Robert Altman: Global Popular Culture Critical Essay College Application Essay Help

Throughout the course of recent decades, the rise of a global popular culture and the manner in which it is being reflected by movies have been discussed from a variety of different sociological perspectives.

As a rule, the individuals that discuss this particular socio-cultural phenomenon do agree that the emergence of such a culture has been dialectically predetermined – that is, the very of laws of history created objective preconditions for people to grow increasingly cosmopolitical, which in turn causes them to relate to the global culture’s presumed values emotionally.

At the same time, however, there is a specific rationale in believing that the very process of a perceptual cosmopolitization inevitably results in them becoming ever more intellectually marginalized and consequently, in growing dispossessed of certain psychological qualities, which allowed their ancestors to ‘fuel’ the ongoing socio-technological progress (Elhefnawy 2007).

Therefore, it can be well suggested that many of the contemporary Hollywood (British) films do in fact contain some themes and motifs, which suggest that, as of today, the Western civilization is being rapidly deprived of its former vitality, in the figurative sense of this word.

The reason for this is simple – as it is being subtly implied in many of these films, once people are being allowed to prioritize addressing their individualistic anxieties, it becomes only the matter of time, before they transform into essentially social parasites, incapable of acting as the society’s productive members.

In this paper, I will explore the validity of the above statement, in regards to what can be considered the discursive significance of the films ‘The Player’ and ‘Gosford Park’ by Robert Altman (director).

Probably the most memorable aspect of the film ‘The Player’ is that fact that, while working as a studio executive, in charge of selecting the best screenplays to be put into production, the film’s main character Griffin Mill is represented as an individual with utterly tight daily schedules. Thus, Mill’s ability to lead a luxurious lifestyle appears to be warranted to an extent.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After all, it is namely the main character’s harworkingness, which formally explains his high social status. Nevertheless, as the film’s plot unravels, it becomes increasingly clear to the audience members that, even though Mill is indeed a rather busy person, his ‘busyness’ appears to have very little to do with the character’s presumed ability to contribute to the society’s well-being, which would have justified his riches.

The rationale behind this suggestion is quite apparent – it is Mill’s talent in selecting individually those screenplays that correlate with the viewers’ animalistic urges, which made it possible for him to attain a high status within the Hollywood movie-making industry.

As it is being revealed in one of the film’s final scenes, in order for a particular screenplay to be selected for production, it must feature the elements of suspense, violence, sex and above all – it needs to function a ‘happy ending’ (01.42.32).

In other words, it can be well suggested that the line of Mill’s work was concerned with making the ‘Hollywood reality’, seen in the movies, to be fully consistent with the workings of people’s unconscious psyche. On their part, they are being defined by the fact that, physiologically speaking, the representatives of Homo Sapiens species are nothing but hairless primates (Dawkins 1976).

As such, they are naturally driven to strive to be put in the position of having to work as little as possible, without experiencing any material/emotional discomfort, as a result, so that they would be able to preoccupy themselves with experiencing sensual pleasures.

After all, it is namely the ‘activity’ of bellyful idling, in time free from abusing the pack’s weaker members and having sex, in which the alpha-male apes indulge 24/7 (Propp 2004).

Therefore, by applying an effort into ensuring that, when put into production, the selected screenplays will prove commercially successful; Mill contributed to the process of the American society becoming ever more intellectually marginalized.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Robert Altman: Global Popular Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Apparently, he was well aware of it, which explains why in the scene where the film’s main character is having lunch with his business-associates, he asks for the topic of the ensued conversation not be concerned with the industry, because according to Mill, “educated people do not discuss Hollywood movies” (00.13.16).

However, being an individualistically minded individual, Mill could care less about the fact that, while exposed to the movies produced by his studio, people do grow ‘dumb’.

The same can be said about the rest of the high ranking representatives of the Hollywood movie-making industry, seen in ‘The Player’ – these people’s endowment with the strong sense of individualism was naturally causing them to adopt hypocritical attitudes in life.

This explains why, despite being aware of the fact that the most successful Hollywood blockbusters are in essence the instruments of the citizens’ continual ‘dumbing’, these people find it thoroughly appropriate to refer to what they do professionally in terms of art (01.26.13).

Even the character of Tom Oakley (a British screenwriter, who came up with the idea to make a ‘realistic’ film about the functioning of the American legal system) ends up allowing his screenplay to be ‘improved’ to the extent of featuring Bruce Willis with the shotgun in his hands, who in the end ‘reestablishes justice’.

Thus, there is indeed a good rationale in referring to ‘The Player’, as such that promotes the idea that, contrary to what neo-cons believe, there are some socially counter-beneficial effects to the American people’s endowment with the acute sense of individualism.

After all, as it can be seen in the film, it is such their sense that weakens their ability to act as the agents of progress, which in turn undermines the integrity of the American society from within. The reason for this is simple – once people allow their individualistic anxieties to delineate the manner in which they address life-challenges, they turn into ultimate hedonists, completely deprived of the sense of a social responsibleness.

The consequence of this is that, despite remaining ‘respectable’ on the outside, the American society continues to regress to the era when it was named the citizens’ varied affiliation with the ‘laws of jungle’, which used to define their chances of social advancement.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Robert Altman: Global Popular Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The validity of this suggestion can be illustrated in regards to the fact that, as ‘The Player’ implies, people associated with the American movie-making industry, have long ago been turned into essentially the representatives of one of the country’s parasitic social classes, whose ability to enjoy a high-quality living does not even slightly reflect their factual worth, as individuals.

Therefore, it is fully explainable why the currently dominant social discourse (global culture), reflected by the mainstream Hollywood movies, promotes the values of a blind consumerism, when people are being made to believe that it is possible for them to be able to enjoy prosperity, for as long as they succeed in ‘striking it lucky’.

However, as the realities of a contemporary living in America indicate, these values cannot be referred to as anything but counter-productive, in the social sense of this word, because it is specially the citizens’ assumption that they can well lead a socially parasitic existence, which created objective prerequisites for the outbreak of the current economic recession in America (Schelkle 2012).

The earlier deployed line of argumentation can also be utilized, within the context of how one may go about defining the discursive significance of the film ‘Gosford Park’. After all, just as it happened to be the case with the earlier analyzed Altman’s movie, ‘Gosford Park’ does convey the subtle message that there is something utterly unnatural about the practice of having people stratified along class lines.

What allowed us to identify this message is that, as it being shown in this particular film, the rich and powerful simply do not have any reason, whatsoever, to believe in their factual superiority over the ordinary people.

This poses us with the question – if the socially disadvantaged/poor citizens (such as the characters of servants in ‘Gosford Park’) do consciously realize that the ‘nobles’ are by no means superior, what prevents them from adopting an active stance, while exposed to the social injustices?

‘Gosford Park’ provides a thoroughly sound answer to this question – this is because, the upper-class people succeeded in creating a popular culture, which serves the purpose of legitimizing the hegemony of the latter (Katz 2006).

The validity of this idea can be explored in regards to the scene, in which the earlier mentioned servants do not only situate themselves at a dinner table (down in the basement) in exactly the same way as their masters did on the upper floor, but they also strive to mimic the mannerisms of those they serve (00.31.46).

Apparently, throughout the course of their lives, these servants never ceased being indoctrinated to think of their subservient social status, as a ‘natural’ state of affairs.

What it means is that, just as it happened to be the case nowadays in America, the qualitative subtleties of popular culture in pre-war Britain never ceased being reflective of what accounted for the actual agenda of the representatives of social elites – namely, ensuring their continual dominance in the society, divided along class lines.

As such, this agenda could not possibly be justified, in the discursive sense of this word, due to having been concerned with the rich and powerful trying to slow down the pace of a historical progress – all for the sake of being able to enjoy high living standards, without even having to move a finger (Tomlin 2013).

However, as sociologists and historians are being well aware of, when due to their high social status, people are allowed to lead an essentially parasitic lifestyle, it becomes only the matter of time before they turn into the bunch of degenerates – just as it happened to be the case with the ‘socially-upstanding’ characters in ‘Gosford Park’.

Thus, it will only be logical to conclude this paper by reinstating once again that there is indeed a good reason to refer to both films, as such that imply that there are certain overtones of decadence to the rise and the considerable refinement a global popular culture, as we know it.

References Dawkins, R 1976, The selfish gene, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Elhefnawy, N 2007, ‘On Dark Ages’, Futurist, vol. 41. No. 6, pp. 14-19.

Gosford park 2001, DVD, Shepperton Studios, London, UK.

Katz, H 2006, ‘Gramsci, hegemony, and global civil society networks’, Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary

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Late Spring Movie Essay (Movie Review) custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction The traditional Japanese cinema is very different from the Western tradition of movie making. Late Spring is one of the masterpieces created by Yasujiro Ozu. Taking into account rather unusual representation of the idea and shooting techniques, the film is considered to be a unique phenomenon in the movie making of the world.

The Synopsis of the Film The relationship between the father and the daughter living in the old Japanese city is the central theme of the film. The creators unfold the traditional family relationships in Japan. The father recognizes that his daughter has grown up and he intends to give her in marriage.

Formal and Thematic Elements of the Clip The Second Scene

The second scene of the film shows the talk of Noriko and her father. In the scene, we can see the manner of behavior and communication of the father and the daughter in Japanese family. (Mades07, 2012).

The relationships between the relatives are depicted against a background of national traditions because love and mutual understanding in family is one of the highest moral values. We see Professor Somiya, the father, talking with his assistant about Friedrich List (Bordwell, 1949). He is presented as both a traditionalist and a liberal (Bordwell, 1949).

“Despite Noriko’s self-reliance—an Ozu earmark from the thirties that became an axiom in Late Spring—the acquiescent, ever-smiling heroine’s desires are never considered; she explicitly asks why her contented life cannot just go on as it has been” (Atkinson, par. 6).

From the very beginning of the film, we notice the manner of connecting the scenes typical to Ozu. In particular, the train is showed before Noriko actual departure to Tokyo.

The elements of nature and Japanese landscape are used as the connections between the scenes. In addition, we notice such typical features of Ozu movie shooting as the static camera, “false” eyeline-matches and the use of 360-degree shooting space (Wood, p.109-111).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Last Episode

The last scene shows the life of father after his daughter’s marriage. He returns to the empty house. He sits alone in his chair pealing an apple. He is unable to stanch his tears. Although all his efforts have been aimed at giving her daughter in marriage, he has become depressed after he has realized that his plan has turned out well.

The episode is followed by the scene showing the ocean which has a symbolic meaning in the film. In the Japanese tradition, the water is the symbol of the purity of relationship. Through the depiction of the water the author tries to emphasize the fairness and deepness of the relationship of the father and the daughter.

Nevertheless, there are different views of critics on this episode. “After having seen Late Spring, Satomi considered the last scene as too much contrived, as art for art sake’s, appealing to common tastes” (Late Spring, par. 3).

Conclusion Late Spring is the interesting film, especially for those who are fond of the Japanese culture and traditions. Ozu enriched his movie with the Japanese symbolism and showed a lot of traditional household and landscape elements in his film.

Moreover, the film touches upon the social problems of the Japanese society and can be useful for better understanding of the roots of these problems because a one single family is the small representation of society as a whole. The shooting techniques typically used by Ozu are clearly observed in the film. In particular, we notice the use of static camera, the 360-degree shooting space, and others.

Works Cited Atkinson, Michael n.d., Late Spring: Home with Ozu. Web.

Bordwell, David. Ozu and the Poetics of Cinema, Princeton, USA: Princeton University Press,1998. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on Late Spring Movie specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Late Spring. Web.

Mades07. “Tarda primavera (晩春, Banshun) è un film del 1949 diretto da Yasujirō Ozu..” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 8 Dec. 2012. Web.

Wood, Robin. Sexual Politics and Narrative Film: Hollywood and Beyond. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

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Market Selection and Direction: Role of Product Portfolio Planning Explicatory Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Most common product portfolio models and their assumptions

Two Single-Factor Dimensions

Key assumptions in this model

Two Composite-Factor Dimensions

Assumptions about the Model

Multiple Dimensions

Key assumptions involved in Par ROI Model

Most common product portfolio models and their assumptions Modern companies are seeking strategic ways of dominating market share and increasing profitability. Through product portfolio planning, companies design portfolio to assist them in making decisions regarding market selection and other business decisions. There are different product portfolio models that include:

Two Single-Factor Dimensions The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) product portfolio approach categorises businesses in two major dimensions, namely market growth and relative market share. The BCG growth-share matrix illustrates market products in the form of only two inherent factors that involve relative market share and growth rate.

Relative market share represents the ration of company’s dollar sales of a particular market product versus dollar sales of its immediate most massive business contender in the same product. In this kind of chart, the growth rate in the sales of the product is measurable along the vertical axis, while the relative market share is indicated in circles positioned along the horizontal axis.

The model, in its practical application, assumes that each product involved in the company’s dollar sales (or any form of assets used) represents a certain growth proportion in the market share.

Key assumptions in this model Based on the convictions of the chart developed through the two single-factor dimension matrix, analysing businesses in terms of growth-share matrix hinges upon four key principles. The first principle is that both growth margins and cash invention have a propensity to escalate with the increasing relative market share.

The scale effects and the experience curves connect high growth margins with elevated relative market share the reason why higher market share results in accrued experience. Another significant assumption in this model is that product sales growth necessitates cash input to help in financing added capacity and working capital among business operation aspects.

This aspect explains why cash input is necessary for maintaining share in a developing market. Subsequently, within a growing market, an important notion associated with this model is that increasing market share requires intensive cash input to endow increasing marketing expenses, build new plant among others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The last assumption regarding the abovementioned model is that sales growth in each market will eventually dawdle as the marketed product draws near maturity.

Two Composite-Factor Dimensions Another component of the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) that has ultimately undergone criticism over its reliance on cash flow as the main objective is the two single factors. Following such criticism on Boston Consulting Group (BCG) deploying the use of two single factors, McKinsey and General Electric developed the two composite-factor approach.

The model relies on the objective of industry attractiveness and business strengths, with each of these built from a larger number of variables. From a systematic analysis, the industry attractiveness as a dimension contains a large number of variables that include size, market growth, pricing, market diversity, competitive structure, industry profitability, technical role, social, environmental issues, legal and human aspects.

The business strength facet in the model has variables such as size, growth, share, position, profitability, margins, technological position, image, strength/weakness pollution, and people.

Assumptions about the Model Several principles and assumptions have developed from the two composite-factor dimensions in relation to its connection with business and market product portfolio planning techniques. There are three key assumptions regarding the flexibility and comprehensiveness that ultimately prove problematic in their application while using the two composite-factor approach.

One of the major assumptions is that for the model to prove successful in each independent business, various factors that contribute to business strength or industry attractiveness must remain identified. The analysts must determine the direction and form of each of these correlations.

Finally, in employing this technique in businesses, the analysts must use a scheme, whether clear or unclear, in determining the contributing factors involved in each composite dimension.

We will write a custom Essay on Market Selection and Direction: Role of Product Portfolio Planning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Multiple Dimensions There is also a multiple dimension model used in product portfolio planning where the Par ROI Model of the PIMS (Profit Impact of Market Strategy) program of strategic planning institute forms part of the multidimensional portfolio approach.

Although not considered, from the technical view, as a product portfolio model due to its connection with single businesses, the Par ROI Model focuses on tackling similar strategic direction issues and market selection issues in the portfolio.

The primary purpose of the Par ROI Model rests upon envisaging the innate (“par”) representing profitability of the business based on its competitive position, market’s attractiveness, and other marketing factors.

When intrinsic profitability is high, investment is justifiable despite the current actual profitability being low and hence, the Par ROI Model enables administrators to profit and promising non-profit businesses. For an individual company, the Par ROI, 28 variables very similar to those in two composite dimensions are integral though variables are measurable systematically on a statistical experience scheme.

Key assumptions involved in Par ROI Model Based on PIMS findings regarding Par ROI Model, market share positively correlates with ROI and that a product quality advantage in market competition is one of the major factors associated with high ROI.

On PIMS assumptions, rapid market growth rate helps in advancing ROI, primarily through its interface with other essential marketing variables. The investment-to-scale ratio or high investment power significantly negatively affect the ROI.

Some of the PIMS findings dealt with an interchange of two variables and through such analyses, PIMS revealed that a high level associated with marketing expenditure damages ROI especially when the value of the involved product is inferior. High research and development in marketing affect profitability when the market position is relatively weak but enhances ROI when the market share is high.

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Self-managed Teams vs. Cross-functional Teams Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction According to Gitman and McDaniel (2009), organizations work well when employees form functional teams. These scholars say that it is important to make people work as a group. Human being by nature needs constant motivation and a reminder of the aim that should be achieved after a specified period.

The top management may not be able to maintain a constant presence within the firm that would help ensure that employees remain motivated. For this reason, it is important to ensure that another way of maintaining this motivation is found.

These scholars say that the best way of doing this is to ensure that employees are in a position to motivate themselves. This can only be possible if these employees are made to work as a team. Employees should be allowed to form small manageable teams focused on achieving specific objectives within the firm.

Plunkett, Attner and Allen (2008) say that a number of teams can be formed within an organization. The most common form of teams in a firm comprises the cross-functional teams and self-managed teams (Parker, 2003). Other forms of teams that may exist within an organization include virtual teams, functional teams, and problem solving teams.

All these teams are defined based on the reason for their development, the way they operate, and their management structure.

Cross-functional teams and self-managed teams share a number of factors. For instance, both teams mainly focus on knowledge and skill sharing, teamwork and increased commitment towards tasks within the organization. The scholars also acknowledge that these two types of teams have a number of differences.

Cross-functional teams According to Parker (2003), cross-functional teams within an organization are important, and their relevance in motivating employees should not be ignored. According to this scholar, cross-functional teams are formed when members from different departments within an organization come together to achieve a specific goal.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These members may come from marketing department, production unit, finance department, customer care, or any other unit within an organization. The main aim of these individuals to come together is to share knowledge and skills from their departments that would make them perform better in their respective departments.

According to Parker (2003), cross-functional groups work in unidirectional manner when compared to self-managed groups. Team members in this group come together with the focus of obtaining general success of the organization other than specific objective.

The team members will be aiming at finding the best ways in which they can share information from their various departments to make operations of other members from other departments better (Plunkett, Attner

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Sisters of Gion: A Conflict of Value Systems Essay argumentative essay help

The film Sisters of Gion directed by Kenji Mizoguchi in 1936 shows the way in which two women cope with the experience of being a geisha. It should be borne in mind that the main characters are sisters who have different educational backgrounds and values. In this movie, the director confronts two opposing views. In particular, Umekichi is able to reconcile herself with the world of prostitution.

In her opinion, it is her duty to serve men. In contrast, Omocha does not think that servitude is an inseparable part of her fate. In the film, Kenji Mizoguchi contrasts these worldviews and shows none of these approaches can safeguard an individual against pitfalls in a society in which a person may be treated like a mere object by other people.

This is the main thesis that should be examined in greater detail. Overall, this movie can be analyzed from the perspective of feminism since it throws light on the hardships that women had to encounter at the beginning of the twentieth century.

Yet, this cinematographic work is a good illustration of how a society can come to the point when its traditional norms are no longer relevant. These perspectives are helpful for gaining better understanding of this cinematographic work. These are some of the questions that should not be overlooked.

It should be kept in mind that this movie throws light on different systems of values that existed in Japan at the beginning of the twentieth century. In particular, Umekichi’s behavior represents such a concept as giri which can be translated as obligation, commitment or duty (“Early Sound Film and Mizoguchi Kenji”). To a great extent, this moral code is rooted in Japanese culture for many centuries.

In this case, one can speak about Umekichi’s duty to her patron Shimbei Furusawa who is a bankrupt entrepreneur (Sisters of Gion). Umekichi is willing to accept the responsibilities of a geisha whose major concern is supposed to be the pleasure of a patron (Sisters of Gion). In contrast, her sister Omocha thinks that such a duty cannot be imposed on a person.

To some degree, she represents a feminist perception of women’s role as well as their duties. She is convinced that Umekichi has to leave Shimbei. These distinctions between the two sisters can be partly explained by the fact that they were educated in a different way.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From her childhood, Umekichi was trained to be a geisha, while Omocha had a chance to attend a public school. Moreover, she is more familiar with urban culture. This issue is critical for explaining the behavior of the protagonists.

Overall, one can say that Omocha is often described by scholars and critics “a schemer and a user” (McDonald 23). Certainly, she does not deny that she is a geisha, but she is not content with the role of a “plaything” (McDonald 24). She believes that in the society, which is dominated by men, a woman has to think primarily about her own interests.

Therefore, she cannot accept the idea that Umekichi has a relationship with a bankrupt businessman who cannot offer anything to her. This is one of the main issues that should be considered. Omocha makes everything possible to make sure that her sister can derive some benefit from other people.

The two sisters do not come into direct conflict with one another, but their behavior is aimed showing that a certain value system is more effective. This is one of the main points that can be made.

One can say that Kenji Mizoguchi does not give an answer which can help the viewers determine which system of values is more acceptable. One can say that he prompts the viewers to reach their own conclusions. At the end of the film, both sisters suffer misfortune. In particular, Umekichi is abandoned by her lover Shimbei (Sisters of Gion). Shimbei leaves her as soon as he is offered a new job.

However, he feels virtually to attachment to a woman who cared about him, even at the time when he was penniless. So, her devotion to the principle of giri does not bring her any rewards. This is one of the main aspects that can be identified. In her turn, Omocha is heavily injured in the course of an accident. It should be mentioned that he is abducted by a shop clerk who she deceived in the past.

Omocha falls from the car, and she is in the custody of her sister (Burch 226). One can say that she no longer produces the impression of self-sufficiency and independence. This is one of the issues that should be taken into account by the viewers because Kenji Mizoguchi does attempt to evaluate this character’s behavior from an ethical viewpoint.

We will write a custom Essay on Sisters of Gion: A Conflict of Value Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To a great extent, Omocha can be described as a moga. This is the term which was used to describe women who adopted a different attitude toward the duties of culture, fashion, and gender roles (Kirihara 36). The director does not attempt to criticize her values or attitudes.

However, the film demonstrates that these values cannot be easily incorporated into the society dominated by males. Moreover, the main characters belong to a group of people who are not allowed to express their discontent. This is one of the main issues that can be distinguished.

It is possible to say that this movie can be used for explaining the changes that took place in the Japanese society at the beginning of the twentieth society. The film-makers portray Japan a country with rigid ethical and behavioral norms. Nevertheless, it is also transformed due to various factors such as economic development or growing familiarity with western culture (Kirihara 36).

These trends profoundly affected Omocha’s attitudes and values. However, one cannot say the same thing about her sister. This theme plays a critical work in this movie, and it is important for the assessment of this film. This is one of the main points that can be made.

One can say that Sisters of Gion is a film that throws light on the transformation of a very conservative society. The two protagonists represent a conflict of values and worldviews. This cinematographic work explores the experiences of women who have to live in the world of prostitution. One of them is content with the role of a geisha, while the other does not want to admit that her existence should be submitted to the will of men.

Yet, both of them have to live in the world in which women can be treated like objects or playthings. The main characters respond to this challenge in different ways. This is the main argument that can be put forward. Apart from that, this movie is helpful for understanding the trends within the Japanese society in the early thirties.

Works Cited Burch, Noel. To the Distant Observer: Form and Meaning in the Japanese Cinema, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979. Print.

Early Sound Film and Mizoguchi Kenji. Quizlet. 17 Jun. 2011. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Sisters of Gion: A Conflict of Value Systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kirihara, Donald. Patterns of Time: Mizoguchi and the 1930s, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992. Print.

McDonald, Keiko. Reading a Japanese Film: Cinema in Context. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 2006. Print.

Sisters of Gion. Ex. Prod. Kenji Mizoguchi. Tokyo: Minoru Miki, 1936. DVD.

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Challenges of Social Integration: Poverty Case Study writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Case Study: Poverty in Romania

Romania’s Poverty Reduction Approaches

Recommended Poverty alleviation Approaches

Conclusion

References

Introduction Poverty eradication is an issue of global concern, even forming one of the millennium development goals (MDGs). Factors such as socioeconomic status, vulnerability, income levels and consumption rates are the major indicators of poverty in a society. In economic terms, income poverty describes a situation where the average family income falls below an established international threshold (Kaldor

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“The Counseling Profession’s Relationship to Jews and the Issues that Concern Them: More than A Case of Selective Awareness” Essay (Article) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

The insightful article by Weinrach (2002), titled The Counseling Profession’s Relationship to Jews and the Issues that Concern Them: More than a Case of Selective Awareness, sets out to not only illuminate the anti-Semitic issue among the Jews living in the United States and abroad, but also to demonstrate how the counseling profession continues to fuel and reinforce anti-Semitism and the mistreatment of Jews through largely unnoticed and sometimes unintended errors of omission and commission.

The author uses published articles, non-published material, case studies as well as incidences reported in organizations and agencies concerned with the counseling profession to demonstrate how Jews continue to be oppressed under the dynamic of anti-Semitism, inaccurate labeling and stereotyping, and also how many mainstream members of the counseling profession fail to admit that anti-Semitism indeed exists and instead choose to accuse Jews of paranoia.

The article brings into the fore several essential issues that need to be highlighted.

First, it demonstrated how Jews in the counseling profession and beyond have resulted to acts of denial and internalized self-hatred due to the progression of anti-Semitism, which although appearing more secretive, covert and insidious than was the case several decades ago, bears the capacity to influence their self-esteem and positive self-image adversely.

Second, it demonstrates how the anti-Semitism issue continues to show Jews in a negative light as they try to fit into the multicultural counseling movement as members of a unique cultural group.

Third, and perhaps most important, the article shows how the counseling profession has over the years contributed to the problem of anti-Semitism through errors of omission and commission in the professional counseling literature, hence not only posing a serious peril to the delivery of bias-free counseling but also contributing immensely to the continued discrimination and prejudice against the Jews based on the religious beliefs, their group membership, and sometimes on erroneous convictions and beliefs (Weinrach, 2002).

Some of the issues that contribute to the reinforcement of anti-Semitism, according to the author, include non-acknowledgement of Jewish religious holidays in the counseling profession, constant reference and devotion to Jesus by members of the counseling profession in conference proceedings as well as in scholarly literature, constant questioning of the loyalty of Jews to the United States, as well as systematic exclusion of the Jews from multicultural counseling dialogue (Weinrach, 2002).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, not only do some passages in the Bible describe Jews in highly demeaning and derogatory terms, but some scholarly works tend to portray Jewish counselors as generating a high level of suspicion among clients even without noticing that such irrational statements lead to an increase in anti-Semitism.

Such predispositions lead the author to argue that “although we tend to view prejudice, discrimination, racism, sexism as overt and intentional acts of unfairness and violence, it is the unintentional and covert form of bias that may be the greater enemy because they are unseen and more pervasive” (Weinrach, 2002 p. 309).

It is these issues that continue to feed the near-universal failure of the counseling profession to rail against what is perceived as anti-Semitism and instead embrace the conception that Jews are a culturally unique group, with the view to becoming more tolerant of Jews.

Overall, the author implores the counseling profession to adopt various recommendations to correct this problem, including

encouraging Jews to take control of defining their own identity and agenda,

designing and implementing specific interventions that meet the unique needs of Jews,

assisting Jews to confront anti-Semitism and labeling it for what it is,

helping Jews to speak about anti-Semitism in public forums,

exercising caution not to invite any speakers whose focus is religious in nature to address professional meetings and conferences (Weinrach, 2002).

Reference Weinrach, S.G. (2002). The counseling profession’s relationship to Jews and the Issues that concern them. More than a case of selective awareness. Journal of Counseling

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Affirmative Psychotherapy for American Jews Essay (Article) cheap essay help

Affirmative Psychotherapy for American Jews by Schlosser (2006) is an enlightening article that aims to address the issue of oppression among Jewish Americans.

According to the author, psychotherapists have failed to address matters relating to ethnicity, race and culture affecting the Jewish community in America. As a result, Jewish Americans have received inadequate consideration in clinical work and professional literature.

In place of actual understanding or knowledge about American Jews, people tend to rely a lot on suppositions and stereotypes that exist owing to the substantial variability among the Jews.

The article helps the reader to understand the Jewish culture and the American Jews, including effective ways that help to ensure that the Jewish community gets access to culturally harmonious and positive psychotherapy services.

Schlosser (2006) offers guidance that would enable psychotherapists to work effectively with American Jewish clients. For instance, the author provides vital demographic information relating to this community.

He also presents information relating to Jewish culture and Judaism, including the various psychotherapeutic interventions suitable for the Jewish Americans. Psychologists have developed comprehensive interventions that help to address the issue of culture.

These interventions are critical because they enable psychologists to consider the influence that cultural factors have on people. Despite these developments, experts in the field of psychology have not explored the issues of culture, identity and ethnicity affecting Jewish Americans.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, the experts have not documented any studies on the psychotherapeutic interventions that are most suitable for Jewish American clients.

According to Schlosser (2006), Jewish Americans are an ethnic minority because their population represents approximately 2 percent of the total population in America. Recent statistics indicate that there are nearly 12 to 17 million Jews in the world.

Five to six million of the Jewish population lives in America. Jewish Americans also represent a unique cultural group that deserves consideration in the multicultural literature. As the author notes, most Jewish Americans live in large cities such as Chicago and California.

The three cities in America with the highest number of Jews include Los Angeles, Miami and New York. The Jewish people have a history that is both long and rich.

Many people across different parts of the world identify themselves as Jews. Ashkenazim is among the major Jewish ancestries. Other leading ancestries include Sephardim and Mizrachim.

Judaism represents a lot for the Jews. While some Jews view it as a culture and religion, others view it as an embodiment of ethnicity and traditions. Due to their inconceivable diversity, it is impossible to group Jews into a particular demographic class.

Jews have different ways of expressing their identities. In addition, different Jews have different levels of devotion to their law. This means that there is no standardized way of being Jewish.

We will write a custom Article on Affirmative Psychotherapy for American Jews specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, Jews demonstrate wide differences in their practices and holiday observances. Besides, there are notable differences in their ethnic and cultural categorization.

The main issues affecting many Jewish Americans include antisemitism, the Holocaust and the perception of their religion (Schlosser, 2006).

To ensure success in providing affirmative psychotherapy, psychotherapists must strive to increase their awareness of the Jewish people. The psychotherapists must understand the feelings and thoughts that they have regarding the Jews.

In addition, they must deal with any antisemitic perceptions before working with Jewish American patients (Schlosser, 2006). Besides, they have to demonstrate consciousness when asking about Jewish identity.

Likewise, the psychotherapists need to bond with their clients and exercise caution when interpreting their interpersonal suspicions. Furthermore, the psychotherapists should realize that Jews have high regard for insightful conversations and emotional expressions.

Reference Schlosser, L. Z. (2006). Affirmative Psychotherapy for American Jews. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 43 (4), 424-435.

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The Swanston Street Wall Collapse Report college essay help: college essay help

The collapse of the Swanston Street Wall, which resulted in death of three young civilians, has attracted public’s attention as to the possible causes of the tragedy.

According to the Victorian Bureau of Metrology, westerly winds had a speed of over 100km/h, at around 3.00pm, minutes before the wall collapsed (Gough

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Information Technology and Logistics Management Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Abstract Information technology is a factor that no firm can afford to ignore given the wake of globalization. Each firm is going global and management of every sector is not as simple as it used to be in the past.

Moreover, efficiency and effectiveness as regards delivery of services are given much weight than they were given in the past. As far as logistics management is concerned, there has been renewed urge for exceptional performance.

The paper looks at the concept of information technology. It begins by defining what information technology is and goes on to enumerate the components of information technology. Thereafter, it gives the advantages of information technology in logistics management.

Introduction There is virtually no organization that can operate without information systems in the current economic environment, where keeping up with the level of changing technology is a necessity.

A firm can operate efficiently hence reducing costs if a state-of-the-art information system is put in place. Though information needs are different in various organizations, it is a general agreement that all these firms depend on the information system just as a car depends on the engine.

Different sections of an organization have different roles; hence, they require different types of information systems.

Logistics management has proofed to play a key role in cost reduction as well as improving relationships between a firm and its partners in the market, consequently boosting a firm’s competitive advantage.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, information technology has been found to have immense benefits on logistics management.

Information Technology The way businesses operate has highly changed and the necessity of information for the survival of organizations has increased.

Due to advancement in technology, employees of all levels in any organization require smooth flow of information in order to make informed decisions besides measuring their performance.

For this reason, organizations have found it paramount to put in place information systems to monitor the flow of information (Joia, 2003).

An information system not only integrates business processes and computes knowledge for processing and storing, but also facilitates transmission of important information for the decision-making process in the organization.

On the same note, an information system assists in coordination, visualization, control and analysis in an organization.

For an organization to keep up with the changes in the business environment, it must have in place an effective information system function which should be able to come up with new software that matches with the level of technological advancements (Rushton, Oxley

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“Nelson Mandela, Autobiography” Book Synthesis Essay online essay help

Introduction The book titled ‘Mandela: The Authorized bibliography’ was written by Sampson Anthony. The book was published by Knopf Doubleday Publishing group and was copyrighted in 2012, and the exclusive copyright belongs to the writer of the book who is Sampson Anthony.

In his book, the writer talks about Nelson Mandela early childhood life, and the struggle he underwent through until he became the president of the republic of South Africa.

He talks about Mandela’s prison life, education and the fight for independence and freedom in South Africa. He also talks about his release from the prison, and how he led various South Africans to attain independence.

Discussion In his book, the writer portrays Nelson Mandela as having various leadership characteristics and attributes.

The writer discusses several leadership skills and techniques that Mandela applied in order to obtain freedom in South Africa. The leadership styles discussed in the book include the following leadership skills:

Courage is not the absence of fear

Mandela states that most leaders have faced down fear, but it is during times of stress that the mettle of leadership is tested; this means maintaining the momentum in tough times, or, as Mandela explains, sometimes you must “put up a front” (Sampson, 2012).

A leader is that person who takes the initiative and is courageous enough to confront hard situations (Sampson, 2012).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lead from the front

Mandela was always objective about his goals and used all the techniques that could help him achieve the objective it. In all his undertakings, he ensured that he did not leave his base behind. Richard Stengel describes Nelson Mandela as a historical man.

Mandela life in prison shaped his view about the leadership concept, where he viewed leaders as people who should lead by example. Mandela was a fore thinker who projected his thoughts in the future, he focused on the long term objectives and not short term objectives.

Lead from the back

The concept of leading from the back is contradictory from the concept of leading from the front. Mandela states that there come times when a leader has to lead from the back.

Suck an analogy is underpinned by the fact that the same way cattle are led from behind, individuals can also be led from behind too.

Know your enemy

Mandela states that the best way to lead is to know your enemy and identify their strongest and weakest points. Mandela states that understanding your opponent weakest and strongest point will assist an individual to come to a common ground in times of a conflict.

Mandela also points out that communication is also an important aspect in a leader. A leader should communicate effectively and efficiently in order to ensure that leadership is transparent and accountable.

Keep your friends close

Mandela states that another good leadership principle is to put your friends closer, and put your enemies even closer.

We will write a custom Book Review on “Nelson Mandela, Autobiography” Book specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mandela states that, in order for an individual to lead well, there should a distinct boundary for friendship ties. Friendship ties should not in one way or the other influence the decisions a leader makes.

Appearances matter

Mandela states that the appearance of a leader really matters. How a leader present themselves both physically and the verbal approach is important. Leaders should be smart, and should a sense of public opinion that is beyond reproach.

Mandela states that the little things we do greatly define our public image. For example, how we treat other people, how we greet other people are some of the things that define our leadership skills in the public domain.

Nothing is black or white

According to Sampson (2012), Mandela states that, at one point in time, leaders are always presented with two options to choose from. Mandela states that, as a leader, an individual should consider the outcomes of the circumstance and not the tactics to be used in addressing the issue.

To quit is to lead

Mandela states that leaders should always back from poor performing projects. Mandela notes that not all the decisions made by leaders will be successful, and the best way to lead such situations is to take a step backwards (Sampson, 2012).

Mandela notes that, in order to win in some cases, and then leaders must concede to win. The fastest way to win is by taking a step backwards and coming out more energized and goal oriented.

The above leadership qualities and characteristics had nelson Mandela to be one of the greatest leader the world has ever experienced. Mandela was determined and focussed towards achieving a goal, which was that of liberating the South Africans from Apartheid.

He led with wisdom, and always embraced dialogue in time of conflicts. The above leadership skills and techniques also ensured that, Nelson Mandela led by example while, at the same time, ensuring that others follow in the same path as he did.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “Nelson Mandela, Autobiography” Book by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The above leadership skills to large extent helped the former South African leader to economically steer the country through the peaceful co-existence of people belonging to different races. For example, during his release from prison, Mandela gave a press conference regarding his release.

People expected that he would hate the whites who had imprisoned him, but Mandela did not express any hate sentiments towards the whites.

Instead, he embraced dialogue and concession with his enemies. This is evident in the manner the leader made some negotiations with the white to form the South African government.

Major Crisis The major crisis that Nelson Mandela encountered is the problem of solving the crisis that was being experienced in Nigeria. The crisis was caused by the annulment of the Nigeria election in June 1993.

After the annulment of the election, the General Sani Abacha of Nigeria arrested various political leaders and commanded for their execution. Abacha later executed nine political opponents from the ogoni community including the prolific writer, Ken saro-wiwa.

Leadership approach Mandela sought to use the quiet diplomacy method of leadership and solving conflicts.

Mandela sent Archbishop Desmond Tutu, and the deputy president Thabo Mbeki to go to Nigeria and lobby for the release of Obasanjo, and several other people who had been detained by the General Sani Abacha (Sampson, 2012).

The methodology failed, and Mandela was left with the option of lobbying for support from the Commonwealth of Nations.

As a leader, the situation could have been handled by lobbying for the international criminal court to arrest and issue a warranty of arrest for the General Sani Abacha for political crimes and human rights abuses.

Conclusion In conclusion, the above leadership skills, techniques and methods are good and will always make individuals to be good leaders. However, in order to effectively be a good leader, an individual should use the appropriate leadership technique in the appropriate environment.

Reference List Sampson, A. (2012). Mandela: The authorized Biography. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.

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Ethical Issues in Supervision of Postgraduate Research Students Problem Solution Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Ethical Issues

How to Resolve the Ethical Issues

Conclusion

References

Introduction High quality postgraduate education is integral to the creation of an even more highly skilled workforce that will enable the country to maintain its competitive edge in an increasingly competitive world.

Research is the cornerstone of most postgraduate studies and the supervisory relationship between the doctoral student and supervisor is crucial to the success of the research project.

Chapman and Sork (2001) observe that the supervisory relationship is “at the heart of the institutional and interpersonal structures that make up graduate education” (p.94).

Through effective supervision, the postgraduate student is able to come up with good research that adds to the knowledge base in the discipline and also offers practical solutions.

A major issue raised concerning the quality and standards in postgraduate education is with regard to supervision of postgraduate research students.

The paper engages with ethical issues relating to the research environment in which postgraduate students operate. It then proceeds to offer solutions to resolve these issues or limit their impact.

Ethical Issues There are a number of inherent ethical issues in the supervision of postgraduate research student. Many candidates have one individual supervisor with whom they predominantly interact during the course of their research.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The intense intellectual connection and partnership between the two as they work through the research becomes an intensely personal one.

Manathunga and Justine (2007) observe that supervisors take an active mentoring role and they provide technical as well as emotional support for the student.

Brew and Tai (2004) contend that such a close relationship might compromise the professional nature of the ideal student-supervisor relationship.

The situation is complicated by the fact that a good personal relationship between the research student and the supervisor is desirable since it leads to an increased productivity of the project.

The issue, therefore, is how to maintain a good relationship for the sake of productivity without compromising the professional integrity of the supervisor-student connection.

A deep friendship might constitute a conflict of interest since the supervisor will not be able to maintain the professional distance that is necessary to ensure that the student carries out the research on his or her own with the guidance of the supervisor.

The student might become too reliant on the supervisor that they do not exhibit their own creativity or thought through the research work. In such a case, the student will emerge from the research process with little self-efficacy (Manathunga

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Business Plan Competitions Report scholarship essay help

Business plan competitions began in the U.S. universities during the early 1980s. Since then, the programs have been initiated in several universities around the globe.

Business plan competitions are organized with the aim of encouraging development of new business enterprises, expanding local economies and encouraging cultural change. Business plan competitions generate a lot of funding from investors and well-wishers.

As a result, the competitions are highly valued by the students and those involved. In the U.S.A, business plan contests are so competitive that they attract students from all over the world.

Currently, most of the programs’ sponsors and critics have questioned whether these contests are really worth the funding they receive.

After analyzing the effects of business plan competitions on the organizers, community and the participants, it is with no doubt that, the events are very valuable.

From my analysis, I noted that the contests provide opportunities for students to improve their entrepreneurial skills and knowledge.

Similarly, students involved in the competition are provided with opportunities to generate new ideas, increase their self-esteem, access to business advisers and network.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most of the students who have been involved in the contests suggest that the programs have enabled them to learn entrepreneurship skills and knowledge through practice and criticism.

Through the programs, the sponsors aim at increasing revenues, raising profits, support recruiting efforts, and motivate their companies to focus on innovations. It is supposed that through these competitions, financiers and entrepreneurs are challenged to implement on new projects.

Similarly, most companies associated with the competition programs have improved their corporate image. In addition, through these events, most companies, financiers, have helped students implement their business and projects, consequently helping them generate profits.

By doing so, the companies involved have not only remained competitive but also attracted and retained the best talents in the markets. Researchers have indicated that business plan competitions have clearly set goals. The organizers must outline their programs’ objectives.

By doing so, they will be able to manage financiers and participants expectations. To accomplish this, the competition’s goals must identify what the organizers anticipate from the participants during and after the competition.

Equally, the competition’s goals must indicate how the event will benefit the participants. In this note, organizers are encouraged to set goals that will enhance participants’ careers.

Similarly, investors, entrepreneurs and organizers should be encouraged to host more competitions to enhance innovation and entrepreneurship.

We will write a custom Report on Business Plan Competitions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To measure the competitions’ returns, several metrics can be employed. Although the metrics employed to provide the organizers with valuable information, it should be noted that these metrics alone provide insufficient information.

The most popular metrics employed are returned on investment metrics and organizational metrics. Through return on investment metrics, financial returns and resource investments are correlated and analyzed.

Return investment metrics help the organizers to evaluate how the entrepreneurs’ ventures are performing, and through this, they can justify the importance of their competitions.

Alternatively, organizational metrics provide the organizers with valuable information on how the funded companies’ plans are geared towards sustainable innovations.

Despite the numerous benefits of modern business plan competition, it should be known that the current model plans would be faced with numerous challenges in the near future. Over the last 5 years, several intellects have criticized on the programs objectives.

Critics believe that the events’ motives have shifted from enhancing innovation programs to being profit ventures.

Equally, it has been alleged that the events have majored on encouraging the participants to develop winning plans rather than teaching them relevant techniques for use in the implementation of their business ideas.

Due to these challenges, I advise the events’ organizers to adopt modern contemporary business plans as the popularity of their models dwindles yearly. In this regard, I have proposed a business model plan for the competitions, which the event organizers can adopt.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Plan Competitions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through this model, participants would be measured by how best they will implement their business ideas in the field, rather than how best they will write their business plan.

In my model, participants would earn points based on their business plan, source of hypotheses, objectives, lessons, and productivity. Contrary to the current models, business plans would carry the least marks during the evaluation process.

Participants with comprehensible hypotheses, objectives, and outputs will earn more marks than those without. Through this, I am certain that students will have a competition that is more practical, rather than theoretical writing exercise.

Through my competition program, the winning participants will receive cash prices ($100,000), media exposure, and capital for their startup business.

To ensure that the competition will sustain itself in the future, I would seek funding from several companies who have lost hope in the current models of business plan competitions.

Before the program is launched, we will publicize our competition through the media houses, students’ journals and through the social media.

Through this, we will not only attract numerous participants, but also sensitize the current learning institutions on the importance of adopting the contemporary models.

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Job’s Friends and Their Contributions to the Message of Job Critical Essay best college essay help

Introduction The Book of Job has been one of the most controversial parts of Bible. Many preachers find it difficult to talk about Job’s message with their congregation as the book touches upon some of the most serious and difficult issues concerning the faith.

Some regard The Book of Job as a literary masterpiece where wisdom of the nation was revealed.1 Admittedly, the book is seen as one of the brightest examples of the “book of wisdom”.2 The book contains the eternal questions of people concerning suffering.

The story of Job is a didactic illustration of God’s almightiness. However, it is possible to note that the story itself is an axiom to be taken for granted whereas the dialogues of Job’s friends can be and should be considered in detail.

The dialogues manifest people’s eternal hesitations and quest for the reason. Notably, speeches of Job’s friends can be regarded as an example of the discourse that has not finished yet.

The discourse is confined to questions raised (which are revealed in speeches of Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar) and answers provided (these answers can be found in Elihu’s speech).

The Two Views First, it is necessary to note that Job as well as his friends remains unaware of the reason of Job’s sufferings. They never knew why Job had to suffer.3 This is a very important point as it perfectly reveals the concept of faith. People cannot be sure in anything concerning faith.

They have not found the reason yet. Likewise, Job’s friends and Job do not know why Job has to suffer. Noteworthy, they try to find a particular reason.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Job’s friends and even Job himself “all shared a basic traditional sense of divine justice without which the whole moral nature of the universe would be upended”.4 However, there is no particular answer to their major question at the end of the book.

Even though Elihu and Job are praised for their rightfulness, it is not explicitly stated that they were right in their views on the universal justice. God does not reveal the reason of Job’s suffering to Job and his friends.

The book simply depicts a particular example, i.e. Job’s sufferings which can hardly be justified. The book also contains a dominating view on suffering, i.e. suffering can only be certain punishment for misdeeds.5 The book also contains another view on the matter.

It is suggested that people should not think about reasons and causes and just to accept anything the universe has to offer. Importantly, God supports one of these views as revealed in the book.

However, The Book of Job does not contain a precise answer but just reveals people’s views on suffering and universal justice.

One (Dominating) Opinion Eliphaz

As has been mentioned above, Job’s friends have a very specific and important role in the book as they represent two opposing views on faith.

First, the role of Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar should be considered. The three friends are sure that the basic law is based on moral principles which are persistent in the society, i.e. any wrongdoing should be punished and righteous deeds should be rewarded.

We will write a custom Essay on Job’s Friends and Their Contributions to the Message of Job specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, the three friends deem that Job sinned since he is punished.6 Eliphaz exclaims, “Who ever perished being innocent? / Or where the upright destroyed”7. Eliphaz believes that people cannot be sinless as everyone sins.

Bildad

The three friends are sure there must be some hidden sins. Thus, Bildad notes that Job’s children died because they were sinful, and their death is their punishment.

Bildad also rebukes Job for being too verbose, “How long until you make an end of words? / Be sensible and then we can speak”8. Bildad claims that his verbosity can be nothing but evidence of Job’s guilt.9

Therefore, the three friends try to convince Job to confess and tell about his hidden sin. Noteworthy, the three friends cannot understand what sin Job committed as his life does seem rightful.

Zophar

It is important to note that the three friends appear from the start of the book. Their speeches make up a considerable part of the book. Thus, Eliphaz and Bildad speak three times and Zophar speaks twice.10

The role the three friends play in the book is a certain reflection of the dominating view on the nature of suffering. Most people still think that suffering is certain punishment for some sins. Most people (just like the three friends) think that there is supreme justice.

It is also noteworthy that Zophar wishes that God “would… open [God’s] lips to” Job to tell him “the secrets of wisdom”.11 The three friends strive to know the major secret.

They want to have a specific explanation and justification of suffering. Again, this is a reflection of people’s quest for the reason.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Job’s Friends and Their Contributions to the Message of Job by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Elihu’s Opinion

As far as the fourth friend of Job is concerned, he appears at the end of the book. Elihu is not introduced with other friends at the beginning of the book. He stands out, just like his opinion does. Elihu supports the viewpoint of Job’s friends as for the universal justice.

He stresses that God is always just in every of his deeds.12 However, Elihu’s idea of suffering differs greatly from Job’s friends’ opinions. Elihu claims that suffering is not only a form of punishment, but it can be preventive in nature.

Thus, Elihu states that Job’s suffering is certain kind of precautions to keep him from sins. Elihu notes that the suffering helps people to remain rightful.13 Elihu claims that God “opens their [people’s] ears, / and terrifies them with warnings, /… to spare their souls from the Pit”.14

Therefore, the man notes that people cannot understand the secrets of God’s wisdom even if God explicitly reveals the secrets.

According to Elihu, people should accept anything God prepares for them. People should never even consider their destiny or fate. They should live their lives and accept everything: joy and suffering.

Notably, Elihu reveals another opinion which has never been popular among people. It is necessary to take a closer look at Elihu as a character. He is the youngest. This can be a symbol of the ‘age’ of the idea. Apparently, the idea was quite new when the book was being written.

At that, Elihu appears at the end of the book and he only speaks once.15 This can be a symbol of unpopularity of the idea.

Admittedly, there have always been a few people who share such an opinion. A few people have been ready to accept everything the life has to suggest without any questions or complaints.

Noteworthy, Elihu is a humble speaker as he listens to Job and Job’s friends without interrupting, “I am young in years, / and you are aged; / therefore I was timid and afraid / to declare my opinion to you”.16

Elihu’s opinion is not very popular and it is presented in a very humble way. At the same time, this opinion is presented as the right one as God praises Elihu for being so rightful.

Conclusion It is possible to note that Job’s friends play a significant role in the book as Job is only an example to consider while the friends analyze the example. This analysis is a reflection of major opinions on suffering and God’s justice.

Thus, Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar represent the dominating viewpoint on the matter. These men claim that suffering is certain punishment for people’s sins.

They also strive to understand the secrets of God’s wisdom. Admittedly, all people want to understand the reason for everything happens to them.

At the same time, Elihu also thinks that there is universal justice. However, Elihu’s concept of justice is somewhat different as he thinks that suffering should not be necessarily a form of punishment as it can be certain prevention.

Elihu also claims that people should not try to understand why something is happening as people are not capable of understanding God’s wisdom. This viewpoint does exist, but it is not widespread.

Therefore, Job’s friends’ discussion is a reflection of the views that have existed in the Christian world. The discussion of Job’s friends is what provides theological background to consider Job’s sufferings as a particular example of God’s justice and wisdom.

Bibliography Dell, Katharine Julia. The Book of Job as Sceptical Literature. New York, NY: Walter de Gruyter, 1991.

Hartley, John E. The Book of Job. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1988.

La Sor, William Sanford, David Allan Hubbard, Frederic William Bush, Leslie C. Allen. Old Testament Survey: The Message, Form, and Background of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1996.

Parsons, Gregory W. “Guidelines for Understanding and Proclaiming the Book of Job.” Bibliotheca Sacra 151 (1994): 393-413.

Parsons, Gregory W. “The Structure and Purpose of the Book of Job.” Bibliotheca Sacra 138, no. 550 (1981): 139-157.

Phillips, Elaine A. “Speaking Truthfully: Job’s Friends and Job.” Bulletin for Biblical Research 18, no.1 (2008): 31-43.

Rhodes, Arnold B.

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Managers and Subordinates Interaction Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

It is the responsibility of managers (in an organisation) to create mutual respect and trust with subordinates. Managers ought to interact directly with subordinates. This enables them know how subordinates feel when designated certain work and responsibilities in the organisation.

This is because they will share freely the challenges in the workplace. Furthermore, the organisation should embrace collaborative team efforts, which make all employees work together in harmony.

All managers should have an elevator speech to give other employees in the organisation every morning before beginning schedule. They should communicate this message in a bid to boost the working morale of employees.

Managers should create allies who will be vital points of influence to others, in the organisation. In addition, top management has to prepare financial gains and targets for their employees in order to increase enthusiasm in the task to be performed.

Managers should inhibit good behaviour that will heighten the motivational perspective of their subjects. The extra role or behaviour can be passed down to subordinates to give them the urge to be successful and rise in the job title.

As a result, most employees will work hard to ensure that the organisation meets its goals and mission. The employees should uphold the commitment of both organisation and profession.

By realising these two commitments, employees will work with comfort towards achieving any set goals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Managers should encourage employees to identify themselves with the goals and objectives of the organisation. Employees should at all time hold pride and defend the organisation’s mission and values. The manager should also encourage long term membership for the employees.

This loyalty program should have benefits such as retirement pension, life time health insurance among others. This is very crucial for the success of any organization. Long term membership can also be achieved through positive exchanges between the organisation and employees.

Whenever individuals become dissatisfied with the organisation, the employee will continue to stick with the organisation due to the mutual and beneficial relationship built between them. In addition, managers should use two most appropriate strategies for building commitment.

These approaches are; control approach, where the human resource minimises direct labour by enforcing compliance to all employees through specified rules and procedures for each task. The department should also have a reward system for the best performing employees.

The second approach is a commitment approach, where the human resource department forges a psychological link between organisational goals and employees’ personal goals.

The environment at the workplace should be conducive and favourable for employees’ productivity. Managers should ensure that the policies put up by the organisation holds employees accountable to the success of the organisation.

They should enforce basic rules that do not push employees over the edge, or make it hostile for them to work. Managers should also promote efficiency in task management through intrinsic and extrinsic task motivation.

We will write a custom Essay on Managers and Subordinates Interaction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In conclusion, a manager should demonstrate high levels of commitment towards the employees’ efforts as well as acknowledge them. Employees will always follow the steps of the manager. This makes them a role model in the working environment.

With exemplary leadership, employees will always stay committed to the organisation. This magnifies the output of the employees in terms of performance. Managers should hold appraisal for the most hardworking employees to increase competition and efficiency in the work place.

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Values in Workplace Essay essay help online

Work is the place where people spend most of their time. Coming there early in the morning and leaving late in the evening, many people work at night and spend weekends there trying to achieve results.

Work is the way to become financially independent and successful for many people, others consider work as the way to enjoy the things they like.

Anyway, different people have various values in the workplace. As for me, I consider motivation, result and healthy environment in the workplace as the greatest values. I can easily explain why I have such belief.

Motivation should be one of the strongest values in the company.

I am inclined to think that if people are not motivated accordingly, their working performance becomes lower, they fail some tasks, clients are dissatisfied and it brings to many specific problems which create additional complications for the company in the means of gaining profit.

Highly motivated employees work better. They have better mood and all the work they perform they do with pleasure.

There are different ways how employees may be motivated, financially, by career development, by means of the personal growth, and other specific conditions aimed at satisfying the employees’ needs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, motivating employees, it is possible to achieve better work performance and higher efficiency for the company.

Result is another value which is to be considered. The desire to achieve result should be the primary purpose in the company. Working either individually or in team employees should spend much time on planning the possible outcome of the performance and working on the goal achievement.

Result should be valued for many reasons. First of all, this is the main condition for getting income; second, result is the last stage of the task performance which is important. Employees should see what they have achieved. Third, result is one of the main measures of the working performance.

It helps understand the efficiency of the working process, the competence of the employees and their interest in the work. Bringing value on a result, the employees show their interest in the company success.

Finally, the healthy environment in the company should be highly valued.

The healthy environment involves many specific measures and conditions aimed at achieving the only result, at making sure that all the employees are satisfied with the work and with the people they are surrounded with and at reducing negative feelings.

The value of the healthy environment at the workplace shows that the company managers take care of their employees and want to make sure that the conflicts are absent.

We will write a custom Essay on Values in Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The companies with unhealthy working environment have many difficulties in work performance and result achieving. Healthy environment covers supportive relationships, successful ethical norms and legal behavior in the company.

Therefore, it may be concluded that having various values, I highly appreciate the companies which appraise motivation, result and healthy environment at the workplace.

Being the central values for the company, these issues help successfully complete the working process, develop personally and professionally and remain satisfied with the work which are the most important aspects in the rush and highly depressive world we have to live in.

Spending much time in the working place, it is essential to be satisfied with what one does as it is going to influence human condition and life performance.

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The 2008 Financial Crisis Analytical Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

The housing and monetary policies are the key causes of the 2008 economic crisis. Two main mortgage firms, the Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac Corporation eased the credit requirements on loans it purchased from lending institutions. In September 2008, the two giant mortgage companies faced the danger of bankruptcy as they had guaranteed close to half of the total mortgages in the US.

The Clinton administration came up with the idea of making poor citizens and low-income consumers own homes. As a result, banks were under pressure to lend to minorities and low-income consumers who even had no security for the loans (White par. 1). Notably, some of the borrowers who accessed the sub-prime loans had poor credit ratings, did not make down payments for homes, and had no verifiable assets.

So misguided were the housing policies that unqualified borrowers could access mortgages with the support of the federal government. After the banks and other lending institutions had loaned the low-income earners, the prices of houses peaked and turned down completely. At this point, borrowers who had inadequate capital compared to their debt started to default the repayment of mortgages (FRONTLINE).

Notably, these categories of borrowers were propelled to borrow with the hope of increased prices of houses in the future to repay the mortgages or sell their properties at high prices. This was not to be as prices of essential products went down too. The occurrence led to rise in the number of defaulters on nonprime-mortgages.

The increased numbers of toxic mortgages made investment banks lose trillion of dollars. The rest of the Wall Street felt the effect with Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke making critical moves to salvage the Bear Stearns Investment Bank, which had remained the subject of rumours that it would be falling soon.

Bear Stearns’s stock had slumped to a low of $57 from $171 thus making it clear that something had to be done to contain the situation. The then Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson had to try out different approaches to rescue the entire financial market from the crisis. At one instance, he persuaded the federal government to provide the Treasury with $700 billion for buying the high-risk mortgage securities.

Rumours in the financial market are fears that market players have towards operations of a firm. For instance, market manipulators and short sellers can spread false information about the nature and operations of a company. The financial market deals in monetary issues and some of the institutions include Bear Stearns Bank, AIG Insurance Company, Lehman Brothers and Fannie Mae Corporation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bear’s chief executive, Alan Schwartz blamed falsehood on the loss of liquidity of $10 billion in one working day (“Bank Chief Blames Rumours for Bear’s Collapse” par. 4). This happened as customers, trading partners, and investors fled after listening to rumours and market manipulation from competitors.

However, JP Morgan Bank salvaged Bear from collapsing after the Federal Reserve accepted to stand behind the institution with $30 billion of public funds. So intense was the crisis that the failure of Bear almost led to the collapse of the entire financial market. Clearly, from the occurrence of the 2008 financial crisis, rumours can be detrimental especially if they are false.

Moral hazard is a situation where a party to a deal becomes dishonest as per the terms and conditions of the deal. In the case of assisting Bear not to go out of business, JP Morgan had a deal with Bear to buy the institution at $2 per share; however, mass outrage from shareholders made the firm raise the price to $10 per share. The initial price of $2 per share was meant to avoid scenarios of rewarding investors in a failed business.

The principle prevents a situation where firms, which have been responsible for their downfall, receive financial support from the federal government. On the other hand, systematic risk entails the fall of an entire market. The fall of Bear Sterns followed by the collapse of the giant mortgage firms of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac Corporation and finally Lehman Brothers Investment Bank, represents a clear example of systematic risk in the entire financial market (Moseley par. 8).

Critics argue that moral hazard promotes systematic risk as it can encourage other firms to engage in malpractices with the aim of receiving aid from the Federal Reserve. The 2008 financial crisis made policy makers alter their opinions on free trade. Firstly, they agreed that the rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO) are inadequate to the current dynamic and global economy.

As a result, policy makers in both government and private institutions prefer regional free trade agreements as a way of making up for rules that have been missing in the multilateral trade option. With the Doha negotiation in force, multilateral trading system is losing its relevance in the international trade (United Nations).

The financial crisis revealed that the state of overdependence on one nation by developing nations is extremely dangerous for the current global, dynamic, and unpredictable economy.

We will write a custom Essay on The 2008 Financial Crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Bank Chief Blames Rumours for Bear’s Collapse. Mailguardian. Mail

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New Ways of Marketing Real Estate Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction The world today has shrunk into a global village courtesy of the unprecedented advancement in technology. Global companies, notwithstanding their physical location, have made inroads into markets that were hitherto considered as no-go zones. The real estate industry, as part of the global business fraternity, is not an exception to these spiraling trends.

The industry was temporarily, but adversely affected by the global economic recession witnessed in the year 2008; however, it is currently recovering. This trend is attributed to the adoption of desirable marketing practices by the industry players. The focus of this research paper is to investigate the new marketing techniques used in the real estate industry.

In order to achieve this task, it is necessary to get a clear concept of the terms under discussion in the paper. The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines marketing as, “the process of planning and executing the conception, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchange and satisfy individual and organizational objectives” (Gronroos, 1989, p.52).

The paper shall adopt this definition. Rostowicz coined an easy to understand the definition of marketing from which he developed a definition of marketing real estate. According to him, it is “a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through offering and exchanging land and creating, offering, and exchanging buildings directly and indirectly to others” (Rostowicz, 2001, p. 21).

This definition shall be applicable in the context of this paper. A plethora of marketing techniques exists out there courtesy of numerous studies that have been conducted in this area. Studies show that marketing, as a field, has drawn a lot of interest from scholars globally.

The changing face of marketing, as a concept both in the real estate industry and beyond, can be attributed to the dynamic nature of the social and economic conditions of people as well as their needs. A key concept of the marketing theory is that human beings need, want, and demand some products (Bailey et al., 2009).

This concept, when applied to the real estate industry, helps in understanding the fact that one will always need a place to stay, work, and recreate. In addition to this assertion, based on the varied tastes and preferences of different people, everyone will want something that satisfies his/her specific aesthetic orientations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Marketers have been striving to meet and exceed the expectations of their clients. In the real estate industry, there exist conventional ways, which were applied in the past, but are rapidly being overtaken by time and events. Therefore, marketers have been inevitably forced to depart from these old ways to stay relevant in the industry or be abreast of competition from other industry players.

This aspect suggests that many new techniques have been introduced into marketing to serve the current generation adequately. Gronroos seems to agree with this position when he notes, “… old walls dividing what marketing is from what it is not have been torn down” (1989, p.54). Existing literature attests to the fact that currently, there are new techniques of marketing in the real estate industry. This paper shall thus proceed to consider these new techniques.

New Techniques in Real Estate Marketing The Internet is currently touted as one of the largest marketing tools in the contemporary business environment. In addition to this, the exponential growth so far witnessed insofar as its expansion and popularity are concerned evidently suggests that it might be the most important marketing tool in the future (Rostowicz, 2001). This assertion holds because the Internet features prominently as a platform for new marketing strategies. Some of the new marketing strategies include the following among others:

Marketing on the World Wide Web The World Wide Web or simply the Internet has become a vital platform on, which marketing can take place due to the numerous changes that have taken place in the attitudes and lifestyles of people around the globe (Diwan

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The Disney Difference Strategy Essay college admissions essay help

Disney difference refers to a high class innovative strategy that aims at optimizing the value of contents in markets and other business platforms. It is backed by the relevant strategies that will see the Disney Company reap high profits from selling its literature. The whole business strategy employs great ideas that are profit oriented.

Disney Company uses the Disney difference to ensure that its products are unique and of a high quality. The videos and books produced and introduced to the market by Disney Company are highly valued by the buyers due to the employment of the Disney difference. This way the corporate image is enhanced in the market and almost the whole market remains glued to the Disney products.

Thus, Disney Company ends up having the largest market share. The company can charge higher prices on their products and their customers will not complain but they will even be willing to purchase more of those items as they are the best in the market. The growth of Disney as a corporate body will be at a high rate due to the huge profits generated from the large market share associated with the company.

The uniqueness of the arts brought about by the Disney difference puts them at the top of a very competitive market. Most of their competitors tend to produce normal entertainment items that have nothing new and unique while Disney does all that it can to produce unique items. This ensures that Disney Company does not suffer from the strong competitive forces in the market.

Disney remains highly regarded in the market. The Disney difference strategy is one of the best strategies that if guarded well by the management will see the company rise to greater heights of success. The language barrier is one of the major problems that Disney Company is likely to face as a result of introducing the business in China and Russia.

As a matter of fact, most of the inhabitants of China and Russia do not speak English while Disney Company produces and sells most of the entertainment items in English language. It will be difficult to convince non English speakers to buy English literature. To counter this challenge, Disney can engage its personnel and some few inhabitants of the two places in translating the videos and books to the native languages of the two places.

This way most of the occupants of the two places will understand the literature and purchase it, otherwise the business will hit a snag. Management is another major challenge that the company is likely to face as a result of introducing business in China and Russia.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The business will have expanded and the managerial team will have to do more work. Hence, the company will be forced to employ more managers to curb this problem. The new managers should be vetted to ensure they are highly skilled and should then be distributed to the new business places with at least an old manager to be their supervisor.

It means that Iger views himself as the person who introduced the Disney difference policy that led to a major comeback of the Disney Company to the entertainment sector. Yes, it is part of being a strategic leader as it sets precedence for the junior managers and those to come after him.

They will always try to match his shoe and that way they will formulate better policies, evaluate the effectiveness of those policies and see them implemented to the letter. This way the Disney Company will always remain at the top.

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The Great Gatsby by Scott Fitzgerald Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Scott Fitzgerald’s 1925 novel “The Great Gatsby” is a revelation of the negative impacts of a rapidly growing economy on the society. Specifically, it shows the negative impact of wealth on the lives of the main beneficiaries of the economic growth (Bruccoli 32). Fitzgerald attempts to show how a explosion of economic activities with enormous profits destroys the lives of the beneficiaries as they try to find their dream.

With a reflection of American’s search for an American dream with wealth and quality life, Fitzgerald portrays the corrupt society of the New York business elite as they experienced booming business in the early and mid 20th century (Bruccoli 61). In the novel, the fictional village of West Egg is perhaps one of the key items that symbolize the life of the new millionaires in the city.

In Fitzgerald’s storyline, the village of West Egg appears repeatedly in the novel and is the main scene of action. The village if first introduced to the reader when, in summer of 1922, Nick Carraway, the main character, arrives in New York from the Midwest. Carraway (Nick), a Young graduate of Yale and a veteran of the First World War, is probably in search of his American dream (Fitzgerald 12).

Apparently, the American dream is based on individualism and thirst for wealth and fame and is most likely to be realized in the city’s booming business. Therefore, he rents a small house in the village of West Egg, located on Long Island, from where he hopes to benefit from the city’s trade in bonds (Bruccoli 143).

Further Research When and Why Did Gatsby Change His Name? 4.4 820 Which Excerpt from The Great Gatsby is the Best Example of Foreshadowing? 5 86 What Does Gatsby Want from Daisy in Chapter 6? 5 48 How Does Nick Describe Himself at the Beginning of The Great Gatsby? 5 70 Who Attended Gatsby’s Funeral? 5 93 Which excerpt from The Great Gatsby best indicates that Nick is not fully content with his life? 5 48 West Egg is the home of the city’s upcoming millionaires, with lavish homes. An example is the house owned by Jay Gatsby. Like Nick, Gatsby is also in search of his American dream. Unlike Nick, Gatsby is involved in illegal business (Fitzgerald 88).

It is evident that West Egg hosts all kinds of people, provided they have money to purchase or rent the luxurious houses. However, unlike the East Egg, the upcoming village is home to newcomers in the city’s business. Therefore, it attracts all kinds of people who are seeking to enjoy the lucrative business.

The Wes Egg also appears several times in the novel because it is a symbol of love and romance among the new millionaires in the city. It is evident that this community is composed of the person from different parts of the US and the world, who settles there as they seek their American dream.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, Nick is from the Midwest, Jay Gatsby is from Dakota and Wolfshiem is a Jew (Fitzgerald 124). In fact, the story reveals that the majority of the people in the Long Island are immigrants from other regions. Apart from business, the residents are deeply engrossed in the search for love and romance. The actions of some male residents such as partying and driving luxury vehicles indicate their desire to attract beautiful women.

In addition, most of them are involved in more than one relationship. Fitzgerald attempts to use the city as a symbol of the decline of the American dream in the 1920s as residents involve themselves in illicit sexual relationships that even caused death as indicated in the death of Gatsby (Fitzgerald 172).

In the modern context, readers can visualize the village in relationship to the historical rise and decline of the American dream. Using the West Egg as a model, the reader can see the impacts of a sudden economic burst on the lives of the beneficiaries. For instance, excessive business opportunities, whether legal or illegal, are likely to demoralize young people, especially due to drugs and illicit sex.

Works Cited Bruccoli, Matthew. F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby: A Literary Reference. New York: Carroll

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Shoe Corporation of Illinois Report college admission essay help

Table of Contents Relevant facts

Problem definition

Critical analysis of the problem

Recommendations

Works Cited

Relevant facts The company manufactures low price ladies’ shoes that change its styles frequently in order to have an advantage of the flexibility associated with a small firm. The change in style of the company’s products is to meet the ever changing customer preferences for shoes. However, conflict in the organization is a must thing due to the nature of the decision making process.

In this regard, the flow and pattern of doing work require re-examination and adjustment to achieve the required efficiency. The profitability of the company per shoe has been declining over the years. The company has different line of products enabling it provide 100 to 200 shades of products in its two factories.

Problem definition The major problem is the management leadership style and the decision making process which fails to advocate for use of technology, lack of horizontal management style in the structure, failure to meet the emerging needs of the customers in the ever changing market due to poor channels of communication, there is a lot of interdepartmental conflict which delays the process of decision making and poor penetration of technological development due to resistance from employees, The external environment poses another problem as it is unstable calling for proactive measures.

Critical analysis of the problem The organization structure of Shoe Corporation of Illinois (SCI) is characterized by functioning departments. “Large shoe houses hold the market for “stable” shoe market because of economies of scale, SCI offers trendy styles and their organization structure allows for them to be flexible for this” (Child 2008, p. 48). The environment in which SCI operates is so polarized that it leads to conflict between managers.

In the recent past, a new department headed by Olsen was established to cool down the friction between the employees. The e-commerce department did not yield the required results since the employees resisted any change in the organization and they are reluctant in adopting new technology.

The e-commerce was meant to ease communication between the employees through the use of the intranet as well as improving internet sales. As Olsen came to learn, this never happened as the process of designing new styles remained unchanged since 1980’s. Olsen was of the opinion that the improved technology was efficient in communication and creating effective product awareness while at the same time decreasing delivery and manufacturing times.

SCI has all along used obsolete methods when it came to making decisions on new styles and there have been confusing manufacturing procedures. “According to Allison, the average time from design to the pilot run is too long but could be reduced and there is too much conflict in the styling phase” (Child 2008, p. 98).Allison is involved in many departments.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His involvement in many departments leads to work overload which in essence is counterproductive. For example, there have been major delays in the approval of styles due to his bad judgment as a result of over involvement. Another problem on management is failure to honor its promise to employees. According to Lawson, an employee deserves motivation such as pay rise and bonuses if he has worked for the company for long.

This is because he will have gained experience like what Flynn has done. He was promised a pay rise in the previous year which he never received up to date. There has been lack of autonomy to employees as pointed out by Flynn. There is lack of motivation which leads to job dissatisfaction since there is no creativity.

Flynn would like to have more autonomy in the design of new styles but Lawson believes that the status quo must be maintained and that the process currently being used is the proven process. Also the design division has lacked autonomy in the process of finalizing their designs.

“The other problem on management and decision making is seen when Ferguson is bypassed in the process of maintaining historical statistics on shipments which subsequently leads to delay and ambiguity” (Child 2008, p. 50). The assistant to the superintendent of the Centerville plant has a friction with the manager of the styling department. There has been a communication breakdown and a misunderstanding between the two departments.

Recommendations “The production process should be streamlined. This would be achieved by dividing the production department into two units that would work simultaneously to reduce the workload in the division during changes in style of the product” (Child 2008, p. 101). The outcome is that efficiency will be enhanced which will guarantee sufficient supplies.

SCI should develop and introduce an Enterprise Resource Planning System (ERPS) system. It can be observed that, the process from the time Research and Development is instituted to the time the final sale is done is too complex. This should be broken down onto a platform that would help in capturing and recording tasks and generate reports that would be used to improve performance.

The ERPS would be efficient in harmonizing the intricate and mutually supporting workflow. This would be achieved by centralizing all the information concerned with product design between Lawson, Richards, Flynn; processing orders from the sales representative and production role between Robbins and Lawson.

We will write a custom Report on Shoe Corporation of Illinois specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There should be a committee that would act as an arbitrator with full representation from all the departments, that is, production and styling divisions. This would help remove differences and facilitate smooth running of the company. The structure of the organization should also be restructured with top managers overseeing the processes in the organization.

Works Cited Child, John. Organization: A Guide To Problems and Practice. New York: SAGE, 2008. Print.

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Tunnel Design and Cunstruction Exploratory Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Underwater Tunnels

Tunnel Construction Methods

The Mersey Tunnel

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Tunnels refer to any enclosed passageway. Usually, tunnels pass underground to bypass natural barriers and to reduce the cost and impact of aboveground construction. This paper looks at various aspects concerning tunnel construction. The main issues of interest include the construction of underwater tunnels, construction of tunnels in soft soils, and the examination of tunnel construction methods.

Underwater Tunnels The need to construct tunnels underwater arises from several situations. First, it may make more sense to construct a tunnel under a large river, or the sea instead of a bridge to avoid interfering with marine traffic. For instance, instead of constructing a bridge to link the mainland to an island, it may be better to construct a tunnel to avoid interrupting marine traffic around the island.

Underwater tunnels may be constructed to provide a means of crossing a river. In this case, a bridge may be ruled out because of costs, especially of the river serves as a waterway. In addition, undersea tunnels are ideal where ferries are impractical or impossible to use. Sea canals mainly provide access to large islands or join two main bodies of land separated by a sea.

Underwater tunnels are also ideal because they do not require closure during bad weather. Bridges or ferries, on the other hand, cannot operate full time because they are affected by bad weather. Underwater tunnels are challenging to construct depending in the depth of the water and the length of the required tunnel.

Usually underwater tunnels do not run on the bed of the waterway, but below the bed of the water body. Construction of a tunnel on the bed of the water body adds more challenges to the tunnel construction process.

Tunnel Construction Methods One of the important decisions that engineers must make in the tunnel design process is the construction methods that they will use. Construction of structures on the surface of the land does not compare to the complexities of tunnel construction. Tunnel construction usually takes place underground. A long tunnel usually has more complexities if the geological landscape changes very much.

However, even in areas with uniform geological make up, the local rock and soil characteristics can affect the construction of tunnels. Engineers usually use four tunnel construction methods. Factors affecting the choice of the tunnel construction methods are as follows:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More First, the depth of the tunnel is one of the main issues of concern. Shallow tunnels built within cities to serve as aqueducts or as underground highways allow engineers to use trenches. If the tunnel needs to pass under a water body or through a hill, the engineers will favor methods that allow them to bore a hole in the rock mass.

Secondly, the construction methods will depend on the purpose of the tunnel. Tunnels used for transporting water and sewerage, or for laying communication cables may only be a few feet in diameter. However, if a tunnel is needed to provide a transport path for a freeway, the construction methods will vary from the smaller tunnels.

The third issues engineers bear in mind when deciding in the best tunnel construction methods to use is the stability of the surrounding material. If the tunnel is passing through solid rock, then the methods for use will be different compared to tunnel passing through loose sand or clay formation. The method will also vary if the tunnel is supposed to pass under a water body or below the water table.

Engineers also choose tunnel design and construction methods based on the seismic activity of a given region. If the tunnel passes through an area with high geological activity, the design needs to factor the impacts of these activities on the operation of the tunnel. Research shows that tunnels bored in depths of up to 500 meters have better resistance to seismic disturbances compared to tunnels bored in shallower depths.

The four main techniques used in the construction of tunnels are as follows:

The first technique is the cut and cover tunneling. This method involved digging a trench, and then covering it to create a tunnel. The actual methods employed depends on the space available for construction and the final use that the tunnel is intended.

It is popular in areas where tunnels are needed to provide more motorways under existing roads or in other squeezed spaces. In the top down variation, engineers cut out channels on the extreme ends of the tunnel, and then construct walls. They then construct a roof creating a chamber.

Excavation works go on under the roof of the tunnel before the final construction of the floor of the tunnel. In the bottom up variation, after the walls are built, the engineers excavate the area in between the walls and then build the tunnel from the ground up, finishing with the roof of the tunnel.

The second method of tunnel construction is the blast and drill method. This method applies in areas where it is necessary to bore through a rock to create a tunnel. Engineers use times explosives to loosen rock, and then remove the debris. This method is ideal for mountainous areas and in places where the bedrock is solid.

However, due to variation in rock formations, it is necessary to carry out drilling operations in areas with loose rock formation where blasting may result in total collapse of the tunnel. In these cases, some construction work is also required to provide support for the tunnel.

We will write a custom Essay on Tunnel Design and Cunstruction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third main tunneling technique is bored tunneling. This method employs the use of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). TBMs make tunneling predictable, and can often be more cost effective. The main application of TBMs is that they make it possible to dig long tunnels.

They work best in areas where the surrounding material is strong enough to support long tunnel sections without the need for support. These machines work best within a given range of rock hardness. If the rocks are very hard, the wear and tear of the machines can be very high. In this case, it is better to use blast and drill methods.

Another advantage of using TBMs is that they can be equipped with sensors to determine when the rock formations change. This helps in making decisions regarding how to proceed. The fourth method of tunneling is the Sequential Excavation Method (SEM). This method is build around the understanding that tunneling reorients the internal stresses in rock formations.

As such, SEM aims at creating an environment that is quite similar to the preexisting stresses in the rocks. This is achieved by the use of careful calculation of stresses and using structures in such a way that the overall forces remain as they were before the construction of the tunnel. This leads to a reduction of the quantity of construction materials usually needed to stabilize tunnels dug in soft soils.

The Mersey Tunnel The Mersey tunnel system is composed of three tunnels. The three tunnels are the Kingsway tunnel, the Queensway tunnel, and the Mersey Railway tunnel. The first two tunnels carry vehicular traffic while the last one is meant for trains. The tunnels were all constructed to ease traffic congestion at the river crossings.

At the time of their construction, the tunnels held records for the longest tunnels ever to be constructed. The fact that they were located beneath the riverbed meant that water was an ever present challenge. The tunnels still require pumps to remove water. The water is not only the result of seepage from the river, but ground water as well.

Conclusion In conclusion, the construction of tunnels is going to improve with time, because more tunnels will be needed to increase connectivity in various parts of the world. Tunnels are also very attractive because of the limited environmental impacts they produce.

In the case of the Mersey tunnels, three important links were made without affecting the flow of beauty of the river over above. In this sense, tunnels provide an ideal way of ensuring that human transport and communication needs do not destroy the environmental aesthetics of the planet.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Tunnel Design and Cunstruction by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List BAGCT 2013, Methods for Tunneling Construction. Web.

Case Maker 2000, What is Rapid Application Development”. Web.

Engrailhistory 2012, The Mersey Tunnel. Web.

FHWA 2011, Technical Manual for Design and Construction of Road Tunnels – Civil Elements. Web.

Infoplease 2013, Tunnel Design and Construction techniques. Web.

Lean, G. 2006, Disappearing World: Global Warming Claims Tropical Island. Web.

Macdonald, M. 2013, Tunnel Construction Methods. Web.

MTUA 2013, Mersey Tunnels Users Association. Web.

Rivers, M. 2012, Doing business Down Under. Web.

Schuetze, C. F. 2012, Travelling with a Smaller Carbon Footprint. Web.

Siterman, E. 2009, Value engineering in Dubai. Web.

Wang, J.-N. 1993, Seismic Design of Tunnels: A Simple State-of-the-Art Design Approach. Web.

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Demography of Harbor Hills, Austin, TX Quantitative Research Essay online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents History of the Neighborhoods

Description of Variables

Empirical Profile of the Neighborhoods

Conclusion

Reflection

History of the Neighborhoods In this social economic analysis, I will focus on Austin city located in Texas as well as Harbor Hills in New York. Austin is the capital city of the US state of Texas. It has a population of approximately one million people according to US Census Bureau. Since its foundation in the 19th century, Austin has grown in an unprecedented rate to become eleventh most populous city in the US.

Besides, the city hosts a myriad of government operations and education institutions such as University of Texas. It is worth mentioning that the city has a cosmopolitan composition of population in the sense that many people living in the area come from different races, nationalities and ethnicities.

To that end, racial, ethnic and other demographic characteristics of Austin are of paramount importance in this analysis. Besides, the report will also analyze other variables including poverty levels in comparison to racial and ethnic belonging and background.

For the purposes of qualitative analysis and comparison, the paper will also focus on demography of Harbor Hills in New York. Harbor Hills has as modest population of around five thousand people. It reflects a hamlet and is located in Nassau County in New York. The city will provide important variables that will be of interest especially when making comparison of various demographic parameters such as poverty rates and racial background.

Fig 1: Racial Composition of Austin, TX

Race Population Percentage (%) Total Population: 1,007,264 White Alone 699,233 69.4% Black or African American Alone 85,468 8.5% American Indian and Alaska Native Alone 5,633 0.6% Asian Alone 58,806 5.8% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Alone 770 0.1% Some Other Race Alone 133,673 13.3% Two or More races 23,681 2.4% The motivation behind this analysis is the fact that Travis County is one of the most diverse counties not only in Southwest of the United States but also in other areas of the country. The rationale is that the entire state of Texas has experienced unsurpassed rate of immigration leading to a multiethnic population.

Most profoundly, Blacks and Hispanics have become significant races within Texas and its cities. Harbor Hills will serve as a point of reference when making comparison about poverty levels and ethnic belonging of the city residents. Besides, the demographic analysis will utilize both dependent and independent variables to arrive at a succinct analysis of the city.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Description of Variables In this analysis, rate of poverty will stand out as of the major variable. It refers to the number of people living below certain threshold. According to the United States Census Bureau, poverty rate refers to the number of people living below minimum wage.

On the other hand, minimum wage is the threshold of income per person in employment that International Labor Organization (ILO) stipulates. It varies from time to time due to other factors such as the rate of inflation and jurisdiction. In Harbor Hills and Austin, analysis of poverty rates will provide us with vital statistics. Besides, analysis of rates of poverty will facilitate explanation of other demographic and external variables such as income and literacy levels.

Second, the paper will analyze the rates of poverty vis-à-vis ethnic and racial backgrounds of the residents in both neighborhoods. It is important to point out that rate of poverty is directly associated with level of education and race. Due to different cultures and demography, comparison of the two neighborhoods will reveal other characteristics that are pertinent to the analysis.

Empirical Profile of the Neighborhoods Poverty rates in Austin vary greatly in accordance to race and ethnicity. The major races in the city are Whites, Black and African Americans, Hispanics, Indian Americans and other races. The Whites constitute approximately 69.4% of the total population while the Blacks and Africans constitute just above 8.5%. Other races constitute approximately 20% of the population.

According to 2010 statistics released by US Census Bureau, poverty rate in Austin varies with age. Poverty rate of children under the age of 18 years stand at 22.1% implying that at least two out of ten children living in Austin live under poor conditions. For the population of people between the ages of 18 and 64 years, poverty rate stood at 15.5%.

Above 64 years, poverty rate of the population seem to have reduced within the period of analysis. It stood at an average of 8.1%. On average, poverty rate in the city of Austin is just above 15%. According to the US Census Bureau, the rate of poverty remains high when compared to the national average that was 12% in the same year. Various factors are attributable to high rates of poverty in Austin.

At the outset, it is of importance to mention that level of education and race are major determinants of poverty rates in the neighborhood. On average, Austin’s income per household is around $88 thousands annually. In black households, the average level of income stands at just below $50, 000 annually.

We will write a custom Essay on Demography of Harbor Hills, Austin, TX specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is different from the average annual income accruing Whites’ households that stood at approximately $96, 499 during the same period. Consequently, the disparities that are apparent in terms of incomes also reflect in other aspects of Austin. For instance, poverty levels among the blacks stand at about 24.3% while that of Whites is a mere 13.3% (in the year 2010).

In addition, it is worth highlighting that other races residing in Austin record a significantly higher rate of poverty than the white population. Central to the rate of poverty is the level of education across the ethnic groups living in Austin. Apparently, over a quarter of the population has attained a bachelor’s degree while almost an equal proportion of the population has some college education.

Education is an important indicator of the likelihood of being absorbed in the labor market according to many social scientists. As such, its rate either increases or reduces the likelihood of employment and influences the amount of income accruing each household. To this end, it is important to pinpoint that that rate of unemployment amongst the white population stood at a modest 5.9% in the neighborhood.

Among the blacks, the rate of unemployment is more than twice when compared to that of the white population. It stood at 12.4% according to the statistics released by Census Bureau in 2010. This helps us to draw a conclusion and deduce that average white population is more literate than respective black population in Austin. This is reflected in the disparities of income per household and the rate of unemployment between the two major races living in the city Austin.

In Harbor Hills, New York, poverty rates are relatively low when compared to Austin. Particularly, the number of poor children stood at five in 2001accounting for 0.8% of children under the age 18 that live in abject poverty. This number has grown in a period of 10 years to peak at 3.2% in 2011. For ages between 24 and 64 years, the rate of poverty has increased from 5.1% to 7.1 between 2001 and 2011 respectively.

Nonetheless, the rate of poverty among the senior citizens has reduced marginally from 5.3% in 2001 to 4.8% by 2011. On average, Harbor Hills has one of the lowest rates of poverty in Nassau County. It is important to highlight that poverty levels vary considerably in line with racial belonging and education attainment of the residents.

Unlike in Austin, Harbor Hills has one of the lowest rates poverty accruing the black population and other minority races. According to the US Census Bureau, the rate of poverty among the black population stood at 0.5% in 2010, which was a lower rate of poverty than that of the majority white population. In fact, the rate of poverty among white residents of the neighborhood stood at 6.8% in 2011.

The mean income accruing every household in Harbor Hills was approximately $83,275 in 2010. While the statistics for the annual income accruing black households was unavailable by the end of 2010, every white household recorded an average annual income of about $83, 451. This implies that the households had a higher per household income than all other racial groups in the neighborhood.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Demography of Harbor Hills, Austin, TX by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While income per household is a strong exogenous variable that influences poverty rates within a community, other factors such as education attainment contribute significantly to the welfare of the residents. US Census Bureau records that an average of 48.7% of the population has attained a bachelor’s degree with well above 20% of the population having achieved a graduate degree.

This implies that a considerable majority of the residents is able to access employment opportunities in both military and civilian institutions. Due to high level of educational attainment, it is critical to highlight that Harbor Hills has a different social economic profile than Austin. In addition, the number of people living in the neighborhood is relatively low when compared to the residents of Austin.

It therefore follows that population density of the two neighborhoods vary greatly despite similar variables typifying the communities. Besides, seems to be ‘an above average’ suburb in terms of socio-economic parameters that are provided by US Census Bureau.

Conclusion In essence, Austin and Harbor Hills neighborhoods vary greatly. On the one hand, Austin is located in Travis County, Texas in Southwest of the US. It is the capital city of Texas and hosts myriads of state institutions and departments. Due to its geographical location, Austin has different social groups belonging to various races, ethnicities and nationalities.

White and black races are the predominant races although there are other races in the city. According to the US Census Bureau report of 2010, poverty rates among the white residents are lower than poverty rates among the black residents. Consequently, there is a higher level of average annual income accruing white households than black households.

This is due to the average levels of unemployment and educational attainment that are skewed in favor of the white population. On the other hand, Harbor Hills is located in Long Island of New York. It is a relatively affluent suburb of New York City in the county of Nassau.

Unlike Austin, Harbor Hills has a low population of about five thousand people. However, the residents have different ethnicities, races and nationalities. Moreover, the rates of poverty are relatively lower than in Austin. The levels of income and unemployment are more favorable for Harbor Hills; residents than for Austin dwellers.

Reflection From the above demographic analysis, I have learned various lessons that are valuable to my social research and inquiry skills. At the outset, I have learnt that the level of income accruing every household is an important indicator of poverty level and status. However, households’ income is a dependent variable that correlates with levels of education attainment, unemployment and racial background.

It is not surprising therefore, that black population in Austin suffers from the highest rates of unemployment and the lowest levels of educational attainment. This in turn has led to high number of black residents living under conditions of poverty and subsequently, low incomes accruing their households. Second, I have learnt that Austin has a higher number of residents (approximately one million) than Harbor Hills (five thousand).

This has had a significant influence on the statistics that US Census Bureau released in 2010. For instance, it is absurd to purport that no student dropped out of high school in Harbor Hills since the statistics indicate a figure that is well below 1% in 2010. Indeed, the percentages do not reveal the actual number of people highlighted by various variables.

Third, I have understood that Harbor Hills is relatively affluent than Austin. The rationale is that the neighborhood has a population of black residents who are comparatively wealthier than white residents are. Besides, it seems that only the wealthy blacks can afford to live in Harbor Hills.

This is reflected in the high level of educational attainment in the neighborhood. It is commendable that the rates of literacy in the area are above 95%. Finally, I have learnt that Austin city is of strategic importance for the state of Texas. The reason is that the city has a rich diversity that can be used to draw general conclusions about the demographic characteristics of other cities.

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Gender Studies: Gathering and Hunting Abilities Term Paper best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Men as better Hunters

Females as Better Gatherers

Advantages that Males have for Hunting

Gender Roles and Spatial Abilities

Influences of Age on Spatial Abilities

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Human abilities are wide and varied in many aspects that can be used to define people. The difference in sex has been found to drive the disparity in human abilities by apportioning certain gifts to the male sex and others to the female gender. Although both sexes can do certain tasks equally, research indicates that people of a specific sex do specific tasks better relative to the opposite sex.

One area that scientists have come up with a hypothesis about the abilities in sex difference is the gathering hypothesis, which tries to find out, which group has the best abilities in gathering and/or which one has the best abilities in hunting. This paper will provide evidence to prove that members of the male gender are better hunters relative to women who on the other hand are also better gatherers. The paper therefore explores the spatial abilities of the two sexes.

Men as better Hunters The theory that men are better hunters can be traced to the ancient world of both primitives and civilization by looking at the roles that society had apportioned to the two sexes. The primitive society did not have an opportunity and ability to make any studies that would then allocate duties to men and women. However, nature did it for them. This case can be attributed to the need to survive and self-preservation.

Scientists have fronted different reasons to support the different theories they have come up with concerning this issue. The division of labor in males and females underpin the development of abilities in both sexes by allocating capacities. Neave et al. (2005) reveal how males naturally adopt Euclidean strategies when trying to find ways meaning that they have good geographical knowledge (p. 147).

Good geographical knowledge is essential in hunting because it is used for locating prey whenever it is. Without geographical knowledge, it might be difficult for males to do hunting because it involves figuring out direction and movement, as well as figuring out the shortest and worth following distance. Direction enables males in their hunting because it helps them use the shortest distance to get to the possible location of their prey.

Neave et al. also argue that males have an advantage in navigational and way-finding abilities (p. 147). Although women can also make hunters, their hunting skills and abilities fade before those of males when the two groups are put to competition. One of the advantages that males have over females, which give them better hunting skills, is in the throwing/interception abilities (Neave et al. 2005, p. 147).

Hunting requires the ability to aim accurately at a target for one to hit it. It also requires one to strike it with the first instance so that it does not escape. This aspect is the biggest difference between males and females because a bigger sample of men can hit the target better relative to a bigger sample of women (Cashdan et al., 2012, p. 278).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, the hunting skills of men can be attributed to their being dominant in the arm simply because they have a better chance of hitting the target than women do because of their better accuracy and interception skills. Stoet (2011, p. 420) confirms that men have many skills that are in line with hunting techniques thus automatically making them hunters.

They have the ability to focus and direct their minds on an object they are working on. With this, they are able to achieve accuracy. Stoet (2011) concludes that throwing skills, focused attention, and general spatial abilities of men make them better hunters (p. 420). Males employ different strategies to women in accomplishing their tasks are usually found to be more innovative in doing their tasks relative to women.

Therefore, in the natural setting, which is governed by the theory of survival for the fittest, males tend to become more aggressive in their mindsets whenever they are working on an issue. The natural setting gives males a better chance of survival in relation to females.

Thus, males tend to work hard to secure their offspring and generation hence tending to be more antagonistic in getting food for their own to secure their survival. This case can be attributed to the instinctive nature that males acquire whenever they are doing their hunting.

Females as Better Gatherers Under the natural setting, females take the responsibility of giving birth and taking care of the young ones, which therefore relegate them to laser roles that would not take away all their attention. The need to take care of young ones makes females concentrate on this task. They cannot go out the way males do to hunt (Ecuyer-Dab

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Pollution and Human Health Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Ecosystem An ecosystem is often defined as an environment or community, where inter-relationships among organisms take place (Vogt 69). In this respect, plants, animals, natural resources and humans interact for mutual benefits. Other elements such as soil, micro-organisms and non-living things are also included as part of a freshwater lake ecosystem.

A freshwater localized ecosystem A freshwater localized ecosystem consists of plants and animals of all kinds (Silk

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Aspects of Contract and Negligence for Business Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Requirements for the formation of a valid contract A contract can be defined as a lawfully binding agreement between two parties. It has consequences on either party. Therefore, as discussed below, a contract has to contain some basic elements that should be used to define it.

An Offer There should be an offer by the first party to invite the second party into the contract for negotiations purposes. An ascent to the same by the second party will lead to the contract coming into being and becoming legally binding. An offer can be described as an expression of willingness to contract on certain terms (Jalil 2011, p. 110).

The offer is usually made to the second party with an intention that it will become binding when accepted. When an offer is declined, it extinguishes the idea of the probable contract. Therefore, one cannot be held to account for it.

Acceptance The second element of a contract that is very important is the acceptance bit, which should be done within the terms of the contract. A party to the contract will be assumed to have understood the terms of the contract when he or she enters agreement consent to the same (Jalil 2011, p. 110).

One is legally bound by a contract once he or she accepts it. He or she has the duty to make sure that he or she understands the terms of the contract before accepting it. Breach of contract after acceptance might lead to legal consequences.

Legal purpose/ Objective There must be an intention for the two parties to create a legal relationship between them with the contract. An absence of legal intent will render the contract null and void because social agreements between parties or agreements of a domestic nature are not regarded as legally binding because they do not contemplate legal relations (Jalil 2011, p. 111) as in the case of Balfour vs. Balfour (1919).

Mutuality of Obligation Mutuality of obligation can be described in other words as the meeting of minds. In fact, “parties in the contract must agree to the same thing in terms of the drawn contract, and at the same time” (Jalil 2011, p. 111). Mutuality of obligation can only be achieved when the contract is still on offer. Once the offer has been withdrawn, it cannot happen.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lawful Consideration Lawful consideration is an element of the contract that represents either a benefit to the promisor or detriment to the promise (Jalil 2011, p. 112). It denotes the price offered in exchange for a promise, otherwise known as quid pro-quo.

Competent Parties A contract can only be made between two legally competent parties (Jalil 2011, p. 112). Therefore, a contract can only be made between people of legal age and sound mind.

How the law approach the issues of consideration, intention to create legal relations, and the capacity to contract

According to the law, a contract becomes legally binding once the promisee accepts and signs it. The promisee is believed to have read the details of the contract, or is supposed to have read the details of the contract before appending a signature on the same (Jalil 2011, p. 110). In the above scenario, Al has advertised the goods he has on offer to potential buyers thus inviting them to contract.

A negotiation occurs between the Al and Bash cars where an agreement is reached through the mode of communication adopted by the two. In this case, an agreement was ostensibly reached when Bash cars wrote back to Al to accept the offer thus providing a green light for Al to deliver the goods, which he did as per the contract.

According to the law, several reasons can lead to a contract being voidable, with no party bearing liability. According to Jalil (2011), under the issue of consideration in a contract, there is either a benefit to the party offering the contract or detriment to the second party concerning the contract (p. 115). In the above case, Al has done his duty to communicate to Bash cars about the final price he is offering.

It is the duty of Bash cars to read the communication properly before accenting to it. Therefore, the mistake not to read the reply letter properly from Al is placed on Bash cars because their own negligence made them fail to see the price in the letter. The assumption that the price is 45 pounds is solely made by Bash cars and that they have no reason to back up their assumption.

According to the contract law, an objective inference should be made when coming up with a contract in that, when a third party looks at the same contract, they should come up with a conclusion that the contract is meant to achieve (Jalil 2011, p. 113). The mistake in this case is unilateral. It cannot render the contract void.

We will write a custom Report on Aspects of Contract and Negligence for Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, Bash cars plc should be responsible for the fault and that it should bear the consequences as in the case of Storer v Manchester City Council (1974). The law provides for an intention to create legal relations by setting up conditions for the same. The two parties must be ready to enter a legally binding contract for it to become legal.

The key problems associated with exclusion clauses and their incorporation into a contract

Exclusion clauses in contracts are usually meant to exclude a certain party to the contract from certain events that might happen within the execution of the contract, which the party might be held liable for them in normal circumstances (Maharaj 2012, p. 636). Exclusion clauses are usually made by parties contracted to carry out certain services on behalf of clients.

Such services usually have certain risks. It is therefore meant to protect the contractor from carrying the costs that might arise from the risk. Exclusion contracts are governed by the Unfair Contract Terms Act of 1977 and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations Act of 1999 (Jalil 2011, p. 119). Exclusion clauses become valid as long as they meet several conditions.

Firstly, they must have been properly included in the contract and that they do not contravene any law. Some key problems associated with exclusion clauses are evident. For instance, some exclusion clauses are vague. In many instances, exclusion clauses have been vaguely worded in that the reader of the clause might not tell exactly what the scope of the clause is all about.

This step is usually accomplished by the drafter of the clause as a way of giving it a wide range in the case of liabilities (Maharaj 2011, p. 636). On the other hand, it confuses the client because he or she will not be in a good position to tell what liabilities the contractor should carry and/or what the client should carry. Invisibility of the clause is yet another problem.

Many exclusion clauses are not directly visible to the client taking the service. They are usually not noticeable in the wording of the contract. They can appear at the bottom of the contract, written in very small fonts, or be placed behind the document where many people might not bother to find out (Maharaj 2011, p. 636).

Many contractors who might not want to jeopardise their chances of securing the work at hand therefore use this case as a secret weapon. It therefore needs a client to be very careful when reading and signing the contract.

How the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contract Regulations 1999 ensure that exclusion clauses are fair and reasonable. The unfair Contract Act 1977 and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracting Regulations 1999 were put in place to regulate the creation, use, and interpretation of the exclusion clause with the sole purpose of protecting the consumer.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Aspects of Contract and Negligence for Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The two Acts made it easy for judges to make interpretations of exclusion clauses by eliminating ambiguities in the wording as in the case of Houghton v. Trafalgar Inso Co Ltd. 1954. The Acts were meant to protect weaker parties in the contract because the consumers were in most cases disadvantaged by the clause (Maharaj 2011, p. 640).

The fact that the clauses were part of the contract regardless of how they have been placed on the document meant that only the drafters of the clause and those who are keen enough would be aware of it thus catching many people unaware of their presence. The Acts regulated the use of the clauses in that the drafters of the clauses had to meet certain conditions or otherwise the clause would become void (Maharaj 2011, p. 638).

The clause in this case has to be introduced to clients’ attention before the signing of the contract, or has to be placed in a very visible place for customers to read before they enter an unwritten contract. The two Acts gave courts the power to nullify any exclusion clauses if they found them unreasonable.

This provision usually happens when the terms of the exclusion clause are in conflict with other terms of the contract thus rendering the clause void concerning the repugnancy rule as evident in the case of Mendelson v. Normand 1970. Therefore, all repugnant cases are deemed unreasonable. They can therefore not stand as legal clauses. In the end, they are voidable by the law.

Will Move It Ltd be able to rely on this exclusion clause?

Move It will not be able to rely on this exclusion clause because it does not meet the legal requirements for exclusion clauses as per the 1977 Act as well as the 1999 Act. In the first place, clients should be informed about the exclusion clause before they sign the contract so that they are fully aware of the contract they are signing (Maharaj 2011, p. 638).

To this effect, Move It failed to notify Cool It of the clause. It can be assumed as well that Cool It was not aware of the clause while entering the contract. Thus, it cannot be held liable by the exclusion clause. Under the nature of the document test, the document does not qualify as a contract document because its original aim is different from the purpose it is being used on by inserting the exclusion clause.

The document that the manager was given with the exclusion note was the consignment note, which cannot be deemed as the contract document for the particular work when objectively tested as revealed in the case of Chapleton v. Barry Urban District Council. On the other hand, the notice of the clause must be made aware to customers before they enter the contract, and not after entering the contract (Maharaj 2011, p. 638).

In this case, the clause is believed to have been entered after the entering of the contract because, even if the consignment note is decided to become the contract document, the clause should be on the face of the page where the customer signs. This exclusion clause by Move It is found behind the face of the document where the contract has been signed.

A duty of care exists A duty of care in this case can be described as the necessary steps that should be taken in a place to prevent the occurrence of an accident. A duty of care comes in the form or rules, structures, and steps that have been put in place to prevent any probable accident from happening (Gray 2011, p. 68).

A duty of care’s responsibility falls within the ambits of authority in charge of a particular facility that is being used by people. Thus, the authority has the duty of putting up measures that would ensure the facility is running according to the law concerning safety measures.

Was a Duty of Care was breached In proving that a duty of care was breached, claimants have to prove that they did not act negligently for the occurrence to happen. They also have to show that they were within the rules and regulations of the given facility during the happening of the accident thus blaming it on authorities owning the facility (Tan 2012, p. 93). In proving that a breach of care was breached, the claimant has to refer to what the law provides for in terms of how the facility should be managed, and what rules the facility has put in place to secure its clients from injury.

The Damage is Both Direct and Foreseeable A claimant should be in a position to prove that the damage is both direct and foreseeable. In this case, an occurrence of a certain event should be linked directly as the cause to a damage that might have occurred by showing successive events that led to the occurrence (Burns 2011, p. 658).

On the other hand, the damage can be deemed foreseeable if certain acts of negligence will lead to an accident. Thus, failure to take reasonable steps is what should be attributed to the accident as in the case of Hughes v. Lord Advocate 1963. Under the rule of vicarious liability, employers are legally responsible for commissions and omissions of their employees, regardless of whether the employees were acting under instructions or on their own (Tan 2012, p. 93).

Vicarious liability can also be referred to as an imputed negligence, since a liability can be assigned to an individual who did not cause a certain injury, but by virtue of the individual being related to the person who caused it in a given way. The employer under this case is burdened with the liability because it is assumed that the employee is the agent of the employer and that he or she was working in the interests of the employer when the accident happened.

Tan (2012) states that vicarious liability goes beyond employer-employee relations. It can also be applied in the case of a car accident when the liability is put on the owner of the car even if the proprietor of the car was not in it when the accident occurred (p. 94). In deciding whether the blame should be shifted from the employee to the employer, the court has to establish the following facts.

The court has to establish whether a tort has been committed. In doing this, court will be establishing grounds for the case because the establishment of the tort will be the basis for the case (Gray 2011, p. 69). Secondly, the court has to establish if the cause of the tort is due to the employee because only when the mistake is attributed to the employee is when the tort can qualify for a vicarious negligent consideration.

Thirdly, the court has to determine if the tort was caused by the employee in the act of employment and specifically during his or her scope of work. An employee’s mistake away from duty cannot be laid on to the employer.

How the legal relationship between the parties in tort differs from the relationship in contract law

The difference in parties in a tort law and those in a contract law is not usually very distinct although the two laws have different tenets. In a tort law, it focuses on the foreseeable ability of an event happening (Burns 2011, p. 658). In this case, one party should have been in a position to foresee the event happening. Thus, he or she should have taken an action to stop it from happening.

Failure to do this can be described as negligence to which the negligent party is liable to pay an amount as determined by the court. The legal relationship between two parties under a tort law comes into existence after an event that leads to some form of damage occurs (Burns 2011, p. 658). The court then has to determine if it is a tort or not before the damage can be computed or not.

On the other hand, a contract is entered between parties once the value of the goods or services has been determined. A contract legally binds two parties once they have signed it. It is meant to secure the party’s interests in case there are losses coming out of breach of the contract (Jalil 2011, p. 110). Whereas a contract is binding only to the parties signing it, a tort can become binding to parties who are not directly related to it, but who can be held responsible under the law.

The tort law is legally hinged on negligence on one party, which leads to the damage of another party while the contract law is hinged on the failure of a party to the contract to meet their obligation. Applying the rules on both negligence and vicarious liability to consider whether Sheila and Karen would be able to claim for the injury and damage.

Under the rules of negligence and vicarious liability, employers are held liable for the negligent acts of their employees as long as the acts happen in the employees’ cause of duty (Tan 2012, p. 96). In the first case, Manjit is regarded as an employee of Hurryhaste and hence an agent for Hurryhaste. He is therefore covered by the vicarious liability rule.

Though Manjit is a casual worker with the company, it does not disqualify him from being regarded as an employee by the company. Therefore, he is regarded as one. The accident occurred during Manjit’s cause of duty hence perfectly fitting in the vicarious liability bracket. On the other hand, Karen has no contributory fault to the accident because she had parked her car properly.

During Manjit’s negligent driving, her car was hit. Karen therefore qualifies for compensation from Hurryhaste who is the employer of Manjit in this case. Hurryhaste should pay Karen. If it so wishes, it can surcharge Manjit for his negligent acts. On the other hand, Dave was within his employment duties when he hit Sheila’s car because the accident happened when he was coming from making a delivery.

To this extent, he had to make his way back from the point of delivery. He is thus deemed to be within his duties. The basis of vicarious liability is simply to shift the liability of an employee to the employer. In this case, the liability shifts from Dave to Hurryhaste (Tan 2012, p. 96). Although Dave is seen to have breached certain rules with regard to using the vehicle improperly, it does not take away Sheila’s right to be compensated by Hurryhaste because her fault did not lead to the accident.

Although Sheila did not have her seat belt on when the accident occurred, the blame for the accident does not fall on her. At the same time, it is not the purpose of vicarious liability to prove that she was not having her belt on at the time of the accident. In the case of Dave, as the statement goes, he has been highlighted as having been the one on the wrong.

One element of the tort law is to establish if there was negligence on the part of an individual party in a case and the predictability of the same (Gray 2011 p. 70). In the case of Dave, he was aware of traffic rules, which are to guide him in his driving. However, due to his negligence, he failed to observe traffic rules thus leading to the accident. The law is meant to prove that the person lacked reasonable care hence leading to a likelihood that the person’s negligent acts would lead to harm (Burns 2011, p. 665).

Therefore, according to the rules of negligence and vicarious liability, Sheila and Karen should claim for injury and damage because, were it not have been for the carelessness of Dave and Manjit, the accident would not have happened. Their failure to observe rules and caution while driving was the sole reason for the accident’s happening.

If Dave’s daughter had been injured in the accident, chances are that the law on vicarious liability would still have applied because the van was not supposed to carry unauthorised passengers under traffic law. Dave’s daughter was one. Therefore, Dave’s daughter as an individual party could claim for damages because Hurryhaste’s agent would have injured her due to negligence (Tan 2012, p. 96).

This case though would become complicated because Dave would be required by the company to reimburse it the expenses. On the other hand, the argument that might arise about Manjit’s employment status might be if a casual employee is regarded by the terms of the vicarious liability. By virtue of Manjit being a casual employee, it qualifies him to become an agent for Hurryhaste because he does duties on its behalf (Gray 2011, p. 69).

Vicarious liability does not define an employee’s status, but simply addresses any person working as an agent for the employer. Negligence on the part of an agent is what leads to a tort. The claimant does not have the duty to find out the employment status of the offender before he or she can lay claim for damages that have occurred.

On the other hand, breach of working rules does not affect the claimant’s pursuit of compensation because it is not within his or her jurisdiction to determine whether the offenders were following rules when they caused the accidents. Therefore, Sheila and Karen are legally in order to claim compensation for both injury and damage from Hurryhusttle.

References Burns, J 2011, ‘Respondeat Superior as an Affirmative Defence: How Employers Immunise themselves from direct Negligence Claims’, Mitchigan Law Review, vol. 109 no. 4, pp. 657-681.

Gray, A 2011, ‘Why Vicarious Liability Must be Abandoned’, Australian Business Law Review, vol. 39 no. 2, pp. 67-84.

Jalil, M 2011, ‘Clarification of Rules of Acceptance in Making Business Contracts’, Journal of Politics

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Netflix’s Branding and Positioning Strategy Research Paper essay help free

Table of Contents Product development

Consumer segmentation

Marketing Mix

Work Cited

Founded in 1997, Netflix Company has grown and is currently well placed in the movie rental industry of America. Despite its outstanding performance and quick recovery from the global financial crisis of 2010, the company is currently facing the dilemma of a sustainable positioning strategy due to the current hostile business environment.

The threat of competition, non deliveries on Saturdays and the 28-days delay before delivery of new films has put the company in a fix (Cholewa et al. 305). Thus, this reflective treatise attempts to develop a product branding strategy and market segmentation for Netflix in order to remain competitive in the sensitive film industry of America.

Product development In order to remain afloat, Netflix Company should offer the Kiosk model as part of its product brands in order to retain its customers that would be affected by the 28-days delay period before delivery of new films. Reflectively, the kiosk model will facilitate timely distribution of the films to clients and increase the returns since the aspect of convenience will not be compromised.

Besides, unlike its competitors, the company has better distribution network that might facilitate implementation of the kiosk model. Through the kiosk model, the company will offer films to its customers in convenience stores across its distribution channel. The kiosk model will counter the non deliveries on Saturdays since clients will be in a position to directly purchase from its virtual kiosks.

Consumer segmentation The kiosk model targets home user consumers who form the majority of the Netflix market catchment. Since this target group frequent movie store, Netflix will be in a position to conveniently direct the customers to their designated delivery points and stores without having to directly deliver.

The company should merge the strategy with advertisements since this group of consumers has access to social media. Due to exposure to information sources such as new papers, television, radio, and magazines, product announcement through these avenues will come in handy.

Decision on the best product relies on information feedback after multiple exposures to different competing products. As forecasted in the market research, this strategy will be successful towards dominance as it offers a variety of options to consumers, while at the same time, maximizing benefits of economies of scale to the company.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Marketing Mix The marketing mix is a selling model which is made up of four elements. These elements include price, product, promotion, and distribution. Reflectively, the penetration strategy should have minimal disturbances to the market and the company. Therefore, it is important to establish means and ways of reaching the potential market consisting of young and sensitive clients.

To achieve this, the company should segment and differentiate its ‘young adults market’ along consumer-based market segmentation procedures. The physical distribution patterns are with no doubt a critical area of focus, especially in this segment that is spread across the US market.

On the pricing mix, the US has a high purchasing power. Therefore, the kiosk model should use skim pricing strategy since demand for this company’s product is relatively inelastic. Concerning the place, the kiosk model should use the local media channels to keep in touch with the target segment.

Apart from the TV channels, the company should use the parent company’s channels to reach out to the market segment. Moreover, the company may enter into strategic partnership with other companies to advertise its products. On product, the kiosk model should be made flexible to satisfy the needs of different customers.

Work Cited Cholewa, Vincent, Dreager Lori, Grilliot Greg, Lee Sze, Wallace Drew, and Wright Sean. Case 20: Netflix. Arizona: Arizona State University, 2011. Print.

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Designing the Environment to Promote Play and Wellbeing Essay essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Importance of Play

Characteristics of Play

The relationship that Exist Between Play and Wellbeing

Conclusion

Introduction Play refers to any form of activity, which children engage in at free will in order to have fun. In most instances the type of play that children undertake results from intrinsic motivation without the expectation of an external reward. Similarly, children manage the plays by determining how to conduct the play activity.

Therefore, play is a non-programmed activity without clearly specified outcomes, which in most cases is out of touch with the ordinary life. Various types of plays that children undertake contribute immensely to their development. Playing enables children to fully experience and discover their world.

Adults should provide adequate support, play space, as well as, different types of play materials in order to promote the present and the future wellbeing of children. Therefore, this paper examines the importance and characteristics of play in the first two years of a child development, as well as, the link between play and wellbeing.

The Importance of Play Playing is crucial to the healthy development of children and their wellbeing. Play is beneficial to children in a number of ways. For instance, play helps in the cognitive development of a child thereby enabling the child to understand and make sense of his or her world. Play facilitates the process of brain development, which occurs majorly during the early years of a child’s development.

Play helps in the development of new neural connections that are crucial to effective learning in the later years of a child’s development. Through play, a child is able to interpret new experiences by building on the already acquired knowledge. Play enables a child to develop his or her thinking capabilities, which is crucial in problem solving and construction of new knowledge.

When babies are given a chance to engage in free unstructured plays they are able to develop the ability to think creatively and to exploit their imagination capabilities. Therefore, an opportunity to play enables a child to stand a better chance of handling new experiences and challenges

Play also enables a child to develop a sense of emotional intelligence. Play helps a child to perceive the emotional state of others, which enhances how a child relates to those around him or her. Play also promotes the development of positive emotions such as joy among children because play enables a child to develop the skill of entertaining themselves.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, from an early age a child will develop the ability to be self-reliant. Involvement in various forms of play enables a child to experience less negative emotions of fear, anxiety, stress, as well as, irritability while promoting calmness and the ability of a child to handle surprises and changes that he or she may encounter on a day to day basis. Hence, play greatly contributes to the emotional development and wellbeing of a child.

Play also helps in language development among children. Acquisition of language is very important in the developmental process of a child because language is the major means of communication. Therefore, developing a proficient oral language will enhance communication between the child and those around him or her.

Play enables children to learn and use language for various purposes, with different people, and in different scenarios. For instance, exposure to pretend plays at early years of a child development will enable a child to discover the meaning of various words that make up a language. Therefore, a child will always try to think on how to communicate appropriately, thereby enhancing language fluency.

Group play also enables a child to develop purposeful verbal communication. For instance, children often use language to ask for materials or information while playing with others. Children in early years of development often use few words in order to express themselves. Play enables children to listen to their peers as they talk and act. As a result, they also mimic similar sounds in order to learn various words.

Additionally, a number of children find pleasure in playing with language in order to understand word sounds, syllables, as well as, grammatical structure. For instance, children are able to develop a good mastery of their language by listening to jokes, riddles, and songs with rhyming words that often have elements of language play. Therefore, play greatly contributes in language development among children.

Play also promotes social, as well as, physical development of a child. Play enables children to interact with others, thereby developing their ability to relate with others effectively. Playing provides a child with an opportunity to develop values such as empathy, compassion, and sharing from an early age. Similarly, a child also gets the opportunity to master a number of nonverbal communication skills.

For instance, at an early age a child can be able to understand and master various facial expressions. Play also enables a child to develop attachment to others and build trust. On the other hand, children also benefit physically through various plays. Plays promote proper development of coordination and balance among children. As a result, play helps to eliminate stress, as well as, fatigue among children.

We will write a custom Essay on Designing the Environment to Promote Play and Wellbeing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Characteristics of Play The plays in which children undertake during the first and second year of their development exhibit a number of characteristics. For instance, a number of children engage in sensory motor play during their first year of development. Whereby, children will repeatedly perform a motor or sensory activity previously learnt. A number of children in their first year of development derive pleasure from engaging in repeated sensory motor activities.

Most children develop interest in playing with unsophisticated objects at around five months. However, in most instances the infants are usually more interested in their own actions upon the objects rather than the play objects. During the age of nine to ten months, a number of children develop the ability to differentiate various play objects. Majority of children often prefer new objects to older ones.

Similarly, a number of children at the age of nine to ten months develop the ability to handle various objects in different ways in order to generate information from the objects. Therefore, most children aged one year old usually engage in discovery play. The major aim is to explore their environment in order to determine the texture, shape, size, and how various objects are made.

During the second year of development, most children develop the appropriate use of objects and engage more in symbolic play. At this stage, children begin to shift attention from self to the external environment. Similarly, they also develop the ability to substitute and in corporate more objects into their plays. For instance, a child may use a box as a car.

Some may also begin engaging in imaginative play at the age of two years whereby they imitate various animal sounds and behavior. Additionally, children aged two years old also participate in social play whereby they play together in groups. During social play, children are able to initiate their own games and design rules on how to play.

Social play enables children to develop socialization skills such as cooperation, sharing, as well as, honesty. These skills are important, as they will enable the child to develop into a more responsible adult in future. However, adults also play a crucial role in the play of children because they act as directors and can encourage children to develop desired social behavior during social play.

The relationship that Exist Between Play and Wellbeing One major reason for play is to have fun. Therefore, enjoyment is one of the key reasons why a number of children play. Play evokes positive emotions in children, which are crucial to the attainment of the wellbeing and health of children. Play enables children to experience feelings of joy, which contributes immensely to the development of a high self-esteem.

Additionally, play enables children to have a healthy lifestyle. For instance, play enables children to burn calories that may be stored as fat if they lead inactive lifestyles. Therefore, play may help in the reduction of health problems such as obesity among children, as well as, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Most cases of ADHD among children are linked to diminished play opportunities.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Designing the Environment to Promote Play and Wellbeing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hence, an active play lifestyle has the potential to boost the physical, social, and emotional wellbeing of a child. Through play, children are able to develop a number of skills and competencies such as decision making skills, problem-solving skills, as well as, developing emotional intelligence.

However, inadequate play may inhibit optimal learning and development in children, which may interfere with a child’s ability to socialize appropriately with other people. Inadequate play may result into an impaired brain development because play is crucial in the process of brain development.

Additionally, play deprivation may also lead to deviant social behavior among children. Therefore, insufficient play among children has the possibility of negatively affecting the wellbeing of a child’s developmental process.

Conclusion Play forms an integral part of a child developmental process. The types of plays that children engage in differ depending on the child’s age. For instance, at the age of one year most children engage in repeated sensory motor play activities, which are mostly solitary. At the age of nine months, most children develop the ability to engage in discovery play in order to explore their environment.

In the second year of their development, most children are able to participate in social play. Plays have a number of benefits to children. For instance, play helps in the cognitive and language development among children. Similarly, play helps to promote the emotional and physical wellbeing in children.

Therefore, children who engage in a number of plays are able to experience a healthy lifestyle. On the other hand, inadequate play has the potential of having adverse effect on children such as deviant behaviors and health problems such as obesity among children. Therefore, children should have ample playtime in order to realize optimal development and functioning.

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Transformation and Change in Australia Descriptive Essay college admission essay help

There is a certain nationwide pride in the recreational potentials of the Australian environment than any other environment in the world. Australia presents itself to the world as a country with perfect cultures of leisure and struggle. Cultural historians assert that the current Australian cultures resulted from a set of different colonies, cultures, and inhabitants (Jalland, 2002).

This paper focuses on transformation and change in Australia between the years 1850 and 1945. In Australia, a bush refers to a scarcely populated region with or without vegetation cover. Cultural historians believe that in the 19th century the term bush referred to any area outside the urban regions (Ferber

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Music as a Relaxation Technique Report college application essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

Research and Studies on Music’s Effect on Health

References

Abstract In this paper, I outline the effect of music as a natural laxative and explore studies that have been done to examine the effect of music on our health. Though Dr. Seaward’s work on stress management is extensive, I have taken the liberty to explore a number of other, equally authoritative studies on music as well.

Introduction The power of slow and quiet music as an effective relaxation technique is widely acknowledged because of its strong link to our emotions. In addition, music has a physiological effect on our bodies. Slow and moderate tempo music counteracts the effects of stress by reducing the production of stress hormones. In addition, it lowers the heart rate and blood pressure. Classical music has particularly been known to be quite effective in relieving stress and making the listener relax.

Research and Studies on Music’s Effect on Health Recent scientific studies show that singing along one’s favourite music can also have a great releasing effect on tension. Again, calming music may also help induce sleep, and by extension relieve stress (Seaward, 2012). The relaxing effect may also be explained from the fact that slow music also tends to slow down the brain and induce the release of ‘feel-good’ hormones (Seaward, 2012).

Meditation is a powerful relaxation technique, and it can be easily induced by music. The sounds of nature, sometimes incorporated into musical compositions, have a tendency to call forth a soothing effect. This in turn induces a relaxed mood and stress relief (Collingwood, 2007).

Given the strong correlation that music has with meditation and stress reduction, the discipline and practice of stress therapy has slowly come to the forefront as an important tool for stress management (Collingwood, 2007). Additionally, “when used in combination with biofeedback techniques, music can reduce tension and facilitate the relaxation response” (Collingwood, 2007, Music Therapy, para. 1).

Though it is generally agreed that listening to music produces relaxation, it is not yet widely agreed what genre is most effective. In a research study by Valorie Salimpor from Rotman Institute in Toronto (cited in Landau, 2013), participants listened to 60 excerpts of music they had never heard before while in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) machine.

Findings from this research indicated that certain components of the brain, that is, the nucleus accumbens and the temporal gyrus play a role in determining which music one is likely to like. Their work is based on ‘templates’ that have been stored in the brain which pre-dispose individuals to like music they have listened to more often than that which they have not (Landau, 2013).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another study corroborated the thesis that music has physiological benefits. Cited by Landau (2013), the study involved researchers looking at the effect of music to patients just about to go into surgery. Randomly, participants were either given anti-anxiety drugs or listen to music. The patient’s own ratings of their own anxiety were monitored as well as the level of the stress hormone cortisol.

It was found that those who listened to music had less anxiety compared to those who took anti-anxiety pills. In the same study, the researchers also discovered that music bolsters the immune system in their evidence that music is closely linked to Immunoglobin A, an antibody. In an experiment by Dr. Mike Miller, the effects of music on the cardiovascular system were tested using high-tech imaging.

Miller measured blood vessel size during a music-listening session. He found that listening to music that one enjoys tends to open up and relax the blood vessels and also produce chemicals protective to the heart (Willingham, 2009). This profound effect on physiological processes may be what brings about a corresponding psychological effect of relaxation.

References Collingwood, J. (2007). The Power of Music to Reduce Stress. Web.

Landau, E. (2013, April 15). This is your brain on music. Web.

Seaward, B.L. (2012). Managing stress: Principles and strategies for health and well- being (7th Edition). Burlington, MA: Jones

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Islamic Religion: Zakah Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

The Islam religion in addition to giving spiritual guidance, also gives economic guidance one of which is the Zakah. Zakah is listed among the five pillars forming the basic foundations of the religion of Islam; it is the third of the five. The word ‘Zakah’ in Arabic means to be purified, to grow and receive blessings. In some texts it is also referred to as Zakat.

Khan describes Zahra as a mandatory levy paid on wealth and agricultural products that are in excess of a specified minimum (the nisab) (Islamic Economics and Finance 195). During the time of Prophet Muhammad, there was a list of the nisab for each asset one could own for example the nisab for gold was 85grams and the nisab for silver was 595grams.

At that time value 595grams of silver was equivalent to the value of 85grams of gold. Times have changed and gold and silver are no longer used as currency. We now have paper money. The value of silver has decreased while that of gold has remained almost the same. Muslim scholars differ on whether to use the nisab of gold or the nisab of silver when calculating the nisab for the current currencies.

Those who support the nisab of gold to be used argue that its value has remained the same over time. Those who argue for the nisab of silver argue that it would be of more benefit to the poor if the nausea of silver is used. Using the nisab of silver will lower the minimum hence increasing the number of people to pay Zakah and hence increasing the amount of money.

The nisab of silver is used in some countries like Saudi Arabia; although the nisab of gold is the most common (Khan 1994). Therefore, Nisab’s value is directly dependent on the retailing price of gold (or silver for the countries that use the nisab of silver) in the world markets as it is equal to a specified amount of gold. In 2012, it was an equivalent of USD$5200.

The nisab should be calculated based on the price of gold on the day that the individual pays the levy. The regulations governing the collection and spending of this fund are based on the Quran and the Hadith; works attributed to the Islamic Prophet Muhammad but are not found in the Quran. In some countries the calculation of nisab is based on the poverty level of the country rather than the price of gold or silver (Ahmad 2010).

The levy has a lot of importance in the Islamic faith. In the Quran it is equated to prayer. The funds collected are given to the needy and therefore act to bridge the differences between the rich and the poor. This levy leads to the development of the economy as the rich cannot just keep their wealth as it will continue decreasing over time as the levy is imposed, thus it forces them to invest (Ahmad 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It develops in people the virtue of generosity and condemns selfishness. It prepares one to get used to the act of giving and when they are required to give up all their wealth for the act of faith they will be ready to do so. Muslims believe that all wealth belongs to Allah and humans are just entrusted with the wealth. They are therefore required to use the wealth as required by the owner.

Giving reminds them not to lay too much emphasis on material wealth. Making the contribution purifies wealth and souls of those who give (Khan 1994). Zakah is not based on all the property one owns since some wealth is considered taxable while other types of properties are exempted from the levy. Wealth that is considered taxable include; livestock, minerals, investments in business including stock, and agricultural products while properties for personal and home use such as furniture and houses are tax exempt.

Property that does not have a specific owner such as taxes collected by the government is exempt from Zakar as it is used for the benefit of everyone including the poor. Property and businesses that are owned by the public such as schools and mosques are also exempted from the levy. An individual cannot pay Zakah on property that was acquired through stealing, corruption or cheating.

The property does not belong to them they therefore cannot pay Zakah for it. Muslim scholars make it clear that if an asset is not named in the Quran or Hadith as Zakatable it does not mean that it is exempted from the levy. The Prophet Muhammad who was the founder of Zakah only mentioned in his works assets that were available during his time.

As people continue to develop new products the zakatable products should be revised in accordance with the current trends. Zakah is usually paid as a percentage. The percentage of Zakah to be paid varies with the type of asset for which one is paying the levy. It is 2.5% of profits from investment and income from work; 5% of Agricultural products that are irrigated; 10% of agricultural products that do not require irrigation or are watered by natural means such as the rain and 20% for minerals.

The percentage is a minimum of what should be paid, if someone is willing to pay more, they can. Wealth has to meet some requirements before the owner pays the levy. The levy is based on the wealth that is with the owner for a lunar year; 355days.An individual begins counting the days once his wealth exceeds the nisab. Agricultural products are an exemption to the rule of the lunar year; Zakah is paid after harvesting.

Zakah for mineral wealth is also paid after acquisition of the mineral and not annually. The levy is imposed only on goods that are developing and increasing. The rule requiring that an asset has to be growing to be zakatable has some limitations; individuals who intentionally make their wealth not to grow are required to pay Zakah. Prophet Muhammad warns such people and calls them lazy.

We will write a custom Essay on Islamic Religion: Zakah specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wealth that is not growing as an exemption to payment of the levy is limited to people whose property has been stolen or destroyed or whose lack of growth is due to the characteristics of the asset and not the individual’s choice. The goods also have to be under the individual’s control, debts owed are not included in the calculation. Gold or other precious stones that are in the form of jewels are exempted from the levy as long as they are used for the purpose of looking good and not for business.

In the case of land that is used for Agriculture, if it is in the hands of the owner, then the owner pays the levy. In the case that the owner rents out the land without payment, the person who uses the land for farming will pay the levy. Debts are another area where the payment of the levy is unclear. The debtors cannot pay the levy as the money is not rightfully their neither can the creditors because the money is not under their control.

In this century loans which fall under the debt category are common, Muslim scholars differ on opinions whether one should pay the levy for loans or not. It becomes more difficult when one has loans on assets that are tangible. Some people argue that the creditors should be levied as the property belongs to them while others argue that the debtors should be levied as they are in possession of the asset.

Levying taxes on both of them will be against the Muslim laws (Shariah) which warn against duality. Duality in Shariah is defined as dual payment where an asset is levied more than once in the same lunar year. Another issue that has come up with this century is savings such as retirement benefits. The payment of the levy will vary depending on whether the savings are within the control of the individual or they are within the control of the employer.

In the case that an individual is paid retirement benefits, he would be required to pay Zakah when he is given the money. The Quran and Hadith give a description of who should pay the levy. The individual has to meet the requirements of nisab. The individual also has to be an adult of sane mind; children and mentally ill are not required to pay.

There is debate on whether children and the mentally ill can pay Zakah. The Hadith requires that children cannot pay until they reach puberty and the mentally ill cannot pay until they recover. Those who support that the levy should not be imposed on children and the mentally ill argue that it’s an act of worship and therefore requires one to be willing.

The intention is compromised in children and those with psychiatric illness. They also argue that those who have a compromised state of mind cannot develop their wealth. Those who are arguing that those who have a compromised state of mind should be taxed say that the Quran does not provide any exemptions for them (Ahmad 2010).

The individual has to be Muslim in order to make the contribution. Non Muslims are required to pay Jizyah. Zakah is an act of worship and belief in the religion; it therefore cannot be paid by someone who does not believe. In the case that a non believer converts to Islam, he cannot be asked to pay Zakah for the years he did not believe in the Islamic faith.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Islamic Religion: Zakah by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In some states a tax an equivalent of the Zakah is levied on non Muslims to ensure economic balance. The individual to pay the levy has to be free; Prisoners are exempted from the levy (Ahmad 2010). Zakah is considered mandatory for all Muslims. The Quran also requires that one does it voluntarily. In the case that an individual is too mean and refuses to pay, the state has the authority to collect the payment by force and impose a penalty on the individual.

The penalty is equivalent to half of the defaulter’s wealth. A group of people may decide to evade the levy. War should be declared on them as they would be considered to have rejected the Islamic faith. Some people claim that this law was used during the establishment of the Muslim religion and has since been done away with.

There is no evidence to the effect that the law was nullified and therefore most states are considered to have a right to forcefully collect and to impose penalties on those who have defaulted. Those who evade paying the levy will face the wrath of Allah on the Day of Judgment. Those who evade payment are not considered part of the Muslim brotherhood unless the individual is ignorant of the requirements of Zakah or is new to the Islamic faith (Ahmad 2010).

When calculating the percentage of Zakah to be paid, the individual first calculates all his assets and subtract liabilities. The difference should be more than the price of 85grams of gold. The Individual can then group assets of the same kind together and get the percentage of the total. In the case of money, 2.5% of the total amount of money he has.

The laws of Islam prohibit grouping of different kind of wealth when calculating the percentage profit. The laws of Islam discourage double payment of Zakah. An asset can only be levied once in a lunar year. Zakah on investments is based on the profit and not on the total amount while the Zakah on money and cattle is based on the total amount of assets. Products that are not money such as cattle should be calculated based on the market price at the moment (Ahmad 2010).

Zakah is collected through various means; in some countries it is collected by the state while in others it is collected by organizations specifically for that purpose. The Hadith gives regulations for state collection of the fund. Ahmad says that in as much as the state may collect the contribution, the laws of Muslims require that it should be separated from the national budget (49).

The separation is done to ensure that the money collected achieves its purpose of helping the needy. Payment of Zakah can be traced back to when the Muslim religion was established. Its origin is from the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Khan says that Zakah has existed in all Muslim societies throughout history although during the colonial period it was neglected but it was later restored following the Second World War (An Introduction to Islamic Economics 81).

The main objective of collecting this fund is to provide support to specific groups of people especially those in the lower socioeconomic status. The Quran gives a list of those people who qualify to receive funds collected through this levy and they include; those in need, street children, people who have gotten debts when trying to earn an honest living, individuals who want to convert to the Islamic religion, travelers who have encountered difficulty, debtors, The people who collect Zakah and people who work for Allah (Ahmad 2010).

The needy are those whose assets are below the nisab and those whose property cannot cater for them for the whole year. The poor on the other hand are described as those who have no assets and do not have the capability to work to earn a living. The fund is given to those in debt only if the debts were incurred when they were seeking to satisfy their basic needs (Khan 2012).

Those who incurred debts through gambling or mismanagement of money do not qualify for this fund. This fund is also given to those who fight in the Holy War. Travelers are defined as those who are far away from their homes. In the past slaves also qualified for this fund but they are no more slaves. Allowing collectors of the fund to take part of it ensured that they are not tempted to steal or mismanage the fund.

Some funds were donated to people who wanted to convert to Islam to aid in spreading the religion (Khan 2012). The Hadith prohibits investment of the money collected through the means of Zakah. The money should be given directly to those in need. The family of the prophet Muhammad and his descendants are prohibited from benefiting from this fund.

The Hadith warns that there would be punishment for people who receive funds from Zakah collection yet they are not qualified. It also warns the collectors not to take more than they deserve. There is debate on whether poor people who are not Muslim can qualify for the fund. Some states prefer that before the fund is given to non Muslim; all the Muslim needs should be met.

In addition to the uses listed in the Quran, the fund can also be used for administration purposes in Organizations that manage the fund (Ahmad 2010). According to Muhammad Khan, Zakah has not achieved its expectations because of the limits imposed by governments. Zakah is also not well managed due to a lack of proper methods of accounting and inadequate monitoring.

These are the problems frequently encountered by institutions collecting this fund and should be addressed to ensure Zakah meets its expectations (81). A case in point is Pakistan, they began a centralized way of collecting the fund but to date they still have problems like interruptions in the collection and distribution of the funds (Khan 2012).

The levy is distinguished from other kinds of religious payments by various ways. Most religious contributions are voluntary, Zakah is mandatory. Unlike the other payments, which even the poor can make, this is paid by a specific group of people. The spending of other forms of payments is based on the agreement of the religious leaders. The spending of funds collected through this means is dictated by the church.

In the event that one does not pay other voluntary religious contributions, no punishment is imposed on them. If a person who is Muslim refuses to pay Zakah, they are given a penalty which is half of their wealth (Khan 1994). In summary, Zakah is an obligatory contribution of Muslims who fulfill the requirements of Nisab. Its main function is to help the needy in society and a means of giving back to Allah the greatest.

There are many issues that have changed since the time Zakah was founded by The Islamic Prophet Muhammad to date. The means of collection and the distribution have to be reviewed to be in line with current trends. This should be done in a way that ensures that the reason for the collection of the fund is still met.

Works Cited Ahmad, Abu Umar Faruq. Developments in Islamic Banking Practice: The experience of Bangladesh Boca Raton, Florida: Universal Publishers, 2010. Print.

Khan, Muhammad Akram. An Introduction to Islamic Economics, Pakistan, Islamabad: IIIT, 1994. Print.

Khan, Muhammad Akram. Islamic Economics and Finance: A Glossary, New York: Routledge, 2012. Print.

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Analyzing the Findings of Falcons Analytical Essay essay help site:edu

Findings from the Physical Store Questionnaire Analysis Falcons can meet the time differences for both the public and the private sectors. However, it is imperative that Falcons should adjust the stores opening time and the closing time. Given that the public will arrive as early as 7.30 a.m., it would be prudent for the company to open at 7 a.m. and consider closing after 6 p.m.

The claim is that the private leaves later at 5 pm and closing at time will cater for the private sector. Besides, this will ensure that the company attends to both sectors. Falcons must endeavor to have a large stock to meet the requirements of the customers. Both sectors’ customers will place large orders given that they buy stock in bulk.

However, Falcons should take note that customers in both sectors will make one visit to the stores in three months. Despite this fact, it does not mean that there will be no customers on a daily basis so long as the customers’ demands are met. Evidently, Falcons must ensure it has sufficient wooden equipment stock to meet the high demand for both sectors.

Although both sectors prefer wooden equipment, a significant percentage requires metallic equipment. The demand for office equipment and stationary is high as both sectors purchase these products in bulk. From the data, it is expected that the private and public sectors would differ in their preference to computers and office supplies. Such differences are often driven by the prices and branding.

The private sector is often brand-sensitive. Nevertheless, since both sectors purchase almost equal amounts of stock, Falcons should ensure that both sector demands are met. Based on the data, it appears that the demand for the preferred services spreads equally across all sectors. In fact, it is inherent for humans to prefer services that suit them best to those disliked.

The findings addressed by this analysis confirm this perspective as both sectors prefer quick shipment, offers, membership cards and online services to cater for their needs. Apparently, both sectors have the same thoughts regarding the services they receive. None of the customers in either sector would like to have slow shipment of their consignment or low quality services given.

The findings are accurate given that both sectors suggest that companies provide customer call-desk services to ensure that complaints are timely addressed. In normal circumstances, it is natural for customers to suggest to the companies that they should be provided with functional customer care call-desk.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These findings are relevant to Falcons in its effort to meet all the requirements of the customers in both the private and public sectors. Further, it is of great essence to note that customers are concerned with services they receive.

Findings from the Online Questionnaire Analysis Findings from online questionnaires are not always reliable. The assumption is particularly founded on the fact that the questionnaires are distributed randomly and the researcher cannot substantiate the authenticity of the respondent, their actual physical location, and validity of the feedback. Conversely, this further limits the study to only those who have access to the internet.

According to data, this signifies that a significant number of potential customers did not get a chance to respond to the questionnaires. These facts are supported by the findings under this analysis. From the data, it is indicated that only 53 percent of the customers in the public sector have previously used online service while 33 percent have never used the tool.

The discrepancy regarding accessibility of online service is evidenced by the fact that 87 percent of the private sectors have had access to online service more than twice. All the interviewees in the private sector claimed that they have previously used online services. The claim that those in the public sector prefer to purchase goods from physical stores may not be accurate given that discrepancies in accessing the internet may play a significant role.

The fact that those in the public sector feel insecure to purchase goods online is an important aspect that Falcons should consider when entering the Middle East market. The assertion is anchored on the fact that a majority of companies in the region are publicly owned.

Thus, it implies that the company must conduct an empirical study to establish the potential customers to expect in the market so that it can establish an online system for serving all customers. Additionally, Falcons must be ready to meet the demands of the substantial portion of the public sector customers who do not have access or trust the online purchasing systems.

By ensuring that there are physical stores in the target markets, Falcons will also reach the 40 percent of the private sector customers who do not trust the online purchasing systems. The public sector in the target market would also provide the largest customer base if Falcons opened additional stores that are physical.

We will write a custom Essay on Analyzing the Findings of Falcons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Based on the data, it is apparent that customers irrespective of their geographical locations have closely related service demands. The potential customers under these online findings would prefer that they should be availed with an online payment service. Additionally, it is important for Falcons to underscore the unanimous consensus amid the public and private sector regarding the demand for delivery services.

From the data, it is imperative to notice the diverse demands of the two sectors. The public sector would prefer low priced commodities as opposed to the high quality commodities. Nevertheless, the private sector embraces the opposite. While considering entering the Middle East market, Falcons should consider availing a wide range of products that will cater for the needs of the two sectors.

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Charter Communication Company: Case Analysis Analytical Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Objectivities and Strategies of Charter Communications Inc

A strategy to improve its opportunity

A strategy to mitigate threats

Competitive profile matrix

External factor matrix

References

Introduction The growth and sustainability of Charter Communication Company lie in the implementation of its objectives and business strategies. The objectives and business strategies of the organization must align with the market trend and market target (David, 2011).

Charter communications is a leading company that manufactures Internet and broadcasting cable, it provides high-speed connections to corporate organizations, government agencies and home user. The company has its headquarters in the United States.

The mission of Charter Company is to offer value to all customers. The company will achieve its goal by providing quality product and services at fair prices. The strategies of the organization align with its internal and external conditions.

Objectivities and Strategies of Charter Communications Inc The objectives of Charter Communications build on quality service to meet customer’s satisfaction. The objectives are highlighted below

To provide high-speed Internet, digital connections to its customers.

To become the leading manufacturing company in the telecom industry.

To provide affordable products and service to its customers.

To maintain its quality and transform the world with digital technology.

Charter Communications International has a projected 5.5 million client base. The company relies on its business strategy to satisfy its clients. The objectives of the organization can be achieved with an effective business strategy. The performance of the organizations is attributed to the correlation between its objectives and business strategies (Bygrave

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Innovation in Various Companies Compare and Contrast Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Nokia

Motorola

Apple

Works Cited

Innovation is the establishment of new or improved equipment and processes that are often driven by information technology, among other key factors. Product innovation comes with many benefits to both the supplier and the consumer.

Companies can only prove their responsiveness to customers’ demands through improved product quality and design. The mobile phone evolution is a good example of the role played by innovation in today’s business world.

This paper compares and contrasts the innovative abilities, successes and failures of Nokia, Motorola and Apple.

Nokia Nokia is a multinational communications company based in Keilaniemi, Espoo. The company produces mobile devices for all major market protocols and segments. Nokia continues to attract users of its exclusive multimedia devices from every part of the world.

The quick technological progress and transformation which has imbibed the mobile phone industry has greatly contributed in making Nokia what it is today. Through high end innovative abilities over the years, Nokia mobile has succeeded in creating a niche amongst the users.

This has seen the corporation come to rule the robust communication industry with their huge-spectrum of quality mobile phone products. Innovation in the mobile phone industry has been stipulated by the increasing demand of these devices in the contemporary world.

The graph below indicates the growth of mobile phone usage in the world since 1987 – 2006.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nokia has always proved its ability in innovation by designing their mobile devices in a more desirable, functional and sustainable manner that satisfies the needs of the customers.

The company has made great advancement in the modification of its mobile devices from the NMT-900 series of the 1980s, to the sophisticated modern day series.

According to Nokia, Inc., the company is known for its agility to change with the times, to match the competitive trend of the market, where changes in customers’ preferences is the key determinant (The Nokia Story).

The corporation has continued to garner much interest globally, as the most preferred choice of mobile manufacturer, owing to their ability to incorporate user-friendly features in their devices.

Unlike the old and obsolete technology of the past, modern Nokia mobile devices come with smart features that are sustained with sophisticated designs.

Modern versions of the Nokia cell phone have proved to be a major attraction to millions of users globally, who have grown to fancy the smart phone lifestyle. The latest Nokia products are based in 3G/WCDMA, EDGE/GSM and CDMA mobile technologies.

All these innovations come in sleek dimensions, compared to the bulky technologies of the past. Among the many features found in Nokia’s latest mobiles include well-sized TFT displays that have been made into a combination of amazing pixel and vibrant colours.

We will write a custom Essay on Innovation in Various Companies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The handsets are also packed with pre-installed Carl Zeiss optics and built-in cameras that are certain to provide excellent resolution. Another outstanding feature of the latest versions of the Nokia mobile is their memory feature which enables users to manage useful applications effectively.

Following is a recent graph showing the Market Share Estimates of Nokia, Motorola and Apple, among other Smartphones.

These successful innovation strategies have granted the company a global reputation as the market leader in mobile phones, for nearly two decades. This glory however, would be brought into a sudden halt by the entry of new competitors in the market.

Even though Nokia has tried to accelerate its pace of new developments in cell phone devices, their track record is much weaker compared to that of Apple (Gassee 3).

The company’s relative failure can be observed in its dwindling market share in the mobile device market, which has dropped from 40 percent five years ago to an estimated value of just 23 percent this year.

Today, the company is squeezed from the top by Apple and from the bottom by Motorola, among other upcoming companies.

Motorola Ever since its inception in the 1920s, Motorola has been defined by a culture of innovation. Unlike Nokia, whose main products are mobile phones, most of Motorola’s products are radio-related.

Motorola is widely reputed across the world, for its exclusive ability to offer state-of-the-art technology solutions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Innovation in Various Companies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company had been a leader of innovation in the communications sector and the largest manufacturer of mobile phone devices globally, before it was overtaken by Nokia in the year 1998.

Motorola has not only displayed great ability in innovative matters, but it has also proved to be a major player in the communications sector.

Recently, the company has helped to drive the evolution of the mobile phone technology from the communications product of the past to the modern multi-functional device which is characterized by numerous exciting and convenient features of the day.

Motorola’s outstanding innovation abilities can be seen in its wide collection of Smartphone which include StarTAC®, DynaTAC, RAZR® phones and the DROID™.

After many years of extensive research, Motorola would make history in 1983, when its DynaTAC 8000x was approved as the first commercial portable mobile phone in the world (Ahmed 39).

This helped in revolutionizing the entire communications industry in a manner that would change the lives of many people around the world.

The diagram below shows the performance of Motorola unit sales from 2007 – 2010.

Released in the year 1983, DynaTAC was the first mobile device by the company. This would see Motorola become more popular worldwide, as the company which brought the idea of mobile phones into the world.

In 1989, Micro TAC, the Flip Phone which had improved features was launched. This was followed closely by the Star TAC, which came amid great competition from giant competitors such as Ericsson and Nokia.

Next was the Droid, which continues to make great transformations in the sector. Today, Motorola enjoys the pride of being the hottest mobile phone brand in the world.

The company boasts a wide range of exclusive designs which include the razor-thin RAZR, Sprint and AT

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The Economic Effect of Issuing Food Stamps to Those in Poverty Research Paper college application essay help

Introduction There are several effects of issuing food stamps to people who are faced with abject poverty. The major effects are economic. These effects vary depending on location, eating habits, income and other socio-economic activities.

In my research, I will find out and analyze various effects of issuing these food stamps. To achieve objectives of the research, quantitative methods will be used.

In states with high poverty levels, the government spends millions of dollars to ensure adults and children are not faced with food insecurity. Various interventions are used including food stamps.

These interventions may have economic effects depending on the number of people placed under the program in an area. Food stamps program boost local economies by increasing beneficiaries’ purchasing power. The effects on local economies are both direct and indirect.

For instance, if beneficiaries buy food from groceries, there will be increased employment opportunities in groceries and industries which supply such stores with the goods. There are indirect and induced economic effects of food stamps too.

When groceries increase sales, industries increase their demand for packaging, transport and other services. These are induced economic effects of issuing food stamps of people faced with poverty (Bishop et al. 1996).

Research Method To find out and analyze these and other economic effects, suitable research method will be used. Qualitative data collection method is best suited for this research (Lofland et al. 2006).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Considering the nature of participants expected, a combination of structured and unstructured interviews will be used. Structured part of the interview will help to get specific answers to research questions.

Unstructured part of the interview will help the interviewers to ask questions which had not been planned. The interviewers will engage the participants using random question when it is necessary during and after the structured interview (Minichiello et al. 1990).

This method would be the most suitable because of the large number of participants to be involved in collection of data. Furthermore, personal views would be needed to. Interviewers will follow a given guide but they will not restrict respondents from straying away from expected answers.

Both closed ended and open ended questions will be asked. Participant will be introduced or trained before commencement of the interviews. Since participants will be allowed to elaborate their answers, tapes will be used to record the information.

This will allow interviewers to have all the information which will be transcripted later. Questions shall be asked only when the interviewer feels it is appropriate to ask them.

Structured Interview

For structured interview, a list of questions will be prepared before. Some of the questions will be closed-ended, while others will be open-ended. The closed-ended ones will require participants to give specific answers or figures.

For instance, some questions will require respondents to answer by saying either ‘yes‘or ‘no.’ Closed-ended questions will be used to get information about employment status, income, family size and age of respondents. Sometimes interviewees will be required to elaborate their answers.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Economic Effect of Issuing Food Stamps to Those in Poverty specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Unstructured Interview

In this type of interview neither questions nor the answers are predetermined (Minichiello et al. 1990). During the interview, interviewers will have enough room to adjust some questions which had earlier been planned.

During this time, interviewers will have to exercise a lot of control on the nature of questions they ask. The interviewer will have to be highly responsive to individual differences of participants and situational changes.

To allow respondents to speak their minds, the interviewer will have to start with broad open ended question the narrowed them to specific. Interviewees will have the opportunity to explain what they feel (Kvale, 1996).

A combination of the two methods will enable interviewers to get the required data. All interviewers will have the freedom to choose the extent of exercising either structured or unstructured methods to get the needed data.

When an interviewer feels all the questions have been answered, he or she will choose to end the interview (Minichiello et al. 1990).

The interviews can ask their respondents if there is anything they want to add or if they have a general comment. Finally, they will thank the interviewees for their time and information they have given.

Issues and Problems Which Might Emerge During Research Various issues and problems are expected to emerge during data collection. These issues may hinder the process of acquiring necessary data.

Some of the problems will be associated with interviewers, while the others will be associated with interviewees. Some of the issues expected to emerge are discussed below.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Economic Effect of Issuing Food Stamps to Those in Poverty by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Unexpected Participant Behavior

Interviewers are likely to encounter participant’s behavior which had not been expected and planned for earlier. Such behaviors include participants being late, eating, watching television, attending to children and entertaining pets during the interview.

These behaviors and lack of conducive environment may reduce concentration of interviewees. As a result, some of the answers provided will be inaccurate.

Consequences of Interviewer’s Own Actions

Some actions of interviewers are likely to make participants uncomfortable during the interview. Such actions create suspicions between interviewer and interviewee. Discussion of Religious beliefs and political affiliations should be avoided before, during and after the interview (Kvale, 1996).

Interviewers can also talk too much or interfere with participants instead of allowing them to finish what they are saying. Making of certain assumptions before starting the interview can jeopardize the quality of interview.

Phrasing and Negotiating Questions

It is difficult to keep participants focused on research topic which had been introduced. Open-ended questions may not be well phrased allowing participants to discuss irrelevant issues. Interviewer might be forced to keep reminding participants of the limitation of the interview topic.

If a participant fails to focus on research questions, a lot of unnecessary conversation will be recorded and subsequently transcripted.

Since people understand explanation differently, phrasing questions might not give a desired response. However, when rephrased, a different response is given.

Dealing with Sensitive Issues

During the interview, interviewers may be required to ask questions touching on sensitive issues. Interview questions might remind participants of painful events. As a result, a participant may refuse to respond due to his or her emotional situation.

Interviewers will have to comfort participants first before continuing with the interview (Anderson

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Identifying Potential Malicious Attacks, Threats, and Vulnerabilities Exploratory Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

The three fundamental concepts of security are availability, integrity, and confidentiality. These concepts are commonly referred to as CIA or AIC triad which form the main role of any security program.

Confidentiality prevents unauthorized disclosure of company’s data and ensures secrecy of the company’s data and information.

Confidentiality should be maintained at all times while data is within the company’s network or during transmission through the network to its destination (Parikka 2007).

Threat sources associated with confidentiality include network Monitoring, monitoring key strokes or screen, stealing of password files, social engineering.

Countermeasures are encrypting data during storage and transmission by using network padding, employing strict access control mechanisms and data classification, training personnel on proper procedures.

Associated threat sources include viruses, logic bombs and backdoors. Countermeasures include strict access control, intrusion detection and hashing. Availability ensures reliability and accessibility to data and resources to authorized individuals, malicious attacks and threats.

There is a set of mechanisms used by firewalls to protect networks from unauthorized access and allowing access to the authorized once. Below is a figure of a firewall.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has two working firewalls, threats associated with firewalls, as software, include penetration, i.e. hackers being able to get into the companies machines (Ludwig 1996).

This may be a result of a misuse of the software (Firewall) where the firewall is configured or modified by a person who doesn’t understand internet security or it is turned off.

As a result of malfunctioning of the firewall viruses, trojan horses, or worms, may gain access to the network causing serious damage or loss of data and information. In addition, computers may also be destroyed in case of such attacks.

Firewall may also develop bugs and flaws leading to its malfunction. Unauthorized deletion is yet another threat to the company’s network as there will be no control of access. It is thus very important that we ensure firewalls of the company are well configured and updated often.

Windows 2008 Active Directory Domain Controllers (DC) – These are servers that control access to the network resources. Domain controllers work with computers with Windows NT Operating system. The company has two DC.

One is the main or primary DC that controls access to the network resource and the secondary DC which acts as a reserve just incase the primary DC fails or assists the Primary DC when busy e.g. during heavy network traffic.

The main threat associated with DC is Password cracking by hackers (Ludwig 1993). A hacker is any unauthorized person trying or having gained an access to the network resources.

We will write a custom Essay on Identifying Potential Malicious Attacks, Threats, and Vulnerabilities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hacking in to the company’s network can be prevented by changing of passwords often, using strong passwords that are not easy to guess and lastly by ensuring that the company hires employees that are loyal and can’t disclose passwords to strangers.

Web / FTP server – This is an application (.html) running the File Transfer Protocol. FTP is the protocol in which files are transferred through the internet, it also provides file security.

These threats can be prevented by proper configuration of routers and the IP protocol and by ensuring that the company has a secure Sockets Layer (SSL) which is a protocol that ensures secure transfer of data between Web browsers and Web servers.

File server – This is a computer on a network responsible for providing a location for a shared file access or shared disk access, i.e. shared storage of computer files e.g. photographs, movies, documents etc.

The three file servers in the company’s network face the likelihood of attacks from Viruses, Trojan horses or worms in case there is no firewall or it is malfunctioned, these elements may cause serious damage to the storage devices of the file servers, thus affecting shared disk access by other computers in the network.

Exchange E-mail server – It works hand in hand with MS- Outlook. It enables users in a network to safely access communications like e-mail messages, instant messaging, and text messages from their devices such as desktops and mobile devices or Web browsers.

Wireless access point (WAP) – Wireless application protocol is a secure specification providing instant communication access for users with wireless hand held devices such as mobile phones etc.

The company’s wireless access point (WAP) faces the threat of eavesdropping which may expose the company’s confidential data and / or information to unauthorized people. Eavesdropping can be prevented by encrypting data packets sent from one device to another.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Identifying Potential Malicious Attacks, Threats, and Vulnerabilities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company’s wireless access point (WAP) is vulnerable to attacks from viruses, Trojan horses or worms that may cause difficulty or lack of communication in the company leading to serious problems and loss.

To prevent attacks to the company’s Wireless access point (WAP), the firewalls must be in good working condition at all times.

Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS) –This is a system that detects unauthorized access to the network. It does this by monitoring the network traffic for signs of malicious activities.

The company’s NIDS faces threats, such as denial of service attack tools such as firewalls that can block the malicious elements, programs or persons trying to access the company’s network and cause destruction to the computers, alter the organization of data files or cause loss of data files leading the company incurring huge losses.

To prevent such attacks and threats security measure needs to be put in place like ensuring that firewalls are installed and are working efficiently (Gunn 1984).

Desktop / Laptop computers – A computer is an electronic device that accepts user’s data as input, processes it using special programs to more meaningful state that can be understood by the user as output called information.

Computers face threats such as theft. This can be prevented by hiring guards and by ensuring that the computer rooms are burglar proofed.

VoIP telephone system – VoIP stands for Voice over Internet Protocol. It is a digital telephone service that uses the public Internet and private backbones for call transport.

VoIP calls can originate and terminate from regular telephones since support for the public switched telephone network (PSTN) is also provided.

Through VoIP telephone system the company faces the threat of eavesdropping which may expose the company’s confidential data and / or information to unauthorized people, resulting into exposure of confidential data to strangers (Hancock 1998).

Eavesdropping can be prevented by encryption of data packets sent from one device to another.

Proper implementation of security control should be put in place and adhered to for the company to be safe from the above attacks, threats, and vulnerabilities.

These problems continue to make computer based operations difficult and unless proper measures are taken this problem will persist now and in the future.

References Gunn, J.B. (1984). Use of virus functions to provide a virtual APL interpreter under user control. ACM SIGAPL APL Quote Quad archive (ACM New York, NY, USA), 14(4), 163–168.

Hancock, B (1998). Steps to a Successful Creation of a Corporate Threat Management Plan. Computer Fraud

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Change Analysis on Apple Incorporated’s Workplace Research Paper college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature Review

Analysis

Synthesis

Conclusion

References

Introduction There were some changes in Apple Incorporated workplaces with the aim of improving working conditions for its employees. These changes were implemented to ensure that there was maximum utilization of man power and other equipment towards achievements of organizational goals.

Changes in the workplace were triggered by the need for effective workmanship aimed at providing enough products for consumers in the market. This came up due to increasing demand of Apple computers in the world markets.

This demand was instigated by the need to have machines that can share and access digital videos. Technological advancement in the world today has caused many firms to develop strategies aimed at protecting their market (Schermerhorn, 2005).

For instance, people have been forced to adapt various methods of communication where they can have live chats and video calls. These needs have caused many companies to change their setups with the aim of reaching their customers effectively.

Apple Incorporated changed its workplace set up and rules with the aim of ensuring that customers are given first priority in everything the organization does. These changes included scheduling of employees to make sure that there is continuity in production.

This means that duties were arranged in a way such that work stations will be occupied at all times. Some employees were required to report to their duties at night with others manning them during daytime.

Work was arranged exceptionally well so that every expert was allocated a given work to ensure that time is not wasted. In many cases, employees end up being underutilized in situations where they overcrowd at work stations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some tasks can be attended to by one technician at a time hence in cases where employees gather around work stations, a lot of manpower is wasted (Dubrin, 2012).

Apple Incorporated, therefore, developed a strategy to ensure that all employees work from individual work stations hence utilizing time and manpower to the maximum. As a result, this enhances productivity in work places because all employees meet their set targets.

Literature Review Apple Incorporated works hard to ensure that employee rights are respected in order to enhance proper working relations among them. The management came up with an extremely vigorous program of addressing different needs of workers throughout their industries.

This was aimed at ensuring that employees received maximum attention from the management. This included problem solving hence makes them develop trust which promotes working relationships.

These changes were adapted following incidences where employees could complain that they are being victimized by their senior officers. This is particularly unfortunate for any organization because lack of respect leads to declining morale among employees (Dubrin, 2012).

In addition, these issues can cause workers to shift to other organizations where they feel respected and honored for the jobs that they do.

Furthermore, Apple Incorporated management came up with strategies of ensuring that employees are paid better wages that reflect the work they do for the organization.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Change Analysis on Apple Incorporated’s Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This means that compensation schemes had to be revised to reflect individual performances and efforts in the organization.

The management advocated for improved standards of working environments. This means that all workshops and industries were adjusted to meet the requirements meant for factory setups (Daft and Marcic, 2012).

These adjustments targeted safety measures where escape routes were provided and alarm systems installed to alert employees in cases of dangers such as fire. Ventilation was considered to ensure that all employees are comfortable whenever working.

In fact, most work stations received air conditioning machines to ensure that employees adjust their surrounding temperatures whenever need arises. Supervisors were required to treat workers in a humane manner to ensure that their working environment is friendly.

This was important because, in some companies, senior officers harass their juniors making life unbearable in work places. Such situations affect productivity of employees as they work under pressure and this may increase chances of causing errors in their work pieces.

Work place code of conduct was set up to be observed by everyone in the organization. These are meant to guide operations of the organization in accordance with labor laws (Daft and Marcic, 2012).

These include antidiscrimination rules, which caution employees against discriminatory acts in the work place. For instance, recruitment of employees should follow an open and fair procedure that does not allow discrimination of qualified personnel.

Both male and female applicants are subjected to fair scrutiny to get the best candidate for the job. This discourages situations where qualified people are locked out of job position due to their gender.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Change Analysis on Apple Incorporated’s Workplace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, there are rules set to guide recruitment and employment of experts to work in supplier firms based in various countries. These make sure that no one is discriminated against because of their race or color of the skin.

Apple incorporated ensures that everyone has equal rights of getting jobs with their organization at all times. All they require is qualified personnel regardless of where they come from, and they use this strategy to capture markets for their products.

In fact, they depend on local people to market their products since locals understand consumer behaviors of people in places where they grew up more than any other place.

Furthermore, the company developed worker empowerment programs whereby employees are given powers to raise issues without fear. This is meant to improve the quality of products offered by the company to the market.

For example, employees may come up with ideas aimed at improving efficiency of Apple computers or related software.

Empowering employees enhance confidence in whatever they think hence they may convene a meeting comprising of their colleagues and bosses to express their ideas (Schermerhorn, 2005). The organization may decide to adapt those ideas hence improving their devices.

This translates to getting customers as competition in the market calls for best products in terms of affordability and efficiency. Empowering employees result to development of confidence among workers hence improving productivity.

Another change in Apple’s work place is the creation of supplier employee education and development program. This has enabled the company to train all employees involved in handling of Apple devices across the globe.

The program ensures that employees work with the aim of maximizing market share hence they are given proper education on customer service. This involves educating them on how to respond to customer questions positively hence using the information to improve products.

Employees are encouraged to involve consumers before and after they purchase Apple devices in order to build trust among them hence earning loyalty.

Apple Company ensures that they treat workers in a humane manner, and they involve them in dialogue whenever there are issues hence motivating them to work towards achieving organizational goals.

Managing these changes is hugely crucial to the organization as both the management and employees need to understand each other hence improving their working relationships.

Employees need to be protected and respected in their work places in order to deliver quality services to the employer. This is important because a stressful work place makes people to regret ever working for the organization, and they may fail to meet the set quality standards.

This failure may be deliberate or due to negligence as workers lose the will to work for the organization.

Analysis Currently the company is trying to adapt some changes aimed at improving work places for employees. For instance, the current situation where work stations are crowded makes working environment unfriendly for the employees.

The company is working hard to ensure that the situation is improved in order to achieve the set goals of creating standardized working environments. In addition, there was discrimination experienced in recruiting workers in some countries where they run supplier firms.

The situation affected the company immensely by tinting its image in the eyes of its customers (Daft, 2007). Managers decided to come up with a strategy of auditing all firms to find out how some operations are effected.

Auditors have uncovered a lot of dirty games played by firms’ managers and senior officers in those countries. T

he recommendations made by auditors are being taken seriously to ensure that organizations get back to the right track. For instance, employee recruitment process has been made to be open and fair to everyone to avoid incidences where people get discriminated.

It has been observed in the recent past that employees were forced to work for more hours. In addition, they were unfairly compensated hence calling for immediate actions to be taken. In response to this, the organization has ensured that proper scheduling is done to ensure equity.

This means that employees are supposed to work for given hours and allowed to go and rest. They have come up with shifts where some people work during the day while others work at night. Employees are entitled to some off days alongside the annual leave from work.

In fact, the company has opted to observe labor laws strictly to ensure that employees receive optimum care as outlined in labor acts (Daft and Marcic, 2012).

Finally, the Apple Company has decided to adapt employee education and development with the aim of team building. This helps employees to reach customers without problems as they are given appropriate skills on how to approach potential and existing customers.

Synthesis The company has decided to use several alternative means to implement changes in the work places. These include involving workers in improvement programs by emphasizing on dialogue with the leaders.

This means that organizations can set up forums with their employees where they learn about burning issues from workers. In fact, reasoning with employees is highly crucial because they are on the ground hence providing the best recommendation aimed at improving their work places.

The company has decided to use private auditors to find out what happens in their firms. These auditors make use of company employees and management to gather information that helps them in drawing their conclusions regarding the changes in work places.

Employees are expected to give information regarding their satisfaction in their work places in order to highlight any problems they experience.

Confidentiality is promised, and this encourages them to give all information to auditors since they are assured that the information cannot be used against them in future (Daft and Marcic, 2012).

The Apple Company has decided to contract other companies to help in supplying their devices to various parts of the world. This helps them to ease the burden of employing many employees leading to poor management in terms of compensation.

This happens where the company is torn between paying better salaries and minimizing cost. They opt to outsource so that they can share the responsibility of improving work places with other organizations.

In fact, they have been able to implement most of the recommendations highlighted by auditors hence improving working conditions for their workers.

Conclusion Apple incorporated decided to evaluate its organization management and operations in order to improve working conditions for their workers.

They came up with several steps aimed at finding out weaknesses in their systems in order to handle them hence improving conditions of their employees.

The company was determined to implement changes in order to make their work places better hence developing several strategies aimed at improving their work stations. These included ensuring employees are entitled to fair treatment by their leaders (Daft, 2007).

They provided safe and friendly working environment to ensure that employees get comfortable work places. Employees were involved in teambuilding activities to ensure that they develop a sense of brotherhood in the work places.

The company made critical decisions, which included hiring private auditors to find out all issues affecting their workers. They wanted to get the correct information regarding the situation at work places in order to set the way forward.

As a result, they came with code of conduct for workplaces which included antidiscrimination rules. This was meant to ensure equity in recruitment of officials and other workers.

References Daft, R. L. (2007). Management. New York: Cengage Learning.

Daft, R. L.

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