Road Rage: Aggression On The Road Essay Essay Help Online

Driving is an involving activity and people experience many negative emotions especially if they are experiencing a traffic jam or if other drivers are acting inconsiderately. This might result in road rage, a condition caused by annoyance and that often results in aggression on the road. Road rage increases the probability of a driver committing traffic offences or even risking the lives of other road users. Stricter laws should therefore be passed to discourage people from engaging in road rage.

Road rage causes aggressive driving which may result in fatal accidents. When a driver experiences road rage, he/she may engage in reckless driving in an effort to retaliate or frustrate the other driver. Some of these aggressive driving includes following other vehicles too closely and switching lanes at random and without indicating.

Some drivers drive at excessive speeds and ignore stoplights because of road rage. Such behaviour increases the likelihood of accidents being caused by the driver who has road rage. Media reports reveal that the number of accidents caused by road rage is on the increase. This accidents are not only restricted to the drivers on the road. The lives of people not directly involved in the confrontation such as cyclists and pedestrians are also jeopardized by road rage.

Road rage leads to distractions on the road as the driver focuses on activities such as verbal arguments with other drivers. In some instances of road rage, drivers engage each other in verbal insults or make rude hand gestures at each other. I have seen drivers stick their hands outside their windows as they engage other drivers in intense arguments.

As they are doing this, their attention is not on the road. This is an important consideration since drivers are required to demonstrate high levels of alertness to the road and their surroundings at all times. This distraction caused by road rage increases the chances of causing an accident as the drivers focus less on the road.

Road rage can cause physical fights between drivers with bad results. The high frustration experienced during road rage can cause drivers to physically attack each other. Because of the great anger felt, the physical violence can lead to severe consequences. For example, there are cases where the injuries inflicted on a driver lead to assault charges being made against the aggressive driver. A driver therefore risks having a criminal record because of damages inflicted because of road rage.

In addition to the annoyance caused to other road users, road rage causes disturbance to businesses that are near the road. Road rage is often characterized by loud yelling by the drivers involved. Other drivers engage in unnecessary honking in an attempt to get the attention of the other drivers or to annoy them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I have encountered this disruption at my favourite cafe, which happens to be near a road. The noise caused because of road rage often spoils the atmosphere at the cafe. Road rage disrupts the activities of nearby businesses, which have to deal with all the noise being generated.

Increases in the cases of road rage have made our roads more unsafe than they were in the past. This paper has argued that stricter laws should be put in place to help discourage this behaviour. To support this claim, a discussion of some of the negative causes of road rage has been made. Every safety-minded citizen should support strict legislation against road rage in order to make the roads safe for everyone.

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Heartland And Hinterland Relationship Concept in Canada Term Paper essay help online

Introduction Heartland Concept

At the onset of the 20th Century, while working on the geopolitical situation and geo-economic setup of Europe and Asia, Halford Mackinder conceptualized the pivot area (Ismailov and Papava 84). This later improved into the fully fledged concept of Pivot Area (or the heartland Concept).

Mackinder drew opinion from the global historical activities on the premises that the world was segmented into pockets of areas that individually had distinctive functions (Ismailov and Papava 85). For instance, the initial modernization of Europe was an aftermath of foreign forces. He postulated that the progress and expansion within Europe resulted from an influential pressure at the Asia core.

Thus, the Heartland had the influence of a pivot on nearly every geopolitical transformation that had historical perspective within the World Island (Ismailov and Papava 85). In this case, the Concept of Heartland applied within the geographic context of Asia and Europe (Ismailov and Papava 85). Heartland theory develops the geostrategic nexus between spatial control and supreme governance (Scott and Alcenat 4).

In the Canadian perspective, a progressive economic situation thrives where economic activities involve market exchange between the industrial heartland and natural resource rich hinterland (Billen, Garnier and Barles 249). This paradigm has predominated geographical perspectives in Canada.

Heartland-hinterland approach is synonymous or relative to the metropolitanism in which the metropolises (or the heartland) are the epicenters for government, industry, commerce and trade as well as political power but allow interdependent linkages with the peripherals (or the hinterland). Heartlands are suitable areas with physical qualities that relatively support industrial activities at all levels; superiorly than the surrounding environs (hinterlands) (Horne 48).

Figure 1: The Canada’s Heartlands

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Adopted from Filion (31)

Hinterland Concept Basically, hinterland refers to the rear region from which raw resources driving heartland originate from. The hinterland’s (periphery) of Canada comprise of the western, northern as well as the Atlantic Provinces (Akwawua 6).

The hinterland includes the Maritime Provinces that were the symbol of early industrialization in Canada. Urbanized areas in the hinterland include the Calgary, Vancouver, Winnipeg and Edmonton (Filion 5). The criticism on the conceptual framework of the heartland-hinterland approach focus on the main relationship subsets such as labor, direction of resources flow, capital and commodities supplies to the market from either the hinterland or heartland (Matteo 3).

The Concept of Heartland

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Information Security Profile for Air Force Reserve Command Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Controls and specified standards

Conclusion

References

Introduction The United States Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) incorporates operations, technological adjustments in war fighting and develops Airmen. This body deters nuclear operations, command and control, offers combat support, and ensures superiority on cyberspace. Since it offers services to third parties, the public, it has outlined some controls to make sure that its set standards are not overstepped (U.S Air Force Reserve Snapshot, 2012).

Therefore, AFRC aims at long-term and high value services to the entire concerned partners and clients. For example, in managing its information system, the body ensures that there are well explained and coordinated procedures of handling the whole information. These may include channels of communication and modalities that the information must follow to the required destination, the precautions that must be taken when handling such information, and the parties that can get access to information.

These rules assist AFRC in upholding democratic processes in the entire society; hence, ensuring accountability and transparency among societal leaders. Notably, information confidentiality is an essential factor in determining the modalities, channels and delivery systems (U.S Air Force Reserve Snapshot, 2012). Again, the number and kind of people who are authorized to handle such information and fundamental elements that are determined in information processing.

On the other front, the drastic and steady change in technology has forced the AFRC to apply controls, which could help to minimize illegal access to some information by third parties. Worst still, some third parties can un-authentically gain access to these pieces of information and even go ahead to block the messages from further access.

This information vulnerability makes it a necessity to set up controls that can help guard the reports (Freedom of Information Act, n.d.). For instance, illegal access to information in a website do not require forceful intrusion and the hacker must not be close the owners to break into their infrastructural system. Since AFRC is a national organization, it needs to ensure that its plans and operations are secretly guarded to avert information leakage to the wrong parties.

Controls and specified standards The specialized force only under exemptions allows some individuals to gain access to information that is not meant for the public. This control helps to maintain the secrets that are contained in the messages, as there are properly-guided procedures under which a person can view some information (Freedom of Information Act, n.d.).

Only verified people can access these pieces of information with prior knowledge of the specialized force. From this perspective, AFRC is attempting to practice information authenticity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, this control shows that although AFRC established a website on Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), there are procedures that one has to follow in order to gain access to information. Evidently, an individual’s information freedom is controlled. The control helps the Reserve Command to maintain their set standard on information accessibility by third parties.

Additionally, there is a control on information accessibility by any person. This occurs when one of the outlined nine exemptions prohibits information disclosure to the public. The protection to federal agency records is also guarded by the special law enforcement record exclusions (Freedom of Information Act, n.d.).

Precisely, one of the three laws upholds the inaccessibility of such information. A control of this nature guarantees information privacy. For example, one cannot gain access to such information that should not be disclosed to the public even though one has a right to seek judicial address from the court of law. As a result, there is control on information accessibility; it ensures adherence to standards by preventing an unauthenticated access to information.

However, not all information is kept off the public’s access, as they become informed on the fundamental functions of democratically elected leaders; therefore, being able to hold them accountable of any misconduct. At the same time, it encourages leadership transparency by minimizing unethical practices like corruption and nepotism.

Moreover, there is a control that AFRC applies to records held by individuals, courts, and local government bodies. It holds that the citizens must request for information access in the records that the above listed bodies hold. Remarkably, individual states have their own managerial laws that guide their operations (Military Introduction, n.d.).

Therefore, people have to consult their respective states in order to access these pieces of information. At AFRC, FOIA only guards federal agencies; therefore, there is no authenticity in accessing other records from institutions like the courts. Another control that this organization monitors, that is the fees for processing FOIA. The requesters’ are divided into three categories. These three groups pay different fees in order to access the same information.

The categories are in terms of intended use of the information or message. For instance, commercial use, educational use, and media use. Information for commercial use, for example, pays reproduction, search, and review fee. On the other hand, information for scientific studies, which are non-commercial levies only reproduction fees and are given the first 100 printable pages at no cost.

We will write a custom Report on Information Security Profile for Air Force Reserve Command specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Occasionally, a fee waiver can be in force that is, pieces of information that their disclosure are deemed to significantly help the public undergo through this process. Public’s access to information empowers them to understand the roles of different government agencies (The Presence of Commercial/External Links, n.d.). Notably, the requester must not use such information for commercial purposes. A deep scrutiny is done to validate the intended use of these pieces of information.

These notwithstanding, AFRC ensure information security through provision of mailbox details and website where people can send their FOIA requests. Obviously, this technique ensures information security as no third parties are incorporated in the whole inquiry process.

Alternatively, if one needs information for personal use, he/she must prove beyond doubt to the AFRC that he/she is the only person requesting for such information.

Specifically, the person must prove his/her identity during requisition. Notably, requesters who have close affiliation to Air force are prohibited from using government materials and equipment like office mail and telephones channels during FOIA requisition. This approach maintains high standard of security for the information available.

People are also not required to release their e-mails like organizational and personal e-mails (The Presence of Commercial/External Links, n.d.). This step helps to protect internal information, as it could violate the agency’s regulations. If the information is released through e-mail, it would create unwarranted loopholes that would allow for unauthorized access to certain information hence privacy violation.

On situations where one uses his/her personal postal address or e-mail to communicate to AFRC, the details could only be used to communicate back to the person. According to The Presence of Commercial/External Links (n.d.), the information the client has sent can only be shared with a relevant agency dealing in the same line.

This control ensures public confidence and loyalty in this organization. Outstandingly, a person is not required to give other personal details like social security numbers during communication. Therefore, the control also protects violation of personal privacy thus maintaining the standards that the organization has set to follow.

Furthermore, AFRC has established a computer system that collects statistical data. During this process, the software in the computer can detect any unauthorized access to a given website (The Presence of Commercial/External Links, n.d.). Internet hackers can alter, damage, or erase all information in a website.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Information Security Profile for Air Force Reserve Command by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Evidently, the organization has put in place a modern technological application that assists in mitigating illegal activities that could tamper with information and violates an individual’s privacy. Simultaneously, this control helps in assessing pieces of information that are mostly read and those that are least read; this also helps in management of sites.

Conclusion Conclusively, the controls put forward by AFRC, surely, help in ensuring high standards in service delivery and development of trust among its stakeholders. In addition, the organization has clearly prohibited against accessing private sites, altering information, uploading information, and denying other people services.

These acts are punishable in court. For example, unauthorized access of password-protected data leads to imprisonment for a term of not more than twenty years or subjection of a fine under the title (Military Introduction, n.d.).

Notably, these charges are levied if the victim’s access to the information was for personal financial gain and the act furthered criminal or tortious acts, such as causing physical injuries to any person. Therefore, such controls ought to be fully implemented so that the integrity of the Air force command remains higher than any other organization.

References Freedom of Information Act. (n.d.). Air Force Reserve Command. Retrieved from https://www.publicaffairs.af.mil/

Military Introduction. (n.d.). Global Security. Retrieved from https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/intro/index.html

The Presence of Commercial/External Links. (n.d.). Air Force Reserve Command. Retrieved from https://www.afrc.af.mil/

U.S Air Force Reserve Snapshot. (2012). Air Force Reserve Command. Retrieved from https://www.afrc.af.mil/

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Voluntary disclosure reporting Essay college essay help

Voluntary (or market) disclosure reporting presents beneficial social and environmental impacts on a company, compared to pressure-oriented one. Market disclosure reporting is on the rise (Peiyuan 2005, p.1). The content of market disclosure is designed to justify social values held by the company, keep pressure groups at bay, integrate the corporate social responsibility components as well as build the corporate image (by enhancing brand benefits) (Buniamin 2010, p.117; Peiyuan 2005, p.3).

This form of reporting can be the bases upon which a company achieves certification (such as ISO 14001) that proves environmental best practices are observed during company operations (that is, from cradle to grave of product life), particularly on pollution matters (Buniamin 2010, p.117).

Annual company reports that supplement financial statements allow pertinent stakeholders to access environmental information. According to Peiyuan (2005, p.3), most companies in China increasingly prefer corporate annual reports. While the annual reports are accessible to investors, corporate boards (decision makers) as well as the larger public, the disclosure index is strictly under check since they are the main information tools for the company.

The other channel of reporting is social and environmental impact assessment (SEIA). These reports are highly technical and professional. These reports disclose comprehensively the outcomes from public participation and consultation with the regard to the pollution causes and impacts. Such requirements are hardly needed for corporate annual reporting. Moreover, SEIA report presents a broad spectrum for the disclosure index.

Since the printing company has potential sources of adverse pollution of air, land and noise, competitors and pressure groups can use the SEIA report to the company’s detriment. Corporate annual reports are relevant but rarely subject to environmental audits. Moreover, annual corporate reports focus on initiatives made towards environmental sustainability and conservation, rather than environment degradation, in particular.

To a larger extent, corporate annual reports are marketing tools, thus, a wide range of media platforms can be used (Hooghiemstra 2000, p.56). As a company communicates directly to its investors (shareholders), environmental information can be packaged alongside financial statements.

Various media platforms allow diversified report setting: board member or conference meeting (use pamphlets and power-point notes), mass media (use radio and television commentaries and adverts) as well as journal publication for long-term reference purposes. It is highly likely that curious and/or keen audience will receive information, since the packaging of annual reports is public friendly (Hooghiemstra 2000, p.56).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Concerns raised by any audience on the state of the environment can form the bases for a comprehensive SEIA study reporting. It is evident that proponents incur high financial costs while undertaking SIEA studies and audits, thus, should be undertaken when necessary or when adverse impacts are unforeseeable (zero/ null alternative).

Since annual financial reporting is mandatory for any business, accommodating social and environmental aspects within the same report reduces cost of duplicating efforts. In other words, it allows for common budget planning and handling of different corporate annual report themes at a go. Printing services pollute less compared to coal ad fossil fuel combustion facilities or paper and plastic manufacturers.

The fact that the client has the option to discern (exercise due diligence) between the choice of paper (recycled or non-recycled) the blame for pollution shifts from the company to the next party. However, the company has the duty to inform, educate, and advocate for what is environmentally friendly. Legislations on and the enforcement of cleaner production may negate the need for SEIA reports.

References Buniamin, S 2010, ‘The Quantity and Quality of Environmental Reporting in Annual Report of Public Listed Companies in Malaysia’, Issues in Social and Environmental Accounting, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 115-135. Web.

Hooghiemstra, R 2000, ‘Corporate Communication and Impression Management– New Perspectives Why Companies Engage in Corporate Social Reporting’, Journal of Business Ethic, vol. 27, pp. 55–68. Web.

Peiyuan, G 2005, Corporate Environmental Reporting and Disclosure in China. Web.

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Stereotypes of Islam and Muslims in the West Term Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Stereotypes of Islam and Muslims in the West

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The daily occurrences where relationships between Muslims and non-Muslims are strained have become a critical issue in the recent past. This is coupled with the publicity that the Muslim community is usually given when it comes to Islam and the Muslim world, and their positions regarding controversial issues such as terrorist activities and militarization/armament programs. In this paper, I explore the stereotypes which exist against Islam and the Muslim community.

Stereotypes of Islam and Muslims in the West The negative stereotypes against the Muslim community are thought to be worsened “by the considerable rise in scientific and media publications about Islam which took place in the last three decades” (Shadid 20-23). In addition, occurrences such as the Gulf War, the revolution in Afghanistan, the Rushdie affair and the Iranian revolution has served only but to increase these stereotypes (Shadid 20-23).

As Muslims continue to migrate to countries such as those of the European Union, the stereotyping of Muslims becomes a controversial and tense issue which should not be overlooked (Shadid 23-25). This is because it has dawned on the governments of Western Europe that their societies will be swollen with a considerable number of immigrating Muslims who’s cultural and religious backgrounds are different (Halliday 223; Hippler 27-50).

The contacts between different persons in such countries are mutually defined by stereotypes and prejudice. These occurrences have been evident in various reports, especially in the media where the Muslim community is depicted as being irrational, dangerous, primitive, fanatics and belligerent (Halliday 23-43).

The Muslim community in turn has detested such statements or stereotypical statements which is a result of generalization and simplification (Halliday 223; Hippler 27-50).

Therefore, such generalization can only be described as “lack of expertise which causes a surge in fantasy and emotional stereotyping that indicates faulty knowledge” (Pool 27). As such, the mutual contacts are characterized by emotions, which are a crucial requirement, especially on how the course of mutual relationships should be regulated (Pool 27-33; Halliday 223; Shadid 18-37).

The alleged generalization and stereotyping in Western European countries can be traced back from the 1980s. Until current times, the media content is rife with stereotypical remarks and statements regarding the Muslim community. The media has been at the fore front in highlighting the alleged danger of Islam, which has continued to warn the western world against the threat posed by Muslims.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Such warnings were instigated by journalists, scientists and politicians since the 1980s and this has continued until recent times, even without the presence of substantial evidence to back up such messages (Pool 27-33; Shadid 18-37). The public figures (mentioned above) have made statements which are almost stereotypical of Islam.

They include the Chairperson of the Club of Rome, the former secretary general of the North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO), political figures in right-wing political parties especially in regions such as North America and Europe (Shadid 15). These vivid examples (and many others) indicate the enormity of the situation where the west perceives the Islamic community in a stereotypical fashion. Such occurrences have been regarded as underserved and baseless (Pool 27-33; Shadid 18-37).

According to Shadid there are rising numbers of people who continue to be aware of the stereotypical messages which have been passed across, and this continues to worsen the negative image of Muslims and Islam in western countries. This was evident after Shadid made analyses of various publications which analyzed the threat of Islam and the Muslim community to the western countries and fashion such stereotypical messages in the realm of myth (Shadid 18-37).

According to Shadid, the Islamic myth should be disregarded because of different reasons such as the non-existence of significant military action by the Islamic community against the west. This is contrary to encounters of Muslim immigrants in the west who have frequently been victimized and attached to terrorist actions, which are usually approaches pursued by extremists.

Such countries have stereotyped, rejected and even threatened to send these Muslim suspects out of their countries. Other allegations of prejudice such as the incompatibility of the Muslim culture with the European counterparts are usually a result of unfounded prejudice towards Islam and its followers (Shadid 21-27).

The Muslim culture in the west has been prejudiced, thus resulting to a heated debate, especially by human rights watch groups. E.g. polygamy, unveiling girls, and female circumcision which have been thought to have a negative influence on Islamic education especially regarding matters of religion.

Shadid pointed out the mythical character of the Islamic threat to the west by suggesting that it is a false assumption of the nations of western origin that minority populations (in the Muslim community) are more loyal to the nations at home (Muslim nations) than the nations to where they immigrated to (host countries). The assumption depicted above “was evident during the Rushdie Affair and the Gulf War” (Shadid 23).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Stereotypes of Islam and Muslims in the West specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Halliday, the perceived Islamic threat to the west is a lie and an illusion. Thus Halliday has pointed out the fact that the Islamic world which is perceived to be unified is non-existent. Furthermore, even if it were to exist, the military and economic power falls short of competing with the west (Halliday 15-20).

Several authors have pointed out that the nature of the hostility which is depicted by the western nations towards Islam can be regarded as that which is based on xenophobia, racism, and elements which are stereotypical.

According to Halliday, such a phenomenon is called anti-Muslimism, a term which underpins the kind of hostility which is depicted towards the Muslim community at large and not only to individual persons (Halliday 15). According to Shadid, anti-Muslim propaganda does not strictly entail elements which are religious, but depicts a mixture “spurious rhetoric and other ideologies that are murky” (Shadid 2).

According to Halliday, two types of anti-Muslimism are established. These variants are the strategic and populist anti-Muslimism. The strategic variant of anti-Muslimism has been thought to emanate from the United States. This variant is related to and worsened by issues such as nuclear weaponry, oil reserves and issues of terrorism (Halliday 23-50).

Halliday points out that this variant of anti-Muslimism accrued in the 1970s and is a result of crises in the Oil Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC). Other issues which are underpinned in this variant include others such as hostages of the United States Team in Tehran, the 1993 incident where the world trade centre was bombed, and the Iranian attempt to produce atomic energy using uranium. Such issues depict how anti-Muslimism has been propagated by prejudiced media (Halliday 23-50).

According to Halliday, the populist variant of anti-Muslimism is found predominantly in Western Europe, although the strategic variant may also be present in Europe. The populist variant of anti-Muslimism has been thought to be predominant in Western Europe because of its re-emergence as a reaction to the ever increasing numbers of the Muslim community in the west. This issue is worsened by issues such as veiling of girls, assimilation, race and integration (Halliday 23-50).

Halliday’s perception of anti-Muslimism assumes that the populist variant of anti-Muslimism (which began in the 1980s) is entrenched in the general immigrant attitudes, especially in Western Europe. Such sentiments that are anti-Muslim have been evident in occurrences such as rejection of veiling and foundations of Islamic schools and mosques (Halliday 23-50).

According to Shadid, the duty to correct the mythical perceptions directed towards Islam and the Muslim community has not raised any concern amongst Islamologists and social scientists. This is because many of such leaders and experts derive their sources from predominant classical religious publications to understand and give explanations for the modern developments, especially in contemporary Muslim societies (Halliday 23-50).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Stereotypes of Islam and Muslims in the West by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Shadid, the ivory tower approach has depicted inability to comprehend the political ad socio-economic development. These issues cannot be explained by referring only to the Quran, views of Ulamas and the Sunna. It is inexorable that the above approach creates new stereotypes and cannot curb existing ones (Shadid 12-40).

Conclusion According to Hippler, western countries have persistently assumed that western values are incompatible with those of Islam. This is by focusing on the areas of conflict between western and Muslim cultures, while ignoring the similarities which exist (Hippler 23-43). Hippler argued that such a phenomenon only occurs in cases where some people in the west are determined to maintain the negative image of Islam and the Muslim community (Hippler 23-43).

Works Cited Halliday, Herman. Islam and the Myth of Confrontation: Religion and Politics in the Middle East, New York: Tauris Publishers, 1995. Print.

Hippler, Shamir. Foreign Policy, the Media and the Western Perception of the Middle East, New Jersey; Hampton Press, 1998. Print.

Pool, Ali. Framing Islam: An Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of Islam in the British Press, Hampton Press: New Jersey, 1987. Print.

Shadid, Ali. De islam in het Westen: onbekend enonbemind, New York: Tauris Publishers, 1999. Print.

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Treatment of women by Shakespeare and Sophocles Essay best essay help: best essay help

Othello, The moor of Venice was a play written by William Shakespeare and has contributed to his reputation as a great poet. Oedipus, was a play written by Sophocles and has secured great audience. There is similarity in both plays on how women are treated in the society. The essay will focus in outlining the different treatments accorded to the women as outlined by Shakespeare and Sophocles.

In both plays women are highly controlled by men in the society. Women are not accorded the right of making their own decisions. In Othello, Roderigo beliefs that he should be the one to marry Desdemona no matter what happens. Roderigo and Lago accuse Othello falsely and tell Brabanzio that he has stolen his daughter, Desdemona using witchcraft.

‘Transported, with no worse nor better guard, but with a knave of common hire, a gondolier, Shakespeare 7.’ Further, Brabanzio attempts to control his daughter’s life by accusing Othello to the senate. Consequently, Desdemona confesses that since she is married to Othello, she is submissive to him. ‘So much I challenge that I may profess

Due to the Moor my lord, Shakespeare 11.’ Lago controls Desdemona successfully and implicates her as having an affair with Cassio. Lago controls Emilia and lures her to commit crime. Emilia is submissive and obeys her husband’s order of stealing Desdemona’s handkerchief. Further, Lago attempts to silence Emilia in the end of the play after she realizes what he has done.

In Oedipus, Creon kidnaps Antigone and Ismene since he is unsuccessful in abducting Oedipus. The kidnap shows how easily women are controlled by men. Further, Creon refuses to listen to explanation given by Antigone after she buries his brother. ‘No woman’s going to govern me no, no—not while I’m still alive, Sophocles 4’

Women are accused falsely and tortured in both plays. In Othello, Lago accuses Desdemona of having an affair with Cassio. ‘O, beware, my lord, of jealousy, Shakespeare 23.’ Further, Othello accuses Desdemona of being a prostitute. Othello kills Desdemona because he thinks that she is unfaithful.

Lago kills Emilia because she tells the truth and attempts to escape. In Oedipus, Creon sentence Antigone and Ismene to death simply because they have given their brother a proper burial. Despite the fact that he forgives Ismene, he orders that Antigone should be buried alive.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Creon attempts to kill Antigone when Haemon fails to support his judgment. ‘No, not when I see you making a mistake and being unjust, Sophocles 7’ After the advice given by the blind prophet, Creon is reluctant to free Antigone. Antigone hangs herself because she is imprisoned and maltreated by Creon.

In both plays the views of women are disregard. In Othello, the views of Desdemona being in love with Othello are only taken seriously after the judgment is given by the senate. ‘Adieu, brave Moor, use Desdemona well, Shakespeare 18.’ Othello disregards the views given by Desdemona on reinstating Cassio to his position. As a matter of fact, he interprets the views presented by Desdemona as being due to an affair with Cassio.

Othello disregards the explanation that Desdemona has in regard to the accusation of being unfaithful and kills her. ‘She’s, like a liar, gone to burning hell, Shakespeare 28.’ After Othello killed Desdemona, he believed more in Lago who was lying than Emilia who was telling the truth. In Oedipus, Creon disregards the explanation given by Antigone after she buries her brother. ‘Tell me with no lengthy speech, Sophocles 6.’

The body of Antigone’s brother is exhumed which shows that her actions were disregarded by Creon. Oedipus fails to yield to Antigone’s plea of accepting his brother’s request. Oedipus refuses to be comforted by Jocasta which can be interpreted as disregard. ‘Listen to me I beg you, do not do this thing, Sophocles 18.’ Eurydice curses her husband and kills herself for the disaster that his pride has brought to the land. Eurydice had always warned Creon about his stubbornness and pride but he never yielded.

Tragedy Theme of tragedy is well featured in both plays. Oedipus starts with a flashback of tragedy. Polynices and Eteocles are children of Oedipus who fight and end up killing each other. Creon orders that Polynices’s body should not be buried. Antigone buries the body secretly and is sentenced to death along with her sister Ismene.

Afterwards Creon orders for release of Ismene but Antigone is to be buried alive in a tomb. The blind prophet however warns Creon against this act as it will bring calamity to the land. ‘How good advice is valuable—worth more than all possessions, Sophocles 9.’

Haemon is the first person who arrives at the tomb where Antigone is imprisoned. He finds out that Antigone has committed suicide and is devastated. Upon arrival of his father Creon, Haemon throws a sword but misses him. Haemon kills himself after he fails to kill his father. After Eurydice learns that his son is dead she is devastated and stabs herself as well. Creon is not able to withstand the many tragedies and begs for his own death. ‘I don’t know where to look or find support, Sophocles 11.’

We will write a custom Essay on Treatment of women by Shakespeare and Sophocles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The plague in the land is associated with murder of king Laius that took place long time ago. The remedy of the plague is based on expulsion of the murderer of King Laius from the land. His murderer happens to be his own son King Oedipus who was raised in Corinth.

His mother had sent a shepherd to kill him when he was a baby because it had been prophesied that the baby would kill his father and sleep with his mother. The shepherd opted to take the baby far away from Thebes but what had been prophesied was fulfilled since Oedipus killed his father and slept with his own mother. When Jocasta realizes that Oedipus was his son whom he has lived with as her husband she kills herself.

Oedipus stabs out his eyes and orders Creon to take care of his daughters since he should be sent to exile. ‘Take care of them, Creon; do this for me, Sophocles 19.’ Oedipus dies in Athens and the city in which he is buried is safe from calamities. Creon is the main antagonist in the play as he betrays King Oedipus.

His betrayal leads to many tragic events including death of his entire family. ‘Cruel mistakes that bring on death, Sophocles 10.’ The calamity in the land is associated with tragic murder of King Laius. Both plays have featured the theme of Tragedy as evidenced by the death of main protagonists in both plays.

In Othello, Desdemona is killed by her husband Othello because Lago makes him think that she is cheating on him. ‘O, falsely, falsely murdered! Shakespeare 30’ Roderigo plans to kill Cassio so as to prevent Othello from leaving with Desdemona since she loves her. Lago orders Roderigo to ambush and kill Cassio but instead Roderigo is wounded.

‘Here, at thy hand: be bold, and take thy stand, Shakespeare 32.’ Lago attempts to kill Cassio but only succeeds in wounding him. Lago pretends and accuses Roderigo of the attempted murder on Cassio and kills him. ‘O murderous slave! O villain! Shakespeare 33’ Lago kills Emilia after she told the truth and attempts to run away.

Lago is seized by Lodovico and Graziano. Othello wounds Lago because of his betrayal. Othello talks of how he would like to be remembered and kills himself. Lodovico gives Othello’s property to Graziano and orders for execution of Lago. ‘Graziano, keep the house, and seize upon the fortunes of the Moor, Shakespeare 36.’ Lago is the main antagonist who is the cause of tragedy.

He designs a plot to separate Desdemona and Othello which succeeds. However, the separation of Othello and Desdemona is associated with so many tragic events.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Treatment of women by Shakespeare and Sophocles by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Fairness and justice The theme of fairness is well featured by Shakespeare and Sophocles in their works. In Othello, Roderigo and Lago feign to search for justice by telling Brabanzio that Othello has stolen Desdemona using witchcraft. Brabanzio and Roderigo accuse Othello to the senate demanding him to release Desdemona.

The senate rules fairly that Desdemona should be allowed to stay with Othello since she loves him. Cassio persuades Desdemona to plead with his husband on his behalf for him to be reinstated in his position. ‘Madam, my former suit: I do beseech you, Shakespeare 23’ The ill plot by Roderigo of separating Desdemona and Othello is accorded justice by the rule made by the senate. Roderigo’s attempt to kill Cassio is fruitless and is avenged by his death.

When Cassio wounds Roderigo Lago intervenes and wounds him as well. Emilia pays for her mistakes of stealing Desdemona’s handkerchief with her life. Cassio is demoted for engaging in a fight and killing Brabanzio when he was drunk. Desdemona tries to plead with Othello to reinstate Cassio to his position to ensure justice and fairness.

‘Pray you, let Cassio be received again, Shakespeare 25.’ Further, Desdemona tries to explain to Othello that she is not involved in an affair with Cassio so that he could treat her fairly by not killing her. Othello kills Desdemona and tells Emilia that she has paid for being unfaithful to him with her life.

Emilia tells the truth as a way of ensuring fairness. Lodovico and Graziano attempt to take Othello for trial because of killing Desdemona to ensure justice. ‘To the Venetian state, come, bring him away, Shakespeare 37.’ Othello pays for killing Desdemona with his life. ‘Killing myself, to die upon a kiss, Shakespeare 39.’ Lago is sentenced to death for his crimes and all the tragedy he has caused. Cassio was appointed to replace Othello as a way of justice since he had lost his position unfairly.

In Oedipus, Antigone buries her brother as an act of being fair and respectful to him. Haemon refuses to side with injustice of his father by saying that Antigone should not be killed. ‘You’ll not catch me giving way to some disgrace, Sophocles 7.’

The blind prophet warns Creon of the impending disaster if Antigone is not freed from the tomb. Creon pays for all his crimes and unfairness by losing his entire family. The parents of Oedipus opted to kill their baby so as to prevent the injustice that had been prophesied concerning him.

The shepherd who was told to kill baby Oedipus preferred taking him to another place rather than killing him. ‘I was told to get rid of it, Sophocles 18.’ The shepherd thought that his actions could be the only way to be fair to Oedipus and his parents. The blind prophet says that the murderer of King Laius is supposed to be expelled from the land as a remedy for the calamity that has stricken the land.

When Oedipus learnt that he was the killer of his father he told Creon to send him to exile so as to pay for his sins. ‘Send me away from Thebes, Sophocles 19.’ Jocasta pays for the attempt to kill her baby with her life. Oedipus failed to support either of his sons because they did not support him when he was sent to exile.

‘Each of you suffers himself alone, Sophocles 16.’ Antigone tries to persuade his father to be lenient and fair with his sons. Athens is accorded the privilege of safety because the president helps Oedipus when he is in exile. Creon attempts to abduct Oedipus because he believes that he should be buried in Thebes for them to enjoy benefits of safety from calamities.

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Food and Beverage Management Essay college admissions essay help

A five star hotel is a place of luxury that incorporates all the facilities that you can think of from a golf field, swimming facilities, accommodation, food and beverage, to catering services (Wood 2000).

The food and beverage department is the heart of any hotel. The mission of the department is to provide food and beverage that meets highest standards so that they can keep a competitive edge in the hotel industry.

The department is managed by the food and beverage director who works hand in hand with his assistant. This department is divided into kitchen, catering, bar and stewarding sections where each section is run by its manager who is in charge of its operations.

To keep up with the competition in the hotel industry, a five star hotel has to adopt strategies that shall place it in a competitive edge above its rivals.

There are two generic strategies that can work for a five star hotel and they include differentiation and focus strategies (Washington 2005). In differentiation strategy, they can decide to produce pastries, cookies and beverages that are unique in taste and branded with the hotel name.

If this is done, then most of the guests to the five star hotel shall associate it with its facilities. On the other hand, a focus strategy shall give the hotel a class of its own.

They may focus on marketing their products and services abroad and to tourists given that the service charges for such visitors are high on the basis of their needs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is worth noting that, the food and beverage department works very closely with other departments such as those of finance and procurement. This is due to the fact that, the operating cycle of control cannot be implemented without the involvement of these parties.

For instance, the food and beverage department sends a purchase requisition to the procurement department, so that they can forward a purchase order to prospective suppliers for the products requested.

On the other hand, the procurement department then requests the finance department to ascertain the possibility of funding these products. If the costs to be incurred are within the finance budget, then it approves the transaction to proceed.

Besides, it is important to realize that a typical operating cycle of a five star hotel involves seven stages. They include purchasing, receiving, storing, issuing, preparation, serving and service.

Purchasing, receiving, storing and issuing fall under the procurement department. In purchasing, the department develops specifications to meet the product quality and prepares a list of potential suppliers to be contacted for the purpose of supplying these goods.

Before the suppliers are selected, they undergo an appraisal procedure that only approves a few of them that are reliable.

On receiving the goods, the purchase department checks on their quality and quantity, whether they meet the set standards and prices as per the initial agreement and whether they have been delivered at the agreed time and manner. Finally, the department moves these goods to the store.

We will write a custom Essay on Food and Beverage Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Inventory control is very essential to avoid excess of goods in the store that may increase carrying costs and also under-buying should be avoided to reduce ordering cost.

Hence, for the procurement department to be effective, then they should a Just-In-Time delivery system that ensures the supply of the limited quantities based on demand.

While issuing the goods from the store to the food and beverage department, the procurement department ensures they match the issue and usage to avoid waste and making subsequent orders only when the inventory is depleted.

However, preparation, serving and service fall under the food and beverage department. The food and beverage preparation starts in the kitchen.

The kitchen is managed by the executive chef and his assistant, whose responsibility is to ensure quality and consistency in preparing food and also ensure that the guests get satisfied (Cesar 2002, p.23).

When evaluating quality in the kitchen, the executive chef assesses the professional qualification of the cooks, whether they are putting on their aprons, if the kitchen room is clean and ensures the safety of the cooks, both from physical injury and in a case of unprecedented fire outbreak.

He also ensures that the hotel’s recipe is followed consistently so that the unique taste of the hotel’s products is maintained.

The assistant chef is responsible for the day to day operations of the kitchen besides representing the executive chef when he is not around. In addition, the kitchen management cannot be complete without station chefs who supervise specific sections of products.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Food and Beverage Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, we may have a pastry chef, a roast and grill chef among others. These are specialists in these products and they ensure that products of good quality are produced to meet customer satisfaction.

Moreover, a five star hotel has a bar that is supervised by the bar manager. These managers are better termed as sommeliers who work hand in hand with the bar maids.

These bar maids are involved in the beverage cycle that entails ordering, receiving, bar stocking, servicing and guest billing.

In addition to their management roles, the sommeliers take part in serving (ordering the drinks from the store and then delivering them to the bar maids) while the bar maids take part in providing direct services (taking orders from guests and giving them bills for payment) to the guests.

Hence, the sommeliers order specific wines that are frequently demanded by their esteemed customers, through the procurement department. On receiving these orders, the bar maids help the sommeliers to select the best wines based on the quality and brands.

If the drinks meet the required standards, the bar maids help in stocking the wines onto the bar shelves. They also help in taking orders from individual guests and billing them appropriately.

Before the bills reach the guests, the sommeliers supervising the staff countercheck them to ensure that they are neither overcharged nor undercharged by the bar maids.

This measure ensures that the hotel’s pricing policies are met. They also check on the wine dispensing system to ensure that it is in good working condition so as not to fail their services.

Besides, the hotel has a separate steward department headed by the chief steward. He ensures that the stewards have maintained cleanliness of the glassware and cutlery, dish washing machines, and that they control pests (Druly 2002, p. 45).

All the wine glasses and other utensils are collected and put in a dish washer for cleaning purpose. The incoming and out going number of these cutlery is recorded to determine those that have been broken, so that they are replaced immediately. Special detergents are used for cleaning glassware to ensure they remain free from stains.

For many hotels, pest control is an important issue to be looked at. These pests include flies, cockroaches, and mosquitoes.

Flies and cockroaches can be controlled by ensuring that all surfaces of equipments, seats and tables both in the kitchen, hotel and bar rooms have been cleaned thoroughly.

Where they become a menace, then pesticides can be applied at varying times not to infringe the comfort of the guests (Horace 2006, p. 22).

Another department that is crucial in the hotel is the catering department. However, the term catering is sometimes confused with banquet. In catering, guests can eat at varying times while in a banquet they eat at once in one place.

Hence, the catering division works closely with the director of food and beverage, director of sales and the executive chef through their catering services manager (Bond 2006, p. 13).

Since the catering division is concerned with providing services outside the hotel, then director of food and beverage and the executive chef have to know the expected number of guests to serve, the foods and drinks they would like to order for and whether they may require the products such as cakes to be customized so that they may supervise their staff appropriately in producing them.

On the other hand, the director of sales determines the prices of all the orders that have been placed and ensures that the hotel gets the revenue at the right time.

Finally, the food and beverage should have a security department that takes care of the store. It is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that only the authorized persons gain access into the food store. The guards also keep a record of the store.

The food and beverage department is faced by issues related to perishables, poor economic times, and technology. Some foodstuffs are usually imported and so by the time they reach at the premises, they have only a few days left to go bad.

In addition, the changing economic times have been a challenge to five star hotels that deal in foreign currencies which have been seen to depreciate over time.

Another challenge is the cost of technology that is required to produce goods and services of high quality (Dimmit 2004). These and other challenges have been an uphill for the hotel industry.

Reference List Bond, F 2006, Practice of management: modern hotel, 3rd edn, Harvard Business Review, New York, US.

Dimmit, T 2004, Embracement of technology in the food and beverage division, PhD Thesis, Yale University, via American Digital Thesis Program.

Druly, H 2002, Management and hospitality in a modern hotel, 4th edn, Thomson Learning, London, UK.

Horace, T 2006, Challenges facing the hotel industry: poor economy, technology and pest control, 2nd edn, Thomson Learning, London, UK.

Cesar, J 2002, Hotel management: food and beverage, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, Berkshire, UK.

Washington, L 2005, Strategies of management: generic strategies, Stanford University, pp. 23-25.

Wood, K 2000, “Management of a five star hotel”, University of Cambridge, pp. 60-62.

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Versions of Libertarianism Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Total libertarianism

Moderate libertarianism

Strengths of total libertarianism

Weaknesses

Strength of the moderate libertarianism

Weaknesses libertarianism

Works Cited

Introduction The doctrine of libertarianism entails that people have inherent or natural rights. These rights should not be taken away (Shaw and Vincent 15). It is an immoral act for anyone or for the governments to deny people their rights.

Examples of these natural rights include the right to own property, the right to personal autonomy and the right to use unused resources.

According to this school of thought, the society can cooperate and coexist well when people respect their natural rights. The paper delineates the two versions of libertarianism namely total libertarianism and moderate libertarianism.

Total libertarianism According to this version of libertarianism, people are protected by the government. The government has the obligation of ensuring that all the rights of people are protected.

The government needs to formulate rules that ensure individuals are well protected. Therefore, the citizens should be protected from activities like breach of contracts, fraud, theft and any subjection of force.

Moderate libertarianism This version of libertarianism ensures that the government protects free and fair competition in the markets. People should be allowed to carry on with their businesses and other activities without restriction provided they are not violating the rights of others.

For instance, there should be no monopolies, oligopolies and integrations in the market. The market should be free to allow people make progress in their duties without restrictions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Strengths of total libertarianism One of the strengths of total libertarianism is that it ensures that people are protected from mistreatment. People have equal rights and nobody should violate them. Further, it ensures that people coexist well in a society.

It fosters transparency and honesty in the society as people respect each other’s rights. For instance, no person should steal someone’s property as this would amount to violation of natural rights.

Weaknesses One weakness is that it is difficult for human beings to govern themselves. Therefore, a government should be formed to ensure that these rights are practiced.

Further, the government, which is bestowed the responsibility of ensuring the protection, may not have the right mechanism or may be biased in its decisions, hence can have negative impact on the process.

Strength of the moderate libertarianism This ensures that people cooperate and coexist with one another without restrictions or limitations. It enhances unity in the society.

Moreover, it promotes the spirit of togetherness and discipline in a society as people make decisions at free will.

Weaknesses libertarianism This form of government poses a risk of exploitation, especially in situations when it does not participate in decision-making. For instance, it leads to monopolies that may exploit innocent people.

We will write a custom Essay on Versions of Libertarianism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People may take the law in their hands and cause harm to others due to the absence of a body like the government to monitor their moves.

Of these two free market philosophies, total libertarianism makes more sense. It ensures that the rights of an individual are fully protected. No person is supposed to be deprived of such rights.

Therefore, this allows people in a society to respect and coexist with one another well. This philosophy best addresses the current unequal distribution of wealth. The society is required to use what they have and assist one another.

It is the right of every individual to own property and use available resources to uplift his/her life. Therefore, total libertarianism gives an equal opportunity for every member of the society to use resources to amass wealth.

There is no restriction, hence it can help to alleviate unequal wealth distribution facing the world today.

Works Cited Shaw, William, and Vincent Barry. Moral Issues in Business. 12th ed. Paperback, 2012. Print.

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Typical and Atypical Language Development Research Paper best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Language theory and development

Language and culture

Conclusion

References

Introduction This essay describes language theory and development including typical and atypical language development.

The first part analyzes major theories that relate to language development and provides illustrations on how exceptional conditions can interrelate with people’s experience with and use of language.

In the second part, the essay describes how language and culture can interact with exceptionalities and provides examples on how educators can be sensitive to diversity.

Language theory and development Explanations on the development of language are provided by learning, biological, and interactionist theories.

Among all the theories that relate to language development, the social learning theory by Vgostky and the theory by Chomsky are the most common.

The theory by Chomsky regards language acquisition to be inherent in human beings. It is more suitable to typical language acquisition where individuals do not need to be taught to follow grammar rules.

Instead, they are taught to naturally learn the language. This theory does not however apply to atypical language development where sensory and perceptive aspects of communication play a significant role in language acquisition.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Social learning theory emphasizes on the role of inherent desire in language acquisition. Even though the child may possess a language acquisition device, language acquisition is motivated by the inherent desire.

This theory applies to children with typical language development process as they interact with others in learning the language (Leonard, 1998).

Typical and atypical aspects of language development are imperative in understanding language development. Typical language development refers to the normal processes of language acquisition in which individuals learn given aspects of language such as phones and morphology.

Atypical language development refers to impaired language acquisition in which individuals do not follow the guidelines of language acquisition. Such individuals lack the capability to interrelate sounds with symbols.

In addition, they do not read from left and right and take a longer time when it comes to processing and communication of words.

Children with this inclination of language development have problems in pronunciation, word processes, and grammatical rules of a given language (Leonard, 1998).

Unexceptional conditions are regarded as necessary for adequate development of language. Therefore, any variation in environmental conditions or physical status has a significant impact on adequate language development.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Typical and Atypical Language Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is therefore important for educators to familiarize themselves on how the experience and use of language in individuals is affected by exceptional conditions.

For instance, deaf children are usually assigned sign language as their first language and their language acquisition experiences are quite different when compared with those children who can hear.

Visual cues are important in language development and those children who are visually handicapped have different experiences in language acquisition because of the absence of visual cues.

There are other physical disabilities that affect language development as they make speech impossible or difficult.

Individuals with exceptional conditions such as infantile autism, William’s syndrome, and Down syndrome have different experiences in language development because of the impact of these conditions on non-verbal mental development (Bishop and Mogford, 1993).

Language and culture Culture determines thoughts, processes, and words that exist in a given language. In addition, it provides words, memes and homophones that exist in language.

Therefore, it determines the language and symbols that people in that cultural setting will use as a representation of particular words and sounds (Budreau, 2009).

People within a given cultural construct communicate using the shared set of meanings. Language is therefore not only part of culture, but also one of the major aspects of culture (Mamlin, 2012).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Typical and Atypical Language Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There are exceptionalities in the interaction between language and culture and educators need to be susceptible to diversity issues.

Educators can achieve this through individualization of instructional strategies in order to promote positive learning results for learners from diverse cultures.

Moreover, they need be aware of values, beliefs, as well as traditions of various cultures that can impact interactions in the school environment. They also need to be active in seeking resources that can enhance their understanding on how language and culture interact with exceptional conditions of individuals.

Sensitivity to diversity issues can also be demonstrated through the creation of learning environments that foster cultural understanding while encouraging active engagement of learners.

This provides them with the foundation for individualizing instruction for learners from different cultures.

Outside the school environment, educators can collaborate with families and community agencies in order to address the needs of learners from different cultural backgrounds throughout schooling (Mamlin, 2012).

Conclusion Typical and atypical aspects of language development are imperative in understanding theories of language development. In the development of language, exceptional conditions intermingle with the experience with and use of language in people.

There are interactions between language and culture with culture providing words, memes and homophones that exist in language.

On the other hand, language is regarded as one of the major aspects of culture. Educators need to be sensitive to diversity in order to promote positive learning for individuals from diverse cultures.

References Bishop, D,

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Innovation: Instagram (App) Essay college essay help near me

Table of Contents What it is

Who is doing it?

Operation of Instagram

Significance of the innovation

Downside of the innovation

Implications of this adoption

Bibliography

Footnotes

What it is Instagram is a social network and a program that permits friends to share photos. It is the quickest way through which friends share their lives with each other through a series of pictures and images with no cost attached. It is free, quick and fun1.

Who is doing it? Instragram is widely used by friends in facebook and twitter. According to Roger’s theory of diffusion innovation, people tend to create features and functions that they deem will be useful to a given target group.

For social system members, the decision about an innovation is dictated by stand of other system members. This implies that if a proportion social system members adopt an innovation, it will be followed by a massive adoption by other members of the social system.

Operation of Instagram Instagram is very simple to operate. The first step involves snapping a photo using a mobile phone. Then transform the image into a memory by choosing a filter.

The image transformed can be kept forever. Upload the picture to a facebook page or twitter network. The image will appear to all your friends that have access to Instragram.

One of the outstanding benefits of Instagram is the cost. It is free innovation and hence users do not need to incur any cost while using it. It is also very fast and efficient way of knowing the whereabouts of friends and how they are doing2.

One can take a picture once and share it in multiple services. Images play an important role in displaying the physical characteristics of a person. Instragram transforms picture into a profession-like snapshot.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A distinct feature of Instagram is that the photos are confined into a square shape. There are also dozens of filters which help you give the picture a special look.

The setback with Instagram is that privacy is highly compromised. This is mainly because the uploaded photos are made public by default.

The photos are also available at the Instagram website (instagram.com). The fact that pictures are confined to a square is not beneficial to people who like taking panoramic pictures.

Significance of the innovation The emergence of Instagram has enhanced connections in the social network services. The innovation was able to capture huge numbers in cell phone community within a short span of time. As a matter of fact, it started becoming a threat to other social network services.

As a result, facebook acquired it as a mean to enhance its operations. In 2011, Apple Inc. titled Instagram among the outstanding applications of the year3.

Downside of the innovation The only disadvantage with Instagram is that one must adopt it to be able to follow pictures of other friends. In other words, if one adopts it while the friends do not adopt, then it would not enhance connections as such.

The fact that the photos are made public by defaulter may also be offensive to other users who value privacy. Instagram is increasing its broad among various social systems. With this trend, it is stipulated that it would match facebook in few years.

We will write a custom Essay on Innovation: Instagram (App) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Implications of this adoption The adoption of Instagram has changed the level of interactions among friends in the social network services. The adoption of an innovation is often informed by the extent at which the innovation will or will not disrupt other functions facets of the user’s daily life.

Instagram is very consistent with existent values and habits of enhancing healthy relationship among friends in far off places. Instagram will also allow tutors to upload pictures related to a given subject for proper comprehension4.

Bibliography Alley, L. R. (1996). Technology’s sudden effects on reflective teaching: An instructional epiphany. Change, 28 (2), 49-54. Web.

7 Things You should Know about Mobile Apps for Learning (2011). 7 Things You should Know about. EDUCAUSE. Web.

7 Things You should Know about Socail Bookmarking. Web.

Footnotes 1 7 Things You should Know about

2 7 Things You should Know about Mobile Apps for Learning

3 7 Things You should Know about Socail Bookmarking.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Innovation: Instagram (App) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 4 Alley, L. R. (1996). Technology’s sudden effects on reflective teaching: An instructional epiphany. Change, 28 (2), 49-54.

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Equal Employment in the Workplace Essay (Critical Writing) best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Employment in the Workplace

Conclusion

References

Introduction Organizations have put measures in place to enhance the achievement of equal employment opportunities.

The strategy aims at eliminating barriers that prevent equal consideration of employees in the recruitment process and ensure that they have the opportunity to explore their potentials fully.

The company applied diversity practices to initiate hiring on merit, fair treatment of employees at the workplace, flexible working conditions, and promotion based on individual capability.

In addition, the firm employed other measures to ensure payment and rewards according to individual qualification and experience (Pager, 2009).

Moreover, the company enhanced policies for human the resource’s department in to improve recruitment of the required labor force from the diverse population of many applicants.

Employment in the Workplace Measures have been put in place to ensure maximum utilization of the available skills, energy, and creativity that strengthens employee involvement and increase the productivity of employees.

The initiatives have enabled employees to give their best as well as having the ability to sustain their personal lives sufficiently.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Organizations express their non-compliance to equal employment if they make distinction among candidates through preferences that deny employees equity in the work place.

Employee equity is denied as the firm may be bias in recruitment based on race, age, and gender among others.

The human resources practices that indicate unequal employment include accessibility of job-related registration by a certain group, unfounded dismissal from work, lack of employees’ training opportunities and different forms of harassment reduce morale of workers.

Despite enactment of laws to promote equity of employees on the basis of gender, discrimination still exists (Trentham

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The concept of strategic human resource management (SHRM) Report college admissions essay help

Strategic human resource management is not a simple process as it keeps on evolving over time. The concept does not have an absolute definition since opinions about it vary between various scholars and analysts. However, one thing that remains clear is that the concept is essential for improved business performance.

It can be regarded as a strategic approach to human resource management which links human resource to the future plans and directions of an organization. Basically this implies that the strategic HRM seeks to ensure that resources are matched with organizational future needs by concerning itself with long term issues relating to employees, organizational culture, values, and commitments.

Harter et al. (2006) says that strategic human resource management focuses on increasing productivity and effectiveness by motivating employees to give their best and work towards achievement of organizational strategic goals. The approach revolves around policies that motivate employees and cause them to be committed towards their work.

It entails practices such as employee comprehensive training, employee development activities, developmental appraisal, and staff selection among many others. In the recent years, the notion of high commitment human resource management has been of much interest in many organizations and research studies.

Elwood et al. (1996) agrees with the fact that strategic human resource management focuses on shaping organizational culture. HR practices within organization directly affect their culture which eventually is reflected in the company’s overall success. Employee attitudes are affected and shaped by systems of human resource management. Strategic human resource management therefore is linked to increase in organizational effectiveness.

It helps create a working condition where employees become highly motivated and focused on the goals of the organization. Employees tend to assume that high commitment practices of human resource are a direct show of commitment by the organization to them. They therefore tend to reciprocate the same gesture by being committed to the organization.

Relationship between SHRM and Outsourcing HR The concept of outsourcing human resource can be regarded as part of strategic human resource management. It involves the use of a third party provider to administer the human resource functions in an organization. The popularity of HR outsourcing has increased as most companies seek the expertise of HR outsourcing firms to effectively manage their internal human resource activities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main reason why companies opt for the option of outsourcing key HR functions is because it is less costly and more efficient than employing HR personnel to execute these functions.

According to Galanki and Papalexandris (2005), the HR vendors are able to provide the services at a lower cost because they benefit from economy of scale. The companies then transfer these benefits to their clients. As a result, Galanki and Papalexandris (2005) argue that small and medium sized companies are the ones who benefit the most from the HR vendors.

Delmotte and Sels (2008) say that companies may also decide to outsource their HR functions because of the need for knowhow. According to the authors, such companies may lack the necessary knowledge about strategic human resource management or they may simply have outdated information.

This therefore requires them to make significant investment into their human resource functionalities. The idea that Delmotte and Sels (2008) are contending is that outsourcing human resource functions offer knowledge and competence which in most cases are usually absent from within companies.

Case study: discussion of the key HR functions in the organization In this section, the case study of a nonprofit organization based in California shall be analyzed to develop a discussion of key HR functions for organizations. Strategic human resource management is an important aspect for nonprofit organizations. The company had to ensure that its HR functionalities are aligned to its strategic goals in order to experience effective functioning.

The organization was found over 25 year ago with the intention of helping individuals struggling with domestic violence, trauma, mental illness, and substance abuse. The main goal was to help children, women, and communities rebuild their lives. The needs within the community increased forcing the company to also expand its operations to meet the increase. However, in the process of this expansion, the company encountered business challenges in its human resource management.

The department was not fully equipped to handle the requirements that accompany large organizations. The company faced a situation where its employees were overloaded with work. There were numerous challenges relating to the employment and staffing. These challenges also began affecting the finances of the organization. Even with the HR manager and a few other HR personnel in place, the department was overwhelmed with the new emerging HR needs.

We will write a custom Report on The concept of strategic human resource management (SHRM) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Key HR functions in the organization include: global mobility, benefit pans, health and welfare, recruiting, payroll, staff performance, and staff development. Cook (1999) suggests that three additional functions can also be effectively outsourced. The three include organizational culture, human resource planning, and performance appraisal system.

Critical analysis of the HR functions that can be outsourced Outsourcing key human resource functionality is designed to help companies integrate their human resource into their needs and goals. With regards to pay and benefits, the payroll clerk job measurements are usually done narrowly since it is considered to one of the back office jobs.

This is mostly done by considering the output in terms of paying the employees on time and accurately. Also measures can be done by the finance people to determine the how cost effective and proficient is the job. Outsourcing this function can prove cost effective for the organization since the job of a payroll clerk may not be necessary.

Another area that needs outsourcing in the organization is staffing and recruitment. This area falls under organizational man power planning. It seeks to improve and maintain the ability of an organization to attain its entire strategic objective through development of manpower contribution. When an organization develops a wrong man power planning, there can be a lot of disruption which will affect the organization adversely.

The process of staffing in companies includes recruitment of human resource, selection, training, and promotion. Other processes such as retirement, transfer and demotion also make part of the staffing process. Therefore, recruitment is an initial step of staffing. The entire process of staffing continues with the experience of employees within an organization. Outsourcing firms have the resources and capabilities that ensure staffing and recruitment is done effectively.

External sources of recruitment would even be more appropriate in reducing all the chances of biasness. However, despite the recruitment team appointed for conducting the process, that is whether internal or external recruiters, it is appropriate that they be well trained. They have to be aware of the skills and parameters that the company needs from the candidates. All the evaluation processes have to be planned in advance and these include both the technical and human resource interviews and the tests.

The systems of performance appraisals focus mainly on the employees who have contributed to the achievement of organizational goals and are also still in a position to assist the organization continue attaining its goals. Promotion is a human resource management best practice that helps to retain employees for long as well as motivating them to perform.

Promotion can be monetary or non monetary. Nonetheless, it has to be an opportunity for the individual employees to grow personally. Performance appraisals are not only aimed at identifying best performing and highly productive employees, but are also aimed at identifying poor performing employees. This is important for an organization because poor performing employees negatively affect performance of an organization.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The concept of strategic human resource management (SHRM) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The human resource personnel manager is responsible for coordinating the process of staffing and recruitment. This is a very conscious process that does not require mistakes to be made. Mistakes can lead to major consequences that would pose a serious threat to an organization.

The mistakes can affect the brand value of an organization as well as disrupt operations. The manager in charge of recruitment has to define primary and essential skills that are required for each role within an organization. In addition, the education qualification and experience are also to be defined.

The entire experience and stages of an employee in an organization constitute the existence of the process of staffing. Once an employee has been recruited for a position, the human resource team needs to identify the individual skills of the employee’s individual skills and integrate them to the skills required for the job. This is achieved through proper training. There is usually a difference in the required skills for the job and the employee’s individual skills.

Depending on the size of the gap or difference, the human resource team should be able to come up with proper training for bridging the gap. Training therefore serves an important role of making the employees competent by giving them the confidence to face the task before them.

Each employees within an organization needs to be developing and growing in their career. Therefore staffing process takes care of transfers and promotions of employees.

Employees need to be aware of the opportunities for growth within the company. This should be clearly communicated to them and the procedure blueprinted. For instance, in most organization, the path up the career ladder is usually certified through performance appraisals. The employees that qualify for promotions must have performed extremely well to deserve the promotions.

Such organizations also require work place diversity. Internal human resource personnel may be challenged to ensure the internal working environment is as diverse as a possible. However, outsourcing firms have the skills and expertise in recruitment and staffing needed to ensure diversity within the workplace. Workforce diversity is one of the main dominant staffing issues experienced by organizations.

With increase in globalization, many organizations find themselves having a multicultural workforce. Women, minority community, immigrants and the elderly are making job applications. Labor laws in almost any country require that companies have a balance workforce in terms of gender, and ethnic communities within its location.

The challenge is in staffing professionals and specialties. The organizations also have to recognize the cultural needs of their employees and address them appropriately. Adapting to the diversity provides the organizations with the opportunity to retain staff for longer periods. At the same time, such an organization is able to get the best out of each of their employees.

Another area that can be considered challenging for the in-house human resource management of the organization is training and development. The demands in employee training and recruitment can be overwhelming for the nonprofit organizations. The workforce definitely matures over time and this requires that the organization creates opportunities for their growth. Training and education of various fields in the market is advancing with time as current technology is integrated in almost every aspect of life.

Organizations find it challenging to retain the old employees who do not the current skills and knowledge required for a company to remain competitive in the market. This therefore forces companies to make new recruitments who are enthusiastic and motivated with the latest education and training.

Conclusion Outsourcing provides the company with the necessary human resource expertise which may sometimes be difficult to have from within. An HR outsourcing firm would work close with the company to plan, develop, and implement necessary HR capabilities. Outsourcing critical functionality of human resource management works best in a small and medium sized company. This is primarily because employing HR personnel in such a situation can prove more costly for the company than when the functions are outsourced.

The outsourcing firms offer end to end services which sometimes the internal human resource personnel may not be able to fully provide. For large companies, the idea of outsourcing HR functionalities may make sense because HR administration can be time consuming. Outsourcing therefore can free up time and employees who can be made to support in other important company activities.

In most cases, companies do assume that HR functions can be handled in a short time. However, human resource requires a full time input for it to be effectively handled. Companies may also try to handle the HR functions with a single human resource personnel or a team of unqualified employees. Such an approach can never be effective and does not offer sound solution to the HR issues faced within the companies.

Outsourcing the functions of HR ensures that they are handled by experts with the necessary resourcing to for a fulltime input. Management of human resource has a lot of legalities involved and sometimes companies may lack the necessary resources and expertise to handle these legal implications.

However, the outsourcing firms are equipped with professional expertise and resources to handle the legal implications of human resource management. As a result, employees within the company will end up being more productive, healthy, and happy in line with the company’s strategic goals.

References Chew, I.

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Role of Federal Government in America Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

The federal government needs greater powers to influence how national policies are implemented at the state level. These powers can help the federal government to improve many aspects of governance in several states. Greater powers can make the federal government to implement strong policies, which radically change living conditions of many citizens in the country.

The federal government has the capacity to solve crucial issues at the state level, which may have national implications. Some state governments have limited resources and abilities to solve crucial economic and social problems which affect their residents (Farber

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Chinua Achebe’s “An Image of Africa” and Joseph Conrad’s “Heart of Darkness” Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Chinua Achebe’s Unfair Judgment of Joseph Conrad’s Novel

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Much literature is devoted to Africa as a black continent, however, none of these pieces is discussed in such a way as Joseph Conrad’s novel Heart of Darkness does. One of the most popular critiques of this work is Chinua Achebe’s paper titled “An Image of Africa”.

As for me, Chinua Achebe’s An Image of Africa is an unfair personal vision which was presented as the point of view of the whole mankind. Reading Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness it is possible to see the cases of prejudiced opinion about Africa and its citizens, however, this point of view is aimed at presenting the situation which was in the world.

The author’s idea is to show how European civilized people see Africa. It does not mean that Joseph Conrad is “a bloody racist” (Achebe 11), it means that Joseph Conrad has noticed the problems which existed in Africa and tried to show them to the whole world.

Chinua Achebe’s Unfair Judgment of Joseph Conrad’s Novel Reading Chinua Achebe’s An Image of Africa, it is obvious that the author blames Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness in racism and too negative attitude to Africa and its citizens.

Calling the author of a book “a bloody racist” (Achebe 11), the critic wants to convince the whole world that the ideas discussed in the novel are purely author’s ones and nobody is able to share those points of view.

As for me, I absolutely disagree with this statement as Joseph Conrad’s novel is the vision of African continent by simple European people.

That rude description of Africa and sometimes prejudiced opinion about people who lived there is the reflection of the social opinion of Europeans about the continent.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Saying that Africa is “the other world”, “the antithesis of Europe and therefore of civilization, a place where man’s vaunted intelligence and refinement are finally mocked by triumphant bestiality” (Achebe 32), Achebe does not mention the fact that this is not a personal point of view of Joseph Conrad, but the vision that was inherent almost to each civilized European.

It is not a secret that the vision of Africa in America and Europe was too prejudiced. Considering people there as uneducated, rude and only possible for hard work, civilized people usually contrasted Africans to themselves, therefore, Achebe’s blame personally to Conrad is groundless.

Reading the Caryl Phillips’ interview with Chinua Achebe aims at proving that Joseph Conrad is not a racist, the discussion opens many aspects which are not discussed in the book.

Chinua Achebe has perceived Conrad’s writing as a personal offence, he writes, “Conrad’s presentation of me is my problem and I have a responsibility to deal with it… I don’t come from a ‘half-made’ society as your ‘friend’ Naipaul would say.

We’re not ‘half-made’ people, we’re a very old people. We’ve seen lots of problems in the past. We’ve dealt with these problems in Africa, and we’re older than the problems. Drought, famine, disease, this is not the first time that we’re dealing with these things in Africa” (Phillips).

This statement helps see the personal offence on Conrad and his writing. That is why the critique of this person is that sharp and negative. Some words in Conrad’s novel offended Achebe and he expressed his offence through the dissatisfaction with the author.

However, why should not Achebe present his dissatisfaction about the society who encouraged Conrad for writing such a story, why the social opinion does not offence Achebe? These questions have remained unanswered.

We will write a custom Essay on Chinua Achebe’s “An Image of Africa” and Joseph Conrad’s “Heart of Darkness” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Colhoun is also sure that Achebe’s vision of Conrad’s Heart of Darkness is wrong due to incorrect judgment of the same idea. Vice versa, Colhoun is sure that Conrad and Achebe are on the same side.

Colhoun is sure that Conrad did not want to offence anyone and Achebe’s dissatisfaction with the language used in the novel is explained by the unawareness of the time when Conrad lived.

Colhoun is sure that Conrad did nothing offensive, he just used the language which was common during the time he wrote (Colhoun).

Therefore, Chinua Achebe’s negative reaction to Joseph Conrad’s is just personal vision of the issue explained by the negative personal relation of the critic and the arguments he uses are just unsupported personal opinions.

Joseph Conrad wrote about Africa as it was seen for others and no one can blame him in prejudiced personal attitude to Africans.

Conclusion Joseph Conrad was not a racist, this was a person who wanted to present the life of African people as it was seen by Americans and Europeans. Personal vision of Joseph Conrad as “a bloody racist” (Achebe 11) is just a personal statement which is not supported with any reasonable proofs.

Achebe’s arguments are based on the personal vision of the written text. It is Achebe who may be blamed in appropriate study of the background of writing before making such statements.

Of course, some facts and expressions in Conrad’s writing are rather unpleasant, however, the author wanted to show the real situation, not the one we see right now.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Chinua Achebe’s “An Image of Africa” and Joseph Conrad’s “Heart of Darkness” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is important to perceive Conrad within the frames of the time he wrote his novel, but Achebe failed to do it.

Works Cited Achebe, Chinua. An Image of Africa: The Trouble with Nigeria. New York: Penguin, 2010. Print.

Colhoun, Jason. “An analysis of Achebe’s An Image of Africa: Racism in Heart of Darkness.” The Imperial Archive Project 30 Apr. 2002. Web.

Phillips, Caryl. “Out of Africa.” The Guardian 22 Feb. 2003. Web. https://www.theguardian.com/books/2003/feb/22/classics.chinuaachebe

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Presentation of the Article, Can Europe be Saved Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online

The current European crisis has elicited a lot of opinions considering the fact that the continent has been enjoying a bullish economy for a very long time. Most European countries were affected to a small extent by the global financial meltdown that the world experienced in 2008.

The economic success was highly attributed to the sound economic models that ensured that ordinary citizens were well protected from the effects of the global financial meltdown.

The Economic strategists who came up with the common currency policy did not envisage the long-term effects that this policy could bring. The value of the euro has gone down in recent times and the debt crisis in Greece and Spain makes the matter worse.

The problem being experienced in Europe has been brought about the common currency policy and financial globalization.

The majority of European countries have stronger economic models and social programs compared to America. The recent turn of events was quite unexpected since Europe has been an economic power house.

The average unemployment rate has risen to 20 percent compared to America’s 12 percent. The initial statistical estimates regarding trade have not been achieved by the introduction of a common currency.

Recent statistical reports show that economic integration has hurt the economies of many European countries. Financial flexibility has become very limited with the introduction of a common currency.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Countries such as Nevada and Ireland have almost the same economic model but Nevada has suffered less from the European crisis because it operates with the dollar.

Comparing the real estate business before the introduction of the euro and now, the business has dropped by almost half with Spain and Ireland being the most affected.

The European crisis will affect America in quite a number of ways. To begin with, the European crisis will affect American multinational companies operating in Europe since the high interest rates have led to a limited credit flow.

The financial woes in Europe mean that the stocks for American multinational companies will have to drop. Major exporters in America are threatened by the financial instability being experienced in Europe.

Americans will be more vulnerable since bank borrowing, exchange rates and interest rates are all affected by the global economy. The recession in Europe has led to an average drop of 3.5 percent in GDP and this means that the U.S is bound to experience some drop in GDP despite the response policies it has put in place.

The weakening of the euro and the rise in the dollar value has created financial imbalance that is affecting the U.S economy in a negative way.

Globalization has made global trade to grow at a faster rate. Economic integration is among the root causes of the economic crisis in Europe. Financial globalization encourages a free flow of capital without considering the domestic financial systems of a country.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Presentation of the Article, Can Europe be Saved specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The free flow of capital has made financially unstable countries such as Greece to experience a debt crisis. Integration of financial systems widens the economic gap between poor and rich countries.

The cross –market integration brought about by financial globalization does not have strict regulations on banking and securitization that protects countries from cross boarder financial woes.

The common currency policy in Europe is an integration policy that failed to meet its expectations and in the process hurting the entire global economy.

Financial globalization can only be beneficial if it is accompanied by good integration policies and financial regulations.

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Concepts of Inerrancy and Infallibility in the Bible Research Paper essay help online: essay help online

Thesis Statement:

“Should the Concepts of Inerrancy and Infallibility in the Bible be utilized as Sufficient Justifications of the Legitimacy of Religious Positions on Social Issues?”

Introduction It is quite interesting to note that studies such as those by Sherkat (2011) have indicated that an increasingly large amount of religious sermons, statements of faith, and a wide assortment of other such text related to the affirmation of the Catholic faith in God have increasingly utilized the inerrancy and infallibility of the Bible as a method of legitimizing their claims to faith and justifying their views.1

This is not to say that such ideas are without merit, given the supposedly divine origins of the Bible, however, scholars such as Beale (2011) have stated that utilizing the Bible as the justification for one’s faith and views is in itself highly flawed2.

Beale (2011) explains this by stating that even if the Bible is inerrant and infallible the fact remains that faith should be an internal development based on a continuing relationship with God which is supported by the scripture within the Bible, not the other way round wherein scripture is utilized as a means of legitimizing faith.

Other scholars such as Smith (2012) question the concepts of inerrancy and infallibility attributed to the Bible given the archaic nature of several scriptures and their general inapplicability to modern day situations3.

What you have to understand is that in order to explain the origin of the Bible, the terms inerrancy and infallibility are often utilized interchangeably due to their ability to point out that Bible is far different to any other book that has been written thus far given its historical and religious significance as the word of God.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Yet, it must be questioned whether such terms should be considered interchangeable given their markedly different meaning and utilization by both the church and religious scholars.

First and foremost the term infallible, when utilized in the context of holy scripture such as the Bible, can be defined as transcending concepts related to sin, spiritual or material flaws as well as the deceptions of its writers and the method by which it was communicated to others (i.e. through print, digital text, etc.).

In laymen’s terms this means that when the Bible, through the Holy Spirit, describes various aspects related to the good news of Christ such as the vision, purpose and character of God in relation to his design for humanity, is in effect doing so through a transcendental effect that goes straight to the character of the Bible and its message of salvation.

Inerrant, on the other hand, when defined once more within the context of the Bible, relates to the scriptures within the Bible always being right when carrying out their intended purpose of showing who God is, his vision and purpose for humanity and stating the good news of salvation through Christ4.

It is based on this that despite the obvious chronological disparity between the present day and the time in which the bible was written, the content of the scriptures should not be disregarded as if they were a mistake, rather they should be considered as fully applicable guides to current believers regarding the true and righteous path that God had meant for us to follow5.

Despite such obvious deviations in meaning and content, inerrancy and infallibility still continue to be used interchangeable to this day. On the other hand, it must be questioned whether the concepts of inerrancy and infallibility can truly be applied to the Bible.

This is based on the widely known fact that the bible as we know of it today is a combination of select scriptures by the council of Nicaea (325 AD) and as such excludes certain scriptures that could have similarly had the distinction of being considered inerrant and infallible.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Concepts of Inerrancy and Infallibility in the Bible specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Considering that the inerrant and infallible nature of the Bible is based on its divine origins, the fact that the there are some text that are intentionally excluded creates a sufficient amount of reasoning to assume that the Bible is not as inerrant and infallible as it would seem given that it can be deemed as incomplete.

It is based on this that it must be asked should the concepts of inerrancy and infallibility in the Bible be utilized as sufficient justifications of the legitimacy of religious positions on social issues?

Religious Positions on Social Issues Religious positions on social issues encapsulate a wide variety of instances such as gay marriage, stem cell research, the death penalty, divorce and other such issues that have ethical and moral underpinnings.

It is usually the case that religious positions on such issues often result in positive or negative effects depending on the inherent intent of the religious group involved.

For example, due to the advocacy of various religious groups stem cell research has in effect been halted in the U.S. and in other countries around the world due to idea that continuing along this path of research is unethical according the views of God in the Bible involving the sanctity of life.

The delay in the social and governmental acceptance of gay marriage in the U.S. and in other countries as well is also a manifestation of the actions of religious groups over their interpretation of the Bible and how this results in their aversion to actions that have been distinctly stated as “abhorrent” within a variety of scriptures.

When examining such issues it can be seen that position of religious on a variety of social issues is connected to interpretations based on the Bible with the inherent justification behind its use being related to its infallibility and inerrant nature.

As explained by the article “The Evolution of the Debate (2012), various religious groups justify their arguments on social issues based on a literal and single minded interpretation of the Bible without sufficiently thinking if such a point of view is actually applicable to the present day circumstances6.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Concepts of Inerrancy and Infallibility in the Bible by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is due to the fact that they believe that the infallible and inerrant nature of the bible deems their actions as justifiable given that they are supposedly in accordance with the will of God.

It is this way of thinking that calls into considerable whether utilizing the supposed inerrant and infallible nature of the bible actually creates a justifiably legitimate position by various religious groups on social issues7.

This calls into question whether the utilizing the bible as a means of arguing against the use of stem cell research, gay marriage and other such issues is truly valid.

Ethos and the Use of Inerrancy and Infallibility in the Bible as Methods of Justification What must be understood is that Ethos refers to the way in which a person portrays themselves in an argument, in a sense it is a method in which persuaders present an “image” to people that they are attempting to convince.

This particular “image” refers to a persuaders “character” in the sense that a person is attempting to persuade another person of the righteousness of their statements based on their inherent character.

In the case of the various religious groups this takes the form of them attempting to convince other people of the righteousness of their cause on the basis of the image that they are portraying, namely, that the inerrant and infallible nature of the Bible justifies their arguments against a variety of social issues.

It is this argument on the basis of a projected image that is a cause for concern since basing it on a projected image alone does not justify the action itself8.

For example, a person may argue for the righteousness of a cause on the basis of their knowledge of the event yet this attempt at persuasion may in itself be self-serving for the person that is attempting to persuade other individuals.

An examination of the motivations behind the use of ethos by various religious organizations reveals that many of their bible based interpretations utilizing the inerrancy and infallibility as a method of justification actually originate from a self-serving nature.

Ethos in effect justifies their actions under the basis of a righteous cause yet in the end is more beneficial to them than to other individuals. In the case of ethos what must be understood is that it is “artifice”, meaning that is created, manufactured, made, constructed etc.

It can be considered a type of surface image which may in fact have an entirely fictitious relationship to what is actually true9.

For example, a teacher could show up in class one day wearing cowboy boots, a ten gallon hat and long sleeved t-shirt with a large image of a cactus on the front, the next day he can wear an average suit and tie while the day after that he could wear a Scottish kilt, bagpipes and one of those patterned hats.

The reason I mention it is due to the fact that despite the different outfits he wears the person and the ideas that are being presented have not changed at all, however, what is changed is the perception of the audience regarding the idea being presented.

The same can be said for ethos wherein the method in which the idea is “packaged” drastically changes the perception of the audience towards accepting the idea itself or the validity of its statements.

In the case of the ethos of various religious groups it can be seen that when boiled down to its very essence it is merely a statement which says the following: “believe in what I say since it is based on inerrant an infallible scripture”.

It is in the way that it is packaged and presented to the public that changes the perception of the public to the idea that is being presented.

What the public sees as an argument based on an ineffable and infallible scripture is in essence is a statement allowing to do whatever they want.

Inerrancy and Religious Positioning Inerrancy is based on the concept that what is present is not false and affirms the truth whether it is religious, scientific or physical in nature.

What you have to understand though is that the Bible being inerrant does not mean that the interpretations of the Bible that manifest itself through religious doctrine, are sufficiently inerrant themselves.

For example, the current church doctrine which is specifically against the advancement of stem cell research is based off the supposedly inerrant notion of the right to life within the bible.

Since stem cells are at times derived from zygotes which are incomplete versions of a proto-human fetus their use in medical research is considered to be an abhorrent violation of the right to life as indicated by the bible.

It must also be noted that the concept of bible ambiguity can be considered a serious problem when it comes to religious positioning based on inerrancy since passages from the bible can be interpreted in a multitude of possible ways.

For example, The Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood through their interpretation of the bible specifically state that the roles of men and women should be differentiated to specific roles within the family with no degree of overlap.

As a result of this, leadership positions within the family as well as in businesses, organizations and even in government institutions under the council’s view should be exclusively isolated to men alone.

On the other hand, the religious group “Christians for Biblical Equality” interpret the bible under the context of men and women being equals and possessing the ability to have the same rights and roles.

This type of variant interpretation has manifested itself into the creation of numerous church groups such as the Westborough Baptist Church, the Living Church of God and other such radical segments of Christianity that state that their interpretation of the Bible makes them the “true” church of God. Given that such groups have teachings that are considered “abnormal” even by the main orthodoxy of the Catholic Church is clear evidence that religious positions on social issues based on the inerrancy of the bible is unjustifiable given the different ways in which statements within it can be adjusted in such a way that they can actually promote hate.

One of the best examples of this can be seen in the numerous instances where the Westborough Baptist Church has openly picketed in numerous areas openly stating their hatred for gays, the fact that soldiers who died in Iraq for their country are going to hell and that God does not have a place in heaven for individuals that support concepts outside of their acknowledged religious orthodoxies.

From a certain perspective it can even be stated that the interpretation of the inerrancy of the Bible in the case of the West Borough Baptist church is one that actually promotes hate and bigotry, which were aspects that Jesus was clearly against during his time on Earth.

Other interpretations based on the inerrant nature of the bible take the form of religious groups within the Philippines which has the largest Catholic community in Asia.

Religious groups such as “Iglesia ni Christo” do not believe in venerating Mary based on their own interpretation of the Bible.

Other groups such as the Born Again Christians do not even believe in the concept of saints which is similarly based on their belief in their own interpretation of the inerrant nature of the scripture of the Bible.

As it can be seen, interpretations of the bible can be utilized to justify a whole gamut of possible manifestations whether religious or social in nature.

Can the Bible be Considered Infallible? The premise of the infallibility of the bible is based on the fact that it was created as a direct action of divine intervention wherein the Holy Spirit inspired the original writers of the text to create the scriptures that we know of in the present.

As such, it is considered by many religious scholars as the word of God that has been imparted to all of us as a message of love, peace and the affirmation of our faith and our destiny as God’s children.

From the point of view of Grass (2007), the Bible is only considered infallible within the context of the Catholic faith given that other religions have their own versions of religious text which they similarly consider infallible (the Qur’an being a prime example of this)10.

Grass (2007), points out though that the infallibility of the bible at the present is often taken out of context regarding its original purpose.

The bible was meant as a means of guiding people to interact with their fellow man, to establish peaceful relations within society and to create a culture that values love, sharing and the development of social bonds that would discourage violent actions.

Thus, as a guide, it has indeed served its purpose given that biblical text has helped to inspire society towards a more “humane” way of interaction. Yet, as Galli (2011) is quick to point out, the bible was never meant as a means of dictating every aspect in relation to how society was meant to operate11.

What you have to understand is that the “timelessness” that is attributed to the infallibility of the Bible is connected to its nature of ethical actions within social relationships.

This means that aspects related to governance, development of technologies, conservation, environmentalism and other such topics which are at the forefront of modern day debates are not specifically included in the bible for the reason that it was never meant to encapsulate such aspects in the first place.

Hylton (2011) goes on to state that it was only when religious institutions started interpreting the various scriptures within the bible based on its inherent inerrancy that the current problems related to religious interference in social issues started12.

It based on this that it can be stated that the infallibility attributed to the bible when it comes to religious positions on social issues is unfounded given that what is stated within is taken out of context.

It must be noted though several studies which have examined current teachings within religious institutions reveal that many religious orders have started to teach students that facts contained within the Bible pertaining to specific scientific or historical events which do not have an impact on their concept of faith and the Christian practice of religious devotion, may in fact contain considerable errors.

This is in direct opposition to other groups who state that everything within the Bible should be considered as incontrovertible fact. What you have to understand is that despite the statements of a multitude of religious scholars, the Bible was in fact created in order to conform to ancient beliefs and practices.

This means that the story of genesis, marriage to children and even the stoning of women that cheat on their husbands were all manifestations of practices at the time and as such reflected themselves accordingly into the different scriptures.

In an era of modern science and greater social conscious involving ethical marriage practices and commensurate methods of punishment, the examples presented within the Bible can no longer be considered wholly accurate, and various religious groups have started to also acknowledge this as well.

It is based on this that the inerrancy of the Bible as an entirely accurate source of information is doubted and as such is the basis behind an argument against the use of the concept of the infallibility of the Bible as a sufficient justification of the legitimacy of religious positions on social issues.

Justification of Position Based on Inerrancy Inerrancy is based on the concept of there being no errors whatsoever within a given piece of text. Aside from grammatical errors brought about by issues in translation, the bible supposedly has no errors and is thus the pivotal text often utilized to justify religious positions.

This has been seen in numerous instances throughout history such as the debate in stem cell research within the U.S., the removal of the death penalty within several Catholic oriented states within Europe as well as the Republic Health Bill within the Philippines which focuses on the introduction of sexual education classes to combat adverse increases in the population.

The justification behind church interference in such issues comes directly from doctrines based on the bible involving the right to life, the orders of God to “go forth and multiply” and the teachings of Jesus which specifically connote the necessity of protecting life.

In justifying their position on such matters religious scholars often point towards the inerrant nature of the Bible which focuses on the plan of God for humanity and the doctrines by which we should live our lives.

The inherent problem though with the bible is that it lacks sufficient advice regarding the current overpopulation of the planet, the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted illnesses and the fact that stem cell research could potentially improve the lives of countless number of people.

As such, while Evangelical scholars point out that the Bible is “without error in all that affirms” the fact remains that its affirmations lack sufficient precedent on modern day issues.

This is not to say that the bible is wrong, the fact is that the bible acts as a sufficient foundation for reasonable action and behaviors which acts as the cornerstones of society, however, the fact remains that it should be considered as a foundation and not the entirety by which social actions should be based upon13.

In a rather debasing fashion, Hansen (2008) points out that the bible states that it is perfectly fine to stone a woman to death, have sex with a child and other similar types of behavior14.

Hansen (2008) utilizes this as evidence that the bible is not necessarily inerrant given that such methods of behavior are widely considered to be socially unacceptable at the present.

While the arguments utilized by Hansen (2008) are far from academically appropriate, the fact remains that they do point out the inherent weaknesses of the bible and the necessity of modifying the general attitude towards its inerrant nature.

For example, post modernist Christians point out that the bible should be considered partially inerrant with some aspects being utilized in order to justify methods of behavior but should not be utilized in order to affect issues which are social in nature.

On the other end of the spectrum scholars point towards the inspirations drawn from inerrant scriptures as the means by which moral and ethical decisions concerning society should be based upon.

As Jelen and Lockett (2010) explains, the fact is that the bible acts as a moral compass by which society compares its current position with the intended destination by God.

It is only through such an examination that we are able to determine whether as a society we are heading towards a path of positive development or adverse debasement under the guise of technological innovation.

Jelen and Lockett (2010) goes on to explain that society needs an inerrant comparison by which it can compare itself to in order to develop in such a way that it is in conjunction with the intended path set forth by God.

Such arguments are related to the concepts of the protection of life, barring the use of contraception, affirming the dual nature of the sexes (i.e. being against homosexuality) and the establishment of a life based on religious doctrine15.

Conclusion Based on the given arguments presented within this paper it can be seen that the concepts of inerrancy and infallibility when applied to the bible should not be utilized as sufficient justification on religious positions on social issues.

One of the reasons behind this stems from differences in interpretation, whether intentional or not, that results in differing groups manifesting a plethora of divergent arguments.

What you have to understand is that the context in which the bible was written can be interpreted in either a literal or spiritual sense and as such can result in a variety of differing religious observances.

This can be seen in the general acceptance of homosexuality by one faction of Christianity and disdain from another. The same applies to views regarding women’s rights, religious observances and general ethics.

As explained earlier, the bible was never truly meant to encompass all aspects and changes that could occur within society. It was written within the context of the time of the authors and as such manifests ethical and moral principles that were inherent to this particular time frame and culture.

Thus, when compared to present day circumstances, the various social observances that were noted within the bible at the time become distinctly different. As such, when applied to present day social standards the bible cannot be considered wholly inerrant given that it can no longer sufficiently apply itself to modern day issues.

Not only that, it was originally meant as a means of helping promote social relationships such as friendship, love and peace and; it was not meant as a means by which people should dictate the way in which society should evolve.

It must also be noted that the infallible notion of the Bible is also highly questionable when applied to concepts related to technological development, population control and environmentalism given that it was not meant to encapsulate such aspects.

It was originally meant as a guide for interaction, faith and the development of love for one’s fellow man. Taking this into consideration, it can be stated justifying religious positions on the inerrant and infallible nature of the Bible is thus inapplicable since what is being done is merely interpreting what is being said in order to fit the definitions that suit the needs of that particular religious group.

It can also be stated that based on the presented information it can be seen that ethos can be manufactured and created for a certain purpose and in the case of the ethos utilized by religious groups its basis is one which advocates the manipulation of facts in order to serve the ends of that particular group.

The fact remains that due to reasoning of the ethos used by religious organizations that keeps on justifying itself on the basis of the infallible and inerrant nature of the Bible shows itself to be inherently flawed.

The ethical flaw in this particular case is the fact that basis a system of ethos on self-interpretation creates far too many risks in terms of the ethical principles behind the creation of the ethos itself.

In fact further examination of this type of ethos reveals that it seems more self-serving to religious groups than to the general public.

As it was established earlier the concept of ethos can be shaped and molded in order to entice greater public support for a particular issue.

That is what is being seen in the ethos of various religious groups wherein the justification for actions are based on an ethos that has been molded to create positive public opinion but in fact is nothing more than a method of allowing such groups to do what they please.

Bibliography Audi, Robert. “Belief, faith, and acceptance.” International Journal For Philosophy Of Religion 63, no. 1-3 (February 2008): 87-102. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost .

Beale, G. K. “Can the bible be completely inspired by god and yet still contain errors? a response to some recent “evangelical” proposals.” Westminster Theological Journal 73, no. 1 (Spring2011 2011): 1-22. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost .

Durland, Stanley. “The Structure of Biblical Inspiration.” Journal Of Spirituality

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Film God’s Step Children Expository Essay a level english language essay help

Having watched the film God’s Step Children (1938), it is obvious that race discrimination is the stereotype Naomi and Jimme have faced with. However, in spite of the usual problem where an African-American child is discriminated, the situation is different.

Naomi is a child of white parents and she is brought up in the family of African-Americans. The situation does not create any difficulties until Naomi goes to school.

Being prejudiced from the side of classmates and teachers, Naomi is sure that everything is because of her color of skin, however, watching the movie, it is obvious that the problem is in Naomi’s behavior.

Naomi and Jimme are two children brought up in one family. Being treated equally, Naomi still understands that she is different. Starting going to school makes her omit it as she feels her difference and she does not want to stay there.

Children and teachers at school do not treat Naomi and Jimme in another way until Naomi becomes to behave inappropriately. Having spitted in the face of a teacher, Naomi understands that she has acted wrong but she says nothing.

A teacher wants to settle the conflict and also says nothing to Naomi’s stepmother, but Naomi does it herself having omitted some details. When the truth comes out Naomi is punished.

It is obvious that the problem of discrimination in this case comes not from the society but from a person herself. Having appeared in a strange group, Naomi tries to protect herself being aggressive without any reasons.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Naomi acts in such an aggressive manner trying to prevent the negative aggressive acts from her classmates, however, her behavior brings another effect.

Naomi is considered as an evil in class and even her brother Jimme does not want to talk to her. Time passes, children grow up and Naomi returns to the society she has always considered as a strange one.

She tries to become a part of this society which readily accepts her, however, she is unable to accept this society. Naomi always feels that she is strange there, even though there are no any visible reasons for such reaction.

Naomi leaves the black society one more time being sure that she is extra there. After her disappearance people begin to live without Naomi trying to be happy.

Thus, when she returns again in a year she is really extra there. A picture of a happy family where there is no place for Naomi any more makes her commit a suicide.

Therefore, it should be concluded that being a white child Naomi has always been accepted in the black society, the issue here is that she always felt that she is another and she could not accept that society as her own.

The prejudiced attitude of classmates in the direction of Naomi is based on her personal inability to accept that society as her native one. One of the main lessons of that movie is the fact that this is a person who chooses the place where to live.

We will write a custom Essay on Film God’s Step Children specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Accepting the society one is going to live into, he/she is going to be happy, while the failure to accept it creates the subjective stereotype which is difficult to live with.

Naomi has created her personal stereotype, she has assured herself that the black society is not a place for her, therefore it has become the place where her presence was extra.

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US Representative: Congressman Ander Carson Report essay help

Ander Carson has been in the U.S. congress for a few years, but after beginning as a Democratic Committee Person in the year 2000, he has been featured in several committee assignments (William par 1).

Some of these assignments are generally the government funded ventures which made it possible for Indiana to continue receiving funds from President Barack Obama’s administration.

Recently, he challenged the congress by proposing for a new Grant Program that would enable the low-income families to “…access the locally grown food and vegetables” (House Government par.1).

He has considered it to be a benefit for Americans in terms of health and access to food throughout the year.

While in Miami, 2011, Ander accused the members of the Tea Party that they wanted to hang him on a tree and bring Jim Crow back instead. This happened when the Congressional Black Caucus’ members was visiting 5 cities in the month of August (Calvin par.8).

In February 2011, despite a majority supporting the Bill, Ander Carson voted against the Rooney Amendment 13 to H.R 1 Bill that advocated for the environmental protection of Florida environment from the high levels of phosphorus and neurotoxin chemicals which contaminated its waters (Calvin par.9).

In April 2012, Ander successfully passed a bill to protect the small businesses due to the income tax deduction (Danson par. 4).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This bill proposed a 20% deduction of tax for all employees considered to employ less than 500 employees in the business. In fact, many small businesses would benefit from the assignment committees of the government funds.

Ander’s views Madrassa as the ideal education system for America, especially if it follows the Islamic model.

He is a Muslim and has seen how such a system works, and considers it to have a multiple of benefits if well-employed (Schultz par.5). Most of the schools using the Madrassa Education System within the U.S are funded by Muslims.

Commentary In fact, it has been reported that Anderson was the one who gathered various reporters and spoke many lies about the Tea Party though that was a wrong decision (Sherman par. 4).

It was a betrayal of his colleagues and considered to be so bad that it even appeared in the Sunday Talk show as well as in the headlines just before the Obama Care Vote.

I do respect Ander Carson, but I do not agree with some of his commentaries on his fellow colleagues, especially those made at the Tea Party. He owes an apology to all the frontline fighters for civil rights for making insults to them (Paul par. 3).

Those comments were thoughtless and unnecessary. This shows that he can never be trusted by his colleagues who closely work with him.

We will write a custom Report on US Representative: Congressman Ander Carson specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a matter of fact, there is no single leader from the Tea Party who has advocated for neither the return of the Jim Crow Legislation nor the lynching of blacks.

Over the years, Carson has been very active in passing many bills in the U.S. Congress that have helped many Americans. I do agree with his view of the low income families earning a living by growing vegetables and other agricultural commodities.

These foods are natural and, therefore, do not interfere with the health of the consumers. It will help many Americans live healthier than they did before.

Most Americans have overweight complications and other diseases associated with the chemicals found in the fast food. Therefore, the Grant Program will be supported by many due to the many benefits associated with it.

Carson should have supported the Rooney Amendment 13 Bill at the Congress as a person who has been in the frontline for the improvement of lives of Americans.

The environment should be kept clean just like he is now proposing for the consumption of the natural foods. Despite the fact that he had voted against the bill, it was passed after majority of the members had supported it (Danson par.6).

The bill for deduction of income tax for the small businesses is a good idea as it motivates many small businesspeople to continue employing the Americans since they have enough funds left to pay them well.

The only problem is that 500 employees are too many to be considered a small business. The limit should be reduced to around 300 employees.

Not sure if you can write a paper on US Representative: Congressman Ander Carson by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More I think there are many issues likely to be encountered if Carson continues proposing for the Muslim model of the Madrassa Education System (Jason par.7).

This is a very sensitive issue, and it appears that he has some interests of religion which may go well only with Muslims but not for the Christians. He should be careful in his commentary not to have a bad reaction from the Christians in America.

Despite the negative sides of Carson, he has successfully assisted many Americans, which is a good thing, by protecting the Wall Street Consumers while serving in the Capital Markets Authority Committee. Carson has done well in his term at the Congress.

Works Cited Benson, Jason. Video: Rep Andre Carson Thinks American Schools Should Be Modeled after Madrassas. 2012. Web.

Calvin, Andre. Rep. Carson’s Liberal Action Score: 58. 2012. Web.

Danson, James. HR 9 – Income Tax Deduction for Small Businesses – Key Vote. 2012. Web.

Felix, William. “Andre Carson U.S. Representative.” Washington Post, 2008. Web.

House Government. “Congressman Carson Seeks to Expand Year-round Access to Healthy Food for Low-Income Families.” House government Online. 2012. Web.

Ogden, Paul. “Congressman Andre Carson Insults History, Makes Light of Lynchings and Jim Crow Experienced by African-Americans.” Ogden on Politics. 2011. Web.

Schultz, Denis. Muslim Congressman Andre Carson’s Modest Proposal: Remake American Education System with Madrassas. 2012. Web.

Sherman, Jake. Andre Carson: Tea Party Wants Blacks ‘hanging on a tree‘. 2011. Web.

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The Chinese Consumer Culture Phenomena Expository Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Consumption Behavior in China since the Regime of Mao

The Chinese Consumer Culture Phenomena

Chinese Middle Class

Consumerism in China

Works Cited

Consumption Behavior in China since the Regime of Mao China has one of the most attractive markets in the world. A report by Weightman (78) shows that many investors have considered venturing into this country because of a number of reasons. The first reason why this market is extremely attractive is the population. China is home to about 1.3 billion people, making it the most populous country in the world.

Brandt (8) says that this population forms a massive market that can be targeted with different products. The economy of this country has also contributed to making it an attractive market. China has the second largest economy in the world, after the United States based on purchasing power. The country’s leadership has made a concerted effort to improve the infrastructure. It has some of the best means of transport and communication systems in the world.

Consumer culture in this country has attracted attention of many scholars. Schoppa (87) defines consumer culture as the relationship that exists between an individual and material good. According to Gerth (93), consumer culture is a social set up where buying and selling of products not only defines daily life activities, but also considered part of the social organization.

Consumer culture can also be defined based on its two main constituents, which include consumerism and materialism. Consumer culture in China can be traced back to the Han Dynasty, which approximately 206 BC to 220 AD. As early as this time, the Chinese had developed strong cultural values that dictated most of their activities. Trade was one of the main activities practiced in this dynasty and trade was heavily affected by various cultural practices.

Ming Dynasty of 1368 had profound effects on consumer behavior, some of which are felt even today. During this time, Chinese people became exceedingly prominent in artistry. Most of the products that were presented to the market were beautiful pieces of art. The love of arts became one of the defining cultures of this society. As Vogel (112) says, Chinese still admire beautiful flower items because it defines their past. As such, consumer culture had started developing in those earlier days.

Mao Regime made an impact on consumer culture of people of this nation. According to Gerth, the consumer culture in China was being used to promote nationalism during the Mao regime and post Mao regimes (4). At this time, the main aim of this initiative was to link consumption and nationalism by introducing the issue of national products and brands. Consumption of national products was highly encouraged.

The government’s attempts to establish a link between nationalism and consumer culture was evident. It supplied Chinese products, including fashion products and food additives in its museums and departmental stores and encouraged local advertising. This movement tremendously influenced all aspects of China’s burgeoning consumer behavior and culture.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was at this time that the ambitious desire of China to create its own national brand in nearly every product emerged. It surfaced from this time that the consumer behavior was more of a nationalized one, in which the government heavily influenced consumer behavior in the market.

With the advent of globalization and liberalization, the trend shifted from a nationalized consumer culture where the government economic activities of people to an economy where consumerism was permitted (Li 84). Li says that, “Unlike the nationalized consumer culture, consumerism allows consumers to make a free choice on what they would like to purchase.” (4). In addition, it allows them to embrace thousands of new services, brands, and products with ease.

China remains one of the most attractive markets in the world. The middle class makes an attractive market segment that has not only attracted the Chinese investors, but also other investors from overseas nations. This has seen various firms across the world make an entry into this market.

The Chinese Consumer Culture Phenomena China is one of the fastest developing economies in the world. The runaway developments taking place in China has seen the income for most people soar especially in the coastal provinces of China. According to Croll, these coastal provinces form the heartland for the growing Chinese middle class, which presently numbers about 100 million (31).

Despite the fact that this economic boom has exacerbated regional disparities, new consumer classes (categories of consumers based on their income) have arisen. The classes of consumers in China are blue-collar factory workers; the pink-collar flight attendants, secretaries, and other service workers; White-collar office workers; and the gold-collar executives working in the multi-national corporations across China.

The reform era had a massive impact on individual Chinese, and on the country at large. As the country became liberalized, there was an emergent of an era of entrepreneurs. Private entrepreneurs were motivated to come up with various business ideas. The government had allowed private investors to come up with business opportunities. At whichever levels, their capacities would allow them.

China was getting liberated economically. There was the emergence of Ge-ti-hu (individual private entrepreneurs) who came with brilliant business ideas within the country Clark (67). They established restaurants, departmental stores, beauty salons among others. This led to the rise in consumer culture.

We will write a custom Essay on The Chinese Consumer Culture Phenomena specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Chinese now purchase various products from many of firms that came into existence. The local economy also became stronger. The emergence of Chinese Ge-ti-hu meant that the purchasing power of them improved. They can afford to buy consumer goods such as television, music system, and cars Schoppa (21).

According to Brandt and Rawski, globalization and the increased abundance of money has led to the emergence of another category of middle class consumers known as the monetary elite (35). The emergent monetary elite are classified under Dan shenguizu, Bo puzu, Yueguang zu, and You pi.

Weightman defines the Dan shen zu as referring to the “single aristocrats” most of whom are women over the age of thirty or are working as bankers or managers for foreign firms (312). These women often purchase high-end clothing and use many cosmetics like Shisido and Lancome. This category of middle class citizens can afford to take beach vacations on their own with their friends.

Bo pu zu refers to well-off intellectuals who indulge in studies and books. Yue guang zu is the category of middle-class earners who spend their money as fast as possible. This category is often considered as the “tapped-out class” (Weightman 312). You pi or yuppies, also known as the xiao zi or the “little capitalists” workers, are the category of middle class citizens who own apartments and cars and spend their off-hours in cafes.

Apart from this classification, the Chinese consumers can also be categorized as pragmatic, commercialized, social, and conservative (Brandt and Rawski 38). The pragmatic consumer seeks practical aspects of the consumer goods he purchases and ignores its commercial information. This consumer category forms 50.8% of all consumers in China. This consumer category is only interested in the functional attribute of the products they purchase.

Pragmatic-type consumers are thrifty and adhere to Chinese traditional values. Pragmatic-type consumers were common during the periods preceding Deng Xiaoping’s economic revolution. Vogel states, “This period saw consumer culture used to promote nationalism and patriotism,” (39).

National products and brands were introduced during this era, and their consumption was viewed as a sign of patriotism. Shoppers who stocked and sold locally manufactured products were given preferential treatment by the government. Shoppers and consumers who consumed foreign products were considered unpatriotic since they were going against the maxim that stated that Chinese ought to consume goods made in China (Gerth 4).

In order to encourage patriotism in the consumer culture the government supplied Chinese products ranging from fashion, food additives, and electronics among others in its departmental stores and museums. Additionally goods were clearly branded as ‘foreign’ or ‘Chinese’ with the consumption of the former being highly discouraged (Gerth 4). In essence, the government heavily influenced consumer behavior in the market.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Chinese Consumer Culture Phenomena by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although the government does not give direct support for the local products, the incentives given to the local firms leaves no doubt to the fact the government prefers the local brands. The incentives allow the firms to charge lesser prices in the local market. The price charged by the local firms is more attractive as compared to that of foreign firms.

The middle class consumers are sensitive of the price charged on the products they purchase. Any slight difference in price of the product they purchase would always affect their decision. As such, the government has swayed the decision of the consumers towards the purchase of local products.

The other category of middle class consumer is the commercialized type consumer. The commercialized consumer-type emerged at the onset of liberation and globalization when consumerism began to be embraced as nationalized consumption began to lose meaning. This consumer type pursues brand name products and is more concerned with the product’s commercial information.

They have awareness of the availability of different brands of products. They would demand a brand they have been using. The commercialized-type consumers became extremely common in China after the period of reforms. Li asserts that this category is bound to increase in line with the economic developments taking place in China (“CHINA IN 2000” 45.) This consumer category comprises the white-collar workers, the young, and the educated.

The sociable consumer gets information about products mostly from friends and relatives. They like information sharing amongst themselves as a way of enhancing their understanding towards products. The conservative consumer, on the other hand, resents commercial information and dislikes social changes.

This group of consumers presents radical changes, most of which are brought about by the emerging technologies. They take time to adjust to changes and, therefore, prefer changes that happen gradually. This category of consumers mostly comprises the older portion of the population who find it challenging to manage radical changes brought about by emerging technologies (Wang 83).

The current trend in consumer behavior has seen consumers moving towards becoming commercialized consumers. Initially, the aspect of seeking for commercial information and loyalty to brands were not the norm in the Chinese consumer market given that the government heavily influenced consumer behavior in the market. In the contemporary China, consumers can make a choice on what product to buy. They have the freedom to choose from a variety of products in the market (Ling 90).

Li perceives that the modern day Chinese consumer has embraced consumerism, which has been encouraged by the Deng economic reforms and the onset of globalization (“CHINA IN 2000” 84.) Consumerism enables the Chinese to make a free choice on what he would consume from a plethora of choices.

Consumerism in addition, it allows consumers to embrace a variety of new services, products, and brands with ease. Consumerism has its origin in the west where majority of the consumers tend to consume more than what they possess, with the hope of paying the debt incurred at a future date. Although the Chinese do not spend as much as consumers in the west do, their expenditure is sustainable enough, making it an attractive market (Mars and Adrian, 39).

Gerth argues that average Chinese saves nearly 30% of their household income (54). This rate in the western nations and the United States would be considered shocking and absurd since they save an average of one to two percent of their incomes (Lu 82). Wu claims that this saving and parsimonious culture developed because of China’s unstable economic and political history, which exposed Chinese to extreme levels of poverty (84).

In this regard, Chinese are not spent thrifts because they want to save much and shield themselves from poverty and medical problems especially after their retirement. This saving culture is further motivated by the poor health policies that comprise the health care coverage system and the pension scheme.

Chinese Middle Class Li observes that the concept of middle class began to be used in China in the late 1980s after the implementation of the reform and opening up policy (“CHINA IN 2000” 34.) The middle class category in China has been referred to as the category of citizens who have their own capital to invest.

In Li’s view, the middle class refers to a group of people who productively contribute to the making of new lifestyles and commercial mores (“CHINA IN 2000” 104.) The concept and idea of middle class originated from the West where it referred to bourgeoisie or a social stratum that does not have a clear definition, but if found in between the upper and lower classes.

Consumerism has transformed China. They have moved from the concept of only buying Chinese products, to a liberalized approach of buying brands, irrespective of the country of origin. This transformation has had a positive impact on the Chinese middle class. This class happens to have the largest number of consumers.

Chinese middle class has received different definition from different scholars based on the approach they use to define this term. However, all these definitions seem to agree on the fact that the class involves individuals who are not extremely rich, but have enough money to purchase most of the items they need in their lives (Chevalier and Pierre, 98).

The Chinese middle class definition is rather vague as different people categorize themselves in this group using different criteria. Li observes that the middle class are the drivers of the economy. This is because of their purchasing power and their number (104).

He further notes that it is more appropriate if they were referred to as the middle-income group, given the fact that their population drives the economy (104). The middle class concept was derived from the West, and a significant number of the citizens in this class do not believe that they belong there (Tsang 56).

The middle class generally love leisure. They like going on tours, spending some time in recreational activities or simply watching movies. According to the Chinese National Bureau of Statistics, the urban middle class should have an annual income of between sixty thousand and five hundred thousand Yuan (which is about $9600- $80,000) (Gerth 148).

Apparently, there are several types of middle classes, and they differ from province to province depending on income and other factors. For example, earning sixty thousand Yuan in the western province of Qinghai can qualify a person to be in the middle class category while in Beijing 60 000 Yuan is a basic and cannot automatically qualify a person to this category.

The middle class feels intensely insecure economically. In addition, the middle class is fragile given that the social security system in place is suboptimal, this could be the reason why a majority of the people refuse to be identified with this category (Cheng and Kara 118).

The middle class in China cannot be compared to the middle class populations in the United States. This is because of the high population and limited arable land that consequently make them live under low economic standard levels. Croll gives one of the best definitions of the middle class by describing them as a set of ordinary people, which makes the largest percentage between the poor and the rich (101).

Croll further suggests that they should have a monthly income of at least five thousand Yuan and has received a university education (101). The middle class can also be considered as a state of mind, where economic status and knowledge dictate the attitude and values of people within a given society. Croll states, “This group has grown massively as from the Mao era,” (101).

This category did not exist before, given that the Mao era was aimed at creating a united China with no social or economic class. In this united China, the government provided everything to its citizens. Currently, the middle class category comprises sixty four million Chinese citizens. This figure is expected to hit the six hundred million mark by 2020.

It is clear that the middle class in Chinese society do not believe that they belong to this class. This is because they feel there are some forces that dictate their actions other than themselves. This social stratum consists of professional people, businesspersons, teachers, and nurses, among other professionals. The middle class is marked by bourgeois values.

One of the most distinct aspects of the middle class is its state of mind where acquaintance and fiscal repute characterizes its values and approach to life. This middle class is growing at an accelerated pace, despite the fact that a growing number of researchers are raising questions about who make up China’s middle class.

Moreover, questions are being asked on what its disposable income truly means. In this respect, a comprehensible and perfect meaning of China’s middle class has not been easy to obtain. In particularly, it is hard to define the middle class at this moment when its economy has become full-fledged and ranks the second in the globe (Wang 91).

The clear definition of a working class is further hampered by the fact that the World Bank still classifies ten percent of China’s population as poverty-stricken. Clark argues this information is in harmony with China’s Ministry of Commerce’s report produced in the year 2010, which came clean that slightly over 150 million Chinese citizens subsist under the universal poverty line of one dollar in a day (78).

It is apparent that scholars have differed regarding the definition of the middle class. In fact, highly regarded scholars have extremely differed as regards the number of people who fall under the Chinese middle class, their capacity, as well as their buying power and the ramifications associated with it.

For example, China’s State Statistics Bureau stated that the middle class revenue standard ranges from 60,000 to 500,000 Yuan in 2005 (Wagner 1). Wagner (1) says, “Basing an argument on these figures can give an assumption that a near twenty percent of households fell in the middle class group.”

New-fangled characterizations of what forms the Chinese middle class vary considerably, from a tenth to nearly fifty percent of the Chinese populace. A research survey performed in 2007 by Goldman Sachs Group discovered that only 100 million Chinese buyers could technically fall under the middle class (Schoppa 37).

This research survey further estimated this figure to rise to 650 million by 2015. During the same year, (2007) the Asian Development Bank (ADB) stated that it might take some time for the government of China to elevate the living conditions of the low class to be in the same level with the high class (Schoppa 37).

Furthermore, the ADB defined the Chinese middle class as consisting of individuals who earn between two dollars a day and nineteen dollars a day in income. Using these values, the people who belong to the middle class in China could have been close to 200 million people in 2008. This figure has been consistently rising given the attractive growth of the Chinese economy (Ling 47).

It is estimated that Chinese middle class makes sixty percent of the national population of the country. This means that they are about 800 million people. Grouping people who earned two dollars daily in the middle class is ridiculous, given that the amount is insufficient to buy a chicken burger in the country.

Moreover, that amount is inadequate for basic needs such as electricity and water. “Additionally, the international standards specify that, for a person to fall in the middle class category he should have a daily income of between $4 and $6” (Wagner 1).

ADB divided the middle class into several categories of low, middle, and upper-middle class due to this unrealistic categorization of the middle-class. The lower middle-class earn from two to four dollars a day, the middle-middle class earn from four to ten dollars a day, and the upper-middle class earn from ten to twenty dollars a day (Mars 33).

ADB also describes the well-heeled Chinese, or the upper class, as individuals who rake in twenty dollars per day on the lower side, which adds up to 7,300 US dollars per year. This affluent populace consists of 44.8 million residing in the urban areas and 11.1 million residing in China’s rural areas.

The Chinese Academy of social Sciences, on the other hand, considers those who use 30-37.3% of their income on food in China, as people of the middle class (Li 34). Li further states that, “people in households with a per-capita yearly disposable income of 16,300 Yuan to 37,300 Yuan fall in this category” (35).

Despite the fact that the definition of the middle class in China is rather relative and vague, the number of people belonging to this category is rising. To broaden the scope of this study, and for clarity purposes, the researcher considers those who earn two and twenty dollars a day to be the middle class.

A survey performed in 2010 by Brookings Institution predicted that the number of people who make up the middle class in the Asian continent is projected to augment from 28% in 2009 to 67 percent by 2030, which is an increase of 236 percent in a span of only two decades (Wagner 1).

This statement also hypothesizes that the Chinese middle class is anticipated to be composed of more people not only because of the rate of China’s fiscal growth (the growth of a country’s economy within a given year) , but also due to people who are set to get out of their poverty status. It is expected that percentage of Chinese making ten dollars a day will rise to 74% from the present day 11% by 2030 (Lu 72).

A research done in 2006 by the China National Research Association (CNRA) came up with six criteria for establishing elements that determine the Chinese middle class status. Li says, “This criterion is based on education, profession, salary, savings, societal influence, and holidays,” (90). In this respect, it has been argued that, apart from the above stated determinants, there are other criteria for determining class status.

For example, not all people who earn US$2,600 to $6,430 per month meet the criterion to be in the middle class group. This is because it has to be shown whether they own property, can afford regular holidays, and their consumption pattern is in line with the middle-income category ratings (Tsang 117).

Appropriate definition of the middle class should include such criteria as living standards, patterns of consumption, career, reputation within the society, and the ability to express oneself (Wagner 1). The middle class will most certainly be small as compared to the estimates of ADB when the above standard is utilized to classify the middle class.

Even though China has made notable accomplishments in its scuffle to improve the lives of its poor citizens, it has not made comparable advancements in structuring the middle class. A comprehensive urbanization course of action and a functional civil society are needed to institute an indisputable middle class.

Despite the fact that the middle class in Asia has significantly lower spending and income than its Western counterpart, its growth in expenditure has been remarkable. China’s consumption of luxury products has grown rapidly. It could be the reason why most people mistakenly believe that most Chinese citizens are middle class.

The definition of middle class in other countries is remarkably different from the Chinese perspective. The United States of America believes that middle class category should comprise of people who earn between 70 to 280 dollars a day. In the American perspective, the middle class is defined by occupation and income. They comprise of households having an annual income of between $25,000 and $100,000 (Wagner 1).

The middle class in the United States feels extremely secure. They have good healthcare, job security, good housing, and educational facilities among other benefits. Furthermore, they enjoy a discretionary income that can be utilized on leisure pursuits and vacation. According to Li, this middle class is defined by consumerism and a constant up scaling of lifestyle standards (90). In addition, this middle class category is willing to pay more for additional quality.

The middle class in the United States is hardly considered a distinct faction in view of the fact that a greater part of the US citizens believe they fall under this category. In contrast, citizens in China see the middle class as a high-status group, which many aspire to belong. An individual who falls under this class is expected to live a lavish life. They are also expected to be well mannered.

Even as the American middle class families will rather live in the suburbs, their Chinese counterparts fancy living in downtown areas or close to the central business district. In Germany, the middle-income class consists of households having an annual income of between $30,000 and $800,000, which accounts for fifty-five percent of the population. Brandt and Rawski note that, “In Brazil, the middle class constitute nearly forty-nine percent of the total population” (38).

The middle class in China is expected to portray certain characteristics, which are unique from other social classes. In addition, they are expected to be people who travel a lot and have at least one vacation every year. Besides, they are expected to engage in relaxation activities such as having fancy feasts in classy restaurants and going to cinemas. They are expected to have a culture of spending that is well above those in low social strata.

Furthermore, the Chinese National Bureau of statistics (CNBS) expects them to have a yearly income of nearly sixty thousand to five hundred thousand Yuan (Gerth 148). However, this figure may vary from one province to another based on the living standards of the province. China has several categories of middle classes, which differ from province to province depending on income among other factors.

China uses three criteria to classify its citizens as middle class, which is income, occupation, consumption, and education. The middle class person should be a person that holds a professional or managerial occupation, a businessperson, intellectual elite, or a manager with an extremely high income that can facilitate consumption in Mainland China. The middle class citizen is additionally required to possess higher education certification. He or she should also afford cars and other life-improving products (Ling 69).

Mainland China has three types of middle-class citizens, depending on the economic, political, and social factors. These types are the new middle class, the old middle class, and the marginal middle class (Brandt and Rawski 38). The new middle class consists of professionals, managers and the capitalists.

The old middle class are the small owners of firms, and businesses and the marginal middle class are the routine workers. The middle class in mainland China can be summarized as a mixture of four groups having different economic condition, socio-political function, and social status. These groups are the capitalist class, the new middle class, the old middle class, and the marginal middle class (Brandt and Rawski 39).

According to Li, “The accelerated growth in China has paralleled the materialization of a new urban middle class,” (96). Li argues that presently, fourteen percent of the present Chinese population belongs to the middle class category (96). The citizens in this category are economically stable, well advanced in education and are no longer engaged in industrial or agricultural production.

Rather, they are involved in service production and have an outward and modern looking worldview. In addition, they are optimistic about the dazzling opportunities that are availed to them. This new middle class signifies China as a consumer society given that its purchasing power brings durable electric and electronic equipment, cars, international and national tourism and traveling, meat-based diets, and large houses within the reach of the people.

This unique purchasing power of the middle class is seen in the growth of car sales, which has been experienced in the past decade. This increase has made China the largest energy user in the world and the biggest car producer.

In addition, it has made millions of Chinese move away from the poverty margins, and move to cities to make more money. This means that the demand for goods is rising in China, and companies all over the world are seeing it as an opportunity and a market for their goods (Tsang 87).

The new middle class emerging in China is growing and for the first time, people are currently seen buying cars and other expensive goods. In addition, they have washing machines, refrigerators, clothes dryers, and electric ovens. These goods were rare in China nearly twenty years ago.

Furthermore, a new service economy is rising in China. The service is identified with the middle class. For the first time, people are using video stores, stockbrokers, internet cafes, insurance companies, travel agents, real estate agents, and repair services (Lu 132).

These businesses have a significant and a growing market, which is substantially composed of the middle class. In addition, middle class families in China can now afford to send their children abroad for education, with their children making up a larger part of the university classes in Europe and the United States.

These students will end up as engineers, computer programmers, doctors, and business executives. After their graduation, many of them will bring their skills home to China and increase the middle class category. Furthermore, the modern day middle class Chinese worker can afford to travel abroad, spend their money in foreign cities, shop for souvenirs, visit restaurants, rent hotel rooms, and purchase new clothes (Tsang 30).

Consumerism in China China is one of the leading manufacturers of consumer goods in the world. Lately, it has shifted to be the world’s biggest consumer of nearly everything, from mobile phones to fast moving consumer goods such as beer. This trend has been widely encouraged by the increasing middle class population who form the majority of consumers countrywide.

The government of China continues to encourage a culture of consumption among its citizens. Recently, the government took a considerable decision to stimulate consumer demand in China (Davis 77). This measure was motivated by the fact that most China’s products had already saturated the western markets, leaving it with few unexploited ones.

Consequently, the Chinese industry had no other place to turn to, but its own population for purposes of ensuring continued economic growth. Given the present worldwide financial crisis, other western world producers have turned to the Chinese population to help save their economies. These factors among others have created a unique consumer culture that is bound to affect the middle class consumption trends (Tsang 98).

Chinese exports to the United States have been declining and have apparently gone down by twenty six percent in 2000 (Davis 78). This fact has forced the country’s policy makers to devise strategies to get the thrifty Chinese citizens, and consumers to start spending. Consequently, the Chinese government announced a five hundred and ninety billion dollar stimulus package for this purpose and offered a thirteen percent rebate on electronics to its rural dwellers.

Consumer behavior is always shaped by different factors. A consumer would have a negative perception towards a certain product because of cultural practices or other social factors. Peer is known to be one of the leading determinants of an individual’s behavior. Individual behavior would be shaped by the group behavior. The youth forms a market segment that is influenced by peer pressure.

An individual would buy a product based on how his or her peer feels about that product. At this stage of development, the peers are extremely sensitive about what others think about them in society. They will always strive to eliminate all forms of negative comments from their age mates. They would also wish to be viewed as trendy individuals. Religious groupings would also affect the behavior of a consumer (Ling 71).

Despite the high saving rates, the Chinese consuming patterns have increased with economic booms, and a number of families have steadily acquired more gadgets as their household incomes increases. The rapid economic developments taking place in China have given rise to a striking cross-generational disparity.

It has also created a generation that is not prudent in consumption compared to the earlier generations. “This generation, which mainly comprises youths under the age of thirty-five, seems to have defied the saving culture that was instituted in the earlier generations in the Cultural Revolution,” observes Tsang (93).

Another factor that has led to the emergence of this distinct class of spenders is China’s one-child policy. Under this policy, several adults raise up the new generation. Therefore, it enjoys a relatively large margin of spending (Davis 78).

In the Chinese rural set-ups, majority still lead a lifestyle that is below the country’s average. However, there is a growing class of spendthrift Chinese, especially in major towns of this country. In addition, Chinese consumers show a strong consideration and loyalty to locally made brands.

This means that the foreign companies venturing into the Chinese market have to form alliances with local companies, allocate resources into establishing distribution channels, and ensure their products and brands are accessible to their Chinese consumers (Davis 78).Most of the Chinese consumers in nearly thirteen of China’s cities are very keen on their expenditure (Davis 79). Consumers falling within the age groups of eighteen to twenty-nine years exhibit the highest tendency on this.

Buyer behavior in China is mostly influenced by practical reasons, other than emotional reasons common in the west. In this nation, word of mouth recommendation for certain products carries more weight in comparison to advertising mediums. The new generations of Chinese consumers have set their sight on the high end of the Chinese market and have increasingly sought after the luxury market.

The earlier generation viewed consumption of luxuries as a waste of money, which could rather have been saved somewhere. This has marked the new generation of consumers’ desire for status. This category is unabashed to flaunt their money on these luxurious items in order to achieve their desired status and reputation (Lu 61).

In addition, the corporate culture of gift giving for the aim of building good business relationships has increased spending on luxurious items. Currently, China is ranked the second largest luxury market after Japan in the whole world and is poised to be the largest luxury market by 2016 (Li 157). Apart from the rise in luxury spending, the Chinese consumer seems to follow a given trend. First, most of the transactions are done on a cash basis with credit cards and checks being used less frequently.

As stated above, the government of China has been keen on encouraging consumption among its local populace. The impact of this move is evidently positive. Although the rate of consumption is not as high as the government would wish, the current Chinese market is extremely attractive both to the local and foreign investors.

However, most of the middle class Chinese consumers like cheaper products. Haggling and bargaining between the vendor and customer, boss and employee are common, and the person who is more powerful determines their direction. Bargaining and squabbling are common between the Chinese even over minute purchases (Tsang 144).

“Chinese are not successful consumers, buyers, or spenders, as those in the west because they only consume about fifty percent of what they produce,” says Davis (104). This level fell to thirty six percent of gross domestic product in 2000 from forty nine percent in 1990 (Davis 104).

However, the twenty-first century has seen most of the Chinese increase their spending on consumer goods. This is part of government’s effort to encourage local consumption. The government has taken a keen interest in ensuring that products are priced fairly.

This has motivated Chinese consumers to increase their expenditure. The youth seems to be the best beneficiary from this regulation. They like spending on trendy products, but have limited financial base. Consumer behavior in China comprises some unique features. First, the Chinese consumer market is evolving at a rapid rate and in most instances; new products are accepted before their predecessors even succeed in penetrating the market.

The second reason is that the Chinese consumers value brand (Cheng and Kara 89). Consumer spending is apparently high between the age groups of twenty and forty-nine, the category born after 1980 when the economic reforms began to take shape, and they are the driving force of the Chinese consumer economy (Tsang 39).

Works Cited Brandt, Loren, and Thomas Rawski. China’s Great Economic Transformation. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2008. Print.

Cheng, Hong and Kara, Chan. Advertising and Chinese Society: Impacts and Issues. Frederiksberg: Copenhagen Business School Press, 2009. Print.

Chevalier, Michel and Pierre, Lu. Luxury China: Market Opportunities and Potential. Singapore: John Wiley

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Lucretius’s View about the Roman Agriculture Essay cheap essay help

Lucretius believed that the universe constituted of particles which arrangement had occurred by chance. In addition, he held the conviction that change and decay were inevitable.

These assertions formed a doctrine that was similar to the modern concept of entropy. Lucretius described the way human activities in the Roman agriculture interacted with the environment and resulted in severe land degradation.

Lucretius argued that art and science, which arose through trial and error, were subject to similar deterioration as the materials available to the two disciplines (Krech et al. 768).

It means that just as the way scientific principles resulted from trial and error, agriculture could not facilitate the expansion of the Roman economy and preserve the environment at the same time.

Lucretius argued that it was difficult to undertake agriculture in Rome because land infertility was increasing. Some farmers confessed to Lucretius that the last harvests were incomparable to those of the previous seasons.

This was not a mere rhetoric considering that writers on the Roman agriculture also highlighted the decline in land productivity either due to the land being old or because of humans’ failure to preserve the available land.

This implied that Lucretius’s sentiments about the Roman agriculture were justifiable since even the farmers themselves confirmed that land infertility was eminent.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the Roman agriculture, the pursuance of the unexploited land led farmers to cut down trees on the hillside and convert woodlands into agricultural fields and grazing grounds (Krech et al. 769).

Lucretius stated that woodcutters confined the forest to the mountain, leaving the foothills for farming purposes. Thus, Lucretius focused on the deforestation of Italy during the Roman Empire period.

He implied that as the Romans attempted to employ modern technology in farming, they were leaving most of the land barren and thus encouraged desertification.

Lucretius argued that mining resulted from the Roman’s quest for expansion thus most of the agricultural land suffered degradation. This implied that as the Romans continued developing their economy, they affected nature negatively.

Lucretius described the discovery of metals after humans set forests on fire and observed the metal-ore melting with molten metal seeping out of the earth’s cracks. People experimented with their new discovery and found out that they could make tools and weapons as well as ornaments.

Furthermore, Lucretius described mines which contained dangerous pollutants that contaminated the air. However, mines did not only emit foul smell, but also affected mineworkers and reduced their life expectancy.

This implies that human interference with nature presents undesirable outcomes (Krech et al. 769).

We will write a custom Essay on Lucretius’s View about the Roman Agriculture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lucretius believed that nature superseded the efforts adopted by humans. In his view, all human works would lie in ruins since no permanent improvement could emanate from people’s efforts because history is a process of decline.

In addition, Lucretius supposed that either Gods or Aristotelian purpose had stopped guiding nature. He observed that early humans were healthier compared to those of his time even though the living conditions of previous generations were primitive.

Lucretius argued that humanity became civilized not due to following some law of progress, but by responding to trials that nature made humans face.

Conclusion Lucretius concluded that the most appropriate way to cope with natural disasters and better people’s life was to seek innate explanation for every phenomenon and remain contented with the current order of things.

He observed that irrespective of the humans’ guest to gain control over various aspects of their lives, nature always thrived (Krech III et al. 768).

Works Cited Krech III, Shepard, McNeill, John Robert and Carolyn Merchant. Encyclopedia of World Environmental History: A – E. New York: Routledge, 2004. Print

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After a great pain a formal feeling comes by Emily Dickenson Essay (Book Review) essay help free: essay help free

After a great pain a formal feeling comes by Emily Dickenson In her poem After a great pain a formal feeling comes Emily Dickenson focuses on the experiences of a person who has suffered emotional suffering. The author uses various images to show the dehumanizing effect of this distress on the inner world of a human being who can become very callous.

This is one of the possible responses to this suffering. This paper will examine the form and structure of the poem, the tone of the writer, and the themes that Emily Dickenson explores or emphasizes in her work.

By discussing these issues, one can better understand the beauty of Emily Dickenson’s poetry. I have chosen this poem because Emily Dickenson succeeds in examining the most complex psychological problems within three stanzas.

The brevity and complexity of this poem greatly appealed to me. This is why I think that this literary work is worth attention.

First of all, one should note that the author uses third-person narrative when describing the experiences of an individual. She places more stress on the feeling of a person who can be either male or female.

In this way, Emily Dickenson strives to show that emotional suffering can produce devastating effects on every individual. No one is safeguarded against such a trauma. So, one can say that Emily Dickenson gives voice to universal experience.

It is difficult to determine when or where the poem is set. One can only conjecture that the author describes the aftermath of suffering and the inner world of an individual who could have been hurt in some way.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The readers of this poem have to remember that Emily Dickenson could speak on behalf of many people who sustained emotional trauma.

It is also necessary to discuss the structure of the poem. It contains three stanzas and each of the stanzas has a different number of lines. One cannot say that the author wanted to adhere to a particular type of verse.

For instance, Emily Dickenson prefers iambic parameter which means that the stress is usually placed on the every second syllable, but she does always follow this metrical foot in every case.

For example, one can look at the following line, ‘First chill, then stupor, then the letting go’ (Dickenson unpaged). Secondly, one should notice that the number of words varies from three to eight.

Overall, these examples indicate that Emily Dickenson was more concerned with expressive means that could best describe the feelings of the narrator and she did not want to be limited by one literary form. These are the structural peculiarities of the poem.

The theme of the literary work is probably the most important issue that should be closely analyzed because the author highlights very complex psychological problems that an individual can encounter.

Emily Dickenson places emphasis on the experiences of a person on whom emotional pain has been inflicted. She strives to demonstrate that this form of suffering can be much more severe that a physical trauma, because an individual can become insensitive, callous, or indifferent.

We will write a custom Book Review on After a great pain a formal feeling comes by Emily Dickenson specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is one of the responses to emotional trauma. Overall, this person can lose some of the attributes that distinguish a human being from a mere mechanism.

This lack of sensitivity can be regarded as a shield against the suffering. Emily Dickenson uses different metaphors in order to illustrate this point. For instance, one can look at the following lines,

“The feet, mechanical, go round

A wooden way” (Dickenson unpaged)

In this case, the words “mechanical and “wooden” indicate that emotional suffering deprive a person of his/her humanity (Dickenson unpaged).

Moreover, she creates an excellent oxymoron “quartz contentment” that shows how this person may feel (Dickenson unpaged).

The author compares this individual to inanimate objects like a stone or wood and in this way she strives to show that callousness can be a response to emotional suffering.

This is how the writer gives the readers insights into the inner world of the narrator.

Not sure if you can write a paper on After a great pain a formal feeling comes by Emily Dickenson by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The author’s tone implies that she is compassionate for a person who has endured great suffering. This poem shows that the effects of such an event are very difficult to overcome.

This is why she says, “this is the hour of lead remembered if outlived” (Dickenson unpaged). However, the use of oxymoron like “quartz contentment” indicates that she is also slightly ironic.

Yet, her irony is directed against people who believe that emotional distress does not harm a person in any way. One cannot say for sure that Emily Dickenson describes her own experiences.

However, her poem is very insightful; it seems to be based on first-hand experiences. This realism is probably the main strength of this literary work.

Certainly, Emily Dickenson’s could have tried to express more than one idea. Probably, she wants to say that the feelings of an individual can be very vulnerable, and one should be very careful when speaking about the emotional life of a person.

People should know that their words can have an extremely adverse influence on the feelings of others even if one cannot detect the effects at first glance.

Works Cited Dickenson Emily. After a great pain a formal feeling comes. 12. Aug. 1999. Web. .

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Politics in Egypt Essay essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Failure of Secular Political Movements

Common values of Islamists and Secularists

Status of Shar’ia under Mubarak and Current Discussions

Current discussions

Works Cited

Failure of Secular Political Movements In most cases, secular political movements fail because of lack of organization and the spontaneous nature of these groups. These groups often arise spontaneously without proper organization.

The movements are, therefore, often not identified with a particular leader. The lack of predefined leadership agendas dents the movement’s strength as rivalries arise from the different groups constituting the movement.

The movement, thus, has to handle challenges of institutionalizing their diverse interests. With time, various governance issues such as qualification of the leaders, the people to spearhead constitution making, what the constitution should entail, and scheduling of elations arise.

Leadership wrangles are also dominant in absence of well defined succession plans. Despite the popularity of the secular movements, internal rivalries are common.

This was the cause of divisions in the Muslim brotherhood in the 1980s and 1990s where the group split along key personalities (Rutherford 89).

Generational disparities also contribute to the failure of political movements. Internal divisions may arise due to reluctance to integrate the agendas of the different age groups, especially the young generation, into decision making organs.

Conflict of interest across the generation and reluctance of leaders to give the young people the opportunity to utilize their skills can cause rivalry.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ideological differences may also come out across the generation, whereby the young generation may be willing to accommodate new concepts and ideas while the older generation of leaders is rigid.

This was witnessed in the breakup of Muslim brotherhood in 1996 when the old generation of leaders refused to support the youth’s propositions of incorporating other groups into their organization (Rutherford 90).

This caused the youths to split from the main organization and formed their political party, though not successful.

Evolution of other organizations which are autonomous and financially well endowed threatens the political movements. This may be so when the emerging groups do not have commitment to the movement’s common goal, in spite of the groups being sympathizers of the movement.

The movement, therefore, remains as an umbrella body for the different parties having divergent purposes and ideologies. The regime of the day may also impose repressive measures against the movement, often leading to disintegration of the movement.

Threats, detention and imprisonment of the members of the movement often put the organizational structure of the movement into disarray, thus weakening it. The repressive measures can create leadership crises, impacting on the hold of the movement in the population.

This is exemplified by the repression activities of the government in 1970s and 1980s that affected the organizational structure of the Muslim brotherhood. This reduced its influence among the different Islamic activists.

We will write a custom Essay on Politics in Egypt specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The government also elevated the generational differences across this group by cracking down on young members, whereas the older members who were the leaders did not respond to these sufferings (Rutherford 91).

The movement may often appeal to the masses, spanning across social, religious, ideologies and all age differences. It can, therefore, be made up of people from all walks of life, including those in the economy, military, youth activists and politicians.

Sectarian groups may take advantage of lack of proper leadership mechanisms and pursue their interests once they have attained power, contributing to failure of the movement.

For instance, the military may exercise too much power and attempt to exert regulations on the pace and type of change to be implemented.

The military may often rule with decrees and such rule is not overseen by anybody, for example parliament or opposition. Thus, the military rules without consulting the general public on major issues (International Crisis Group 2).

Common values of Islamists and Secularists Islamists and secularists share various dimensions of constitutionalism, among them being the, “rule of law, constraints on state power, protection of civil and political rights and public participation in politics” (Rutherford 101).

In the rule of law, the Islamists and secularists have agreements on shar’ia as the basis of governance. Shari’a must be derived from the Qur’an or the Sunnah obtained from reliable sources.

Shari’a defines the ethical and spiritual ways that the believer must follow to live a moral life in accordance with God’s ways. Thus, every believer is obliged to follow shar’ia.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Politics in Egypt by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Shar’ia also establishes the legal and moral principles for a spiritually enriched society. Through demonstration of the expected moral values to be adhered to, shar’ia promotes harmony and stability in the nation.

The Shar’ia teachings also stipulate that to lead a spiritual life, one must meditate and interact with fellow believers and practice the teachings. It is, thus, the responsibility of the state to steer the people to have good morals by enforcing shar’ia.

These topics have no contention and are not subject to discussion, thus the Islamism and secularists have an accord.

Issues that are not available in the Qur’an and Sunnah require formulation of laws that are in agreement with Shari’a. These laws must be generated through governance in different political, social, cultural, and economic settings.

The man-made laws are established based on fundamental pillars of Shar’ia in relation to governance. These principles include, ”to establish justice, to rule through consultation (shura), to govern in a manner accountable to the citizenry, to derive laws from the Islamic Shar’ia, and to respect the people’s rights” (Rutherford 103).

Governance is, therefore, aimed at employing the central pillars of Shari’a to formulate laws. The people designing these laws must consider the expectation of the community while upholding the Shar’ia principles.

The laws do not contradict Shar’ia if they address the needs of the community and are geared towards addressing the interests of the citizens. In addition, the formulated laws must cater for the expectations of the community and the unique nature of the demands at that time.

The laws are also formulated by building consensus concerning the issue at hand, in accordance to shar’ia principles and reflecting diverse knowledge and opinions.

The Shar’ia, thus, allows for application of non-Muslim ideologies to handle situations in life as long as the ideologies do not contradict the shar’ia. The laws should mirror the values and sense of justice.

The Islamists and secularists believe that Muslims have to reinterpret religion to correspond with issues in the contemporary world.

Governance by Shar’ia is reaffirmed when the citizens and state demonstrate honest attempts to behave as pertains to Islam and not just oriented towards the particular legislative outcome. Shari’a is based on protecting, “religion, rationality, property and wealthy” (Rutherford 122).

This means that it is enforced to promote justice, fairness, and compassion, and thus laws that stratify these ethical issues are compliant with shar’ia. The process of formulating laws is important in reinforcing Shar’ia.

This requires careful consideration of challenges facing the Egyptians and evaluating the possible laws that can help while reflecting Shari’a principles. The role of religious leaders is secondary to drafting the law and interpreting shar’ia.

In constraints of state power, exercising state power is confined under Shari’a, hence the people can ignore or even impeach a leader whose conduct and rule contradicts Shari’a.

The people have the freedom of expressing allegiance to the state that is founded on Shar’ia, and which responds to the community’s will. The leader is, thus, elected by the citizens and is responsible to them.

The leader as a human being can make mistakes as he is not divine, hence he should always engage his subjects on major issues.

The state must also be subjected to checks and balances, hence the essence of decentralizing powers to other governance organs and empowering civil societies (Rutherford 112).

In protection of civil and political rights, Islamists and secularists have common values in upholding individual rights and freedom. All the citizens have rights to, “better living standards, life, dignity, and property” (Rutherford 113).

Ideal governance is based on, “consultation, justice, freedom, equality and the accountability of the ruler” (Rutherford 113). Freedom to express one’s self, to think and inquire is essential in practicing Islam faith. Islamists and secularists also believe in public participation in politics.

The people are, therefore, supposed to be involved in electing their leaders. By consulting the people, the state gives the citizens a chance to participate in determining governance.

Status of Shar’ia under Mubarak and Current Discussions Shari’a is the main source of legislation in Egypt, under article 2 of the constitution. This means that all the legislations must be derived from the principles of Shari’a. In interpretation of the article, the court in 1985 ruled that the principles of shar’ia must be applied into positive state law.

The Shari’a has two principles; those which are express and cannot be debated, and those which can be applied in relation to different contexts. These relative principles are subject to interpretations while adhering to Shari’a.

In Mubarak’s regime, two constitutional amendments were carried out but all of them left article 2 intact. Regarding family and personal status laws, the laws were ramified in accordance to shari’a; though this ramification was not comprehensive.

Family conflicts such as divorce and alimony were put together to form one case in 2004 so that they can be heard by one court. Personal status laws are enacted by the parliament.

The legislation of laws was often followed by some explanations to demonstrate how the laws were adopted and backing literature to justify the legislation (ISLAMOPEDIA para 1).

Current discussions Having ascended to power, Muslim brotherhood is advocating for consultative governance according to Islam. Muslim brotherhood perceives public engagement in politics as essential in governance.

This can be promoted by carrying out free and fair elections in order to choose leaders who demonstrate accountability.

This approach is, however, not shared by some scholars who see perceive embedded problems in mass politics, such as enactment of legislation that is not established on ethical principles of Islam (ISLAMOPEDIA para 1).

Instead, these scholars are of the view that the state should put organs that can maintain checks and balances, for example a constitutional court that makes sure the formulated legislative measures are in accordance to Shari’a.

After the ouster of Mubarak and subsequent entry of the new regime, constitutional plans to amend the constitution were initiated. The main discussions in the amendment of the constitution gravitated around article 2 which invokes shar’ia as the major source of laws.

People opposed to this article cite it as being biased and the article does not address those people having divergent religious views.

Those against the proposals to change article 2 were concerned that changing it was likely to cause sectarian rivalry (ISLAMOPEDIA para 2). However, as the secular groups are minorities, most people are opposed to amending the article.

Works Cited International Crisis Group. “Popular protest in North Africa and the Middle East (1): Egypt Victorious?” Middle East/North Africa Report No. 101. 2012. Web.

ISLAMOPEDIA. Islam and the state of post Mubarak era 2012. Web.

Rutherford, Bruce K. Egypt after Mubarak: Liberalism, Islam, and democracy in the Arab world. Oxford: Princeton Studies in Muslim Politics, 2012. Print.

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Jebel Ali Free Zone Proposal custom essay help

Jebel Ali Free Zone (JAFZA) is an international business hub that is located in Dubai. Since its establishment in 1985, this free zone has extremely expanded to incorporate over 6700 companies worldwide. It is strategically located between Jebel Ali Port and Al Maktoum International Airport, which are surrounded by an efficient and effective 6-lane highway infrastructure. These features make JAFZA a unique economic zone among other trading zones.

Notably, this Economic Zones World is at the center of various continents like Asia, Africa, and Europe. Therefore, it drives the UAE’s economy. JAFZA aims at providing sustainable business environment to all its stakeholders; for instance, supporting entrepreneurial diversities and worthwhile innovations to its partners. It has been encouraging clients’ participation; for example, it offered incentives like tax holidays for over 50 years and even implemented currency uniformity.

Moreover, the organization provides facilities like packing spaces, plots of land for office spaces and leasing, warehouses, which clients use as showrooms and storage facilities. Therefore, the organization offers a wide market to the entire clients.

JAFZA, just like other organizations have been experiencing managerial problems that require a strategic and inclusive proposal to mitigate. The organization has different departments that perform diverse roles in ensuring their clients’ satisfaction. As an international organization, it has employees from all the world’s continents. All cultures are unique. As a result, there is a cultural conflict, which is different ethnicity, countries, and gender.

Some employees believe that their culture is superior to all. This leads to lack of cooperation among the employees and departments in general. On the other hand, the organization deals with clients from varied backgrounds. Evidently, language barrier is a drawback that has affected the economic zone. Consequently, communication among stakeholders has been a major challenge. This has resulted to stereotypes and difficulties in integration among the stakeholders.

Additionally, JAFZA has a bureaucratic arrangement or structure. This scenario has made it difficult to pass information to the required destination without distortion or alteration and omissions. Moreover, there has been a challenge in obtaining feedback as the departments are operating independently. The lack of departments’ link poses a pronounced threat to the communication passage.

This scenario can also lead to dishonesty and untrustworthiness among the firm’s stakeholders. An organization that lacks honesty is surely preparing to fail. In addition, there is lack of information clarity, as not all employees can decode the messages intended to be acted upon. A wrong information interpretation, results to wrong action.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More JAFZA has also been experiencing failure in their communication systems. Specifically, the organization cannot trace their clients if they leave and maintain their employees’ details should the employees lose their email IDs. This reveals a fault in the design of the communication system that the firm has been using.

These issues that JAFZA faces requires a proactive approach to ensure the success of the organization. Successful organizations always apply broader solution solving approach. In management, challenges are common issues that firms have to face and deal with pre-emptively.

If organizations can minimize their bureaucratic management and communication procedures, they can effectively enhance cohesive workforce. Subsequently, the employees will focus on achieving the firms’ strategic business objectives alongside meeting their personal goals.

The proposal aims at ensuring that JAFZA’s stakeholders work towards the realization of the firm’s objectives with minimum challenges that their solutions are within their reach. The success of the international business hub relies on the active and full implementation of the suggestions that will be put forward. Precisely, through effective and open communication in an organization, there will be development of strong relationship among the stakeholders such as suppliers, employees, customers, and government agencies.

JAFZA ought to carry out a survey on the means by which the communication and other prominent problems can be mitigated. For example, the firm can use of questionnaires. Stakeholders can fill on the possible solutions on the problems that they experience. The management can obtain varied ways forward by surveys, as this method covers wide clients’ base. Furthermore, the organization can use online services as another method to obtain solutions to their problems.

For example, they can use social sites like Facebook and Tweeter to reach the potential clients. Online services are mostly used by the youthful generation than the aging population. Currently, most employees are youths and this approach will effectively enable the firm to solve the problems it is undergoing. The management can slot in the stakeholders’ opinions in the strategies to eradicate these challenges.

JAFZA should expect the methodologies to propose a reduction in the communication procedures in the firm. This situation will not only minimize information distortion but also foster an open-communication environment. For example, adopting a flat or horizontal organizational structure will increase interaction between various departments that have not been interlinked. As a result, stakeholders will be motivated by this approach, as they will feel that their opinions are valued.

We will write a custom Proposal on Jebel Ali Free Zone specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Likewise, there will be an option for improving the information storage systems. This involves improving the design on the communication infrastructure that ensures real time contact with the clients. Instant communication helps in quick and timely decision making thus assisting in ensuring consistent growth of firms.

The proposals on how to improve communication means and systems at JAFZA will eventually result to reduced cost of management. For instance, timely and precious transfer of messages among departments or other stakeholders will be realised.

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The Colombian Cartels Essay online essay help: online essay help

In 1970’s and 1980’s, violence, corruption and intimidation characterized the Colombian political system. This phase marked the reign of Medellin cartel and Cali cartel. Similar to other criminal groups, these cartels used violence to settle disputes through intimidating law enforcers and public officials (Allum and Renate 90). Leaders of these cartels also bribed officials so that they could cover them after engaging in criminal activities.

The chief members of the Medellin cartel included Pablo Escobar, Carlos Lehder and Ochoa (Skidmore and Peter Modern 216). On the other hand, Santacruz Londono and the Rodriguez Orejuela brothers made up the Cali cartel. Rodriguez was the leader of the Cali cartel while Escobar headed the Medellin cartel (Dhywood 16). These two leaders led their groups through violence, corruption and intimidation while carrying out drug deals

In 1984, the two cartels formed an alliance and a private army to fight kidnappers who went for rich drug dealers (Allum and Renate 89). The army was so brutal that kidnappers had no option, but to stay away from them. At that time, Escobar operated smoothly since he was a member of the Congress (Dhywood 17). In 1985, Justice Rodrigo forwarded the motion on expulsion of Escobar from congress. Some days later, the police raided Escobar’s hiding place and seized vast tons of cocaine.

After the raid, some cartel members travelled to Panama for negotiations with government officials. Surprisingly, Escobar offered to clear all the foreign debts held by the government, but his offer became rejected. As a result, Escobar declared a war over the government. Rodrigo, who was the Justice Minister, and other government officials who resisted the demands of Escobar became killed (Dhywood 17).

At that time, corruption and violence symbolized Escobar’s conduct in government. Escobar became selected when Gonzalo Gacha, a member of the Medellin cartel directed five city governments and mayoral elections in Madgdalena as well as the police force in Pacho, in 1988 (Allum and Renate 88). Pablo Escobar became elected as a substitute member of the city council in Medellin (Allum and Renate 88).

Thus, both direct and indirect power allowed Escobar to use violence in running Medellin town and its environs. He was ready to kill anyone, or bribe for the sake of his drug business. He bribed various law enforcers and killed people like Rodrigo, who seemed to obstruct his activities. He also used violence to intimidate law enforcers and the public.

Besides, Medellin had policies that made Escobar work with utter impunity (Allum and Renate 90). The cartel had a slogan that made the public aware that any attempt to deter their criminal activities would result in violence actions (Mandel 74).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 1985, some guerillas that got finance from the drug lords captured the Columbian Supreme Court (Dhywood 17). The ensuing military action led to over a hundred losses of lives, including 11 judges who supported expulsion of cartels. Also, this operation led to destruction of all files with information about the cartels. The country went through moments of violence as Escobar adopted narco-terrorism to enforce his rule on the nation (Chepesiuk 256).

The Medellin cartel mainly relied on violent activities for the success of its operations, while the Cali cartel preferred a more subtle strategy of corruption and bribery (Dhywood 17). The Cali cartel sought political assimilation in the civil society using bribery and funding elections since violence was apt to alienate societies. Gilberto, a key member of the Cali cartel explains how they used to buy judges and not kill them (Allum and Renate 89).

As a result, this cartel could control the government during its operations. For instance, the cartel could influence the government to allow its leaders to run from prisons and influence the congressional vote on asset seizure legislation, irrespective of disregard from the United States (Allum and Renate 89). The drug lords of the Cali cartel did not kill government officials like the Medellin cartel.

By early 1990’s, the cartel owned about 80% of the cocaine market (Chepesiuk 255). The non-violent approach, used by the Cali cartel, assisted in developing expansive distributive channels right beneath the United States law enforcement arm. Although the law enforcement became aware of the activities of the cartel in 1980’s, the authorities could not interrupt the gang.

The cartel functioned in a way similar to a terrorist group. Although its acquaintances were ready to go to detention, they feared what could ensue if they disclosed any information (Chepesiuk 255). The only thing that was certain was that the cartel would look after their families if they went to prison.

In conclusion, violence, corruption and intimidation characterized the Colombian political system during the reign of Medellin cartel and Cali cartel. The Medellin cartel mainly relied on violent activities for the success of its operations, while the Cali cartel preferred a more subtle strategy of corruption and bribery.

Escobar used violence to intimidate law enforcers and the public who opposed activities of the Medellin cartel. On the other hand, Cali cartel used non-violent approaches of corruption and bribery. Thus, the Colombian political system became influenced by activities of these two groups.

We will write a custom Essay on The Colombian Cartels specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Allum, Felia and Renate Siebert. Organized Crime and the Challenge to Democracy, London, England: Routledge, 2012. Print.

Chepesiuk, Ron. The Bullet or the Bribe: Taking down Colombia’s Cali Drug Cartel. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2003. Print.

Dhywood, Jeffrey. World War-D: The Case Against Prohibitionism: A Roadmap to Controlled Re-legalization. Calaveras, Columbia: Columbia Communications Inc, 2011. Print.

Mandel, Robert. Dark Logic: Transnational Criminal tactics and Global Security. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Security Studies, 2011. Print.

Skidmore, Thomas and Peter Smith. Modern Latin America. 7th ed. 2010. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. Print.

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Behaviors, Actions and Communications of L’oreal Rhetorical Essay college admissions essay help

The global cosmetics market is on the verge of growth given that the planet will always call for beauty. Owing to the effects of urbanization, growth in GDP, and population growth, the populace with access to modern-day beauty cosmetics is augmenting immensely. L’Oreal is the leading international business vending beauty products1. For many decades, the company has invented in beauty, offering all people with the best cosmetics2.

It has not merely given people access to beauty but it has also endowed them with products that are in accord with their expectations, culture and requirements. In this context, L’Oreal’s actions, behaviors, and communications portray the true meaning of the company’s activity. Although the company’s performance is highly inclined toward fulfilling societal needs, some aspects call for improvement, a concern that this entry explores comprehensively.

L’Oreal’s performance pertaining to fulfilling the needs within society

Dedicating itself exclusively to the business of beauty, L’Oreal has made cosmetics the hub of its expertise and energy. L’Oreal’s mission is to proffer all people with cosmetics, which are superior in safety, efficacy, and quality3.

The company commits to utilizing its overall research and knowledge resources for the well-being of both women and men within the entire universe, regardless of their multiplicity. To attain this objective, it works toward meeting the vast range of beauty desires and needs. Equally, it embraces an inimitable research arm that facilitates its continual exploration of novel territories as well as invention of future products.

L’Oreal embraces both external and internal communication networks that enhance the company’s effectual relations with its consumers and stakeholders. The communication team endeavors at disseminating the company’s identity and image to the society since communication is a significant tool in building global images for brands4.

The brand communications panel ensures a coherent and steady brand image. Through communication, the society attains maximum exposure to L’Oreal’s products. Likewise, corporate communication keeps employees totally informed on the latest competitor news and industry trends.

Sustainability remains part of L’Oreal’s design process. L’Oreal is cautious of the impacts of its activities on the natural surroundings. Consequently, the company seeks to reduce these impacts. The company constantly focuses on supporting its local communities by trimming down its negative impacts on the environment. It progressively invents novel techniques of sustainable consumption; an aspect that Epstein emphasizes is effectual in environmental sustainability5.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To achieve this, L’Oreal has realized that it ought to enforce sustainability standards across its project portfolio. Therefore, being sensitive to biodiversity, L’Oreal observes sustainability throughout the life cycle of its products. It assesses the upshots of the ingredients, production, distribution, consumer use, and final disposal of the products6.

Indeed, a company’s sustainability is measured in terms of profitability, people, and planet7. In this milieu, L’Oreal has established that its ambition to increase its consumer base is attainable through a sustainable approach.

L’Oreal aims at respecting local customs, political systems, laws, and cultures within every society. The company’s fundamental rule is to respect the laws of every country within which it operates. L’Oreal shares its values with its business partners to ensure that these partners respect the regulations and laws of different societies. Likewise, L’Oreal devotes to conducting its activities in a way that is perceptive to the social and cultural traditions of the communities it meets.

For instance, it has portrayed devotion to respect of human rights. Its chief endeavor is to put an end to forced labor as well as children exploitation within the workplaces, and to stop animal testing within their industry. For instance, L’Oreal endeavors at collaborating with EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) in the pursuit of superior techniques of chemical testing to avert use of animals8.

L’Oreal is strongly committed to safety and social responsibility. Product quality and safety remains paramount at L’Oreal. The company has a special program that not only incites its suppliers to be responsible but also performs meticulous monitoring of their suppliers’ loyalty.

The prime aim is to aid suppliers in improving the safety standards plus the social and environmental performances. L’Oreal uses local suppliers whose commitment is in favor of societal minorities such as workers emerging from underprivileged communities and disabled workers.

To meet the needs and expectations of the consumers, L’Oreal embraces a diversified team9, which consents to greater creativity as well as enhanced understanding of the consumers. Furthermore, the unprejudiced facet of L’Oreal reflects in the company’s products. The diversity and harmonizing nature of the products portray the company’s dedication to developing well-being and beauty, whilst revering differences among individuals.

We will write a custom Essay on Behaviors, Actions and Communications of L’oreal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More L’Oreal’s loyalty to diversity is broadly communicated internally via the code of ethics. As Means explicates, the code of ethics states how teams ought to treat their employees, members, or clients10 since it serves as a conscience whilst endowing team members with a universal ethical reference point11. Hence, in this context, L’Oreal’s dedication to its consumer expectations is deeply ingrained in the company’s code of ethics.

Areas of Achievement L’Oreal has portrayed immense achievement especially in the sector of sustainable development. The environmental policy has proven effectual in making significant advances in protecting the environment.

Equally, the health, environment, and safety policy has not only been effective in protecting the environment but also in improving health conditions and industrial safety. Similarly, L’Oreal’s achievement manifests in its loyalty to good corporate citizenship. The company has adopted doctrines allied to principles of labor, environment protection, and human rights.

Areas requiring Improvement The management team at L’Oreal takes up a decentralized organizational structure. Specialist staff operating at the division level controls all the brand units12. This structure deems it intricate to exercise power over the company. Similarly, it makes it difficult to synchronize activities from top management. Owing to this decentralization, co-ordination amongst departments has dwindled.

Accordingly, the company’s production is decelerating since there emerges a necessity to give reference to auxiliary board members within the company. Furthermore, L’Oreal encounters complexities in determining which division is responsible for the probable drawbacks of the company. As Kapferer asserts, the problem with decentralized organization is that most top managers do not perceive how brand decisions are different13. Consequently, all these pitfalls affect the company’s consumers, especially in meeting consumer demand.

Implications of the company’s actions on society and stakeholders

L’Oreal’s provision of access to beauty products has boosted individuals’ well-being. In this context, L’Oreal has marshaled its inventive strength, thus sustaining local communities as well as preserving the global beauty. Through enhancing superior performance as well as safe and quality products, L’Oreal has boosted its respect and allegiance to the consumers since routines that reduce risks enable firms increase their reputation14.

L’Oreal’s commitment to socially and environmentally responsible values has drawn thoughtful consumers to its products15. The company has earned consumer trust and has strengthened its brands reputation deeming it a leader in the field of beauty.

The diversified team within L’Oreal has enabled the company to generate products that correspond to the clients’ expectations. The unbiased team members have rebuffed practices and ideas of discrimination. Ultimately, L’Oreal has managed to generate an optimistic contribution to the present nations and societies by respecting local cultures.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Behaviors, Actions and Communications of L’oreal by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion L’Oreal has portrayed significant performance in the society. Its immense commitment in employee and consumer well-being, high esteem for human rights, biodiversity protection, fair trade, and environmental protection produces positive implications to the society.

Moreover, the company’s competence in developing sustainably and sensibly aims at meeting communal challenges along with augmenting environmental performance. Indeed, the company devotes to avoiding compromising the future for the sake of the present. Hence, L’Oreal observes keenly sustainable development, which is the principal driver for its responsible growth.

Bibliography Assenmacher, Katja. The bodyshop-an analysis of the companys actions towards sustainability. Santa Cruz: GRIN Verlag, 2012.

Autorite des Marches Financiers. “L’Oreal 2011 registration document: annual financial report.” France, 2012. https://www.loreal.com/~/media/Loreal/Files/pdf/en/2012_ddr_en.pdf

Colins, Denis. Essentials of business ethics: creating an organization of high integrity and superior performance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley

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Sony Corporation and Its SWOT and PESTLE Analyses Analytical Essay cheap essay help

Introduction Sony Corporation is an organisation that primarily deals in the manufacture and distribution of electronic appliances. The corporation is the parent organisation of Sony Group, which was founded in 1946; the corporation manages all the business activities of the entire group.

For instance, the corporation designs, plans, strategizes and manages the manufacture of Sony electronics (Flugge 2008, p. 4). This paper discusses the major achievements of Sony Corporation and presents SWOT and PESTLE analyses of the company.

Major Achievements of Sony Corporation Sony was the first company to produce the first portable music player in the globe. The company invented the portable music device, the Walkman, in 1979. The 1979 invention of the music device and lightweight headphones brought a significant change to the entertainment industry as people were able to listen freely to their favourite songs wherever they were.

This invention has made and continues to make the advertisements of Sony audio and video players much easier (Flugge 2008, p. 5). Sony also manufactures digital cameras; it was the first company to produce point and shoot models, which were both turning points in the field of photography. Sony digital cameras use the single-lens reflex technology, which makes it easy to point and shoot as well as to produce clear pictures (Daft 2010, p. 177).

Sony was among the first companies to invent televisions and computers that use video audio integrated operations (VAIO). This kind of technology allows TVs and computers to show images that are of high quality. Sony Corporation applies the technique in the production of most of its electronics, for example front projectors. The technology has also seen other rival companies recognise Sony’s products and try to enter into mutual agreements with it (Gaspar 2006, p. 188).

A SWOT Analysis of Sony Corporation Strengths

Sony Corporation has a number of strongholds that assist it to prosper in the electronics’ business. Firstly, Sony owns quality music and pictures, which can help it to promote most of its electronic products to consumers. Secondly, the company has built a name through its consistent and good performance.

One of the 2011 studies, which ranked Sony as the most valued brand in Asia, has also assisted the company to prosper. Lastly, Sony has an efficient team that consists of innovative and technological experts who ensure that the company’s products are of high quality; this helps the company to stay ahead of its competitors (Chang 2011, p. 7).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Weaknesses

The main weakness of Sony is as a result of the company’s attempts to venture in a wide range of products; this compromises the aspect of specialisation within the company. The move to venture into several lines of business negatively affects the company’s brand as the consumers are unable to associate it with any of its many products. The high cost of doing business in the electronics’ industry is also another weakness that the company faces at the moment. The high costs in the industry affect how the company sets prices for its products (Henry 2008, p. 117).

Opportunities

Sony has a great opportunity to expand its businesses through the joint venture it has with Ericson. The joint venture gives Sony a chance to exploit the tablet market and the smart-phones’ business. The company also has a chance to expand its operations globally through its music and movie business. The company can easily use the music and movie business to develop and support its products (Hill

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How does cultural diversity in women influence their participation in sport? Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction Studies have found that cultural influences either shape or ruin opportunities for women to participate in sports. Cultural influences have undermined women’s capabilities to engage in sports. In the contemporary society, the participation of women in sports is one of the major areas of focus for women empowerment thereby making more women to seek knowledge regarding sports. Some of the factors identified in literature to contribute towards disengagement of women in sports include social norms, family, religion, male dominance, and dress codes.

Purpose of study

The major purpose of this study is to investigate whether cultural diversity in women influences their participation in sports. The study is focused on identifying the cultural aspects that influence women thereby making recommendation on sporting policies to incorporate the needs of women.

Literature review Several cultural and structural factors act as obstacles to women participation in sports and sporting events. First, parents and family members have shown reluctance in encouraging women to participate in sports. This can be attributed to the traditional ways of living that prohibit women from taking parts in sporting events.

Still from the family perspective, there have been instances of cultural disparities in orienting women to sporting activities because women’s participation in sporting events has not been a common phenomenon.

Another factor that has played a lesser role in eliminating the participation of women in sporting events is the lack of strategic leadership in educational institutions. Physical education leaders have failed to design an equal motivation system that encourages equal participation of men and women in sports and sporting events.

Social barriers are also other form of cultural barriers that have impeded the development of women participation sports. For instance, gender obligations define the roles of women in the community and as well, in sporting events. Access to specific sporting events is limited when it comes to the participation of women.

The technical aspects include lack of appropriate sports facilities to suit women such as showers and privacy, low availability of female coaches, and inappropriate programs for developing such sports.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Religious factors are other major hindrances to the development of sporting activities among women. Religious beliefs and obligations limit the chances of women engaging in particular sports during particular time or day of the week. Equally, some religions such as Islam dictate that women must participate in a female-only environment. Certain religions require women to dress in a particular manner. For instance, women who observe the hijab might be restricted from participating in many sporting events.

Methodology Research design

Quantitative research design was selected for the primary reason of quantifying the main variables in numeric terms. Quantitative research explains or predicts the relationship between variables, measures variables, tests theories and applies results to the population.

Sampling and procedure

Quantitative research design uses probability sampling to come up with a representative sample of the entire population. The population of this research is composed of the female students at the university. The researcher noted that university students have a lot of experience in physical and co curriculum activities both from high school and at the university. A total of 200 students were chosen for the survey.

The students ranged from first year to senior level students. The selection process relied on random sampling in order to avoid biasness and to have a representative sample of the whole population. The age of the participants ranged from 20 to 25 years. The respondents were also selected from different cultural and ethnic background including Muslims and Christians.

The researcher was also interested in both female students who participated in sports and those who did not participate in any sports. Sampling for the faculty members and sports officials at the university was done through non random sampling techniques. This is because the population was small and there was no need to select a representative sample.

Data analysis and Results The data collected was analyzed separately for all the key variables involved. Women participation in sports was the independent variable being related to various other dependent variables: religious beliefs, taboos, cultural values, male dominance and personal interest.

N Number of female students who participate in sports Number of female students who not participate in sports African American 50 45 5 Latin White American 130 75 55 Muslims 40 10 30 Christians 100 80 20 Ethnic/ indigenous 40 30 10 Table 1: frequency of participation

We will write a custom Research Paper on How does cultural diversity in women influence their participation in sport? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Correlation

IV: women participation in sports DV1: Influence of religion DV2: Male dominance DV3: Cultural values IV: women participation in sports Pearson Correlation 1 .456 .543 .298 Sig. (2 tailed) .001 .001 .001 N 180 180 180 180 DV1: influence of religion Pearson Correlation .456 1 .085 .078 Sig. (2 tailed) .001 .007 .005 N 180 180 180 180 DV2: Male dominance Pearson Correlation .543 .123 1 .045 Sig. (2 tailed) .001 .002 .006 N 180 180 180 DV3: cultural values Pearson Correlation .298 .112 .090 1 Sig. (2 tailed) .001 .008 .009 N 180 180 180 180 Table 2: correlation coefficient

Table indicates positive correlation between the independent variables and the three dependent variables. (r1=.456, p=.001), (r2=.543, p=.001), (r3= .298. p=.001). The r shows the relationship between the variables. P indicates the degree of significance.

Discussion Generally, the results of this study indicated that women are affected by cultural norms in the society to some extent. They tend to either participate or not participate in sports because of cultural values and norms that exist in the society. Factors such as religious beliefs, cultural beliefs, clothing styles, taboos, and male dominance were found to impact interest of women in sports.

From the interviews conducted to faculty members and sports officials at the university, it was apparent that the university bared policies that supported or encouraged women to take part in the various sporting activities and programs offered. It was also found that the university had policies that encourage female participation by offering scholarships.

Table 2 shows the correlation result of the data. There is a negative correlation between the independent variable and the three dependant variable. This implies that the three cultures aspects used as the dependent variables have some moderate negative or opposite relationship with participation of women in sports.

This implies that as one variable increases, the other tends to decrease. In the context of the study, as influence of religion tends to increase, female participation in sports tends to decrease. Similarly as male dominance tends to increase, female participation in sports drops.

Recommendations and conclusion Based on the findings, it is apparent that culture diversity in women influences their participation in sports. For some, they tend to be more active in sports and physical activities by virtue of their culture, while for others culture tends to hinder their participation despite having personal interest.

The results show that religion and societal stereotypes are the biggest influence of female participation in sports. Women tend to choose sports that are socially considered feminine. The results also show that women from particular cultures are very active physically and tend to appreciate the value of sports.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How does cultural diversity in women influence their participation in sport? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the negative note, Muslim women are the biggest victims of cultural influences in sports. They not only are affected by the gender stereotypes but also religious values. As identified by , Muslim women are affected by their dress codes, families, and the society. They can never be allowed to participate in sports that would force them o dress ‘inappropriately’ or against the values of their religion.

Works Cited Blinde, E, S. Greendorfer and R. Shanker. “Differential Media Coverage of Men’s and Women’s Intercollegiate Basketball: Reflection of Gender Ideology.” Journal of Sport and Social Issues (2000): 192-213. Print.

Carr, Sam. Attachment in Sport, Exercise and Wellness. New York: Routledge, 2010. Print.

Groves, R, et al. Survey methodology. New York: John Wiley

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The Economy of the UAE Research Paper essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Analysis of the Economy

The GDP and Economy Drivers

Inflation and Unemployment

The Rise of Dubai

Comparison with other Economies

Conclusion

Reference

Introduction The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven Emirates, which are located on the Arabian Peninsula. They are Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ajman, Sharjah, Umm Al Qaiwan, Fujairah, and Ras Al Khaimah. The political leadership has a sheikh ruling each Emirate. Abu Dhabi and Dubai do however; have a veto vote when it comes to certain development activities that affect all the Emirates. Huge economic power is vested in each Emirate that keeps the authority to regulate all the commercial activities.

Abu Dhabi is the wealthiest courtesy of having the largest oil reserves. Dubai is the second in rank in wealth and the federation’s business center (Gerth 89). The difference in the wealth among the Emirates arises from the unequal distribution of natural resources and especially oil.

Analysis of the Economy Exploitation of oil deposits began in the 1960s after the wells were discovered in 1958 and 1966. This has transformed the country into a prosperous global economy with great significance. The economy of UAE is anchored and driven by oil production. Its GDP therefore, relies on the oil prices.

The economy from 1960 to date can be categorized into three faces. The first period ran from the mid 1970s to mid 1980s. During this era, the country saw very high performance in economic growth. The government used the income generated from the oil exports to invest in the social and physical infrastructure.

Oil was fetching very good prices on the international market. From the mid 1980s, there was a sharp decline in economic growth. This was caused by the fluctuation of oil prices on the international market. This state exerted pressure on the leaders to search for options to diversify the economy.

Such sectors that benefited include manufacturing and inducement of private investment. Dubai especially has experienced a decline in oil deposits (M o P 98). The government-diverted investments to the Capital expenditure because these other sectors of the economy had been catered for, and were doing well.

Revenue from oil accounted for 80 percent of the fiscal income during the first half of the 1990s providing 60 percent of the total export earnings. Currently the economy is big enough and accommodates most of the nation’s employment. The country also provides services to citizens at a highly subsidized rate.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The construction sector has grown immensely attracting foreigners who also benefit from the welfare system and account for almost 80 percent of the total population. Most of these people come from India and Arab countries (Muthoo 78). They offer relatively cheap and plenty labor.

The government’s initiative to invest in the physical infrastructure with proceeds from the oil income has helped boost the economic activities (Mushkin 130). The country has experienced a low inflation rate that has averaged slightly over two percent. This has kept the interest rates low with the government embarking on a welfare system that covers the entire lifetime of its citizens.

The GDP and Economy Drivers UAE has an open economy with a high per capita income. This process has removed restrictions on movement of capital and has encouraged investment. This leads to a sizable surplus in trade balance. The GDP of this country has been on the rise from the 1960s when oil exploitation started (Cleiss 19).

In 1975, UAE’s GDP was14.7 billion US dollars and in 1999, 44 billion US dollars and rested at 380 billion US dollars in 2011. The first two periods saw the growth rate of the GDP stand at 5 percent. This tremendous growth indicates an economy that has a steady upward mobility.

The country’s per capita income has been on a decline irrespective of the population growth. In 1975, per capita income was 30161 billion US dollars. This reduced to 1600 billion US dollars in 1999. However, by 2011, it increased slightly to 2100 billion US dollars. The country has reduced reliance on oil to feed her economy.

The income from oil accounted for 70 percent of the total income share from mid 1970s to the mid 1980s. This was reduced to 40 percent in the 1990s and was at 25 percent by 2011. This was replaced by income from the service sector that by mid 1990s accounted for 50 percent of the total income.

During the last decade, the GDP growth rate of UAE has been inconsistent. This period has seen the country record an average growth of 4.6 percent. The lowest growth was reached in December 2009 at 4.8 percent and December 2006 recorded the highest at 9.8 percent. The country is modern with high living standards. Diversification has reduced reliance on oil and gas to 25 percent by 2011. The stability in the trade surplus has enabled the economy to support a low interest rate at one percent by 2008.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Economy of the UAE specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Inflation and Unemployment UAE has an inflation rate averaging 2.4 percent. By 2012, it was at 0.5 percent. January 20011 saw the country record the least inflation rate at negative 1.6 percent and December 2008 registered the highest rate reaching 12.3 percent. Unemployment rate is on average three percent from 1985 to 2011. In December 2011 its worst, level at 4.6 percent and the least in December 1985 at 1.2 percent. In the last decade 2002 was the year with the least at 2.6 percent and ever since none of the years has been less than that.

The Rise of Dubai This is the business city of UAE with a veto political power. It is a cosmopolitan global city. Its economy was built on the oil industry. However, it has developed an economic model that has transformed this reliance (Cheney 34). The rise in revenue from the non-oil sectors has grown rapidly making it be confused for a country on its own. Diversification began in the mid 1980s (W E F 112). This was when oil prices became unreliable, and it was realized that oil deposits were declining (Sihab 157). This development has caused a major challenge to UAE.

Comparison with other Economies The US inflation rate was 1.6 percent in 2010 and UK had 0.3 percent. These two nations had also shown an increase in the same. The GCC had a decline during this period ( Roy 77). Qatar for instance in 2010 had 2.4 percent down from 16.3 percent. Unemployment rate was 9.6 percent in the US at the same period, and UK had 10 percent. All these statistics were below UAE’s level. GCC’s GDP in 2010 grew by 5 percent up from two percent in 2009. Generally, UAE is doing better than her competitors are.

Conclusion UAE fits to be a considered a first economy. This is guided by the way her economy is doing, the consistency of its policies that are open and do not restrict investment. The country’s political leadership is welcome and open to the world competition.

Reference G. Cheney, Values at Work: Employee Participation Meets Market Pressure at Mondragón. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999.

M. Cleiss, German Co-Determination and Corporate Governance. München: GRIN Verlag GmbH, 2009.

Karl. G, China Made: Consumer Culture and the Creation of the Nation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2004.

A. Muthoo, Bargaining Theory with Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Economy of the UAE by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More M. Sihab. Technology Transfer Process: Its Application to the UAE. Abu Dhabi:1999.

S. Mushkin. Health as an Investment. Journal of Political Economy. Vol. 70.1962.

J. Roy. Completing the GCC Custom Union. World Bank. Washington D.C: 2002

W. Economic Forum. Arab World Competitiveness report. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

M. of Planning. UAE. Economic and Social Indicators in the UAE 1990/1995. Abu Dhabi: 1998.

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Medieval Period Tunic Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Modern interpretation of medieval tunic

Gothic dress for women

Modern interpretation of Gothic dresses

References

The word tunic has been derived from the word ‘tunica’ (Latin), meaning an enclosing membrane of body tissue. From the period of ancient Greeks and Romans up to the medieval times, tunics have probably been the most common dress worn by all classes of men; slaves as well as the nobles, and all other people from different occupations.

The simplest kind of tunic was readied by sewing two pieces of cloth, making a tube; holes were kept for the arms. The medieval tunic resembled a T-shirt and was worn by men and women alike. The medieval tunics were made from a varied range of fabrics, depending on the status of the people wearing them. Even different forms of tunics were made for people of different status. The medieval tunics usually had sleeves and were cut to different lengths.

Male tunics reached crotch and thigh in length; older men wore knee-length tunics (Diehl

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Brazil’s Bid’s to Host the 2014 FIFA World Cup Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction Mega-events that are convened for a short duration, such as the Commonwealth Games, Rugby World Cup, World Expos or the FIFA World Cup (Rogerson 2009), are increasingly being recognized as having the potential to make a substantial contribution to contemporary society, not only through the long standing belief associated with healthy living, an active lifestyle and regular physical activity, but also through sports contribution to the social, cultural and economic development of the hosting city or country (Emery 2002).

The FIFA World Cup, in particular, has become a top agenda for successive governments around the world because of its potential to act as a significant catalyst for change by not only acting as a springboard for economic, political and social development, but also strengthening the global image and positioning of the host (Pellegrino

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The Image of California in Movies in Falling Down Essay best essay help

The film, Falling Down, depicts California (Los Angeles) through several happenings and experiences of the actors (D-Fens), among all of the disunited worlds of the metropolitan area (California) in the impossible unlimited expanse and the hardened main access road that bears important traffic of the Los Angeles broad highway built for high-speed traffic.

Falling Down seems to be connected towards the residents or inhabitant of California (Los Angeles) or people residing in big and accommodating metropolis. The racial tension shown in the film is apparent from the beginning.

The production of the film Falling Down is a good indication that its reception was affected by the post-riot climate, particularly because the state of disorder brought to the forefront the problems of racial, social, and economic tensions depicted in the film and vice versa. Moreover, Falling Down describes a threatened or attempted physical attack on the nervous system and an influential imaginative re-creation of the sensory and emotional nature of Los Angeles at a particular historical point in time.

In so doing, the movie Falling Down draws the viewers in with the discovery of the supernatural disturbance linked with the present day re-composition of space-time-being in post-cold war and feature of the end of a century in California (Los Angeles) (Aaron 40).

From the film it will be observed that signifying series of occurrence have snapped, and California is left without a frame of reference with which to make sense of this misrepresented grammar of metropolitan life. Falling Down further depicts that California for a limited time loses his ability to manage his immediate environment and to design his status regarding the outside world.

Falling Down is a complicated visible symbol representing an abstract idea about an irritated Anglo American, D-Fens, who is mad as hell with the state of things, in Los Angeles in particular and with the United States of America in general, and is about to get even. The convert of Los Angeles, California is linked with discourses on the “third world” and “discovering” of the face of the city and the nation.

The film depicts how California has had all it can take to the city’s independent promiscuity and its disagreement with previously distinct cultures. While Latino immigrants feature in the film’s background, as with the live coverage of the riots, their silent but observable presence on the other hand does the ideology work of pointing to the conversion of Los Angeles (California) as a particularly marked aspect of discourses on urban disfigurement, moral decay, and national decline.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Falling Down is a reenactment of the strong and active attempts then currently in progress in Californian cultural politics to re-territorialize this uncontrollable and disturbing cultural flow by remapping the boundaries of what constitutes the official and legitimate public sphere.

This entails confirming the cultural and racial dominance or leadership of the Anglo American male over a bewildering proliferation of multiple counter publics. This cinematic management of the appearance of the inhabitants represents an essential characteristic of the state development: to reform the states organization. The following composite is drawn from the opening scene of the film (Aaron 28).

Falling Down depicts the past artistic structure, which created a positive response to the context of the action in Los Angeles (California), the limited-access highway commute between the standards and conventions of the middle class private area and the industrialist civic area which has also been disrupted.

Falling down offers an accurate insightful discovery of a detailed study about human experience of the economic system based on private ownership in California, its misrepresented organizations of sentiment, and the stage at which the system of production and management as well as social changes of regional amalgamation are being experienced by the reduced employee (Aaron 30).

Falling down is a multifaceted illustration of a middle-class defensive reaction to the dynamic cultural constituent of the mainland American extensive mental perspective and its simultaneous irrational depictions of the increased migration movement within California.

It depicts a portion of accepted ethnicity that grew from and boarders into the society happening to change its position in the modern international world classification. But it fails to cross-examine the role of the project to defend American “national security” in the “third world” of the American city California.

Falling down further depicts California’s opportunity to increase what is needed in representing people’s reactions to topography namely, the understanding of private political task for the public creation of liberty as what must be jointly formed (Aaron 53). This is a clear mistake in the public perception of an urban city like Los Angeles (California), a state based on two industries, and a city in serious economic unstable situation in excess of the clear breaking up in the political hostility period.

We will write a custom Essay on The Image of California in Movies in Falling Down specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Falling Down shows how foreign intervention by the United States has played a large role in producing refugee and immigrant flows to cities such as Los Angeles. This could be seen in the film when D-Fens (actor) misrecognizes his role when he threatened the Korean immigrant grocer with his baseball bat while saying, “Do you know how much money this country gave your government?” (Falling Down 1993).

Thus, while falling Down does engage the present day re-composition of space-time being through D-Fen’s displacement from the economy and his disorientation in the cultural and physical Landscape, this “tale about urban reality” ultimately veils the reality of (de) militarization.

Falling down describes California’s refusal to connect between the city topography and the artistic setting with the political system of production created to expose the “misrepresented perception of things” as an consequence of migration and transgression. Indeed, the biographies and spatial journeys of both the downsized defense worker and the Salvadoran refugee are linked precisely around the cold war.

While Falling Down describes a nation that is collapsing, the problem is how it attempts to put that world back together. Falling Down reframes polyphony of contemporary discourses on migration, economic turn down, metropolitan brutality, racial discrimination, industrialist self-indulgence, and government misuse into a structured rule and order description.

Falling Down depicts the comprehensive social control carried through related idea, the social control of the home setting. Furthermore, the film depicts the low concentration of war strategies of the political hostility which have increased in the outlawed internal metropolis.

In line with the above, Falling down describes the role of the security industry in the production of the Salvadoran refugee which could not be more well-defined.

In conclusion, while Falling Down is one more episode in the history a gentleman traveling through a shocking countryside. Discourses about immigration, racism, and inner-city violence are all considered within the ideological frame of criminality. Moreover, the film depiction of California’s project of local law enforcement now has primacy over global defense because state defense is set in a new governing tradition that is not a social order but guilt.

As a filmic representation of a particular historical juncture in the development of the American city, Los Angeles in particular, Falling Down hit a raw nerve and entered a zone of heated cultural debate about crime, urban decay, and immigration.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Image of California in Movies in Falling Down by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The film took the philosopher rhetoric in the air to a new level. Simply put, the message of the film to impressionable viewers might be: with increasing number of hostile dark skinned immigrants who do not speak English, who are parasites on California’s economy, and who break U.S. laws, reject Western Christian morality, and take away jobs from hard working citizens (primarily white men), U.S. citizens have to take the law into their own hands, entertaining drastic measures to ensure that places like Los Angeles will not become suburbs of the Third World.

The films depiction of California illustrates serious and significant contradictions. For example, the narrative of philosophical theory contradicts what is very often characterized as the narrative of the “American dream,” which goes like this: in order to find better jobs, to take part in the experiment in democracy, and to educate their children, people from all over the world bear the suffering of personal sacrifice, including at times dangerous travel, to come go to California (U.S.), where they hope to experience freedom and liberty.

Works Cited Aaron, Baker. Bad: infamy, darkness, evil, and slime on screen. New York, NY: State University of New York Press, 2003. Print.

Falling Down. Dir. Joel Schumacher. Alcor Films, 1993. Film.

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The Hurt Locker: When There Is Nowhere Else Left to Run Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction. Diving into the Psychology of the Hurt Locker: PTSD For those who have seen the terror of war, the given experience is a point of no return – there is no way for one to look at the world in a different view; the bloodbath becomes the only way possible picture of reality. Because of the horrible experience that the characters in The Hurt Locker had, the resulting acute post-traumatic stress disorder comes as a fee for surviving through this hell.

Locking their pain within, as if concealing it in a secret locker, the characters are to suffer from the PTSD for the rest of their lives. As a matter of fact, the above-mentioned means that peaceful life becomes impossible for the lead character, the only survivor in the battle, forcing him to leave the realm of the family and enter the battlefield once again.

Revealing the Symptoms: Watch the Characters Agonizing However, there is a considerable difference between a movie and reality. In the real world, the people with PTSD are supposed to display certain symptoms that can be attributed only to the specified disorder, case in pint being the PTSD, while in a movie, some symptoms can be more subtle or, on the contrary, exaggerated for the sake of the dramatic atmosphere.

Considering The Hurt Locker in particular, one must mention that the key symptoms of the PTSD are revealed quite soon: “Sgt. JT Sanborn: I’m not ready to die, James. SFC William James: Well, you’re not gonna die out here, bro” (The Hurt Locker). In addition, the above-mentioned symptoms correspond to the standard PTSD symptoms for the most part, since PTSD patients can be characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors to reduce anxiety (Myers).

Concerning the Casual Factors: The Underlying Message There is a rhyme and reason for every change in the life or personality of a human being; the given rule is especially true for mental and psychological disorders, which are, as a rule, a result of a severe psychological trauma (Xenakis). Analyzing the movie, one has to mention that for William James, the leading character, the key factor that caused the PTSD was the war itself, with all its violence, murder and pointless sacrifice.

The given state displays a lot of similarities with the definition of key PTSD factors offered by Myers: “The complaints of battled-scarred veterans […] recurring haunting memories and nightmares, a numbed social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and insomnia—are typical of what once was called “shellshock” or “battle fatigue” and now is called post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)” (Myers 604), namely, the one that severe war traumas and the explosion to violence lead to a complete reestablishment of one’s life values.

The Received Treatment: When Actions Are More Efficient than Medicine As it has been explained above that the PTSD can hardly be cured; in the light of the above-mentioned, it would be a silly idea for a movie claiming to be realistic to the last scene to offer a plot where William is successfully treated or even offered certain medicine. Quite on the contrary, The Hurt Locker makes it obvious that some of the war wounds cannot be healed, and PTSD is one of those wounds (Serlin).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, William’s return to the military environment can be considered a kind of treatment – or, to be more exact, prophylactics. At some point William’s PTSD stops seeming a disorder and rather appears to be a different vision of reality, which is completely incompatible with the civil life. Hence, William’s return to the army can be considered as the fact that, completely changed by war, he no longer belongs in the civil society and chooses the realm where he belongs. A peculiar portrayal of escapism, the given scene adds much to the character development.

PTSD and the Characters’ Personal Life: Concerning the Impact Because of the awful slaughter which William saw in the battlefield, he is not able to live among the rest of the people anymore. He even cannot look at his son playing carelessly without a bitter remark: “And then you forget the few things you really love. And by the time you get to my age, maybe it’s only one or two things. With me, I think it’s one.” (The Hurt Locker). William no longer can live in civil society.

Walking in the Characters’ Shoes: Life with PTSD It seems that living with this kind of a mental disorder is much like feeing completely out of place all the time. As a matter of fact, William must have felt like a living dead waking among the living ones, since he could not share their emotions; neither could he be happy just for a while – constantly on alert for something bad to happen, he felt that peaceful life is no longer his realm.

Overall Reaction and the Portrayal of the PTSD Disorder Hence, it can be considered that the idea of the PTSD disorder developing within the minds of the people who have faced the dread of war has been portrayed in the movie in a rather impressive way.

Making the audience go through all the tortures that the lead character faces, the movie creates a very authentic atmosphere, portraying the people whose idea of reality has been replaced with the war strategy and the heat of the fight. It is important that the actors play their roles in a rather subtle way, which makes the impression even greater, and the images of the people suffering from PTSD even more memorable.

Works Cited Hurt Locker. Ex. Prod. Tony Mark. Universal City, California: Universal Studios. 2012. DVD.

Myers, David G. Psychology. 9th ed. New York, NY: Worth Publishers. 2010. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on The Hurt Locker: When There Is Nowhere Else Left to Run specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Serlin, Irene. “Hurt Locker: Treating Trauma in the Body and the PTSD Experience.” Psychology Today 7 Mar. 2010. Web.

Xenakis, Stephen n. d. What “The Hurt Locker” Got Right. Web.

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Internal and External Security Challenges in the Arabian Gulf States Research Paper best college essay help

Introduction The Gulf region remains an incredibly volatile region within the Middle East. This volatility gives rise to external and internal security threats. The region has never benefited from the various changes that took place in Latin America and Eastern Europe in the end of the 20th century. Following these transformations, these regions ended up having their security issues intertwined with economic and political legitimacy coupled with the surfacing of myriads of concepts of cooperative security.

With regard to Henderson (2003), these concepts were “associated with a shift away from realistic approaches predicted on a zero-sum notion of national security” (p.3). Since this kind of comparative shift never took place in the Gulf region’s states since 1980s, three main interstate wars have been encountered.

They have been articulated upon consideration of balance of power. However, “the conflation of regime security with national security is a feature of local discourses on security in the Gulf as it is in many other developing countries” (Harders

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Starbucks Coffee Company Essay college admissions essay help

A. To expand the possibilities within the current market and enter new markets, Starbucks Coffee Company should implement the specific strategy which is oriented to the successful product promotion.

According to the recommended strategy, such points and aspects as the brand image, customers’ loyalty, effective advertising with the help of the Web and media resources, the necessity to strengthen the company’s position within the market, the accentuation of the trends and innovations should be examined, discussed, influenced, and improved. In spite of the variety of the tasks which are determined for resolving, it is possible to use only one complex program to implement the promotion strategy which is known as the promotional mix.

This product promotion program traditionally includes all the necessary components to respond to all the points of the chosen strategy. Basing on the product promotion program, Starbucks can improve the situation in the sphere of advertising, brand image, direct marketing, sales promotion, and public relations. From this point, the product promotion program or the promotional mix is the most effective method to implement the strategy which is necessary for intensifying the development of Starbucks Coffee Company.

1. Starbucks develops according to the definite product promotion program. The recommended strategy to concentrate on the brand image and advertising along with stating the current position within the market and entering the other markets is based on operating the new approaches to the used product promotion program with accentuating more details and improving the current variant according to the requirements.

That is why, the sales promotion managers, product managers, and public relations representatives are responsible for developing the effective strategy and its further implementation with references to the product promotion program.

2. The initiative group, the members of which develop the strategy and control its further implementation, should be discussed as the group which is in charge of the implemented programs. That is why, much attention should be paid to predicting the program’s results.

The new approaches to advertising or to increasing the company’s position in, for instance, gourmet coffee market should be effectively developed, especially, when Starbucks orients to the new promotion strategy where the advantages of Starbucks in comparison with the industry’s competitors are accentuated.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More B. The product promotion program can be discussed as the financially feasible one because the funds for its implementation are fixed before starting the promotion company. The proposed strategy to accentuate the role of advertising and brand image with references to preserving the quality of the product and service can be considered as the improved variant of the used program.

The definite accents in the program are shifted and the new approaches are required. Nevertheless, the changes in the program’s financing will be insignificant, and they will be based on the redistribution of the provided funds.

Pro forma budgets should be developed in order to predict all the possible variants of the program’s realization and its results. In this situation, pro forma budgets can be used to control the effectiveness of the strategy’s implementation and program’s realization, basing on the expectations and real results. It is possible to state that the priorities and timetables are also appropriate to individual programs and small companies.

C. The new standard operating procedures should not be developed, and the quality control used for the current program can be realized basing on the procedures which were worked out earlier.

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Memorandum to Chairman of CX Technology Case Study online essay help: online essay help

Introduction CX Technology is one of the leading global manufacturers which specializes in producing the cold forged steel speaker components. The company orients to the definite customers and operates within the same industry and market for a long period of time.

To meet the requirements of the modern developed economy and global market, it is necessary to change the stable strategy and orient to the new market and customers which used the cold forged steel components. The automotive industry provides a lot of possibilities for the development of CX Technology with transforming its manufacturing process to produce the necessary components for the industry.

Analysis CX Technology has the significant potential to develop the flexible strategy and orient to the more diverse market. The first advantage of the company is the large market to promote the production because cold forged parts are used in many different industries. These industries are associated with the airplane construction, automobile industry, the production of the oil drilling equipment and engines. Furthermore, it is advantageous for the company to orient to manufacturing components for bicycles and air conditioners.

This evidence supports the fact that there are a lot of potential markets where the production of CX Technology will be used successfully. The positive feature of cold forging is the production of highly strong components without the influence of the intense heat treatment. The steel of the product preserves its natural composition. Moreover, the company realizes all the steps of the cold forging process.

The next advantages of CX Technology are the high level of reliability and quality of products. Using the technology of cold forging, the company has the opportunity to orient to new and existing customers, providing them with such strong components as flanges, yokes, and gears which quality are higher than of those ones produced with the help of the other technologies.

The quality of the manufacturing process depends on the in-house production and on the work of quality assurance system. The rate of defects was reduced from 1.17% in 2007 to 0.31% in 2008 (Bhole et al. 4). The customers are inclined to continue working with CX Technology and repeat the orders. However, there is the negative feature of the process because the orientation to the same customers prevents the company from the market’s expanding and gaining more benefits.

Today, CX Technology contributes to the progress of its production plants in Vietnam and China which can be used effectively in developing the new strategy. Planning work in the field of automotive and consumer electronics, the company made accents on acquiring ISO 14001 and ISO/TS 16949 certification with the further implementation of ERP system (Bhole et al. 3). As a result of strategic actions, the production increased from 142 million pieces in 2000 to 245 million in 2008 (Bhole et al. 3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The negative feature of the company’s work with clients is the prolonged sale process which can last from 1 to 4 years. The problem is in the lack of information which is exchanged between the company and customers. The negotiations often result in discovering the facts that CX Technology does not produced the required component or does not use the necessary technology.

The company’s problems are associated with falling of CAGR from 29% to 11% during the period of 2002-2007 years (Bhole et al. 5). However, the company’s successes in Vietnam contribute to changing the situation.

Alternatives There are three markets which can be used by CX Technology as potential for entering them and operating successfully.

The current situation in the US automotive industry is based on the recession of 2008-2009. In this situation, suppliers are inclined to be more active in relation to their own supplier selection process. Suppliers in the market have the possibility to orient to the potential clients. The US automotive market is potential for CX Technology because of its large size. The company’s development will depend on the sizable revenue streams. The manufacturers orient to developing the supply chain of the higher quality, and much attention is paid to the role of a supplier (Bhole et al. 7). CX Technology responds to the criteria in relation to the quality of the production.

The automotive industry and market of China are comparably young. Nevertheless, the demand for reliable suppliers as CX Technology is high. Suppliers work in China completely or choose a commanding presence in the industry. The significance of CX Technology’s presence in China is in possibility to pursue business according the most beneficial rules and avoid considerable transportation costs (Bhole et al. 8).

The developing automotive industry of Vietnam is younger than the industry of China. The manufacturer-supplier chains are not developed and stated. CX Technology has a lot of variants to succeed in the potential market because of the possibility to regulate the process of stating the rules of work between the suppliers and manufacturers within the industry (Bhole et al. 8). The developing market in Vietnam provides opportunities for CX Technology to preserve the leading position as Tier 2.

Recommendation CX Technology must choose the Vietnamese market to enter because its stage of development is correlated with the company’s possibilities to provide the production of the highest quality and develop its abilities within the new market. In this situation, CX Technology acquires the necessary experience and starts with producing the simple components such as steering and suspension pieces. Nevertheless, the company preserves its status within the industry because of the production quality.

Action Plan

Short term goal – to establish the partner relationships with the manufactures in Vietnam and start with developing the production of such simple components as steering and suspension pieces.

Medium term goal – to develop the manufacturing process with attracting more customers, depending on increasing the quality of the production.

Long term goal – to orient to the production of the most complex components as engine parts in order to state the brand equity and leading position in the field with expanding the possibilities.

We will write a custom Case Study on Memorandum to Chairman of CX Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Future Perspective

CX Technology will gain more experience while operating within the Vietnamese market and can enter the more competitive US market as the supplier of such complex components as engine parts. Nevertheless, it is important to follow the trends and respond to the development of more potential industries where the cold-forged steel parts are used.

Conclusion CX Technology must develop the strategy to enter the Vietnamese market as a successful Tier 2 supplier to state the leading position within the industry and receive the necessary experience to operate in the more developed and competitive world markets.

Works Cited Bhole, Ketan, Jordan Lee, Eileen Lu, and Indrajit Sen 2009, CX Technology. PDF file. 03 Dec. 2012. .

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East Asia Civilization Essay best essay help

The historical terms Hong Xiuquan

In religious groups of the ninetieth century, Hong Xiuguan instituted Taiping divine empire through offering religious guidance and planning fortified revolt against the reign of Qing. In fact, Hong Xiuguan was the Christian evangelical leader in China (Feigon 1). He was an important figure in that he became the community educator for more than five years after failing to pass the regal tests.

Xiuguan acknowledged gods as evil spirits, Jesus as his elderly brother, and God as the esteemed minister. This made him effect baptism and the demolition of craven statues to get on with the preaching work and spiritually guide the public.

A part from initiation and monotheism, Xiuguan made his followers keep strict daybreak, nightfall prayers, and refinement, acknowledge spiritual cremation of papers with confessed sins, and eating sacrificed animals in revelry of New Year, matrimony, and funerals. Xiuguan dedicated much of his time praying for tranquility by observing stringent rules and offering ethical coaching in his palace (Spence 52).

Russo-Japanese War

This war was a tragedy for Russia in martial and sanity although it showed up in countries living in the historic glories and constant tribulations accruing from increased business and farming. The conflict that was to generate a break up between Nicholas and his community came about though it hardly led to the impulsive outburst of loyalty as planned (Steinberg 3).

The civic had slight war eagerness, but the novel political parties saw no validation for the warfare thus making societal democrats’ to incite wallop in industrial units, revolutionists organizing terror campaign, and liberals limiting vocal objections and appeals. The war indicated the capture and demolition of the Russians nautical force in Far East, and when the information reached St. Petersburg and Moscow, additional social turmoil that stimulated the disastrous martial campaign and oppression occurred.

Nevertheless, the resultant meeting of Zemstvo national conference that Nicholas condemned called for civil rights, freedom of press, freedom of person, and freedom of speech (Jukes 2008). The war led to the creation of trade unions and revolutions that saw more than two hundred protestors killed while singing patriotic songs parading towards the Palace of Winter.

Tonghak Rebellion

Lee (1963) claims that this social and native group arose from the resentment of overseas missionaries on Christianity and patrician class compulsion that integrated the features of Taoism nurturing force, individual God to resist western education, primeval character of Shamanism, principles of Confucianism, and the intercession of Buddhism. Its effects from the design of parity and self-esteem influenced potential autonomous movements, which led to victory in the original rebellion that resulted into terror and seeking aid from the court of Japan and China to end the warfare as well as bring colonization of Korea by Japan.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This society was recognized leading to capture and execution of Ch’oe’s that later established flourishing church association which shaped the order of leadership and parishes. The rebellion grew all over making it possible for Chon Pong-Chun to take actions that hardly favored fraudulent administrators.

When the faction ordered for armaments, there was panic in the government and the administration requested the armed forces to end the cessation of hostilities. Hence, the inability to suppress the fight from Tonghak peasant militia, forced Japan and China to rival Korea for superiority.

The effects and causes of Korean War In the wake of the mid 1950, the warfare in Korea instigated and lasted for three years prior to the declaration of ceasefire. Assets were immensely damaged, and terminal deaths were reported to be over three million. The United States and the Soviet Union backed the two admonition states of South and North Korea.

The original cause of the conflict was extremely inherent in the two powerful countries. Korea has since stayed a unified nation from the seventh century, although Japan took fractions of Korea following the Sino-Japanese battle that occurred from 1894 to1895. In anticipation of the Second World War, Korea remained under the Japanese colony after being conquered in 1910.

The Soviet Union launched a communist status dubbed the Democratic Republic of People after captivating more than half of northern Korea. This was under Kim-II-Sung, and it occurred subsequent to Japan giving up in World War II. The U.S. took control of the southern half of Korea Republic starting from Tokyo (Lee 18).

The causes

The boundary between the battle regions had physical latitude of thirty-eight degrees to the north. The U.S tried to eliminate the Soviet Union from the accord set on intensifying communism, but this was burdened with nervousness. Another cause came in the year 1948 when the communists in each face of the thirty-eighth analogous meeting casted off the suggestion on liberated election (Lee 23). However, the United Nations struggled to ensure an open ballot vote took place in Korea.

However, Kim-II-Sung fashioned a Stalinist administration hoarded with Russian armaments, reservoirs and the Army of North Korean People. The United States, however, supported the first regime supervised by Rhee Syngman since the political state of affairs in South Korea was disorganized. In anticipation of June 1950 besides the thirty-eighth analogous meeting, progressive menacing battles persisted pending South Korea’s incursion by North Korean People’s Army.

We will write a custom Essay on East Asia Civilization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The nature of the war

The U.S. required intercession from the United Nation Security Council in the course of unmanageable assaults from the North to trademark the North Korea as an antagonist. Britain was one of the Security Council associate states to hurry to the charitable trust of South Korea.

It mutually propelled commonwealth navies together with a number of their Far East Fleets to Korea (Weathersby 91). When the Australian and the Britain backups started to enter Korea, the eighth United States Army guided by General Walker Walton in Korea disillusioned the North Korean People’s Army. It was then when the Army of North Korean People intentionally headed to the docks of Pusan, a very important harbor in South Korea.

In the tilt region of the Korean peninsula, the United Nation was positioned in a boundary called Pusan Perimeter to defy constant assault from Pohang, Masan, and Daegu. They enforced the attacking North Korean People’s Army to reverse to the north after the incarceration of vulnerable port of Inchon in mid September. The United Nations Army nearness to the Manchurian was a dread to the Chinese and a signal that they would mediate to protect their terrain.

The United Nation horde struggled to fit the capital of South Korea in south Seoul after the Chinese molestation in November. Nonetheless, the United Nation triumphantly drove the Army of North Korean People to the north of thirty- eighth analogous point in May 1951 having survived the spring of distasteful operations from China.

In 1953, a declaration of armistice occurred amid the serenity talks. Both the defense forces went on the odious intent not allowing the other party to manage the tactical regions rather than a different invasion on the adversary territory (Lee 52).

The effects

Both faces of the battling parties had numerous fatalities, yet the number of deaths is not certain. However, there was hostility between the Soviet Union and the United States fashioned by the Korean warfare. Besides, there was a break up between families that lived in each of the regional boundaries.

The experienced antagonism involving the United States and China lasted for decades afterward. It assured the United States of America of the attentive nature of the declining domino result of socialism. Thousands of American troops were situated in South Korea owing to its ideal position as a martial pedestal for the United States (Weathersby 92).

Conversely, failure to sign a written accord subsequent to 1953 peace agreement and the incapacity of South and North Korea to resolve their disparities implied that they had to be ready for state skirmishes. The United States, China, Japan, and South Korea had to stay in their projectile array after North Korea conducted numerous ballistic rocket experiments and a contentious nuclear ordeal.

Not sure if you can write a paper on East Asia Civilization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the recent past, North Korea became a renowned poverty-stricken country with martial rule while South Korea is the main financial power. The North Korean supreme leader, Kim Jong-II and the President of South Korea, Moo-hyun Roh signed an eight-point accord in early October 2007 (Steinberg 2008).

Thus, the two countries decided on the regeneration of train services, thoroughfare, and air, ambassadorial talks, financial corporations, and enduring peace programs. The parties are optimistic that these suggestions will rise to the confederacy of South and North Korea.

Factors leading to the decline of Qing China Dynasty The racial Manchu leaders ruled the Qing Dynasty of China for quite some time. The reign only ended at the beginning of the twentieth century, but started in 1644 CE in the middle of the kingdom. The empire was a recognized mighty dynasty, but collapsed and ushered in the current Chinese era. In fact, Qing Dynasty of China fell gradually in the early 20th century and the middle years of the 19th century because of a multifaceted interaction between external and internal factors.

Internal factors

Whereas immense pressure ensuing from the outside forces damaged the territory and sovereignty of Qing China Dynasty, the mighty empire scrambled and collapsed from inside. The average Chinese called Han believed that the Manchus from the north who were the Qing leaders deserved little loyalty.

Despite being few, the Manchus, a race that conquered China benefited from dominant political influence. However, late in the nineteenth century, the leadership of Manchu lost its capability. This gave rise to the catastrophic opium wars, which proved that the reigning Qing Empire lost its Heaven Mandates and ought to be brought down or conquered.

Cixi Dowager who was the Qing empress responded by getting tough on those who seek for reforms. Instead of renovating the homeland as well as practicing the Meiji reinstallation path as republic Japan executed, Dowager opted to clean the pacesetters’ courtyard (Zhang 156).

Inefficient emperors in the Qing Empire caused the administrative arm of the government to be unproductive. The emperor failed to supervise government officials making them very incompetent. The political structure had effects that discouraged the energetic action of the government. The state officials extorted money from the ordinary people while the level of corruption was serious in the Qing Dynasty.

The state imposed heavy taxes on Chinese whereas most government officials received gifts from the low ranked officers. This resulted into economic suffering. Besides, the Qing Empire of China was political decentralized. The politics were demoralized and corrupt making it difficult to centralize the political power in Peking.

Decentralization in politics started to grow seriously from the 1851 to 1864 Taiping Rebellion (Zhang 158). Thus, the Peking control proved to be very unsuccessful justifying the reasons why in the fiscal 1911, the Qing Dynasty provinces were declared sovereign.

The economic and social factors such as poor economic state, social poverty, and population growth rate contributed to the collapse of the Qing Empire of China. In fact, China was a peaceful state and Qing Dynasty enhanced the population growth rate. However, land that could be cultivated was limited since the powerful lords in Qing Dynasty grabbed large pieces of land.

The empire did not facilitate industrial development to create jobs and absorb excess labor. Instead, the Qing Dynasty enacted laws to bar individuals from moving to places outside including Manchuria. Lack of jobs coupled with the growing population meant low living standards and grater social poverty. To solve the ensuing financial problems, the rulers in Qing Dynasty opted to sell most offices and increased the state charged taxes.

These increased the level of corruption, rebellion, and social suffering. The Chinese military lacked cooperation and suffered from administrative inefficiency (Harding 122). Most combatants suffered due to food shortages and opted to deprive innocent people besides causing auxiliary societal anarchies. Manchus slowly lost the spirit to fight and in the 19th century making, all military troops become useless.

External factors

Qing Dynasty had some external factors that led to its collapse in 1911. Prior to 19th century, foreign imperialism had not reached China. Thus, its entry into China enhanced the collapse of the Qing Empire. For instance, the foreigners defeated the Qing administration and imposed imbalanced treaties on the empire.

The Chinese national rights were politically violated causing the Qing Empire to mislay its political power and repute. Given that China became puny, the command from abroad successfully invaded assorted homelands, which regularly indebted china faithfulness. The homeland citizens included the Koreans, Annam’s, and the Islet of Ryukyu.

In late nineteenth century, foreign imperialism reached its highest peak, and most China territories were divided into different influential spheres. The Qing administration became completely powerless to resist most of these foreign pressures. In the early 20th century and late 19th century, other nations led by Europe extended their influence to other territories including Africa and Asia (Harding 125). Therefore, they pressurized the grand China also known as the time-honored East Asia superpower.

Between 1839 and 1842, and from 1856 to 1860, the opium wars occurred causing the most destructive impact on the Qing Empire. After these wars, China emerged defeated and the British Empire conquered Hong Kong by enforcing unequal treaties on the inhabitants of China. The disgrace exposed the vulnerability and weaknesses of the once-powerful China to all its tributaries and neighbors. The exposure of China’s weaknesses made the nation begin losing its influence over marginal regions.

For instance, Taiwanese and Koreans were managed by the Japanese, which similarly forced unwarranted commerce burdens in the Shimonoseki’s pact of the financial year 1895. Conversely, France created the French Indochina colony after seizing Southeast Asia.

Other foreign powers namely Japan, Russia, Germany, France, and Britain also established their influential spheres along the Qing China’s coast by 1900. These foreign powers managed to control the Qing Dynasty’s military and trade. However, Puyi, the last emperor managed to overthrow the imperial China and end the Qing Dynasty in the fiscal 1912 (Harding 132).

Works Cited Feigon, Nathan. “Hong Xiuquan.” Britannica Biographies, 2012: 1-2. Print.

Harding, Harry. “How the Past Shapes the Present: Five Ways in Which History Affects China’s Contemporary Foreign Relations.” Journal of American-East Asian Relations, 16.1/2 (2009): 119-134. Print.

Jukes, Geoffrey. The Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905, Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2002. Print.

Lee, Chŏng-sik.The Politics of Korean Nationalism, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1963. Print.

Spence, Jonathan. God’s Chinese Son: The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Hong Xiuqua, New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 1997. Print.

Steinberg, John. “Was the Russo-Japanese War World War Zero?” Russian Review, 67.1 (2008): 1-7. Print.

Weathersby, Kathryn. “The Korean War Revisited.” Wilson Quarterly, 23.3 (1999): 91-96. Print.

Zhang, Zhan. “Cixi and Modernization of China.” Asian Social Science, 6.4 (2010): 154-159. Print.

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Our Man in Havana Essay (Critical Writing) essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Thesis statement

Main part

Conclusion

Works Cited

Thesis statement One of the foremost aspects of today’s living is the fact that, as time goes on; people in Western countries grow increasingly aware of the sheer out-datedness of the classical concept of nationhood. This could not be otherwise, because an ongoing process of Globalization effectively exposes people’s tendency to assess the surrounding reality through the lenses of their national affiliation, as such that substantially impedes their chances of a social advancement.

This is exactly the reason why, even though that as recently as during the course of the fifties, the idea that one should be willing to sacrifice its life for the sake of a ‘nation’ used to be considered fully legitimate, this is no longer being the case. After all, it nowadays becomes increasingly clear for more and more people in the West that, since they live only once and since there is no ‘afterlife’ to look forward to, it is specifically ensuring their personal well-being, which represents their foremost priority in life.

Therefore, there is nothing too surprising about the fact that even today; Graham Greene’s 1958 novel Our Man in Havana continues to be referred to as such that represents an undermined discursive value.

The reason for this is quite apparent – the themes and motifs, explored in this particular novel, appear discursively consistent with the post-industrial realities of the 21st century’s living, associated with the process of more and more people getting rid of socially upheld illusions, as to what accounts for the essence of their responsibilities in life. In my paper, I will aim to substantiate the validity of this suggestion at length.

Main part Given the apparent straightforwardness of Green novel’s plot, the task of outlining its main twists does not represent much of a challenge. The novel’s protagonist James Wormold (who happened to be a British citizen), owns a vacuum cleaner shop in pre-revolutionary Havana, Cuba. Being a loving father of his teenage daughter Milly, Wormold finds it increasingly difficult to be able to support Milly’s extravagant lifestyle.

In its turn, this prompts him to accept Henry Hawthorne’s (M16’s resident in the Caribbean region) proposition to become a British intelligence agent in Havana – in exchange for his willingness to work on behalf of M16, Wormold was placed on a payroll. Nevertheless, after having realized that would prove impossible to create the ring of informers in Cuba, as it was required of him, Wormold decides to simply invent them, while specifying the cost of maintaining each of these imaginary informers.

As the plot unravels, Wormold becomes ever more preoccupied with supplying M16 with fictitious intelligence reports, which in London are being regarded as such that represent a particularly high intelligence-value.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The novel’s comical sounding reaches its peak when Wormold sends the drawings of vacuum cleaners (intentionally made to look like some menacing military installations) to London, which causes a great deal of anxiety among M16’s top-officials, who never doubted the realness of the depicted ‘installations’ even for a second. In its turn, this causes Wormold’s superiors to decide to provide him with the ‘secretary’ Beatrice Severn and with the radio-operator Rudi – both working on behalf of British intelligence, as well.

Nevertheless, as time goes on, Worlmold realizes that his imaginary intelligence-activities had effectively ceased being merely a game, as Havana’s newspapers report the actual deaths of many of his imaginary ‘informers’. This, of course, causes Wormold to feel increasingly uneasy about the whole situation.

After having been confronted with the death of his close friend Dr. Hasselbacher, who was pressured by captain Segura (Cuban police) to spy on Wormold, the novel’s main character decides to reveal his fraud to Beatrice. Consequently, he gets to be recalled back to London – presumably, to face the charge of betrayal. Yet, to Wormold’s amazement, it was not only that did not get to be punished, but he in fact ended up being offered a teaching job with M16 and awarded the Order of British Empire.

Apparently, Wormold’s superiors refused to even consider the possibility of admitting to the government that ‘their man in Havana’ was nothing but a con artist, as it would expose British intelligence in a rather unsightly light.

It is needless to mention, of course, that even a brief glance at the earlier provided outline of Green novel’s plot does not allow us to refer to Our Man in Havana as such that emanates the spirit of British patriotism, in the classical sense of this word.

After all, with the probable exemption of the character of Beatrice, the individuals associated with the British government, featured in the novel, appear to have been deprived of even basic analytical abilities – quite contrary to the assumption that, in order for one to qualify for the job of a British spy, he or she must possess a supreme intelligence.

Partially, the ‘unpatriotic’ sounding of Green’s novel can be explained by the particulars of the author’s religious affiliation. This is because, throughout the course of his adult life, Green never ceased to proclaim itself a devout Catholic. However, it does not represent much of a secret that, ever since the beginning of the 17th century, British Catholics have been finding themselves in an increasingly disadvantaged social position.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Our Man in Havana specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even today, being a British Catholic implies being socially underprivileged to an extent. As Burgess noted, “The British State tolerates the Catholic Church, but the Catholic Church, being a supra-national body, has no representation in the establishment… To honor the monarch is to acknowledge the hegemony of the Church of England” (94).

Therefore, when assessed from a purely religious perspective, the lack of Green’s patriotic enthusiasm, clearly exhibited in Our Man in Havana, can be well thought of as having been reflective of the author’s deep-seated unconscious anxieties, related to his religious sense of self-identity.

However, it was not only the societal implications of Green’s affiliation with Catholicism, which caused his novel’s satire to attain a clearly defined political sounding, but also the theological and ideological ones. This is because Catholics always suspected Protestants to be deeply hypocritical in how they go about proclaiming their adherence to God.

After all, as opposed to what it is being the case with Catholics; Protestants do not perceive God as their ultimate benefactor. Rather they think of him as some distant authority that simply lays down the rules of a religious morality but does not intervene in their lives actively. Apparently, Protestants have grown to realize a simple fact that material riches do not fall out of the sky and that one needs to work hard, in order to achieve a financial prosperity.

In fact, it now became a commonplace practice among many Protestants to think that the amount of money they have in banks positively relates to the measure of God’s pleasure with them (Weber 60). Green, however, never ceased considering Protestants’ obsession with making money morally wrong, which explains the sarcastic sounding of the novel’s scenes in which American businesspersons elaborate on their vision of religion/spirituality.

For example, there is a memorable scene in the novel, where the character of Dr. Braun comes up with a public speech, while praising the trade as the actual source of spirituality, “Trade was important because without trade there would be no spiritual links, or was it perhaps the other way round. He (Dr. Braun) spoke of American aid to distressed countries which would enable them to buy more goods and by buying more goods strengthen the spiritual links” (Green 91).

This explains the subtle criticism of American (Western) concept of ‘democracy’, which can be found throughout the course of Green novel’s entirety.

Apparently, the author was intellectually honest enough to admit to himself and to his readers that, by promoting the values of ‘democracy’ in the Third World, Western countries pursue their own geopolitical/economic agenda, which in turn is being concerned with assuming a unilateral control of the world’s natural/human resources – hence, the actual secret of Western countries’ economic prosperity.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Our Man in Havana by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This suggestion and the clearly defined autobiographical undertones of the Green’s novel, help us to explain the innate motivation behind Wormold’s decision to accept money from the British secret service, without providing any real intelligence information in return.

It appears that, while deceiving British intelligence, Worlmold (a literary embodiment of Green) was not merely concerned with ensuring an additional source of income but also with acting on behalf of justice – whatever ironic it may sound.

Even though that the novel’s main character initially doubted the moral appropriateness of his decision, in this respect, Dr. Hasselbacher was able to convince him in the opposite, “They (governmental officials) have no money except what they take from men like you and me” (29). Eventually, it had dawned upon Wormold that, by making the rich and powerful to share some of their riches with ordinary individuals like himself, even by the mean of deceiving the government, he in fact was serving a higher good.

This again reveals an unmistakably Catholic mindset, in the part of the novel’s author, as the reading about how Wormold went about addressing life’s challenges does substantiate the validity of the idea that there is nothing wrong about combating evil with evil. And, as Green’s biographers are being well aware of, this idea never ceased to fascinate the author of Our Man in Havana,” Throughout his life… Greene had a fascination with evil and a contempt for ordinary virtues.

After his conversion to Catholicism, he defended this attitude on the ground that a close acquaintance with evil was no obstacle to the salvation of the soul. It might even be essential” (Gray 51). Hence, the thoroughly humanistic sounding of the Green’s novel, as such that promotes the idea that, despite their weaknesses, people are nevertheless are being capable of adopting a proper stance in life.

Nevertheless, it would not be fully appropriate to assess the significance of the novel’s themes and motifs solely in regards to what used to be the particulars of Green’s religious affiliation. Had this been the case, these themes and motifs would not be considered discursively relevant today.

Yet, as it was mentioned in the Introduction, there are indeed a number of good reasons to believe that the manner in which Wormold behaves in the novel is being fully consistent with the discourse of post-modernity, which nowadays causes more and more people to reassess the validity of many traditional assumptions, regarding what accounts for the purpose of one’s life, and regarding to the implications one’s national affiliation.

For example, there is another memorable scene in the novel, where Hawthorne tries to recruit Wormold, while implying that being assumed a British patriot, his newly found would-be-spy simply had no option but to agree to the proposition, “You are English, aren’t you?.. And you refuse to serve your country?” (21).

Apparently, it never occurred to Hawthorne that, as time goes on, the discursive significance of socio-political concepts, such as ‘nation’, continues to be qualitatively transformed, which often leads to these concepts becoming deprived of any meaning, whatsoever. Nowadays, the validity of this statement appears especially self-evident, because due to an ongoing process of Globalization, the national borders between formally independent countries have long ago assumed a purely symbolic value.

In its turn, this causes many political observers to conclude that it is being only the matter of time, before the concept of ‘national sovereignty’ will be effectively disposed with, as thoroughly outdated. As Ohmae noted, “The global economy ignores barriers, but if they are not removed, they cause distortion. The traditional centralized nation-state is another cause of friction. It is ill equipped to play a meaningful role on the global stage” (Ohmae 25).

Yet, even throughout the course of the late fifties, the discursive irrelevance of the concept of ‘nation’ was becoming apparent. The reason for this is simple – after the end of WW2, Western European countries (including Britain, which had lost all of its most important colonies) have been effectively deprived of their de facto independence – all due to these countries’ willingness to participate in the Marshall Plan and to join NATO.

In essence, they became the America’s puppet-states. And yet, as it appears from the novel, the character of Hawthorne remained thoroughly ignorant of this fact, which explains why, while trying to convince Wormold to become M16’s agent, he continued to refer to Britain’s geopolitical challenges in essentially pre-WW2 terms. The legitimacy of this suggestion can be well illustrated in regards to Hawthorne’s strongly defined anti-German stance, “Not that it matters East or West, they (Germans) play the German game.

Remember the Ribbentrop Pact. We (British) won’t be caught that way again” (13). This explains why Wormold could not help but to accept Hawthorne’s offer – after having realized that Hawthorne was a perceptually inadequate individual, allowing him to walk away with money would constitute a ‘sin’.

The discursive implication of this suggestion can be formulated as follows: unlike what it was the case with many of the novel’s intellectually inflexible characters, such as Hawthorne, Wormold proved himself being quick enough to take advantage of moneymaking opportunities, presented by the realities of the Cold War era.

Apparently, despite having been born well before the discourse of Globalization had attained a politically legitimate status, Wormold was psychologically attuned with what would constitute the secularized and deideologized realities of a post-industrial living. After all, nowadays it is specifically only not overly bright individuals who may be comfortable with the idea that the abstract cause of ‘patriotism’ is worthy of risking their lives.

This is because, due to the revolutionary breakthroughs in the field of informational technologies (the rise of the Internet), this world is becoming ever more ‘informationally intense’.

In its turn, this creates objective preconditions for people in Western countries to realize the simple fact that there is only one reason for the representatives of social elites to continue striving to endow ordinary citizens with the sense of ‘patriotism’ – it is so much easier to turn patriots into a ‘cannon meat’, willing to sacrifice for the rich and powerful on the battlefield, if circumstances require.

Therefore, it will not be much of an exaggeration, on our part, to suggest that the appeal of Our Man in Havana is being partially concerned with the novel’s ‘visionary’ subtleties – today’s readers cannot help but to perceive the character of Wormold, as such was born well ahead of its time. This, of course, causes them to relate to this character emotionally – hence, the continual popularity of Our Man in Havana.

Conclusion I believe that the line of argumentation, deployed throughout this paper, is being fully consistent with the initial thesis. It appears that, even as far back as during the course of the late fifties, Green had a very good idea, as to what would be the nature of ‘things to come’ in the future.

This explains why; whereas, the names of the author’s contemporaries, who used to criticize him on the account of his ‘lack of patriotism’, are now long forgotten, Green’s literary legacy continues being highly appreciated. Given the fact that, as time goes on, the process of intellectually liberating Globalization keeps on gaining a momentum; this will likely to remain the case in the future, as well.

Works Cited Burgess, Anthony. “Politics in the Novels of Graham Greene.” Journal of Contemporary History 2.2 (1967): 93-99. Print.

Gray, John. “A Touch of Evil.” New Statesman 13.633 (2000): 51-52. Print.

Greene, Graham. Our Man in Havana. Penguin Classics. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Print.

Ohmae, Kenichi. Next Global Stage: Challenges and Opportunities in Our Borderless World. Upper Saddle River: Wharton School Publishing, 2005. Print.

Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. New York: Courier Dover Publications, 2003. Print.

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Competition in the service industry Proposal best college essay help: best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature Review

Methodology

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Since the industrial revolution, a lot of advancements have been experienced in the field of technology. However, since the 1970s, rapid advancement in information technology has increased the productivity of many firms from all around the world (Pfeffer 21). Consequently, the availability of cash, the viability of the market, improvement in the production technology, and the fact that firms can enter and exit a market freely has greatly increased the number of players within a given industry.

As a result, therefore, the level of competition has greatly increased. To stand at a competitive edge, firms in the modern world usually strive to retain their customers and to increase their market share. From research, it has been identified that delivery of service quality plays a critical role in retaining customers who are loyal, as well as the ones who have been satisfied (Pfeffer 34).

Since they interact with customers directly or indirectly, frontline employees play a critical role in determining the quality of service a firm offers to its customers. Despite this realization, there are several factors that deter these employees from achieving the level of effectiveness and efficiency that is expected from them.

Low pay, long working hours, poor working conditions, stress and customer aggression reduce their level of motivation, impacting negatively on their performance. It is thus difficult for managers to retain employees who are highly skilled under such conditions (Pfeffer 40).

To reduce employee turnover rates, managers have turned to the concept of job embeddedness (Pfeffer 40). According to Pfeffer (1994), job embeddedness represents the concepts and techniques that can be applied to prevent employees from leaving their jobs. Training, empowerment, and rewards are some of the concepts and techniques that are used to guarantee job embeddedness.

Pfeffer (1994) regards these concepts as one of the most effective human resource practices. If these concepts and techniques are applied in an effective and efficient manner, they will result in High-performance work practices (HPWPs). The application of these concepts and techniques will increase the knowledge, skills and expertise of employees.

Consequently, the presence of a conducive working environment will give the employees the chance to put into practice the skills and knowledge that they have acquired. This will greatly increase the productivity of the employees hence increasing their motivation and the ease at which they will attain the firms as well as their personal goals and objectives.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, firms will not only retain their key employees, but they will also increase their service delivery quality hence retaining loyal and satisfied customer. This will guarantee their profitability and sustainability in the short run and in the long run.

Given all these factors, the main purpose of this study is to critically analyze a conceptual model that has been designed to determine the effect of job embeddedness on the commitment of the management to improve the quality of service delivery. Therefore, the study will focus on the impacts that job embeddedness has on training, empowerment, rewards, and the overall performance of the employees.

This study will provide essential literature in the field of marketing and management. The study will also be a continuation of studies that have been conducted in the field of job embeddedness. According to Grandey (1999), training can only achieve the desired outcome if it is coupled with empowerment and rewards.

Consequently, empowerment can only be beneficial to an employee and the firm if it is supported with training and rewards. With this analysis, therefore, it is evident that these constructs are interrelated and they play a critical role in determining the level of job embeddedness that a firm enjoys.

Job embeddedness therefore plays a critical role in reducing the employee turnover rates within organizations (Boshoff 78). The current labor market is characterized with high employee turnover rates due to numerous reasons. Despite this fact, only a limited number of studies have been conducted to determine the effect that job embeddedness has on the performance of employees.

In this study, service recovery and extra-role performance service are the key performance indicators of frontline employees that need to be assessed. Service recovery is the role played by employees in resolving the issues that might reduce the level of satisfaction among customers.

While dealing with customers, there are instances where a customer might not be satisfied as a result of the quality of the goods or service offered the response he/she received or any other factor. It is thus the role of frontline employees to ensure that these issues are resolved before the customer is completely dissatisfied with the goods to retain him/her. On the other hand, extra-role performance entails the extra efforts that employees to put to ensure that a customer is satisfied.

We will write a custom Proposal on Competition in the service industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Boshoff (2000), service delivery recovery can be considered as extra-role performance. Therefore, through training, empowerment, and rewards, a firm can develop a team of specialized employees who have the knowledge and skills to respond to specific service failures hence meeting the needs and desires of its customers.

Therefore, for a firm to achieve high levels of service delivery from its frontline employees, it needs to have consistent HPWPs that are based on the concepts of training, empowerment and rewards. This will increase its level of job embeddedness hence retaining its key employees as well as loyal and satisfied customers.

The results of this study will therefore show the level of managerial commitment in service delivery, job embeddedness, and the performance of hotels in Romania. At the end, the study will come up with recommendations with will aim at improving the level of service delivery by frontline employees. The study will also bring forward avenues that future research should focus on with regards to job embeddedness.

Literature Review In the service industry, frontline employees play a critical role in the service delivery process. Therefore, the management of such firms such view them as partners in the process of meeting the needs and desires of their customers as well as retaining loyal and satisfied customers (Grandey 355).

For such employees to offer effective and efficient services to customers, they need to work in an environment where their efforts are supported by the management. In an event whereby the management is not fully committed in offering excellent services to its employees, the efforts put by frontline employees will therefore not be fruitful.

As a result, it will be difficult for such employees to successfully deal with complaints and requests that come from the customers that they are serving. Therefore, to ensure that their operations are sustainable in the short term and in the long term, the management of service delivery firms needs to be results oriented. In the process, frontline employees will get the motivation they need to meet the needs and desires of their customers (Grandey 362).

In the line of work, mistakes are always inevitable. Therefore, service organizations, through their frontline employees need to ensure that, “…they do the right thing the second time to avoid adverse effects that might have negative impacts on the operations of the organization” (De Ruyter 96).

The management of any given organization is driven by its mission and vision. However, the vision and mission set by organizations need to be designed from the viewpoint of frontline employees who are in direct contact with the customers. This will ensure that the management empowers its frontline employees through training, rewards, up to date technologies, and effective and efficient recruitment services (Bishoff 67).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Competition in the service industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Boshoff (2000), these are some of the factors that determine best human resource practices within an organization. Due to the fact that they result in a consistent performance by frontline employees, their presence in any organization is a good indicator of management commitment to service quality.

Consequently, it has been determined that training, empowerment, and rewards not only increase the performance and motivation of frontline employees, but they also attract highly qualified individuals (Bishoff 68). This greatly increases the versatility, effectiveness, and efficiency of the workforce of a given organization.

Several models have been advanced to show the relationship between HPWPs and performance within a given organization. The Ability, Motivation, and Opportunity (AMO) model is a prime example. The AMO model focuses on the individual variables within an individual that affect the level of his/her performance (Podsakoff 881).

Thus, the model focuses on competence of a given employee, his/her level of motivation and the opportunity such an employee has to put into practice their skills and expertise. Through training, the performance of employees is increased as a result of the additional knowledge, skills, and expertise that they have acquired (Podsakoff 883).

Through rewards, such employees will be motivated to put into practice the acquired knowledge and skills hence enabling them to deal with the complaints and request that have been raised by customers in an effective and efficient manner.

The level of commitment that the management has with regards to HPWPs plays a significant role in determining the level of job embeddedness that it wants to achieve. According to Podsakoff (2003), job embeddedness has three dimensions; links, fit, and sacrifice. Links is the formal or informal relationship that an employee has with an institution, or other individuals (Podsakoff 884).

An employee will have high levels of job embeddedness if the links that he/she has within his work environment increase. Fit is the compatibility that an individual has with his working environment (Podsakoff 885). With regards to this dimension, the level of job emdeddedness can only be increased if the goals and values of a given employee are in line with the overall goals and objectives of the organization he/she is working for.

Finally, sacrifice can be defined as the benefits that an individual is willing to forego by leaving a particular job (Podsakoff 885). An employee will have high levels of job embeddedness given the fact that the benefits he is enjoying from his current employment exceed the costs incurred.

Therefore, firms need to focus on achieving HPWPs to increase their levels of job emdeddedness. This will reduce their employee turnover rates and will play a critical role in encouraging extra-role performance (Podsakoff 885).

From the literature that has been covered so far, it has been identified that training, empowerment, and rewards are the key indicators of the commitment that the management of a given organization has on service quality. Through training, employees develop their skills and expertise in their respective fields.

As a result, such employees become acquitted with the role that they are playing within an organization, as well as with their values and beliefs. On the other hand, it will be difficult for employees who do not have relevant training to handle customers’ complaints and requests with a high degree of effectiveness and efficiency (Grandey 366).

Empowerment on the other hand gives employees the authority and responsibility to respond to the customers’ requests and complaints since the exact tasks that might be required to satisfy the needs of the customers cannot be predetermined. Thus, empowerment motivates employees and maintains employees within an organization (Grandey 366).

Rewards such as promotions, bonuses, passages and so on show the commitment that a given organization has to service delivery by appreciating the efforts of its frontline employees (Grandey 366). With regards to training, empowerment, and rewards, the following hypotheses can be developed for this study:

H1: Training has a direct relationship with frontline employees’ job embeddedness.

H2: Empowerment has a direct relationship with frontline employees’ job embeddedness.

H3: Rewards have a direct relationship with frontline employees’ job embeddedness.

Training, empowerment, and rewards also play a critical role in determining the quality of service delivery from frontline employees. According to Karatepe (2012), empowerment and rewards are one of the main factors that affected the performance of bank employees in South Africa.

With an effective training, empowerment, and reward system, employees develop listening and problem solving skills that make their response to customers’ complaints to be quick, appropriate and equitable hence conducting their services to effectively and efficiently. With regards to performance outcome, the following hypotheses can be developed for this study:

H4: Training has a direct relationship with frontline employees’ service recovery and extra-role performance.

H5: Empowerment has a direct relationship with frontline employees’ service recovery and extra-role performance.

H6: Rewards have a direct relationship with frontline employees’ service recovery and extra-role performance.

Consequently, the performance of employees who have several links and have developed a desirable fit with individuals and the organization is usually high (Grandey 367). Such employees will incur a lot of costs as compared to benefits if they decide to leave their work.

Therefore, it will be wise for such employees to retain their current jobs. With regards to these facts, the following hypothesis can be developed for this study:

H7: Job embeddedness has a direct relationship with frontline employees’ service recovery and extra-role performance.

H8: Job embeddedness has a direct relationship with the effects of training, empowerment, and rewards on frontline employees’ service recovery and extra-role performance.

Methodology This study will focus on seven 4 star hotels and one 5 star hotel in the Poiana Brasov region of Romania, a key tourist destination in the winter. The study will only focus on frontline employees who have face-to-face contact with customers (tourists). This will include but not limited to:

Front desk agents

Food servers

Bartenders

Door attendants

Guest relations representatives

Bell attendants

To ensure that the collected data is credible, effective and efficient, questionnaires will be administered using random sampling. The study will have a sample size of 200 respondents ranging between the ages of 18 to 65 years. This will ensure that the views of the individuals of all age groups have been collected and considered in the study.

To collect data from these individuals, the management of these hotels will be contacted. However, due to the fact that it might be difficult to get direct access of frontline employees of these hotels, the questionnaires will be sent to the management. It is the management that will distribute the questionnaires to its frontline employees.

The consent of the respondents will be sought prior to the exercise. Consequently, this study will guarantee the confidentiality and anonymity of the participants. There will be two sets of questionnaires. The first questionnaire to be administered will collect information regarding training, empowerment, and rewards. The second questionnaire will collect information regarding service delivery recovery and extra-role performance.

To ensure that the data collected in this study are consistent and useful to the study, the questionnaires will be administered simultaneously. This will ensure that the respondents of the first questionnaire will also take part in the second questionnaire. After filling the questionnaires, the respondents (frontline employees) will seal them in an envelope and deposit it in a special box where the research will come to collect all of them at the end of the session.

In this study, literature review will be used as the main source of secondary data. This will include literature, information, and ideas from studies that have been conducted by other researchers. Therefore, peer reviewed journals, books, magazines, dissertations, and any other credible source of literature relevant to the topic of study will be used.

For accurate analysis of the statistical data, SPSS 16.0 will be used for descriptive data analysis. The data will be explored using descriptive statistics and histogram plots to determine the shape of the distribution for each sample variable. The name given to each variable in the data analysis will be provided in a table.

Data analysis will be carried out using parametric tests where the data will follow a normal distribution and where the sample number will be equal to or greater statistical power. Where the data will not follow a normal distribution or where the data will be split into groups of less than the sample size (n), non-parametric test will be used.

Conclusion The high level of competition in the service industry has prompted the management of most organizations to come up with effective measures that will ensure that they stand on a competitive edge over their rivals to be sustainable and profitable in the short run and in the long run.

To achieve this, it has been identified that the frontline employees of these organizations need to be trained, empowered and rewarded to reduce their turnover rates and to increase their service delivery recovery and entry-role performance. As a result, a firm will be able to meet the needs and requirements of its customers hence retaining satisfied and loyal customers in the long run.

Works Cited Boshoff, Charles. “The influence of selected antecedents on frontline staff’s perceptions of service recovery performance.” International Journal of Service Industry Management, 11.1 (2000): 63–90. Print.

De Ruyter, Kings. “Customer equity considerations in service recovery: a crossindustry perspective.” International Journal of Service Industry Management, 11.1 (2000): 91–108. Print.

Grandey, Andrew. “The conservation of resources model applied to workfamily conflict and strain.” Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54.2 (1999): 350–370. Print.

Karatepe, Michael. “Does job embeddedness mediate the effect of work engagement on job outcomes? A study of hotel employees in Cameroon.” Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 21.4(2012): 440–461. Print.

Pfeffer, John. Competitive Advantage through People: Unleashing the Power of the Work Force. Boston: HBS Press, 1994. Print.

Podsakoff, Peter. “Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies.” Journal of Applied Psychology, 88.5 (2003): 879–903. Print.

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Correlation Report online essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

Methods

Results

Conclusions

Reference List

Abstract One of the most commonly used statistical method for determining and measuring the relationship between two or more variables is the correlation. Based on the random integers that have been collected for performing three fictitious studies in this report the correlation has been calculated between variables.

The findings from correlation are then analyzed using methods including histogram, mean, standard deviation, and range to draw conclusions regarding the distributions of correlation coefficients (scores) obtained for each of the study, The conclusions from the study suggest that the mean correlation is close to 0 using random data.

The statistical dispersion measured by standard deviation and range is higher for study#1 and lowest for study#2 which suggests that the sample size does have implications for analysis. The report also provides a descriptive discussion on the correlation method, its history, levels of variability, and psychology studies that may involve prediction of random variables.

Introduction In this report, the findings of correlation and measures of statistical dispersion in the data derived from selection of random integers are presented. The report initiates with detailing the concept of correlation method and ways of interpreting the correlation. It then describes the level of variability and introduces studies which may involve prediction of random variables. The experiment that has been performed through selection of random integers is then described and results are presented along with a meaningful discussion.

Correlation is a statistical method which can be used to determine the dependence between two or more variables. By dependence it is implied the relationship between two or more variables in which the value of one variable depends upon the values of another variable. The use of correlation in psychological studies is very common which are aimed at predicting and analyzing the relationship of human behavior and factors which have influence on it.

The correlation studies result in the determination of the correlation coefficient which is a measure of the strength of the relationship between variables.

The correlation coefficient values range between -1.00 to 1.00 which suggest that if the value of correlation coefficient is close to -1.00 then there is a negative correlation (relationship) between the selected variables and if the value of correlation coefficient is close to 1.00 then there is a positive correlation (relationship) between the selected variables.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For a neutral correlation between variables the value of correlation coefficient has to be very close to 0. Therefore, in this way the correlation in psychology helps in understanding the association of variables under investigation.

The history of correlation method can be traced back to the study during 1850-52 conducted by Sir Francis Galton, a statistician who was interested in heredity trends of intelligence found in humans and aimed at finding out the correlation between the intelligence levels of individuals with their predecessors.

The spread or variability in the variable is referred to as statistical dispersion. The measure of the statistical dispersion starts from 0 which occurs when all the data collected is the same and it rises as the variability in the variable increases. Therefore, it could be stated that statistical dispersion measure close to 0 indicates low level of variability and as it goes higher and above 1 then it suggest high level of variability in the variable.

There are different measures which can be used for determining levels of variability which may include variance, variance to mean ratio, standard deviation, interquartile range, range, mean difference, median or average absolute deviation and distance standard deviation.

Studies that may involve the prediction of random variables could include behavioral studies that are conducted in a naturalistic environment and also those which involve investigation of animal behavior.

Methods The experiment that has been performed for the present study involved selection of random integers for two fictitious variables x and y. This was achieved by selecting different options for data selection on the website – random.org. The process was simple which used three different approaches for gathering data.

Firstly, 10 integers were randomly derived through the online integer generating system, which were considered as the values of five subjects. Then, the correlation was calculated between x and y, and the value of correlation coefficient was recorded. This step was performed 30 times and 30 different values of correlation were recorded. Secondly, the sample size was increased to 60 randomly selected variables, which were considered as the values of 15 subjects.

We will write a custom Report on Correlation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, the correlation was performed between variables x and y, and the value of correlation coefficient was recorded. This step was also performed 30 times to record 30 different values of correlation. Lastly, the sample size was further increased to 200 randomly selected variables, which were considered as the values of 100 subjects and the correlation was performed 30 times to record 30 different values of correlation. For gathering of data and performing different statistical methods both MS Excel and SPSS have been used.

Results Histogram for Three Studies

Using SPSS, histograms for three studies involving data sets derived on the described methodology are given in the following.

Degree of Freedom

For each study the number of data entries n is equal to 30 therefore the degree of freedom is obtained as DF=n-1 i.e. DF = 30-1 = 29

Critical Values

Using SPSS, one-tail and critical two-tail t values have been obtained using one sample t test for each study and the results are as follows:

Study #1: -.346 and.732

Not sure if you can write a paper on Correlation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Study #2:.078 and.938

Study #3:.892 and.380

Range of Variation

Using SPS, the range of variation has been obtained by using Analyze>Descriptive Statistics>Descriptives>Range

Descriptive Statistics N Range Minimum Maximum correlation1 30 1.5383 -.8875 .6508 correlation2 30 .5332 -.2454 .2878 correlation3 30 .3993 -.1371 .2621 Standard Deviation

In SPSS the standard deviation for each study is obtained using one sample t test and the results are provided in the following:

σ1: 0.4796

σ2: 0.1622

σ3:.0.1045

Correlation Mean

In SPSS the mean correlation for each study is obtained using one sample t test and the results are provided in the following:

µ1: -0.0303

µ2: 0.0023

µ3: 0.0170

Conclusions Based on the analysis presented above it could be suggested that the distribution of correlation scores using randomly data for study#1 is more dispersed than scores for study#2 and study#3. The statistical dispersion measured by standard deviation and range is higher for scores in study#1 as compared to study#2 and study#3. The mean correlation of each study is close 0 as it is expected for random data.

This is also reflected by the normal distribution curve in the histogram. However, for study#1 it is slight less than 0 as the distribution is scewed leftwise.

Reference List Brutlag, J. D. (2007, December 15). The development correlation and association in statistics. Retrieved from Buttelake: http://buttelake.com/corr.htm

Gravetter, F. J.,

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A House Filled with Memories: Taking a Travel across Space and Time Essay college essay help: college essay help

There is hardly anything that people need as badly as their own hearth and home. Indeed, the very image of a house has become the symbol of stability, warmth and cozy atmosphere. A house is associated even with a family, though the two do not go together all the time. However, there is something that people seldom attribute to a house, and these are memories, which does not seem right.

After living even for a short time in a certain place, one is likely to grow used to it and have a bunch of issues related to his/her dwelling, no matter whether it is a luxurious apartment or a humble hut, which raises the question how well memories are tied to a certain place and what the reasons for this phenomenon are.

According to Bachelard, it is not the connection between time and space that works for a human being, it is the fusion of space and memory. As the author says, “Her space is everything, for time ceases to quicken memory.”1 However, thinking that time in the given context can be replaced with memories would be a mistake; it seems that for the author, memory is not the alternative for time, but rather a link between time and space.

While time and space can exist on their own, with a human being as a third element, there must be something that will tie time and space together in the human reality, and memories serve this purpose perfectly. The given perspective is rather peculiar, since it raises the question whether for people, memories can exist outside the space context. In other words, the question is whether there must be a “house” to attach the memories to.

Again, according to the author’s viewpoint, a house is the storage for all sorts of memories; events of the past revive once someone related to these events enters the place. “Memories are motionless, and the more securely they are fixed in space, the sounder they are.”2 Indeed, people are likely to remember rather the environment in which something happened that anything else; these are the visuals that one refers to instantly when reminiscing.

Another peculiar idea to draw from the given extract is what matters more to people, the very event or the space in which it took place. Although the former seems an obvious choice at first, the issue is still worth being considered. Even the grandest event will wear out its novelty sooner or later, which the feeling that ran through someone will stay just as vivid and tangible even years later.

Thus, it is clear that memories are closely connected to the places where something to remember happened; it is not only the fact that matters to people, but also the circumstances in which it occurred.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Recalling a breathtaking cruise, one is likely to recall the coziness of a cruiser cabin; likewise, when thinking of talking to someone who changed one’s life completely, one will definitely remember the sunlit room where the conversation took place and the checked wallpaper on the walls. Clinging to the small things helps people retain the big events in their memory, and this is one of the mysterious ways in which human mind works.

Bibliography Bachelard, G, ‘The house from cellar to garret’ in G Bachelard (ed.), The poetics of space, Beacon Press, Boston, MA, 1969, p. 81.

Footnotes Bachelard, G, ‘The house from cellar to garret’ in G Bachelard (ed.), The poetics of space, Beacon Press, Boston, MA, 1969, p. 81.

Bachelard, G, ‘The house from cellar to garret’ in G Bachelard (ed.), The poetics of space, Beacon Press, Boston, MA, 1969, p. 81.

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Statistical Analysis of the Relationship Between the Two Variables Report college admission essay help

Abstract In the measurement of any relationship between variables, it is essential to use a correlation statistic to determine the strength of relationship between them. A data from three studies carried out on a given sample of population was obtained and analyzed by using both SPSS and Excel.

The mean, standard deviation, range and F-test were obtained from three groups of samples in order to analyze the two variables X and Y. A one sample t-test was obtained at a 95% confidence interval after which the results were interpreted. ANOVA was also conducted in order to provide the value of F-score for interpretation purposes. The results had shown a lower standard deviation for a large sample size implying that a large sample size should be used to test the relationship between variables since it affects reduces variability of data.

Introduction This report is aimed at obtaining a statistical analysis of the relationship between the two variables X and Y before determining the effect of changing sample size on variability. The X variable was the independent variable and the Y variable was the dependent variable.

It will also explain the significance of F-score as obtained by ANOVA using SPSS. Three groups have been obtained from different sample sizes to ensure validity and reliability of results obtained in making a conclusion. The experiment involved the selection of various random variables in groups of 30 members for appropriate description and presentation of results.

To determine the measurements for variability, the measures of range, standard deviation, variance and median were used to provide useful information for interpretation.

Methods The experiment was been performed on random variables of X and Y obtained from a certain population. First, a sample size of 15 variables was obtained and recorded as group 1, second was group 2 with sample size of 60 and lastly group 3 with sample size of 90. The correlation for 30 variables of each group of sample was recorded for the study.

In total, three groups of samples were obtained in order to ensure reliability of the results. Correlation was then calculated for each group to determine the relationship between X and Y. The correlation coefficient obtained from each group was then recorded for analysis.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More ANOVA was also conducted to evaluate whether the average score was equal or different between the means of groups (Adivia, 2010, par.3).

Results Degree of Freedom

For each the studies carried out, the number of data entries n is equal to 30.Therefore it means that the degree of freedom DF=n-1 is DF = 30-1 = 29

Critical Values

Correlation #1

One-Sample Statistics

N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean X 30 52.27 30.007 5.478 Y 30 47.23 30.602 5.587 One-Sample Test

Test Value = 0 T df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper X 9.540 29 .000 52.27 41.06 63.47 Y 8.454 29 .000 47.23 35.81 58.66 Correlation #2

One-Sample Statistics

N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean X 30 58.13 27.474 5.016 Y 30 49.67 28.779 5.254 One-Sample Test

We will write a custom Report on Statistical Analysis of the Relationship Between the Two Variables specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Test Value = 0 T df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper X 11.590 29 .000 58.13 47.87 68.39 Y 9.453 29 .000 49.67 38.92 60.41 Correlation #3 One-Sample Statistics

N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean X 30 41.57 27.859 5.086 Y 30 67.17 23.915 4.366 One-Sample Test

Test Value = 0 T df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper X 8.172 29 .000 41.57 31.16 51.97 Y 15.383 29 .000 67.17 58.24 76.10 Using SPSS, one-tail and critical two-tail t values were obtained using a one sample t test for each study and the results were as follows:

Study Group #1: 9.540 and 8.454

Study Group #2: 11.590 and 9.453

Study Group #3: 8.172 and 15.383

Standard Deviation

In SPSS the standard deviation for each study was obtained using one sample t test and the results were as follows:

σ1: 30.602

Not sure if you can write a paper on Statistical Analysis of the Relationship Between the Two Variables by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More σ2: 28.779

σ3: 23.915

Range of Variation

Using SPS, the range of variation was obtained by using Analyze>Descriptive Statistics>Descriptives>Range

Descriptive Statistics N Range Minimum Maximum Group 1 30 96 2 98 Group 2 30 92 3 95 Group 3 30 8 11 19 Correlation Mean

In SPSS the mean correlation for each study was obtained using one sample t test and the results were provided as follows:

Group #1=0.022

Group #2=0.122

Group #3= -0.128

ANOVA Results Group 1 ANOVA Y

Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 24368.367 25 974.735 1.398 .411 Within Groups 2789.000 4 697.250 Total 27157.367 29 From the results obtained in the above ANOVA table, the F-score of 1.398 is greater than the significance value of the F test in the Group 1 ANOVA table which is 0.411. We reject the null hypothesis and conclude that average assessment score differs across the groups of variable X and Y.

Group 2 ANOVA Y

Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 22209.667 23 965.638 3.203 .076 Within Groups 1809.000 6 301.500 Total 24018.667 29 From the results obtained in the Group 2 ANOVA table, the F-score 3.203 is less than significance value of the F test in the table which is 0.76. We reject the null hypothesis and conclude that average assessment score is different across the groups of variable X and Y

Group 3 ANOVA Y

Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 14144.167 26 544.006 .668 .761 Within Groups 2442.000 3 814.000 Total 16586.167 29 From the results obtained in the Group 3 ANOVA table, the F-score 0.668 is less than significance value of the F test in the Group 3 ANOVA table which is 0.761. We accept the null hypothesis and conclude that average assessment is equal across the groups of variable X and Y

Affects of Changes Sample Size on Variability When the sample size was small as given by Group #1, the standard deviation was 30.602, while Group #2 and #3 had 28.779 and 23.915 respectively. This shows that the standard deviation decreases with the increase in sample size.

The sample size selected for any population affects the confidence interval of the data. If the sampling size is increased, the required confidence interval will also increase. The reason why the confidence interval increases is because of many variables that reduce the variance from one variable to another (Ramsey, 2009, par. 2).

From the results obtained earlier in the ANOVA table, it is clear that Group #1 which had started with a smaller sample size had shown the average assessment scores was different across the groups within the significance value of 0.411. As the samples size was increased, there was a no much difference in scores between the variables X and Y as shown by Group #2 and #3.

The correlation mean obtained for the three groups increased with the increase in sample size. For example, Group # 1 had 0.022 while group #3 had -0.128. The strength of relationship between the two variables decreases with increase in sample size.

Conclusion Based on the results obtained above, it can be concluded that a change in the sample size has a significant effect on the variability of data. Therefore, it is good to choose a larger sample size in order to correctly obtain good results for in data analysis.

References Adivia, J. (2010). One-way ANOVA using SPSS. Retrieved from https://statistics.laerd.com/spss-tutorials/one-way-anova-using-spss-statistics.php

Ramseh, G. (2009). Introduction to confidence intervals. Web.

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Harrods Company’s Risk Management Essay college essay help near me

Critique of the relevance and suitability of hard or soft approach in highlighting issues faced by Harrods Harrods has unique and very positive brand values that have enabled it to attract many clients and operate very effectively thus gaining a competitive edge across the globe. By equipping its employees with unique yet very relevant and timely skills, Harrods has managed to propel itself to greater success levels.

The company has built a strong brand and reputation level due to its competitive operational mechanisms. By providing development and growth avenues for employees, it is evident that the company has successfully used relevant hard and soft approaches on the management of the needs of its clients.

The soft approach has a lot of relevance to the organization since it is more focused on retaining employees, enhancing long term sustainability of the organization and meeting any emerging business opportunities in the retail market (Armson

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The impact of Higher education expansion on Income inequality in China Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

This is an analysis of impacts of the expansion of higher education on income inequality in China.

Introduction Education is often an imperative predictor of a person’s future income (Lee 2006, 1). Basing on the Horace Mann tradition, Lee adds that education paces the society towards achieving a stable equality (1). Qian and Smyth note that the unraveling of the connection between education and income has attracted scholarly attention (3).

The need for the scholarly attention cannot be underestimated since an access to education is one of the basic human rights for everyone. From economic and social perspectives, quality education is one which facilitates an individual’s capability to increase income as well as general well-being.

In other words, education should cushion against widening income gap across the society. Qian and Smyth (2005) explain the empirical finding that irregular access to education across a populace impacts negatively income distribution and economic growth (2). Globally, China is the most populous nation. A World Bank assessment revealed that China contributes the largest portion of poverty to the world, especially those people living in the rural areas (Borooah et al. 2005, 2).

The pursuit to gain equality through education throughout the last century has had a fast diffusion of public education. In the contemporary society, education continues to be an undisputed tool for social mobility and expansion (Lee 2006 3; Wu 2007 3).

Nevertheless, the impact of education as a social bottom line can be likened to a double edged sword meaning that a scholar from a disadvantaged background can have a turnaround in regards to his/her future income. On the other hand, the turnaround depends on the investment made towards the attainment.

Arguably, this could be the underlying reason why the Chinese Government decided to adopt the Law on Nine-Year Compulsory Education in 1986 to make it possible for all children at school to have nine years of schooling (Lee 2006, 2). According to World Bank (2009) , the Education Gini coefficient based on gender and ethnicity, inequality pattern in China’s education had a positive trend from 0.57 in 1978 to 0.26 in 2004 (2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Qian and Smyth (2005) state that in China the literacy levels among the adults rose from 60 percent within a period of 40 years to 85.5 percent in 2001 (3). In 1999, the student enrollment in primary schooling of 135 million and a teacher capacity staffing of 582 000 made China boast the largest primary school program.

China has diversified the secondary schooling to offer more than just general secondary education. Others include skilled labor, specialized, adult as well as vocational schooling (Qian and Smyth 2005, 3). At the tertiary level, the number of undergraduate enrollments and individual institutions in the year 2000 increased to 5.56 million and 1 770, respectively (Qian and Smyth 2005, 3).

By the turn of the millennia, China was experiencing an unprecedented and accelerated economic growth. However, this was paralleled by alarming disparities in income. Since the Mao era up to the early 1990s, income inequalities were on the decline, however, the 1990s decade experienced a reverse trend (Fleisher et al. 2008, 2).

Wu and Perloff pinpoint that economic growth in China grew by five times while the per capita income rose by four times, but disproportionately in the favor of the affluent and those in the urban areas (2004). Difficulties in demonstrating the income inequality have been aggravated by lack of consistent and reliable income dispersion data over time. The government has made limited attempts to provide Gini index.

In China, income inequality is fuelled by geographical factors, disparities in the access to education, the recurrent informal sector as well as barriers to employment and career progression for particular groups, especially rural migrants. Wu and Perloff (2004) argue that the income inequality is higher within the rural populace as well as between the rural and urban workers (4). Nevertheless, rural-urban migration has had a marginal impact on the status quo.

Wu and Perloff (2004) further explain that urban biased policies and institutions contribute markedly to such a situation and to the increase in urban-rural inequality (5). For instance, migrants to urban areas in search for income are discouraged from gaining urban residence status due to the strict residence registration system.

This discriminates them from welfare benefits as well as better pay commonly enjoyed by the urban residents. Wu and Perloff (2004) made an attempt to explain the scenario and generated inferences by the use of the Kuznets Curves and hypothesis (4). The scenario of growing inequality amid the migration restrictions becomes complicated with shifts in population trends.

We will write a custom Essay on The impact of Higher education expansion on Income inequality in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Income inequality problems in China are related to imperfect labor market. The labor market experience the oversupply of partially educated graduates who crowd the large eastern cities like Beijing. Ning (2010) observes that the expansion of higher education has dismally contributed to the harmonization of regional income distribution (10).

China’s cities are yet to coalesce into a single common job market base that will fairly address the differences in regards to education. This explains why graduates across the country tend to work in the eastern cities even if those are not their hometowns.

Inconsistencies within the education sector are traced back to a failed rationale in the examination system as well as weaknesses in the quality screening. Quality differences within same study courses result in skill imbalances in the labor market. In order to better chances as a highly skilled individual, there is a need to invest more in education. Costs associated with skill screening discourage firms from investing.

Government Spending on Education Compared to nations of relatively the same level of per capita income and economic robustness, China has historically scored dismally with regard to investment in human capital development particularly at post secondary level. In 2004, the national budgetary spending on education was 2.79 percent of the GDP, which had always remained below 3 percent since 1992.

This is lower relative to the average of 5.1 percent achieved by other countries in the developed world (Fleisher et al. 2008 2). There was a rise in the proportion of college graduates within the population in 1992 (at 1.7 percent) compared to 1982 (0.4 percent); nevertheless, this was marginal.

As from 1999, sharp rise in government spending on education resulted in a remarked steep increase in enrollment from 7.4 percent to 21.3 percent in 1997/98 and 1998/99, respectively. However, this did not translate to a sharp increase in the proportion of college graduate vis-a-vis the population, which was as low as 5.2 percent in 2003 (Fleisher et al. 2008 3).

Investing in Higher Education in China Towards the start of the 1990s some universities in China passed some institutional policies that required students to pay a portion of tuition levy. This trend was popular until 1997 when fees were institutionalized as part of the higher education package that students had to meet.

Thereafter, higher education in China has had to be paid for by the student (Dong and Wan 2012, 2). Students have to pay for tuition even if it’s a subsidized charge. Over the time, the government made deliberate efforts to improve policies that support the paying of tuition levies. This has seen an annual rise in fees. Within the 1990s the annual per-student recurrent expenditure in public institutions of higher education rose by two-thirds to RMB 10 230 million (Levin and Xu 2005, 38).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The impact of Higher education expansion on Income inequality in China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The rise in expenditure was due to the tuition and research. Analysts forecast that making the costs of higher education lower will result in market efficacy and improved student learning. Dong and Wan (2012) observe that such measures may raise the inequality levels, however (2).

The development witnessed in higher education financing was motivated by the government’s desire to expand the sphere of education as well as domesticate the cost-sharing theory into education system (Dong and Wan 2012, 3). If the government insists on not interfering in the sphere of education as part of the expansion, then education will cease to be public; it will only be accessed by those from the upper class. This will not only result in educational inequality but also income inequality.

Decomposing the Impacts of Expansion of Higher Education on Income Inequality in China Population Effect

The higher education expansion program was intended to enhance internal efficiency (Levin and Xu 2005, 52). Although China is expanding its education across the country, the ability to optimize the opportunity widely varies in different financial limits and regional areas.

Actually, the trend is exacerbated by a possible vicious cycle that exists between income inequality and education inequality (Ning 2010, 5). Trends in the access to higher education since the expansion of education reforms in 1989 signal a rise in inequality. The regional differences between the east and west better explain this. In the year 2007, college graduates in Qinghai province located in the Country’s west were 15 483, which is relatively lower than 242 617 in Beijing in the east (Ning 2010, 5).

Based on these figures, more employment opportunities will be allocated to those in the east than the west. Considering that labor migrations are in favor of flowing to the east than to the west, the west remains economically stagnated due to lower level of education attained by people, thus offering lower remunerated jobs.

Actually, this is highly evident and likely when subjected to the Kuznets Curve and hypothesis, where the peculiarities of various inequalities are better explained. Ning (2010) cites that China’s public education has hardly become efficient to foster economic growth as well as bridge wage gap (6).

Labor Choice Effect

Students from disadvantaged background particularly those discriminated through social stratification hardly benefit from expansion of higher education. Ning (2010) highlights that the poor were not beneficiaries of educational expansion even with the market approach rolled out in the 1990s (6).

This justifies the fact that the education choice is not an obvious cause. It is a necessity that students from poor background have to go to school in order to reverse their fate, but this is derailed by economic hurdles that deny any opportunity to maximize on that potential. Eventually, education inequality through social stratification further widens the economic and income inequalities.

Even though graduates from poor background have attained higher education, they may not succeed in getting jobs that are well remunerated because of the reduced social capital network. In order to avert this hurdle, these students opt for a higher degree of education to imply their professional competence.

In other words, they resort to over-education. Over-educated people are likely to originate from humble backgrounds, thus switching labor markets.

In fact, over educated students tend to migrate to affluent regions of China which suppresses in turn the growth of local human resource capital in such areas. Lee (2006) applies the classical human capital theory to explain the net impact of high education levels, the migration trends and the ultimate outcome (16).

Majors at universities, such as finance, for example, enroll more students not because of the ability to provide the students with innovative ideas, high rates, etc., but due to perceived skewed income distribution across the labor market. Based on this, there is no motivational fee for skilled workers within the technical or any other training, thus the standards of education in this type of higher education are average, if not substandard. In addition, the labor market experiences a shortfall of technical experts.

Besides, the job market is flooded with graduates in humanity studies and social sciences. In other words, the number of students that enter such departments to meet the demand of labour workers in corresponding fields leads to an across-the-board income differences. Levin and Xu (2005) note that at the turn of the millennia the national market supply for graduates with a degree in Philosophy was the highest (50).

Others that followed respectively were law, history, science, engineering and medicine. Employment opportunities for students of agriculture, education, economics and literature were hard to come by. In 2001, unemployment rates stood at 3.6 percent up from 2.3 percent in 1992 (Levin and Xu 2005, 50).

Although the literacy and higher education training requirements have been met for some labor segments even beyond market demand, this has come at an expense of not only other professions, but of the market as a whole. Ning (2010) implies that this state of affairs results in semi-skilled graduates being supplied to the market, who at the end may not be able to upgrade the technology (6). In other words, the skill competitiveness has been compromised.

In such a scenario, the productivity of the labor market becomes questionable and meeting the revenue generation target is impossible. This leads to inequality whereby those in the monopolized industries are better remunerated due to high monopoly rents.

Inasmuch as such industries do not obviously require highly trained or qualified employees, employers tend to set high academic requirements for recruits. In the end, the talent may not be rewarded since the employer focuses on the academic qualification as the yardstick, which may lock out those not privileged with better schooling opportunities especially from disadvantaged backgrounds.

Price (Return Rate) Effect

Ning (2010) explains the relationship between income inequalities and the level of higher education is attained via the convex return context (7). In such a context, the educational attainment is directly proportional to the return outcome. Previous empirical studies in Mexico show that changes in inequalities are driven by adjustment in earning across educational groups.

In the 1980s, the increase in inequality was as a result of convex return context. During this decade, income inequalities favored those with relatively higher education attainment across the population. With the expansion of higher education, China is experiencing an almost similar scenario.

This is exemplified in the return rates for schooling independently as well as along the different educational groups. Those with higher education attainment are being favored.

This skews the income distribution more when the higher education attainment is not readily translated into productivity resulting to possible exploitation of people with lower education levels. At the end, the return rates become pegged to academic rewards other than skills and productivity. Lower education attainment is rewarded through the absolute income increase.

It is likely that if poor students fail to achieve an adequate return on investment on schooling, then the income gaps will continue to increase. Often in developing countries, the occupation level will be dictated by education.

In a relational society where social network is necessary to penetrate government jobs, there is no guarantee that poor students with high education level will make it into the government sector. Ning (2010) states that the education level of parents influences the wage earnings of the children on the basis of human capital accumulation as well as possibilities to find a job (8).

Differences of one’s abilities, luck as well as adjustments during schooling may influence how individuals with the same education attainment experience income inequality. Increase in income pegged on education level favors candidates with unobservable characteristics that rank them well above within the conditional wage distribution, Ceteris paribus.

Ning (2010) cites that this revolves around the non-cognitive skill (9). This has close ties with the observation that students from disadvantaged background attain education, but their job prospects are not immediately promising.

Income inequality occurs when overeducated people have to contend with incommensurate wage. Ning (2010) observes that in the recent years graduates have not been unable to get jobs in China (9). Graduates had to switch to jobs below their educational background. To a greater extent, these inflicted their return on education. This disapproves that over-education is an end to the persisting income inequality.

Expansion of higher education makes income distribution susceptible to inequality outcomes when the quality of education translates to compromised returns to education. When college enrollment is not proportionate to schooling resources (education resource per capita), it is predictable that quality of education will decline. Ning (2010) observes that skill quality in the decade before education expansion scored better than thereafter (10).

The employer suffers expertise deficits translating to income losses due to unqualified graduates. Levin and Xu (2005) suggest some improvements that ought to accompany the expansion of higher education to sustain quality (37). There should be a national effort to devote and diversify resources and funding for higher education.

There is a need to put in place progressive regulations for higher education against which institutions can be evaluated as well as be held accountable. It should be demonstrated that quality of learning in higher education is dignified even with expansion in quantity. Levin and Xu (2005) observe that there is a perception that a fully fledged university in China offers almost every professional specialties (54). In other countries of equal magnitude to China like the USA, this is not usually so.

Levin and Xu (2005) regard Yale and Princeton as top universities that currently don’t offer some appealing majors, yet their reputation remains stable and intact attracting and training qualified graduates (54).

With reference to China, Ning (2010) analyzed the impact of education on the employees’ future income. It was revealed that when wage was a dependent variable, the rate of return to education was 7.9 percent (14). When the annual earning was the dependent variable, the return rate was higher at 11.3 percent (Ning 2010, 14).

Lastly, according to Lee (2006), implications of earning inequalities related to return rate effect as well as labor choice effect loom wider than population (23).

Conclusion Initially, scholars argued that expansion of education would increase attendance rates of schooling in due course; consequently, this would result in a decline in disparities in educational opportunities since the attendance rates of children from disadvantaged backgrounds will grow considerably in regards to the upper class. However, this early belief has been disputed a lot by the modern day scholars. The planned expansion of education has been considered as a switch from the elitist to mass education.

It is evident that the level and distribution of education are key subsets of income distribution. Gregorio and Lee (2002) conclude that a rise in the average level of education among the population in China has a balancing effect on earning distribution (406). This has a Kuznets-inverted U relationship especially when the government economizes on the social expenditure.

Ning (2010) also states that the inverted U relationship between income and expansion of education in China has been demonstrated using macro-data (4). Lee (2006) explains that the Kuznets Curve scenario where the level of higher education rises with an expanding economy resulting in rise in education inequalities that stabilize in reaching the threshold (14).

Gregorio and Lee (2002) during their cross-country analysis of the relationship between education and income inequality note that policymakers perceive education spending as a powerful tool for addressing the income inequality, however, it is not that obvious (395).

Nevertheless, there remains a positive connection sand link between education inequality and income inequality, especially when education inequality is measured on the basis of schooling variance. Trends in the return rate on education will eventually dictate whether the impact of higher education attainment of income inequality is either positive or negative.

Considering the stratified nature of China’s society, the expansion of education may not necessarily have the same impact on populace equality as the distribution of educational opportunities will have. Wu (2007) observes that during the expansion of education in China, the Gini Coefficient (that assesses inequality across a populace) rose to 0.449 in 2005 from 0.317 in 1978 (5).

The approach of distribution of educational opportunities takes care of the distribution of scarce resources that are imperative for the education system, which allows for the equalizing of the other fundamentals of the social structure across the populace.

In the case of China, expansion of education impacted the distribution of educational opportunities by introducing the market approach into the education, thus widening the gap of inequality on the basis of access and distribution of economic resources.

Lee (2006) notes that the net impact of the expansion of education on income inequality follows the Classical Economic Theory (14). Furthermore, the expansion lacked a clarified equalizing impact through unevenly and unequally distributed opportunities. He further faults the market approach fronted through policy reforms as intended to widen the inter-provincial educational inequality in higher education.

In re-dressing the inequality issues, Lee (2006) suggests developing stratified collection and redistribution of educational resources strategy, as well as breaking down structural social barriers that would allow more mobility (15). He applies the Nee’s theory of transition economy to explain the inter-provincial inequalities that arise when the market is used for education expansion in China.

He further explains that the introduction of market approach into the expansion of education by the Chinese government was intended to bring on-board the efficiency of market mechanisms, as well as liberalize the redistribution of resources to individual level after the attempts of the central government to execute re-distribution modalities failed to a greater extent. This raises the worry on whether the government of China has abandoned the quest for ameliorating the inequality difference.

Levin and Xu (2005) observe that there has been no clear pattern from studies on the linkages that exist among China’s wage rates, expansion of higher education, current level of development as well as graduate employment (49).

In conclusion, Lee (2006) states that unless the impact of the expansion of education is clearly understood, it is difficult to forecast future trends of income inequality, thus formulate appropriate policy that will curb the negative growth (1). The consequences are huge, considering that policy implication is favoring the rise in tuition costs and fees for higher education, yet students anticipate having an ultimate return on investment from their education.

References Borooah, Vani, Bjorn Gustafsson, and Li Shi. “China and India: Income Inequality and Poverty North and South of the Himalayas.” Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 2005. http://www.csh-delhi.com/resources/conference Liberalization/BoroahGugtassonShi.pdf

Dong, Haiying, and Xuehong Wan. “Higher Education Tuition and Fees in China: Implications and Impacts on Affordability and Educational Equity.” Current Issues in Education 15, no. 1 (2012): 1-10.

Fleisher, Belton, Haizheng Li, and Min Qiang Zhao. “Human capital, economic growth, and regional inequality in China.” IZA Discussion Papers, Econstor, 2008.

Gregorio, Jose De, and Jong-Wha Lee. “Education and income inequality: New Evidence from Cross-Country Data.” Review of Income and Wealth 48, no. 3 (2002): 395-416, http://www.roiw.org/2002/395.pdf.

Lee, Min-Dong Paul. “Widening Gap of Educational Opportunity? A Longitudinal Study of Educational Inequality in China.” Research Paper, United Nations University, 2006. http://www.wider.unu.edu/stc/repec/pdfs/rp2006/rp2006-66.pdf.

Levin, Henry, and Zeyu Xu. “Issues in the Expansion of Higher Education in the People’s Republic of China.” China Review, 5, no.1 (2005): 33-59, ftp.iza.org/dp6550.pdf.

Ning, Guangjie. “Can Educational Expansion Improve Income Inequality in China? Evidences from the CHNS 1997 and 2006 Data.” IZA Discussion Papers, IZA, 2010. http://ftp.iza.org/dp5148.pdf.

Qian, Xiaolei, and Russell Smyth. “Measuring Regional Inequality Of Education In China: Widening Coast-Inland Gap Or Widening Rural-Urban Gap?” ABERU Discussion Paper, Monash university, 2005. http://www.buseco.monash.edu.au/units/dru/papers/working-papers-05/1205-xl-china.pdf.

World Bank. “Literature Review on Equity and Access to Tertiary Education in the East Asia Region.” Literature Review, World Bank, 2009. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/278200-1099079877269/547664-1099079956815/547670-1276537814548/WorldBank_EAR_Equity_LitReview.pdf.

Wu, Xiaogang. “Economic Transition, School Expansion, and Educational Inequality in China, 1990-2000.” Research Report, Population Studies Center, 2007. http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr07-627.pdf.

Wu, Ximing, and Jeffrey Perloff. “China’s Income Distribution and Inequality.” Repec, 2004. repec.org/esNASM04/up.30985.1075445708.pdf

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Hunting on Whales Proposal essay help

Introduction The gap in reasoning when it comes to utilizing the concept of “scientific research” as a means of justifying the hunting of various whale species by Japanese whalers is the obvious fact that you do not need to hunt 500 or more whales in order to examine the current status of the species (2000, 2006).

This obvious fact makes it all the more apparent that the “scientific research” being conducted by the Japanese is set more along the lines of satisfying local demand for whale meat than it is for preserving species.

On the hand, section 2 of Article VIII of the convention on whaling set by the IWC (International Whaling Commission) specifically states that whales caught under special permits for scientific research should be processed and disposed of in a practical fashion that is in accordance with the directions given by the issuer of the permit.

What this means is that whalers who catch whales for “scientific research” are under the legal obligation to dispose of the excess parts of the whale in a practical fashion, in this particular case it involves the selling the whale meat. Thus, from a legal perspective, the act of selling whale meat gained through “scientific research” is perfectly legal.

Other arguments which back the act of hunting whales involve a variety of reasons ranging from the necessity of adequate monitoring of whale populations, population estimates which indicate that several whale species are well within the range for sustainable hunting, to thinly veiled accusations that other governments and societies have no right in interfering with the cultural heritage and traditions within Japan of which whaling is a part of (Kuchment, 2000).

It is due to these conflicting viewpoints that it must be questioned whether any form of whaling, scientific or not, should be outright banned or if the act of whale hunting by the Japanese is justified based on traditional heritage and scientific data.

The act of whaling by the Japanese should be prevented since they do not own exclusive rights to whales and are subject to the concept of international joint ownership of marine species.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research question

Should the act of whaling, scientific or not, be outright banned or is the act of whale hunting by the Japanese justified based on traditional heritage and scientific data?

Thesis Statement

The act of whaling by the Japanese should be prevented since they do not own exclusive rights to whales and are subject to the concept of international joint ownership of marine species.

Outline Arguments to be presented

Cultural Traditions and Scientific Research Vs International Joint Ownership

While Japan justifies the hunting of whales under the concepts of cultural traditions and scientific research, the country does not take into consideration the concept of international joint ownership of marine species (Stevenson, Gordon,

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Problems in Geology of Eldorado Springs Report college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Problem definition

Review of the existing literature

Methodology

Collection/ Analysis of data

Conclusion

Recommendations

References

This report discusses and interprets mountain front, foothills and the plains geology of Eldorado springs (Gerdner, 9). It gives a description of the soil formation in the area. The map and tables give detailed data of the area.

Problem definition What is the guide to engineering soil in a site?

Review of the existing literature The Eldorado springs mapping of landslide deposit, and specific surficial deposits, field evaluation of engineering characteristics of each unit of map, auger drilling, sampling and laboratory testing were done in connection to the present study to give the technical information (Scott 1965).

Methodology Relative strength and soil constituency were measured by the resistance to soil penetration. Data on soil resistance and penetration were then compiled in terms of standard penetration resistance (Lambe 1960).

A hollow cylindrical tool, 2 inches in outside diameter, was driven into the subsoil by 140-pound hammer. The fall of the hammer is 30 inches. The standard penetration resistance was measured by the number of blows of the hammer required to drive the sampling tool 1 foot into the subsoil.

Collection/ Analysis of data Table showing the relation of bearing strength to standard penetration resistance together with relative density and constituency;

Standard Penetration resistance of sand and gravel Less than 4 4-10 10-30 30-50 Over 50 Relative density of sand and gravel Very loose Loose Medium Dense Very Dense Standard Penetration resistance of clay and silt Less than 2 2-4 4-8 8-15 15-30 30-100 Over 100 Relative density of clay and silt Very soft Soft Medium Stiff Very Stiff Hard Very hard The results of PVC test of geology of engineering map units

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More PVC Rating Category Swell Index(Pounds per square foot) Less than 2 Non-critical Less than 1700 2-4 Marginal 1700-3200 4-6 Critical 3200-4700 Greater than 6 Very Critical Over 4700 The above table shows the PVC rating category and the swell index as established by Lambe (Lambe 1960)

The dominantly clay shale formation ( Greenhorn limestone, Carlike shale, smoky Hill member of the Niobrara formation, and Pierre shale excluding the Hygiene Sandstone are Member are subdivided and regrouped into 4 engineering and map units (Scott 1965). The four rocks are classified according to litho logy and potential of the rocks to swell when wetted.

Conclusion The report is detailed as it gives the complete information regarding soil constituency and its relative mass. This is a good guide to engineering soil in this area of Eldorado springs (Lahee 1961).

Recommendations The condition are unsatisfactory where the impervious rock and the water table is within 7 feet of the surface where the conditions of the rock structure are, such that affluent may emerge as seeps on the surface (Watts 1967).

References Brodie, K 2007, Structural terms including fault rock terms: Recommendations by the IUGS Sub commission on the Systematic of Metamorphic Rocks. Web.

Compton, RR 1985, Geology in the Field. Web.

Lahee, FH 1961, Field Geology, 6th ed. Web.

We will write a custom Report on Problems in Geology of Eldorado Springs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lambe, TW 1960, The characteristics and identification of expansive soils, Federal Housing Technical Studies Department, New York.

Scott, CR1965, Geological and Biostratigraphic map of the Pierre, U.S Geology Survey, NewYork.

Watts, JD 1967, Geology of the Eldorado Springs quadrangle, Colorado, U. S Geology Survey, New York.

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Retail Services Marketing: McDonalds Report essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Evolution of strategies

Current marketing strategies

The organization’s 7Ps

Challenges facing the organization

Recommendations

References

McDonalds has been ranked as one of the largest corporations in the world among the global restaurants that deal with fast food. The company was first established in 1948 in California by Dick and Mac (Gilbert 1999, p.2). it has chains of stores in more than 119 countries all over the world. From a careful analysis of statistical details, the company serves more than 68 million people daily (Gilbert 1999, p.2).

Notably, the company has experienced tremendous growth worldwide since it primarily deals with fast foods such as shakes, desserts, hamburgers, chicken and cheeseburgers. Research has revealed that the company has been able to accommodate numerous consumers’ preferences and tastes in their menu (Derdak

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Writer’s Choice Essay writing essay help

Read: DJ Pangburn, “Schools are using software to help pick who gets in. What could go wrong?” (https://www.fastcompany.com/90342596/schools-are-quietly-turning-to-ai-to-help-pick-who-gets-in-what-could-go-wrong)

Prompt: Like many other institutions, colleges and universities are starting to use predictive analytics tools to make a variety of decisions, including whom to offer admission. As DJ Pangburn reports in the article above, proponents of these tools argue that they offer powerful means of avoiding human bias in admissions processes. Critics make the opposite case: often, they argue, data-driven tools perpetuate bias, while giving the decisions reached a veneer of mathematical neutrality and objectivity.

On what basis—using which criteria—do you think college admissions decisions ought to be made? Which do you have more confidence in to reach fair admissions decisions: human admissions officers, admissions algorithms, or some combination of the two? Why? Your reflection should be around 200-400 words.

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Aggression and media influence Essay college essay help: college essay help

Introduction Media plays a major role in our society today. From character development to the risk of losing social values, many lives are significantly impacted by the media. Research on violent media content has revealed that media influence promotes aggression and violent behavior among victims who get exposed to such content.

These conclusions are commonly made when an analysis is based on television, film and violent video games (Anderson et al., 2003).

This paper explores the concept of aggression and media influence, by investigating the impact of violent media content like horror movies on views, thoughts, behavior and their viewpoint on the issue of media influence. Importantly, the discussion is divided into two sections, addressing ways of curbing media influence and a description of everyday life examples of aggression and media influence in the society.

What can be done to reduce the likelihood of aggression and media influences?

Due to the laxity in media regulation and advancement in technology, circulation of media content has become quite easy. For instance, one can access any movie or song online from any destination around the world. This has been augmented by information and technological advancements, which have taken place in recent years.

With the global use of mobile phones, which are web-enabled, people can access any information with minimum or no restrictions (Anderson et al., 2003). This, therefore, means that some strategies have to be considered, aimed at preventing the impact of violent media on youths and the entire population.

Notably, the influence of media widely depends on the level of exposure. In other words, people who are highly exposed to violent movies, television programs and other media aspects are more likely to be affected than those with a limited access.

Based on this argument, it suffices to mention that limiting the exposure of children to negative media content can be a way of reducing media influence on in the society today. Essentially, this limitation involves several organs, including parents, media houses and the government. Parents have a major role in controlling and determining what other family members get exposed to.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In other words, it is the responsibility of heads of families to identify television programs, movie series and video games that are fit for consumption, especially by young people, who remain vulnerable to violent media influence (Ostrov, Gentile

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A Review of “Lyrics Abbey” by Leila Aboulela Essay (Book Review) college essay help online

This paper is aimed at reviewing the novel Lyrics Abbey written by Leila Aboulela. This book was published in 2011. To a great extent, the work reflects significant social and political changes within the Arab world. The author focuses on the life of a well-to-do Sudanese family and the way in which these people are affected by the political transformation of the society.

Moreover, Leila Aboulela explores the internal conflict within the family, in particular, the opposition between the older and younger wives of Mahmoud Abuzeid. Overall, this novel centers on the idea of change and tradition. It shows how individual can adjust to new norms, rules and conditions while remaining faithful to one’s culture and tradition. This is the main thesis that this review will elaborate and illustrate.

From the very start, Leila Aboulela gives the readers some insights into the structure of a Sudanese family. By looking at the family tree presented at the very beginning, one can clearly see that the Abuzeid is a patriarchic family which is headed by Mahmous Abuzeid (Aboulela 2011, p. 1).

However, the readers can also see that this family is not entirely secluded from the outside world. For instance, at the beginning, Mahmud talks about the Korean War and its impact on cotton prices (Aboulela, 2011, p. 2). This example shows that the members of this family may be devoted to the local community, but they are also aware about the outside forces that can influence them.

Thus, Leila Aboulela demonstrates in a very subtle way that the family is not oblivious of changes. However, the main issue is that they do not try to understand the causes of the political upheaval in the Sudanese society and their consequences.

It should be noted that the action on the eve of Sudanese independence from Great Britain and Egypt (Levy

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