Table of Contents Introduction
Elements of the theory
Why offenders engage in crime
Factors in routine activity
Introduction Routine activities theory seeks to explain the various causes of crime in any given society. The theory brings out crime as being a normal occurrence that is determined by the existing opportunities at a certain time. It describes the various driving factors that cause an individual to commit a crime within a given environment (Felson, 1994).
Elements of the theory The three main elements of the routine activities theory include an available target, motivational offender and the absence of a guardian who may prevent the crime from taking place. The available target in this case refers to what may drive a person into committing a crime or what may be the attraction.
A motivational offender on the other hand is the person willing to commit a crime while the absence of a guardian refers to the lack of effective guardianship such that the crime is not likely to be stopped or prevented from occurring. According to this theory, the occurrence of any given crime requires that these three elements be present and that they function. The availability of a target can further be explained in terms of four aspects which include value, inertia, visibility as well as accessibility (VIVA).
Value in this case depends on the particular individual willing to perform the crime and not on how worthy a particular item is. Inertia on the other hand refers to how big or small a particular object is while visibility refers to the potential criminal’s knowledge of whether or not a particular target exists. Accessibility is the ability of the willing criminal to get to the target object as well as be able to escape without being caught (Cohen and Felson, 1979).
Why offenders engage in crime Routine activities theories can be used to explain why offenders engage in crime by identifying possible reasons why crime occurs. This is best done using the three elements that acts as the greatest contributors to the occurrence of crime. According to the theory, the occurrence of crime requires that time and space converges and that the three mentioned elements are present.
The absence of any of these elements prevents a crime from taking place (Felson, 1994).in a situation where security cameras have been out up within a particular building for example, they act as controllers through which guardianship of the building is formed thus acting as a protective measure against the occurrence of any kind of crime that may include trespass, theft or burglary among others. Concealment of valued objects or accessories takes away the ‘suitable target’ and in turn prevents it from being stolen or destroyed.
Victimization The concept of victimization according to the routine activity theory is best explained using the available target element such that one can only be a victim of crime if he or she is identified as a target or as someone in possession of a valuable object and whose defense mechanism is ineffective.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This can further be explained in terms of inertia whereby the target size highly determines if the potential criminal will be able to attack and take away the target object. If in the case of a potential victim for example, a willing offender will first of all assess if the target person can be overcome and if the offender can be able to overpower the victim. This means that victimization occurs only to those individuals found to be most powerless and with no evident defense mechanisms.
An individual’s lifestyle and demographics have been identified as the key factors that influence the occurrence of crime. According to done research studies, the highest rates of victimization occur among single men or women, drug and alcohol users, black Americans, men, people living in the big cities, those living near bars as well as those with an active kind of lifestyle (Tewksbury
What Is Education for? Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Getting educated is very important for every person. It goes without saying that each of us has to have a proper education. We learn how to read, count and write. These are the basic abilities we acquire and use during our life. However, a logical question arises than: is there any other purpose of education or it is aimed only at giving us a possibility to communicate our ideas and satisfy basic needs?
During centuries, there were different interpretations of the purpose of education. Many scientists, pedagogues and philosophers tried to answer the question: what is education for? Taking into consideration the needs and tendencies of a modern society, we can assume that the purpose of education is to prepare students to be self-sufficient citizens capable of solving real world problems.
We all live and work to support our society which, in its turn, provides as with security and other benefits. To support this “balance”, we should build education based on standards of decency and human survival by the need of the social community. In other words, one should be educated in order to serve the society.
There are many successful people in the world, but there are few people concerned with the problems of environment and society. Our education should be aimed at educating people who love the world they lie in and who are ready to become peacemakers and healers of the world (Orr 55).
A sustainable society “consists” of citizens, workers, specialists, technicians, etc, who are ready to work in order to build and support such society. One of the ways to provide such education is to “get outdoor”. The skills and abilities develop in real world and not in artificial situations in class. In this regard, we may refer to the Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave”. One should “touch” the real world problems and get personal experience from it. Shadows in the cave are the retrospectives of the real knowledge.
To acquire the knowledge, we should leave the “cave”. We can learn theory separated from practice and this will not have any result. Instead, we should understand that every individual is a part of the natural world, thus, education should be based on ecological literacy as “health of our planet” is one of the most urgent questions of the modern social community.
For many centuries, the principles of the classical education were in the spotlight. The good of the individual, realizing his/her own potential were the purposes of the learning process. Cultural development is the aim of the classical education. It stands above everything, including religion. (Nietzsche, n. p.). Referring to Plato’s “Allegory of the Cave” to interpret the classical education in modern society, we can say that “shadows on the wall” embody the knowledge needed to make yourself useful, be money-focused career maker.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More But, one cannot live in the world of “cultural, but selfish people”. Fueling the economy of the country, people often forget about the consequences of their actions. That is why, economic (and any other type of education) should be incorporated with the ecological education. The aim is to ensure that knowledge will be used to pursue good purposes.
Environmental education is the main purpose of the modern education. Classical principles are important, but not progressive. They should adopt new principles dictated by the needs of modern culture and society.
Works Cited Nietzsche, Friedrich. On the Future of our Educational Institutions Ed. Oscar Levy Trans. Kennedy, J. M. (2009): n. pg. [EBook #28146].
Orr, David. “What Is Education For?. Six Myths about the Foundations of Modern Education, and Six New Principles to Replace Them. In ”The Learning Revolution. Context Institute, 1991: 52.
Child Beauty Pageants Kentucky, Ohio and Indiana Research Paper essay help online
Table of Contents Beauty pageant market
Children beauty contests in Kentucky, Ohio and Indiana states
Requirements for children beauty pageants
Cost of beauty contest
Prizes for the pageants
Requirements for one to do a pageant
Beauty pageant market Children beauty pageants have been in existence for a number of years since it was started in Canada. The contest entails children whose age is less than 18 years participating in beauty contest. For example, the contest entails children of various ages showcasing their talents. In addition, the contestants also showcase various types of wears such as cultural wears, theme wear, decade wear and sports wear. In addition, the children also present their own outfit of choice in addition to elaborate hairstyles and makeup.
Over the past years, a number of countries have adopted the concept of children beauty contest. United States of America is one of the countries which have experienced an astonishing growth in children beauty pageants (Cadence, 2010, para.1). This is evident in that children beauty pageants are being organized at state level. Schultz and Murphy (2010, para. 2) are of the opinion that children beauty pageants are considered to be the fastest growing beauty segment in relation to the pageant market.
Children beauty contests in Kentucky, Ohio and Indiana states Kentucky, Ohio and Indiana are some of the states which organize beauty pageants for children aged between 3-5 years. All the beauty pageants are well organized by the individual state through formation of Pageants Association. For example, The Kentucky Festival Pageant Association coordinates all beauty contests in Kentucky. Little Mr. and Miss Glitz Pageant is one of the most famous children beauty pageants held in Louisville, Kentucky.
This contest is focused at celebrating everything which is glitzy, fabulous and glamorous regarding children. The contest is organized into a number of levels which include online pageants, preliminaries, regional pageants, state pageants and national pageants. The beauty contest entails an interstate contest between Kentucky, North Carolina and Tennessee. In addition, South Kentucky Fair Pageants is another children beauty pageant held in Kentucky.
In Indiana and Ohio, Dream Girl USA is one of the major children beauty pageants conducted in these states. The children beauty contest is conducted under the Young American Miss International Pageant (YAMI) (Dream Girl USA, 2010, para. 4).
Requirements for children beauty pageants In order for a child to participate in the beauty pageant, the parents are required to apply online by filling an entry form stating their personal information such as their name, goals, the age group and how he or she intends to become the best representative (Habee, 2011, para. 3). It is the judges determine the appropriateness of the application. The applicant is also required to submit one photograph which is used for the photogenic competition.
To increase the chances of winning, it is paramount for the participants to be competitive. One of the ways through which this can be achieved is by ensuring that the child is well prepared.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cost of beauty contest In order to successfully participate in children beauty pageant, a considerable amount of investment with regard to time and financial capital is vital (Habee, 2011, para. 2). Just as it is important to for a firm to set a substantial amount of money to cater for its marketing expenses, a considerable amount of money is also required for one to participate in a beauty pageant successfully.
Effective budgeting is a core consideration in the process of preparing one’s child to participate in children beauty contest. The parents are required to pay an entry fee which varies depending on the category of contest applied for.
In addition, the pageants are required to pay for various accessories, outfits and clothing’s. To increase the chances of winning the competition, some parents consider contracting pageant coaches to direct their children on the most vital requirements. For example, to ensure effective preparation, the parent can contract a professional makeup artist.
On average, makeup lessons from a professional artist cost $ approximately $ 100 per hour (Habee, 2011, para. 2). It is estimated that the cost incurred in the contest can range from $300 to $ 5,000. For example, the cost of a competitive dress for a child beauty pageant can cost from $ 500 to above $ 1,000. Alternatively, a parent can rent a dress at the cost of $ 75(Habee, 2011, para. 2).
Prizes for the pageants In order to motivate the contestants, a variety of prizes are issued to children beauty pageants. Example of the prizes issued in includes gift baskets, flowers, balloons, toys or stuffed animals. In addition, the awards may also include a cash prize. In Indiana, a crown and trophy is issued to the top models. In addition, the prizes are also in terms of cash prizes.
For example, in Indiana and Ohio Dream Girl USA children beauty pageant contest, a cash award of $ 3, 000,000 is issued. In the Glitz Pageant, the top models are given an opportunity to participate in high level contests such as international beauty competitions.
Requirements for one to do a pageant To effectively prepare for the pageant, it is paramount for one to prepare effectively. One of the ways through which this can be achieved is by conducting a research to determine whether the contest is genuine. In addition, the pageant should research on other issues such as the cost involved, the prize, and age division.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Child Beauty Pageants Kentucky, Ohio and Indiana specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also important for the parent to research on the most appropriate outfit. In addition, it is important for the parent to prepare the child by conducting practice. This will make the child to be comfortable for the competition (Hubpages Incorporation, 2011, para. 10).
Conclusion Kentucky, Ohio and Indiana are some of the US states which have incorporated children beauty contest. Examples of these contests include Glitz Pageant and Dream Girl USA. The contests are well organized to ensure that a large number of participants. Registering one’s child to participate in beauty pageant is one of the ways through which a parent can improve his or her self-esteem.
Participating in children beauty pageant requires the child to satisfy certain requirements. In addition, a substantial expenditure is incurred. As a result, it is paramount for the paramount to undertake a comprehensive budgeting.
Despite the fact that a considerable cost is incurred, there are also numerous rewards associated with the beauty pageant. In addition, the contests are very competitive. This underscores the importance of developing a high competitive edge. To increase the chances of winning children’s beauty contest pageant, it is important for the parent to ensure that a high degree of competitiveness is attained. This can be achieved through effective preparation.
Reference List Cadence, C. (2010). Child beauty pageants: the fascination with Glitz kids in America and beyond. Web.
Dream Girl USA. (2010). Dream girl USA pageant. Web.
Habee. (2011). Kids beauty pageant: what you will need to be competitive. Web.
Hubpages Incorporation. (2011). Children beauty pageant. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Child Beauty Pageants Kentucky, Ohio and Indiana by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Schultz, K.
Measuring Macroeconomic Concepts Essay essay help online: essay help online
Inflation rate can be defined as the percentage rate at which prices of goods and services change over a period of time (Sheffrin 7). As a matter of fact, it can also be referred to as the rate at which the purchasing power of individuals’ changes as time goes by. In this case, inflation rates can be used to calculate interest rates and any expected increase in wages (Inflation rate 11). Inflation rate is measured by looking at the current average price level and the price level that had been witnessed a year ago.
The USA inflation rate has been changing as time goes by in 2010. It should be known that the government calculates its inflation rate to one decimal place. As a matter of fact, it has been ranging from 2.63% to 1.05% (Forecast 8). In December 2010, the inflation rate stood at 1.2%. This rate is expected to stabilize in January 2011 at 1.3% (Inflation rate 17). The country is in a stable period of prices because this inflation rate is manageable and good for the economy. This will keep prices within the reach of various consumers.
Unemployment rate can be defined as the percentage of a country’s labor force that doesn’t have jobs but they are looking for jobs and at the same time willing to work (Ruhm 14). The unemployment rate can be arrived at by dividing the number of unemployed persons with the country’s total labor force (Ashley 9). In this case, the labor force is the total number of employed persons and the total number of unemployed persons in a given economy.
The USA unemployment rate has been changing as time goes by. This is more so after the global financial crisis. As a matter of fact, the country’s unemployment rate was last recorded at 9.80% in November 2010 (Forecast 17). The country’s inflation rate has been manageable all along and it has never reached such highs. Such an unemployment rate was last witnessed in 1982 at 10.80%.
This unemployment rate will not cause deflation. This is because deflation only occurs when the average inflation rate falls below 0%. As much as the economy is still recovering, this will not cause a reduction in the supply of money to warrant deflation. A labor market can also be termed as an informal market (Blades 13). In this market, workers compete for various jobs in the economy. On the other hand, employers also compete for existing workers.
The current labor market structure is characterized by a lot of labor supply with less demand. Companies are still picking up after the global financial crisis and they don’t have enough capacity to employ people. This labor market structure will not lead to cost push inflation because the cost of doing business in the country has not increased to push up various manufacturing costs (Economy watch 9).
In the mean time, this structure will have a little impact on deflation as time goes by. This is because the market is still readjusting for sustainability.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Growth rate can be defined as the year on year change that a given country will experience as far as its economic performance is concerned. As a matter of fact, it is an increase that a given variable will gain as time goes by (Trading economics 13). GDP is the amount of goods and services that a given country can produce at a given period of time. GDP is calculated by looking at the market value of the country’s goods and services (Wieseman 9).
The USA GDP is estimated to have expanded by 2.60% in the third quarter of 2010 (Trading economics 16). As a matter of fact, the country has a market oriented economy. In this case, individuals and private companies are free to make their own decisions. There are good future predictions because the GDP growth rate is expected to increase as time goes by. In December 2010, GDP was $14, 834 while it is estimated to reach 14,952 in January 2011 (Trading economics 18).
Income distribution can be described as the approach that is used to distribute a nation’s total economy among its citizens (Sudhir 15). Income distribution has mostly been represented or defined by the Lorenz curve. The distribution of income has mostly been unequal for a long period of time. In this case, it is argued that those in the top two quintiles earn more than 60% of the population combined together (Trading economics 13). It should be known that most of the country’s income rests in the hands of the middle class.
Works Cited Ashley, Richard. Fact sheet on the impact of unemployment. 2007. Springer: Heidelberg.
Blades, Derek. Understanding National Accounts. 2006. London: Guardian.
Economy watch. Cost push inflation. 2011. Web.
Forecast. U.S. Inflation Rate Forecast. 2011. Web.
We will write a custom Essay on Measuring Macroeconomic Concepts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Inflation rate. Current Inflation. 2011. Web.
Ruhm, Christopher. Are Recessions Good for Your Health. 2000. New York: Routledge.
Sheffrin, Steven. Economics: Principles in action. 2003. New Jersey: Upper Saddle River.
Sudhir, Anand. Inequality and Poverty in Malaysia. 1983. New York: Oxford University Press.
Trading economics. United States GDP Growth rate. 2011. Web.
Wieseman, Ted. United States review and preview. 2011. Web.
Citizen Kane. Editing Techniques in Film [Analysis Essay] scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Main Editing Techniques
The Importance of Editing for the Plot’s Integrity
Film’s Realism as a Result of Editing Techniques
Citizen Kane is a 1941 drama film directed by Orson Welles and praised for its innovative sound and editing methods in cinematography. Experimenting with creative storytelling techniques and non-linear plot construction, the director treated the time parameter sensitively, replacing time continuity of real scene by a subjective continuity, controlling the rhythm and pace of all scenes. Editing in Citizen Kane shall be analyzed in this essay in detail.
Developing specific editing techniques, Orson Welles constructed the plot from separate fragments and several voices, affecting the spectators’ perception of the plot and emphasizing the impossibility of portraying another personality.
Main Editing Techniques A jigsaw puzzle is one of the central motifs and techniques used by Orson Welles in his editing experiments. Implementing the principle of psychological associations, Orson develops editing techniques that emphasize the complexity of human personality, which can be seen differently by various storytellers from their specific perspectives.
Thus, involving several storytellers in the process of portraying the characters, the author allows the audience to collect separate fragments and scattered facts that help understand the fractured personalities of the main characters. Some of the fragments are intentionally made contradict each other to produce the impression of a controversial and biased depiction of individuals by storytellers.
As opposed to traditional editing schemes, the technique chosen by the editor for Citizen Kane involves spectators into the process of solving the jigsaw puzzle, making them active participants of the investigation process. Not wholly reliable and controversial evidence provided by friends and associates of the deceased man requires critical evaluation and analysis. Telling a story of the spiritually failed man from several equally not trustworthy perspectives, the author makes Kane’s portrait enigmatic and non-sequential.
Instead of telling the story chronologically, Welles combines it from separate elliptical flashbacks, which represent overlapping segments of the puzzle. Allowing each narrator to express personal opinions and interpretations of the situation, the director intentionally sacrifices the accuracy of their evidence, giving rise to spectators’ doubts concerning the reliability of the narrators’ memories. With the help of specific editing in Citizen Kane, Welles may have intended to suggest that Rosebud, the last word uttered by the main character before his death, is one of the most significant segments of this puzzle.
One of the narrators, Thompson, exclaims: “I don’t think any word can explain a man’s life. No, I guess Rosebud is just a piece in a jigsaw puzzle—a missing piece” (Citizen Kane). Making his film a collection of scattered evidence of several storytellers, Welles offers his spectators to solve a jigsaw puzzle, gathering the segments of the characters’ portrayals one by one.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The crosscutting montage of a quick succession of the narrators’ voices produces the impression that the whole town is speaking simultaneously. However, the same technique was also used by Welles for creating different effects, such as showing the growing tension between Kane and his wife through editing the quick succession of the episodes from their breakfast quarrels.
As opposed to the traditional mode according to which one character completes an utterance before the following one starts his/her remark, Welles does not allow the characters of Citizen Kane to express their thoughts till the end, interrupting then with the comments or questions of the following speaker.
The Importance of Editing for the Plot’s Integrity This editing technique, when the remarks of different narrators are overlapping, and one speaker starts the idea while his follower continues, it demonstrates the integrity of the plot and all its elements. The innovative technique of combining flashbacks and contradicting pieces into a whole shows Welles’ editing art. It was his aesthetic sense, professional skills, and talent that allowed mixing the contradicting segments for producing a particular effect on the audience and achieving specific goals.
The film under consideration demonstrates that editing and other filmmaking techniques can be even more significant than the main actors’ play. Kuleshov and his followers believed that with the advances in the sphere of editing techniques, the importance of traditional acting skills had decreased significantly (Giannetti, 2010).
The film techniques Citizen Kane put the main emphasis upon editing separate episodes and making it a whole. Combining flashbacks produces the desired effect upon spectators. It enhances their understanding of the authors’ messages, which have been encoded not only in the development of the plot lines but also in the manner of presentation of the material.
Thus, the montage of unfinished remarks of different speakers or the episodes at the same location is used for not only tell a story of Kane’s spiritual degradation but also demonstrate the audience how complex and controversial depiction of one individual can be.
Film’s Realism as a Result of Editing Techniques The original techniques of collecting the jigsaw puzzle from the evidence given by different narrators, a combination of flashbacks, and a quick succession of utterances of different speakers were implemented for creating a more realistic feeling in the scenes of the film. On the one hand, narrators are shown with all their human weaknesses, including bias and subjective interpretation of particular events.
We will write a custom Essay on Citizen Kane. Editing Techniques in Film [Analysis Essay] specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More By the way, most Kane’s associates telling his story are elderly and forgetful. Thus, working in the realistic key, Welles allows his narrators to age, and this circumstance adds a unique appeal to their narration. On the other hand, the combination of overlapping and frequently contradicting segments and flashbacks shows spectators how multi-sided and controversial the depiction of an individual can be.
As is clear from the analysis essay on Citizen Kane, these techniques involve the audience in the process of investigating the case, requiring their critical analysis of the information retrieved from unreliable sources. To give the spectators food for thought and make them active participants of the development of the plot lines, Welles used innovative editing techniques, violating the chronological principle and altering traditional dialogue and storytelling patterns. At the same time, the support of the director in decoding his messages cannot be underestimated.
For instance, the meaning of the rosebud, which was the central enigma of the whole story has been disclosed until the end of the film. Surprisingly, the rosebud appeared to be the name of the sled from Kane’s childhood, the only period in his life when he was truly happy. The film Citizen Kane tells a story of the ups and downs of the main character.
Conclusion Thus, creating the links between the words of a dying man and his memories of careless childhood, the author conveys raises a philosophical issue of the meaning of human happiness. Electrifying the audience during the development of the plot lines, Welles provides them with more questions than answers and preserves the enigmatic atmosphere until the end of the story.
Orson Welles used innovative editing techniques in Citizen Kane, ignoring the chronological parameter of the narration and altering the traditional dialogue and shots techniques. The jigsaw puzzle portrayal of the main characters and the quick succession of different voices create a more realistic feeling of the scenes and affect the spectators’ perception of the movie.
Reference List Giannetti, L. (2010). Understanding movies. New York, NY: Allyn
The Roman Republic Essay college application essay help
The Roman revolution was a period of great upheaval in the city of Rome. This is because it was during this period that the Roman republic collapsed. It commenced when the last king of the Tarquin monarch lucius Junis Brutus was overthrown. At this time the republic of Rome was also governed by a complex constitution which was large. Later the republic of Rome set up a government that constituted of three main bodies which include the senate, consuls and assemblies.
The fall of the republic of Rome is dated back to the late second century B.C. there were many reasons for the decline some of which include;
Military; there were armies that were organised and led by senate officials who had appointed themselves. The armies lacked experience and expertise due to the fact that they were short lived for instance only functioned for two years only. The militia personnel also got back up from professionals and tempered generals.
The republic was also faced with financial constraints. This was steered by the gap between the rich and powerful. The rich acquainted themselves with all the wealth available in the republic. This, in return, resulted to a decline in their financial strength (Beard 1).
The roman republic citizens also divided themselves into social groups that constituted of plebs, equites and finally the patricii. The “plebs” was made up of the hardworking people while the equites belonged to the lower high class as the patricii composed of the highest class. The three groups were further divided by the political groups they belonged to.
This lack of unity among them was also a contributing factor to the decline of the roman republic. The birth of Rome as an empire too was a reason for the collapse. After Caesar’s assassin Octavian made his return to Rome as a single ruler unlike before when it was ruled by a group of three. Despite the existence of the senate Rome was now ruled by a governor and the republic collapsed (Smith 1).
The Gracci brothers in a bid to save the republic they worked on reforms that were of great importance to the roman peasantry. The brothers had in mind offering Latin’s full citizenship and providing soldiers with a piece of land. Their idea was widely accepted by the people but contrary the aristocracy in the senate were in opposition to their reforms. This led to misunderstanding between the two parties and later a civil war which ended in the loss of many innocent lives (Beard 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consuls Marius and Sulla were both commander but the difference was Marius was non-ambitious and shrewd while Sulla was ambitious and loyal. When the city of Rome was faced with misunderstandings and violence and the leaders were unable to share power Sulla executed his opponents and interchanged them with his favourite members who were fit for the posts.
Julius Caesar and Pompey made their entrance at the time when focus and limelight was on the Rome. The two strategists were contradicting due to their greed for power and fame. Their lust is evident after the end of their war when Julius won he accepts and assumes his title “dictator for life” this brings out a clear picture that his main interest was control over Rome rather than the people’s welfare (Smith 1).
The collapse of the roman republic was mainly due to the disagreements between military leaders and greedy government officials. The prioritized their interests and ignored the peoples welfare for instance their lust for power, fame and wealth.
Works Cited Beard, M. “The Fall of the Roman Republic”. 2010 – January 9, 2010.
Smith, R. “The Fall of the Roman Republic.2009” – January 9, 2010. Web.
Arguments for and against Affirmative action Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Analysis of the paragraphs
Introduction The aim of affirmative action is to ensure that distribution of resources is done in appropriate and considerable manner that includes every person from diverse racial and ethnic background.
Those in support for affirmative action argues that there are certain groups of people who have been previously discriminated against and this gives them difficulties to compete equally within the society with those from dominant groups occupying most resourceful sectors within the nation. The intention is to administer equality amongst all citizens (Martindale 1-2).
Affirmative action can be defined as a policy that aims at providing advantages or opportunities to people forming minority group against whom have been traditionally discriminated. The discrimination can be against access to social facilities and other resources such as education and health care (Martindale 1-2).
Analysis of the paragraphs The argument in the case where affirmative action is considered to allow for fair evaluation of candidates is well used as a preferential treatment. The implementation of race-based affirmative action drives towards the general improvement of the society since it creates good social set-ups for children as well as adults.
The diversity that exists within the schools gives opportunities for the improvement of learning since students get the chance of exposing themselves to diverse ideas which ultimately challenge them to seek for more knowledge (Martindale 1-2).
The case of diverse student body could be supported by the fact that United States is diverse in ethnicity and race as compared to other nations. Hence very crucial to ensure that there is free interaction amongst the groups and clear understanding that leads to creation of strong nation. According to analysis this point of view presents one of the strongest arguments in support for affirmative action (Martindale 1-2).
The application of affirmative action in ensuring that all the ethnic groups are presented may at times place the minorities in situations which are above them hence they are most likely to fail. This encourages fear amongst the minority and may cause them not to utilize their full potential. In this case affirmative action tends to conflict the idea that the most qualified applicant should always be given priority when it comes to selection.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is always good at times to use conventional qualification measurement other than criteria to create adequate distribution of resources and admissions. It is at times intrinsically wrong to use race on making decisions concerning some situations (Martindale 1-2).
Affirmative action focuses majorly on race which is considered as one of the aspects of diversity. This case on judging applicants outside their merits do not consider intellectual diversity but rather focuses only on creation of racial diversity which also do not support diversity of opinions. This makes the argument appear to be strong against affirmative action (Martindale 1-2).
The argument that affirmative action do not lead to true diversity sounds weak. This is since the emergence of affirmative action led to social awareness within the society and also led to institution of anti-discrimination laws which made race be of less concern compared to social class. The idea of class could best be used to address the issues of disadvantages which could ultimately be used towards promoting equality. Hence the use of class-based affirmative action could well be used to help in the creation of racial diversity (Martindale 1-2).
What is referred to us class based affirmative action is preferred since it creates less stigma on persons. This is because it proves very difficult to identify a person’s class than his race or ethnic background. The goal for affirmative action should be to de-racialinize the society.
This could be achieved through improving the economic status of every race and also including them in top occupations. This would assist in getting rid of the idea on discrimination based on skin color, because an increase in the number of blacks in top prestigious positions of power, would lead to decline in the cases of racial identification. It becomes a reality since the gap between color and social class would have been narrowed down (Martindale 1-2).
Conclusion Attempts to reach the goal of diminishing cases on racial discrimination could be hindered by the occurrences of some negative side-effects brought by different ways in which people view the policy. The issue may at times result in additional stigmatization imposed on those who are considered beneficiaries of affirmative action programs.
The affirmative action at the universities has been found of benefit to blacks unlike other minority races like Asian Americans who happen to be minority in population though quite a number in the Universities and colleges (Martindale 1-2).
We will write a custom Essay on Arguments for and against Affirmative action specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Martindale, Gayla. Arguments For and Against Affirmative Action. U.S. University Directory 2010. 10th January, 2010.
Anton Chekhov Literary Works Research Paper college application essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Early Writings and Influences of Anton Chekhov
Analysis of Chekhov’s Playwright Works
Issues Presented in Chekhov’s Works
Abstract The purpose of the research paper will be to discuss Anton Chekhov who was a Russian playwright and a literary figure. The research paper will examine the relevant literature with regards to Anton Chekhov and also examine his various literary works.
Playwrights and short stories that have been written by the famous author will also be explored in the discussion by introducing his works and playwrights. The paper will also look at the various issues that Anton Chekhov chose to explore in his literature works such as his playwrights and how these issues influenced his writing in his depictions of the Russian contemporary society.
Introduction Anton Pavlovich Chekhov who was born in 1860 was a Russian playwright and short story writer considered to be one of the greatest literary writers in the world of literature. For most of his literary career, Chekhov was a physician and he therefore wrote short stories for some financial gain but as his ability to write literary works grew, he focus became centered on writing short stories.
Chekhov mostly used the “stream-of-consciousness technique” in producing many of his stories where he mostly asked questions rather than answered them. In his whole career as a playwright, he was able to produce four classic short stories with the rest-becoming world re-known amongst playwrights and short story writers (Craig et al, 2009).
In 1896, Anton Chekhov renounced the theater after the terrible reception he got for his play, the Seagull. However, the play was revived two years later by a playwright known as Constantin Stanislavski in the Moscow Art Theatre that would later feature two of Chekhov’s plays known as the Three Sisters and the Cherry Orchard.
His four classical plays offered the audience with a different feel to theater acting as he emphasized more on offering a theatre mood that would submerge the audience into a life within the play’s script.
Chekhov’s plays became world re-known and they revolutionized the playwright field as well as theater acting. His playwright techniques were seen by many as an art as they provided scattered glimpses into the lives of his characters in what were termed as trivial conversations which existed in the Russian urban life during the 1800s (Craig et al, 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Early Writings and Influences of Anton Chekhov Chekhov’s venture into the world of literature began in 1876 when he started writing short comedy sketches for the local newspapers in Taganrog so that he could sustain his family after his father left with his two brothers because of debt problems. Anton performed various jobs such as selling goldfinches and private tutoring to support his mother and also pay for his education in medicine.
He also sold short sketches to the local newspapers in Taganrog to earn an extra income which he sent to his family in Moscow to help them with the financial situation. Chekhov also read widely and he analyzed various works by famous Russian writers such as Turgenev, Cervantes and Goncharov which enabled him to write his first full-length comedy drama known as the Fatherless (Whyman, 2010).
Chekhov later moved to Moscow after gaining admission to the medical school of Moscow University in 1879. He continued to support his family as well as pay for his tuition fees by writing short comedy sketches that portrayed the contemporary Russian life during the 1800s.
He distributed these sketches to the various newspapers and publication houses in Moscow where his reputation as a satirical writer of Russian contemporary life continued to grow. Chekhov later completed his studies in 1884 after which he qualified to be a professional physician though this career did not allow him to earn as much as he would have wanted (Whyman, 2010).
Some of the works that he wrote for Russian newspapers during this time included the Man without a Spleen, Antosha Chekhonte and the Huntsman which all earned him literary acclaim from famous Russian writers such as Dmitry Grigorovich and Alexey Suvorin who was the millionaire owner of the St. Petersburg.
The year 1887 saw him produce a short length story known as the Steppe which revolves around a young boy who has been sent away from home. Chekhov focuses on the boy’s journey across a steppe as well as his companions throughout the journey who include a priest and a merchant. The Steppe represented a significant advancement from Chekhov’s previous works as it allowed him to demonstrate his maturity in the field of literature and fiction which later saw him winning a publication in a literary journal (Bartlett, 2004).
Chekhov was later commissioned in 1887 to write a play which saw him produce Ivanov which became a hit in the Moscow theater world. The play was a demonstration of how he had developed intellectually in his literary career and many playwright critics viewed his play, Ivanov, to be a work of originality.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Anton Chekhov Literary Works specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In 1889, Chekhov wrote a short story known as A Dreary Story after the death of his brother Nikolai Chekhov. The short story was meant to portray the life of a man who was nearing his death by confronting his past, only to discover that his life had lacked meaning. The following year, Chekhov went to Sakhalin Island in the northern part of Japan where he went to conduct a census on the prison life of thousands of convicts in the Sakhalin region (Bartlett, 2004).
The results of his census findings enabled him to produce his long short story known as the Murder where he used his literary expression of the census findings to portray the prison conditions of convicts in Sakhalin. Chekhov explored the issue of politics and humanity in the Murder by demonstrating the poor conditions that prison convicts were subjected to.
Chekhov began writing his second play, the Seagull, in 1894 which was later released to the commercial theater in Petersburg in 1896. The play was not however received well by theater audiences who booed during most of the acting. This reaction to the Seagull saw Chekhov renouncing playwrights and the theatre for two years during which he mostly focused on writing short stories and long short stories (Whyman, 2010).
The theater director in the Alexandrinsky theatre based in Petersburg, Vladimir Danchenko, was however impressed with the play. He convinced Constantin Stanislavski to direct the play in the Moscow Art Theatre in 1898 with a different approach from that used by Chekhov. Stanislavski involved the use of psychological realism and ensemble playing to evoke the buried message in the Seagull’s script thereby restoring the play to its intended reputation.
The successful reception that the play got with Stanislavski’s direction restored Chekhov’s interest in writing plays which saw the Art Theatre commissioning him to write more plays such as Uncle Vanya. Chekhov later completed two more plays in 1901 known as the Three Sisters and the Cherry Orchard. The Cherry Orchard was Chekhov’s final play as it was produced just before his death in May 1904 (Whyman, 2010).
Analysis of Chekhov’s Playwright Works Many literary writers and critics of Chekhov’s works have agreed that he was the best dramatist and writer of short stories the world has ever known. His subtle writing of plays and short stories enabled his works to have elements of drama that were eventually seen to be original pieces of literary work. In an analysis of Chekhov’s first play the Seagull, Bloom (2009) views Chekhov’s portrayal of the characters in the play as well as the overall script to be magnificently written the famous playwright.
He terms the Seagull as a pure comedy play where Chekhov brings various comedy aspects out of the play’s characters. Despite having a perfect storyline, the Seagull had various flaws and limitations that made it get a negative reception during its first launch. One of these flaws was the character of Konstantin, a bad writer in the play, when he delayed shooting himself until the very end of the play (Bloom, 2009).
This was seen as an inconsiderate part of the play given the irrelevance of Konstantin’s character as a mother’s boy. Another flaw of the Seagull was the character of Nina, an aspiring actress and a victim of the main character, Trigorin. The portrayal of Nina as a naïve and sincere actress who is ready to be ruined by Trigorin throughout the play gave out a negative portrayal of female actresses who wanted to join the theater and acting business.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Anton Chekhov Literary Works by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nina’s character showed that female actresses would do anything to get into the acting business even if it meant having the integrity and morals being to the test. The Seagull mainly focused on societal issues that affected actors and actresses who wanted to venture into the entertainment world (Bloom, 2009).
An analysis of Chekhov’s play, Uncle Vanya, shows that his writings for the playwright were formless given that the play mostly focused on the vicarious living of the various characters in the play that included Uncle Vanya, Yelena, Sonya, Astrov and Professor Serebriakov. The professor brings out various aspects and qualities in the play to explain Uncle Vanya’s precarious life such has ignorance, vanity, obtrusiveness and arrogance.
Professor Serebriakov reveals to Vanya, Sonya, Astrov and Yelena their own different versions of emotion and consciousness which serves to make their already bad lives even worse. Chekhov therefore focuses on the aspect of revealing truth which he terms as making his characters despair even further (Bloom, 2009).
Uncle Vanya was viewed to be a success by many playwrights and literary writers because of its exploration of the madness that exists in great artistic works. Describing the playwright would be a depressing affair but the aesthetic dignity that the play offered in its dramatic scenes was able to produce a different effect that was somber rather than depressing. The playwrights and literary critics viewed Chekhov’s Uncle Vanya to surpass the type of writing and characterization that was incorporated in the Seagull.
Three Sisters was however deemed to be Chekhov’s masterpiece in the playwright area as he explored an even more depressing storyline than Uncle Vanya. The characters in the Three sisters who include the three sisters themselves, Masha, Olga and Irina and their brother Andrey represent a fourfold parody of the prince of Denmark in the play (Bloom, 2009).
In the play, the characters of Masha and Irina come out to be more interesting than the character of Olga because they are more at home on the idealist reality than their sister is. Olga however has her own fascinating moments in the play as she encompasses the character of a playgoer and reader as well as a motherly figure and a fragile human being who is able to demonstrate the good nature of human beings but is unable to defend it in herself and in others.
Olga therefore embodies a character of maternal care in the Three Sisters who is unable to bring defend her good sided nature. Masha’s character on the other hand comes out as being very truthful and honest making her the intellectual among the three sisters while Irina’s character is composed of grim metaphors, delusions and provocations making her the dreamer amongst the three sisters.
Irina takes up the burial place of her mother to be her visual representation within the play despite the disconnection. Andrey’s portrayal in the play is viewed to be less than his three sisters as he comes off as an amiable aesthete that always falls victim to his fierce wife (Bloom, 2009).
Chekhov’s final play, the Cherry Orchard, was of a less intricate and depressing nature than the Three Sisters as it lacked any particular genre. Chekhov’s representation of the Cherry Orchard was viewed by many literalists to be a lyrical meditation that focused on theatrics as well as theater poetry.
In this play, Chekhov focused on the strong elements of farce where the main character, Lopakhin, who was a merchant, was at times portrayed to be in a relative farce while he was at home. The main protagonist of the play, Lyubov, was portrayed to be a figure that ensured that the play was neither a pure farce nor a pure comedy. His lack of focus in any genre ensured that he was able to present his literary works as a means of change within the Russian contemporary life (Bloom, 2009).
Issues Presented in Chekhov’s Works Chekhov’s plays served as a tool for critiquing the Russian society as they portrayed the various controversial issues that the audiences of the plays would be able to identify and relate with. In his playwrights Three Sisters and Uncle Vanya, Chekhov portrayed dysfunctional families that existed within society and the various issues that affected each member of the family.
The aspect of dysfunctionality was brought out well by Chekhov in Three Sisters where Olga, Masha, Irina and their brother Andrey were portrayed to have different characters that at times conflicted with each other. The Three Sisters presented gender issues as well as the general society’s view of women. In the play Uncle Vanya, Chekhov used the concept of realism to demonstrate the various societal issues that the characters of the play were going through.
Chekhov’s plays therefore demonstrate the various issues that members of the society go through in their daily lives (Whyman, 2010). The contemporary issues that are presented in the Cherry Orchard include sympathy and compassion despite the play being more of a comedy than a depressing depiction of life.
Chekhov focused the play on seminal values that existed in every family unit within the society. In the play, no one wants to see the cherry orchard go despite the fact that the orchard will either be sold or cut down to make way for developments.
The focus on seminal values outweighs the focus on the importance family survival in the difficult world. The play also highlights the aspect if cruelty especially in the character of Lopakhin, who is portrayed as very tough and self-made man (Bloom, 2009). The Cherry Orchard also highlights the various opinions that members of a dysfunctional family hold on a particular subject.
For example in the play, Ranyevskaya is not concerned with the survival of the cherry orchard and sees it as a seminal object that lacks any value. This contradicts with the general view that the society in the play holds of the cherry orchard which is seen to be a means of making a profit. Her childhood memories of the orchard as a playground make it difficult for her to see the truth behind her parent’s reason for keeping the orchard as a business.
Chekhov gave the various characters in the Cherry Orchard different roles so that they could be able to demonstrate the message that was being relayed in the play. The characters were able to portray social issues such as emotions and ideas (the business idea behind the orchard) that formed the integral part of every human being.
The use of comedy in the play represented the various aspects of social life that were reliant on comedy. The play emphasized the importance of comedy in our lives where the most ridiculous moments of the play were viewed to be the most important (Tabachnikova, 2010).
Conclusion The discussion in the research paper has focused on Antov Chekhov and an analysis of his various literary works. The research paper has examined the various short stories which he wrote throughout his life as well as the playwrights which he was able to write and produce.
In his entire life, Chekhov was able to write four playwrights which went on to receive worldwide critical acclaim because of their focus on various aspects that affected human beings in the social context. The findings of the research have revealed that Anton Chekhov focused on the issues of politics, gender, society and culture in his various works which include the Three Sisters and the Murder.
References Bartlett, R., (2004). Chekhov: scenes from a life. London, UK: The Free Press
Bloom, H., (2009). Bloom’s modern critical views: Anton Chekhov. New York: Infobase
Publishing Craig, A.M., Graham, A., Kagan, D., Ozment, S.,
World Starvation Essay online essay help: online essay help
Introduction The issue of world starvation is real in this millennium. So many people are facing starvation. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) puts the figure to about one billion of the people facing starvation in 2010. The statistics for hunger are troubling with about 18, 000 children dying everyday of hunger related issues (FAO 1).
In 2005, about 1.4 billion people were in extreme poverty. The World Bank estimated that food prices would shoot up in 2008 and following the recent global down turn the prices have escalated pushing more people into poverty and thus hunger.
The challenge of hunger or food insecurity is enormous in areas within low incomes areas. Finding a solution to world starvation is not an easy one because the number of undernourished people is very high. Scientists and policy makers have been working in the area of food technology to help overcome with the problem of world hunger.
In 2010, the number of undernourished people declined due to a slight improved economy especially in the developing nations. Moreover, food prices have fallen from the high prices experienced in 2008. FAO puts the undernourished at 925 million this year compared to 1.023 billion in 2009 as shown in figure below.
Most of the gains were made in Asia where there were 80 million less hungry. In sub-Saharan Africa the number reduced by 12 million. Nonetheless, the number of the hungry is still very high due to the current world economic situation, poverty, famine and conflict and a solution is needed to improve food security in the world and more so in areas with chronic food crises.
Food technology Developments in food technology have enabled many people to access food. The life span of human beings has also increased in many parts of the world because the people have food that has improved their life quality. The developing nations have not been left behind and life span has risen in the recent decades.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The advancement made in food technology has helped to feed the high world population due to high grain production. Scientists working in the food and technology field have come up with various ways of increasing food production. New ways of feeding the world population have been developed such as genetic engineering and biotechnology (Prakash and Conko 1). These methods are aimed at improving food security.
Genetically modified foods
Genetically modified foods have been introduced in a bid to curb world starvation. Through genetic modification, foods and animals are modified through the manipulation of genes to yields the best possible yields according to the needs of human beings. Moreover, crops can be modified to make them more resistant to pests and thus protect them to ensure good yields.
Agricultural technologies in developed countries Farmers in the countries that have embraced food technology and in particular genetically modified foods are now able to produce double of the grains they were producing in the same size of land. The genetically modified foods ensure good produce and mature faster than the conventional crops.
Countries especially the developed ones have embraced genetically modified crops and for example in the United Kingdom genetically modified crops such as soya, maize, tomatoes and cheese have been approved (Jones 1). The United States has approved a wheat has also embraced genetically engineered food and currently the debate on the approval of genetically modified salmon is ongoing.
However, not everyone has embraced genetically modified foods due to healthy and safety concerns. Some people have fears about the safety of genetically modified foods because some are said to be harmful. Thus, people have to be educated about the use of genetically modified foods to array the fears they have and to use them to supply their nutritional needs.
Scientists have across the globe “have attested to the health and environmental safety of agricultural biotechnology” and they call for its use especially by countries that have major hunger problems (Prakash and Conko 1). Many health and scientific organizations have endorsed biotechnology for example, the American Medical Association and the United Kingdom Royal Society.
Agriculture technologies in Africa Agricultural technologies have helped to improve food security for many countries. Thus, efforts are being made to encourage African countries embrace agricultural technologies.
We will write a custom Essay on World Starvation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is need for African nations to embrace food technology because most of the poor people live in rural areas in the developing countries. Africa cannot afford to ignore agricultural technologies to improve its food production to feed its high population. The continent is a major importer of grains and its grain production has remained at the same level for over four decades (McPherson 5).
The African leaders have taken a step towards reversing this trend. The first step they have taken is to pledge to increase the budget allocated to agriculture. The increased budget will help the farmers in the rural area produce adequate food for their consumption. The money allocated in the budget will go a long way in aid research to come up with food varieties that are suitable for the African climate.
Use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers
Fertilizer and pesticide use is crucial in agriculture. The cost of fertilizer is high and many African governments have taken a step in making fertilizers available to the farmers through subsidies. Other steps have been by working in conjunction with banks to provide farmers with loans to secure fertilizers for instance the Equity Bank in Kenya.
Malawi is a success story in adapting food technologies to improve its food production, which has made it a breadbasket for South African region. The government gave farmers subsidy in buying fertilizers and many farmers attributed the 2007 bumper harvest to government’s effort (Dugger 2).
Green revolution in the Caribbean and Latin America The green revolution in Latin American and Caribbean has led to increased food production. These two regions have been able to provide food for their population even though about 55% live in the rural area in poverty in a region that is richly endowed with natural resources (Izquierdo and De la Riva 1).
The region has failed to produce adequate food to feed its population due to desertification, floods, soil erosion among other factors. Therefore, it is important for the region to embrace food technologies that will help the region to feed its population.
The region has applied agricultural technologies more vigorously because earlier on only a few applications food technologies were utilized. The region has realized that it cannot continue to depend on the success of the green revolution to provide food because the method cannot bring in the success required to feed the whole region. Biotechnology methods must be adapted to reduce the dependence on imports for the provision of basic grain needs for the population.
In this regard, FAO has come up with a program called the Special Program for Food Security (SPFS) to assist countries to increase their food productivity. The program will help the region to improve and develop their biotechnology because in the past the kind of agricultural technologies applied have not been successful because they failed to address the unique needs of the region (Izquierdo and De la Riva 1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on World Starvation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Food technology is important if the world is to overcome the current starvation problem. The technology will help to solve the problem of crop pest infestation and increase crop yields. The methods applied in biotechnology will help to come up with crops that can withstand the current environmental conditions such as drought resistant crops. So far, many people have benefited from genetically modified crops grown across sixteen nations in the world.
Many farmers in the developed countries have benefited from the agricultural technologies in the less developed countries. The adaption of food technology in the developing countries shows that these technologies can be transferred and used in countries that are less industrialized just like in the developed countries (Prakash and Conko 1).
Using agricultural technologies will enable the countries in many parts of the world to gain food security. A world with adequate food will give the people an opportunity to live full quality lives and improve their economic status.
As long as people have adequate food supply they will be in a position to produce grains to ensure that, all year round they have food because hungry people cannot be in a position to produce food. Having adequate food to feed the undernourished and the people facing starvation will help to reduce the number of deaths that occur daily while a few millions are overfed.
Works Cited Dugger, Celia. ”Ending famine, simply by ignoring farmers. New York Times, 2 Dec. 2007.
Food and Agriculture Organization. Addressing food insecurity in protracted crises. fao.org. 2010. web 24 Nov. 2010.
Izquierdo, Juan and De la Riva, Gustavo. “Plant biotechnology and food security in Latin America and the Caribbean.” Journal of Biotechnology 3.1 (2000): 1-2.
Jones, Leighton. “Genetically modified foods.” British Medical Journal 318. 3 (1999): 581- 584.
McPherson, Peter. The global food crisis: causes and solutions. usaid.gov .14 May. 2008. Web.
Prakash, Sikh and Gregory Conko. “Saving billions with Technology.” Journal of Technology, 3.1 (2007): 1-6.
American History (1492-1870) Research Paper essay help: essay help
Introduction James K. Polk once a lawyer, a congressman and a governor of Tennessee was the eleventh president of the United States. He succeeded Andrew Jackson and was the predecessor of the famous Abraham Lincoln. There are many achievements that stand out in the American history that he contributed greatly to like acquiring California, leading the Mexican War, reduction of tariffs as well as establishing an independent tariff system.
Therefore, even though he was a war president, he did much more than leading Americans during the Mexican War. On the same note, he used not only war to achieve his ambitions, but also diplomacy. Since he was in leadership during the salve trade era, his major contributions are striking and greatly helped to shape the history of the United States.
For instance, the 1850 compromise which occurred immediately after his leadership is an important historical event in the history of United States. He was able to acquire areas such as Utah, Arizona, California, Colorado and New Mexico. There is much more that James K. Polk achieved during his presidency and his entire life. Bent on that, this paper shall focus on his life, his contributions towards shaping the history of United States as well as significance of his actions.
Background Information It is important to understand the background information of James Polk before embarking on his major contributions. He was born on 2nd November 1795, as a first born son of Jane and Samuel Polk who were leaders in their community. During his childhood, Polk was greatly influenced politically by his elders and religiously by his mother who observed Calvinism. The family latter relocated to Tennessee where they prospered not only economically but also politically (Kellogg, pp. 95).
His school life was successful since when he was studying in Columbia; he was able to pass his examination in the Carolina University and was admitted as a sophomore. In addition, during his graduation in 18l8, he was the best student in the senior class. When he latter returned to Tennessee, he chose to learn law with the assistance of Felix Grundy. Nonetheless, his main interest was not in law but in politics because by 1823, he was already campaigning for the seat of state house representative.
In the year 1824, at twenty eight, Polk married his wife Sarah who was twenty by then. Although they did bear children, they were married for their whole life. Sarah was very significant in Polk’s political career since he was not only an active member in his campaigns, but was also gave him advice and helped him in speeches.
Polk’s Political Career
Polk embarked on his political life enthusiastically because in the year 1825, he was contesting for a congress seat in the Tennessee District. Although his opponents believed that he was too young to have won, he emerged victorious and made his way to the congress.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His first speech in the year 1826 was marked by his proposal for abolishment of the Electoral College to enable the president to be chosen popular vote. He was elected back to congress in the year 1827 after which he corresponded with Jackson and helped him in his presidency campaigns in the year 1828.
He continued to preserve his seat in congress and was given several positions during Jackson’s administration. Polk became the speaker of the house in the same year after defeating Bell, his opponent. During his time as a speaker in both Jackson’s and Van Buren administration, he was able to deal effectively with the major issues by then which included slavery and economic issues.
In the year 1839, Polk became the governor of Tennessee defeating Newton Canon by more than two thousand votes. Even though he still contested for the governor seat in 1841 and 1843, he did not succeed in any (Television Networks). Nevertheless, he managed to be nominated by Democrats as a presidential nominee in the year 1844.
The fact that he was for the territorial expansion and manifest destiny helped him gain favor with the Democrats. He was able to narrowly defeat Henry Clay who was a Whig candidate. Immediately after, he embarked on his presidential duty of electing members of the cabinet which he managed to finish before his inauguration in the year 1845.
Major Contributions of Polk during his Presidency
The presidency of James K. Polk started in the year 1845, being the youngest president ever in the history of United States. He started his term by setting four main goals which were inclusive of reducing tariffs, acquiring Oregon County as well as acquiring California and New Oregon. Although he was in office for only four years, he was able to achieve all his objectives. All his major accomplishments indicate the reason why he is an important person in the history of United States.
Polk was achieved his domestic policy by coming up with a tariff bill in the year 1846 assisted by Robert Walker who was the Treasury Secretary as well as by the leaders of the congress. On the same note, the president managed to put to an end deposit of federal revenues from private banks to government banks. Such accomplishments were very effective in helping Polk accomplish his economic goal since he once stated “I would bring Government Back to what it was intended to be-a plain economical Government” (Leonard, pp. 19).
The Mexican American War
The annexation of Texas contributed greatly to the war between Americans and Mexicans. The main aim of James K. Polk was to claim California early enough before any other nation from Europe. Most importantly, Polk was interested with the Bay of San Francisco in order to get an access to India. Although Polk had sent one of his diplomats by the name Sidel to negotiate for the purchase of California and New Mexico, his offer was turned down.
We will write a custom Research Paper on American History (1492-1870) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, he decided to send his troops under the leadership of General Taylor to the area which was being claimed by United States and Mexico. The fact that Mexican Soldiers attacked the American soldiers fueled Polk’s decision to ask the congress to allow him declare war to Mexico. Although he was opposed by some members of the congress especially the Whigs, his request was granted (Television Networks).
The war began immediately since by the year 1846, New Mexico had already been captured by the American troops under the leadership of General Stephen Kearny. Mexico was defeated but it only surrendered in 1848 after agreeing with Polk’s peace terms, marking the end of the war.
The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is one of the key issues that resulted from the American Mexican War and was very significant. It was being negotiated by Trist in the year 1848 and although Democrats were demanding for the whole of Mexico to be annexed, Polk agreed to negotiate.
After the treaty was signed, one million and two hundred thousand square miles of Mexico became part of United States. The size of Mexico was reduced by half while that of United States increased by a third. The parts which were affected by the treaty include Colorado, California, New Mexico, Nevada, and Wyoming, Utah as well as most parts of Arizona.
Moreover, Mexico was able to get fifteen million dollars while United States benefited greatly because it was acknowledged as the controller of the area which was initially disputed. The issue of slavery was also introduced by Wilmot although it was not the main goal of the war. The treaty was finalized in the year 1848 and after it was voted for by the Whig, territorial acquisition became legal and the war came to an end (The West Film Project).
Resolving the Oregon Boundary
During his administration, Polk was determined to urge Britain to resolve the dispute concerning Oregon boundary which had persisted since the year 1818. Although the previously United States had agreed end the dispute by dividing the region, Britain was not for the idea as it was interested with the area along the Columbia river. Polk used diplomacy to negotiate with Lord Aberdeen who was the British Foreign Secretary by then.
They came up with the Oregon treaty which enabled Oregon country to be divided according to the initial proposal of United States; along the forty ninth parallel. Although some Democrats were not pleased since they wanted the whole of Oregon, United States was able to acquire quite a large part which ended up being the area occupied by Washington, Idaho and Oregon states as well as by some parts of Wyoming and Montana States.
Death of James K. Polk
Polk left office on 4th March 1848 and three months latter, he succumbed to ill health and died in his home. He stayed in office for only one hundred and three days and was the youngest president by then to not only have entered office but also to have retired and died. He left a lasting reputation as a strong and great president mostly due to his major accomplishments while in office.
Not sure if you can write a paper on American History (1492-1870) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Discussion Why Was Polk Important in United States
All presidents in United States history are important but Polk’s contribution cannot be overlooked whatsoever. Historians who have studied about him have described him in several ways and all show not only his strong characteristics by also his importance in United States. To begin with, he was an active president who achieved all his goals in his short term in office. During his era, the only presidents who were comparable with him were Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln.
Although he had many notable achievements, expansion of United States is far much important. While discussing his major contributions, expanding the boundaries of United States is never left out. Through the use of the Mexican American War, he was able to acquire some land which ended up being occupied by some states in America.
For example, studies indicate that after the annexation of Texas which led to the war between America and Mexico, Polk was the commander in chief. As a result, United States was able to acquire some territories in the South as well as in the West.
The issue of Oregon boundaries stands out especially due to the fact that though he used war in Mexico, diplomacy was applied while dealing with the issue. Although he engaged in War and became successful, his use of diplomacy in the history of United States stands out.
He was able to negotiate with Great Britain on the issue concerning Oregon boundaries and at the end of it all, the dispute was resolved. Although he was mush criticized especially after going to war with Mexico, what he achieved was quite remarkable considering that increasing the size of a country by a third is not only impressive but also a great achievement.
Polk contribution to the economic arena in United States remains to be an outstanding issue. Earlier studies had indicated that he managed to establish an independent treasury system. It was his main goal to affect the economy of the country and his contributions in the same started when he was a governor, before becoming a president. Although a lot of resources were spent during the American Mexican war, the benefits out do the total cost.
How Polk shaped the history of United States
The fifty three years Polk was alive and more so active politically contributed greatly in shaping the history of United States. Although Polk was criticized because he did not end slavery during his administration, the situation he created contributed greatly to the end of it latter after he had left office.
As much as he was trying to balance between the needs and the expectations of the Northerners and the southerners, the conditions he created during his administration were not satisfactory enough to end slavery. As a result, the compromise of 1850 took place after he had left office when the northerners and the southerners agreed to resolve some issues related to slavery.
The 1850 compromise is not only a notable event, but it impacted greatly the politics of United States. It generally represents a total of five bills which were passed as a means of ending the conflict which had existed between the northern and the southern states. The States in the north were free while the southern states were referred to as slave states.
There were many issues that had resulted to the conflict like the expansion of the United State’s states territories, settlement of the Oregon boundary dispute and the famous war between America and Mexican. The main goal of the compromise was to curb the spread of slavery in the territory in order to balance the interest of both the northern and southern states (Waugh pp. 182).
The compromise led to the formation of the Republican Party and after some years, the same conditions lead to the outbreak of the civil war in United States. The civil war is very significant in the history of United States especially due to the fact that it lead to the end of slavery. If the actions of Polk while he was alive and in office contributed to the civil war, then he did much in shaping the history of United States since the war was very consequential.
Gold Rush in California
California is a territory that resulted from the expansion of United States during the reign of James K. Polk. History records that by the year 1848, it is only a small population that had settled in the region. Amongst them was John Sutter who was an immigrant from Europe. He had established a saw mill and even before the territory was formally acquired by United States, one of his workers noticed something shinny and latter on, it was realized that it was gold.
Discovery of Gold in the region was very significant because many people migrated to the region and within no time, the population had greatly increased. California applied to become a free state and even though it was initially opposed, the 1850 compromise paved way for it.
Discovery of gold in California had many impacts especially in the economic arena. Initially, silver was mainly being used in economic exchanges but after gold was discovered, the condition lead to an instability which lasted up to the twentieth century when both gold and silver were removed from the coinage.
Gold discoveries contributed greatly to development because industries which were established ended up increasing job opportunities. Some gold mint companies were established to help in the production of coins like Moffat and Company, Grieg and Norris as well as Templeton Reid. Apart from the economic impact, gold discovery increased the tension between the northern and southern states, a condition which also led to civil war.
Gold rush was a significant because it helped to divide the history of America in to two terms; before gold rush and after the gold rush. In addition, the era was marked by enormous immigration of people to the region in search of better standards ( Digita History).
Would U.S. History be different if it were not for the actions of James K. Polk?
Having studies the impact of James K. Polk during his life and presidency in United States, it is clear that the country would be very different if he never existed. To begin with, the history of a country is characterized by major events such as wars. Polk was the driving force behind the Mexican American War which features greatly in the history of America. In addition, his actions contributed to civil war which is also very significant in the history of United States (The West Film Project).
Actions of Polk did not only gain recognition locally, but also internationally. For instance, after becoming victorious during the Mexican war, America was able to win the respect of Europe. Moreover, the expansion of United States towards west enabled the country to be contributing towards the affairs of the pacific.
Most importantly, United States did not only gain recognition internationally, but also was promoted to occupy the second position in power rank. Therefore, the country could now be consulted and considered while dealing with international issues especially regarding the New World. Therefore, it is clear that without Polk, the history of United States would be different and lacking in many ways.
Conclusion James K. Polk, the eleventh president of United States is one of the key personalities who made major contributions locally and internationally. Having existed in the nineteenth century, he left lasting impacts especially because he contributed to the territorial expansion of United States, hence why he is referred to as an expansionist president. He was so enthusiastic about western expansion and due to the same; he managed to be nominated as a presidential candidate.
Polk was a man who shaped the history of United States in several ways like the emergence of the civil war after he had left office and retired. Gold Rush in California, one of the areas which resulted from territorial expansion shaped the economic history of United States as well. Therefore, it is quite clear that without him, the history of United States would have been different (Digita History).
Works Cited Digita History. 19th Century. 2010. Web.
Kellogg, William O. E-Z American History. New York: Barron’s Educational Series, 2010. Print.
Leonard, Thomas M. James K. Polk: a clear and unquestionable destiny. Boulder: Rowman
Monetary and fiscal policy during the Great Depression Research Paper essay help site:edu
The government plays a very important role in the regulation of a country’s economy by regulating and authorizing the amount in circulation and the amount held by banks and other financial institutions.
This process can be done in two different ways which include monetary policy and fiscal policy (Frank
Examples of Defamiliarization in Literature custom essay help: custom essay help
There are many art and design movements, techniques, and philosophies that mark the development of each successive epoch, era, or generation of creators. Hence, the multiple ways of recreating the reality have been invented to reflect the views of artists in a unique, striking way. The main goal of the artist is to communicate a particular message to the viewers, listeners, or readers. The techniques used are highly helpful to communicate some implicit, delicate meanings that would have otherwise remained unveiled in the realm of others.
Defamiliarization is one of the helpful stylistic techniques of such kind, and this essay shall analyze examples of defamiliarization and the benefits of its usage. It has become an invention of the 20th-century artists and is used to show the familiar conventional things, objects, or notions in an unusual way. The way of depicting them should appear so weird or funny for the object that he or she will come to reconsidering and re-finding them in the new aspect of his or her cognition. The technique can be used in every field, including literature, both poetry and prose, photography, design, and other artistic professions.
Focusing on the use of defamiliarization in literature, one should note that Virginia Woolf is one of the representatives of modernism in literature who intensely used this method. Defamiliarization in her short stories is clearly evident, and the work “Three Guineas” is an excellent example of how she does it. In her narrative, Woolf often uses defamiliarization, especially foregrounding, to illustrate her feminist ideas and fight against masculinity in society.
Depicting the bridge on which the female character fancies to be standing, the author dedicates several pages to the description of clothes men traditionally wear in the society to display their military or social honors. Though the practice was conventional and remains as such, the way Woolf depicts it appears strange for the readers, and some of them may devote some time to reconsidering the role these traditional attributes had for the society and for women put away from the scene of action as well.
Other writers used many defamiliarization effects in their works as well. For instance, Lev Tolstoy is known for his intense usage of the method, and Tolkien spoke much on the defense of the method, especially in such genres as science fiction or fantasy.
Tolkien considered the method highly effective for fantasy stories because it helped people look at the regular things they came across in life from a completely different angle. For example, Tolkien’s work “The Lord of Rings” may be considered in terms of defamiliarization usage.
All characters of the story represent some archetypes of people; dwarfs are the laborers, the brave and hard-working class wishing to retain their right for freedom and free toil. Hill-men are the elite that possesses some extraordinary, magical abilities, and who live almost eternally.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As is evident from the examples of defamiliarization, people are usually depicted with their humane worries, good and bad intentions, and the fight for power and dominance. In general, the situation discussed in work is a usual one for the modern world and for the time Tolkien lived and worked. Still, it is represented with the help of mystical creatures and magical activities.
There are brave and courageous creatures, real friends, traitors, evil creatures wishing to engage only in violence, power-seeking villains, and courageous heroes saving the Universe. This is the model of the human world with its strengths and weaknesses. Thus, it can be concluded that there are multiple examples of defamiliarization in literature. Still, with the help of defamiliarization, it looks weird because it is inhabited by non-human characters whose actions are far beyond the normal state of affairs in the real-time world.
Courting Practices between African Americans and Caucasian Americans Term Paper college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
History of Courtship Practices
Courtship Practices of African Americans
Courtship Practices of Caucasian Americans
Introduction The main objective of this essay will be to look at the courtship practices between African Americans and Caucasian Americans. Courtship practices around the world have mostly been determined by the values and norms that exist in the society. Despite courtship being personal and intimate, each story of courtship usually has an enactment within a certain societal context.
Each society has an investment in the type of person one of their members marries or becomes involved in. Courtship has been practiced by the privileged and less privileged members of the society as well as the different races and classes that exist around the world. African American courtship practices differed from those of Caucasian Americans during the slave trade and over the course of American history.
African American immigrants brought with them practices that were different from those being practiced in America. Their experience with slavery and oppression had an impact on their perceptions of love and marriage as well as their courtship practices.
For several decades now, the society of African-American has expanded disjointedly from that of other American society due to the continued discrimination in race and also slavery. It is until recently that the African American culture became integrated into that of the American culture. Their general courtship practices differed considerably from those of Caucasian Americans as some of these practices had some element of ethnicity, religion and race incorporated into them (Cherlin, 2005).
History of Courtship Practices Before humankind became more evolved and revolutionized, what passed as courtship was a raid on other tribes that saw the capture of women who were forced into marriage. True courtship practices did not exist during the early periods of man’s evolution and any feelings of affection or emotion did not exist during these courtship practices.
As human beings became more behaved and civilized, people of the opposite sex sought to make themselves more attractive and presentable to the opposite gender. Anthropologists and scientists involved in human history and social behavior studied the courtship practices that took place during the early periods of evolution and they noted that early courtship practices included ornamenting, painting and tattooing themselves so attract the opposite sex (Grouse, 2001).
While some cultures did not allow for people to choose their mates, other cultures permitted their young members to select their own spouses. In the event that two people selected one person, they had to duel it out which at times always led to the death of one person. Such duels were also seen as tests of endurance where the young men were required to demonstrate their agility and strength before they were granted any permission to marry.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More “The underlying principle was that no man was allowed to marry until they proved that they were able to fend for the wife and children” (Strange customs and taboos, 2010). These duels were therefore seen to be tests in determining which males were ready for marriage within the community or tribal clan
As human beings became more evolved, courtship practices became more civilized and people were allowed to choose their spouses without having to go through endurance tests or duels. Mutual love was allowed in communities that otherwise frowned up love in starting up long term relationships. Members of the opposite sex were allowed to choose their marriage partner’s based on their emotional feelings.
Ever since the ancient times, the original belief of practices in courtship were that there will not be a relationship between a man and a woman until they could prove themselves to be worthy of marriage. Courtship later evolved from marriage by abduction to marriage that was founded on mutual love and relationships (Westermark, 2009).
Courtship Practices of African Americans During the slavery period in America, slaves were not allowed by law to enter into any binding marriage contracts that would make it difficult for them to be sold to the white American masters. Laborers, immigrants and other lower class citizens in American societies were not included in the general courtship practices that took place within America.
Courtship during the slavery period was viewed to be a preserve of the civilized society. African American authors wrote about courtship practices during this period as being similar to the traditional languages of courtship (Brown, 2003).
African Americans who were slaves usually courted on Sundays during the church services and during walks after the church services were over. In the evening slave couples that were courting would join their family members for signing, dancing and poetry activities. Young African American couples attended parties and played kissing games such as fruit in the basket and fishing. The courting manners that were common during this period were mostly ritualistic and religion based.
Young girls who were being courted used cosmetics to attract the opposite sex. Courtship and marriage during this time was however difficult because the American masters at times sold the slaves, breaking the courtship or marriage. After the slave period ended, courting practices in the African American culture changed considerably (Brunell, 2001).
We will write a custom Term Paper on Courting Practices between African Americans and Caucasian Americans specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the turn of the 20th century, the working African American class residing in the urban areas spent most of their nights and weekends in commercial amusement venues with the sole aim of indulging with the opposite sex.
The working class courting culture during the 20th century helped in shaping the middle class practices in the 1920s (Cherlin, 2005). The courtship practices of African American men who were mostly in their twenties and lacked any form of employment or respect in mainstream society were characterized to practice deceit, violence and disrespect against women.
This was mostly due to the general perceptions that the Caucasian society had towards them. African American men who ended up getting married tended to be respectful, truthful, and honest towards their spouses. They also brought into the marriage their conservative beliefs towards women when compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Their relationships were however characterized by work related conflicts especially in the event their wives started working (Peters
Critical issue analysis Essay college essay help
Introduction The critical issue looks at the use of stimulants in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children with ADHD exhibit hyperactivity, hostility, inattentiveness, defiance, inattentiveness and resistance. The stimulants in question affect the behavior of the children, making them more docile. The use of these drugs has repercussions, both physical and psychological. However, the companies manufacturing and marketing the drugs seem to disagree (Breggin, 2002).
Facts presented by each side of the critical issue
The yes side of the critical issue makes it clear that the drugs being used to control ADHD are harmful as they affect the normal growth patterns of children. This is because they interfere with the hormones that regulate growth. The children have been observed to gain less weight and even height that they are supposed to.
This side of the critical issue also brings out the fact that the drugs are addictive and may cause dependence in children. This is shown by the fact that a child’s behavior worsens when he misses his medication. The child then exhibits withdrawal symptoms similar to those of a person abusing a drug like cocaine (Breggin, 2002)
The no side of the critical issue brings out the fact that the stimulants in deed affect the brain functions. They act on the brain regions whose under activity brings about ADHD. This side also shows the fact that the effect of stimulants in the patient is short term, hence the need to keep using more of the stimulant. This is exemplified by the use of insulin for the treatment of diabetes (Barkley, 2000).
Opinions presented by each side of the critical issue
The Yes side has the opinion that the use of stimulants may result in psychological problems that the child did not have initially. They also hold the opinion that the companies manufacturing and marketing the drugs do not tell people the truth as it is supposed to be. They instead make the side effects appear inconsequential.
On the other hand, the no side has the opinion that the drugs are indeed necessary in regulation of the child’s behavior, academic performance and social relations. They also think that the claims of the stimulants affecting growth in children are just myths (Breggin, 2002).
Strengths and weaknesses of the pro and con sides
The pro side shows that use of stimulants affects how the brain functions and that the drugs may cause dependence. They use the documented cases as evidence that the drugs may result in psychological as well as physical problems. The weakness in their argument is that the symptoms which they claim are due to cessation of stimulant use may actually be symptoms of the problem itself (ADHD).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The no side shows that the drugs are essential for children with ADHD to live a normal life. This is because they correct the deficiencies in the brain. The major weakness is the claim that stunted growth as a result of the stimulant use is a myth (Barkley, 2000).
The author I agree with
I agree with the author of the yes side. The use of these drugs really does affect the functions of the brain and may result in psychosis. Parents should use natural methods like giving the children a balanced diet and mineral supplements as opposed to the drugs. The drugs may cause retardation in a child who would otherwise have grown into a healthy adult (Breggin, 2002).
The side of the critical issue that contemporary research supports
Contemporary research supports the no side. There were studies conducted in hospitals in Massachusetts and Detroit to show that the stimulant use did not cause dependence. Other tests revealed that symptoms like anxiousness, loss of appetite, insomnia and irritability are due to ADHD and not the drugs (Barkley, 2000).
Conclusion Although yes and no sides do not seem to agree, it is clear that the stimulants affect the normal functioning of the body. This begins with the brain functions and may end up in malfunctions of the heart or even addiction. The growth of the child is interfered with and this influences the kind of person that child will grow up into (Breggin, 2002).
References Barkley, R. A. (2000). Taking charge of ADHD: The complete, authoritative guide. Surrey, Guildford.
Breggin, P. R. (2002). The Ritalin fact book: What your doctor won’t tell you about ADHD and stimulant drugs. New York, Perseus.
Goals and Achievements of Impressionism Essay essay help: essay help
Impressionism was a new trend that emerged from Paris and it was brought about by the upcoming generation of artists. For an artist to be acknowledged in France he or she was supposed to present his work to the salon. The salon acted as a platform that was used by various artists to illustrate their skills and abilities. The main goal of this movement was the effect of light on an item as opposed to form.
For an artist’s work to be exhibited at the salon it had to be evaluated by the salon officials to establish if it conformed to the elements of art and design and those that were found to be below the required quality were declined. This frequent denial at the salon made the artists whose art had been declined to combine forces to present their art in alternative places.
These artists introduced new culture in art where paintings were painted without observing the principles of art and design. The arts reflected images of daily events as they unfolded. The artists wanted to be liberated from the salon which they saw as the stumbling block to their prosperity.
The paintings were done outdoors as opposed to the previous paintings that were done indoors. The reflection of light in previous paintings was not accurate compared to upcoming paintings that were done outdoors thus the reflection of light was very natural and to the point because it was not manipulated by colors (Clancy 1).
The artists used opaque colors to add more contrast to paintings as opposed to previous paintings that blended bright colors to create contrast in art. The paintings employed little, lighter and clear brush work. The brushwork was distorted to make a rough tone and texture because the colors could not be merged. It was possible to identify the edges of texture because they were not smooth.
Among the artists who pioneered impressionism included Claude Monet, Pierre Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, Frederec Bazille, Camille Pissarro and Paul Cezanne. Following the decline of The Luncheon on Grass by Edouard Manet in 1863 the pace for impressionism had already been set. Manet’s art was declined because it portrayed a nude lady sand-witched by two gentlemen. The officials of the salon said the painting was not scholarly (Clancy 1).
The artists whose work was declined in that year combined their pieces and established their own salon that comprised of declined arts. Among the paintings that had been declined at the main salon included The Girl with a Hoop by Pierre Auguste Renoir.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Not all the upcoming artists were willing to turn to the new trend in art. This is because there are artists who still applied scholarly principles in their work such as Monet who still used black color in his paintings. He still presented his art to the regular salon to be evaluated by the officials because he thought he could only prosper in his career by having his work displayed at the salon. Others like Degas still painted their arts behind closed doors.
Perhaps the wrangles in this union of upcoming artists were due to the fact that when they were merging each artist wanted to use the union as the stepping stone. It is therefore certain that the union was an option to most of them after their arts had been declined at the salon.
If the artists were committed to bringing reforms in the industry they would have abandoned their scholarly principles completely. This implies that the artists were not interested in reforming the industry but used the new techniques in art to lure the public into their circle. It seems that whereas the public got acquainted to their new tactics they still did not have confidence in their new techniques and that’s why some of them used scholarly principles even after the establishment of a designated salon for declined arts.
Work Cited Clancy, John. Impressionism: historical overview and bibliography. Eds. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2003. Print.
International Trade between China and Africa Research Paper essay help free
Introduction Despite the collapse of Doha negotiations and world economic crisis, international trade is increasing rapidly. The move is even facilitated further by globalisation and development in information, communication and technology.
Different countries trade on comparative advantage and absolute advantage policies and aim to guarantee the availability of goods and service to consumers, when they need it. International trade is hampered sometimes by trade barriers like tariffs and quotas; it has become inevitable for sustainable growth and development in a country. Africa is one of the world developing continents, with an estimated population of 1.3 billion.
The continent though individual countries (it has 54 countries) or using economic bloc is participating in international trade. The continent level of industrialisation is lower than that of developed countries but it’s trying hard to improve its standards.
The continent has great potential in agriculture and its major exports are raw and semi processed goods (Krugman
Emotions of anger and happiness Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Emotions are still recognized as the common language of humanity since they influence every aspect of our lives, for good or for bad. They are the most basic characteristic of the human race. It is difficult to describe what emotions are; however, they generally refer to our feelings that lead to coping activities in response to the feeling.
Emotions are recognized as cognitive aspects and they are either negative or positive. And their physical sensation distinguishes them. Some of the types of emotions include anger, happiness, hate, love, reverence, cheerful, confidence, and remorse. This paper centers on the emotions of anger and happiness.
Anger is an involuntary emotional response to real or perceived threat that activates, encourages, and energizes someone to act so as to eliminate the perceived threat. As a strong feeling of annoyance or displeasure, the level of arousal to eliminate the threat depends on its degree.
Similar to other emotions, anger has both cognitive and physical aspects. Actually, there are several complicated cycles of physiological events, which take place when someone is irritated. It has a physiological preparation period in which energy is drummed up for a fight-flight response.
All emotions that occur in our bodies start in the section of the brain called amygdala, which identifies the perceived threats to our well-being and sends out appropriate response actions. The amygdala is efficiently wired such that it is able to respond to perceived threats to our well-being even before the cortex responds. The cortex makes judgments and considers the consequences of the actions to be taken. This is why sometimes people behave badly when they are angry.
When someone gets angry, his or her body muscles tense up and the brain releases neurotransmitter chemicals referred to as catecholamines that results in a burst of energy responsible for the common angry desire for fight. Simultaneously, the heart pumps faster, blood pressure increases, breathing rate increases, and consequently, all other thought processes are eliminated as one becomes locked up in the target of the anger.
In swift sequence, other brain neurotransmitters and hormones, such as adrenaline, are also given out making one to be ready to defend himself or herself (Frijda, 1986). After attaining the angry state, the wind-down phase now follows in which the body starts to get back to its normal resting state. However, it is important to note that relaxing from an angry state is not easy since the adrenaline-caused arousal usually lasts for a long time in the body. And during this time, one is prone to getting angry faster.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Happiness is another basic human emotion that is usually portrayed by positive feelings such as satisfaction, compassion, pleasure, or joy. Contrary to the popular opinion, most people usually consider themselves happy even when they are in less than ideal situations. It is interesting to note that studies have revealed that there is no consistent positive association between happiness and circumstances that most individuals relate with it, for example, riches, good job, or brainpower.
Even though most situations cannot reliably predict happiness, some situations associate positively with it, for example, having a strong religious conviction and being in a good social network. A major aspect of happiness is its physiological impact on our bodies as well as on our brains. Happiness is a form of eustress; that is, positive stress (unlike distress or negative stress). It brings the body and the brain to an alert state and it is beneficial in assisting us to feel alive, vibrant, and “up.”
As much as the present knowledge of the structure of the brain is not able to give a precise elaboration on the complex biochemical processes that generate what we experience as “happiness,” there is no disagreement concerning the fact that the experience comes from particular regions found within the human brain.
Scientists have been able to map out the actual regions within the human brain that leads to the state of happiness. Sections in and around the limbic system have been identified to be the major source of happiness and triggering of these areas lead to complicated interactions with other higher regions of the brain, such as the cortex, to cause the positive experience.
The emotion of anger affects our health and wellbeing in various ways. As a powerful emotion, anger can lead to both positive and negative benefits depending on how it is handled. Uncontrolled anger can lead to various health problems since the frequent releasing of stress chemicals and related metabolic changes that accompany it can ultimately cause harm to several other systems of the body leading to short term and long term health problems (Peurifoy, 2002; Barrick, 2002).
The physical effects of anger such as unconstructive arguments and assault can damage social relations, which ultimately can affect our well-being. However, a well managed anger can be a beneficial emotion that compels someone to achieve certain goals.
On the other hand, the experience of happiness has beneficial effects to our lives. Studies in neuropsychology have revealed that the state of happiness elevates the natural mood-enhancing endorphins. Consequently, the feel-good brain chemical dopamine is released. And the feeling of happiness depresses the stress hormone spigot and significantly reduces the effects of the chemical cortisol.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Emotions of anger and happiness specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The chemical cortisol has been correlated with negative stress behaviors and it can increase the body’s blood sugar level to dangerous levels. In addition, it also suppresses other stress-related hormones, which have been known to constrict blood vessels.
It has been observed that the brain and the body chemicals released during the state of happiness remain at escalated levels for a prolonged period, even after the happiness experience. Therefore, the release of these beneficial chemicals leads to healthier lives (Uhl, 2008).
In contrast to anger, happiness assists in building and maintaining social bonds. These benefits in the social realm improve our well-being since we are more likely to seek the advice of our friends when we are in problems.
As much as emotions of anger and happiness are universal in scope, there are some cultural and gender differences found in each of these emotions. Every culture in the world has its own unique behavioral codes and this distinguishes how they tackle the emotions of anger and happiness.
The place and the culture that we have been brought up in dictate how we interpret the thoughts and the emotions of other individuals around us. Behaviors that we think of as “the norm” were taught to us by the interactions we had while growing up. For example, there are marked differences in emotional perceptions exhibited by the eastern and the western cultures.
Studies have indicated that individuals from Japan (eastern culture) stare at the eyes for signals of changes in emotion while the people in the United States (western culture) stare mainly at the mouth for similar changes, and the former tend to suppress their emotions more than the latter. In both scenarios, the disparity in the center of attention influences the emotions of happiness or anger that someone may be having.
In addition, the eastern cultures (being collectivistic cultures) have been observed to be more conventional and less open to expressing their experiences of anger and happiness while the western cultures (being individualistic cultures) are more focused on individuation and open expression of these cultures (Weiten, 2010). This leads to different social consequences depending on the inclination of someone to either the western or the eastern culture. Gender differences are also found in these emotions.
Current investigations have revealed that men and women have different skills as appertains to sending and receiving of emotions of anger and happiness and it is usually considered that the latter are more emotional. Generally, women are more emotionally expressive, showing them through facial expression and words, while men tend to hide their emotions, showing them using actions such as participating in disorderly behavior.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Emotions of anger and happiness by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In conclusion, emotions of anger and happiness are physiologically different and they have different effects to our health and well-being. The emotion of anger is usually considered to be negative and it can lead to various negative consequences. On the other hand, the emotion of happiness is positive and it has numerous benefits to our lives. And as much as these emotions are common to every individual, their expression varies depending on the culture and the gender of the person.
Reference List Barrick, M. C. (2002). Emotions : transforming anger, fear, and pain : creating heart-centeredness in a turbulent world. Corwin Springs, MT: Summit University Press.
Frijda, N. H. (1986). The emotions. New York: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.
Peurifoy, R. Z. (2002). Anger: taming the beast. New York: Kodansha International.
Uhl, A. M. (2008). The Complete Idiot’s Guide to the Psychology of Happiness. New York: The Penguin Group.
Weiten, W. (2010). Psychology: Themes and Variations. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Joan of Arc: A Story of a Heroic Woman. Book Critique Essay (Critical Writing) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
History is flourishing with heroic figures who gave their lives to serve their people, freedom and justice. Each country can present an endless list of national heroes who are the things to be proud of for all French nation. However, the majority of famous historic figures are men, but women can also be proud of thousands of representatives of their sex made great contribution to the flow of history. One of such women is Joan of Arc, probably the most famous women in West European history.
Thousands of books explore her biography and thousands of academic papers are devoted to this great woman. The subject of the majority of books is the biography of Joan of Ark. In this paper, I am going to explore one of the books devoted to Joan of Arc and provide its critical analysis.
First of all, brief information about Joan of Ark. Joan has a unique role in the history of western Europe. She is one of the most outstanding female heroes of all times. Today, she is known as Saint Joan of Arc and the Maid of Orleans. She is a national heroin of France and one of the main saints of the Catholic Church.
She is an example of true courage and high spirit. The one who had a saint gift, the one who fought for her people and the one who died for her believes. All scientists admire the story of this great woman and all French people are greatly proud of her. Her life was not long, but she did more than many people could do to for an entire century. At the age of 19, she was known through the whole France.
Her story began when she was twelve years old. It was than when she saw her first Divine vision. She said that she saw three Saints: Saint Catherine, Saint Michael and Saint Margaret who said her to escort Dauphin for his coronation in Reims.
Before her historic journey, she was a simple peasant girl without special talents. And nobody could predict that this tiny girl will lead troops of French soldiers to the victory. At the age of 17, she got an interview with the French court at Chinon and made predictions about the military actions near Orleans that amazed everybody presented.
An event that never occurred in history before played a decisive role in the flow of the Hundred Years War. A young girl of 17 was equipped for war, moreover, Dauphin placed her at the head of the army. Ander the leadership of this skillful and amazing girl, the army roused again. Despite all her feat of arms, there was a trial on her. It had a political ground and a poor girl was blamed in things she never did.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, she was accused of being a witch. Paradoxically, the one who served to Church and to her country was accused of being a witch. At the age of 19, she was burned to death. Then, her body was burned again to ensure that she did not escape. Thus, the authorities believed in her divinity and they were afraid of her. Twenty years later, she was declared innocent and in 1920, she was canonized as a Saint. Today, she is a patron Saint of France.
One can find all this information in a great book by Marina Warner Joan of Arc: the image of female heroism. The book presents a deep insight into the biography of the girl. It opens with the words that attract the reader’s attention and hold it until the last word in the book:
“A story lives in relation to its tellers and its receivers; it continues because people want to hear it again, and it changes according to their tastes and needs. Joan of Arc is the centre of a story so famous that it transcendent the media or the forms that have transmitted it: she is a heroine of history”. (Warner 3).
The book is about the career of Joan of Ark. It consists of three logical parts. The first and the second parts are the story of Joan and the third part deals with the Joan’s influence after her death on different fields of science and peoples’ history: French politics, church, literature, etc. The book is very comprehensive. The author explores Joan as a warrior, a hero and a woman at the same time. She explores medieval history and religious ides. That is how the author characterizes the heroine of the book:
“she has an almost unique standing: she is a universal figure who is female, but is neither a queen, nor a courtesan, nor a beauty, nor a mother, nor an artist of one kind or another, nor – until the extreme recent date of 1920 when she was canonized – a saint.” (Warner 6).
From a very poetical prologue, the author passes to the detailed description and analysis of the Joan’s life. First of all, the author focuses on the question of the appearance of heroine. She explores few portraits of the period, but none of them depicted a real appearance of a girl.
What is interesting is that with the very first pages of the first par, the author claims that Joan was innocent. The author presents the fact that “Joan was a virgin” (Warner 15). At the age of 13, she gave a promise not to marry and until the last day of her life, she was keeping it.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Joan of Arc: A Story of a Heroic Woman. Book Critique specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More And according to medieval believes, “the devil could not have commerce with a virgin” (Warner 15). The author presents the historical facts taken from the documents of that time. Warner presents a complete description of the character and behavior of the girl, she mentions, “Joan’s beauty, which D’Aulon mentions, adds to the virtuousness of her resistance and becomes a commonplace of the saint’s life later.” (18).
The author also present a detailed description of the Joan’s life when she was a child and during the war. All the soldiers admired her. From the historical survey, we come to know that she was not only a very brave, honest and self-confident, she was a beautiful women. We can suppose that all talks about her beauty were inspired by the beauty of her soul. As we know, at that time the external beauty was less important than the beauty of the inner world.
The author pays a great attention to the divinity of the girl. Different psychological survey put forward an idea that her visions were just an invention of the “ill soul” and girl was simply mad. But how could a mad person do so many good things for her people.
Moreover, isn’t it a miracle that so many strong warriors followed a tiny girl. It should be mentioned that Joan’s visions became one of the main reasons of her death. She was accused of being a witch, because only witches could have connection with the “parallel world of spirits”. So, as the author says about the first section of the book, “in part one, The Life and Death of Jeanne le Pucelle, I have tried to restore her to her own context” (8). And the author managed to do it.
The second section of the book explores the event that took place during the last year of life of the girl. This period is characterized by endless trials and efforts of the Church and authorities to accuse Joan in political and crime of high treason. But, even despite of all accusation, the girl did not lost her faith in God. During the trials, she showed great courage, intellect and wisdom.
However, she could accept all conditions and lead a life of a common peasant, she followed the voice of her soul and the God’s calling. Probably, never before and after the history knew such a glorious woman.
The third part of the book is called The Afterlife of Joan of Arc. This chapter explores the influence of the figure of Joan of Arc after her death. Simultaneously with the story of the Joan’s afterlife, the author explores the peculiarities of every historical époque that followed the events. She does it through the analysis of literature that was written about Joan during these centuries.
At the very beginning of the book, the author says that history is the product of peoples’ minds and their perception of the better world, “ through this section I hope to have developed the underlying theme that when a story is told, it is told according to the perceptions of its hearers or its readers” (Warner 10). So, during centuries, there was different attitude to the figure of Joan of Arc.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Joan of Arc: A Story of a Heroic Woman. Book Critique by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, one thing is certain, there were not a person I the history that would be indifferent to the image of this girl. Even in the 17th century, when woman could not be treated as a heroine, moreover, as a leader, Joan of Arc remained a source of inspiration for hundreds of writers, major orders, philosophers, etc. She was and she is an exceptional image of a woman:
“Joan is a preeminent heroine because she belongs to the sphere of action, while so many feminine figures or models are assigned and confident to the sphere of contemplation.” (Warner 10).
Thus, the book by Marina Warner Joan of Arc: the image of female heroism is one of the best most comprehensive books about Joan of Arc. Warner presents Joan as a heroic woman, warrior and saint. The author explores every detail related to the heroine. We come to know about Joan’s life and beliefs, about attitudes to the heroine in different times.
It is rather a scientific work, than a fiction book. So, the one who wants to know the history better and get acquainted with different points of view on the historical events, should be completely satisfied with the way the book casts light on the events of the hundred Years War and life of Joan of Arc.
Works Cited Warner, Marina. Joan of Arc: The Image of Female Heroism. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2000.
Border Collie Dogs Definition Essay custom essay help
The Border collie is an animal of the dog family that characterize with a well-balanced and athletic body. In addition, the Border collie exhibit style and dexterity in identical gauge with soundness and potency. History asserts that the Border collie originated from a border country separating Scotland and England.
In this border country, breeding was not a light matter and was governed a biddable stock idea and the ability of the animal to labor extensively on a rugged terrain. This selective breeding went on for a long period and eventually, a new Border collie with unique working styles such as fetching and gathering developed.
The resultant Border collie exhibit unique features such as trainability, strength and energy; features so vital to its physical size and appearance. Other features of the Border collie include a bizarre intuition and a creepy reasoning capability. The Border collie is able to master training and work minus an instructor. In addition, research shows that the eyes of the Border collie can spellbind cattle due to its intense stare.
Due to its trainability, agility and obedience, many people have found the Border collie useful in detecting things like bombs and narcotics. Perhaps this is the reason why many security firms including the military and police use the Border collie to enhance security (American Kennel Club, 2010, pp. 1).
The Border collie has a slender body relatively longer as compared to its tail and a flat skull. The size of the skull and the muzzle appear to be equivalent, and often characterized with a modest stop. This dog has got brawny teeth that cab bite its prey with a scissors bite, and in most cases, many of them have oval brown eyes, except the merles breed that has one or both eyes.
The Border collie has also equidistantly placed ears that stand erect or semi erect so that it is able to grasp instructions or hear various sounds from the surrounding. In taking a front view of the Border collie, the front legs appear straight. However, the front legs appear slopping when one takes a side view.
The border dog has a medium sized tail and whenever it becomes excited, the tail raises up. The skin of the Border collie is thick appearing as a double coat for guarding the dog against harsh climatic conditions. The two coat layers, sleek coat and coarse coat, measure about 1 inch and 3 inches in lengthy respectively.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, the coat colors of the Border collie come in different colors for example, purely black or yellow, a mixture of black and white, a blend of yellow and white, or a concoction of red and white. Nevertheless, the main reason of breeding border collies is not to show off physical exquisiteness, but for reasons to do with working capability and perspicacity (Border collie, 2010, p.1).
The most stupendous trait of Border Collies is the yearning to labor on primarily above other things. For instance, among the very many activities they involve themselves is herding. During herding, the Border Collies lowers its head in a position to stare intensely at the sheep thus, scaring it not to wander.
The Border Collies are able to monitor every movement of the livestock, and they retort by moving, in some cases indiscernibly, in order to cash in or counter the livestock. So long as the movement of the Border Collies and the sheep is calm and steady, they can look for the stock as they graze in the field. So far, the Border Collies are the world’s leading sheep-working breed that portrays work ethic, acumen and athleticism.
Contrary to being heelers, Border Collies are good in heading and gathering as they can run around the stock, congregate them, and then make them go back to the shepherd. Although they deserve some training in order to take away the flock or herd from the shepherd, in most cases, they can use instinct to perform this particular task.
In most cases, Border Collies are hard working animals. In fact, the happiest moment in their lives is when they are involved in doing something be it herding, suppleness, compliance or sporting activities. The main reason why Border Collies exhibit workaholic nature is the history of their breeding selection.
Bred for endurance, the Border Collies can run over terrain surfaces over long distance without getting tired. Perhaps this is the reason why whenever they are unoccupied, they become irrational, fanatical, and disparaging (Coren, 1995, pp. 8-27).
In addition to herding livestock, Border Collies can also herd other domestic animals, children and home equipments. Normally, they do not nip the heels of the livestock to counter them. Instead, they use their stern eyes although in small cases especially during running, they can nip the legs of human beings.
We will write a custom Essay on Border Collie Dogs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Under this scenario, children are the casualties, as they do not know how to manage this behavior. Thus, it is much advisable to control this behavior because soon the Border collie can turn a factual nuisance. Their life expectancy ranges between 12 and 15 years although diseases like epilepsy and hip dysplasia can cause early death. Furthermore, Border Collies have the habit of chasing cars; habit that leads to their early death under the wheels.
In conclusion, Border Collies are useful animals that can perform numerous tasks especially that of herding livestock, children and equipments or machines. Many shepherds describe them as loving and people-oriented dogs; descriptions that portray their expediency especially in herding. Although they mature slowly, these dogs are highly intelligent and can learn new things with a lot of ease.
Reference List American Kennel Club. (2010). Border Collies. Retrieved from
Border collie. (2010). Retrieved from
Coren, S. (1995). The Intelligence of Dogs: A Guide to the Thoughts, Emotions, and Inner Lives of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam Books.
Money and Banking Research Paper essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Functions of Money
Characteristics of Money
Introduction Money is defined as anything that is accepted as a means of payment for goods or services. It is a legal tender issued by the government of a particular country through its central / national bank for transaction purposes. A bank can be defined as a financial institution that receive deposits from people and lend these funds to firms and individuals.
Banking simply means a process through which the bank engage in the business of safeguarding money and issuing of credit. Banks act in accordance with central bank, which regulates the operation of local banks in any country. The central bank does this to prevent inflation which may occur due to increase in money supply in the economy. This paper discusses the evolution of money. It also looks into the functions and characteristics of money.
Barter Trade In ancient times, traders used to exchange goods for goods. There was a central market and people could converge there with their items. For example, a person would bring a goat in the market to exchange with an item he/she wanted. The problem was lack of double coincidence of want.
Another problem that was encountered in barter trade was the issue of divisibility of some items. For example, if a person had a cow and needed only two buckets of beans it became hard to transact since it was hard to harmonize the value of the two. So it lacked common measure of value and some commodities were hard to divide into smaller units.
These types of problems made barter trade to be a hard task to acquaint. The system of exchange was crude and clumsy. People then decided to introduce other items to try and solve this problem.
Initially, they introduced commodity money (i.e. skins, beads, hide, fur and shells among others). People started using these items to purchase whatever they wanted. Different tribes came with unique items from their areas and initially these commodities were accepted as a means of exchange. A man who had a surplus of food would gladly exchange it for beads even though he had no particular desires for them. Certain commodities came to be recognized as best fitted to serve the purpose of a go-between in making exchanges.
Then metallic money evolved where people identified durable items such as copper and gold for exchange. Gold was valued at a considerable higher value compared to other metals. Traders started using gold for exchange of goods and eventually it was accepted by almost everybody. Traders would go to goldsmith and get commodities they wanted with respect to the quantity of their gold.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The goldsmiths were valuing the metal then exchanging it with the respective quantity of item the trader needed. Afterwards, the goldsmiths started issuing traders with receipts that were used as medium of exchange. It acted as a goldsmith bank because they kept these items for traders and provided individuals with receipts, which were accepted even by other people. This gave rise to development of banks that started printing notes and providing coins.
Functions of Money It acts as medium of exchange where it is accepted by both buyers and sellers; the buyer gives money to the seller in exchange of commodities. It acts as a store of value where money held by individuals can be taken into the bank account for future use.
Once it is in the bank it cannot go bad like in the case of barter trade where some items were highly perishable and required immediate exchange. Money also acts as a standard for differed payment by the fact that goods can be collected on credit to be paid at a later date. All these functions differ so much with barter trade, which was rather complicated.
Characteristics of Money Money compared to the barter trade has some distinctive features which are much preferred. The divisibility factor makes money to ease the burden of valuing a commodity. Money can be broken into small denominations that make it easy to make transactions.
Durability feature of money remove the burden of spoilage; money is made of durable items that stays for a very long time without deteriorating in value. Portability is another characteristic of money where huge amount of money can easily be carried by an individual. Money is homogenous, that is, all parts of units have uniform value.
Conclusion In tracing the evolution of money we have seen that it plays two major roles in business transaction; as a medium of exchange and measure of value. As a medium of exchange it serves as a go-between in the exchange of commodities; in barter trade, for the item to be accepted a double coincidence of want had to prevail otherwise it was hard to acquire the commodity of your choice. Measure of value also helps in pricing of items unlike in barter trade where it was a mere guess. Thus, money plays a major role in the economy.
Bibliography Davies, Glyn. A History of Money from Ancient Times to the Present Day, 3rd ed. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2002.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Money and Banking specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More White, Horace. Money and Banking, New York: General Books LLC, 2009.
Footnotes Glyn, Davies. A History of Money from Ancient Times to the Present Day, 3rd ed. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2002.
Glyn, Davies. A History of Money from Ancient Times to the Present Day, 3rd ed. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2002.
Horace, White. Money and Banking, New York: General Books LLC, 2009.
Psychology of the Superheroes Essay cheap essay help
A hero is an individual who is brave and can struggle to achieve the best out of him especially in odd situations. As Fingeroth (14) observed, a hero is one who “rises above his or her limitations to achieve something extraordinary.” In addition, a superhero is one who is brave, has superhuman powers and ready to sacrifice his life in order to save some people or the whole community.
The only difference between a hero and a superhero is perhaps the superhuman powers that heroes do not have. In most cases, the superheroes are portrayed as being immortal. He is distinguishable from villains who can be regarded as the evil counter-parts. They are also usually described as being lucky in most instances to an extent that despite their superhuman ability no ordinary man could be. In other cases, they can die and come back to life.
Some of the superheroes were described to have been born that way. Others acquired their abilities from external sources like the sun while others were just ordinary looking people but with some unique characteristics (Levi para1). Therefore, the study of the tales of the Superheroes is essential to human beings today.
The study of superheroes has been of interest to psychologists mainly due to the inspirational impacts it has on those in the neighborhood of the superhero. Often one would dream to be like this legend and would be interested in experimenting what it costs to be one. People find it more interesting if they could be associated with such heroes, and as such the superheroes act as role models in a society. The study emphasizes how individuals interpret their traumatic experiences, which is an area of interest to a psychologist (Rosenberg Para. 2).
The superheroes help maintain the cultural values of the societies in which they are reflected in. All the superheroes in the ancient times reflect on the cultures of the societies that created them. In the ancient Greece, Heracles was a superhero who portrayed the Greek culture.
He was a strong courageous person signifying a nation that could fight with and conquer another nation. His presence in the Olympian war against the giants would determine the winner. In the Greek history, he was the only man naturally born who became a god after his death. The other named superheroes like Achilles, Odysseus, Ajax, and many others are still being remembered by their struggle to conquer the city of Troy.
Achilles and Hector were great superheroes associated with the Trojan War with Hector being on the opposing side. He led attacks against the Greek in fight for Troy. The continued use of such tales in the Greek literature thus helps motivate the young generation to be brave warriors thereby preserving the culture of the people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This can though be achieved in real life since philosophers have postulated the developments experienced in the science were due to a man’s curiosity to try to adventure into something that was not possible before. The need to fly, just like the birds, was early read in the ancient myths. Later, its inspirational impact was seen when could find a way of managing the gravitational pull and go against it into the sky as do the birds.
The tales of the superheroes also form an important part in the development of literature in the current literary world. Most anthologists find interesting to develop their works from the tales of the supernatural usually suitable for the young scholars.
The literature work for the children helps the would-be future writers improve their writing abilities and skills. It also helps in giving the children a position in the society (Nakojalewa 3). For instance, the playwrights in Greek used the tales of Heracles where he was described as having a mixture of conflicting characters not easily seen in an individual.
On one hand, he was described as a primitive and violent leader who would hold onto a grudge and seek revenge on the opponent however costly it would be. His poor decisions often landed him into problems. On the other hand, he was portrayed as a loving leader who gives all that is needed to save a friend in trouble. In such instances, he would endure the brutal punishments should he be in the hands of the opponents.
Odysseus was another figure in the Greek history. As early as this ancient times, Odysseus, who was also a superhero, was portrayed as being intelligent enough and would give different false names when in the hands of the enemy. This would later save him in the hands of a king who had promised to it him last, having dealt with his allies. Odysseus had given his name as ‘Nobody’ and when he blinded the drunken king while asleep and other soldiers came for the king’s rescue, the king said ‘Nobody’ had hurt him and the soldiers went back.
This was interesting in those olden times when most people were not known to be cunning in any way. How he died remains a debate with some saying he was killed and others saying he naturally died of old age. Beowulf was a Danish hero who opposed the introduction of Christianity back in the sixth century.
Sir Gawain was a Latin warrior who was famous for his romance. He would support his uncle King Arthur regardless of the consequences. Therefore, it can be seen that most of the ancient superheroes manifested their powers during wars against their enemy nations. The same is slightly different from the modern superheroes.
We will write a custom Essay on Psychology of the Superheroes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Just as in the olden times when the superheroes were seen as those who fought out bitterly usually for the benefit of the others, the modern day heroes are the people who help their nations in the liberation from some sort of oppression. The struggle for freedom from the colonial government seen way back in the eighteenth century in America saw the rise of some modern heroes. The scientists who have made discoveries in exploring the space are also heroes of the current times.
Their ability to explore the space appears as a power beyond the human and thus qualifies the description. Various scholars like economists, mathematicians, and statisticians are viewed in the modern times as super heroes. The other groups that are considered in the modern society are those holding world records in whichever sector. This could be in the fields of sports like football or athletics, in the fields of academics or one who portrays a good leadership quality.
We hereby observe some little difference of what people termed as being a superhero and what people see of the same in the current world. Currently, you do not need to sacrifice yourself to be termed a Superhero. Neither are you required to have extra powers beyond the human nature like immortality to qualify to be termed a hero.
The difference that can be observed between the ancient superheroes and the modern superheroes is that in the ancient times, these people relied much on their strength and their ability to endure harsh treatment. The modern superheroes mostly use their intelligence to help solve the current problem or even to meet other human requirements like entertainment.
This can be seen as a development on how superheroes are portrayed in the modern society over the ancient times. In fact, it has been observed that in the modern days, it does not require one to exhibit extraordinary quality and skills in order to influence the life of another person especially the children (Banks para1). They are in this case called mentors.
In both the ancient and modern settings, the superheroes happen to play the same role. In the ancient times, such tales injected into the minds of the youths the need and importance of being courageous in difficult situations. The inclusion of superheroes even in the current field of narrative is important in the general development of literature (Jennings 23).
In this way, it helped preserve the community’s cultural heritage especially during this period when inter-tribal wars were the order of the day. Similarly, the superheroes in the modern world act as role models in the nations they hail from or even the world over.
One would always like to be named after a good leader like John Kennedy of the United States probably with a mind set that he would also be a good leader. It would please one to be named a Nobel Peace prizewinner following some positive global contribution. Being the best player of the year has given rise to several good footballers. Therefore, the role these legends play even today is worth being mentioned.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Psychology of the Superheroes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Banks, Sherry. “Mentors: Modern-day Superheroes.” The Huffington Post. 2010. Web.
Fingeroth, Danny. Superman on the Couch: What superheroes really tell us about ourselves and our society. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. 2004. Web.
Jennings, Jackson. Understanding Superheroes: Scholarship, superman, and the synthesis of an emerging criticism. Diss. University of Arkansas, Dissertations
How can biological concerns lead to psychological or social concerns? How can psychological concerns lead to biological or social concerns? Essay essay help site:edu
How can biological concerns lead to psychological or social concerns? How can psychological concerns lead to biological or social concerns? Provide an example of each and discuss how you would treat your identified issues, (what services would you recommend, and would you focus on 1 concern at a time or treat all of the concerns simultaneously?). What are the advantages of knowing the biopsychosocial features of inmate populations (consider the inmates’ time in jail or prison as well as the reentry process)?
the instructions carefully and answer each question in great depth. Answers are deep in terms of insight (not length); sparks new thinking; makes connections to other concepts or contexts. Rich and relevant examples provided and discussed; counter examples offered where appropriate. Please have the course concepts explained in a way that mastery of the concepts is clear; concepts explained early and applied in the answer to devastating effect. Please lookup the website and use it. USE THE POWERPOINTS IN THE FILES TO REFERENCE AND COMPLETE ASSIGNMENT. PLEASE DO NOT PLAGIARIZE. argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
1.Your favorite brand of shoes –ACME Shoes Inc. –launches a new advertising campaign featuring scenes reminiscent of your junior high school experiences to sell a new line of unisex athletic shoes. In terms of our discussions of memory and decision making, explain how the brand attempting to sway you to purchase the shoes.(5 points) 2.Consider the ways in which consumers evaluate alternatives.What “set”of alternatives would a brand never want to find themselves in? Explain your answer fully with an example. (5 points) 3.As a newly hired market analyst forACME Shoes Inc., you are presented with some sales data that includes quarterly sales for the brand’s recently launched unisex athletic shoe line, as well as estimates for quarterly sales for the brand’s four closest competitors. Why is this data insufficient for you to create a perceptual map? Explain what data you would need to gather to be able to compile a relevant perceptual map of the ACME Shoes Inc. product and the relevant competitive offerings.(5 points) 4.Suppose you have been hired by a Tampa-based technology company to help design a marketing campaign for a new product: a technology-enabled pair of eyeglasses. This revolutionary product provides the user with an augmented reality, enabling more immersive experiences and interactions between the user and their environment. Given the innovative nature of the product, what approach to learning would you suggest is most appropriate for the campaign to implement if the end goal is the grow consumer adoption of the glasses and why?(5 points)Note: For background on augmented reality and its potential, check out this article(includes videos): https://hbr.org/2017/11/why-every-organization-needs-an-augmented-reality-strategy. 5.We know from prior research that memories can be “shaped” by various factors that are sometimes called the “7 Sins of Memory”. How can the use of a “jingle” –a short slogan, verse, or musical tune–in a piece of advertising help brands to overcome these memory issues in consumers? Explain your answer with reference to as many “sins”as possible. (10 points) 6.The ideas of “buying local”and “supporting local business”have become strong influences on consumer’s buying habits. Using concepts from our discussions on decision-making, perception, and memory, explain AT LEAST 3 different ways in which these ideas contribute to the shaping of consumption choices. Make sure to use examples for each to back up your ideas. (10 points)
J. O. De La Mettrie Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction De La Mettrie was a French philosopher and a physician who argued his philosophical ideologies contrary to other great philosophers like Descartes, Locke, Leibnitz, Wolff and Malebranche. His arguments hinged on the definition of a human nature as he rejected two philosophical systems that define human soul, materialism and spiritualism.
Arguing from his experience as a physician, he questioned the capacity of other philosophers to define and explain the human nature from theoretical perspective only. He believed the proper definition of a human being should entail both theoretical and empirical considerations and with his philosophical knowledge and experience as a physician, he claimed to be better placed to define human nature than any other philosopher does.
He argued that a human being is a complicated machine whose definition lies in the philosophical and empirical experiences of the physicians. Nevertheless, De La Mettrie, just like anybody else had his intellectual strengths and weaknesses as explored in this work.
Intellectual Strengths De La Mettrie was a great philosopher because he applied his empirical experience as a physician in trying to define human nature, unlike other philosophers who relied only on their theoretical perceptions. He objectively criticized theologians and metaphysicians for trying to define human nature narrow-mindedly.
He argued that, it is unwise to study nature and truth without stating their true benefits. For instance, metaphysicians theorized that, matter and thoughts relate to one another without articulating the true meaning of their theory.
The proponents of materialism and spiritualism have also erred in defining the human soul from purely theoretical perception without expressing the empirical aspect. Unlike other philosophers, De La Mettrie did not want to be complacent with mere theories that make one become a slave of prejudice.
He argued that observation and experience gave credible definition of the human nature and “they are to be found throughout the records of physicians who were philosophers, and not in the works of philosophers who were not physicians” (De La Mettrie, 1747, p. 92). He insinuates that, physicians alone have the ability to explain the human nature because they understand the mechanism of the body.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With his great intellectual ability, he realized that other philosophers and theologians did not understand the nature of the human body for they based their arguments on their sheer ignorance formulating incredible theories about the human soul. De La Mettrie (1747) wonders, “what could others, especially the theologians, have to tell us? Is not ridiculous to hear them shamelessly dogmatize on a subject that lies completely out of their province?” (p. 92).
He perceived other philosophers and theologians as slaves of prejudice because obscure theories had turned them into philosophical fanatics who tried to explain human nature out of ignorance.
Since the nature of a human being is complicated and hard to define, the theoretical explanation is quite incredible as “all the investigations which the greatest philosophers have conducted a priori, that is to say, by attempting in away to use the wings of the spirit, have been fruitless” (De La Mettrie,1747, p. 92). This observation is quite true because theories without true empirical application in life cannot define the nature of a human being, which is naturally complicated.
Despising theologians and philosophical proponents of materialism and spiritualism, De La Mettrie perceived the nature of a human being as a very complicated entity that only through anatomy; one could have a glimpse of what constitutes human nature.
As a physician and a philosopher, he sees, “the human body as a machine which winds itself up, the living image of perpetual motion” (De La Mettrie, 1747, p. 94). Food nourishes the body and soul, hence perpetuating the life of a human being since with food, a man becomes strong physically and the soul too gains courage and happiness, while without food, the body become weak and the soul loses courage and happiness.
When the body is sick, the soul is also inflamed and both of them die together as “the soul feels itself gently sinking along with the eyelids and relaxing along with the fibers of the brain; thus little by little it becomes as if paralyzed along with the muscles of the body” (De La Mettrie, 1747, p. 93). When the body cannot withstand the weight of the head, and the soul cannot endure the burden of thoughts, then, death occurs. These observations underline De La Mettrie’s unique philosophy.
De La Mettrie reasoned that the human brain is a faculty of imagination where the human soul resides. “…judgment, reason, and memory, are no wise absolute parts of the soul, but real modifications of the kind of medullary screen upon which images of objects painted in the eye are reflected as by a magic lantern” (De La Mettrie, 1747, p. 95).
We will write a custom Essay on J. O. De La Mettrie specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The human soul is complex and is indivisible into distinct parts as suggested by the theories of spiritualism and materialism. Although other philosophers concurred that the human soul is indivisible, it is ambiguous that the same philosophers coined materialism and spiritualism as the two components of the soul.
The philosophers used these terms haphazardly to confuse the minds of the learners and make them slaves of prejudice. In his conclusion, De La Mettrie (1747) offers, “…man is a machine, and that in the whole universe there is but a single substance with various modifications” (p. 96). The physicians are the only ones who can understand this various modifications in the human body but not philosophical and theological fanatics.
Intellectual Weakness De La Mettrie in his quest to explain the nature of a human being demonstrated his intellectual weaknesses. He equated the structure of the human brain with that of a monkey and that intellectual gain is similar to that of animals. “A geometrician has learned to perform the most difficult demonstrations and calculations, as a monkey has learned to take off or put on his little hat to mount his tame dog” (De La Mettrie, 1747, p. 94).
He supports his argument that it is only through education that men polished their minds with knowledge to become different from monkeys. In his philosophy, he reduced intellectual capacity of the human beings to the level of animals, which is practically and logically absurd since the intellectual ability of the human being is matchless. Human beings have made many inventions and discoveries during the course of history while animals remain with their natural instincts in surviving and adapting to the changing environment.
Doubting the existence of humanity, religion and a Supreme Being, is another intellectual weakness of De La Mettrie. Although he may believe the existence of God, he criticizes forms of worship and religion saying that they are dishonest as atheism. On the existence of the human being, he suggests, “perhaps he was thrown by chance on some spot of the earth’s surface; nobody knows how or why, but simply that he must live and die like mushrooms that appear from one day to the next” (De La Mettrie, 1747, p. 96).
This argument underscores his intellectual weakness in trying to deny the true existence of humanity, religion and God. The existence of humanity proves the existence of God and the religion is what links humanity to God.
De La Mettrie was very biased in his argument as he viewed himself as the most intellectual philosopher and physician who should have right to critique the work of other philosophers as useless. “We even should admire all these fine geniuses in their most useless works, Descartes, Malebranche, Leibnitz, Wolff, and the rest, but what profit, I ask any one gained from the profound meditations, and from all their works? (De La Mettrie, 1747. P. 93).
He did not want to appreciate the great works of other great philosophers for he believed in exploring new thoughts rather than old thoughts. His intellectual weakness lies in his claims that, his knowledge of anatomy makes him the best philosopher who can explain the human nature.
Not sure if you can write a paper on J. O. De La Mettrie by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion De La Mettrie employed great intellectual abilities in his arguments concerning the nature of a human being, but some of his argument revealed his intellectual weakness. In his argument, he criticized other philosophers who defined human nature according to their theoretical perceptions.
He argued that proper definition of human nature must entail both theoretical and empirical experience; as in his case, being a philosopher and a physician. His experience as a physician and the philosophical knowledge he had, formed a perfect combination of knowledge, which gave him the ability to explain human nature.
The philosophical concepts of materialism and spiritualism are not enough in defining human soul because they have theoretical basis only. However, he demonstrated his intellectual weakness by equating the intellectual ability of human beings to that of animals. He also criticized unfairly the works of other great philosophers and further doubted the existence of God, humanity and religion.
Reference De La Mettrie, J.O. (1747). Man a Machine. London: Penguin.
Impressions of War Essay (Article) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Human history is full of wars that were aimed at establishment of new countries and colonies, gaining independence, fighting for certain ideas and beliefs. Every nation has at least one example of war. Though people do not like when their relatives and friends die at war, they are ready to overcome the difficulties and hardships of war to see their children, mothers, brothers, and friends once again. So, the historic meaning of the war changes through centuries.
Revolutions and fights led by brave men were methods for achieving the goals regardless of the primary inspirer of the action. Extraordinary individuals or governmental organizations took part in wars fought for the purpose of the country, charismatic leaders, philosophy of a religious group, and a great variety of other reasons sometimes hidden behind the primary goal.
Sometimes people think that the war is the only way to tell the world about your ambitions and readiness to do whatever necessary to make your people free, make your country independent, and make others feel inferior. However, war is depicted in human history as the demonstration of brave hearts, courageous souls, and wise minds. Strategies and tactics are established by commanders to lead their people toward the idea of the independent state and prosperous territories that can claim to be free from prejudice and bias.
So, the more people believe in the idea, the more ready they are to bring this theoretical dream into life. Some nations waited for centuries to be able to say that they live in an independent state and can enjoy all rights as well as representatives of other nations regardless of the race, culture, gender, and other peculiar features that could prevent them from being independent some centuries ago.
The war is the most cruel and merciless activity if it can be called so. People fight for ideas and their dreams because they believe that their struggle can solve their problems and give them what they want. However, often people fail to achieve their goals and make their dreams come true because of the price of human lives as nobody is ready to pay that price for sons and husbands that die at war.
Contemporary situation make the dilemma even more complicated when women go to the war and fight arm in arm with male representatives of their nation.
It is necessary to ask authorities whether those revolutions, power, oil and gas rush, and other illusory goals are worth people dying at war. Though dignity and courage of warriors are not disputable, civil population should address the issue of the cost when a young widow remains alone with little children. What should she say to her kids when they ask about their father? Should she explain that he fought against terrorists or some other unidentified threat?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People should know what to fight for when they go to the war and give their lives in the name of some illusory purposes. We all know that widows do not need those honors and medals awarded posthumously because the only thing they need is their men to come back healthy and safe instead of being delivered in coffins. Governments justify the war as the lesser evil though they are not ready to explain their citizens they reason why they make a huge mistake every time and send thousands of people to the war.
Conflict inherent in a Parole Officer’s duties Essay college essay help: college essay help
Parole entails the release from prison of those persons who have successful completed a jail term. During this time, such individuals are expected to stay out of trouble and are placed under the supervision of parole officers to monitor their progress and prevent them from committing any more crime.
As a result, the duty of parole officers involves, among others, a supervisory role over offenders released on parole. According to the US Department of Labor, (2010), “in most jurisdictions, it is the state that and not the local government which ensure parole to those who have been released from prison”.
Parole officers assist those involved in correctional treatment in determining whether an offender needs to be released on parole or not (Elizabeth and Kitchen, 1999). Lower level parole officers are juniors in the field who still have less experience (Elizabeth and Kitchen, 1999).
Parole officers may maintain personal contact with the offenders or with their close family members to make easier their monitoring activities easier. In some cases, the offender may fail to show up; the parole officer therefore has to visit the offender at his or her place of work or home.
There is often the requirement for individuals on parole to be monitored via electric devices (Department of Corrections, 2010). The officer may also make a surprise visit to the offender’s home or workplace during the rehabilitation period to check the progress of the offender that has been observed by the relatives and the workmates.
Parole officers do not just ensure the offenders they are dealing with do not commit new crimes but also work to help re-integrate them into the society so that they become responsible members of the society. They may arrange job training and education for them so as to improve their job skills and make them independent members of the society (Department of Corrections, 2010).
They also help the parolees find somewhere to live. They help them readjust to life outside the prisons by providing counseling and emotional support. For example, an officer may counsel an offender on how to get a job.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Parole officers do not just perform the duty of supervising offenders who have been released from prison but also perform other state functions. Apart from the long travels and field work activities that they make while meeting the offenders on parole, they are also expected to meet the many strict court deadlines (US Department of Labor, 2010). Parole officers normally work for the courts in helping with investigations on crimes committed by the offenders while on parole.
A parole officer is supposed to report any criminal offense committed by an offender and help arrest such parolees. When a parolee commits a crime, the officer has the authority to arrest the parolee and hand him or her over to the police or ask for assistance from the police to arrest the parolee (Elizabeth and Kitchen, 1999). Due to the nature of their work, they are allowed to carry guns (Elizabeth and Kitchen, 1999).
The officer may also assist in investigating parolees whom are not under his or her supervision. In doing this, the officer has to consider whether individual is a first-time offender or a habitual offender. In the event that the offender has been previously implicated in substance abuse, the courts requires the parole officer to collect the offender’s urine sample for purposes of analysis to ascertain for a fact that they have indeed been using drugs.
According to the US Department of Labor (2010), the criminal justice system requires the testimonies of parole officers regarding the investigation that they had been commissioned to undertake, along with the recommendations that they might have arrived at. Over the last forty years, the number of crimes has increased tremendously.
Another major area that contributes to their heavy workload is the excess paperwork or the large volume of data both in hard copy or soft copy that they are supposed to manage. Parole officers and probation officers are the only professionals that deal with offenders through all the stages of justice. Therefore they have much information to manage considering that they have to meet the court-imposed justice deadlines and also supervise and help offenders meet their needs.
Besides, parole officers may be assigned dangerous criminals or to work in crime-prone areas or even in areas with communicable diseases. These expose them to work-related violence or even health risks. At times, there is the chance of a paroled offender to get involved in even a far more complicated crime than the one that led to their being imprisoned ,in the first place. On the other hand, an offender who has been parole might as well take to the same drugs that got them arrested.
Parole agencies as well as other criminal correctional institutions are underfunded by the state. Despite the increasing number of offenders; parolees in particular including dangerous criminals, these institutions receive less than 10% of correctional funding from the legislative council (Rosecrance, 1986). Thus they have not been able to fully meet the needs of the offenders as well as their supervision roles.
We will write a custom Essay on Conflict inherent in a Parole Officer’s duties specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Considering that offenders pose differential risks to parole officers, it is therefore important that the Department of Corrections apply a differential supervision approach to offenders. This implies that the department and in particular the correctional treatment specialists carry out a risk assessment for offenders before they are released from jails so that the type of protection and supervision given to parole officers matches their risk potential.
The Department of Corrections also needs to look at the possibility of applying an intensive supervision approach (National Institute for Justice, 2005). This would enable the department provide a community-based corrective approach which could greatly help reduce caseloads in courts as well as offenders’ reentry.
This would involve a coordinated weekly record check with the police and other law enforcement officers as well as a five times face-to-face meeting with parole officers. This should be done at the parole officer’s office, at the offender’s workplace and at home. This supervision should be spread across the week to include the weekend. This approach should also involve night curfews put on the offenders starting at dusk and should be closely supervised by the parole officer.
The heavy workloads and the risks involved in the job are major sources of stress and affect the officers’ ability to deliver quality services. It is therefore essential to develop stress related programs, reduce officers’ workloads and increase the safety of the officers. This would help improve the officers’ performance and decrease the officers’ absenteeism from job.
Reference List Department of Corrections. (2010). Parole supervision. Retrieved from: https://www.michigan.gov/corrections/0,1607,7-119-1435—,00.html
Elizabeth, R., and Kitchen, C.(1999). What are the duties of parole officers? Retrieved from: https://careertrend.com/info-8415343-duties-responsibilities-parole-officer.html
National Institute for Justice. (2005). Stress among probation and parole officers and what can be done about it. Washington D.C.: US Department of Justice.
Rosecrance, J. (1986). Probation supervision: Mission impossible. Reno: University of Nevada Press.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Conflict inherent in a Parole Officer’s duties by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More US Department of Labor. (2010). Occupational outlook handbook, 2010-11 Edition. Washington D. C.: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Essentials of Strategic Management: The Quest for Competitive Advantage Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu
Coach Inc. has enjoyed a tremendous market share since its establishment back in 1940. The products of the company has continued to attract many customers both in local market and globally through manufacturing and selling of luxurious handbags and leather accessories.
It has managed to penetrate not only the local market but also the external markets in Asia. The main reason as to why the company has managed to compete well with other companies are its unique strategies that include; good customer service provision and relation, high quality products, very attractive stores, and favorable prices.
Strategic issues Coach inc with unique design in the industry. This has made it attract a big number of customers, both middle and higher income earners. The company has been introducing new designs of handbags every other month since the year 2007. It creates a competitive strength against its rivals by being innovative in styling and quality leather. It has also been opening new retail stores in USA and Japan thus maintaining its growth trend in the industry.
Coach Inc is among the best manufacturers and sellers of handbags brand both in U.S and Japan due to the higher demand of luxurious accessories in these two countries. This made the company to establish various market outlets in the two countries to meet this demand. The company applied various strategies such as availing of variety of luxurious manufactured products in the company’s full-price stores, retail department stores, and factory stores.
The producers of watches, shoes, and eyewear have associated themselves with coach inc to maintain production of high quality and luxurious accessories of their products under coach brand. This made the company to apply differentiation strategy to ensure those consumers who had already built loyalty of particular brand of the company but aspire to try other brands is segmented. The company strategized on cost leadership to ensure that loyal consumers retained their share in the company (Gamble, 2007).
The stores are well equipped and located in strategic points to capture large number of buyers. The attractive stores in Coach Inc remain a good strategy to draw more buyers; their stores are neat and clean and customers feel comfortable while buying. The main objective is to ensure superior returns on investment by covering the expenses cost and raising the profit margin.
Another strategy of opening new stores in North American and opening of new markets in Canada has widened the market for company’s products. The company has already established online marketing channels. It aspires to empower online marketing and attract more customers through use of email and catalogs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company also aspires to create brand knowledge in the new markets to build the foundation for substantial sales in the future by opening about 30 net fresh locations, through intermediaries in China, Southeast Asia, and Middle East.
Segmentation strategy has been applied by the company through separation of two categories of consumers through applying cost leadership and differentiation strategy by the fact that company offer unique products and also favorable prices. In addition to this production of new products design also signifies utilization of differentiation and cost leadership strategies.
The existing and upcoming industries should in future focus on customer retaining strategy to ensure that the industry maintain its positive trend. Customer satisfaction plays a major role in business maintenance. Quality of the products must be well looked at for the purpose of increasing the sales volume. This has been put into practice by Coach Inc and it has made it to outshine its rivals in the industry.
Reference Gamble, E. J. (2007). Coach Inc: is its advantage in luxury handbags sustainable? Alabama: South Alabama University.
Coach Inc.: Is Its Advantage in Luxury Handbags Sustainable? Essay (Critical Writing) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Introduction The company Coach Inc. deals with production, distribution, and sales of handbags. The past company’s direction included low-cost handbags that were not really luxurious though reliable and ‘resilient to wear and tear’.
The shift in consumers’ preferences made the company introduce more luxurious designs of handbags to be more compatible to the rising fashion on Italian and French stylish luxurious brands. Thus, the company used the differentiation and cost leadership strategies to learn about the needs and expectations of consumers and meet their requirements implementing uniqueness competencies and low cost competencies in the narrow market scope.
Thus, the differentiation and cost leadership strategies enabled the company to address the customers who require unique goods and those who search for something less expensive. In other words, the company managed to divide the potential buyers in accordance with their buying power to ensure that both categories will get the goods at a relevant price.
Strategic Issue The company coach Inc. is one of the largest manufacturers and owners of best-selling handbag brand on the territory of the United States and Japan as these two countries were reported to be the greatest consumers of luxurious goods hence leading to the targeting of the goods to the American and Japanese consumer markets.
The strategy of the company includes a wide range of goods claimed to be luxurious manufactured and sold within the company-owned full-price stores, retail department stores, and factory stores. Agreements made with producers of eyewear, shoes, and watches are aimed at manufacturing high-quality luxurious goods of these categories under the brand of Coach.
Thus, differentiation strategy was used to address the category of customers who have already built the loyalty to a certain brand but are ready to try goods manufactured under other brands. Cost leadership strategy was used to ensure that the category of customers who have been loyal to this brad for years would not be eliminated from the company’s plans.
The strategic issue for the company is the increase in the number of full-price company-owned stores and the number of factory stores in the United States and in Japan. Another strategic plan of the company is the production of fragrance and other goods that are positioned in the category of luxurious goods. Besides, the gifts and customer attendance should be the main focus of the company, especially talking about holiday periods.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Knitwear and cashmere women’s collections designed in alliance with manufacturers of such goods are aimed at addressing more luxurious audience as the price range is higher than the one for handbags though the handbags remain the main focus of the company. The major strategic initiative concerning the handbags includes the launching of new designs and collections as a part of the differentiation strategy to ensure that the brand is recognizable in the broad market scope.
In this respect, the company successfully exercises the segmentation strategy to ensure that the company managed to meet the needs of two categories of customers by applying the differentiation and cost leadership strategies taking into account the uniqueness and low cost competencies. Moreover, every new item produced by the company is also an implementation of the differentiation and cost leadership strategies.
Reference Gamble, J. E. (2008). Coach Inc.: Is its advantage in luxury handbags sustainable? In J. E. Gamble
Tolerance and Pluralism in a Civil Society Essay essay help
Pluralism and tolerance is most common in a vibrant and cohesive civil society. Pluralism can be applied in various places such as religion and politics but no matter where it is applied the theme behind pluralism is to create evenness. In religion pluralism means that there is a balance or in other words evenness in all religion therefore all religions are viewed as even in terms of their quality in worship. This is because God is the overall father of all of mankind. The different names of God arise due to differences in language.
In ancient times religions that saw themselves as the only ones that worshipped the true God used to declare war against their neighbors in pursuit of making them convert to their religion. They did not see anything wrong in killing such people because they had a perception that God would award them for fighting for His name (Plaw 34).
All religions that are Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism among others explain that God created man in His image. There is no known scripture that states that only certain religion is appropriate. The only worship that’s not allowed by all religions is the worship of Satan or devil worship.
Erlewine argues that different religions have different forms of worship but all the same they are directed towards communicating with God (56). This implies that the ancient people didn’t know this and that’s why nations fought each other in the name of religion. Nowadays people have been enlightened and thus they see things differently except the primitive people who have been left behind.
By accepting each other regardless of our religions humans can be united as one community. For this unity to be realized there has to be respect of religions hence one should not despise somebody else’s religion. This recognition of diverse religions will foster peaceful co-existence.
When we realize that all our religions are even then we should tolerate each others religious practices. Whether one hates a religious ritual practiced by a given group there is no excuse for not accepting other peoples form of worship (Plaw 12). This is an important aspect of a well structured civil society.
This tolerance is extended to work places in some countries where employees of a given religion are allowed to practice their religious culture such as observing religious holidays i.e. Christmas day for Christians and Idul fitrr for Muslims. Tolerance does not refer to believing in teachings of other religions but it’s the respect accorded to all religions evenly.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Kristen argues that some people still treat others according to their religion and that’s why some governments have been accused of being biased in the way they treat people. Such governments are accused of labeling other religions as rebels (79). For instance Islam has been associated with terrorism in the recent past because of allegations concerning Osama Bin Laden because all members of alqaeda are Muslims.
These has tainted the name of Islam as a religion that enjoys killing other humans especially after the September eleventh attacks that saw many people die from terror attack. Anti-terrorism police units have been accused of arresting people of a certain religion which has been expressed as disrespect for their religion.
Religious teachings and practices should be appreciated as long as they don’t cause any harm because religion was invented to unite humans but not to spread hatred. Tolerance is achieved when we don’t agree with the views of each other but we allow other people to stick to their beliefs as long it does not affect our lives negatively. That’s why the constitution of most developed countries allows freedom of worship. Tolerance is directly related to liberation because it means we don’t judge other people by what they believe (Erlewine 123).
Even when it comes to other areas in life tolerance and pluralism is greatly recommended. Pluralism in the society dictates that all people are worth regardless of their social class, race, gender and age. Many are times when people despise a suggestion made by someone whom they feel can not give a valid opinion.
In most societies money and power commands respect thus people who don’t have such qualities are not appreciated. Pluralism should not be gauged by the material things that are owned by an individual. Opinions and decisions are not physically visible because they are derived from our hearts and brains.
Plaw explains that material things do not reflect somebody’s intelligence because wealth comes by chance and it may have been acquired through dishonest ways such as corruption (45). On the other hand poverty is not induced by lack of knowledge but it is caused by situations that fail to favor some people due to their background. In fact all people have the same ability. If the poor were to be given the same opportunity as the wealthy they would perform much better.
People should learn to accept others regardless of their situation because no body chooses to be poor. There are instances where certain people are given an exceptional treatment by the society because they are perceived to be more important than others. The driving force behind such treatment is the possibility of getting monetary handouts as a reward for making them skip the normal procedures of doing something.
We will write a custom Essay on Tolerance and Pluralism in a Civil Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance if a celebrity walked into a bank to make a withdrawal he is expected to follow the line and wait for his turn because if he is made to skip the line the customers of that bank will feel despised. Surprisingly enough there are people who demand to be treated differently in public places because of their social status. Such practices are not acceptable if we want to be in a civil society that promotes tolerance and pluralism.
Financial prosperity should not be used as an excuse to seek exceptional treatment. This feeling of unevenness makes others to feel offended because they feel they deserve equal opportunities. When we learn that we are all of the same worth regardless of our achievements that’s when we begin to appreciate our differences.
Humans should accept that our personalities are different and therefore one should be accepted for who he is because all of us can’t have the same achievements. This is because we all depend on each other in our daily lives thus no one can exist as an isolated island. Though one may have all the material things they will still need assistance from other people because money can’t buy everything (Kristen 56).
The dependency on each other is used to bind the society together. For instance the wealthy rely on the availability of manpower that is provided by the poor who are willing to do manual work in order to earn a living in executing their plots. The rich need somebody to attend to their gardens and laundry while on the other hand these odd jobs are a source of income to the poor thus the relationship between the two parties is based on mutual understanding.
Without the rich the poor can not survive and the rich also can not do without the poor because even the tallest skyscraper needs masons to dress the stones. It is also important to treat all jobs evenly because somebody’s profession is vital to one self.
This is because the society is built by all kinds of people because everyone has a role to play in the society (Plaw 15). Some jobs are despised because they are tedious hence everyone wants a white collar job. If all of us were to have similar jobs same possessions there is no doubt the world would be a living hell.
The reason why communities fight each other is because they have to tolerate each other. Most inter-community battles are based on ethnicity. Communities can coexist peacefully if only they accepted their differences. As mentioned earlier freedom is part and parcel of tolerance and freedom means the right to be wrong. Instead of fighting due to indifferences communities should aim at safeguarding the interests of each other.
The world can be a better place for all humans if only some people were not greedy and selfish as they are. The society can be united by sharing the little that is available to the benefit of all.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Tolerance and Pluralism in a Civil Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, if Muslim followers established a community based school the enrolment of students should not be based on religion because the school is meant to be used by all people regardless of their religion. By allowing students who don’t believe in Islam the Muslim society implies that it tolerates the views of other religions.
Students who are not Muslims should not be forced to adopt Islam teachings unless they feel like doing so. And while they are there they should to practice the teachings of their respective religions. The argument here is that there is only one God but we worship Him differently and at different places of worship.
I have noted that most societies have accepted the views of each other gradually. For instance in African countries like Kenya and Nigeria where the population is made up of people from different religions, the majority of the population are Christians but they don’t discriminate their Muslim brothers.
Most fast food joints have a certification that is provided by the Muslim community to verify that the chicken served in that joint is halal meaning that it was slaughtered by a Muslim. This is because Muslims don’t eat chicken that is not halal because it’s against the teachings of Islam (Kristen 43).
In the above scenario the inhabitants of that country accept their differences in religion and they don’t go against the wishes of their counterparts but instead consider safeguarding their collective interest. Therefore, it is essential that a civil society should be vibrant and cohesive in order to promote tolerance and pluralism.
Works Cited Erlewine, Robert. Monotheism and Tolerance: Recovering a religion of reason. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010. Print.
Kristen, Johnson Theology, Political theory and Pluralism: Beyond tolerance and difference. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Print.
Plaw, Avery. Frontiers of Diversity: explorations in contemporary pluralism. New York: Rodopi, 2005. Print.
Vision of Changes in McDonalds Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The application of change initiatives in business is as important as in any other branch of human activity. Sooner or later every company encounters necessity of applying changes in the organization due to changes that take place in the areas such as technology, corporate governance, evaluation of leadership competencies, and other concepts related to the sector of business including marketing strategies and sustainable competitive advantage.
So, the strategic change initiative should be thoroughly planned in order to result in successful changes in future regarding the period when changes should be implemented.
One of the strategic change initiatives includes vision of the changes with regard to the vision statement which shapes the whole strategy for changes, mission statement which justifies the reasons for change and indicates the highest point to strive for; finally, the change strategy is the set of approaches that should be used to reach the goals stated in the mission or at least to approximate to those.
The changes that should be introduced in McDonalds concern the attitude of customers, reputation of the company, and reaction of staff members.
Application Analysis As suggested by Palmer, Dunford, and Akin (2008), each change implemented in organization should have its own image and should be built in accordance with a certain strategic change initiative vision. So, the application of changes with regard to vision of these changes should be analyzed in order to evaluate effectively the effects expected from this change, the way the change was applied, the attitude of employees in the process of implementation and final results of the change application.
In other words, it is necessary to take into account the change outcomes expected to be reached after application of strategic change initiative as reported by (Palmer, Dunford, and Akin, 2008), they can be intended (p. 25), partially intended or unintended (p. 26).
Thus, the change that should be introduced in McDonalds can be considered intended or partially intended regarding the nature of external factors that can shift priorities and attitude of employees including their understanding of importance of changes applied to this business.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lessons Learned The application of strategic change initiative requires certain sense of the situation because the change can be partially intended or unintended due to external factors and lack of underground for implementation of theoretical issues into practice. Besides, what is good for one business in terms of competitive advantage or corporate governance is not applicable to another business due to relation with customers, engagement of personnel, and other concepts.
A practicing manager could create a plan for application of strategic change initiatives with the help of vision concepts including vision statement, mission statement, and strategy in terms of approaches suitable for the case. The more thorough is the plan of application, the more successful can be its application to business because a practicing manager should identify some risks that can occur and be ready to solve problems related to strategic change initiatives application.
The strategic change initiative was applied in accordance with the plan including identification of vision and mission statements, and selection of approaches necessary for effective reaching of intended change outcomes. Some mistakes that could occur in this situation could be fixed with the help of a detailed analysis of every step taken before the changes occurred and identification of mistakes.
Reference List Palmer, I., Dunford, R.,
Why Physician-Assisted Death on the Terminally Ill lacks Justification Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Why Physician-Assisted Death is Wrong
Introduction The ongoing debate about physician-assisted death continues to elicit varied reactions globally, with proponents arguing that individuals have an overwhelming basic right to die at a time of their choosing, and in a mode of their own choosing, when confronted with a terminal illness while euthanasia opponents argue that there exist no moral justification for terminating life before God’s opportune time (Smith, 2006).
Euthanasia, the act of ending life, can be voluntary or involuntary, passive or active, but proponents and opponents have largely progressed arguments and counterarguments based on the holistic approach of the term and the resulting effects on the state of the victim, medical professionals, and family members.
But while voluntary euthanasia – that is the occasioning a person’s death with his or her consent – continues to draw varying levels of acceptance depending on the reasons advanced for undertaking such an act, involuntary euthanasia is almost treated as murder even when the act of ending life prematurely produces a greater good to the individual or family members.
This paper purposes to argue against the view that physicians should be allowed to assist the terminally ill die instead of allowing them to suffer the full consequences of a terminal illness.
Why Physician-Assisted Death is Wrong Proponents of physician-assisted death argue that the act of ending life should be enshrined as a private matter of self-determination and personal beliefs in as much as it is done to curtail the suffering of an individual from a terminal illness (Smith, 2006). It is indeed true that many terminal illnesses, including cancer, HIV/AIDS, and Parkinson’s disease, considerably diminish the quality of life of victims to a point of rendering them vegetative.
As such, it may seem plausible to end the suffering when the victim is personally-determined to do so and on the sad admittance that no cure will be forthcoming (Karlsson et al., 2007). However, mercy-killing cannot be a private matter of self-determination and personal beliefs since it is an act that requires the input of a medical professional to make it possible and a complicit society to make it acceptable.
In some instances, the victim is so vegetative that it becomes impractical to make sound decisions on his own, causing family members to intervene and order the termination of life. In such circumstances, euthanasia cannot be termed as a private matter of self-determination and personal beliefs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Medicine and law are the fundamental institutions charged with the responsibility of maintaining the dignity and respect for human life in a contemporary pluralistic society (Karlsson et al., 2007). Of course there exist various medical conditions that threaten the quality and dignity for human life, but medicine and physician expertise should be geared towards improving the quality of life rather than making death a purely technical issue in addition to stripping it of all its humanity and value.
According to Karlsson et al (2007), “…euthanasia is morally wrong according to religious beliefs, medical ethics, the sanctity of life or the intrinsic value of nature and its purposefulness” (p. 616). When and if a person is dying from a terminal illness is not in the hands of medical practitioners to decide since life is God-given.
In consequence, medicine, law, and physician expertise should be used to improve the dignity and respect for human life rather than being used to control the time, place, and manner of our death so as to make it as cheap, stress-free, and efficient as possible (Smith, 2006).
When physician-assisted death is permitted, “…there is a potential for abuse and development of a gradual change in indication for euthanasia” (Karlsson et al., 2007, p. 617). The potential for abuse and the gradual shift in expectations, norms, and attitudes held by society towards the terminally ill may propel a situation whereby euthanasia is viewed as a cheap remedy to the suffering of individuals and family members.
The credibility of physicians and healthcare facilities will automatically suffer when victims are allowed to end their lives assisted by medical professionals. Morally, it can never be a medical professional’s responsibility to cause deaths in humans no matter the situation due to the sanctity of life.
The scenario will attract grave moral ramifications when societal norms and values are oriented towards viewing death as a largely technical issue, not mentioning that there exist no standard to evaluate who should live and who should die (Deigh, 1998). As such, the task for physicians should be limited to offering solutions through which the terminally-ill can be assisted to live a quality life rather than being facilitated to die for the reason that they are in severe suffering.
The risk of feelings of guilt and strain among those charged with making the decision for applying euthanasia is yet another factor why physician-assisted killing should not be supported.
We will write a custom Essay on Why Physician-Assisted Death on the Terminally Ill lacks Justification specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The doctors, staff members and family members may display guilt feelings arising from the fact that they were liable for causing the death of a terminally-ill patient even though the patient could have eventually died from the disease. There is also the risk of making wrong decisions regarding a patient’s chances of survival since cases have been reported of patients who ‘miraculously’ survives the terminal illnesses.
Euthanasia is a terminal solution that cannot be reversed at all costs, hence feelings of guilt and strain may be overbearing when it is later revealed that such an individual had a chance of surviving (Deigh, 1998). For family members, the decision to go for euthanasia places an unreasonable burden on the one making the decision especially if the victim progressed into a vegetative state without making the decision on his or her own volition.
Many opponents of euthanasia take cognizance of the fact that the victim may not necessarily express a true wish to die (Karlsson et al., 2007). A terminally-ill person’s wish to die might be influenced by a myriad of other factors rather than the intensity of the suffering and an honest desire to end the suffering. For example, society’s norms and values, family members’ attitudes or financial constraints may adversely influence a terminally ill patient to yearn for voluntary euthanasia.
Such a plea might not, on a deeper psychological level, be a wish to end the suffering by death, but a cry for assistance and attention. Additionally, a terminally ill person, in his right sense of mind, may not be in a position to genuinely express his desire to end life without interference from the doctor’s presumed advice and the attitudes of family members (Smith, 2006).
As such, it is not only wrong to conduct euthanasia on the premise that the victim is necessarily expressing his true wish to due, but it is improper to commence mercy-killing based on superfluous factors that have little regard to the sanctity of life. Many victims ask for euthanasia after they realize that the disease has become an overbearing burden to family members, healthcare system and the society.
Such a factor is first and foremost catapulted by a wish of not being a hindrance, rather than a justifiable wish to end life. In consequence, it becomes difficult for physicians to evaluate patients for euthanasia based on such extraneous factors, hence the immediate need to do away with euthanasia. The task for physicians should be to alleviate or treat the symptoms that causes the terminally ill to feel depressed and burdensome so as to assist them live on and die a ‘natural’ death (Karlsson et al., 2007).
In line with the above argument, it should not be a task for physicians and the healthcare system to assist the terminally ill die. Doctors and other medical professionals are put in a rather awkward situation when they start making decisions on ending other people’s lives, and when such decisions are not backed by any medical standards and ethics (Karlsson et al., 2007).
According to the authors, “…if you would want to kill someone because of that person’s suffering, you do not need to be medically trained, so there is no reason to give this task to the healthcare system” (p. 617).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Why Physician-Assisted Death on the Terminally Ill lacks Justification by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The argument reinforces the fact that it should not be the function of medical professionals and health facilities to decide on administering euthanasia since the act goes against the basic tenet of the medical profession – that of saving lives. As such, associating the medical profession with any act of killing only serves to erode the good public image and professionalism largely bestowed on the practice.
It is true that many terminal illnesses cause feelings of hopelessness and prolonged degradation of quality of life, but to kill an individual merely because he has lost meaning in life or his medical condition has rendered him hopeless is synonymous to admitting the hopelessness of physicians in offering hope to the incurably sick (Deigh, 1998).
In consequence, physicians need to focus their energies on assisting the terminally ill to lead a better life rather than contemplating on how to assist them die. The terminally ill patient should be assisted to wait for death to come naturally.
Some proponents of physician-assisted death have used the utilitarian approach to root for legalization of euthanasia. This view is based on the fact that euthanasia should be administered if it leads to the greatest good for all concerned (Deigh, 1998). However, there exist serious flaws in the argument, particularly due to the fact that the ‘greatest good’ is often evaluated in terms of material benefits while the sanctity and gift of life cannot be expressed in similar terms.
A terminally ill patient may be evaluated on the financial costs caused to the family, pain and suffering, and the scope and nature of the ailment, but these factors do not form the basis for calculating the net value of life since life is God-given.
In equal measure, individuals cannot sit back and evaluate the total good of destroying a life since life cannot be replaced once it has been taken. Several religious doctrines also teaches us that there is no greater good in life than the right to life, thus there is no justification whatsoever for its premature termination (Smith, 2006). To terminate life prematurely is to play God and the victim of a terminal illness cannot attain any greater good when life has already been taken.
Consequently, utilitarianism cannot be used to justify the act of involuntarily or voluntarily ending life to reduce suffering. It is a futile exercise for physicians to adopt the utilitarian argument that assisting the terminally ill to die has better consequences than assisting them to lead more palatable lifestyles for the rest of their remaining days.
Conclusion From the discussion, it is evidently clear that the adverse social, moral, and medical ramifications of legalizing physician-assisted death far outweigh the benefits (Deigh, 1998).
There is no greater benefit that an individual can get in this world than the right to life, thus the debate that physicians should be allowed to assist the terminally ill patients die fails to hold any water when ethical, religious, and the medical practice standards are considered. Instead of playing God and deciding on when and how to end the lives of the terminally ill, physicians must direct their efforts towards ameliorating the various risk factors that drives patients to yearn for death.
The fact that many patients do not have a true desire to die when they request for euthanasia have been well demonstrated. The risks of feeling guilty and strained in the face of conducting mercy killings for the terminally ill may choke careers, not mentioning that the act of euthanasia puts the medical practice in a credibility test. It is God who gives life and it is only God who has the right to take it away.
The dangers of abuse are just too many, and allowing the practice may set a bad precedent for society members and individuals suffering from terminal ailments (Karlsson et al., 2007). In such circumstances, physician-assisted killing should be discouraged at all costs.
Reference List Deigh, J. (1998). Physician-assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia: Some relevant differences. Journal of Criminal Law
Global Warming Outcomes Analytical Essay college admission essay help
Global warming is the abnormal rise of average temperature on the surface of the earth. This has been caused by human advancement towards industrialization and modernization.
The outcome of global warming has been exhibited by the melting of ice and snows in areas such as the Antarctic which has changed the average sea level of the whole world because the ice and snow has been converted into water (Trenberth et al 244). If this situation persists the animals that live in those areas will be eliminated because their dwelling place will be destroyed.
Green house gases have contributed to the process of global warming. Green house gases are gaseous compounds that occupy the atmosphere and when their concentration is not stable they cause temperatures on the lower level of the atmosphere to hike. The components of these gases include carbon dioxide and methane (Changnon
Disadvantages and Advantages of Computer Graphics college application essay help: college application essay help
Introduction The research and development in the manufacture of drugs, chemicals, automobiles, airplanes, industrial plants, buildings etc, has seen the production of higher quality products. Advanced computer animation techniques produce exceptionally high quality movies and games. These have been made possible thanks to the modern graphics systems, which give endless possibilities in the design and production of new products. According to Mraz, the era of using hand-drawn presentations for finalized designs is gone (Para. 3).
Graphics systems include hardware and software systems used in the design, analysis and making graphical presentations of both real life and theoretical phenomena.
Advantages of Graphical Systems Usability
Graphical techniques offer more flexible and options compared to other traditional methods in design. One can make changes and undo them without tampering with the whole design. It is also possible to view a model from different angles by rotating it along various axes. One can also perfect on minute details of a design by magnifying it to see them clearly.
Presenting images in three dimensions enables designers to illustrate inner parts of structures they design, bringing clarity on the structures they intend to build. Some graphical applications like Photoshop and illustrator come with tutorials, which help inexperienced users to solve any difficulties. They have a user-friendly interface, usually designed with diversified functions for simplicity.
Research and Product Development
Graphical representation software contributes much in research. Models can be presented in three dimensions giving researchers a broader picture of how natural phenomena operate. In engineering, presentation of models in three-dimensional manner enables engineers to identify weaknesses in structures and areas of possible improvement. Computer aided molecular modeling is used in computational chemistry to investigate molecular structures and properties using graphical visualization techniques.
The techniques are very useful in polymer and catalysis science in the discovery of new synthesis pathways. The results obtained help to predict molecular properties such as structural information, atomic radii, bond angles, and molecular motions. Computer aided molecular design is highly applicable in pharmaceutical work in discovering, designing and optimization of compounds with desired structures and properties used as components in drug formulations.
There are many applications for architectural work currently, which enable easy creation and modification of designs. They are useful in “simplifying the analysis and construction of proposed designs” (Greenberg 105). Product improvement is made easier with graphic design software. Modifications can be made by changing values on the design producing different variations
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Time
In product development, the traditional method is to produce samples and carry out tests on them, a process that is time consuming. Dorsey and McMillan point that, the availability of such technology “frees humans from tedious and mundane tasks” (Para. 4).
Computer aided design on the other hand involves designing of a graphical presentation of a virtual model. Tests are then done on the model using special software. This saves not only time, but also other resources that would have been used in testing the real structure, hence the cost of production.
Many graphical systems can run a combination of many functions at one time reducing the procedures of carrying out experiments. In such a scenario, graphical systems create a platform for creativity and innovation since “ideas frequently come more quickly than they can be recorded” (McKim 11).
One is able to put all of his/her ideas in a model, carry out tests on the model using graphical applications, and then make possible changes. A common feature of these systems is the ability to multitask and carry out real time research in scientific work (Klein 6). The system gives feedback that the user is able to respond to manipulate results in any desirable direction.
Advertising is an important aspect in the business world. Customers respond to product or service depending on how it is presented to them. Graphical techniques are applied to produce attractive adverts and billboards. Applications like CorelDraw and Photoshop are used to produce magnificent images used in the adverts. Graphics make adverts lively and make them more appealing to potential customers.
Disadvantages of Graphical Systems Complexity
A majority of complex graphical system applications require prior training before use. Some of the graphics applications are so complex that they need an expert to install and customize the settings. Most of the software companies who write graphics software have professionals as their target hence only experts in a particular field can utilize certain software. A good example is some Supervisory and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA) which come with graphical components are so complex that only trained individuals can use them(Bailey and Wright 10).
Like all other computerized systems, graphical system lack the intelligence of understanding real world conditions and principles like the purpose of the structure it is designing. The designer has to figure out a way of obtaining the relevant results while maintaining the objective of the design process.
We will write a custom Essay on Disadvantages and Advantages of Computer Graphics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This means that the user needs to not only be an expert in the field in question she/he is undertaking the study, but also be well acquainted with the software. It may take several months or even years for one to learn how to operate graphics software. Some Programming Logic Controls, (PLCs), used in industrial plants; take months of training for one to operate them. Therefore, the designer makes the decisions while the system makes the calculations.
Most computer-based graphics application change in their technology at a very high rate. This requires one to keep on updating the current software costing a lot of money. The problem is compounded by the presence of many graphics system manufacturers flooding the market with many products, which are not compatible with one another. Graphics applications are not only expensive, but also need machines with high specifications and the higher the machine specifications, the higher the cost.
Conclusion Generally, graphical systems reduce the time a research work consumes and even improves the quality and reliability of results. They perform tasks that would otherwise be impossible and reduce the workload in research and development. They however come with disadvantages in their complexity, cost, and limitations, but their benefits outweigh the setbacks hence, will continue to advance and probably become more user-friendly.
Works Cited Bailey, David, and Wright Edwin. Practical SCADA for Industry. Oxford: Elsevier, 2003. Print.
Dorsey, Julie, and McMillan Leonard. Computer Graphics and Architecture: State of the Art and Outlook for the Future, 1998. Web.
Greenberg, Donald. “Computers in Architecture.” Scientific American 264. 2 (1991): 104-109. Print.
Klein, Mark. A Practitioner’s Handbook for Real-Time Analysis: Guide to Rate Monotonic Analysis for Real-Time Systems. New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993. Print.
McKim, Robert. Experiences in Visual Thinking. Boston: PWS Publishers, 1980. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Disadvantages and Advantages of Computer Graphics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mraz, Stephen. Changes in the Engineering Profession 80 Years of Engineering, 2009. Web.
The Manufactured Crisis Myths, Fraud and the attack on America’s public schools Research Paper essay help online: essay help online
The above book is a welcome solution to the obscurity and doom that one frequently reads about concerning the state of public education in the US. Given the criticisms of public education that have become a norm in more than a half of the past century, it appears that those stating that the current state of education in American public schools could be at its worst have a strong point of argument.
Certainly, it is difficult to visualize an argument that supports the state of public education as being at its best. The authors of this book perceive public schools as being an essential foundation of the American education system and a vital element in communal framework.
They argue that public education is not in crisis and that problem is with the independent bodies like religious unions and the critics who attack the state of public American education on a daily basis. This article shall explore the authors’ debate on American education as they tackle the critics of the public education system in America. This essay will also analyze how the book’s major themes and concepts affect and apply in an American classroom setting.
On a closer looks at this book, it can be observed that the authors tackle the issue of the public education system to a deep level. For instance, Berliner and Biddle argue that SATs do not achieve their intended influence and additionally, they do not portray a clear and positive picture of academic achievements.
Moreover, the authors argue that despite many critics stating that the American system is weak, the system continues to produce highly qualified professionals including of scientists and engineers. In fact, they state that the number of professionals being produced by the system is on the increase. This therefore, according to the authors of the book, is enough proof that teachers in public schools are credible and are carrying out their duties as expected.
This book also states that quality of teaching in public schools has significantly improved. Numerous critics have argued that the system is worsening due to poorly trained teachers. Today, most public school teachers have a strong liberal arts background which is instrumental to their teaching profession.
Most teachers in public schools are also college graduates with bachelor degrees and some even having achieved their master’s degrees and as such, the teachers in public schools are highly educated intellectuals who are very much capable in guiding students in their academics.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The authors state that the rate of qualified teachers to the unqualified has gone up meaning that there are more qualified teachers in public schools. This statement seems directed at the critics arguing that the teachers in private schools are more qualified, academically, compared to those in public schools.
Contrary to the critics, Berliner and Biddle argued that getting high salaries is not that much of an issue to teachers in public schools. The critics also argued that private schools are better than public schools. Most private schools reward their teachers with lucrative salaries which, to many critics, is motivation enough to private school teachers to teach students to the best of their abilities.
The critics had argumentatively said that the private schools are better than the public schools. According to this book, what most critics do not seen to understand is that the motivation behind teachers in public schools is not money but on the contrary, it is the belief to serve the nation by helping to shape its future. In private schools, the main source of motivation appears to be the lucrative pays.
As a result of the statements brought out by the Berliner and Biddle in their book, some researchers have carried out several studies on students and teachers in different schools across the US with the aim of proving or disputing the theories written in this book. An example of these researches is Mike Rose, a professor of education at UCLA (University of California-Los Angeles), who has even written a song in praise of US public schools.
Rose spent several years surveying schools in such places as the Los Angeles, Montana, Mississippi and New York City (Ryan 23). He was cautious to choose schools which were not situated in the wealthy suburbs so as to ensure that his findings would not be influenced by the pay accorded to teachers.
Rose came across numerous success stories, and noted the commitment of teachers, principals, parents and communities operating in difficult circumstances as they strive to achieve academic success. Rose noted that the supportive social environment created by teachers in public schools is instrumental in motivating students to put in more effort in their education. This, he observed in most of the schools he visited.
As a result of a series of purposeful research studies in the education sector from a variety of sources, the authors clearly state what they proclaim to be both a chronicle and deception. Most Public schools are doing a far better job than they are complimented for (Berliner and Biddle 1).
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Manufactured Crisis Myths, Fraud and the attack on America’s public schools specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To the authors of this book, most of the research carried out in public schools illustrate that the harsh criticism directed at public schools is unjust and that public schools do not deserve the negative comments directed at their performance. Most of the researches on public schools seem to concur with the hypotheses of Berliner and Biddle.
The authors further point out that school facilities, resources, personnel, and curricula do not affect school achievements much as revealed by numerous studies by different researchers which mostly dispute this popular myth.
Additionally, this book points out that research has revealed that schools rarely influence a child’s general class performance as this is dependent on the child’s background and general social. A child with a good moral background is likely to comfortably adapt to the public school setting compared to those with shaky moral backgrounds. This also applies to students in private schools.
In conclusion, after reading this book, it can be observed that the authors are aiming to educate the general public against assuming that the state of education in public schools keeps getting worse by the day. This article has explored numerous assumptions commonly argued by critics and shown how the authors of this book have disputed them one by one.
Among the most commonly heard arguments about public schools is that they are poorly equipped and this affects their service delivery. The article has shown how the authors have argued against this myth by stating that facilities do not affect academics much, it is the determination of teachers and students that is important. This article has covered only a few of the arguments in support of public education but the book has many more other arguments. The book provides a strong argument in support of public schools.
Works Cited Berliner, David and Biddle, Bruce. The Manufactured Crisis: Myths, Frauds, and the Attack on America’s Public Schools. New York: Perseus Books Group, 1996.
Ryan, Kevin. Write up the corporate ladder: successful writers reveal the techniques that help you write with ease and get ahead. New York: AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn, 2003.
Hardcopies Versus Softcopies Compare and Contrast Essay scholarship essay help
Introduction Is reading hardcopies such as physical books better than reading soft copies such as electronic materials? Reading experiences enable one to acquire, present or share knowledge in a dignifying and reverential manner, but the chosen reading sources or style provides the counters measures and effects that one must face during the procedure.
The source of information plays a substantial role because it encourages either sharing of knowledge or gaining of experiences, therefore deciding on nurturing a particular practice is important. It is imperative to note that different people prefer different ways of reading as a style of acquiring knowledge. You can ether have a preference of the electronic sources such as the iPods, phones, computers or choose the physical sources such as the newspapers, magazines, books or journals.
Personal values or experiences do not oppress or devalue the content of a reading, as long as one has stratagem of handling either of the source. It is important to note and understand that different people will have different taste or view over a particular style of reading, thus the difference of opinions and experiences.
Reading from the electronic sources presents a variety of options due to diversity and multiplicity over manipulation. There is a wide and well-balanced pool of knowledge or experiences created by electronic materials. Whole spectrum of information on electronic sources provides the chance to focus on diversity, thus enhance knowledge acquisition techniques that caters for role level of performance, significance and experience.
Availability of reading materials electronically provides the opportunity to gain knowledge of anything at any given time and therefore it shows that, it is possible to learn during tough times. Take an example of the personal digital assistants (PDAs), such as the notebooks, palmtops and the technologically advanced mobile phones that are enabling people to access the internet and find diverse information at any time and place.
People have always had the thought that learning would occur best during the times of calm and easy flow of reading. This has not been the case historically, but in most current instances, it is not a requirement to visit physical libraries to access reading materials. The ability to have an electronic library in a machine enables one to find the peaceful or calm studying conditions. The questions readers have to ask themselves in their aim of achieving success regards need to find necessary information.
The other important domain involves the daily work situations; where professional have to reference information during performances. There is need of reading abilities during work, thus need for reliable sources. Access of electronic materials that breeds attention to details and moderation during work enhances performance. Does the system one choose hinder procedures due to inaccessibility, time or location limits?
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Current technology allows people to have small-automated gadgets such as the PDA that allow storage of information or data in large volumes. It is easy to carry along the gadgets from a location to another.
The issues of bulkiness also is done away with since majority of the current electronic technology such as flash disks, external hard disks, memory cards and laptops allows storage of massive information.
Today it is possible to have the electronic versions of the physical reading materials such as the encyclopaedias, dictionaries or bibles, which are easy to access at any time or location as opposed to carrying the huge hardcopies.
As much as people would opt for the electronic sources, they have various delimitations and side effects to the user. To begin with, one may not be able to access information due to experienced technical problems such as machine breakdowns, program crashing and network-related problems. Secondly, lack of power due to inaccessibility of power sources may affect the access to the stored information.
Thirdly, access to soft copies can cause health-related problems, for instance long-term use of the electronic sources causes fatigue related conditions. A good example is the effects on vision due to electronic glares emitted by some of the electronic devices. People are today addicted to the electronic sources and thus tend to spend more time on them. This causes some negative effects on the social life.
Argumentatively, it is not the amount of resources that matters, but the procedure of utilizing what is available. It is evident that the leaders realize the importance of a source through analysis if content. Physically presented materials have assurance for content. Hardcopies are not like any other blog-page or suggested idea that one will meet during content review.
Most of the books are certified academic sources, which ensure utilization of crucial information through consideration of priorities. The hardcopies have high-levelled content to cater for students’ success. The physically published materials are thus professionally researched materials in most cases.
We will write a custom Essay on Hardcopies Versus Softcopies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The possible malicious electronic attacks such as information theft spread of harmful programs make the electronic systems unsafe and inadequate. The learning environment should be safe, healthy and, supportive for those involved.
The hardcopies are more reliable. It is possible to move from one location to another without worrying about the electricity needs. One is able to move from a location to another for longer periods even when it is to remote areas, since hardcopies do not require power to access. Health wise, hardcopies are safer to use for the reason that they do not emit electromagnetic rays, which are harmful to the user especially affecting vision.
Conclusion Knowledge is power to gain experience, creativity, support, participation, lasting results and eventually long-term cooperation. Ability to choose between either soft copies or hard copies depends on one’s capability to cater for the delimitations of ether in the aim of maximizing on the benefits. In comparison of the two, they all suffer from harsh weather conditions such as flooding. There is need to provide proper care for both cases.
Malicious electronically related attacks mainly affect the electronic sources while the hard copies easily suffer from physical damages such as miss handling. For one to choose the write source of reading between soft and hard copies, it is important to consider the ability to deduce meaning accurately. The evaluation of accuracy in reading depends on capability to make sense of words in a manuscript.
Reading accuracy is consequently the automatic process of interpretation and integration of appropriate expressions or phrases during the reading process with a minimal use of required resources in the aim of communicating meaning in a text. Both soft and hard copies have capability to facilitate proper definition for understanding fluency portrays the concept of learning to decode words accurately for the need to succeed in reading text, as a perspective for garnering profundity.
Accuracy in decoding words is important, but the main aim ought to be ensuring that the words undergo automatic decoding with less effort during the reading process. This effort depends with the source that one decides to choose.
Ways of Seeing: Similarities in Point of View in Cathedral and A Conversation with My Father Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
The short stories Cathedral by Raymond Carver and A Conversation with My Father by Grace Paley, while they differ in characterization, both employ a detached narrative point of view to create an emotional experience of profound isolation in the reader.
In Carver’s (2006) story, we learn the emotional isolation experienced by the narrator almost immediately, through his description of his own wife’s attempted suicide, and his description of the death of Robert’s wife. Carver’s narrator maintains a cold distance from the emotional impact of having very nearly lost his wife before he met her.
Carver’s narrator seems more engaged by the competition between himself and his wife’s first husband, as evidenced herein: “one night she got to feeling lonely and cut off from people she kept losing in that moving-around life. She got to feeling she couldn’t go it another step. She went in and swallowed all the pills and capsules in the medicine chest…But instead of dying, she got sick. She threw up. Her officer–why should he have a name? he was the childhood sweetheart, and what more does he want?” (Carver, 2006).
As Bullock (1994) details, in the narrator’s account of his wife’s attempted suicide, “the figures in the story—the wife, the officer, the blind man—seem a long distance away, tiny separated figures, observed by a detached, all-seeing eye. They might as well be figures on the screen of the television.” Similarly, when the narrator describes the loss of Beulah, Robert’s wife, he betrays an almost savage disregard for Robert’s emotions when he says, “Beulah’s health went into rapid decline.
She died in a Seattle hospital room, the blind man sitting beside the bed and holding on to her hand. They’d married, lived and worked together, slept together–had sex, sure–and then the blind man had to bury her. All this without his having ever seen what the goddamned woman looked like. It was beyond my understanding” (Carver, 2006).
Significantly, the narrator never names his wife. He identifies her only by role. This omission creates a distinct absence of personality in the woman. The narrator feels no real connection with her as a human being, aside from a mildly competitive instinct to assert his ownership over her body when she falls asleep and her robe opens in front of Robert.
The point of view on display from Carver’s narrator reveals the vast emotional distance that exists between himself and other people, and he transmits and transfers this distance to us, the reader. The narrator feels nothing when describing intensely emotional events; he recounts them as though they were news.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, the reader’s own emotional experience comes to resemble his: muted, and disengaged. Carver’s use of point of view allows us to perceive the world from the same standoffish, sharply critical distance that the narrator does, and ironically, this brings us closer to him.
The narrator in Grace Paley’s (2006) A Conversation with My Father follows a different characterization than Carver’s, however, the point of view contains the same chilled “distance between observer and observed” (Bullock, 1994). Paley’s narrator initially appears more animated, more engaged, than Carver’s.
An example occurs in the story’s opening when she expresses “I want to please him, though I don’t remember writing that way. I would like to try to tell such a story, if he means the kind that begins: “There was a woman…” followed by plot, the absolute line between two points which I’ve always despised. Not for literary reasons, but because it takes all hope away. Everyone, real or invented, deserves the open destiny of life” (Paley, 2006).
Such passages suggest that Paley’s narrator might be more sympathetic to the plight of other humans than Carver’s narrator, and therefore, more capable of true human emotional empathy, however, when we look closer, we see that Paley’s narrator, like Carver’s, identifies her father exclusively by role. He is never named in the story.
Also, Paley’s narrator betrays the same disparaging judgmental point of view as Carver’s when she says, “people start out fantastic, you think they’re extraordinary, but it turns out as the work goes along, they’re just average with a good education” (Paley, 2006).
Critics such as Wilde delineate this story’s meaning via gender roles, and link gender to ways of seeing. Wilde (1987) explains that in A Conversation with My Father, “the paternal world – encoded in the father’s request that his daughter compose “a simple story … Just recognizable people and then write down what happened to them next” –- bases itself on unexamined and peremptory powers of discernment and identification. Defensively but still smugly, it prescribes an impossibly “simple,” stable, and objective mirror to reflect what it takes to be the inevitable, sequential trajectory of life’s beginnings, middles, and ends.”
However, the narrator herself displays the same critical, arm’s length point of view as Carver’s, which results in a similar isolating emotional experience in the reader. The way that the narrator tells the story of the neighbor across the street barely conceals her disapproval of the woman’s choices, as we see here: “Although she was often high herself, certain good mothering reflexes remained, and she saw to it that there was lots of orange juice around and honey and milk and vitamin pills.
We will write a custom Essay on Ways of Seeing: Similarities in Point of View in Cathedral and A Conversation with My Father specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, she never cooked anything but chili, and that no more than once a week. She explained, when we talked to her, seriously, with neighborly concern, that it was her part in the youth culture and she would rather be with the young, it was an honor, than with her own generation” (Paley, 2006).
In this passage we see real similarities between the dismissal of emotion portrayed by the Carver narrator when describing the death of Robert’s wife and the near death of his own. Similarly, Paley’s narrator passes judgment on the neighbor woman’s motivations, as we see in this section: “In order to keep him from feeling guilty (because guilt is the stony heart of nine tenths of all clinically diagnosed cancers in America today, she said), and because she had always believed in giving bad habits room at home where one could keep an eye on them, she too became a junkie.
Her kitchen was famous for a while – a center for intellectual addicts who knew what they were doing” (Paley, 2006). There is a sarcastic and dismissive undertone to Paley’s narrator’s description, which echo’s Carver’s narrator description, as seen here: “She could, if she wanted, wear green eye-shadow around one eye, a straight pin in her nostril, yellow slacks, and purple shoes, no matter.
And then to slip off into death, the blind man’s hand on her hand, his blind eyes streaming tears–I’m imagining now–her last thought maybe this: that he never even knew what she looked like, and she on an express to the grave. Robert was left with a small insurance policy and a half of a twenty-peso Mexican coin. The other half of the coin went into the box with her. Pathetic” (Carver, 2006).
Within Paley’s narrator’s description of her neighbor lies the same biting judgment and fault finding as Carver’s, and the same dismissal of emotional context as it pertains to action.
The short stories Cathedral and A Conversation with My Father, at first glance, appear very different, not only because the narrators differ in gender, but also as the writing styles feel opposite. Carver’s voice remains minimalist and monotonous throughout, while Paley’s contains more tonal shifts and humor.
However, upon closer inspection the reader sees that both narrators employ the same superior, cold, remote approach to human interaction, both pass harsh judgment on others, and both refer to those closest to them – Carver’s narrator’s wife, and Paley’s narrator’s father – exclusively by role and function, as opposed to by name. Both stories thus create an isolating emotional experience on the page and in the reader.
References Bullock, C. J. (1994). From Castle to Cathedral: The Architecture of Masculinity in Raymond Carver’s ‘Cathedral’. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 4, 343-351.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ways of Seeing: Similarities in Point of View in Cathedral and A Conversation with My Father by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Carver, R. (2006). Cathedral. The Norton Introduction to Literature. A. Booth, J. P. Hunter, K. J. Mays (Eds.). New York: W. W. Norton
Report on Smartups Essay essay help free
Summary of the Book Rob Ryan’s book ‘Smartups’ answers some basic questions like ‘Why the people or customers need the product or services offered by entrepreneurs?’. Along with this question, Ryan’s book explains the understanding of importance of competitors’ presentation of the products for an entrepreneur as it may help in planning for success.
Hence, the book details the way the entrepreneurs deal with their products or services. It further explains the strategies necessary to build a niche for them. Ryan’s strategies explain the ways and means to make the products or services that can be offered to the customers unique in the market. His strategies are regarding financial aspects while dealing with venture capital issues.
He emphasizes that it is important for an entrepreneur to have budget allocations so that the money would not run out before the company builds up a product or is able to offer a service successfully. The next point, the book stresses is the good team necessary for a company to bring out the product successfully and market it.
The extent of perfection in planning decides the advantages or disadvantages that are derived from a business strategy. While discussing financial options; getting sufficient investment in right time has been emphasized in the book. After that discussion; good team, products or services that are different from others and have more utility value for the customers were discussed. Ryan’s book also concentrates on cost saving on the products or services of a company.
The book calls attention to the facts that the cost saving is capable of increasing profits by increasing margin or enabling the company to sell products at cheaper prices than competitors. As a whole, the book from beginning to the end deals with making of a product, getting investment for it and answering investors. The information about answering an investor helps any entrepreneur to reach the goal of getting the money and using it to manufacture the product and sell it to the customers as well.
Summary of ‘Sunflower Model’ In the chapter ‘Sunflower Model’ Rob Ryan explains the necessity of core competencies. He puts emphasis on the point that core competencies should be different from the ones the competitors in the same sector have. Moreover, the product manufactured using those core competencies should also be more useful for the customers when compared to the competitors’ products when it comes to utility value.
He cites the example of ‘smartlook’ search engine belonging to Readers’ digest and suggests its owner to do better than anybody else. He explains the ‘sunflower model’ as each part of the flower representing a crucial element of the firm. The company’s core competency according to Rob Ryan is one of the elements of sunflower model.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He compared the petals to different products in various markets. The underlying assumptions of the company on which the model of the business; for example a web portal is based on can be considered the stem of the flower. Hence, instead of searching for a lot of customers, the company can offer content or services to the companies who have lot of customers to serve. Eventually, the sunflower model of Rob Ryan gives new direction by pin pointing the core competencies of a company.
If the content is the core competence, the company can supply it to other businesses, which are in need of it instead of posting on a web portal and looking for advertisements. If the company’s core competency is production, it can undertake the production activities of other manufacturing companies in which the client company does not have much expertise. However, continuous development and enhancement can improve core competencies and ensure the sustenance of the business in the market place.
It is important to know that cracking new markets instead of rolling out new products is the essence of sunflower model proposed by Rob Ryan. The secret of getting success in the just mentioned aspect is to find products from the view point of customers to create and capture new markets. One such example can be derived from the manufacturing of DTH sets for the televisions when households all over the world are watching television programs on their cable networks.
Though there is no difference in the programs watched by audience, making them free of cable network and enabling them to watch Television without the help of cable operators made DTH sets popular. In this aspect, the manufacturers cracked new markets or, in other words, grabbed customers from cable operators by rolling out a new product that offers the same service independently and hassle free.
This is due to extra expertise the DTH sets have over cable network and the options they offer to the customers in selecting channels they want to watch. As a result, the core competency aspect of the sunflower model was also followed in the context of introducing DTH television set top boxes.
This type of innovation in products and capturing markets will happen when the CEOs or the management of a company create chaos that leads to new ideas or leverage the old core competency into a new market. Regarding ‘direct to home’ television set top boxes, the manufacturers leveraged the old core competency into a new market by innovating the service into a form of product that offers the same service in a flexible way and at viable prices.
Personal Experience While Reading ‘Smartups’ Reading the book ‘Smartups’ is an experience about securing venture capital. One can enjoy it and simultaneously develop expertise as well. The reader’s feeling would be a holistic one as Ryan’s propositions to secure Venture Capital deal with core competencies as well as quality and utility of the product. Though, the different chapters deal with the product enhancement and production as well as marketing strategies that are necessary to impress investors, one can find it interesting to read as at no point the content is boring.
We will write a custom Essay on Report on Smartups specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The first chapter of this book ‘Which Wanna-be are you?’; deals with slowing down your pace in business activities, when you are not ready to deal with the investors. In this regard, one can quote the market entry of ‘AKAI’ televisions in India. Though the company introduced television sets for price that is costlier to Indian Market, soon it realized the lapse and stopped them.
Soon it manufactured the Television sets using cost saving methods and introduced them for a lesser cost than in the past to compete with other firms in the Indian Market. After this stage of slowing down or changing the strategy, the next chapter prompts the reader to prepare for the questions that investors ask by finding answers to them in the form of a well organized business plan. Eventually, the reader of this chapter understands that it is necessary to do homework before approaching an investor.
However, Rob Ryan’s indication about the investor, who asks about the customers and prototype of the product seems crucial in business activities as it is important in dealing with different teams in the company. He also suggests that it is necessary for an entrepreneur to have an idea of customer base for the product and its prototype before approaching an investor as that enables a person to answer the questions of investor.
Consequently, the point of discussion turns to product development in ‘Do the Dogs like the Dog food?’ and the author advises that the presentation of product should make customers die to get it. Here, the reader can find a critical customer in Rob Ryan, who guides an entrepreneur towards an innovative product that has utility value. To do this, it is important to build a core competency to manufacture a product and model like ‘sunflower model’ to bring out a product into market.
After the identification of the core competency, the suggestion of Ryan to do the home work necessary to talk with the investors is important as they would be keen about the awareness of the entrepreneur, on whom they are planning to invest. After reading the book, any entrepreneur would prepare a plan to answer the questions of them. They might be about value, differentiation, scalability and stickiness of the product as well as value proposition.
The next chapters emphasize the significance of testing the ideas of entrepreneur on customers. This also makes sure that the product is having the quality that can offer new utility value. This happens when entrepreneurs recognize competencies of their team or develop them according to the necessity in making a product. The book shows the way for entrepreneurs to turn their idea into a reality, which is a product and present it to the investors.
Thomas Aquinas and the Proof of Gods Existence Research Paper essay help free
Several theories have been explained by philosophers in attempt to prove that God exists. However, it is important to defend faith by first beginning to understand the fact of the existence of the world as a way of proving existence of God. Such lines of arguments are referred to as “cosmological” arguments (Thompson 284). My objective in this paper is to state and explain St Aquinas’s five ways on proving the existence of God.
Thomas Aquinas was a Christian theologian of the thirteenth century who applied Aristotle concepts to Christian theology. He endeavoured to devise a rational proof of existence of God by incorporating in part, upon conjectures of Aristotle that there must be a first cause (Owen 14). The first cause was the prime cause for creation. Initially, he devised five ways to prove existence of God; however, the first cause was termed by Thomas Aquinas as one which proceeds from the movement of sensible things.
The argument St. Thomas gives from motion had long and varying history. In regard to that history, it would seem at initial glance to be anything but an easy and manifest prove that God exists as Thomas understood as a Christian. The paper begins by reviewing literature related to Thomas Aquinas and the Proof that God Exists by examining (Owen 16).
A Review of Related Literature Cosmological Argument for God’s Existence
Cosmological arguments are arguments presented to justify the existence of God. St Thomas Aquinas finds it useful to defend faith by presenting a way of proving that God’s existence emanates from the fact of existence of the world. The term cosmological refers to as ‘based on the fact of the cosmos’ (McKeon 14). The term has to do with cosmology a branch of metaphysics concerned with the universe as an orderly system. Obviously, the world exists and yet cannot explain its own existence. As such, something else must account for it. But, if we still don’t develop another unexplained existence of some kind, this “something else” must have within itself the cause of its own existence. Such example of an uncaused being is God (Thompson 284). This simple explanation provides the essence of cosmological argument; however it is enhanced and made logically defensive when stated more candidly. St Thomas Aquinas developed five ways of explaining the existence of God. The first three arguments are cosmological in nature (Wadia 54)).
The First Argument from Change
The first way of proving God’s existence is the argument from change. St Thomas thinks that our senses indicate without doubt that some of the things in the universe are changing. In essence whatever change must be caused to change by something other than itself (Thompson 330).
As a Christian theologian, Thomas embraced the concepts advanced by Aristotle to explain God’s existence. The argument when looked at in this way has its sources in physics and metaphysics (Thompson, 410). In physics, proof from motion seems to reach nothing further than a celestial soul.
In metaphysics, Aristotle’s demonstration arrives at a plurality of separate substances, each of which, although act without any mixture of potency, is nevertheless a finite entity. His argument in either case, that is, both physics and metaphysics, does the result of the proof at all resemble the Christian God (Thompson 284).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Prima Via structure in the Summa Theologiae is remarkably clear (Reinchenbach 30). Its beginning point is situated in things of the sensible world, things which are evidently perceived through sensation to be in movement. Thomas Aquinas gives examples of fire heating wood and hand moving the stick which pushes something else. Analysis of this movement of sensible things reveals emergence of two successive propositions (Thompson 318).
In the first proposition, whatever is being moved is being moved by another; and second that an indefinite series of movents that are being moved cannot account for this motion. The conclusion from the analysis of the movement seen in sensible things is therefore that there is a first movent which is not being moved by anything, and this is all understood to be God (Wadia 420).
Accordingly, St Thomas constructs the arguments as follows: first, the starting point where some things in the sensible world are being moved; second, propositions where whatever is being moved is being moved by some thing else.
In addition, an indefinite series of moved movents cannot account for motion; and three, the conclusion where there is a first movent which is not being moved by anything at all, and this is understood as the existence of God (Wadia 416). The first of the two propositions emerges from a metaphysical examination of the movement witnessed in sensible things.
It is not agreeable in any a priori way, either analytic or synthetic, but is reached as a conclusion from what is seen happening in the sensible world. Thomas Aquinas reasoned with an evident example before his mind. “A piece of wood which is cold is being heated by a fire. The movement in this case is alteration, change in quality. Insofar as the wood is being moved from cold to heat, it is in potency to being hot.
This is at once seen to be the necessary condition for being moved. The thing that is being moved has to be in potency in the same respect. So nothing can move itself. If it is being moved, it is being moved by something else. The basis of this argument is that the act is something over and above the potency, something more than the potency, and so has to come from something which already has or is that act (Reinchenbach 96).
The Second Argument from Causation
The second proposition follows from a continuation of this study of sensible movement in terms of act and potency. If that which is causing the motion is thereby being moved itself, it is also necessary being moved by another. If this third is also a movent that is being moved, it is likewise being moved by still another. But one cannot proceed this way indefinitely, for there will be no first movement. Therefore there must be a first movent which is not being moved by anything; and this is all understood to be God (Fredrick 64).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Thomas Aquinas and the Proof of Gods Existence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Quite evidently, this evidence derives its force from the doctrine of act and potency explained in the proof of the first preposition. Anything that is being moved does not have of itself the act towards which it is being moved. So in an indefinite series of moved movents, none would have the act of itself.
Therefore, such a series would never be able to account for the motion. Since there is sensible motion, then there must be something which of itself is act, in the sense that it is in no way being actualized by anything whatsoever in causing the motion. Such a movent, Thomas notes without least hesitation, to be understood by all to be God (Fredrick 62).
In sum, Aquinas argues that there must be something on which this entire causal order depends for its existence. To him, God is this first cause who makes things to be and sets them in motion in turn makes other things to occur. It is therefore important to note that for Thomas the strict idea of temporal beginning of creation, as distinct from its eternal dependence on God as its first cause, cannot be derived from the basis of human reason, but must rather, come from revelation (Wippel 323).
Aquinas Argument from Contingency
St. Thomas third argument of contingency has become synonymous specifically as cosmological argument. He viewed it as an observed fact that some things have a start and an ending. These items are thus capable of either to exist or not to exist. This implies they are not necessary but contingent.
For if these things were necessary, they could not have had both the beginning and the ending. This leads to the conclusion of the presence of the necessary being to cause contingent beings; if not nothing could exist (Fredrick 60). Reichenbach (1972, 19-20) provides a modern angle of this argument when he states:
A contingent being exists. This contingent being is caused either by itself or by another. If it were caused by itself, it would have to precede itself in existence, which is impossible.
Therefore, this contingent being is caused by another, that is, depends on something else for its existence. That which causes (provides the sufficient reason for) the existence of any contingent being must be either another contingent being, or anon-contingent (necessary) being.
If then this contingent cause must itself be caused by another, and so on to infinity. Therefore, that which causes (provides sufficient reason for) the existence of any contingent being must be either an infinite series of contingent beings or a necessary being. An infinite series of contingent beings is incapable of yielding a sufficient reason for the existence of any being. Therefore, a necessary being exists.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Thomas Aquinas and the Proof of Gods Existence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More We note that both Thomas and Reinchenbach’s forms of arguments commence with the existence of a contingent being. Contingent beings are vividly described by St. Thomas whereas Reinchenbach does not as it is an assumed fact that such exists. They postulate that a being that is contingent is one that doe s not need to exist.
In other words, it does not have the cause of its existence within itself, but relies for its being upon one or more other things. Contingent in terms of explaining God’s existence can be proved on the basis of time and change. All that exists in nature survive in the context of time (Reinchenbach 20).
Consequently, everything existing time undergoes change. In case change does not happen, imperatively, time has not elapsed. In other words, everything in nature undergoes changes. Nevertheless, everything that changes does so because it is affected by other things. If it had its various forms all together within itself, all these forms would exist at once, and in essence no change could happen. Thus, since everything that is affected by other things is contingent, everything in the universe is contingent (Thompson 312).
As a result of everything contingent being caused by something else, every being or item had to have a cause when people them in the natural realm. When people locate this cause, it is contingent and thus has a cause. This process may continue to infinity and still have a series of caused beings.
Because none of these could cause itself, none could exist unless there were anon-contingent being. Such a non-contingent being has its own cause in itself, thus is different from the other beings in that it must exist. In sum, it is possible to prove the existence of a non-contingent being because contingent beings exist (Ariel 298).
Aquinas third way differentiates between necessary and contingent beings. Human beings for instance, are contingent beings which come into existence and which can cease to exist. However, St Thomas argues contingent beings can only come into existence if they are caused to do so by an original cause of being whose existence is there as a matter of necessity.
Aquinas claims as before that this idea of a necessary being is what people refer to when speaking of God. Cosmological argument also offers distinction between existence and essence. For instance, the essence of man consists of all properties that make him a man, that is, his characteristics (McKeon 434). The properties that make the individual man do not make him exist. Therefore, a man’s essence is separate from his existence, and he is a contingent being.
Essence and existence in the eyes of God are identical. In other words, the essence of God is existence (Owen 14). God is a necessary being since it is God’s very nature to exist. God offers His creatures existence. However, the existence that he provides to them, though real, is not self existence like His own, but contingent existence (Thompson 345).
Argument of God’s Existence from Degree of Perfection
St. Thomas fourth proof of God’s existence is extracted from hi argument found in finite objects. He postulates that some things appear to be better, truer, nobler compared to other things. Every individuals has the ability to rate specific objects to be superior or more superior to other objects.
However, the degree of perfection can only be determined if there exists a being that is more perfect. To insinuate that something is more perfect than something else is to concur that it more closely approximates the perfect. In affirmative, the perfect must exist (Caputo 686).
Aquinas fourth argument observes values in human beings such as beauty, goodness and truth. He inquires where such things come from. He argues that existence of such values means that something must exist that is the most good, beautiful and true and this brings such human values into existence. Infact, that something is God who is the perfect and original cause of these values (Caputo 680).
Aquinas’s Argument of God’s Existence from Design
In this way of explaining the existence of God, St. Thomas argues that there exist clear signs of design within what terns as natural order. According to him, things don’t just occur; they appear to have been designed with some form of purpose in mind. This aspect of nature has been examined often in relation to natural sciences.
The orderliness of nature evident, for instance, in the laws of nature, seems to be a sign that nature has been designed for some purpose. It essentially for this point that naturalists approaches to science especially those that argue that matter possesses an intrinsic capacity to organize itself, are viewed as such a threat by some modern Christian apologists (Southgate 52).
Aquinas’s design argument became popular following the scientific revolution. The universal law of gravitation and laws of motion by Sir Isaac Newton suggested a mechanistic universe, carefully designed with a purpose in mind.
However, the weaknesses of this argument were philosophically exposed by Hume David who intimated to the degree of disorder or natural evil in the world as a significant countervailing fact. It was also exposed by Charles Darwin when he provided an alternative explanation of apparent design of the natural world in his evolution theory by natural selection (McGrath 182).
Aquinas viewed creation as both depending on God for its existence at every moment, but as also having been granted its own integrity to unfold according to its God given nature through the action of secondary causes striving, under inspiration change drawn from God’s spirit, too attain their desired end and fulfillment in God.
The fifth way views the intelligent design in the world, that is, things seem to be adapted with certain purposes in mind. The source of this design or natural ordering must, St. Thomas reasons, in be some intelligent being, God, who works out God’s purposes in creation (Southgate 52).
With his arguments for existence of God, Thomas developed the concept that nature had purposes deriving from God’s design. These purposes did not only offer evidence of God, they also provided a natural revelation of the end of creation. Thus, the eternal law of God is revealed in divine law through the scriptures and in natural law, reflected in the nature of creation itself.
If every part of creation naturally tends to seek its natural end or good, in the case of human beings this takes particular form in the search to know God and to construct an ordered society reflecting the well being of God’s good order. In constructing such a society, in addition to biblical commands, natural law means that human beings can identify universal and eternal moral standards.
Human law is therefore laid on these moral standards, and indeed the natural law provides a framework for laws in specific situations. The advantage of this is that it offers the opportunity of agreement on international law across different countries and cultures. This is evidenced in the role it played in developing concepts such as just war theory.
Objections to Cosmological arguments
Cosmological arguments received a number of objections from various philosophers. Kant Immanuel and others are among those who have objected that Aquinas cosmological arguments are depended upon ontological (Runyan 56).
According to objectors of cosmological arguments views, they eliminate cosmological arguments as an independent proof. Kant noted that the argument proves the existence of a necessary being. He however, alleged that it relies upon the ontological argument to indicate the properties of that being are those of God (Ariel 298).
Reichenbach on the other hand objected to this argument. He intimated that Kant classified cosmological argument into two categories; one, which Kant contented to be sound to prove existence of a necessary being, and two, which Kant claimed to, disagree, indicates that this being is God (Reichenbach 142).
Works Cited Ariel R. Theistic Proof and Immanuel Kant. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 1974.
Caputo, John D. Kant’s Refutation of the Cosmological Argument. Journal of American Academy of Religion, 1974, 686-691.
Fredrick, Copleston B. A History of Philosophy. New York: Image Books, 1962.
McGrath A. Christian Theology. New York: Wiley
Parsley: Rita Dove Analysis scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
One of the most outstanding poets of the XX and XXI century, Rita Dove, has created many beautiful pieces of poetry that show the world as it is – bare, but beautiful, like Venus the goddess appearing from the deepest of the sea.
Because of the talent of the poetess, the world that people live in has taken a new shade of unreal and shown its natural beauty to the people. The question is, how on earth does this woman make the words speak so sincere and tender? “Dove,” a poem of hers, might give the readers a clue about this astonishing riddle.
A poem that touches the very depth of the soul and makes the heartstrings ring with the sudden wistfulness, it tells a story of the horrifying cruelty that can lurk in the depth of the island and come into the light suddenly, grasping people and causing them to die.
A terrifying dictator, Rafael Trujillo, who ordered to kill the local people that could not pronounce the letter “r” in “Perejil”, Spanish for parsley, is the blind and scary force that lurks in the depth of the poem, making it so tense and making shivers run down the reader’s spine.
One of the most curious questions is how come the author makes the words sound so intense and provocative, yet lulling the audience into the rhythm of the exotic world of the strangers. Taking the poem apart, one could see that there are specific patterns that Rita Dove follows to create the feeling that stuns the readers.
When it comes to mentioning the tone, one has all the rights to say that the tone of the poem is filled with the things. The word is vague, but that is the only way to describe all the realities of the Dominica that Rita depicts. The things, that create the specific atmosphere of the life on an island, so separated from the rest of the world that it seems to cut off the map of the world.
The words that ring no memories to the English ear make the picture bright and vivid, yet the colors of the new wonderful world are hushed down by the feeling of suppression that is continuously following the reader. What makes this feeling grow is the speaker’s tone, employed in the gloomy air. As one reads the poem, the vision of a beautiful garden on a rainy day comes to one’s mind. The place where hopes shatter is heaven governed by a monster.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The syntax is, probably, one of those common things that cannot go together with the poem the same way as it does in prose (Syntax in English Poetry 1870-1930). The syntax that Dove uses in “Parsley” is of quite a different kind than a piece of prose might have. In fact, as the notion that represents some order in writing, how come can syntax claim its rights in a poem?
It does. Filled with the unusual phrases that sound foreign to the ear of the English speakers, “Parsley ” is the example of the poetic piece that does not adhere to the rules of syntax – and closely follows them. It stirs the regulations from the down under and makes them all chaotic, yet it creates the order of its own, that makes the poem look logical to the audience.
“Parsley” does not have a tint of the short, sharp snatches of phrases that usually make the poem sound like the beating of the drum. On the contrary, the verse is all gentle and stifled into a kind of a song that reminds much of a lullaby – a lullaby of the people that live on an island cut off from the rest of the world.
The phrases in the first line float quietly in the second one like milk is poured into a glass from a little jug. This all makes the poem acquire the rhythm that it needs to sound soft and mild like a tale told on a rainy evening next to the fireplace.
There is something that disturbs the reader as the poem unwinds. The constant struggle between the soft melody of the verse and the idea that it is supposed to express must find the way out in the way the words are stacked up together. It can be traced in the way the lines are torn away from each other, and the way they are trying to get together, but – alas! – with very little success. The snatches of the sentences that continue in the other lines are the very place where the struggle within is expressed.
Full of metaphors, “Parsley” seems to speak out loud on its own. “The parrot imitating spring” is the refrain that goes on and on till the end of the journey that Dove takes us on. It makes the beat of the tam-tam that is hidden in the middle of the poem sound louder and creates a specific figure that is supposed to express the despair that the whole poem is sewn through.
The metaphor that is the very atmosphere that the people lived in makes the reader understand the tension that was growing within the country, the despair of the people that were killed for nothing, and the useless anticipation of the changes to come, which never did.
We will write a custom Essay on Parsley: Rita Dove Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More All the pieces of the nature that are mentioned in the poem are the specific challenge to the harsh and severe rules imposed on the people, the punishment that was passed to them according to the judgment, and the fear together with the desire to make the life full of sufferings end somewhere.
The figure that symbolizes the state of the people living under the unceasing restrain and control is the fall “when thoughts turn/ to love and death.” The fall also is one of the faces of the death itself, and it makes the readers think that the people that are suffering the severe and cruel tyranny will be released soon, if not with the help of the hero to come, then by the soothing grip of death.
The drops that add to the specific beauty of the poem are the rhythm and the sound, rolling and shaking the lines so that they went in a tribal dance.
It is not that usual that each stanza of the first part of the poem has three lines – a solution rather unusual even for poetry where every weird idea is another step towards perfection. The first part makes the pattern that is rather soothing, while the second one, with five lines in each stanza, is much more filled with fear and anxiety.
The abovementioned makes the poem split into two structurally, just the way it is divided logically, as it has already been mentioned. The struggle between the tyrant and the people who want to live their own life is something that cannot be hidden within, and this something comes out into the light, with all its grace and beauty.
The sound of the chains breaking, the sweetest melody to the ears of the enslaved, is what one could hear in the poem. Beginning with the words that are mild and soothing, the author ends with the sounds that rock the poem into an anthem of the people suppressed yet struggling and suffering. Listen to the music of this line: “Even a parrot can roll an “R”!” – it sounds like a storm going on and tearing the world apart with the lightning strike, the scattering “R” rolling all around.
The unceasing iamb pattern that the poem is breathing with is the meter that makes the poem sound both restrained and full of inner strength that is going to burst out immediately. It hides the danger that is growing as the people become more and more oppressed, and it grips the audience like a spell that only the author can break. The sharp pain that the people are gripped with has to be stopped, and that is why Dove sends the characters of the poem to sleep, laying them to rest till the sun shows up above the country.
Usually referred to as the classical meter o the Greek prosody (Wilson 222), iamb, in this case, plays a part of the basis that all people’s hopes stand on. The profound and stable beat of the poem leaves the hope that as the last drop of the rain falls on the earth, the suffering ends and the parrot that imitates spring, green as parsley, will be flying high, and the stains of blood on the parsley will fade into yesterday.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Parsley: Rita Dove Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A perfect piece of poetry, the creation of Rita Dove, is the piece of history that has to be stored in people’s memory. As the pain subsides, parsley will grow on, as the remainder of the storm that was rocking once in the skies of the Dominican Republic.
The purpose that the abovementioned text has is to convey the main idea of the poem and analyze its poetic structure. In the process of writing this paper, which consisted of analyzing the poem and taking it its relevant parts, I learned the basics that every poem includes. The most difficult about writing the paper was trying to understand the hints that the author sent to the readers and explain them with the due accuracy.
Speaking about the strengths of the paper, these are the descriptive parts that make the essence of the poem come out in the limelight. However, it would also be nice to include some elements of the poetess’s biography to make the context of the poem even brighter. The approach of writing the essay resulted from the ideas that were inspired by the poem and the poetic elements that it combined to reach the stunning effect that it had on me.
Works Cited Syntax in English Poetry 1870-1930. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1967. Print.
Wilson, Peter. Introduction to Greek Prosody. New York, NY: T and J Swords, 1811. Print.
Constructivist theory Research Paper college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Qualities of Constructivist Learning
Process Approach on Constructivist Learning
Control of Constructivist Learning
Introduction Constructivist theory is the theoretical structure of the active learning practice which involves use of either present or precedent knowledge in the structure of new ideas. The learner is therefore supposed to select the best already existing information, look for the means of transforming it, he should then structure hypothesis, followed by decision making while relying on the reasoning which is guided by the cognitive structure.
Cognitive structure gives a wide meaning and systematic consideration of the experiences hence the judgment is based beyond just the existing or historical information. Constructive theory demands that the learners should be in a position to discover principles on their own an act which should be emphasized by the instructor (Maypole
The World Hunger Problem Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
History of World War
Statistics of the World Hunger
Causes of the World Hunger
Impacts of World Hunger
Responses to World Hunger
Introduction Hunger is a term that has been defined differently by different people due to its physiological as well as its socio economic aspects. In most cases, the term hunger has been defined in relation to food insecurity. However, according to Holben (n. d. pp. 1), hunger is usually defined as a condition that is painful or uneasy emanating from lack of food.
In the same studies, hunger has yet been defined as persistent and involuntary inability to access food. Therefore, world hunger refers to a condition characterized by want and scarce food in the whole world. Technically, hunger refers to malnutrition a condition that is marked by lack of some, or all the nutrients that are necessary to maintain health of an individual.
There are two types of malnutrition which include micronutrient deficiency and protein energy malnutrition. It is important to note that world hunger generally refers to protein energy malnutrition which is caused by inadequacy of proteins and energy giving food. According to World Hunger education Service (2010 Para. 4), the recent statistics by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) records that there is a total of about nine hundred and twenty five million people in the whole world who are described as hungry.
It is a serious condition since statistics indicate that the number has been on the increase since the mid twentieth center. With that background in mind, this paper shall focus on the problem of world hunger, history, statistics, impacts as well as solutions to the problem.
History of World War The problem of hunger has been persistent since early centuries given that people residing in Europe continent used to suffer from serious shortages of food. The problem intensified in the twentieth century due to increase of wars, plagues and other natural disasters like floods, famines and earth quakes. Consequently, a lot of people succumbed to malnutrition and death.
However, during the mid twentieth century and after the Second World War, food production increased by 69% and therefore, there was enough food to feed the population by (National Research Council (U.S.) Committee on Public Engineering Policy, 1975 pp. vii).
The situation of food adequacy which continued from the year 1954-1972 was as a result of various factors which were inclusive but not limited to better methods of farming, land reclamation, use of fertilizers, use of irrigation, as well as use of machines and other forms of skilled labor.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 1970s, people thought that they could keep the problem of hunger under control by conserving environment, controlling population growth and technological development. Nevertheless, even with such optimism, studies of National Research Council (U.S.).
Committee on Public Engineering Policy (1975 pp. vii), record that by 1974, the condition had already grown out of hand because there was not only a high population growth rate, but energy was also extremely expensive. To make the matter worse, the same study records that a quarter of the total population in the world were already experiencing hunger.
Therefore, due to hunger, agencies which were dealing with the problem started to request for the intervention of the humanitarian relief as well as trying to solve the problem thorough the use of the green revolution. The problem of hunger contributed greatly to the technological development since by all costs, people had to survive. However, although agriculture continued to expand, the population continued to increase and that is why the problem of hunger has persisted throughout the twentieth century to the twenty first century.
Statistics of the World Hunger As highlighted in the introductory part, nine million people in the world are malnourished but further studies indicate that the exact number is not known. It is important to note that though the problem of hunger is virtually everywhere in the world, most of the hunger stricken people are found in the developing countries.
Despite the fact that the number has been on the increase since 1995, a decrease was observed in last year. The figures below clearly explain the statistical trend of world hunger from 1968 to 2009 (World Hunger Education Service, 2010 Para. 4).
Figure 1. The Number of Hunger Stricken People from 1969-2010
Source (World Hunger Education Service, 2010)
We will write a custom Research Paper on The World Hunger Problem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Figure 2: Distribution of Hungry People in the Whole World by Regions
Source: (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2010 pp. 2)
The above figure clearly illustrates that the problem of hunger is most common in the developing countries and less common in the developed countries. According to Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2010 pp. 2), 19 million are found in developed countries, thirty seven million in North East and North Africa, fifty three in Latin and Caribbean America, two hundred and thirty nine million in Sub Saharan Africa and five hundred and seventy eight in Asia and Pacific Region.
However, it is important to mention that the Food and Agriculture Organization arrives at the above figures by considering the total income of people and the income distribution. Therefore, the figures given are just estimates and that is the main reason why it has become increasingly difficult to get the actual number of hungry people in the whole world.
Causes of the World Hunger There are many causes of world hunger but poverty is the main and the same is caused by lack of enough resources as well as unequal distribution of recourses among the populations especially in the developing countries.
According to World Hunger Education Service (2010 Para 10. ), World Bank estimates that there are a bout one million, three hundred and forty five million people who are poor in the whole world since their daily expenditure is 1.25 dollars or even less. Similarly, Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that about one billion people in the whole world are under nourished.
As expected, the problem of poverty affects mostly the developing countries although there have been a lot of campaigns which have been launched with an aim of poverty reduction. Consequently in some parts Asia and China, the campaigns have been successful because the number has reduced by 19% (World Hunger Education Service, 2010 para. 12). Conversely, in some parts like the sub-Saharan Africa, the number of poor people has gone up.
Since the study has indicated that poverty is the main cause of hunger, it is important to look at the underlying cause of poverty. According to World Hunger Education Service (2010), the current economic as well as political systems in the world contribute greatly to the problem of hunger and poverty.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The World Hunger Problem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main reason is due to the fact that more often than not, resources are controlled by the economic and political institutions which are controlled by the minority. Therefore, policies which emanate from poor economic systems are contributory factor to poverty and hunger.
Conflict and war is an important cause of not only poverty but also hunger. The main reason is due to the fact that conflicts lead to displacement of people and destruction of property and other resources that can be helpful in alleviating hunger. Towards the end of 2005, the number of refugees was lower compared to the current number influenced by violence and conflicts which have been taking place in Iraq as well as in Somali.
The same study clearly indicates that towards the end of the year 2008, UNHCR had recorded more than ten million refugees. A year after, internally displaced persons in the whole world had reached a total of twenty six million (World Hunger Education Service 2010 par 13). However, although it is difficult to provide the total number of internally displaced people due to conflicts, the truth is, refugees mostly suffer from poverty which exposes them to extreme hunger.
Over the last century, climate has been changing in most parts of the world, a condition which has been caused by global warming. It is a real phenomena and the effects of the same are observed in most parts of the world which are inclusive but not limited to draughts, floods, changing weather and climatic patterns as well as hurricanes (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Economic and Social Dept, 2005).
Such effects of globalization contribute greatly to hunger because they destroy the already cultivated food leading to food shortages.
Changing weather and climate patterns require a change to certain crops which is not only expensive but it also takes long to be implemented. In addition, some plants and animals have become extinct and the same contributes greatly to food shortages and hunger in general. Nonetheless, the most serious consequences of global warming are floods draughts and famines since they lead to poverty which ends up increasing people’s susceptibility to hunger. ( Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2010)
High food prices in both domestic and international markets are also a contributory factor to world hunger. Although the level of poverty is increasing because the level of income has reduced, the price of various food commodities has also gone up and therefore, it has become increasingly difficult for people to afford adequate food for their needs.
According to the studies of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2008 pp. 24), between the year 2002 to 2007, prices of cereals such as wheat maize as well as rice increased by about fifty percent in the world market.
Nonetheless, although the world market food prices were increasing, the rate was different with domestic prices, a condition caused by the depreciating value of the US dollar while compared to other currencies in the world. However, in the year 2007 and 2008, domestic food prices in most countries also ended up increasing.
High prices in the domestic market are caused by high prices for agricultural inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides. As highlighted earlier, the need for use of advanced agricultural inputs results from the effects of global warming which is also a chief cause of world hunger and food insecurity.
Impacts of World Hunger There are many impacts of world hunger because food is a basic need for everyone in the society. Although impacts of hunger affect people across all the age brackets, young children are usually the worst victims. In science, the condition caused by hunger and starvation is known as under nutrition. It increases the disease burden such that in one year; under nourished children suffer from illnesses for at least five months as the condition lowers their immunity.
In most cases, undernourishment is the underlying cause of various diseases that affect children like malaria, measles, diarrhea and pneumonia. Studies of World Hunger Education Service (2010 par. 10) indicate that malnutrition is the underlying cause of more than half of all the cases of malaria diarrhea and pneumonia in young children. In measles, the same studies indicate that forty five percent of all the cases result from malnutrition.
As the problem of hunger, malnutrition is unequally distributed in the world because about thirty two percent of the stunted children live in the developing countries. Seventy percent of the total number of the malnourished children is found in Asia while Africa hosts 26% and the remaining four percent are from Caribbean and Latin America (World Hunger Education Service, 2010 par 11).
The study points out that the problem starts even before birth because in most cases, pregnant mothers are also usually undernourished. Due to this problem, in every six infants, one is usually undernourished. Apart from death, under nourishment resulting from hunger also causes blindness, difficulties in learning, stunted growth, retardation and poor health, to name just a few.
Apart from disease, poverty is also a resultant factor of hunger. In reference to the definition of hunger as an uncomfortable condition resulting from lack of food, hungry people are usually incapacitated. Since food is an important source of energy, people suffering from hunger are usually not in a position to take part in useful economic activities and a result, they are usually poor.
In addition, hunger is one of the reasons that cause people to migrate from one place to another there by causing economic constraints to the host countries. Conflicts also emanate from the same as people compete for scarce resources. A lot of humanitarian agencies use most of their funds in proving food to the people suffering from hunger either in refugee camps or in other places.
As a result, governments spend a lot of money in providing humanitarian support while the same amount of money could have been used in development projects. Impacts of hunger are mostly felt in the developing countries, Asia and Sub Saharan Africa because in most cases, the problem of hunger in such regions is usually an international problem because regional governments cannot be able to deal with it single handedly ( World Vision, 2010).
Responses to World Hunger Hunger being a serious problem requires no emphasis and therefore, there are some responses which are meant to mitigate the problem. Various policies have therefore been established in all related areas. For example, there are various policies that that have been established to regulate high food prices. Such measures are inclusive but not limited to tax on imports, restricting export to maintain adequate food in the country, measures to control prices of food as well as to enhance food affordability, and stabilizing prices.
Improving and increasing agricultural produce is an important measure that has been taking place especially in the developing countries meant to increase supply and eventually curb the problem of hunger. At this point, is important to note that the number of response which have be taken to reduce or eliminate the problem of hunger vary from one region to another.
In addition, every region implements the policies that can be useful in that particular region. According to Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2010 pp.32 ), a survey conducted in the year 2007 and 2008 indicated that about 50% of all the countries reduced the tax of imports on cereals and more than fifty percent adopted measures like consumer subsidies with an aim of lowering domestic food prices.
Twenty five percent of the countries imposed restrictions on exports to minimize the outflow of food and the remaining 16% had done nothing to solve the problem of high domestic food prices. It is quite unfortunate that the regions that are mostly affected by hunger like Sub Saharan Africa; Caribbean as well Latin America has established the lowest number of policies.
Although such policies are of great help locally, they have negative impacts in the international markets. For example, due to restriction on exports, the supply of food at the international markets is usually low and as a result, the prices end up increasing. Apart from that, subsidies on imports increase government expenditure thereby straining the budget.
Therefore, it is clear that some measures of price do not control neither they end up mitigating the problem since they affect other people like farmers and traders. The main cause of the problem is due to the fact that most governments are unable to protect their economy from external influences.
Recommended solutions While looking for the solutions to the problem, it is important to note that the demand of food will continue to increase due to various factors like urban growth and development as well as the high level of income. In that case, there is a great need for increasing food production.
In addition, the intervention should aim at not only solving the current problem but also solving any shortage that may emerge in future. Therefore, all regions and especially the sub-Saharan Africa ought to focus on increasing agricultural production. Moreover, it is necessary to come up with appropriate policies to ensure that the increase in food production will solve the problem of food insecurity (National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Public Engineering Policy, 1975).
One of the problems that have been causing hunger especially in developing countries is inaccessibility to adequate food. As a result, the concerned stakeholders should look for ways and means of increasing food accessibility. For instance; it would be more helpful if the production of small scale farmers could increase because the problem cannot only help in lowering food prices in the global market but also in alleviating poverty and hunger in the rural areas.
Although incentives and agricultural inputs are important in increasing agricultural production in the rural areas, some other measures can still be used in the same areas. For instance, in a region like Africa, more areas can be irrigated and by so doing, agricultural production can increase as well ( Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2010).
Conclusion World hunger is a real and a serious problem not only due to its grave impacts but also due to the complexity of the whole issue. A lot of people in the whole world are exposed to hunger. A critical analysis of the problem illustrates that it not only results from low food production but it is also affected by other factors such as inaccessibility of food, high food prices and some policies established by the government.
For example, the research has indicated that some polices that control the prices of food in local markets end up increasing food prices in the global market. In the view of the fact that hunger is the underlying cause of poverty, disease and eventually death, it is important for the concerned stake holders to address the issue accordingly.
As the studies of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (2008, p. 2) indicate, the over nine million hunger stricken people can be saved only if the stake holders that are inclusive of the government, United Nations, civil societies, donors and humanitarian agencies, general public and the private sector can join hands in combating the problem.
In order to come up with lasting solutions, their efforts should be aimed at improving the agricultural sector and establishing safety nets to protect the vulnerable population. Finally, in every challenge, there is an opportunity and in that case, the high prices of food can be used as an opportunity by small scale producers to increase their produce and get more returns and thereby reduce problems like poverty which contribute to hunger. Therefore, even though the problem is complicated, viable solutions still exist.
References Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2010). Global hunger declining, but still unacceptably high. Web.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2008). The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Web.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Economic and Social Dept. (2005). The state of food insecurity in the world, 2005: eradicating world hunger – key to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. New York: Food
Como Agua para Chocolate: Like Water for Chocolate Essay online essay help: online essay help
One of the best ways and most pleasant ways to learn more about culture of a particular country is to watch the movie depicting its culture and directed by a director originated from this country. One of such films is Como Agua para Chocolate (Like Water for Chocolate). It is a film that gives a deep insight into Hispanic culture and traditions. It tells about relationships between people, family traditions, national food and customs.
The film was screened in 1992 by a Spanish director Alfonso Arau. The film is based on a famous novel with the same title by Laura Esquivel. It is a romantic love story that was interfered with strict national traditions. The story is set in Mexico, it times of the Mexican Revolution. Two young people are falling in love, but they cannot be together because of a tradition that presupposes that the youngest daughter in the family should not get married and stay with her mother doing housework. The film is filled with magic related to cooking.
So, the main characters of the film are young people that experience a forbidden love. Tita (protagonist) was born the third and last daughter in the family. According to old superstition, Tita has no right married, she must live with her mother and help her. She becomes a family cooker.
However, one cannot escape one’s fate and girl falls in love with a young man Pedro, a very nice local boy. He also loves her and makes a proposal. However, Tita’s mother refuses. Pedro has to marry Tina’s sister to be closer to his bellowed girl. Two people live close to one another, but they cannot be together. At the end of the film, they finally find a way to be together, but after marriage Pedro dies and Tita kills herself.
As it has already been mentioned, the film is filled with mysticism. There is an allegory to food. This allegory comes for the first time in the scene of Pedro’s and Rosaura’s wedding. When Tita prepared a wedding cake, she cried and her tears filled the cake.
All guests in the wedding were crying as well when they were eating it. Thus, Tita understood that she could communicate with her dear Pedro through food. The film is very rich in metaphors, as well as in symbols: dishes and their ingredients are symbolic, the name of Rosaura’s daughter – Esperanze (which means hope), and even the title of the movie is a symbol of Tita’ and Pedro’s love.
There can be two explanations to the title. The idiom “como agua para chocolate” means passion and love “people melt as chocolate melts in hot water” and the second explanation relates to the marriage of Rosaura and Pedro “the chocolate made with water instead of milk has the same look, but the taste is not that good”.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Analyzing film is a great activity that not only develops your critical thinking, but gives you the possibility to learn more about people, their lives and feelings. In addition, if this film depicts foreign culture, you broader your intellectual horizons.
Drug Free Workplace Evaluation Essay college essay help near me
Implementation of a drug-free workplace is a fundamental component in strengthening and most importantly protecting one’s business. Employees are as well protected from the dangers associated with drug abuse such as violence and injuries. The implementation of drug-free workplace programs differ in regard to size of an organization.
Basically, the approach towards development of these programs is a stepwise process that requires a lot of evaluation by the employer. First of all, the employer needs to assess the needs and requirements of his business. For instance, organizations running projects funded by the federal are required to have drug-free workplace policy in place. This should include a written policy, employee training and education.
Employers should also consider employees holding safety-sensitive positions as well as the possibility of substance abuse occurrence in the organization to guide them in implementation of these policies. The employer should also consider the availability of resources in regard to the size of his business. This is because some programs such a drug testing and health promotion may not be favorable to a small organization.
An effective program should consist of written policies such as the basis behind the development of the program and how it was developed. Expectations by the employer on employees behavior should also be indicated.
It is also necessary to provide the employees with information on the prohibited drugs as well as undesired behaviors in the workplace. Information on consequences in case of policy violation should be made available to make everyone understand the seriousness of the program. Ways of handling appeals and determining a violation should, too, be put in place (Franklin, 2010, p. 1).
Employee confidentiality should be maintained and fairness among all employees especially when they request for help. Efforts should be made to help the employees abide by the policy requirements since most drug abusers are addicts and might have difficulty avoiding the drugs.
Employers should consider providing employee assistant programs which are programs sponsored by the business aimed at offering service to employees as well as their families.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some organizations may even go to the extent of addressing health and wellbeing of employees besides dealing with problems associated with alcohol and other drug abuse. Some organizations especially the large businesses offer internal employee assistance programs but small businesses can unite with their health providers to give external services to employees at cost effective rates.
Employee assistance programs are important where the largest population of employees is faced with the risk of social and disturbing problems as well as drug abuse (Franklin, 2010, p. 1). These services include employee education, assessment and follow up and most importantly, individual counseling for motivation.
For a drug-free workplace program to be successful, employees need to be educated on drug abuse consequences and supervisors trained to watch their progress. The education program should focus on all employees no matter the organization level they are in.
This program should discuss the accessibility of assistance by all employees and how their problems in duty execution will be dealt with (Franklin, 2010, p. 1). Besides the assistance program, an employee awareness program should be included as well to educate them on the effects of drug abuse and the benefits of a drug free life.
Employers who have put into place the drug-free workplace policy enjoy some benefits that they would not have noted were it not for the program. Cases of employees’ nonattendance, theft and occupational injuries are reduced. On the other hand, productivity increases as well as moral values.
Employees experience reduced use of medical benefits due to better health conditions (Franklin, 2010, p. 1). Premium costs for workers’ compensation reduce as well. The overall effect is a secure workplace with enhanced productivity and comprehensive service delivery.
Reference List Franklin, G. (2010). Do drug-free workplace programs prevent occupational injuries? Web.
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Alternative Energy Argumentative Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
A case for Renewable Energy
Counterarguments and Refutation
Introduction Modern human civilization is build on and continues to be principally dependent on large quantities of energy to sustain it. The primary source of this energy has been fossil fuels. As early as the 19th century, fossil fuels were being used to power industries and to date; they continue to be the primary source of energy for man’s industrial efforts.
However, as a result of the exponential industrial expansion and the population explosion that subsequently followed, these traditional sources of energy have been stretched to their limits as the demand for energy continuous to grow. In additional to this threat of exhaustion, it has in the recent decades been acknowledged that fossil fuels are largely responsible for adverse effects on the environment.
A wider exploitation of renewable energy sources has been seen as the key to enhancing the energy security for many nations as well as mitigating environmental effects caused by fossil fuels.
Governments have therefore begun to seek alternative energy sources such as wind, wave, ocean currents and solar energy. These sources are to act as alternatives to the use of existing oil and natural gas sources. While alternative energy sources have been hailed by some as the only way through which man will be able to satisfy his energy needs, other people view these means as unfeasible.
This paper will argue that renewable energy sources if fully utilized can lead to an end to the world’s energy need problems and mitigate the environmental hazards caused by fossil fuels. To reinforce this assertion, this paper will engage in a detailed discussion as to why renewable energy sources should be adopted and reliance on fossil fuels decreased.
A case for Renewable Energy The world cannot run on fossil fuels indefinitely since there is only a finite amount of fossil fuel reserves on earth. Issitt and Warhol reveal that according to a BP report, only 1,200billion barrels of crude oil remain in the world’s oil reserves (1). Bearing in mind that the current consumption rate is about 31billion barrels per annum, it can be projected that the world will run out of its reserves in the next 4 decades.
This is a bleak reality since most of the world’s technology is made to utilize fossil fuels (Issitt and Warhol 1). As such, governments must invest more in alternative energy so as to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels which are predicted to run out in the not so distant future.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The overreliance on fossil fuels results in the increased dependency of the U.S. to the oil producing nations. While the U.S. does produce some fossil fuels, The US department of Energy notes that the contribution of the US is only 3% while its consumption is up to 25% (Issitt and Warhol 1).
These points to a high dependency on oil imported from other countries by the US. This inevitable places our country at the mercies of the oil producing giants which might be a risk. For example, following the 1967 Arab-Israeli way, the oil producing Arab states imposed an oil embargo on the US for its support of Israel. With such realities in mind, it makes sense to be self sufficient. The only way that the US can move towards self sufficiency in energy is through exploiting renewable energy sources.
Proponents of fossil fuels propose that measures can be taken to mitigate their adverse effect and ensure their sustainability. Rich and David assert that while such efforts at producing environmentally-friendly fossil fuels such as coal are praiseworthy, they are misguided and will not make a significant difference (1).
This is because it is impossible to avoid the production of green house gasses when burning fuels regardless of the technology being utilized. Instead of focusing on ways to increase the environmental friendliness of fossil fuels, the available renewable energy alternatives should be pursued. Rich and David argue that there are many feasible alternative energy sources which if properly researched could render the need for fossil fuels obsolete.
One of the reasons why fossil fuels are favored over alternative energy sources is because of their relatively cheap cost. This edge that fossil fuel has over renewable sources is quickly being closed and it can be projected that in the near future, alternative energy sources will dominate the market. Witherbee suggests that one of the reasons why most alternative energy sources have failed to work out in the past has been as a result of lack of political and economic support.
With the continued penetration into mainstream market of alternative energy sources such as solar power and heat pumps that work on geothermal energy, it is considerable that alternative energy sources will become cheaper as the market increases therefore becoming more competitive. Given the numerous advantages that alternative energy sources have over fossil fuels, most consumers will opt to utilize the cheap and renewable energy sources.
The need for fossil fuel posses a threat to the natural environment and if the demand for fossil fuels continues unabated, it is likely that rampant drilling for oil will occur. An especially troubling reality is the proposed drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge which has been a protected wildlife site for decades. Proponents of fossil fuel extraction claim that such a move would result in cheaper fuel as well as jobs for the American population.
We will write a custom Essay on Alternative Energy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Issitt and Tom declare that the benefits from such moves would be minimal and only periodic and the authors blame corporate contributors and politicians for furthering the interest of the petroleum industry at the expense of the environment even though they know that it is non-renewable. Lizza demonstrates the role that politics play in determining the fate of the environment by documenting how politicians support drilling in protected areas just so that they can get political leverage.
This is a very irresponsible behavior since the welfare of the people in the long run and the sustainability of resources should be the main determinant of the stance taken by politicians. Witherbee asserts that rather than expanding fossil fuel exploration while all the time knowing that it is a limited energy source, alternative energy sources should be sought out for a more permanent solution.
Counterarguments and Refutation Proponents of fossil fuels assert that while alternative energy sources purport to be the solution to the problems that fossil fuels have caused, alternative energy sources can simply not cater for the huge energy needs of the world.
Bowman and Marcus assert that while it is a fact that the world’s fossil fuel reserves are dwindling, alternative energy sources are incapable or replacing them and the only solution would be to use fossil fuels more efficiently by use of conservation techniques (11). To reinforce this claim, the authors demonstrate that all the current implementations of renewable energy sources are either inefficient or prohibitively expensive therefore making them unfeasible (Bowman and Marcus 13).
Fossil fuels on the other hand continue to remain cheap and therefore attractive to consumers all over the country. To counter this claim, Rich and David demonstrate that there are numerous renewable energy source alternatives and if they are extensively researched on, they could rival fossil fuels and eventually cater for the energy needs of the world (1).
One of the points that opponents of fossil fuels raise to deride fossil fuels is that they are detrimental to the environment and result in the proliferation of global warming. However, proponents of fossil fuels point out that renewable energy sources which are hailed by alternative energy lobbyists as environmental friendly are not only expensive to the tax payer but they also result in environmental degradation.
Bowman and Marcus argue that some renewable sources such as ethanol and bio-fuel result in deforestation so as to create more land for corn and other resources used to produce the fuels (3). Renewable energy sources such as solar power as obtained through Concentrating Solar Power technologies require huge amount of land that large scale production plants demand.
The large scale installations of mirrors results in a negative effect on the ecosystem since deployment of these structures leads to the shading or complete coverage of large tracts of land. The ecosystem that exists on these shaded surfaces will therefore be affected by the lack of sunlight. This therefore negates the notion that renewable energy sources are favorable to the environment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Alternative Energy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While it is true that some renewable energy sources do result in environmental degradation, they do not do so on the same scale as fossil fuels do. In addition to this, not all the renewable energy sources have adverse environmental effects. For example, wind power is a very environmental friendly alternative energy source. As such, not all renewable energy sources should be branded as degenerative to the environment.
Despite the US government having invested billions of dollars to alternative energy sources projects in the past 4 decades, there is still no sign of a feasible alternative to fossil fuels. For this reason, opponents of alternative energy sources argue that more effort should be directed towards increasing the efficiency of the available fossil fuels instead of wasting time and money researching on renewable sources which hold little promise of providing solutions.
Pearson reveals that the US government has lost billions in revenue as a result of tax breaks designed to motivate renewable energy production (1). The US government has also made enormous contributions to alternative energy sources such as the Hydrogen fuel cell engine despite a lack of support for the feasibility of such technologies (Pearson 1).
While this argument does hold true in that alternative energy sources are not yet matured and hence cannot compete with fossil fuels in terms of efficiency or pricing, this should not be used as the basis to stop research into renewable sources. Only by extensive research and investment into alternative sources can renewable energy compete and ultimately replace fossil fuels which have been in use for over a century.
Alternative energy sources result in some problems which are not present with fossil fuels. Roper documents that wind towers which are praised by renewable energy lobbyist for their environmental friendliness pose a risk to the aviation industry by disrupting the radar system.
Solar power plants which are characterized by huge reflective structures that are used to concentrate the suns rays also interfere with air transportation systems. Aircraft operations in particular stand the risk to be affected if reflected light beams become misdirected into aircraft pathways. This may have catastrophic results on the airplane. While these dangers are real, they can be mitigated by placing the solar power plants and wind plants away from the path which airplanes take.
Conclusion This paper has argued that renewable energy sources if fully utilized can lead to an end to the world’s energy need problems and mitigate the environmental hazards that have resulted from over exploitation of fossil fueled. It has been documented that fossil fuels are not only dwindling in supply but they also have an adverse effect to the environment as a result of the greenhouse gases they emit.
Through a detailed discussion of the many advantages that can be reaped from embracing alternative energy sources, this paper has proposed that resources should be channeled into alternative energy sources research so as to eventually cause fossil fuels to lose their primacy as the chief energy source.
However, this paper has recognized that there are some problems that are inherent in alternative energy sources. The major problem is the pricing which is the reason why most people still favor fossil fuels. It has been suggested that with more governmental support, this problems can be offset therefore making alternative energy sources competitive. By embracing alternative energy sources, man will not only be able to survive favorably when fossil fuel runs out but he will also safeguard his natural environment.
Works Cited Bowman, Jeffrey, and Marcus Griswold. “Counterpoint: Alternative Energy Won’t Solve All the Demands of World Energy Consumption.” Points of View: Alternative Energy Exploration (2009): 3. Points of View Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.
Issitt, Micah L., and Tom Warhol. “Alternative Energy Exploration: An Overview.” Points of View: Alternative Energy Exploration (2009): 1. Points of View Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.
Issitt, Micah L., and David C. Morley. “Counterpoint: There are Better Energy Alternatives to Drilling in Alaska.” Points of View: Arctic Drilling (2009): 3. Points of View Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.
Lizza, Ryan. “AS THE WORLD BURNS.” New Yorker 86.31 (2010): 70. Points of View Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.
Pearson, John. “Point: Alternative Energy Exploration is Not the Answer.” Points of View: Alternative Energy Exploration (2009): 5. Points of View Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.
Rich, Alex K., and David C. Morley. “Point: The World Must Actively Explore Alternative Sources of Energy.” Points of View: Alternative Energy Exploration (2009): 2. Points of View Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.
Roper, Peter. “Ill wind blowing: Towers foul up radar.” Pueblo Chieftain, The (CO) 05 Apr. 2010: Points of View Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.
Witherbee, Amy. “Counterpoint: Saving the Alaskan Frontier.” Points of View: Arctic Drilling (2009): 6. Points of View Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.
Witherbee, Amy. “Counterpoint: No Alternative.” Points of View: Alternative Energy Exploration (2009): 6. Points of View Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.
work as a human services practitioner at a state prison and have been assigned to manage Casey Hamburger as she starts to plan for her upcoming reentry into society in 3 months. She has spent the past 15 months incarcerated. Read her biopsychosocial evaluation. She will need support in addressing her lack of resources, a home to go to, and any daily skills before leaving prison. college application essay help
Write a 750- to 1050-word report on strategies for how to manage your client’s biopsychosocial needs and needs related to reentry. Complete the following in your report: Identify your client’s needs based on the biopsychosocial evaluation, (take into account your client’s needs related to reentry, including lack of resources, a home, and limitations in daily skills). Discuss short-term and long-term goals. Describe strategies for managing your client to help achieve these goals. Discuss desired outcome after 3 months. Cite at least 1 evidence-based research in your report.
Politics of developing Nations Research Paper essay help online free
Abstract The complexity of the group of nations that are referred to as developing countries continues to escalate by the day. This diversity stems from both the economic and social-political structures that define the status of a given country.
More often than not, these countries have developed one or two areas of specialty that enables them to cope up economically with other countries; this is mainly in the form of production of minerals, agriculture or rendering some special services. The exploitation of these sectors usually provides the blueprint for achievement of the set developmental targets, in that the degree of exploitation of these sectors often dictates the state of development.
In the face of these, these countries at the background happen to be mired in startling catastrophes’, issues that undermine the rate of economic growth. Biting poverty, total absence to little or no security, inequity and the citizens being denied their basic human rights are sometimes the order of the day, they characterize the life of the populace that dwell in these Nations.
In addition to the above mentioned problems which the middle class country has to grapple with, lies the underlying factor, in most states it is the weak political structures and the absence of a political will to combat and accommodate the divergent views that the leadership may experience.
In a nutshell, this paper will focus on; the factors that have contributed to the conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the conflict minerals in DRC and, the governments efforts put in place to avert conflicts and the conclusion of the paper.
Introduction Endowed with immense natural mineral resources is the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a country crippled by the political jinx that has bedeviled it, consequently dragging its economy to a near collapse.
The tug-of- war for the control of the mineral rich eastern DRC dates back in the year 1965, the era of coup, that subsequently led to the overthrow and untimely death of Patrice Lumumba, the then premier of DRC (Lobe, 2003). The mastermind of the coup d’état was Lieutenant General Mobutu, who later became the president of the DRC.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The demise of the then Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba led to political and civil unrest, that consequently bred a host of militia groups. One such significant rebel group was led by Laurent Desire Kabila, a political antagonist of Mobutu and a proponent of Patrice Lumumba (Lobe, 2003). Laurent Kabila’s rebel forces executed intermittent but less radical attacks on the Mobutu’s forces for more than three decades, but it was not until the year 1996 when he launched his serious attack on the government’s forces (Benedict, 2006).
In December 1996, Kabila’s rebel forces backed by Rwanda, Uganda and Angola, started their exodus towards the west, committing atrocities to the civilians with a motive of conquering the Mobutu’s government (Lobe, 2003). The Kabila’s invasion, which was later designated as the ‘First Congo War’, culminated to the ousting of Mobutu, who later passed on in the year 1997 in Morocco (Lobe, 2003). The self-proclaimed President Laurent Kabila took over the power and the control of the nation with its vast mineral resources.
The year 1998 so to it the inception of the ‘Second Congo War’, a war that was characterized by conflicting interests amongst different African countries neighboring the DRC, and the diamond mining companies which were supporting the Kabila’s government in return for better mining deals (Benedict, 2006). The governments which were against Kabila’s government were however, the Rwandan and Ugandan governments.
The duo, who had helped the Kabila’s rebel forces to topple the Mobutu’s government, had their own selfish interests geared towards seeking favors from the Mobutu’s government, and ultimately benefit from the mineral rich regions (Hochschild, 2004). After the ‘First Congo War’, the two nations were reluctant to leave, prompting Kabila, who was receiving hostility from the public due to his inclusion of the foreigners in his government, to oust them tersely (Hchschild, 2004).
The two nations retaliated by throwing their weight behind the rebel forces, trying to attack Kabila’s government from different directions. Burundi followed suit by backing the rebel forces adding to Kabila’s predicaments. By 23rd August 1998, the rebels had conquered the diamond rich Kisangani centre further weakening Kabila’s government (Ismi, 2001).
In an effort to consolidate his government, Kabila started fostering diplomatic relations with other African nations which later bore fruits (Benedict, 2006). These led to the mitigation of the rebellious groups enhancing political sobriety in the DRC. It was on 18th January 1999 in Windhoek, Namibia, when a consensus for a ceasefire was reached bringing calm to a nation that was in the threshold of collapse (Rosthchild, 1996).
The accord did not however change much the situation in DRC since there was continued upheavals especially in the diamond rich Kisangani centre, where rebels were still fighting for the control. This resulted to: loss of life, loss of properties, displacement of the citizens and fleeing of other citizens to the neighboring nations to seek asylum (Snow, 2006).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Politics of developing Nations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The attempts to bring to an end the massacres in the DRC so to it the intervention of the UN peace forces in February 24th 2000, which was to foresee the enactment of a prior ceasefire agreement (Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement) geared towards disarming of all groups (Rosthchild, 1996).
In January 16th 2000, in Zimbabwe, an aborted assassination attempt on President Laurent Kabila, so him escape with fatal injuries (Lobe, 2003). President Kabila, who succumbed to sustained injuries, later died paving way for his son Joseph Kabila, who was sworn in as the next president by the parliament which was loyal to his government (Benedict, 2006). In April 2001, a panel of eminent persons from the UN carried out an “investigation on the illegal exploitation of diamond, copper, gold, coltan and other lucrative resources” (Ismi, 2001).
Their report brought to books three states including Rwanda, Uganda and Zimbabwe governments accused of robbing of the DRC of its natural resources (Rupesighe, 1987). Sanctions were imposed on these nations in an effort to punish them. In spite of diplomatic interventions and signing of never-ending agreements, the foreign rebel forces presence were still evident.
Sick and tired of war, the forces either started withdrawing or joining Joseph Kabila’s government buttressing his influence to the entire nation (Lobe, 2003). The exploitation by foreign states with respect to illegitimate acquisition of the mineral sources did not however end. On 21st October 2001, a UN report accused Ugandan and Rwandan governments of “illicit trafficking of plundered resource” (Lobe, 2003).
It was not until 30th July 2006 after the promulgation of the new constitution, that a democratic atmosphere was felt which led to the formation of an interim government and, on 30th August, a free and a fair election was held (Benedict, 2006).
The election, which was a two horse race between Joseph Kabila and Jean-Pierre Bemba, resulted in the triumph of the later, garnering a massive 44% of the total votes (Benedict, 2006). The ‘Second Congo War’ is certainly the most lethal conflict of the recent times in history since the World War II. The aftermath of the war, which is felt up to date, has led to lose of approximately more than 5.4 million lives (Hochschild, 2004).
The causes of deaths were mainly; hunger and diseases, coupled with violation of human rights and crimes against humanity. The war has left a disturbing legacy characterized by; insecurity along the eastern border adjoining Rwanda to the DRC, spontaneous uprising of unorganized and yet weaker rebel groups, looting of resources, and rape among others (Ismi, 2001). All these are impediments towards a stable political friendly economic.
The factors that have contributed to the conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Politics of developing Nations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Being one of the epicenters of the essential mineral resources in Africa, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is not a safe heaven for investment due to its unstable political atmosphere. The DRC has experienced a lot of setbacks in the quest to achieving its political stability ever since independence.
This is a country marred by coup, a string of spontaneous insurgency causing political turmoil to the otherwise good state. To the centre of these conflicts are the selfish interests that are deeply rooted in their leaders, who make arbitrary political decisions at their whims.
Majority of the mineral deposits in DRC are skewed towards the east, a region that has claimed many stakeholders from within and outside the borders of the DRC (Ismi, 2001). The stakeholders, who are mainly illegitimate owners, are always corrupt demanding bribes from the interested parties bagging in millions of dollars money (Ismi, 2001). The cash obtained from their dubious dealings are the sole causes of political instability, since they are used to fund rebel groups (Monty, 2003).
These illegal interests include the ‘local militias, Congolese and Rwandese rebels’ (Lobe, 2003). These groups control a vast region of more than half of the deposits dwarfing the region owned by the government. Although there are many mineral deposits in the DRC serving various industries around the world, the spotlight has been on the minerals supporting electronic industry (Rupesinghe, 1987).
Electronic industry renders a wider market for the minerals in the DRC, feeding a “range of complex supply chains, serving as raw materials for component parts in everything from cell phones and cutting tools to jet engines and jewelry” (Monty, 2001). Efforts by an array of stakeholders have tried to come to the bottom of these evils by trying to establish the connection between the minerals and the conflicts. Giant steps have been made by the electronics industry to address the issue at hand.
NGO’s have lobbied campaigns with an aim of bringing awareness to the public domain on how the two issues relate (Rosthchild, 1996). The government has however, tried to establish laws and legislations that bars dubious supply chains that, hinder a maximum revenue collection with respect to mining (Rosthchild, 1996).
Conflict minerals in DRC and, the government’s efforts put in place to avert conflicts Stakeholders have established three significant issues that have played pivotal role in sparking conflicts in the DRC. These issues focus on; supply chain responsibility, government engagement and, economic development and capacity building (Rosthchild, 1996).
With regards to supply chain responsibility, a responsible chain of supply seeks to bring sanity in the supply, by addressing potential issues that might ignite conflicts (Rosthchild, 1996). The chain should also encourage tracking and traceability of a particular mineral in order to find the genesis incase of any conflict (Rosthchild, 1996).
To curb mineral conflicts in the DRC, the stakeholders call for government engagement that will enact laws and legislations, merge with international aid programs and, generally foster peace in the region (Rupesinghe, 1987). The stakeholders further try to avert the conflict by campaigning for economic development and capacity building, which generally seeks to benefit the locals by channeling back the revenues obtained to the community.
There are many supply chains in the DRC mineral rich eastern region based on the type of mineral. These minerals benefit the armed groups by generating cash used to purchase arms important in the invasion of the rival groups. They generate their revenues through taxation and generally trading on the minerals after seizure and control of mine holes (Benedict, 2006). The groups benefiting from these mineral deposits are mainly the rebels groups, with taxation revenues accounting for the vast share.
However, the mineral industry in the DRC does not only benefit the rebel forces but it does also sustain the livelihood of the Congolese people. It is alleged that the industry supports a population 16% of the total population either directly or indirectly. The supply chains encompass so many middlemen from the mineral deposits to the final user. There are however, underground artisanal miners who are considered illegal and, they are actually the stumbling blocks towards the achievement of a transparent supply chain (Ismi, 2001).
The artisans, who are normally small scale miners, are always tax evaders performing their tasks such that they avoid both the government and the rebels. The efforts to establish the origin of the minerals are always hampered by the inclusion of foreign minerals causing mix-up in the minerals.
Nevertheless, the miners wrestle with the issues touching on the infringement of their rights, prompting the NGO’s to intervene. There have been so many reported cases of sexual abuse, child labor, and, deaths due to collapse of the mine holes not (Snow, 2006). All these issues are barriers towards economic development, political stability notwithstanding.
Changes in the demand of the minerals, coupled with the lack of substitute minerals, are the main catalyst sparking conflicts in the region (Monty, 2001). There is a likelihood of unabated conflicts amongst different factions if, the purchase of the conflict minerals will continue outside the stipulated supply chains. It is upon the stakeholders to coordinate the functions of supply chains to arrest the problem (Monty, 2001).
A government commitment in the quest to restore political stability will be a great incentive that will mitigate the socio-economic evils synonymous with the region. The dilemma faced by the DRC government in an effort to consolidate its power over the control of the mineral rich eastern region include; “weak local governance institutions, porous borders and limited transparency in international supply chains” (Rupesighe, 1987).
The most critical issue that has enhanced vulnerability of the Kabila’s government to insurgent groups is a weak local government. The Kabila’s government needs to take a keen eye on this particular issue, which has eluded him to date, limiting his influence on the region.
It is evident that foreign governments have been and are still funding rebel forces to some extent (Hochschild, 2004). It is only through diplomatic relations that the DRC government can restrain these foreign intrusions. In a nutshell, the governments responsibilities in an effort to bring calm the situation in eastern DRC should be geared towards fostering peaceful atmosphere with its neighbors.
Efforts by the DRC’s government together with the international community have to some extend influenced the psychology of the interested parties trying to bring sanity to the industry. Among the recent endeavors is the revised DRC Mining Code; a code that seeks to harmonize with the international standards to enhance transparency in the mining industry.
The Code was nevertheless criticized as being a plot by the senior government figures to exploit artisanal miners. Moreover, the government’s agility to insist on supply chain traceability has elevated the level of transparency an octave high (Rupesinghe, 1987). The international community has nevertheless played their part. The US government through its legislation called ‘Conflict Mineral Trade Act’ emphasized on the need for traceability on the minerals obtained by its companies (Rupesinghe, 1987).
Another US effort led by the secretary of states in the year 2009, called upon the countries official to address issues like corruption and sexual abuse (Snow, 2006). The United Nations has had its fare share of contribution aimed at restoring peace and political stability in the region. It has a group of experts on the ground reporting on the progress of activities in the region (Monty, 2001). Other groups e.g. the European Union have shown their concern in the need for a sobriety in the region.
The companies have improved their levels of participation in the peace building of the war-torn mineral rich region of the DRC. Their concern is depended on the gravity of their activities (Monty, 2001). The companies engage their member countries into diplomatic relations, enhancing peaceful atmosphere for trade which is a great impetus to the conflict mitigation. There are a number of ways that the interested companies engage their governments into a cordial relationship with DRC.
Companies may also engage themselves with the government, abiding by its legislations thereby enhancing transparency in the supply chain. In a synopsis, the need for a calm political environment calls for the company’s participation in collaboration with the central government. The success of a chain of supply largely depends on the impact it has to its locals and, its efforts to establish the origin of the mineral tackling the issue of conflict minerals in a ‘bottom-up’ direction (Rupesinghe, 1987).
Conclusion The problems that are continuously being experienced by the Democratic Republic of Congo are partly attributed to its mineral deposits which are located in the periphery of the central government. The location of these deposits towards the eastern border far from the central government is a hindering factor that has influenced the predomination of the rebel forces in these regions. In pursuit for supremacy over mineral rich regions, it is necessary that the government engage in international relations with other nations.
The government should come up with legislations and laws that enhance efficient flow of business activities devoid of selfish interest that might spark war. The government should encourage Non Governmental Organizations participation to create awareness to the public as well as trying to educate them on the relation between minerals and conflicts. This will enable the government curb conflicts and hence enjoy a peaceful environment that will encourage economic growth
Works Cited Benedict, Lindsay. “DR Congo on the Brink: International indifference to the deadliest conflict since World War II” Journal on the Congo War. 23.4 (2006). 4-10. Print.
Hochschild, Adam. “In Congo, Dark Heart of Mineral Exploitation”. London: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.
Ismi, Asad. “The Western Heart of Darkness: Mineral-Rich Congo Ravaged by Genocide and Western Plunded”. Dehli: Kathak and sons publishers, 2001. Print.
Rothschild, Donald. “Containing fear: The Origins and Management Of Ethnic Conflict ” Journal of International Security. 21. 2 (1996) :41-75. Print.
Lobe, Jim. “Global Businesses Profit from Congo War, Groups Charge,” Journal of mineral conflicts.68.5 (2003): 13-18. Print.
Monty, G Marshall. Ted, Gurr and Deepla, Khosla. Peace and Conflict: A Global Survey of Armed Conflict, Self Determination Movements and Democracy. New York: University of Maryland Publication, 2001. Print.
Rupesinghe, Kumar. “Theories Of Conflict Resolution And Their Application To Protracted Ethnic Conflicts.” Journal Of Peace Proposals.18.4: (1987): 527-539. Print.
Snow, K Harmon and David, Barousky. “Behind the Numbers: Untold Suffering in the Congo.” Nairobi: East African Publishers, 2006. Print.
Internet and Democracy in US Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
The rise of the United States as a world superpower has led to the global interest in how she conducts most of her activities. Her large population has also been on the watch out due to criticism on the U.S for involving herself in international affairs some of which have been disadvantageous to the nation.
There have been mixed reactions by the citizens to such conflicting issues that have combined with the notion of color, thus giving rise to two main opposing camps. The fate of a political candidate would then be judged by his or her position on these contentious issues.
Traditionally, the way by which a candidate could reach the public to sell his or her policies was through public campaign forums, where a candidate would schedule to visit a state and address the public concerning his or her presidential ambitions.
However, those who could not attend personally would be forced to follow the speech through electronic media like radio and television. One disadvantage of this is that, the audience, especially those that were miles away, would not find it easy to comment on the policies sold, neither would they be able to show their position on the candidate.
The latter is usually a significant factor in campaign and politics in that, the more fame a candidate gains the more supporters he/she will continue to obtain (Some people do not make their own decision, but follow the direction to which the wind blows). Then appeared the use of Internet to sell a candidate’s policies and give various other political adverts. This was due to the increased use of modern technology in various other sectors and the need to quicken and democratize the electoral process.
The introduction of internet in American political arena has had both positive and negative implications on the democratic rights of the public. As Sifry pointed out, the use of internet in America “has introduced a new age of mass participation and personal activism in which anyone can be a community organizer, message maker or fund raiser and can mobilize the others” (Para. 1).
A report released by Pew Center on Internet and American Life showed that about 25 million Americans access online information daily and can give comments and contribution to various political debates online. The flooding of the information sites by comments from politically active citizens does not only signify a unified public voice, but it also contributes to polarized political platform and governmental standpoint.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The exercise of democracy by involving the public has been witnessed throughout the political past with its peak being observed towards the elections. According to Sifry, “it started with Howard Dean in 2004 and flowered in 2008 with Barrack Obama; and now the “right roots” have mastered the new online platform, especially since the GOP lost its hold on Washington” (Para. 4). In effect, there have been various sites established, that serve the interests of political partisans in different ways.
instance, there are sites blogs that contain various pieces of information vital to the public; e-mail sites for the partisans to issue comments; SeeClickFix that enables the public to contribute to the solution of an emerging issue; and InfluenceExplorer that enables the user to see who donated what to the candidates among many other sites, all of which focuses on the access of information by the public.
Moreover, in his article, Hurwitz (656) stated that “Internet activists have succeeded remarkably in making government and political information available to citizens.”
Discussions Internet and democracy during campaign
The use of Internet during campaign and election processes has been embraced successfully in the United States. However, the same is yet to be exercised in the United Kingdom, where there is still doubt on whether it will succeed or fail. In the United States, the use of Internet as a campaign tool helped the current president Barrack Obama to gain popularity among millions of citizens.
Primarily, his campaign program was organized online and even his policies were, in several cases, sold online. In addition, the campaign team established a website, MyBO, where they could interact with the candidate’s supporters.
Financial contributions by well-wishers could also be done through this site. Moreover, the campaign speeches given by Obama were available on You Tube; while he also had almost two million friends on Facebook and MySpace, as well as tens of thousands of followers on Twitter (Thornton Para. 3).
Generally, Obama’s campaign over the Internet was successful especially given the fact that he was able to express himself explicitly. In such a case, internet can be seen as a tool that makes campaign as simple; thus, democracy is promoted now that the candidate can reach several people, one on one.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Internet and Democracy in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The use of internet requires a kind of mutual relationship between the user (or the public) and the program itself. Abuse by any party will always lead to a fault somewhere. It has been observed that “Technology is used by the members of the society; its diffusion and use depend on social conditions; the conditions of the society, in other words, shape technological development” (Yang 406). Yang argues that the use of Internet alone is not sufficient to ensure democracy; the social factors in the society also contribute substantially.
Besides, there are sites that a potential supporter can access in order to help finance the campaign of his or her favorite candidate. This promotes democracy now that even those with little contributions that would otherwise shy off can reach the campaign team; indeed, politics is thus not left for the giants only.
Sifry (Para10) observed that the “Internet-powered politics is helping to shift America toward more open, participatory and accountable political process; big contributors have become less necessary in campaigns, giving more influence to small donors and independent organizers.”
The use of political blogs like Dailykos, Big Governments, Talking points Memo on the left, and many others ensures that the public are fully politically informed. All the blogs serve the same purpose, and as Sifry states, ‘they serve partisan red meat to their readers” (Para. 5). Therefore, by accessing the political information on these sites, a potential political partisan is able to develop an informed opinion on any political issue including whom to support.
Moreover, campaigning over the internet can be hazardous especially to a defending candidate who cannot fully give a clarification on a scandal that emerged under his or her docket. Such was the agony that befell the U.K Prime Minister Gordon Brown when he could not give an explicit clarification on the expenses scandal over the You Tube.
Such a candidate will be officially surrendering himself to the public who will not hesitate to take their stand. Democracy shall have been exercised here in some paradoxical sense; the public can now make a positive decision that whoever is selling the policies is not the right person for the seat in question.
Nevertheless, the extensive involvement of Internet in politics can lead to its mismanagement, rendering it quite inappropriate. As Sifry (para6) pointed out, the “rapid rise of social media has generated more talking than listening, more pushing than parsing, and more fragmentation of attention than concentration; the resulting sense of information overload may cause more people to retreat from the public arena, simply because it feels too crowded and noisy.”
The use of email sites can also be mishandled by self-centered political activists. In as much as it is usually used to criticize the opponent’s ability and previous conducts, the site can form a good platform for the activist to defile the opponent wrongly.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Internet and Democracy in US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this case, the public who learn and believe such accusations will have no otherwise, but to join the undefiled camp. As a result, democracy shall have been interfered with in two ways. First, the voter has been influenced into rejecting a candidate on false grounds, as well as being denied a chance to make his own-judged opinion. Secondly, the defiled candidate has been denied an equal political platform, hence denying him his democratic right.
How Internet promotes democracy during Elections
The process of election is the most fundamental stage in ensuring democracy is exercised. The need to have the exercise conducted quickly and the counting and tallying of votes done immediately not only gives no room for rigging, but also boosts the spirits of the electorate.
In most cases, delayed vote tallying and official release of the results have led to election rigging that has resulted into post-election violence witnessed in several countries in the recent past. Majority of the public, who felt they were denied their democratic rights, lost their confidence in the electoral process and vowed not to vote again. In such a case, the use of the modern technologies like the Internet would have saved the situation.
Firstly, no much time is wasted during voting as compared to the traditional manual system. This encourages even the old, sick and the disabled who would find it cumbersome to stand on a long queue waiting voting. These minority groups in the society have in many cases been left out during elections and that signifies lack of democracy (Warf and Grimes 261-263).
Secondly, there are those individuals who work away from their polling stations. They could also have traveled elsewhere during the period of election. Such people are usually left out of the election due to their inability to access their register from where they are. The use of Internet therefore allows such people to vote from the comfort of their workplaces or wherever they could be.
Finally, the votes are recorded as soon as they are cast. As such, manipulation of figures by the elections officials who probably had directions from a leader defending a seat is minimized. The results are usually available for official release some few hours from the end of the voting period.
The use of Internet however poses some challenges in ensuring that the democratic rights of the public are not denied. This stems from the social-economic interrelated factors prevailing in a given societal setting that generally contributes to low level of education.
Lack of enough funds and poor, outdated culture could lead to high level of illiteracy in a given community. This will contribute to a mixture of results should the system of electronic voting be introduced in such a setting. To begin with, the illiterate voter will depend entirely on the clerks and agents at the polling station for assistance.
This could give room for some form of corruption as the clerks or agents could secretly direct the voter in favour of their favorite candidate. Besides, most of the illiterate and semi-illiterate suffer the inferiority complex. In certain cases, they would rather boycott the election than to go and reveal to the public, which had better expectation of them, that they are actually semi-illiterate and need assistance. This might sound odd and untrue but it is the reality underlying low voter turnout in some areas.
Another less serious case occurs when even the polling clerks who have the electronic expertise are not available in a given area and have to be imported from elsewhere. In such cases, the less qualified individuals and their close associates from these areas usually have a feeling that they were denied an employment opportunity. In many cases, they try to mobilize the public to boycott the elections as they claim that justice has not been exercised. These have also been the reasons behind low voter turn out in some cases.
The lower voter turnout resulting from mass participation in politics could further lead to some irregularities. A less potential candidate could probably manage to be outspoken among the competitors and ends up the winner. Even though democracy is not directly affected here, there is an indirect impact that simply emanated from the extensive use of the cyberspace (Sifry Para. 6).
Conclusion The use of internet in political world can effectively promote democracy. However, this is only applicable to an extent that the legislations governing the roles of media in politics are obeyed. With the struggle to do away with poverty and low level of education, the system will be less viable to mismanagement by the corrupt individuals.
Internet’s is and will be the best measure to ensure democracy prevails in the public sphere. To achieve this, there is also need for continued innovation in the fields of Information Technology to help come up with better technologists. There is need for “a generation of civic technologists who engage the fundamental infrastructure of the Internet and standards processes in the public interests” (Clift 31). This approach would be the most efficient in ensuring that nobody is wrongly influenced.
Works Cited Clift, Steven. An Internet of Democracy. Communications of the ACM, Vol. 43 Issue 11, p31-32. Nov2000. Minnesota USA.
Hurwitz, Roger. Who Needs Politics? Who Needs People? The Ironies of Democracy in Cyberspace. Contemporary Sociology, 28.6 (1999): 655-661.
Sifry, Micah. “The Internet has fueled polarization and gridlock, but it is also giving US a new tool for self-government.” Wall Street journal, Oct 30, 2010, pg C.3. New York. Web.
Thornton, John. Vote with Your Finger. Public Finance. London: Apr 23-Apr 29, 2010. pg18. Web.
The Symbolic Meaning of the Absence of the Protagonist’s Name in the Novel Notes from Underground by Dostoevsky Research Paper college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
The Symbolic Meaning on the Protagonist without a Name
Introduction Reading any novel, people try to notice as much as they can to consider the main idea of the literature work and to understand the purpose for writing this specific information. Each novel has a specific goal. It is impossible to imagine a piece of writing which is aimless and at the same time which is extremely popular all over the world.
While reading a novel, people should notice each feature, any unusual thing should be considered. The absence of the protagonist’s name is one of such things which should be considered. Only attentive reader can notice that the absence of the protagonist’s name is a specific and symbolic device which helps understand the whole novel, consider it from absolutely different perspective. This device is going to be discussed on the basis of the novel Notes from Underground written by Fyodor Dostoyevsky.
Dostoevsky is a Russian writer who managed to reach the world fame. The books written by this person are translated on many languages of the world and people still consider this person a great representative of the literature who worked and lived in the 19th century. The novel Notes from Underground is a good example of the no name protagonist.
Moreover, it is possible to consider the reasons why the author has chosen this device and how it influences the understanding of the whole novel.
The absence of the name in the novel Notes from Underground by Dostoyevsky is symbolic as it shows that the protagonist is an ordinary person who tells the story which is not unique and there are many people in the society who could appear in the same situation and come to the same conclusions; moreover, the reason for leaving the protagonist without a name may be in fact that it is impossible give a name to the person relaying on the actions he performed.
Historical Background The novel is written in 1864 and there are some quarrels about the initial idea and the symbolic meaning the author wanted to deliver to people by means of using a protagonist with no name. First of all, it is important to understand what circumstances surrounded Dostoevsky and whether these circumstances influenced his decision.
The novel was written in the 19th century, during the time when many writers in Russia and all over the world wrote their pieces without introducing protagonists. It may be said that this was the tendency and it influenced the author’s decision greatly. Many authors wanted to make an impression that the works they wrote were autobiographical and no named protagonists helped in that (Smith and Watson 8).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, it may be concluded that the author used the tendency and this is the main reason for failing to introduce the protagonist. The scholar who considered the literature works by Dostoevsky has written, “Notes from Underground features a hero – or anti-hero – of contemporary consciousness cobbled together out of literature bits and pieces” (Emerson 147).
Nevertheless, there are a lot of other issues and signs which show that there are much more reasons which made the author make a decision and represent the audience with the protagonist without a name.
The Symbolic Meaning on the Protagonist without a Name It is possible to make any possible suggestions about the nature and reasons of the author’s decision not to use the name for the protagonist. Still, it is impossible to omit the reasons Dostoevsky provides in the very novel. He writes, “the author of the dairy and the diary itself are imaginary.
Nevertheless.., such persons… must exist in the society” (Dostoyevsky 1). Thus, the author explains his position on failure to use the protagonist’s name. The story is imaginary and there is no real prototype to it, but being aware of life and human behavior, Dostoevsky cannot avoid the fact that such situation can happen with anyone.
Time and distance is not the barrier. Thus, reading the story now, it is possible to see the social degradation of the protagonist and agree that such people may exist. The author wanted to show the real life, but still, Dostoevsky understood that he did not have a specific right to say straightly that such people live.
The reasons for this may be numerous. On the one hand, the author could have known such people and did not want to insult those, on the other hand, the author could have never met such people but his intuition and the awareness of life could make him a hint that the problem of such people in the society is really crucial.
Thus, representing a protagonist without a name, the author tries to express the ideas of some representatives of the society without attaching the situation to any specific person. Moreover, the author was in Siberia for some years and lived with murders and other criminals. This could have influenced his understanding of human beings and their relation to life and other people (Emerson 9).
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Symbolic Meaning of the Absence of the Protagonist’s Name in the Novel Notes from Underground by Dostoevsky specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It seems that the absence of the protagonist’s name only adds to the impression the novel provides. The novel is written in the form of a dairy. The first lines of the novel tell us, “I am a sick man… I am a spiteful man. I am unattractive man” (Dostoyevsky 1). It is impossible to imagine another situation apart from a dairy when a person can make such confession. It seems that Dostoevsky understands that this form of writing is the most appropriate.
On the one hand, a person dwells upon the most terrible and the ugliest actions he has been doing in his life, on the other hand, the reader may doubt the sincerity of the situation as the person, no matter how shabby the acts, cannot tell the truth about such actions to another one. The idea of a dairy is the ideal one. The reader understands the reasons for sincerity and the device of no named protagonist adds to this effect. Who can go as far as introducing himself of herself in the dairy? Such things are usually written from personal considerations.
One more reason for failing to represent the protagonist of the novel Notes from Underground with the name is the nature of the actions the author discusses. If to consider the novel as a dairy, it is necessary to believe in what is said there. The author represents three main situations which influenced his life greatly.
The first situation deals with the officer who was invisibly bumped by the protagonist. This action shows him as a foul and coward person who cannot even face the offender and solve the problem one to one. The second situation which strikes attention is the dinner with old school friends. The situation is unpleasant as the protagonist hates all those who were present at the party but tries to show that he is their friend. There is no other word for such a person but a dissembler.
The final situation is also disgusting. The protagonist humbles Liza, a young prostitute (Dostoevsky 113). All those actions show the protagonist as a morally depraved person. Considering the problem under discussion from the perspective of these actions only it becomes understandable why the author does not want to introduce the name of the protagonist.
It is not easy to find a name to such person. Moreover, any name can always be associated with a good and kind person and it seems that the author did not want any other person to be related to such terrible actions. In the prism of those actions, it is also possible to justify the author and say that the device with no named protagonist was one of the best in the situation.
Conducting a research, some great words were considered. They have been written many years before the novel was written, still, they ideally fit the situation with the absence of the protagonist’s name in the novel. Therefore, Aristotle writes, “the extremes have the appearance of being opposed to one another, because the mean has no appropriate name” (Aristotle 71).
The main idea of these words is that it is impossible to give a name to the person whose actions show that here is no appropriate name for him/her. As it was mentioned above, this opinion may be easily related to the novel by Dostoevsky. The person describes his life with the purpose to understand why he had become a person who he was.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Symbolic Meaning of the Absence of the Protagonist’s Name in the Novel Notes from Underground by Dostoevsky by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, the stories in the book are so terrible, that it is really impossible to name the person who performed those actions. Moreover, the ideas expressed by Aristotle and reflected by Dostoevsky prove the ideas considered earlier about the possibility of the existence of such people as the protagonist at any time and in any society.
These two people lived in absolutely different times and societies, but this is not considered as the barrier for having the same thoughts. This situation proves most of our theories about the absence of the protagonist’s name, especially those which deal with the inability to use an appropriate one and the other that each society may have a person with such considerations and who conducts the same actions.
While the research conduction, it was identified that many authors used such techniques and the scholars in most cases check not the very specific novel or author, but the very idea of the failure to introduce the protagonist’s name. Thus, Melissa Matthes in the article A Checkered Past states that in case when the protagonist has no name, he “lives on every page” (Matthes 21).
Such announcement is rather bold, but at the same time it is reasonable to check this theory to be sure that all the ideas are referred to and to be able to make the conclusion which is going to support the thesis statement provided above and cast light on the specific reasons for using no named protagonist while writing.
Reading the novel it appears that the protagonist was not present in some situations, but, still, he describes those. The best example for such situations is as follows. The protagonist dwells upon his meeting with old friends he hates. He states that his friends made a secret appointment about meeting later and did not invite the protagonist.
Moreover, describing some other situations, the customer is always on the pages, there is no feeling that he is omitted even if he is not involved in the discussion. It is crucial to remember that when the narration comes not from the first person singular, the narration may be distracted from the main character. Here, the narrator is present on each page of the novel. This impression is given by two reasons, the absence of the name of the protagonist and the consideration of the novel as a dairy.
It is crucial to remember that all the reasons the author of the novel uses for failing to introduce the protagonist’s name are closely connected. One specific reason may be easily supported by another one or even explained. The impression appears that all those reasons are interconnected and that the author intentionally used those to create a symbolic meaning around this fact.
Thus, the author gives the explanation to the absence of the protagonist’s name saying that such people may exist in any society, and Aristotle supports this idea. Moreover, the idea of a novel being a dairy (in the relation to the ugly actions the author describes) is supported with Matthes’ statements that a person who acts in such a way may not have an appropriate name.
Conclusion In conclusion it should be mentioned that the author’s idea of absence of the protagonist’s name is symbolic. There are a number of different issues the author wanted to provide the reader with by means of the fact that he did not give a name to the protagonist. Therefore, firstly, the author explains this action as the desire to show that there are people in the society which may act and think like that. It is crucial to notice that Aristotle supports this idea.
The absence of the protagonist’s name shows that such people may be near us. Secondly, the absence of the protagonist’s name gives a hint that the writing is a dairy and that the situations described there are true, as who is going to lie to the dairy? Here is the reason for the name’s absence. People do no introduce themselves to the things if only they are expected to read it. Thirdly, the impression that the writing is the autobiography is created by the same device.
This method was rather popular during the time when the novel was created. And finally, the author does not give the name to the protagonist because there is no a name to a person who acts like that. So, all those reasons are reasonable and have the right to be considered.
While reading the novel, the audience should think about what is the reason they like more. Moreover, it is helpful to think over the reasons why this symbol is necessary. It seems that the author wanted to show the whole world that is not to do something the world society may be overburden with people like the protagonist, without names but with terrible actions and unclear consciousness.
Works Cited Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics. New York: Cosimo, Inc., 2008. Web. Local Database. 16 Nov. 2010.
Dostoyevsky, Fyodor. Notes from the Underground. Champaign, Ill.: Project Gutenberg, 1999. Web. Local Database. 16 Nov. 2010.
Emerson, Caryl. The Cambridge Introduction to Russian Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Web. Local Database. 16 Nov. 2010.
Matthes, Melissa. “A Checkered Past.” Commonweal, 135.17 (2008): p 21. Literature Resource Center. Web.
Smith, Sidonie and Julia Watson. Reading Autobiography: A Guide for Interpreting Life Narratives. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota Press, 2001. Web. Local Database. 16 Nov. 2010.
Equality of Men and Women Essay college essay help: college essay help
Despite campaigns in developed and developing countries aimed at creating awareness and respect for women rights, their participation in employment remains low. International human rights fights for equality in men and women, their employment act says women should be given equal opportunities; it is of the opinion that at least a third of a company’s employees should be women.
Sweatshops policies are some of the policies made in some countries to increase women employment to informal and formal sectors. This argumentative paper discusses why sweatshop labour opportunities for women in developing countries are better than no opportunities, or the limited opportunities, that are currently available to women in those countries.
One of the major reasons why men have been able to look down upon women is women lack of economical empowerment. They are left to depend on men for their livelihood. In Africa, women were required to cultivate and produce food for the family, however in today’s increased population, which have resulted to farming land fluctuations farms can no longer feed a family.
Another factor that has affected this old “women” profession is global warming, seasons are no longer predictable. If the countries start sweatshops programs, women will at least have some income other than depending on men wholly.
Nicholas Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn in their book “Half the Sky” gives the example of China as one of country that have used sweatshop policy to incorporate women in their production. According to the authors, the moves have shown an increased participation of women in economic development. Though the policy offers low wages and mostly is in the informal sector, women are able to meet their basic needs.
This is the start point. According to Abraham Marlow (1908-1970), hierarchy of needs theory, Psychological needs are the foremost needs that human beings require; these are the basic needs that a person should have they are food, shelter, health and clothing. When these are given by sweatshops, women will be able to focus on higher things and be able to fight for their needs.
When fighting for rights, there is always a sacrificial group, when today’s women are included in these low paying jobs, they will create an avenue to future girl child, as they are involved in production, men will note that they are equally and sometimes more productive than men and thus in the future, they will trust them with higher responsibilities.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Canada, clothing industry, women dominate as labourers and casuals. This has given them exposure and experience that they require to establish their own small businesses which has resulted to their financial empowerment.
When African economies, embrace this move their economies will adjust to this economic policy; then with time, they will feel they can move without them. The result will be a foundation of fight for women rights. When these rights are respected, this is the start point of women empowerment. In Kenya-Africa, there was a move by the countries government and Italian government to have Export Processing Zones (EPZ) in the country which had a similar approach like sweatshops programs.
The zones were termed as areas of oppression in the late 1990s but in early 2000, C.O.T.U. (Central Organisation of Trade Unions-Kenya), intervened and currently the teams of the employment is better; they even have access to loans through the policy. This is a real example that shows how sweatshops programs can start small but end up benefiting women.
To recognise the talent in a person, it is good to expose him/her to a challenging task. When women are given the low earning jobs; in the process their talents will be recognised and used for the good of the economy.
I thus support the statement that “sweatshop labour opportunities for women in developing countries are better than no opportunities, or the limited opportunities, that are currently available to women in those countries”.
Food Safety Risk Assessment Research Paper essay help: essay help
Introduction In the event that food is not handled properly during preparation or is poorly stored, there is likelihood of food borne illness. For many years, food safety has been a growing threat to the public health in many regions of the world. Basically, food borne diseases can be grouped as either infections or intoxications and are caused by microorganisms that are ingested in the body and have the capability of multiplying.
According to Unnevehr and Hirschhom (2008), some factors that can inhibit the safety of food products are microbial pathogens, zoonotic diseases, parasites, adulterants, mycotoxins, antibiotic drug residues, pesticides, heavy metals, and genetically modified foods (p.8).
According to Unnevehr and Hirschhom (2008), Gram-negative pathogens are “bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye in the Gram staining protocol”; however, they usually hold a “pink or reddish dye once a counterstain chemical is used.” These bacteria produce toxic substances when they enter the blood stream and cause destruction to tissue, hence leading to inflammation of tissues.
However, recent studies show that these bacteria are evolving and becoming immune to the available antibiotics. Most of the Gram-negative pathogens are considered harmful to their host, and are known to cause severe pneumonia, infections of the urinary tract, and the blood stream.
On the other hand, some threats to food safety are environmental and industrial pollution, agricultural practices, and food production practices and cultural practices i.e. consumption of raw food. Some of foods borne diseases are salmonellosis, Campylobacter, diarrhea, cholera, and Shigella. Shigella is a rod shaped bacteria that mostly affect the digestive tract.
According to Curtis, et al (2003, p.69), Salmonella are gram-negative bacteria, non-sporing, growing in both anaerobic and non-anaerobic conditions and that cause salmonellosis disease. The salmonella bacteria are capable of growing and living in areas with limited amount of oxygen. Some types of salmonella bacteria affect only animals and not human.
On the other hand, Shigellas are bacteria than cause shigellas infections symbolized with diarrhea and dysentery. Shigella bacteria can cope in area of very low temperatures. Campylobacter is bacteria that cause diseases in animals and human being, and the most common bacteria that causes disease is known as campylobacter jejuni, which is a zoonotic organism and has sixteen species and six sub species (Curtis, et al., 2003, p.23).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper will therefore discuss food borne diseases in the sense that, food borne diseases are a widespread and growing public health problem, both in developed and developing countries. Every person is at risk of a food borne illness.
Salmonella Salmonella is a food borne disease caused by salmonella bacteria, which enters the stomach, and can move to other organs through the blood stream if not treated promptly (Brands
Peapod Groceries Report college admissions essay help
Peapod is a grocery company that sells its products over the internet. Customers make their orders on-line and the orders are delivered to their doorsteps. It was founded in 1989 by two brothers, Andrew and Thomas Parkinson. The goal behind the establishment of this company was to make shopping easy for all types of customers.
In July 1990, Peapod began testing its market by allowing customers in Evanston to place orders on-line. It also provided software to the customers and sold modems to them in order to make ordering easy. By that time, the two brothers did not have a vehicle for the company and deliveries were made using their own cars. Family members and friends came in to help them in the picking, packing, and delivery of the products to the customers.
By 1998, demand for Peapod’s products had increased substantially and the company expanded to other markets such as Chicago and also opened its own website. Its mission is to provide friendly and quality services to all its customers as it strives to exceed customers’ expectations (Peapod-Online Grocery Shopping, 2005).
Peapod’s largest market is in Chicago area. It has managed to expand its services to other states including but not limited to New Jersey, Boston, New York, and Baltimore. To make marketing easy, Peapod has partnered with big companies in the food industry in the respective state of its operation. For instance, in Chicago, it has formed a partnership with Jewel Food Stores and Randall’s in Texas.
Peapod is the leading e-retailer in the grocery industry and this has been made possible by the partnerships it formed with Royal Ahold, an international food company based in Netherlands (Peapod, 2010). Today, 75% of Peapod’s services are targeted to the single parents and families with young children (Peapod-Online Grocery Shopping 2005). These are the people who are believed to have less time to go to the grocery stores and would prefer shopping from their houses.
However, this is a very narrow market considering the growth in the online market. In addition, it has only been able to expand on specific geographical areas especially along the East coast. I believe Peapod target market will change with time when it starts to put other things into consideration. Apart from time issues, other factors that can be considered in designing the target market are physical constraints such as inability of the elderly to jump from one vehicle to the other while going to the grocery stores.
Just like other on-line groceries, Peapod has been experiencing the problem of customers questioning the quality and freshness of its products. To curb this problem, the company has introduced a delivery system called Stay Fresh that keeps all products at optimal temperatures before they are delivered to customers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With this system, customers are able to receive their products when they are still fresh and this has led to an increase in the company’s sales. Another problem that is experienced by the company is that many customers are not quick to make orders for products they cannot see. Although the website may contain much information on the nutritional value of the products, the pictures displayed on the website do not offer a good basis for customers to make comparisons (Bretagne, 2010).
Other people argue that purchasing over the internet is more expensive than face-to-face purchases. Peapod Company has introduced a marketing strategy that allows customers to use promotional code. This ensures that customers are convinced about the company’s products and they are also able to save money (Riedman, 1997).
Peapod has been able to utilize its warehouse facilities to customize its products. To do this, Peapod uses centralized distribution with a warehouse and a wareroom. Deliveries are made on the day following an order request using an intact supply chain.
This has allowed the company to utilize the use of the store’s assets in opening new markets which are later transitioned into warehouses as the business expands its operations. The use of Ahold stores has assisted the company in the provision of quality products and services, controlling its inventory, and minimizing out-of-stocks (Peapod, 2010).
One of the major competitors that are likely to enter the online grocery shopping market is Wal-Mart stores. This is the largest retailer in the world a position which it has earned through its marketing approach including low priced products, just-in time delivery, and its organizational behavior.
Wal-Mart’s superior marketing strategy complements its mission statement and has seen its product being well positioned in the market. The company’s reputable brand name is a source of competitive advantage as it lures customer traffic. There is a likelihood of the company going online in marketing of its groceries and if this happens, it will be a major threat to Peapod considering its market position.
Another competitor likely to enter the market is Publix Super market. This is a supermarket based in Florida. It was ranked among the best one hundred international companies and it’s among the largest companies in America. Publix is a food retailer that is privately owned although not available to a large population.
We will write a custom Report on Peapod Groceries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This company has not yet gone on-line but with the current trend in technology and the increased reliance on the internet, it poses as a major competitor for Peapod for the reason that soon it may decide to market its groceries over the internet.
Peapod uses a two way communication system which helps in increasing its sales volume as well as its development. It uses external advertising agents such as Kraft Foods and Frito-lay. About 75% of its customers are able to access its services over the website while the rest use dial-up method to access the services (Riedman, 1997).
One of its selling tools includes pre-testing of its content before they are placed on the web. This ensures that customers are not deceived but get the right information. Today, about 15 million households shop at Peapod online market in spite of all the competitors present in the online market. To ensure that it is able to retain its customers, it analyses customers’ shopping behavior through promotions which forms part of its business model.
Having looked at the history and current situation of Peapod, I conclude that peapod has a promising future. In five years to come, the company will have extended into other international markets. It would be better if the company considers expanding into the developing countries since most of the large companies have not yet explored these markets.
However, the company has to develop new marketing strategies that will help in beating the present competition. One of such strategies would be low cost products and services that will see the company being ranked as the largest online retailer in marketing of groceries ten years from now.
Reference List Bretagne, R. (2010). Bad Experiences with Shopping Grocery Online. Web.
Peapod, (2010). The Peapod Start. Web.
Peapod-Online Grocery Shopping (2005). Peapod Official Website.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Peapod Groceries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Riedman, P. (1997). Media
Gambling in Kentucky: Moral Obligations vs. the Economical Reasons Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
In spite of the fact that gambling has always been considered a vicious way of sparing one’s time that cannot exist in the society of religious and fair people, the notorious game has taken its toll on the casinos and the people who would like to have some air of adventures and risks in their life without resorting to extreme sports. The question is whether gambling should be legalized as one of the sources of the state’s incomes or banned for good as the pastime that cannot be accepted in Kentucky.
Taking a deep look into the history of the state, one can see absolutely clearly that gambling has always been one of the ventures that bring huge sums of money into the state’s treasury. However blasphemous that might sound, gambling is something that the state has been surviving on throughout its long history.
Beginning with the very history of the state, one should presume that it is a well-known fact that gambling has been widely established in Kentucky.
It was not the main source of the state income, though. The industries that added to the well-being of the state and its GNP since the day the state was founded and throughout the past century was the coal mining, which contributed to the state’s income to the utmost. However, as the Word War II burst out, mining became extinguished and the mines were left. As the war ended, the abandoned territory of production was rather uneasy to raise.
Meanwhile, ambling, which did not need any additional help from the government and investors, was flourishing in the state. Even after the Ohio River flood which happened in 1937 and caused almost the same harm than the war that followed it did not prevent the risky venture to develop further. The business of the gamblers not only flourished, but helped the state to get enriched with the new funds that could provide the necessary helping restoring what had been damaged by the war and the cataclysms.
It must be admitted that the unlawful way of earning money has been banned not once in Kentucky, and that most strict measures were applied to those who have been caught gambling. While people tried to earn some money with help of a deck of cards, the numerous raids that challenged the gamblers in 1951 cooled the adventurers’ enthusiasm down. Taking into account that the government connected gambling to drinking alcoholic beverages in public places, the situation was more than threatening to the gamblers in 1950ies:
Fourth, I recommend that you enact into law an act providing for the mandatory suspension or revocation of the license to sell alcoholic beverages, upon conviction of the license of this agent of gambling on the premises. (Wetherby 29)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was something to ponder over, and gambling was forsaken for a while.
Although the present economical state of Kentucky ahs sufficiently improved since 1950ies, there is still a great concern about gambling and its legalization. The reasons for the gambling industry to develop in the state must be taken into consideration together with the ones that speak in favor of its prohibition, which will be a democratic decision to make.
Then, the multiple economical reasons must be viewed to understand whether can really provide Kentucky with the money that the state needs nowadays. The income that might overlap everything that has been achieved before is definitely the reason for the further suggestions not to be refused from considering.
The specific national character must also be well understood, since the state is breathing with what can be called the spirit of risks.
The most popular argument that is driven against gambling as the resource of the state income is that it holds no water as a serious business entrepreneurship to undertake. Its unpredictability makes gambling one of the most unpredictable ways of enriching the state’s treasury.
As Nelson (134) put it, there were several reasons for the gambling proposals to fail in early 1990ies as well; according to the scientist, the most important and profound one was the diffusion of the lotteries that added to the unpopularity of gambling, defined as the gambling political decline.
Spread all around the country, they soon became the tricks that only children could fall for. Then, the internal characteristics must be kept in mind. According to the latter, gambling has become so popular that it started to threaten people’s lives, which finally drew to its prohibition.
We will write a custom Essay on Gambling in Kentucky: Moral Obligations vs. the Economical Reasons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “The hangover from Rocky Top created a seedy image of gambling in the body politic, which was reflected in the legislative view of such things,” says the veteran legislative correspondent Tom Humphrey. The scandal touched many legislations personally when friends and associates were indicted, or, in two cases, took their own lives. In the same vein, McWherter says that the pinball and bingo controversies “created a problem about any kind of gambling, including a lottery” (134)
With such reasons for gambling to stop its destructive influence on people’s lives, it was impossible to drive any possible reasons in favor of gambling and its legalization. The conflict seemed to come into a dead end.
However, there were also the activists that preferred talking aloud about the advantages of gambling legalized to keeping silence and doing nothing. They emphasized that, first, gambling might give sufficient amount of money to the state permanently, and, second, it was in the character of the people living in the South to gamble, which was the way they expressed their need to take risks.
Gambling should be legalized in Kentucky according to a number of reasons, the economical ones the first to consider. Mainly, these are the employment and the money lost due to the riverbank casinos that speak in favor of allowing gambling, but these reasons are sufficient enough.
Of course, the economical reasons are the first to take into consideration.
With all respect to the morals and the image of a true Christian, one cannot admit that the money that the government receives to sustain the decent level of the nation’s life as gambling is allowed will be tremendous.
One of the most often driven arguments of the supporters of gambling legalization argues that a grown-up person can decide on his or her own which way he or she is going to spend the money:
Supporters of legalized gambling often argue that adults should be given the freedom to spend their money on gambling and should not be presumed incompetent to make those choices. (Evans 127)
Not sure if you can write a paper on Gambling in Kentucky: Moral Obligations vs. the Economical Reasons by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Indeed, since this is the right of an adult man to make the steps that he or she considers the most necessary at the moment, no one has the right to prevent the people from making these steps. Whatever could be said about the gambling being against morals, the things that go against the Constitution are counted for a more serious mischief.
Thus, the rules and laws that restrict gambling in the territory of Kentucky must be reconsidered and cancelled. The question of the rights and freedoms of people is something that cannot be argued, and the government has to count for that.
Moreover, the idea of gambling as one of the additional resources for the state treasury enriching sounds rather reasonable. A single idea of what these additional funds could be involved into to make the state develop further and become more advanced is already convincing enough for the governmental bodies to start acting in favor of gambling allowance.
Thompson (210) claims that Kentucky could survive on the racing bets only; such big is the input that the bets make into the well-being of the state:
Kentucky is the home of horse racing. More race-horses are born and bred in Kentucky than in any other state. The Kentucky Derby is the most famous horse race in The United States.
In addition, horse industry will allow creating the working places for the people that are unemployed now, and thus decrease the index of unemployment in the state. This might help to cope with the problems that the state is facing now.
In spite of the fact that the religious opponents are straight against gambling and its variations, they encourage the game called bingo, which is a form of gambling as well. If such game as bingo is allowed, why not letting people play the rest of the gambling games?
Thompson also claims that people were inclined to support the idea of making bets and having lotteries that were of a great entertaining element for the people who attended horse races and decent money for the governmental treasury to fill with. The money that could be won with such ease and used to improve the state of affairs in Kentucky was the manna that people were waiting for.
In 1988, 61 percent of the Kentucky voters said they wanted a lottery, and the next year one was established that offers instant games, lotto games, and number games as well as Powerball interstate lottery tickets. Charitable games also permitted. (Thompson 210)
Moreover, it should be born in minds that, due to the riverboat casinos in Indiana, people in Kentucky lose a great deal of money, which has to be stopped: “Indiana is the sixth riverboat gambling state and also the first state to permit gambling on the Great Lakes. The intent of the Indiana Riverboat Gambling Act also was to promote tourism and assist economic development” (Hsu 79). So the question is why doesn’t Kentucky follow this convincing example?
Taking everything that has been mentioned into account, it is needless to say that the gambling games are a source of income for Kentucky that should not be rejected. With all the drawbacks and challenging to the moral prejudice of the people, gambling is still a reliable source of money and a valuable venture that the state should take courage to undertake. In spite of the numerous “cons”, gambling is the integral part of the people of Kentucky. It is in their blood, as well as the urge to have some risks in their everyday life.
The legal gambling has some prospects to survive, though. The following prospects have been stated recently:
“In near future, debate will focus on whether to expand existing forms of gambling and whether to legalize new ones” (Ruschmann 120).However, the government is still uncertain of the steps that they are going to take to solve this problem.
Thus, whenever the government and the moralizing people think that gambling should be banned fro good, it is necessary to say that the government must think of the well-being of the state first and provide it with the basis for their wealth, Since gambling is one of the most useful means that the state can resort to, it must be allowed in Kentucky. And this will become the choice of a man whether to gamble or not. This is, to paraphrase a famous writer, the road that we choose.
Works Cited Evans, Rod L., and Mark Hance. Legalized Gambling: For and Against. La Salle, IL: Open Court Publishing, 1998. Print.
Hsu, Cathy H. S. Legalized Casino Gaming in the United States: The Economic and Social Impact. New York, NY: Routledge, 1999. Peint.
Nelson, Michael, John Lyman Mason. How the South Joined the Gambling Nation: The Politics of State Policy Innovation. Baton Rouge, LA: LSU Press, 2007. Print.
Ruschmann, Paul. Legalized Gambling. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing, 2008. Print.
Thompson, William T. Gambling in America: An Encyclopedia of History, Issues and Society. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC CLIO, 2001. Print.
Wetherby, Lawrence W., and John E. Kleber. The Public Papers of Governor Lawrence W. Wetherby, 1950-1955. Frankfort: KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1983. Print.
Compensation of strategic network board Essay (Article) custom essay help
Table of Contents Analysis
Firms have embarked on strategies that help catch up with the stiff competition in the market. As a result, they partner with other firms to form strategic networks that constitute many members. This arrangement enables them attain strategic renewal through sharing resources, participation in joint technological activities and drawing similar marketing strategies.
It is evident that this helps in strengthening the firm’s competitiveness; as a result, most governments and business related regulatory agencies support its implementation especially for small businesses. Another reason why many governments’ support this concept is because it assists firms to build independent entities that will help them address their deficiencies.
Most importantly, to ensure the networks accomplish their goals, it is essential to establish a network board that will foresee their operations. This board might come in handy in situations where companies that have formed a network are experiencing problems related to insufficient resources (Thorgren, Wincent and Anokhin 131).
The network board consists of firm’s representatives, experts in the industry or representatives of different related public agencies. Most importantly, the main responsibility of the network board is to augment network authenticity. Additionally, it heartens, harmonizes and offers support for joint activities among the networked firms.
Basing on the roles played by this network board, it is essential that they are compensated so as to motivate them. It is obvious that the administrative structure that governs the operations of this board is different from the normal organization structure. This is because the board foresees the operations of more than one firm and each of them has its own administrative structure.
Thus, the process of compensating the network board is far different from that of an organization’s board. As evident, this board acts as agents that link different organizations. Research has incorporated agency theory with stewardship theory to suggest that unforeseen events shape the affiliation linking networking firms and network board members in a way that can add weight to the effects of board compensation on network performance (Thorgren et al. 132).
Analysis In this article, the author portrays the importance of the small businesses coming together and establishing an empire that will sustain them presently and in the future. In order for these businesses to succeed, they must form a board to foresee their operations. Additionally, this board must be compensated as a means of motivating it to perform its duties well.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is noteworthy that the author’s qualification is certain as he brings out the most important facts concerning the avenue that leads to small businesses prosperity. Establishment of a strategic network by firms as presented by the author seems to be a practicable fact. However, the administrative structure that links these companies in a way to facilitate the compensation of this board does not seem to be practicable. It is obvious that the board members are derived from the industry.
Thus, each stakeholder must compensate its representatives as part of its contribution towards the sustainability of the board. It is essential for the firms concerned to come up with well constructed strategies, which will ensure the costs incurred during compensation process are shared equally. Basing on this fact, it is an appropriate for firms to produce equal number of representatives on the board to ensure equivalent contribution towards their compensation.
In as much as the article portrays the importance of compensating the network board members, it does not give the criteria to be employed when administering the compensation. It is a fact that the compensation strategy is a critical issue that needs to be addressed in detail.
Some experts reveal that issues arising from the compensation strategy might result to controversies, hence collapse of the strategic networks. In the establishment of these networks, it is essential for its proposers to put in mind the fact that it requires a lot of consultation to link the companies. In the board, it is essential to constitute experts with experience on joint company ventures. This acts as a mitigation measure incase there occurs future disagreements.
Application It is noted that, this information is important in business as it depicts ways in which different companies can combine their resources to come up with a solid venture able to outdo its competitors. The information on compensation of the network board is necessary to companies that are already in strategic network as it enlightens them on ways of strengthening their links.
Most importantly, this information is essential to the management as it reveals a rough idea of what to expect when they involve their institutions in strategic networks. Additionally, this information is vital to institutions already in involved in strategic network but having problems to do with the compensation and constitution of the network board.
Conclusion As evident, stiff competition in the market leads to employment of new strategies to enable firms catch up with the market leaders. Thus, there are companies that opt for the strategic network so as to combine their resources; as a result, it boosts their market share. In any organization, employee motivation is considered essential because it ensures more productivity.
We will write a custom Article on Compensation of strategic network board specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, for the strategic network board to be motivated it should receive compensation from the network partners. It is appropriate for each company to have a representative on the board so that their interests are well represented. Furthermore, a company will be well represented if the individual has got formal links with the company and understands what goes on in the company. The board’s success is determined by the mode of treatment and concern it receives from the stakeholder.
Thus, its compensation is an important element that will boost their working morale. As evident, the compensation process must be well structured so as to ensure there are no obstacles towards the implementation of the strategic network. Hence, the parties involved must seek the advice and guidance of experts before executing this strategy.
Work Cited Thorgren, Sara. Wincent, Joakim.
Oil and Natural Gas Industry and Its Effect on the Economy Research Paper argumentative essay help
Introduction The importance of oil and natural gas industry
It is impossible to imagine the modern world without energy. People got used to live in warm houses, the greatest plants work on the basis of the products oil and gas industry supplies them with. This high demand on energy in different forms makes it impossible for the modern economy function without it. Oil and gas industry is considered to be the most impacting in the whole world as well as in the USA.
The Purpose of the Research
The main purpose of the research is to consider how oil and gas industry affects the economy of the country. It is important to understand that the financial value of the industry is not the only an issue which is considered to be influential at the financial market, labor market is also affected at great extend.
The Effect of Oil and Natural Gas Industry on the Economy The General Impact of the Industry on the Economy of the USA
The general impact of the oil and gas industry may be divided into three main measures, direct impact, indirect impact, and induced impact. Direct impact is understood as the jobs and added value which are considered within the industry. Indirect impact is followed within the industries which deal with the products offered by the oil and gas industry. Induced impact is considered as the use of the income resulted from the oil and gas industry. Almost each country in the world deals with this industry and it is possible to say that the impact of this industry is great (“The Economic Impacts” 9). It is crucial to consider the financial importance and the significance of the industry as the employee in detail.
The Impact of Oil and Natural Gas Industry on Business and Finances
Dwelling upon the impact of the oil and gas industry on the economy of the country, business sector cannot be omitted. The great impact of the industry on business may be explained as follows, the industry spends money which is further spent by local businesses and recipient employees; then businessmen purchase different goods and hire employees who get salaries and spend them on state economy. This is an indirect impact of the oil and gas industry on the USA economy (“The Economic Impacts” 14).
The demand on the products manufactured in the industry has been increasing from year to year. With the rise of the prices on the oil and gas, capital investments increased as well. This influenced the level of revenue in the industry and the rate of taxes the industry pays to the national treasury.
The production of the crude oil in 2005 was valued at $45.2 billion. The increase of the natural gas production is measured by the increase on 312% from 1997. The export of gas and oil brought the country value at $45.2 billion in 2006. The contribution to the gross domestic product in 2005 was about $5.1 billion (Williams 9).
The Effect Oil and Natural Gas Industry Provides on Labor Market
The impact of the considering industry on the labor market in the whole world and in the USA is crucial. More than 7.8 million employees were involved in the oil and gas industry in the USA, according to the information collected in 2007. If to pay attention to the total employment contribution to the national economy, including the related jobs, the industry managed to provide 9.2 million employees in 2007. This is 5.7% of the whole employment in the USA (Pennsylvania Economy League of Southwestern Pennsylvania 3).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from the creation of the job places within the industry, the “oil and gas industry creates jobs in related industries” (Pennsylvania Economy League of Southwestern Pennsylvania 14).
Moreover, the same report states that due to the direct impact of the industry 10,538 employees have the jobs in the industry, 5,260 employees work in the related spheres and 10,761 employers are related to the industry by means of the induced impact (Pennsylvania Economy League of Southwestern Pennsylvania 16). These results are considered only for Pennsylvania and it is may be easy to predict he results for the whole country.
Conclusion The Summary of the Information
Thus, it may be concluded that the impact of the oil and gas industry on the country and world economy is crucial, especially if to take into account the rapid growth of the industry. Moreover, there is a tendency that more and more companies and even the whole countries become dependent on oil. It becomes not only the product, but the method for payment. The country which exports more oil and gas industry’s products is the most powerful one and can influence the price formation in the industry.
Oil and Natural Gas Industry Effect on Financial and Labor Markets
The labor and financial markets are influenced by the industry in both direct and indirect ways. Many companies have created business on the basis of the products and services produced within this industry. Many people work in the sphere, even if there is no oil and gas manufacture in the country. Many indirect job places are created on the basis of this industry.
Works Cited “The Economic Impacts of the Oil and Natural Gas Industry on the U.S. Economy: Employment, Labor Income and Value Added.” Price Waterhouse Coopers 8 September, 2009. Print.
Pennsylvania Economy League of Southwestern Pennsylvania. “The Economic Impact of the Oil and Gas Industry in Pennsylvania.” Pennsylvania Economy League November, 2008. Print.
Williams, Cara. “Fuelling the economy.” Perspectives on labor and income 8(5): 2007, p. 9. Print.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Oil and Natural Gas Industry and Its Effect on the Economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
How to Develop Self Confidence Essay college essay help: college essay help
Self-confidence is ones status of being assured and having a strong belief in himself and his abilities. A person who is self-confident does not struggle too much to make decisions. This essay paper focuses on the three main steps of developing self-confidence. They include; initial preparation, setting out for the process, and accelerating towards success. The final success is determined by both self-efficacy and esteem.
The first step is preparing for the journey This is the journey to self-confidence that may be long or short depending on the person in question. It’s good for a person to identify first where he is, and his destination. The person should focus on what he has already achieved, at least ten of his best achievements. These should be written somewhere for references.
While still preparing for the journey, it’s good to think about your strengths. This part should include weaknesses, opportunities and threats, but put emphasis on strengths. The other important aspect is managing ones mind by defeating inner talks that can deter the confidence. The final part of preparing for the journey is, committing yourself to succeed.
The second step is setting out to begin the journey The right way should be towards the set goals. At this stage one should gather all the knowledge he or she requires so as to succeed. This involves looking for the required skills and acquiring them to be fully equipped. Let the basics be the starting point of the whole process, thus one should not emphasis on perfection but do simple things successfully.
The main objective here would be to set small goals, achieving them successfully, and rejoicing for the achievements. There is no need of setting big challenging goals at this point. While still setting up for the journey, one should keep his or her mind on the positive side. This can be achieved through rejoicing for the attained success. On the other hand, ones mind should also have some techniques of handling failure. Mistakes are inevitable especially when one is trying something for the first time.
The third and the final step is accelerating towards success At this stage one start feeling some self-confidence developing. There will be several achieved small goals in step 2 to be celebrated in this stage. One feels there is a room for making bigger goals with tougher challenges. Here the person feels more committed than before. At this point some people tend to be over confident due to over stretching themselves.
This should not be the case, as one should stay grounded. Its advisable now for one to evaluate himself or her to see how far is the development. While doing self-evaluation, one finds it simple to identify some unique strategies for developing self-confidence. Stretching bit by bit without overdoing it will lead to a top level of self-confidence.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In conclusion, each step of the three main steps is connected to the other. The first step of preparing for the journey is setting the base for the next step. The crucial aspects set in step two are the ones being celebrated in step three making the process a success.
Media and Homosexuality Research Paper a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Politics
Homosexuality has been a huge topic of discussion in most social forums and political debates. Specifically, homosexuality is being discussed in all forms of media including television, magazines, books and the likes; however, homosexuals being a minority group in the society, many people view homosexuality in various ways.
Through the years, many people in different societies have come to understand homosexuality but still, there are a few people who view the sexual orientation as weird and unnatural (Byer 386). Through the divergent perceptions evident in almost all societies, homosexuals have been stereotyped along various social parameters, thereby wrongly shaping the perception of people to how gays should be viewed.
Homosexuality has a huge role in the way society defines gender roles and this outlines the framework to this study because it defines the impact homosexuality and the media has on our understanding of gender.
Homosexuality changes the way we analyze gender in terms of sexual orientation because it encompasses a person’s sexual, romantic, affectionate and emotional feelings towards people of the same gender, as opposed to people from different genders (Byer 386). Many people believe that homosexuality is a choice or lifestyle people choose, but research studies point out the contrary by stating that homosexuality is brought about by psychological factors underlying a person’s personality (Byer 386).
However, this study does not seek to dig deeper into that debate because it exposes the fact that homosexuality tries to change the way we understand gender because it redefines gender roles in relationships. In some aspects, homosexual couples play various male and female roles seen in conventional relationships, even though they hail from the same gender. In other words, homosexuality poses a threat to the conventional way we view male and female gender roles in the society.
The influence of the media in our understanding of gender comes at whatever age, thanks to the volumes of television programs we watch, both as children and as adults. These programs consequently shape how different sexes and gender roles are represented in the society. Research studies cited in (Shapiro 3) affirm this fact by stating that: “the majority of television programming presents the sexes in traditionally stereotyped roles.
This covers a broad area including programming aimed at adults, children and including television commercials”. Moreover, it is plausible that the imitation children do from watching certain television programs shape the way they perceive gender or understand gender role development and it goes without saying that the way media perceives homosexuality plays a big role in the way the society understands gender in this context.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since the media greatly defines how the society views homosexuals, it is important to analyse how the media plays a role in shaping our perception of gender and homosexuality. In this regard, this study will focus on the most basic forms of media which shape homosexuality in the society and how they are able to project a given image about homosexuality to influence our understanding of gender altogether. Through this analysis we will analyze the media’s portrayal of homosexuality viz a viz politics, television and movies.
Politics In the 21st century the issue of homosexuality has been a hot topic of discussion, especially in the policy formulation process of various governments.
For instance, In the 2004 American elections, former president Bush and rival John Kerry had to state their stand on homosexuality but in other zones of the world, leaders have also been grappling with the same issue; with notable places like Uganda, in Africa, where homosexuals have been banned by the government and civilians maim homosexuals because of the stigmatisation associated with it (Shapiro 3).
With all these political undertones associated with homosexuality, the media has been at the centre stage in the whole drama. For example, many presidential hopefuls have in the past been faced with the dilemma of either legalising same sex marriages, or not, and their decisions have been beamed throughout local and international media.
The American set up especially provides a good platform for the analysis of this issue, in the Bush vs. Kerry presidential contest where voters who were against same sex unions sided with Bush while those who were sympathetic to homosexuality sided with Kerry. Unlike most elections around the world and indeed in the history of the US, homosexuality has been brought to close focus and it can actually seal the fate of presidential hopefuls, depending on the society they hail from.
The role the media plays in this matter is actually bringing to fore the issue of homosexuality as one of a high moral and ethical concern, since it instigates debates at the highest form of government. However, in the past, homosexuality was portrayed by the media (and in other social forms) as just an issue that plagued the society because it was never regarded as important as other issues in politics, such as a politician’s stand on economy, racism and the likes.
However, in as much as the media plays a role in bringing the issue, not only to national focus but international focus, it still remains dehumanising to the gay community the way the media reports on homosexuality, without sensitivity (Shapiro 4). Upon close analysis, it can be said that the issue of homosexuality is now being used by candidates to garner votes by declaring a popular stand in the issue (against their opponents) instead of debating about the issue per se and how it affects the society or the public for that matter.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Media and Homosexuality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The media has heightened anxiety over the issue further by covering the activities of gay rights movements and similar organizations, as well as politicians’ take on the matter, thereby exemplifying the issue above other moral issues of similar magnitude. Recent articles on homosexuality published in magazines such as The Advocate have essentially changed the way homosexuality should be perceived because they publish biased views on the topic and indeed about sex union marriages.
This development has a direct effect in the way society views homosexuality because their perception is influenced to think on the more liberal view of homosexuality (Shapiro 5). In this regard, the perception of the public is inclined towards the view that gender roles can be switched and indeed, gender should be analyzed from a more liberal point of view. Probably, for many people, this influence implies that there is a lot to gender equality than probably meets the eye.
However, more conservative media publications and religious organisations tend to sway the perception of the public to think on a more morally conscious way. By representing the issue of homosexuality as a matter of public interest, the media is succeeding in dividing the general populace into two: one side advocates for homosexuality while the other is against the concept.
This fact even exceeds the political divisions to the matter because it has dragged people who were apathetic to the matter to take a stand on homosexuality, even though they do not really care about the issue in the first place (Shapiro 5). The media on the other hand has been unrelenting in keeping the public busy on the matter through various forms of media including the internet, television and newspapers by asking the public for their views on the matter.
It therefore becomes almost impossible to ignore homosexuality even if you wanted to, because the media has a strong power of persuasion and controversy which has been unrivaled over the decades. In recent times, its power in politics through an exemplification of the matter has been highly critical in all forms of media. For example, even before a politician opens debate on homosexuality, the media would often demand for the politicians’ stand on the matter.
Nonetheless, a significant part of the controversy comes about because the issue comes with a high moral and ethical significance in almost all societies. With regards to how the public should perceive the matter, Miller (6) reports that: “In the media homosexuality was shown as impersonal, and it divided the viewers based on their opinions over what should be done about it” he further affirms that “….the opinions still stand. Through the media, politics has brought the issue of homosexuality to an inescapable new level” (6).
Television The 21st century has brought with it many different perceptions in the way we view contemporary issues in the society, but with the change, new issues have also arisen. As evidenced in this study, homosexuality is such an issue. Television has changed the way homosexuality is perceived because it has transformed the issues from a taboo topic to make people openly talk about it, and in the same way, provided a forum where homosexuals can talk about it (Tipton 2).
In close relation, many television producers have come up with more television programs which have gay personalities but the coverage is still evolving as the years go by. Perhaps the first television show to give an insight into the life of a homosexual was MTV’s “The Real World” which first aired in 1992.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Media and Homosexuality by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This program first hit viewers as a shocker with many people wondering why the producers would air such a show in the first place; however, as the viewers got to know the television personalities at a personal level, they came to a conclusion that homosexuals were just like everybody else (Tipton 2). Because of increased coverage, homosexual relationships have become more common and many people are not shy to talk about it as compared to the past.
The MTV reality show, “The Real World”, still remains a pioneer in changing the perception of people to how they view homosexuality, because it revolved around the lives of 7 people (who were the main characters), and every season came with the promise of airing at least one homosexual individual out of the 7 individuals (Shapiro 9).
However, “The real world” was not the only program that forecasted the life of homosexuals, the sitcom “Will and Grace” was also another common program which highlighted the life of two homosexuals but who didn’t share a sexual relationship with each other (even though they were very close friends). The sitcom showed the character Grace, cohabiting with Will, even though she was heterosexual and Will was a homosexual.
The way they cohabited together and her acceptance of Will’s sexual orientation showed the changing perception of the society on homosexuality, while the household set up where the two characters (Will and Grace) cohabited gave an insight into the gender roles both play, with regards to their sexual orientations.
Conversely, viewers pick their roles as synonymous to their sexual orientations but more importantly, these roles shape the way the society views gender roles similar people with the similar characteristics are supposed to have.
Another common reality television program that brings homosexuality to fore is “Survivor”, especially when the once famous character Richard Hatch won the coveted winner’s price. Richard exemplified homosexuality to international limelight by making an assertion that his win was brought about because of his life as a homosexual (Shapiro 9).
This assertion goes into the minds of the viewers as a plus for homosexuality because it was depicted as giving some positive attributes, despite the ethical and moral concerns that surrounded it. However, amid all the intrigues on homosexuality in television programs, it can be evidently seen that the media is trying to come out strongly as a neutral entity that does not discriminate on homosexual individuals.
For instance, in the latest season of the “Real World”, two homosexuals have been put on cast (which is a deviation from the usual one person) (Shapiro 12). However, one of the homosexuals cast was more flamboyant and therefore fit the stereotype attributed to homosexuals, but the other was very conservative, which also came as a shocker to the other participants because they never thought homosexuals would be that reserved (Shapiro 12).
This assertion also reflects the perception the society has on homosexuals, because to a significant degree, the perception held by the other participants in the program, reflected what the society thought of homosexuality and the stereotypes associated with it, since they were socially tuned to think in that manner. However, the media’s role in this analysis tends to be more liberal because it shows a different side of homosexuality, through a lack of flamboyance of the other character in the program.
Nonetheless, televisions shows which highlight the life of at least one homosexual are many because the media has broken the once existent impulse of the way society understood homosexuality and its concerns. Comprehensively, television has redefined the way the society thinks of homosexuals and the gender roles they play in the same context.
This is true because homosexual characters have been observed to live together in conventional set ups, while their roles in the society is the same, even when they are interacting with people of different sexual orientation as is seen by the viewers. This was never thought of homosexuals before because there was a widely held perception that homosexuals were weird people who never led normal lives.
Movies It comes not as a surprise that today; many movies with homosexual themes are being churned by the week (considering increased media coverage of homosexuality and its antecedents). From these movies, many gay themed movies have busted into the spotlight and are now receiving a lot of media coverage than ever before.
Nonetheless, the messages contained in these movies represent the views of Hollywood, and unfortunate or otherwise, they are very different from each other (Ribeiro 3). This exposes the liberal nature the media tries to attribute homosexuality.
When analyzed closely, movies which have the theme of homosexuality tend to portray the true picture of homosexuality but mainstream movies tend to be biased. Also in the same light, some movies portray a very negative picture of homosexuality while others paint homosexuality in a positive light and beckon the society to be more accommodative of the concept (Ribeiro 3).
This great divide however represents how the media has transitioned in its depiction of homosexuality over the years with the latter representation depicting the current status of media perception while the former represents the past representation of homosexuality by the media.
Previous movies tended to cast minor characters to represent homosexuals, and the biased opinions about homosexuality tended to abound in that context because the movies emphasised more on the stereotypes which had already been generated by the society (Ribeiro 3). Some of the movies which had strongly come out to perpetrate wrong stereotypes on homosexuality were the likes of “Mean Girls”, “As Good as It Gets” and “My Best Friend’s Wedding”. However, this has changed.
To portray the transition the media has held of homosexuals, we can see that in the movie “Mean Girls”, Damien, who is played by Daniel Franzes, represents the flamboyant attitude people thought homosexuals had because he was very colorful and seemed to be more interesting in what the girls were doing, or not doing, despite the fact that he is male (IMDa 2).
When analyzed in relative terms, the movie tried to portray the fact that homosexuality for gay men meant identifying more with the feminine side. This was further manifested in the way he acted, talked, and gesticulated like a woman, but the film even made this stereotype worse by portraying that his favorite attire was a pink polo shirt, which was easily associated with feminism (IMDa 2).
This represented the previous perception the media tried to hold of homosexuals. More examples could be seen from the movie series, “As good as it gets”, where Simon who is a male persona but a homosexual, was also depicted as having a lot of feminine attributes. Moreover, he had a tiny dog (a character which is usually associated with feminism) and because he was a painter but liked to garden, the movie portrayed him as an outright homosexual.
Also, in the movie “My Best Friend’s wedding”, George, a male homosexual, who was played by Ruppert Everet was extensively depicted as having a lot of touch with his feminine side (IMDb 2). He had a flamboyant laugh, which was typically feminine, and his liking for the Song “I say a Little Prayer for you” manifested his feminine side even more (IMDb 4).
These were the roles the media tried to portray of homosexuals in the past, basically by reversing gender roles. In that sense, the media tried to portray homosexual males as women trapped in male bodies and lesbians as men trapped in female bodies. In real sense, these depictions were nothing but stereotypes and they probably reflected nothing of what the gay community is in the world today. From an analysis of current movie productions, the media seems to have realised just that.
However, some of the inspiration to show homosexuals as a reversal of gender roles may have stemmed from a commercial base because homosexual personalities in movies tended to capture the audience a lot and therefore, movies which had such characters were bound to sell more and probably the producers were just enforcing what the personalities thought of homosexuality.
Research also affirms that only less than 16% of homosexual men befitted these stereotypical depictions in movies while less than 6% of women fall in the same category as well (Shapiro 18). The stereotypical way of portraying homosexuals as flamboyant personalities with a lot of feminine connotations to their character was a reversal of gender roles but this has changed with current movie productions.
Currently, gay movies depict the true picture of homosexuals and tend to portray the true gender roles homosexuals have in their community. More so, this is depicted in homosexual-themed movies. Shapiro (18) affirms this fact by stating that:
“Unlike mainstream movies, homosexually themed movies often portray gays in more human aspects. They look deeper into the lives of homosexuals and open a door into their thoughts and feelings, not simply focusing on what they wear or look like”.
Some of the most common gay movies that fit into the category of homosexually themed movies are like “Angels in America”, “Beautiful thing” and “Big Eden”. “Angels in America” tends to highlight the 1980s era when Aids ravaged through the gay community, but basically, it gave an insight into the spectrum that exists in the gay community today. The depiction of male personalities in the movie was not like previous movies because it showed homosexuals as masculine people (for gay males), and feminine, for female gay characters.
In real sense, the movie showed the true diversity which exists in the gay community today and even portrayed the same in the professions that the characters were engaged in; for instance, in the movie, there were lawyers, nurses, doctors and other professionals; just like it exists in the real world.
The movie therefore showed homosexuals as normal people with normal dreams, fears and ambitions, just like everyone else. This shows the real and emotional side of homosexuals despite the erosion of this perception by previous movies (Miller 2).
“Beautiful thing” and “Big Eden” also represent homosexuals in the same way and even though they focused more on the homosexual relationships of the characters, the characters were represented as normal people, except for the fact that they choose to have relationships with people of the same gender. Once again, we are shown the real picture of homosexuals, in that, they have the same types of fears and feelings, just like normal people do, only that they share these emotions with partners of the same gender.
Conclusion With all the conflicting stereotypes about homosexuality in the society and the media, it is important for people to step back and look at the big picture with regards to gender roles in homosexuality and not merely follow what mainstream media depicts as the real representations of gender in homosexuality.
Homosexuality here plays a vital role in understanding gender in the 21st century because it seems to change the conventional paradigm associated with heterosexual relationships by advancing the idea that romantic, passionate and emotional feelings can be shared with people of the same gender. The media portrays the same, though it used to do so, in a biased way, by reversing the roles associated with different genders in homosexual relationships.
Too often, people were led to think that homosexuals acted in a certain way, dressed in a given manner, or thought in a peculiar way, but now the media seems to change the same perception by depicting gays as just normal people; only that they choose to have sexual relationships with people of the same gender. Homosexuality though depicted as a reversal of gender roles is therefore not different from any other kind of relationship.
In our understanding of gender in this study, we can therefore come up with an assumption that homosexuality gives a more liberal sense of gender because it breaks away from the perception that certain genders can only do certain roles associated with their gender.
In other words two males can carry out the same roles a man and a woman can and two women can carry out the same roles as people in a heterosexual relationship would. Nonetheless, homosexuality and the media shape our understanding of gender, in that, gender is much more liberal than people think.
Works Cited Byer, Shainberg. Dimensions of Human Sexuality. London: Brown
Need for Mexico Border Control Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction The rate of crime in Mexican borders has increased tremendously mostly in cities and nearby states such as Durango and Guerrero. Due to lack of sanction and conviction of criminal gangs, it has made it difficult to stop crimes. However, the government of Mexico tries to provide security to the tourists visiting the country and more so U.S citizens.
The major tourist attraction sites are not commonly affected by violence related to drug peddlers and offenses reported along the borders. Crime and violence becomes major tremor in Mexico and most of the people involved in these crimes are Mexican citizens. The citizen of Mexico who fall victims of these crime are subsequently encouraged to report any form of crime to the police headquarter close to them. The crimes that are normally experienced in Mexico include;
Major Crimes Pirated Goods
Counterfeit items enter Mexico through its borders and are widely available in the country. These products are mostly controlled by structured bunch of hooligans who sell these products to citizens for personal use. These goods if caught circulating in U.S can lead to fines or be forfeited (Tribune Review 52). Consumption of these products is not illegal in Mexico but trading them is highly prohibited.
Visitors are advised to always keep valuable and inimitable things in a secured place, or stay away from carrying them. Tourists are encouraged to stop wearing expensive clothing or jewelry and practice carrying of credit cards instead of liquid cash while crossing the border.
Cases of people pick-pocketing and pucker seizing have been reported mostly while on public transports. Visitors and also citizens are advised to make sure that they hire a vehicle that has the company/agency sticker. Visitors should always ensure that their valuable items such as passports and identification card are not left in these vehicles. Very many people have been robbed off their passports mostly at airports.
Several Americans have been detained for entering with a counterfeit currency received at the border (Gilchrist
Extreme Work Pressure Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Problem Identification Working for long hours
The case illustrates an increment in extreme work pressure amongst high ranking professionals of different demographics working in firms operating in different economic sectors. This is evident in the number of hours that the professionals commit to their work every week. Some individuals work for approximately 70 hours every week. Their motivation arises from a strong desire to move the organization into a new direction.
The resultant effect is that work becomes very stressful. As a result of working for long hours, these professionals are ranked amongst the highly earning individuals on a global scale. Despite the fact that working for long hours is self motivated amongst these professionals in an effort to attain personal and corporate objectives, this has come at a cost with regard to diverse areas of their life.
Effects on individuals’ well being
Extreme jobs have negatively affected individual’s well being and health. For example, as a result of working for long hours, these individuals do not have enough time to rest, sleep or exercise. In order to minimize the resulting effects such as anxiety and insomnia, these professions depend on medications. Alternative habits formed include overeating and consuming a lot of alcohol.
Family life and parenting
Extreme working also affects individual’s family life and parenting. For example, working for long hours has denied individuals chances of being with their children and partners. This has the effect of straining family relationships (Hewlett
The Character of Elizabeth Gilbert in “Eat Pray Love” by Ryan Murphy Term Paper best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Elizabeth Gilbert Experiences
Introduction Eat Pray Love is a movie that shows real life story of Elizabeth Gilbert, a young woman of 32 years old. She has made several achievements in her life since she married a loving husband, has a wonderful house and a satisfying career as a writer. Although she has a good family, she finds herself lost in the quest of experiencing real meaning of marriage and family because at some point she cries and yearn for something mysterious, something she cannot tell or define.
In search of the true meaning of life, Elizabeth painfully divorces her husband and starts her journey to explore the world. She first visits Italy where she has pleasure in eating, she then proceeds to India where she uses her time praying and meditating and finally she goes to Indonesia where she finds her true love (Murphy Para. 1). Elizabeth Gilbert’s experiences in the Eat Pray Love movie, relates strongly to the Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs as explored in this work.
Elizabeth Gilbert Experiences Based on the Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs, Elizabeth has already surpassed the physiological needs, security needs and social needs. In the physiological needs, she has a good house, enough food and sex since she is married. She has also satisfied her security needs because she has a successful career as a writer.
In the case of her social needs, she is married and a wonderful family where her needs of love, belonging and affection are satisfied. Elizabeth is struggling in her marriage to satisfy her esteem needs, which is the fourth hierarchy needs according to Maslow. She feels lost, confused and unsatisfied in her marriage for her esteem needs such as self-esteem, sense of accomplishment and personal worth are unsatisfied. In pursuit of her needs, she divorces her husband and embarks on a journey, searching to fulfill her needs.
Due to stress and depression resulting from painful divorce, Elizabeth first visits Italy where she derives enough pleasure in eating and drinking to relieve herself from the ordeal of divorce. After recovering from the divorce ordeal, she focuses on attaining the esteem needs by indulging in pleasure, which makes her happy and confident that she has gained self-esteem, social acceptance and sense of accomplishment.
Fernando explains that, “the four lower levels are grouped together as deficiency needs associated with physiological needs, while the top level is termed growth needs associated with psychological needs” (15). The deficiency needs are necessary for a better life while growth needs are responsible for shaping behavior. Elizabeth achieves her physiological needs whilst in Italy and continues with her journey into India in search of further fulfillment of psychological needs as she intends to change her life.
Elizabeth leaves Italy a happy woman for fulfilling her achievements in pleasure and goes to India where she practices prayer and meditation in order to satisfy her spiritual needs as one of the psychological needs in the Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Hawks, there are two dimensions of spirituality, “Internal spiritual health seems to provide the individual with life purpose and ultimate meaning, while external spiritual health enables individuals express themselves through trust, honesty, integrity, altruism, compassion, and service” (3). In India, the experiences of prayer and meditation with the ashram guru enables Elizabeth to attain the purpose and ultimate meaning in life, which she has been looking for around the world.
“Self-esteem occurs when the individual lives in close harmony with the value system that results from a strong sense of faith and spirituality” (Hawks 8). Prayer and meditation enables Elizabeth to enhance her self-esteem, which pushed her to divorce her husband. With the great confidence and true meaning of life, she ends up in Indonesia for further exploration and satisfaction of her needs.
The experiences of marriage, pleasure in Italy, prayer and meditation in Indonesia makes Elizabeth see the reality of her needs. She has been yearning to satisfy her esteem needs and self-actualization without considering the social needs of the marriage and family. She wanted to satisfy her needs contrary to the Maslow principle that the lowest needs are first satisfied to the fullest for other subsequent needs to follow.
At last, the Maslow theories proves to her that she must first get married if she want to still pursue her dream in life and attain self-actualization. “A search for the actualization of fundamental identity with the cosmos, human motivation, at its highest and deepest, is a reaching out for the ultimate of truth, beauty, goodness, justice, and the like” (Fernando 19). Ultimately, Elizabeth gets in another marriage after finding true love in a relationship with a Brazilian.
Conclusion The Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs shows sequential fulfillment of the human needs in five stages. The Eat Pray Love movie shows the experiences of Elizabeth in pursuit of the human needs contrary to the Maslow’s theory. She neglects the social needs but wants to pursue esteem and actualization needs leading to divorce. After having pleasure in Italy and praying in India, she realizes the true meaning of life and decides to get married again in order to fulfill the social needs she had neglected earlier.
Works Cited Eat Pray Love. Dir. Ryan Murphy. Colombia Pictures, 2010. Film.
Fernando, Mario. “Abraham Maslow and Spirituality.” University of Victoria Journal 6.3 (2005): 15-21. Print.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The Character of Elizabeth Gilbert in “Eat Pray Love” by Ryan Murphy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hawks, Steven. “Spiritual Health: Definition and Theory.” Wellness Perspectives 10.4 (2008): 1-12. Print.
Extreme Work Pressure Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Problem Identification Working for long hours
The case illustrates an increment in extreme work pressure amongst high ranking professionals of different demographics working in firms operating in different economic sectors. This is evident in the number of hours that the professionals commit to their work every week. Some individuals work for approximately 70 hours every week. Their motivation arises from a strong desire to move the organization into a new direction.
The resultant effect is that work becomes very stressful. As a result of working for long hours, these professionals are ranked amongst the highly earning individuals on a global scale. Despite the fact that working for long hours is self motivated amongst these professionals in an effort to attain personal and corporate objectives, this has come at a cost with regard to diverse areas of their life.
Effects on individuals’ well being
Extreme jobs have negatively affected individual’s well being and health. For example, as a result of working for long hours, these individuals do not have enough time to rest, sleep or exercise. In order to minimize the resulting effects such as anxiety and insomnia, these professions depend on medications. Alternative habits formed include overeating and consuming a lot of alcohol.
Family life and parenting
Extreme working also affects individual’s family life and parenting. For example, working for long hours has denied individuals chances of being with their children and partners. This has the effect of straining family relationships (Hewlett
Exploring autism in the drama film Rain Man Report essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Autism
Possible Causes of Autism
Symptoms in the Film
Other Symptoms not in the Film
Treatments Portrayed in the Movie
Recommended Psychological and Physical Interventions
Directed by Barry Levinson, Rain Man is a chef-d’oeuvre comedy that functions as a drama film, exploring autism – a mental disorder that sets in mostly during childhood. The main character is Raymond Babbitt – an autistic man, a condition that has forced him to spend his days in a mental institution since his childhood.
Charlie Babbitt, the brother to Raymond, is the actor who portrays Raymond’s autism on the way to Los Angeles to secure his fair share in the Babbitt’s $3 million fortunes in form of inheritance. As aforementioned, the mental disorder portrayed in Rain Man movie is autism.
Autism According to Autism Research Centre, autism is a “spectrum of neurodevelopment condition, characterized by difficulties in the development of social relationships and communication skills and the presence of unusually strong narrow interests, and repetitive behavior” (Para. 1).
Autistic people have both verbal and non-verbal communication problems and they take words literally; that is, they take people for what they say. In addition, autistic people have trouble in understanding other peoples’ emotions, thus making it difficult to form any meaningful social relationships. Finally, autism bars its victims from normal social imagination, making them not to trust other people. Consequently, due to this lack of trust, autistic people resort into repetitive behaviors resisting change or any unfamiliar situations.
Possible Causes of Autism So far, there is no scientifically proved cause of autism. Nevertheless, according to The National Autistic Society, research work suggests there might be genetic or environmental factors that cause or contribute to autism (Para. 2). Intense research work is currently underway to determine the exact cause of autism.
Symptoms in the Film As Raymond talks to people, he does not look to them into their eyes. Avoiding eye contact is a symptom of autism. In most cases, communication involves both verbal and non-verbal skills and as aforementioned, autistic people have difficulties in understanding any of these forms of communication. Consequently, Raymond does not understand other people’s feelings thus making him avoid eye contact.
One’s feelings in a conversation come inform of voice tone or facial expressions and given that autistic people do not sense voice tone or facial expressions, they avoid eye contact in the first place. Additionally, Raymond has fear of boarding flights. When Richie suggests they take a flight to Los Angeles, Raymond vehemently declines the offer, making them to drive in a car from Cincinnati to Los Angeles. Autistic people do not embrace change.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The National Autistic Society states that, “People with autism may not be comfortable with the idea of change” (Para. 4). Raymond cannot brace the change of taking a flight because his routine dictates that, he use a vehicle. Raymond shows little emotions except when under stress. For instance, the only time he reacts emotionally is when Charlie suggests they take a flight to Los Angeles. Lack of emotions is a common autistic symptom, a conspicuous sign in Rain Water as portrayed by Raymond.
Other Symptoms not in the Film In addition to the symptoms displayed by Raymond, other autistic symptoms include hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity. In this case, an autistic person may overreact or under react to a given situation. In addition, these people have special interests like in music, art, or computers among other areas touching human existence. Medline Plus asserts that, “some autistic people never learn how to talk” (Para. 2).
This observation backs the fact that autistic people have communication problems. Due to the perceived inefficiencies in social interactions, these people tend to withdraw and love to spend time alone. Consequently, in most cases, their physical activity is minimal. Infants suffering from autism may resist cuddling and have no interest in playthings. Finally, autistic people have no understanding of their surroundings. They show no interest in common things that common people find fascinating in life making them appear indifferent.
Treatments Portrayed in the Movie After the Babbitts realize Raymond is autistic, the only intervention they execute is to take him to a mental institution. This intervention helps Raymond for he seems to have developed cognitive abilities in the mental institution.
For instance, he recalls his childhood and sings I Saw Her Standing There, a song he loved to sing to Charlie during their childhood before that accident which led the separation of Raymond from Richie and his family at large. Charlie even realizes Raymond’s sharp cognitive abilities and he takes him into a casino where Raymond is supposed to count cards in a gambling game.
By staying together with people, he can identify with; that is, in the mental institution, Raymond develops and hones his cognitive abilities. Probably, if Raymond grew in the house together with the rest of the family members, his memory abilities would be underdeveloped due to lack of proper care, motivation, and support. Towards the end of the film, Richie changes his attitude and starts to empathize with Raymond.
According to Eikeseth, loving and understanding an autistic person improve his/her chances of living a near-to normal life (158). Richie’s loving attitude and caring nature towards Raymond as the film closes, reflects psychological intervention of autism. Love and support works wonders in helping autistic people realize they too can live normal lives.
We will write a custom Report on Exploring autism in the drama film Rain Man specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Recommended Psychological and Physical Interventions Psychological interventions are highly recommended in autism intervention strategies. According to Kalat, “Psychoanalysts…attempt to infer the hidden unconscious, symbolic meaning behind people’s words and actions… (8). Therefore, based on this argument, all psychological interventions seek to establish why an autistic person behaves the way he/she behaves. Despite the fact that autistic people share some common features, they do not behave exactly the same way.
Therefore, psychological interventions try to determine why a given person behaves in a given way and sets rules that should be followed in addressing that particular problem. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is the highly recommended psychological intervention method where autistic children learn “comprehensive, individualized treatment…social skills, communication, daily living skills, academics, self-management or coping skills, and family support” (Eikeseth 177).
On the other hand, physical interventions include general physical exercise. As aforementioned, majority of autistic people have minimal physical activity, which weakens their body. Therefore, physical exercise helps these children greatly. However, given the fact that these people do not fit well in social circles, special programs have been designed to allow autistic people exercise with convenience.
Conclusion Rain Man is a masterpiece directed by Barry Levinson exploring autism and its perception by other people. Raymond Babbitt is the autistic character while Richie; Raymond’s brother, is the character who unveils Raymond’s autism. Autism affects mainly the sociological relationships between its victims and other normal people.
There are physical and psychological interventions that help autistic people live a normal life; ABA is one of the most reliable psychological interventions. As the movie closes, Richie becomes empathetic towards Raymond, a key factor in dealing with autism.
Works Cited Autism Research Centre. Autism. N.d. Web.
Autism Research Centre (ARC) forms an integral part of School of Medical Medicine at the University of Cambridge. The information found on this site is about autism covering all major issues surrounding autism. ARC receives most of its funding from the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom, the Shirley Foundation, and the Three Guineas Trust among others. ARC offers links to other sites that deal with issues related to autism; for instance, Autism Europe Congress.
Eikeseth, Svein. “Outcome of Comprehensive Psycho-educational Interventions for Young Children with Autism.” Res Dev Disabil 30. 1 (2009): 158–78. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Exploring autism in the drama film Rain Man by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kalat, James. Introduction to Psychology. 6th Ed. USA: Wadsworth Publishing, 2001.
Medline Plus. Autism, 2010. Web.
Medline Plus offers reliable up-to-date health-related information in simplified language that patients, families, and friends can understand. Medline Plus is a service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine and National Institute of Health. Medline Plus is linked to other sites like twitter where people can share health-related information creating awareness to the public.
The National Autistic Society. What is Autism? 2010. Web.
The National Autistic Society is the top United Kingdom charity for autistic people. This society works with LEGO UK, HIT Entertainment, Trafigura, and the Co-operative Bank as its major sponsors. The site offers information, support and initiative services in its bid to create a world where people understand autism.