee most of which are shaped by emotions (Stock, 2008). Research ascertains that the manner in which employees behave and treat one another affects the profit making patterns of the organization.
The improvement in the attitude of employees leads to an improvement. Research ascertains that the manner in which employees behave and treat one another affects the profit making patterns of the organization. The management of companies are in these times finding it important to handle employees in a nice way. It has been found out that if at any instance, the attitude of employees rises, the satisfaction of customers will equally raise (Spritzer, 2007).
Stress normally has a big impact on the management and the workers. Stress emanates from bad emotions and feeling that renders people unable to withstand what the environment demands from them. Demands of the jobs and the social setting of the society are unlikely to change soon. This is making it very important to develop skills to held cope with these demands thus a call for emotional intelligence skills. On the other hand, there is good stress also called eustress. This is fuelled by positive emotions (Stock, 2008).
Research indicates that when anxiety, fear or even despair enters a persons mind, a person become defensive and seek for personal security. On realization the people who surround cant offer the security, the person becomes frustrated. This results in a turndown in performance. The taunting nature of tasks at places of work is being accompanied by stress. Jobs that come with a lot of complexities call for high levels of emotional intelligence.
At the workplace there is rising need to help manage stress. Stress management is not a simple activity. It requires one to have high levels of emotional intelligence in order to solve this problem without harming the activities of the company where one works. Successful managing of stress and its related conditions has positive impact to the profit patterns of the company (Singh, 2006).
Social and emotional intelligence works have been adopted by organizations. A person’s social and emotional intelligence goes deep into making the person successful. If extrapolated, this can be reflective of the entire organizational culture. People who manage famous organizations keep in mind that their workers are their key assets thus by developing them; their organizations are bound to be successful.
In order for organizations to maximize on their competitive abilities, they have to pay maximum attention to motivating and satisfying the needs of their employees. Ability of the organization to weigh and fully understand the socio– emotional intelligence is a beginner step to see to ensuring that an organization has reached its maximum potential.
Organizations that are devoid of emotional intelligence stand a high risk of not attaining their goals. Emotionally intelligent organizations on the other hand, have a high rate of attaining their goals and objectives. They promote an open culture where issues of openness and transparency are the key norms (Singh, 2006).
Merging Organizational Culture and Emotional Intelligence Leslie works in a young advertising, and she has good friendship with the workmates. Much of the leisure time, she spends time with her friends. She describes the manner in which she relates with the bosses. The bosses are very nice, and they forward them online emails and jokes. A lot of workers gather on his computer to view latest emailed jokes (Spitzer, 2007). This is so creative of the leadership of the organization.
Though, after working for very long hours, she fills guilty leaving earlier whenever she has to do so. The reasons why people or employees get faded up with the work they do originate mostly from their supervisors or bosses. The leading teams in organizations affect the organization through directing, and guiding and the manner of responding both to the employees and the external world.
Leaders in any organization are the steers of the organizational ship. People needs to be full aware of where the ship they are travelling in is meant to reach. Employers need to understand that the leadership is competent when it comes to organizational decision making and that they are guided by the interests of the organization they are leading (Stein, 2007).
Conclusion From the discussion, it is clear the world we live in today is full of challenges that emanate from both the economic and social spheres of life. These challenges have a great impact on people and their behaviours. Therefore, the modern society has to accept the realities that these challenges pose to organizational performance.
In an effort to counter the challenges, they have resorted to introduce and cultivate the culture emotional intelligence and management. Emotional intelligence is however a subject that is still very young. Nonetheless, smart organizations that have adopted this technique are doing well. Emotion intelligence has become more of a necessity in organizations in current time. Each organization faces emotional related problems and thus by adopting this practice can help them maximize productivity.
Recommendation Organizations should conduct research about the changes on the emotions of their employees, so that they can determine the best motivational strategies to apply. In addition, employees should be consulted when implementing strategies in the organization to ensure they accept them.
Reference List Chakraborty, A., 2008, Emotional intelligence, Berlin, Springer.
Gold, J., Thorpe, R.,