Riordan Manufacturing Information Systems Essay Cheap Essay Help

Currently, Riordan Manufacturing has to improve its use of information systems in order to enhance its organizational performance and meet the needs of clients. This paper is aimed at discussing the project that should enable the company to raise its efficiency.

It is vital to look at such aspects as the execution of this project, the management of the team, empowerment of employees, and evaluation. These are the main elements that should be considered, and they are vital for the achievement of the organizational goals.

The formation and management of the team requires several steps. First of all, it is necessary to include people with different skills because they can better evaluate various risks and identify the most optimal strategies that the company can adopt (Larson


24 Hour Fitness Worldwide Inc. Implementation Plan Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Company background and organizational mission

Backgrounds and accomplishments of key anticipated leadership

Review of strategies and recommendation for the best strategy


Implementation plan

Risk management plan




Company background and organizational mission 24 Hour Fitness Worldwide Inc. is based in California and was established in the year 1983 for the purposes of providing fitness services to the population. The company is focused in providing 24 Hour fitness services seven days a week. The company was originally started by Mark Mastrov, and then later the company merged with investment-banking firm known as McCown Deleeuw and Company in early 1990s.

The year 2006 saw the company acquire some more centers within Asia which enabled them control significant market share within the region. 24 Hour Fitness Worldwide operates over three hundred and fifty fitness centers within various American States. The company has recorded significant improvement in their financial data within the last decade with over 7% revenue increase experienced in 2006 (24 Hour Fitness 2012).

This has ensured 24 Hour Fitness a good financial security necessary for expansion purposes. Aim of 24 Hour Fitness Company is to provide competitive services as way of life for all population categories from young to elderly people. Their value statements revolve around key points involving innovation and development of unique business practices (24 Hour Fitness 2012).

Backgrounds and accomplishments of key anticipated leadership The company developed strong corporate culture which has enabled them operate fitness companies amongst various population segment making fitness appreciated for life across all groups of individuals. The position of Chief Executive Officer was assumed by Carl Liebert III in the year 2006. He has contributed towards strategic expansion of the company within international and domestic markets.

This was made possible through implementation of appropriate marketing principles and strategies. The company established different types of clubs operating within the U.S. region. Each club offers unique specialized services such cardiovascular, free weights, basketball training, swimming pool as well as tanning salon (24 Hour Fitness 2012).

Marc Mastrov has worked in the industry for fairly good number of years, hence the extensive knowledge that he has acquired enables creative innovation making the company acquire considerable market share. Such strong leadership skills capable of producing innovative ideas are required of every manager within fitness industry.

The strength of corporate leadership headed by Mastrov within 24 Hour Fitness Worldwide has contributed tremendously towards the company’s success. Mastrov’s style of leadership can be described as visionary, articulate, focused and non-substitutable. This has enabled continued upgrade and consistent development of cohesive organizational culture, where all employees are recognized for their performance.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At the same time, Mastrov has enabled high employee retention rates and development of good relationship amongst employees. The manager has also learned the art of satisfying consumer demands and needs by use of other success factors such as company culture and vision (24 Hour Fitness 2012).

Review of strategies and recommendation for the best strategy Cost Leadership Strategy is one of the widely used business strategies within the company. The strategy majorly focuses on meeting consumer demands at affordable prices using available equipments. The management of 24 Hour Fitness Company ensures that their services satisfy most basic fitness needs appropriate for even the elderly.

In order to reach larger market segment, their marketing strategy focuses on offering multiple fitness centers within same region, which enables them to capitalize on economies of scale while keeping costs as low as possible. This calls for efficient management services capable of generating high profits.

24 Hour Fitness Worldwide applies the use of creativity in their marketing campaigns. The company has developed one of the strongest brand images within domestic and international market. Such positioning grants the company best opportunities required in controlling larger market share. The use of experienced management team ensures that productivity remains high through development of good relations between the company and the market.

At the same time, 24 Hour Fitness Company applies unique means of marketing campaigns which involves use of iconic names found within sports and fitness industry such as Shaquille O’Neal. Such strategy influences consumers’ choice since they would rather prefer to be identified with professional figures. It is also possible for the company to capture new market segments through the use of such marketing strategies.

Additionally, 24 Hour Fitness Company utilizes the use of sponsorship activities during global games such as Olympics. In such cases they’ve always opened sponsorship accounts with big losers as well as winners which have ultimately granted the company countless sponsorship opportunities (Mintzberg et al., 2003).

Recommendation For marketing strategy to work efficiently, management of 24 Hour Fitness should consider gender balance. There is necessity of including a female fitness figure, capable of dealing with females within their various areas of fitness. This will ensure that all the consumers within each market segment are catered for, since female consumers will be motivated by such female figures.

We will write a custom Essay on 24 Hour Fitness Worldwide Inc. Implementation Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such recommendation should ensure incorporation of one young female sports-lady recognized within her area of specialization; either football or soccer. Such strategy enables many customers to compliment many current professionals within various fields of sports.

However, 24 Hour Fitness Company should ensure that such professional figures, are active within their fields and are able to re-align their attitude and responses to match the company’s corporate culture. Despite the benefits gained from such strategy, the implementation process increases level of marketing costs.

The marketing campaign should be extended beyond the current market segments to target passenger terminals. Such areas are usually rich with consumers creating an opportunity for fitness centers. However, in such areas, 24 Hour Fitness Worldwide should ensure maximum security measures are undertaken especially within gates of their centers. Inclusion of such facilities especially within airport terminals assists in reducing waiting time.

Implementation plan The company, 24 Hour Fitness Worldwide, coordinates a number of activities within their premises which has ensured their strong position within the market. Marketing department should ensure that company’s relationship with consumers is formidable for the purposes of sales improvement. Generally, there exists expansive consumer base both domestically and internationally, providing the company with opportunities on their service deliveries.

At the same time, sales representatives would be used in the process of reaching those within crowded areas, offices and passenger terminals. This will ensure creation of public awareness on importance of fitness as part of promoting overall health amongst the population.

Such services can be provided through social media or providing customers within various offices with brochures having detailed information on kind of facilities, qualified personnel and services offered. During implementation process, management under the leadership of Mastrov should fully rely on improving quality of services. This can be done through providing consumers with quality time.

Such kind of improvement requires incorporation of upgraded equipments using modern technology. Inclusion of new processes within marketing system and strategies will ensure that the company is well established within densely populated centers. However, location of centers as well as the nature of space utilized determines number of customers that can be accommodated per training session.

24 Hour Fitness management systems should at the same time ensure adequate provision of employee wages within various centers. This ensures maintenance of high motivation standards amongst the staff. In the process of establishing such fitness centers, the company should factor-in average income per person within various target population.

Not sure if you can write a paper on 24 Hour Fitness Worldwide Inc. Implementation Plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This calls for adoption and application of criterion with the ability of estimating possible economic status of target markets within international market

Risk management plan Operations within Fitness industry basically focuses on social and physical well-being of various individuals. The 24 Hour Fitness Worldwide, focuses on personally known social and health benefits. Most published articles on health focuses on consequences of having poor physical exercises. One of the major risks faced within the industry is price fluctuations. Most fitness companies provide services at cheap and affordable prices due to consumer behaviour.

Issues surrounding economic recession affect the business within some regions hence calling for frequent renovation practices on equipments. The management at some point discovered a trend which showed sustained growth and better long-term prospects for such enterprises compared to other business enterprises. Such discoveries echoes true sentiments for companies involved in fitness business within the industry.

Extensive research should be done on effective marketing campaigns and associated growths. This begs the question on various performance levels of some specific companies during economic recession. There has been significant rise in the number of small-sale fitness centres due to increase in customer base and dominance by large companies on specific market segments.

However, as one of the best Fitness Company within United States region, 24 Hour Fitness Company takes pride on the high technological and modernized level of services they offer.

The management should establish an investigation team capable of looking into crucial matters hence come-up with concrete solutions capable of countering various failures encountered in the process of providing customers with satisfactory services based on technical dimension.

Several business organizations within Fitness industry consider marketing as one of the most fundamental functions required for the purposes of meeting consumer requirements and business objectives. Achievement of 24 Hour Fitness business objectives depends on the nature of renovations and services considered when undertaking marketing and management duties.

This ensures provision of service based on the company’s vision. Companies within Fitness industry sell similar products and services leading to shift within total supply curves of services. Similarity in the kind of services provided also presents a considerable challenge to business operations. However, the levels of performance have remained consistent within ‘24 Hour Fitness Worldwide’ boundaries of operations.

The existing nature of competition has contributed towards high demand for services hence calling for high levels of maintenance for the purposes of increasing market share. At the same time, it is important for business entity to recognize some of the crucial elements of marketing mix such as promotion which ensures organization’s survival within such competitive markets (24 Hour Fitness 2012).

It is important to establish efficient trends based on consumer buying patterns and their psychological patterns. Delivery of efficient services calls for keen choice on relevant services capable of full satisfaction on consumer needs within company’s premises. Mitigation of the risk on consumer responses requires that the company invests in consumer behaviour research which enables retrieval of extensive data on consumer spending patterns.

Management decisions are required in the process of establishing strong base within international market. This is since various regions have some dominating factors which might affect smooth operation of the business. These include political instability and legislative requirements within some countries. The company should strive to identify various areas where they perform best and capitalize on opportunities present.

Service branding appears to be a very important factor owing to the fact that consumers normally make their judgment based on their past experiences and at times referrals. In such cases, management of 24 Hour Fitness Worldwide should ensure that their services are attractive and effective.

Such strategy targets increase in the number of customers, and enhancement of their loyalty to the company. The main focus is retention of clients both within the region and beyond hence consistent increase in market share for company’s services. Capturing attention of potential consumers should remain prime focus of the company.

The company’s portfolio processes should at the same time focus on offering wide variety of services with based on different marketing considerations. However, not all services are given same approach, since the company serves such a diverse population comprising of people from different backgrounds.

Budget 24 Hour Fitness financial strategies for new ventures should be addressed based on major contribution towards company’s objectives. Performance on various services and acquisitions should contribute towards provision of consumer services. Quality services are offered at affordable prices hence a priority for the management team.

CASH FLOW Pre start up ($) Q1 ($) Q2 Q3 Q4 Income 59000 59400 59400 59400 VAT on sales of services 8787 8847 8847 8847 Consumables 8916 8916 8916 8916 VAT on sales 1328 1328 1328 1328 Equipments Purchased 7,000 6000 6000 6000 6000 Consumables purchased 3,000 4000 4000 4000 4000 Revenue overheads Rent 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 Rates 5000 5000 5000 Heat


Misuse of Steroids Essay essay help

Introduction This persuasive speech purposes at persuading my esteemed audience that it is extremely easy to acquire steroids. It is necessary that measures are taken to avoid nonmedical use.

In my view, utilising steroids is an underestimation to the natural talent, and an abuse as well. It is worth pointing out that steroids are permitted as regulated substances, easily accessible to the public, and still unacceptable according to the law (Stocco and Barbara, 230).

Therefore, there is a need to forbid the use of steroids when not prescribed medically. Teens are the major age group who misuse steroids, purposely for getting to an edge. Basically, steroids are used in all arenas; professional sports as well as secondary schools. It is worth noting that although they bear no side effects, they bring about grave medical complications (Murphy, 780).

The integrity of players is terribly ruined if they use steroids.

Body Thesis Statement- Steroids utilization in sports damages the view and trustworthiness of the players

According to evidence given by Alex Rodriguez in the year 2009, there are several players who have tested positive to steroid use. This evidence negatively affected their image and home run awards. In the contemporary world, people engaged in professional sports owing to their innate abilities. However, the current world feels cheated and do not rely on these athletes any longer.

Transition Statement

Professional sport players who use steroids end up ruining their image.

Thesis Statement – The use of steroids is necessary for athletes’ recovery. For instance, steroid use quickens recovery after surgery

This argument that athletes require supervised drugs may be true. However, it is extremely easy to obtain steroids for non- medical use. Steroids can be obtained easily over the internet, and used for non- medical purposes (Kincl and Iedel, 683).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The acquisition of steroids is usually unregulated. Any person, if willing, can acquire steroids from the various internet websites. Some examples of these websites include and (Wingfield and Donald, 320).

There are numerous side effects associated with the use of steroids. Extreme side effects include cancer and heart failure.

Transition Statement

Having considered how steroids are linked to image, ease of accessibility, and the side impacts, there is a need to assess their practical utilization and how lives are influenced.

Thesis Statement – The use of steroids among the teenagers has increased tremendously, making some abuse it (Brenner 780)

Using steroids so as to acquire a competitive edge contradicts the natural talent. Through engaging with steroids, majority of teenagers are usually unaware that they are hurting themselves. Overconsumption of steroids results to detrimental side effects. In some instances, death is the ultimate result. It is extremely sad to see an individual risk health, all in the name of being a superstar.

Examples of two Sixteen Year Olds who Abused Steroids

Taylor Hooton had the dreams of becoming an exceptional pitcher. He felt pressuarised to achieve this. For him to accomplish this dream, be decided to use steroids. He often felt depressed, and when the pressure was too much, he opted to commit suicide.

The steroids Taylor used were obtained from a local gym, and definitely, their use was non- medical use. Kyle Braid, a football player, also committed suicide when the pressure was too much. He used steroids without anybody’s knowledge, which resulted to his death.

Conclusion The major problem with steroids is that it greatly affects the lives of youths negatively. These youths have the dreams of becoming superstars, but this dream is cut short when they commit suicide or tainted image. Steroids lead to critical health problems. It is important to use them for medical use.

We will write a custom Essay on Misuse of Steroids specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Brenner, Peter, et al. “Radioimmunoassay method for six steroids in human plasma.” Steroids 22.6 (1973): 775-794. Print.

Kincl, Benagiano, and Iedel Angee. “Sustained release hormonal preparations. 1. Diffusion of various steroids through polymer membranes.” Steroids 11.5 (1968): 673. Print.

Murphy, Berna. “Some studies of the protein-binding of steroids and their application to the routine micro and ultramicro measurement of various steroids in body fluids by competitive protein-binding radioassay.” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology


North Korea’s Policy Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help

Introduction Within the past few months it has been evident that North Korea has put the North East Asian and South East Asian regions on edge due to its threat of attacking South Korea, turning Seoul into what it has described as a sea of fire and launching a nuclear strike on either nearby U.S. bases or on the United States itself.

The country has pursued a distinctly anti-U.S. stance and has reportedly developed a weapons program that is meant to discourage any attacks on its soil creating a situation where war is a distinct possibility within the next few weeks.

Despite the considerable level of tension in the region, this paper assumes that war is not imminent given that North Korea’s actions are meant not to attack any foreign entity such as South Korea, the U.S. or any of the bases of the U.S. in Asia but to ensure the continued survival of the state in the form of the authoritarian regime that is currently in power.

It is based on this assumption that this paper will examine the domestic agenda of North Korea, its foreign policy agenda and the foreign policy of its closest ally, China. Such an examination will reveal that tensions within the region are nothing more than rhetoric and that it is unlikely that China would support its ally given its current foreign policy.

Reason behind North Korea’s Domestic Policy Agenda From a trade and international relations perspective, it is at times assumed that North Korea’s apparent pursuit of nuclear weapons and its bellicose rhetoric aimed at the U.S. seemingly reflects a regime that does not abide by logic and rationality as the cornerstones of its foreign relations policy. However, it should be noted that under the theory of realism one of the primary concerns of the state is survival.

While it may seem that North Korea’s actions are apparently detrimental towards the state’s continued survival, this is actually far from the truth. What this section will show is how North Korea’s bellicose rhetoric, combined with its pursuit for nuclear weapons, is in fact a method that has been intentionally implemented to control its population rather than as an actual means of aggression against other states.

In his analysis of North Korea, Moore (2006) explains that its political structure, governing bodies and various councils are heavily steeped in the policies that were put into practice by North Korea’s founder Kim Il Sung.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many of those in power are conservative traditionalists who view the concept of “liberal change” as detrimental towards the continued survival of a state that utilizes “independence from outside influence” as the cornerstone of its governance (Moore 2006, p.1).

Moore (2006) even goes so far to say that North Korea’s political government espouses a form of “ultra conservatism” wherein the concept of change, that is not conducive towards the promotion of the values and principles of Kim Il Sung or mandated by the government, is viewed as detrimental towards the continued survival of the state.

As a result, this has given rise to preventive measures within the country in the form of considerable control on internet connectivity (i.e. only a handful of approved government officials are allowed to have access to the internet), communication (while the country has a mobile phone network, calls made to locations outside of the country cannot be made), merchandise that enters into the country as well as the types of activities that local citizens are allowed to participate in (meaning that there are severe restrictions on personal freedoms wherein people are not allowed to actively question the activities of the state).

In fact, such a level of control has impacted the news media within North Korea, which is heavily censored by the government, to the point that only pro-government news stories are allowed to be televised.

For the article “Change in North Korea” (2013), control over the news network is essential for the North Korean government since this allows them to create a state of affairs where fear of possible invasion keeps the local population docile and dependent on the government for protection in what they perceive to be considerable outside threats to their safety (Change in North Korea 2013, 1).

The article “Government and Politics” (2013) explains this by stating that survival for North Korea’s government is not perceived primarily as the state continuing to prosper economically or that its people are not placed in danger, rather, survival is viewed as preserving the current status quo within the country (Government and Politics 2013, pp. 29-33).

The government actively attempts to prevent ‘liberal ideas” from western methods of governance and society from seeping into the country so as to prevent the local population from being “corrupted”. This is to ensure that “jutche” (self reliance) principles and the leaders that espouse them continue to remain at the forefront of North Korea’s existence.

We will write a custom Assessment on North Korea’s Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another way of viewing this issue is from the point of view of the article “Cutting Off the Kim Family Cash” (2013) who explains that control and enforced ignorance (in the form of media and information control) helps to ensure that the North Korean population does not orient itself towards the development of more democratic ideals (Cutting Off the Kim Family Cash 2013, 1).

Studies such as those seen in the article “Fallout” (2013) explain that North Korea’s current behavior is a classic example of an authoritarian state whose government is attempting to remain in power no matter what (Fallout 2013, p. 41).

What must be understood is that this predilection to remain in power through whatever means possible is explained by Fackler (2013) as being due to historical evidence showing how government officials from authoritarian regimes were often convicted and sentenced to jail once democratic systems of governance were put in place resulting in them being held accountable for the various restrictions on freedoms and atrocities that they had committed while in power.

Fackler (2013) explains that it is the concept of accountability that encourages these regimes to continue along a path of governance that attempts to curb “dangerous changes” since this endangers those who are in power (Fackler 2013, 1).

This has given rise to a foreign policy agenda which focuses on preventing “liberalist notions” from arising within the local population to the extent that North Korea and its leaders have been accused numerous times by the United Nations and several other states of human rights abuses.

Such accusations further discourages the country from allowing foreign influences from affecting its local population since the leaders of the country know that once they let a democratic foothold establish itself within the country their positions and very lives would be in danger.

North Korea’s Foreign Policy Agenda The work of Hoislag (2010) explains that despite what amounts to erratic action and decisions, states are actually rational decision makers and pursue a policy that they believe would result in a better and more advantageous position for the state (Hoislag, 2010, p. 641).

However, the study of Nikitin(2013) shows that sometimes this pursuit of a more advantageous position is in part influenced by those in power who pursue what they believe is the most advantageous position yet such an orientation may not be the best path for the general citizenry (Nikitin 2013, pp. 13-16).

Not sure if you can write a paper on North Korea’s Policy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More What this means in the case of North Korean, when taking the section on domestic policy into consideration, is that its leadership is pursuing a path that focuses on what they believe would be best in their eyes and not necessarily what would be best for the people.

In the study “North Korea” (2012), it can be seen that North Korea’s foreign policy agenda of developing nuclear arms is meant as a deterrent towards undue or even forceful interference from outside parties in North Korea’s domestic affairs (North Korea 2012, pp. 1-23).

Weitz (2013) states that developing nuclear arms is a way in which North Korea’s leaders ensure that its authoritarian government continues to remain in power through the suppression of rights and liberties within the country (Weitz 2013, p. 2).

In fact, studies such as those by Stone (2013) point to the fact that since states are rational actors North Korea would know that any nuclear attack on the U.S. or its allies would result in the country being turned into a nuclear wasteland as a direct result of a retaliatory strike from the U.S. Its rhetoric and various claims are meant to discourage direct interference in its domestic affairs and nothing more (Stone 2013, pp. 893-894).

In fact, it should be noted that this is not the first time that such a strategy has been utilized in present day international affairs.

The case of Iran for instance, who is also developing their own weapons program, has been stated by studies such as those by the article “With fresh sanctions looming, Pyongyang threatens to end armistice” (2013) as being a deterrence towards outside influence in the country’s internal affairs (With fresh sanctions looming, Pyongyang threatens to end armistice 2013, pp. 6-9).

For researchers such as Browne (2013), the actions of North Korea and Iran in the development of nuclear arms while having a decidedly aggressive stance against their neighbors and the U.S. is due to their hesitance in being incorporated into the current international system and all that comes with it.

This encompasses the development of liberal ideas, the influx of foreign news media and the development of the realization among members of the North Korean population that they have been abused and suppressed by their government in comparison to the rest of the world.

It is due to this that advocates such as Browne (2013) explain that North Korea’s aggression and threats to go to war are merely a means of preventing further interference in its domestic policy (Browne 2013, 1). Browne (2013) explains that the North Korean government is attempting to make Kim Jong Un look like a hardliner that will take any stance necessary in order to prevent the interference of either the U.N or the U.S. in its domestic affairs.

It is based on this that the next section will examine China’s foreign policy agenda to further cement the assumption of this paper that war is unlikely in the Korean peninsula due to China’s foreign policy objective of non-interference in the domestic affairs of other states.

Examining China’s Foreign Policy To understand China foreign policy regarding regional security issues, an examination of its 2002 position paper on security issues was conducted.

This position paper which was released by the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs details that China views nuclear proliferation and terrorist activities as detrimental towards continued regional and economic stability and, as such, must be dealt with in order to ensure peace (China Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2002: 1).

Based on such a stance, the position paper explains that China advocates the use of institutions as a means of promoting regional or international cooperation in order to mitigate the problems of terrorism and nuclear proliferation.

Such actions though, as explained by China, should be tempered by an attitude of non-interference in the internal affairs of states given China’s history of adverse consequences coming about as a result of foreign interference in its domestic affairs (China Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2002: 1).

Such a case can be seen when examining the manner in which China chose to side with the United Nations in imposing additional sanctions on North Korea (Luzyanin 2010, p. 14).

While it may be true that China and North Korea are economic, military and diplomatic partners, the fact remains that the distinct shift in the way in which North Korea has chosen to act internationally has caused severe concern on the part of China and, as a result, has changed its views regarding the manner in which North Korea must be treated (Aris 2009, pp. 451-467).

The reason behind this is quite simple, North Korea is endangering not only China’s economic activities with South Korea which is a major trading partner but has created significant regional tensions to the extent that it may find itself being drawn into a conflict that it wants no part of (Aris 2009, pp. 451-467).

To better understand the position of China in regards to regional security and cooperation, the following points need to be taken into consideration:

China places a considerable emphasis on respect for sovereignty and non-interference in domestic affairs given its history with various foreign powers (Boyko, Dylevsky, Komov


The Hierarchy of Needs Theory by Abraham Maslow Essay college essay help

In psychology, one of the most mentioned hypothesis is the hierarchy of needs theory. Abraham Maslow developed the theory in the year 1943. According to the theory, human needs are arranged in a hierarchical form. As such, the needs ascend from the lower to the highest. These basic needs when placed in ascending order of importance are physiological needs, security needs, affiliation needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization needs.

Maslow postulated that once a set of needs is satisfied it stops being a motivator. As a psychologist, I have been hired by Shenandoah University to make sure its students’ needs are being met according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The results of my evaluations are highlighted in this paper.

Maslow’s theory postulates that until the physiological needs are met to the point of supporting life, other desires will not motivate people. Physiological needs include food, water, warmth, and shelter. Through my studies, I found out that the university satisfies students’ physiological needs. For instance, the university’s catering department provides a wide range of quality services.

The department offers multiple different meals to meet the specific needs of every student. The quality of food offered to the students cannot be doubted. Catering department members receive training in regular basis to enhance their skills. In relation to meals, the prices of food have been an issue for most students. Most students assert that the prices of food within the university hotels are overpriced.

In this regard, the university should review the food prices offered within their hotels and possibly extent food discounts to the needy students. On the other hand, the university’s nine residence halls accommodate 900 students. These halls are categorized by class ranks. The rest of the students are housed in the nearby community halls. Based on my evaluation, the students’ psychological needs have been met by the university.

In ascending order of importance, security and safety requirement is a second need identified by Maslow. Security and safety requirements comprise of needs to be free from physical dangers and fear of losing personal property. The university’s security department is mandated to meet these needs. The department recognizes that the students’ safety within the university and the community is paramount.

In this regard, the department works collectively with the community members to ensure that all safety and security issues are addressed. Around the campus, security patrol is carried out seven days a week. Usually, students’ activities within the university and outside the campus place the security officers in direct conflict with the community members.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With these challenges, the security department has a committee that resolves such issues with the highest degree of professionalism. Through my evaluation, I never encountered any security issue in the university. Therefore, I can affirm that the students’ security and safety needs are met by the university.

The third important hierarchy requirement identified by Maslow was affiliation need. According to Maslow, humans are social beings that need to interact and feel accepted by their colleagues. During my evaluation, I noted numerous ways students could associate in the university. As such, there are several extra-curriculum activities organized by the university with the aim of meeting the students’ affiliation needs.

For instance, the university has joint programs with the United Methodist Church that enhances student leadership and social responsibilities. Through these programs, students can organize mission trips and community projects giving them a chance to interact with their fellow students and the community members.

Annually, more than 300 theatre performances are held in the university to allow students appreciate their cultural differences. Similarly, through these performances students are given chances to associate freely. In accordance with my evaluations, the university meets the students’ affiliation needs.

Equally, the fourth requirement identified by Maslow was esteem needs. According to his theory, once people satisfy the affiliation needs they need to be appreciated by others and appreciate themselves. Through my evaluations, I realized that the university outdoor activities promote self-awareness and self-esteem. However, I noted that some few students had issues with their self-esteem.

These students avoided the company of other students and preferred to be in isolation. Concerning this, the university counseling department together with the students’ welfare associations should identify these students and help them develop and enhance their self-esteem.

Finally, the fifth requirement identified by Maslow was the need for self-actualization. According to Maslow’s theory, this need is the biggest need in the hierarchy. If an individual meets this need, he or she will be able to maximize one’s potential. One of the main goals of the university is to enhance the students’ potentials.

We will write a custom Essay on The Hierarchy of Needs Theory by Abraham Maslow specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During my evaluations, I noted that the university had integrated some common units in all the courses to help students attain their self-actualization. Through these courses, students are guided to exploit their potential. To confirm on the effect of these initiatives, I carried out a research on the former students’ performances.

In my research, I noted that most of these older students were having successful careers and were highly valued in the job market. Based on this analysis, I can affirm that the university meets the students’ needs of self-actualization.


Hypocalcemia in Large and Small Animals Essay best essay help

Hypocalcaemia is an acute complication of hypomagnesaemia. Characteristically, hypocalcaemia is unresponsive to intravenous calcium therapy, and resolves itself when the magnesium deficiency returns to its normal state (DiBartola 11).

The mechanism is considered to be as a result of suppression of PTH secretion or inhibition of the peripheral action of PTH or to both. This disease is not widespread in all other species but more in dogs and horses compared to cats and cows.

The causative agent/organism or mechanism The cause of hypocalcaemia is generally undetermined, but it could result from such problems as maternal calcium loss to the fetal skeletons and to the milk, poor absorption of dietary calcium, and parathyroid gland atrophy caused by reprehensible diet or dietary supplements. The commonest cause of hypocalcaemia is hypoalbuminaemia, closely followed by renal failure.

The breakdowns of causative agent/organism of hypocalcaemia are:

Hypoalbuminaemia or Vitamin D deficiency



Renal disease

Drugs (phenytoin, barbiturates)

Vitamin D deficiency




Parathyroid ablation (surgery, infarction)

Magnesium deficiency


Increased bone uptake (hungry bone syndrome)

Post-parathyroidectomy for hyperparathyroidism


Osteoblastic secondaries (lung, prostate, breast)


Renal failure

Phosphate therapy

Tumor lysis

Drug therapy

Frusemide, EDTA, calcitonin, mithramycin.

Clinical signs and symptoms The Clinical signs and symptoms of hypocalcaemia include panting, trembling, muscle fasciculation, weakness, and ataxia (James et al 603). These early clinical signs quickly progress to tetany with tonic-clonic spasms and opisthotonos. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature increases, particularly during tetany. Clinical signs rapidly advance in severity and may be fatal if the animal goes untreated.

Diagnostic tests Hypocalcaemia is diagnosed on the basis of the typical clinical signs in a heavily lactating female. It can be established by measuring the serum concentrations of calcium, which naturally are below the reference range (Bushinsky and Monk 1998).

Because the clinical signs in postpartum dogs are so suggestive, treatment is usually started before, or without, laboratory confirmation. Laboratory confirmation would be required in a prepartum animal. Although severe hypoglycemia could cause similar clinical signs, it is a rare postpartum disorder in the animal (James et al. 603).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Treatment of Hypocalcaemia Hypocalcaemia associated with tetany or carpopedal spasm should be treated with an intravenous infusion of calcium.

The typical procedure is to infuse 10-20 mL of 10% calcium gluconate over 2-3 minutes and repeated if required (calcium chloride is also available for infusion but is to be avoided due to the possibility of thrombophlebitis). If the hypocalcaemic symptoms persist despite calcium infusion, the possibility of hypomagnesaemia should be considered.

The continuing treatment of hypocalcaemia (e.g. that of hypoparathyroidism or severe vitamin D deficiency) should be managed by vitamin D therapy supplemented with oral calcium, e.g. vitamin D; dihydrotachysterol 5 mg daily, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol: 2.5 ug daily; calcium: 2-4 g of elemental calcium daily (James et al 604; Papich 2010). During treatment with these medications a careful watch should be kept on the plasma calcium levels.

Prevention and/or control programs Several steps can be taken to prevent hypocalcaemia in large and small animals. First, a high-quality, nutritionally balanced and complete diet should be fed to the animal during pregnancy and lactation. Second, oral calcium supplementation during gestation is contraindicated since it may worsen, rather than prevent, hypocalcaemia. Finally, the animal should have access to food and water ad libitum during lactation.

If necessary, the dam can be physically separated from the neonates for 30 to 60 minutes several times a day to encourage her to eat. Supplemental bottle-feeding of the litter with milk replacer early in lactation and with solid food after 3 to 4 weeks of age may be helpful, especially for large litters.

Clients Education Client education is essential since they need to be made aware of signs of hypocalcaemia, including weakness, lethargy, muscle fasciculation, and facial pruritus. It must be emphasized that signs may be noted at any time and that urgent intervention is necessary.

Clients must also be aware that monitoring blood calcium levels, on a regular basis, requires measurement of ionized calcium, as opposed to total calcium (Haskell 110). Clients should identify veterinary practices that can provide domestic and accurate ionized calcium measurements. Clients must also be aware of signs of hypocalcaemia (PU/PD).

We will write a custom Essay on Hypocalcemia in Large and Small Animals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Bushinsky DA, and Monk RD. Calcium (review). Lancet, 1998; 352:306-311.

DiBartola, Stephen. Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders in Small Animal Practice. New York, NY: Elsevier Health Sciences, 2011. Print.

James, Fox, Anderson Lynn, Franklin Loew, and Fred Quimby. Laboratory Animal Medicine. San Diego, California: Academic Press, 2002. Print.

Haskell, Scott. Blackwell’s Five-Minute Veterinary Consult: Ruminant. Denvers, MA: John Wiley


Technologies Effects in Developing Countries Proposal essay help: essay help

Progress is an inevitable process that is bound to take place in any civilization; otherwise, a rapid decay is unavoidable. However, when the stakes on technological advances are too high, progress comes at a price. Because of the negative effects that newest technologies have on nature in general and environment in particular, the reasonability of progressing with no regard for the probable consequences must be questioned.

In the given paper, the positive and the negative effects of the newest technologies in developing countries are compared in order to consider the possible outcomes of the future advances and come up with the means to prevent technologies from causing more harm, at the same time avoiding the possible technological regress.

Therefore, the research topic for the given paper is Technology and Environment. Though it will also be necessary to mention the positive outcomes of the use of technology, in the given research, its developing negative impact on the environment is going to be considered.

Among the issues that are currently on the agenda of the environmental issues in developing countries, such problems as pollution, global warming and the following climate change, as well as the exhaustion of natural resources are going to be viewed through a critical lens.

To address the problem efficiently, several papers have been studied. Each of the above-mentioned researches has contributed to the objectivity of the given paper, allowing to address each side of the argument. To be more exact, each article addresses a specific issue related to the technological innovations and the developing states.

To start with, the contamination issue, which is the greatest threat posed by technological advances to the developing countries, is considered in Jen Fela’s article Developing countries face e-waste crisis (2009) in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment published by The Ecological Society of America.

The article by Mertz, Halsnaes, Olensen and Rasmussen sheds the light on the issue of natural resources reduction (2009) in Adaptation to climate change in developing countries in Environmental Management, 43(5). The problem concerning the emerging diseases is addressed in Pisani’s paper The cancer burden and the cancer control in developing countries (2010) in Environmental Health 10(Suppl. 1):S2.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The impact of technology on modern people and the future generations is yet to be studied. In addition, the aforementioned climate change will possibly trigger new diseases; hence, the results of the technology effects must be considered more closely. Supposedly, with the help of the results of the given research, it will be possible to find a compromise between technological development and environmental stability.

The impact of technology on modern people and the future generations is yet to be studied. In addition, the aforementioned climate change will possibly trigger new diseases; hence, the results of the technology effects must be considered more closely.

Supposedly, with the help of the results of the given research, it will be possible to find a compromise between technological development and environmental stability. Therefore, the given research embraces the major issues that technological advances cause in developing countries.

The given paper uses a fairly simple methodology. With the help of the sampling method as a part of a quantitative research, the most graphic examples of environmental changes are going to be introduced. As far as the qualitative research goes, the analysis of the data, the identification of the key negative factors and the possible solutions are going to be offered.

Although the issue of climate has been brewing for quite long, and the problem seems to have been discussed far and wide, and a number of measures have been undertaken, the conflict between technology and environment remains unresolved in most of the developing states, which predetermines the significance of the given research.

The results of the given research will supposedly help distill the possible means to prevent the negative effects of technological advances from occurring in developing countries.


Nationalism in International Relations Essay essay help online

Introduction While advancing the concerns of international relations, harnessing different perspectives of nationalism held by people who come from different nations is critical in fostering a long lasting peace in the international arena. Nationalism refers to the strong political ideology or creed that identifies certain groups of persons to particular nations. Nationalism can be introspected from two main theoretical paradigms: primordialist and modernist.

The primordialist paradigm “describes nationalism as a reflection of the ancient and perceived evolutionary tendency of humans to organise into distinct groups based on affinity of birth” (Ozkirimli 2010, p.11). In this perspective, a nation is described by geographical boundaries engulfing a group of people coming from single or multi-ethnic backgrounds who believe that they were born and brought up within the region.

Such people have the sovereign rights to protect the territorial integrity of the regions. Where such integrity is broken, different nations are split down into different smaller nations. The need to avoid splitting the nations underlines the relevance of advancement of international relations discourses to ensure that states remain united as single entities.

To accomplish this goal, international relations aims at appreciating affairs among states by singling out any possible cause of alarm in a bid to establish the measures to employ to curb the alarm. However, the discipline of international relations has gone a step beyond this goal to handle global welfare of nations and state conduct.

Modernists’ paradigm describes “nationalism as a recent phenomenon that requires the structural conditions of modern society in order to exist” (Malesevic 2006, p. 21). In this extent, nations may be interpreted as being limited by people who are bound by a single religious identity, identity groups, and or cultural hegemony (Brubaker 1996). It underlines the perception that people from different nations live together in a single state.

Within the state, all persons including the minority groups should be permitted to exercise and express their national identity. The goal is to prevent the emergence of conflict between persons having different interpretations of what it means to belong to particular states. This concern is central to the international relations as it aims at ensuring that nations remain stable.

Given this interplay of international relations and nationalism, this paper examines the view that nationalism has been and continues to be the most significant force in international relations. To achieve these concerns, the paper first considers the epistemology of international relations followed by the epistemology of nationalism. It will then show how nationalistic aims fit into the view being explored based on these two epistemologies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Epistemology of International Relations in Relation to Nationalism The term international relation is deployed to mean collective interactions existing between international communities. These communities include nations, individuals, and even states (Nau 2008). The discourses of international relations are advanced from two main theoretical paradigms: positivist and the post-positivist views.

The positivists’ theories attempt to look into the manner in which the relations between nations are shaped from the basis of analysing the effects of material forces in shaping the animosity between nations (Roskin


Sub-Saharan Africa International Relations Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Research Question

The Issue of Dependency

Political Changes

Economic Relations

The Changing Economic Trend


List of References

Introduction The problems affecting sub-Saharan Africa in the global system could be comprehended through the understanding of colonial legacies (Taylor 2010, p. 12). The Europeans divided sub-Sahara Africa into various units for easy administration. Nigeria, Kenya, and South Africa were categorized as settler regions whereby the locals were forced to live in the suburbs while colonialists occupied the major towns.

This division and application of defective policies resulted to the problems that are still haunting the sub-Saharan region even in the modern society. World systems theory states that sub-Saharan African is the periphery while the west is the core. The sub-Saharan economy relies on cheap-manufactured goods from the west yet the region has enormous resources that cannot be compared to those of any other region in the world (Fortna 2008, p. 13).

Therefore, it could be easy to describe Sub-Sahara Africa as a marginalized region, yet the region plays a significant role in the global map.

Sub-Sahara Africa is known for its resources hence many states in the international system have always wanted to associate themselves with the leadership of the region. World economic powerhouses such as the US, Britain, China, and Canada have always generated strong foreign policies towards states in sub-Sahara Africa such as Kenya and South Africa due to their enormous economic chances.

There have been various changes in the foreign relations between the sub-Saharan region and other actors in the international system (Goldstein 2011, p. 70). These changes are brought about by the economic and political developments of the global system, especially the last part of Cold War and shift from bipolarity to unipolarity.

For instance, conflicts are no longer rampant in the sub-Saharan region such as Sudan and some parts of the East African region, which have redefined the relationships between states in the sub-Saharan region and other units (Howard 2009, p. 72). This article looks at the changes that the sub-Saharan region has gone through, which have readjusted its relations with other actors in the international system.

Research Question To what extent has Africa’s dependency on external actors evolved over the last decade?

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Issue of Dependency Dependency theory emerged to challenge modernization theory after it surfaced that the major role of global bodies such as the United Nations, World Bank, and IMF is to fulfill the wishes of the developed countries. The theory was formulated in Latin America to challenge the views of modernist theories, but it is widely applied in understanding African politics.

Immanuel Wallerstein developed a closely related theory referred to as the world systems theory to support the ideas of dependency theorists. Dependency theory insists that the ongoing relationship between the south and the north is not natural or accidental, but instead it is synthetic given the fact that colonialists created it.

The riches in the developed world are attributed to the imbalance of trade that takes place between the developed and the developing world. Therefore, developed countries could not be boosting of the economic achievements without the underdeveloped countries.

Industrialization in Europe and North America could not have materialized were it not for the slave trade that took place between Africa and the Caribbean Islands. In fact, some scholars accuse multinational organizations such as Barclays Bank and the IMF of benefiting from slavery.

Foreign direct investment and aid are the two factors that have dominated the foreign relations of sub-Saharan African states and other powers, particularly the western powers. However, the state of affairs is changing because Africans feel that they are sovereign and they should be given the chance to elect their leaders freely. The west has always influenced the outcome of elections since it seems to support friendly leaders.

In other words, the western powers throw their weight behind leaders who support their policies. A number of African leaders have been forced to rely on foreign aid meaning that they cannot formulate any policy without consulting the donors.

Moreover, almost all projects being implemented in the African continent are controlled by western powers. Major investments are also owned by western powers since they never relinquished industries after colonialism. This leaves the sib-Saharan region to depend on foreign aid and foreign direct investment.

We will write a custom Essay on Sub-Saharan Africa International Relations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Political Changes In the 1990s, civil wars were very common in the sub-Sahara region, especially in the central African region such as Congo, mainly because of the presence of warlords and the effects of the Cold War. The conflicts were organized because particularly government-funded rebels carried out crimes against humanity in large-scale.

Many states in the region are celebrating their fifth anniversary, but the nature of violence has changed because only post-election violence is witnessed. This is mainly evident in Kenya, Zimbabwe, Cameroon, Mali, Senegal, and Ivory Coast. Previously, the governments organized and funded violence, but currently the focus has been on elections.

Even the global powers were involved in committing crimes against innocent people because they supplied weapons, especially in places such as Congo whereby there are enormous resources. Currently, conflicts are mainly internal because groups fight over governmental power and authority (Fearon


Medical Recording Tools: EMRs and PMRs Report (Assessment) cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Difference between PMRs and EMRs

Information contained in an EMR

Merits of Implementing EMRs

Problems with EMRs


Works Cited

Introduction The health care industry has evolved significantly over the years with better ways for providing care being developed. One of the areas that have experienced innovation is in medical records. Medical records are important tools for physicians since they provide the means for recording patient condition and serve as the basis for medical interventions.

Paper-based Medical Records (PMRs) are the traditionally used tools while Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) have emerged as a new system that is intended to replace PMRs. This paper will discuss the two tools with focus on the differences between them. It will also highlight EMRs are favored over PMRs and the inherent problems in implementing EMRs.

Difference between PMRs and EMRs The main difference between PMRs and EMRs is that while PMRs are manual, EMRs are electronic. In the PMR system, the physician writes down the patient’s information on paper or chart. These records are then stored in files which can be kept in a cabinet for safekeeping.

EMRs are essentially digital versions of PMRs and the information is entered into a computing device and saved electronically in the devices memory (Rustagi and Singh 142). The health care institution might save information medical records for multiple patients in a central server.

Another difference is that PMRs do not have any format restriction and the doctor is free to enter information in the forms that suits him/her. The doctor might choose to include a detailed historical record of the patient or just give a brief overview.

With EMRs, there is a format restriction since the doctor has to use a predefined template when entering patient data (Lau et al. 1). Some of the systems are configured in such a way that data must be entered in all available fields. The doctor is therefore forced to fill data for the patient in a consistent style.

Information contained in an EMR Typical EMRs contain all the information that the traditional PMRs have. This includes the general patient information such as gender, age, name, and address. In addition to this, EMRs contain patient’s medical history, the diagnosis done by the doctor, tests conducted, treatment given, and the next appointment date (Rustagi and Singh 142).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The EMR also provides space where the physician can make additional notes on the patient. Some EMR systems offer templates and have auto-fill functions that enable the doctor to fill in data from an exhaustive database of medical information.

Merits of Implementing EMRs EMRs help overcome some of the basic problems that arise due to the use of PMRs. EMRs assist in the reduction of medical errors by providing physicians with quick access to the patient’s medical history and relevant medical information to assist in prescription (Lau et al. 1). The decision-making ability of the doctor is therefore enhanced due to quick access to information through the electronic systems.

EMRs make it easier for physicians to communicate between or among themselves as they provide medical care to a patient. PMRs suffer from the setback of illegibility, inaccurate or incomplete information, and inconsistency. When a patient is transferred to another doctor, obtaining their medical history is hampered by PMRs.

With EMRs, doctors enter information into a computer system in a readable and consistent manner (Tang, LaRosa and Gorden 246). The information is also complete which makes patient transfer easy since the new physician will have access to complete medical records of the patient.

EMRs assist doctors in their billing tasks ensuring that the doctor is properly compensated. By use of the coding levels contained in EMRs, physicians can bill patients according to the services provided (Rustagi and Singh 144). This ensures that no monetary losses are incurred due to down-coding by doctors who lack confidence on how to bill patients.

Problems with EMRs Implementing EMRs is expensive and doctors must spend a lot of money when setting up the system. Brooks and Grotz estimate that an individual doctor will spend between $30,000 and $60,000 to implement an EMR (74). Most physicians may lack the knowledge necessary to fully utilize the EMR in their practice. This will make it hard for the initial investment in the system to be recovered.

Like any computer system, EMRs are prone to bugs and system failure. A widespread system failure can be catastrophic since it might cause the loss of valuable patient data (Rustagi and Singh 145). Some hospitals keep manual backups of patient records because of this risk.

We will write a custom Assessment on Medical Recording Tools: EMRs and PMRs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More EMRs raise major privacy concerns for patient health records. To begin with, doctors enter a lot of personal patient information into the EMR database. Since the records are stored in an electronic format, it is easy for an unauthorized person to access and copy patient records (Tang et al. 246).

If this security breach occurs, private patient information might be available to the public. These issues have prevented the widespread endorsement of EMRs by the public.

Conclusion EMRs are gaining popularity due to the various advantages they present over PMRs. This paper has defined EMRs and offered some of the rationale favoring their implementation and use. A list of some of the problems posed by EMRs has also been given. Even though EMRs are not perfect, they are more effective and efficient than PMRs and their widespread adoption in our health care system can be expected.

Works Cited Brooks, Rayne and Grotz, Calz. “Implementation Of Electronic Medical Records: How Healthcare Providers Are Managing The Challenges Of Going Digital”. Journal of Business


Prepare a negotiation strategy in a report format for a company or government or other legal entity on a project or undertaking of your own choosing. Be sure to clearly describe the nature of that pro best college essay help

Be sure to clearly describe the nature of that project or under taking. You will need to establish a plan for negotiations that will permit negotiators to maximize the ability to obtain best value, based on the requirement and established evaluation factors. In that regard you will need to determine an overall negotiation approach. This would include;
•Selecting the strategy and tactics that are likely to be most effective in accomplishing the priorities and objectives for the negotiation.
•Planning the order in which issues will be addressed during negotiations. 
•Identifying potential concessions, including:-
– Potential concessions that the entity would be willing to make in response to projected offeror concessions.
– Concessions that the entity would expect from the offeror in response to potential concessions.
•Planning bargaining tactics suited to the negotiator’s personality and the tactics that will probably be used by the offeror’s negotiator.
•Examine the likely impact and outcomes of the strategy applied.
The length of the report will not be more than 2500 words excluding references. References should ideally be the latest (year 2010 and onwards) and use the American Psychological Association (APA) or Harvard format.


Food Role on Social Events Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


The Broad Food Repertoire

Broader Patterns

Cultural relevance

Cultural comparison and contrast


Works Cited

Introduction Food and culture are inseparable factors in a community. The food that people eat defines and shape their culture. For example, a community that feed practice farming feed on vegetables and cereals. A community that feed on meat are hunters or keep domestic animals. On the other hand, the peoples’ culture shapes their feeding habits. For example, an industrialized community depend on other communities for food.

As a result, their eating habit diversifies. They eat vegetables, snacks, traditional food, meat and other. Therefore, it is clear that food is at the center of culture while culture is the central point of feeding habits. Therefore, this paper will present a summary of a food event. The summary will include a description of the event, location of the food within a large repertoire of the community, the relationship between the food and traditions of the targeted group.

In addition, it will aim at giving the broader reflection of the groups’ culture and the traditional relevance in their community. Particularly, it will focus on a food event that they held in Kenya. I had a chance to visit the country and join in the celebration of his brother’s marriage. During the event, they prepared food known as Mukimo Wa Njahi.

Description The food event was a wedding ceremony which they held in Kenya. Particularly, it was in the Kikuyu community. The Kikuyu community lives in the central region of the country. Their main source of livelihood is farming and doing business. The parents of the couples initiated the wedding ceremony for their child. The culture of the community allows parents to find spouses for their children and induce marriage.

They provided the necessary resources that the attendants required during the day. However, the two spouses must agree to the marriage before it takes place. Many people attended the wedding ceremony. They included relatives, parents from both sides, friends, elders, religious leaders and, the community member.

Distribution of responsibilities among the attendants followed the lines of expertise, gender, age, position in the community, and the relationship that they had with the family. For example, the religious leaders conducted players and offered spiritual guidance.

The elders welcomed relatives and made significant remarks concerning the expected behavior of the couple. However, there were some attendants who did not have responsibilities in the event. These included the young girls and boys, expectant women and the disabled members of the community. Younger children would be included in case of any emergency and simple commitments.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the event, they cook Mukimo Wa Njahi as the main meal. This meal is an important food in the Agikuyu community. It is at the heart of their culture and traditions. When preparing the meal, they use traditional cereals called Njahi. Njahi is a traditional cereal that is rich in protein. The community associates the cereal with abundance. Also, the meal contains green vegetables that grow on the river banks.

The vegetables include the stinging nettle. In their native language, they refer to it as Hatha. The two components are mixed with potatoes and cooked together. The mixture is smashed and served to the attendants. Before the attendants eat the food, the bride and bridegroom tasted the food assuring the people that it had been good. Culturally, the bride serves the bridegroom first, and the bridegroom does the same thing for the bride.

Among the attendants, there were a group of women who made ululations. They made four ululations for the bride and five for the bridegroom. The ululations were made when each of them served Mukimo Wa Njahi. The bride then went round serving the parents and elders of the community. The rest of attendants were served by selected women in the community. The service women were required to be married.

The Broad Food Repertoire The event coincides with the history of the attendants and remains relevant to the attendants. Most of the attendants are married. In fact, bachelors and spinsters do not get significant roles. The participants celebrate the newly married couples and consider them as being newborns. To them, a newly born couple enlarges their family. Therefore, the essence of celebrating is welcoming the couples into a new world.

As a result, the event coincides with the history of the participants perfectly. It reminds them of their obligation in marriage and strengthen the bond they made earlier. This is because they are proud of getting a new company.

In addition, the people consider the event as a holy authorization of reproduction. In this community, bearing children before marriage is evil. They consider premarital pregnancy as immoral. As a result, the community views the event as a clean and legal action. Therefore, it coincides with the communities’ morals and behaviors. Consequently, it is a component of the larger community culture.

Broader Patterns There are various social-cultural events that exist in the community. During the events, they take the Mukimo Wa Njahi as the meal. These ceremonies are carried out in preparation of the marriage ceremony. In the patterns, one of the main events is the Irua ceremony. During Irua ceremony, boys are circumcised as a sign of passage from childhood to adulthood. The event is carried out in the same way as the marriage ceremony.

We will write a custom Essay on Food Role on Social Events specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The attendants must be already circumcised. This creates bondage between the circumcised and the newly circumcised boys. During the ceremony, the attendants feed on Mukimo wa Njahi as as a sign of inducing strength of the newly circumcised boys. Also, they have Ngoima ceremony. They perform it before the marriage ceremony. During this ceremony, the bridegroom’s parents take goats to the bride’s parents for compensation.

They aim at compensating for taking the bride at their home. When marriage is due, it happens in patterns. For example, a girl will not get married before her older sister is married. This pattern is followed to the letter in the entire community.

Cultural relevance The event has cultural similarities with other behaviors. The bride and bridegroom chose to adopt a traditional approach in their wedding ceremony. The choice aimed at showing the importance of their culture and the relationship it has with the other parts of practices of the community. From the description, we find various components and practices of the Agikuyu marriage ceremony.

The practices are culturally symbolic ad designate significant implications. The choices that are made in the ceremony carry relevant messages to the community. They have lessons that teach and inspire the young people in the community set up. In fact, the marriage ceremony is termed as the pure reflection of their cultural heritage and believes that govern the entire community.

For example, Mukimo W Njahi comprises of the stinging nettle and Njahi. Njahi is a cereal that grows in the abundance of rainfall. Therefore, it signifies a lot of harvest and abundance. The inclusion of Njahi in the Mukimo is a sign of blessings for the couple. The community wishes them a fortune and abundance in their marriage. On the other hand, they include the stinging nettle. The stinging nettle is a sign of challenges and problems.

It shows that the marriage will have flaws at times. Therefore, couples learn a crucial lesson that prepare them to handle the tasks before them with perseverance. The Mukimo Wa Njahi is made through smashing. When they smash, the three components appear like one. This is a powerful message to the couples. It suggests that they should remain in complete collaboration and togetherness. The bride and bridegroom serve food to each other.

This teaches them to serve each other and fulfill their obligations. The bride serves the elders to show respect to the community, parents and the people who are older than them. The unity that the attendants show during the ceremony is a reflection of the community’s culture.

Cultural comparison and contrast The event has differences with other cultural event. They differ in several aspects ceremonial aspects. The aspects include the nature of attendants, emotions that prevail and the values induced in the community. Firstly, the marriage ceremony is accompanied by happiness and ululation. Some the cultural events are accompanied by sadness and tears. For example, a death ceremony is characterized by the grief.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Food Role on Social Events by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another example, that is carried out differently is Ikari. This ceremony prepares the warriors for war. During the ceremony, they feed on meat. Two mature bulls are selected from the herd. The two bulls engage in a fight against each other. The bull that wins is slaughtered for the warriors. This is to signify that the warriors would win the war against the foe. These are examples of ceremonies that differ the marriage ceremony.

On the other hand, the event coincides and show similarities with other events of the community. The similarities emerge in various aspects of the event. For example, the community has a ceremony during child birth. They celebrate the new born in total happiness and vigor. In fact, the ululations that are made by women are in a wedding ceremony are made at child birth. They make five ululation for a boy baby and four for a girl.

This is a perfect similarity to that of the wedding ceremony. According to the community, they signify happiness and fortune. Another ceremony that show similar emotions is the Ngoima. The Ngoima ceremony celebrated during the payment of dowry to the bride’s parents. Mukimo wa Njahi is the meal for the ceremony.

This coincides with the marriage ceremony in the community. The similarities show that the community is consistent with its culture and behaviors.

Conclusion The ethnographic exercise that is described above is a perfect evidence that the food events show a strong relationship between food and culture. In addition, it shows show the reflection of cultural behavior on food events.

It analyses the importance and significance of every activity and the lessons they portray in the community. It reveals the patterns of the various events that take place in the community. Moreover, the paper shows the various similarities and differences that exist between the marriage ceremony and other events.

Works Cited Jenks, Chris. Culture. London: Routledge, 1993. Print.

Kenyatta, Jomo. Facing Mount Kenya: the tribal life of the Gikuyu. New York: Vintage Books, 1965. Print.

Macpherson, Catherine. Food


Features of World Dominance in 1500 and 1800 Years Essay essay help free

The discoveries of the new lands are the way to take over the world in 1500. It means for the European countries to be open to developing the economic and trade relations with the foreign countries. The stress on the possibilities for industrialization within the country is important to control the world in 1800.

The approaches which are used in 1500 and 1800 to organize the country’s social and economic life and to control the political situation effectively are not similar because of the differences in states’ politics and economy.

In 1500, successful dynasty marriages matter. To get the higher social position, people try to marry the right person. The situation changes to 1800 when the governmental leaders are often revolutionary leaders. The support of masses becomes the key element of political success.

The most powerful countries in 1500 build the economic domination over the world basing on oceanic journeys. It is the way to develop the trade relations and find sources for the quick enrichment.

In 1800, the European leading states stress on urbanization, on development of technologies to improve equipment, and on industrialization within the country. As a result, merchants and producers focus on finding new markets not for buying some products as, for example, Indian spices, but for selling their goods.

To conclude, the approaches to dominance in the world during 1500 and 1800 differ significantly because of the changing tendencies and coming from finding outside sources for enrichment and development to increasing the country’s home potential.

The Role of Religion between 1500 and 1800 Religion is influential for the historical development during the period between 1500 and 1800. Thus, religion is not only the spiritual practice but it is also the driving force for the progress of a lot of states. During 1500-1800, religion influences the political situation, the development of social groups, the whole social situation within the country, and the culture and morality of the public.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Protestant Reformation affects the political situation within Europe significantly. Christianity becomes to be divided into Protestant and Catholic branches. The division influences all the types of relations between the countries from the opposite religious camps. During the period of Enlightenment, the religious norms are not followed strictly, and religious tolerance is supported.

The role of the church within the society is changed. This situation influences the further conflicts between the religious and secular worlds. These conflicts affect the social life of the people who build their everyday life on the definite religious norms.

Religion is the important factor for the people’s social life. Thus, any conflict between the church and authorities leads to affecting people in relation to their social life, economic state, and culture. Religion plays the significant role in determining the aspects of the people’s everyday life during 1500-1800.

Moreover, religion has the great impact on the countries’ culture. In spite of the fact that the supporters of the Enlightenment movement focus on the role of science instead of the role of religion in the society, religious ideas are present in a lot of artworks typical for the period.

From this perspective, religion influences each aspect of the people’s life during 1500-1800. Furthermore, it affects the historical progress with references to the political, religious, and social conflicts.


Owner’s Equity Essay online essay help

Preferred and common stockholders have some interests in organizations which are referred to as owner’s equity. Investors contribute to the capital of a corporation through the purchase of stocks sold by the corporation without the use of a secondary market (Pratt, 2010). This type of capital is referred to as paid-in capital.

The total paid-in capital is a combination of share capital and additional paid-in capital that is normally added to the nominal value of a stock. On the other hand, earned capital is the type of capital that comes from a company’s profitable operations (Pratt, 2010). The two types of capital are normally reflected on the balance sheet as part of the owner’s equity.

Earned capital is calculated by subtracting dividends from the total sum of the company’s beginning capital and the net income. The net income of a company is the major source of earned capital (Porter, 2010). Companies reinvest earned capital to generate more profits and at the same time retain their original capital.

Paid-in capital and earned capital should be kept separate because they are completely different and distinctive when it comes to capital sources (Porter, 2010). The sale of capital stock to investors brings new capital to the company. This paid-in capital is supposed to help the company in its quest to increase earned capital.

It s therefore very important to keep paid-in capital separate from earned capital for a firm to be in a better position to evaluate the impact of pain-in capital and the extent at which it helps in increasing the company’s earned capital (Porter, 2010). Combining the two may lead to an overestimation of profits on the balance sheet which may not be for stockholders.

There is always a high probability that the potential earnings from a company’s profitable operations may be misrepresented if paid-in capital is not separated from earned capital (Kimmel, 2010). The management of an organization may find it difficult to account for the company’s earnings if the two sources of capital are not separated.

Earned capital is more important than paid-in capital because of a number of reasons (Kimmel, 2010). To begin with, earned capital is very important when observed from the point of view of an investor. It important for a company to earn its money from profitable operations compared to overdependence on the sale of stocks to raise capital.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A company that has earned capital as its major source of capital is likely to earn investor confidence than the one that relies on paid-in capital (Kimmel, 2010). Stakeholders are able to see the value of their investment from the earned capital as opposed to paid-in capital. Investors can be encouraged to invest more in company depending on the earned capital which is normally reported on financial statements prepared by the company.

In a case where paid-in capital exceeds earned capital, an organization is likely to lose present and potential investors because this may not be a good sign for a profitable investment opportunity (Porter, 2010). From this argument, it is clear that earned capital is very important for an organization compared to paid-in capital.

Diluted earnings per share is more important than basic earnings per in the sense that diluted earnings take into account all the available shares after all the available stock options have been exercised (Pratt, 2010). Diluted earnings per share are more comprehensive compared to basic earnings per share that only estimates current outstanding shares.

The fact that diluted earnings per share estimates all the available shares after trading activities have been exhausted makes it more important than basic earnings per share (Pratt, 2010). Diluted earnings per share takes into account all the preferred stocks and warrants some of which may be theoretical. Diluted earnings per share provide actual figures that are useful when determining the value of a company (Pratt, 2010).

The valuation of a company using diluted earnings per share helps a company to determine its actual investment returns. Present and potential dilutive common shares within a particular period of time can only be shown using diluted earnings per share (Porter, 2010).

In conclusion, the owner’s equity is represented by the type and amount of interests that investors have in a particular organization. Paid-in capital and earned capital are the two major sources of capital which are used by companies to fund their operations (Pratt, 2010).

It is important to separate paid-in capital from earned capital because the two sources of capital are very distinct from each other and may end up misrepresenting the actual earnings of a company. Earned capital is very important for a company because of its tendency to attract investors to the company (Porter, 2010). The stability of a company is represented by the amount of its earned capital and therefore portrays the company as worth investing in.

We will write a custom Essay on Owner’s Equity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The origin of operational funding can be determined if paid-in capital is completely separated from earned capital (Porter, 2010). Dilutive securities have an impact on the overall earnings of an organization and can also be used to determine the value of a company based on diluted earnings per share (Kimmel, 2010).

References Kimmel, P. (2010). Accounting: Tools for business decision makers. New York, NY: John Wiley


Fable’s Moral Lessons Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Once upon a time, all frogs used to live a happy life in a swamp. The swamp was very marshy and therefore provided a perfect home for all of them. The frogs were so happy that they did not care about anything or anybody in their lives. Those that lived near them neither troubled them nor interfered with their lives in any way.

As time went by, some frogs thought that it was not right to live without a proper constitution to guide their actions and a king to rule them. This group of frogs was so determined to get a king that they sent a petition to Jove for their demands to be met as soon as possible. Jove was their god whom they worshipped and went to in times of need. Jove was so faithful that he always granted them their requests and wishes.

The frogs continually cried unto Jove to send them a king who would bring some order in their lives. Jove became amused by their continuous petitions and later decided to honor their request by sending them a huge Log as their new king. The splashing of the Log in the midst of the swamp caused a commotion and the frogs were very frightened by what was going on at that time.

The frogs saw the huge Log as a horrible monster that had been thrown there to harm them and hurriedly rushed to the bank fearing for their lives. After observing the Log from the bank and realizing that it was not moving, some two daring frogs moved towards the Log and tried to touch it but the Log did not move.

The most daring of all the frogs jumped upon the Log and started to play and dance on the Log. The rest of the frogs joined the first one after realizing that the Log was not harmful.

The frogs went about their daily business after some time without taking notice of the new king that Jove had sent them. The frogs became bored with King Log and were no longer excited about the new king that Jove had sent them. This happened after King Log had been in their midst for quite some time and they never so any change.

Things remained as they were before the king was sent and many frogs thought that King Log did not suit them in any way. After some time, the frogs sent another petition to Jove demanding for a real king to rule upon them. Jove became very angry with this latest petition and he immediately decided to punish them by sending a big Stork that destroyed all of them. The frogs tried to repent but it was too late for Jove to change his mind.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are quite a number of moral lessons that can be learnt from this fable. To begin with, Jove represents the Almighty God who controls the lives of human beings and who should not be questioned in any way. The other moral lesson is that everything that human beings desire is not necessarily good for them.

The fable teaches people to be contended with what God has given them and to stop complaining and moaning all the time. Complaining is a sin and people should repent as soon as possible before the punishment comes.


Comparing Architecture of Los Angeles City Essay college essay help

Lost Angeles, better known as the City of Los Angeles, is regarded as the second most densely populated city in the United States. Recognized as the business center, as well as the most culturally diverse city, Los Angeles is famous for its rich social, political, and cultural life.

It is also the place of the rapid development of fashion, music, cinema, and modern art and, therefore, ten years is a significant term for all important changes that could happen to the city landscape. At this point, analysis of technology development, architecture trends, capacity, cultural identity, and public transport system could be introduced.

Technological progress is closely associated with globalization that touches on all cities in the world. Los Angeles is not an exception because it is considered the center of social, cultural, and business relations.

Technological advances in 10 years are specifically observed in such areas as cybernetic development, automobile engineering, and automated devices. The technological advances in Los Angeles are almost similar to those that occur to the most developed cities in the world, including the Great Tokyo, New York, and London. Hence, there are many high-tech automobiles with engines working according to the principle of solar battery.

Almost all industries are automated and, as a result, the production process has been improved significantly. Finally, the emergence of the World Wide Web has given rise to the emergence of new media platforms, as well as the development of such terms as cloud computing and social networking.

The changes in architectural trends occurred within ten years are also tangible. This is of particular concern to the development of new architectural spots in modern, high-tech style. The most prominent buildings constructed for the last ten years involve Small House in Echo Park, Gordon Street Lofts, 10 Palms, Neubert House, Tile House, etc. All these constructions are made predominantly of steel, wood, and glass.

Unlike architectural trends that dominated ten years ago, the materials, forms, and structures have become much simpler. As an example, Los Angeles Public Library built in 2000-2004 resembles the architectural styles of the 2004-2009 period, except for a few details. In particular, unlike Echo Park House, Library is full of irregular forms and is made up of brick walls.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Absence of steel and wooden elements are more typical of the latest constructions. The above-presented examples prove that modern architecture has been changed in ten years and tends to be more associated with other materials, forms, and types of constructions.

As it has been mentioned before, the City of Los Angeles is distinguished by cultural diversity. Because most of cultural groups and ethnicities have been shaped in the past century, there are no evident changes in demographics, except for a few patterns. First of all, the phenomenon of “melting pot,” mixture of ethnicities and nations, is also typical of this region, and, therefore, more and more marginal cultures and communities emerge.

According to the existing statistics, the ratio of Mexican Americans and African-Americans is the highest as far as national minorities are concerned. Second, due to the constant interaction between cultures, the distinct boundaries between nations residing in the city have also been blurred for the last ten years. Third, Los Angeles has also become the bridge between American and Japanese culture.

Such a tendency is not surprising due to the globalization process and technological advancement. Interestingly, Japanese people residing in Los Angeles are striving to maintain their connection to traditions, as well as promote their cultural identity. At the same time, Japanese culture has a potent impact on Americans, which contributes to establishing strong relations between the two nations and the emergence of new marginal groups.

Changes in the public sector in Lost Angeles have connected with the shifts that occurred in the sphere of technological development and cultural environment. The transportation system has also been evolved for the last ten years.

In particular, the municipal government realizes the congestion and traffic problems and introduces new construction projects to minimize the mean travel time that public transport spends to reach the main destinations in the city.

Development of rail services and airports are also on the rise, but there are not recent shifts in developing and amelioration of transport highways and airline destinations. In particular, LAX, the most important international airport in Los Angeles, is concerned with the construction of a new modernized terminal that could meet the requirements of the high-tech world.

We will write a custom Essay on Comparing Architecture of Los Angeles City specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In conclusion, the City of Loss Angeles is considered the most densely populated business center with well-developed technology, industry, cinema, art, and architecture. The most tangible changes have occurred to architecture, which has become associated with modern constructions made of steel.

Tendencies in creating simple structure are also typical for the city. Aside from architectural trends, the cultural diversity issues are also on the rise, due to the constant emergence of marginal communities, leading to the creation of new stereotypes and roles. Finally, shifts in public transport also influence the overall cityscape due to the advances in engineering, technology, and automated services.


“Keystone Predators” by Kevin Smith Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Goals, Justification and Main Findings

Study Approach and Methods

Results and Interpretation

Works Cited

Goals, Justification and Main Findings The goal of this paper was to “assess the influence of predatory eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens, on the outcome of interspecific competition among native and non-indigenous tadpoles” (Smith 342). Research shows that when some specific keystone predators are present, diversity in the prey population improves in situations that have a competitive hierarchy amid prey species.

Nevertheless, there exists insufficient knowledge about the influence that keystone predator exerts when present in the invaded prey populations. Considering the growing concern about invasive species influence and their prevalence, research on this topic was crucial.

The research found out that “in the presence of the tadpoles of one invasive group and absence of newts, the Osteopilus septentrionalis led to the domination of the tadpole assemblage by O. septentrionalis and reduced development and survival rate of the dominant native species, Bufo terrestris” (Smith 347).

Nevertheless, a single adult newt caused similar performance and endurance of native groups in non-invaded and invaded treatments when at hand, since it commonly eradicated or condensed the negative effects of O. septentrionalis tadpoles.

Study Approach and Methods The researcher carried out experiments through outdoor aquatic mesocosms. Black containers filled with Calcium and some well water created the mesocosms. The researcher placed some pond waste in the container to form a natural substrate. He then roofed tanks to keep metamorphic anurans awaiting collection and stop common anurans from laying eggs into the substrate.

A few days later, he put some stalks of live Hydrilla and Hydrocotyle species into every container to increase spatial density. Concurrently, he put some alfalfa pills into all experimental containers. These pills functioned as a reserve base for the marine populations.

He as well added several snails into the containers. Besides, he drew a liter of water from every container and redistributed it in all the containers to make sure that there was the consistency of the aquatic populations in the mesocosms. Lastly, he put some water from an ordinary container that had many aquatic species drawn from local pond water into each mesocosm.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The research design was a randomized block trial. The researcher used two treatment aspects to test the effect that newt predation had on the aggressiveness of the non-native tadpoles. The first aspect was an invasion action that had four dimensions denoting four substitutive blends of local and non-native larval anurans.

The substitutive blueprint offered a conventional examination of the impacts of the presence of non-native tadpoles in spite of general tadpole density considering a restricted amount of mesocosms (Smith 346). The incidence or lack of a single mature male N. viridescens was the second aspect. The researcher crossed every point of the invasion aspect with two points of a second aspect (Smith 347).

The populations used in the experiment were derived from a four species indigenous tadpole collection comprising similar numbers of “Bufo terrestris, (southern toad), Hylasquirella (squirrel treefrog), Gastrophryne carolinensis (eastern narrow-mouthed toad), and Rana sphenocephala (southern leopard frog)’’ (Smith 347).

The researcher Collected eggs in every group during a rainy period in Florida. He assembled all tadpole groups in clutches from Hillsborough and Alachua Counties. He then mixed numerous clutches of every group to cut the effects of genetics on the outcomes of this research.

Besides, he assembled twenty fully developed male N. viridescens from Rodman Reservoir and measured, weighed, and rounded off every newt to the nearest cm and mg.

He allocated every newt arbitrarily to 20 of the 40 mesocosms. Two days later, he assembled a sample of ten entities from every anuran group to prove that the larvae of all six groups were past the free-swimming phase. Also, he assigned larval anurans to every one of the 40 mesocosms arbitrary as approved by the substitutive design.

Results and Interpretation Results indicated that the invasion treatment influenced the survival of native tadpoles considerably, in the absence of newts. Fewer populations of the dominant native group, B. terrestris, endured in the incidence of O. septentrionalis and absentia of newts.

We will write a custom Essay on “Keystone Predators” by Kevin Smith specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As seen in Fig. 2a, the curve representing the number of B. terrestris in the presence of O. septentrionalis and absence of newts dropped from 0.7 to 0.6, while the curve representing the number of B. terrestris in the presence of both O. septentrionalis and newts increased upwards from 0.7 to 0.8. Thus, larval B. terrestris faced high rates of endurance when newts were present irrespective of the incidence of O. septentrionalis.

In conclusion, predatory newts influence competition amid non-indigenous and native tadpoles. As seen in the study, the number of the prey species (B. terrestris) increased when newts were a presence, since newts preyed on O. septentrionalis, exceptionally, leaving room for the multiplication of B. terrestris.

This study offers evidence that keystone predators are valuable aspects when considering the preservation of diversity in invaded areas. This implies that the idea of biotic resistance is authentic. Future research should focus on whether newts hamper the establishment or multiplication of O. septentrionalis in Florida.

Works Cited Smith, Kevin. “Keystone Predators (Eastern Newts, Notophthalmus viridescens) Reduce the Impacts of an Aquatic Invasive Species.” Oecologia 148 (2006): 342–349. Print.


Football Impact on England’s Culture Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction The various names football, the game also imply football codes. Just like other ball games, football can be traced back to Ancient Greeks and Romans although the true origin is not clear.

Football was viewed as peasants’ game in ancient times although it has developed through history to become one of the most valuable and best paying games. This paper will examine the growth and development of football in England and its impact on both social and economic culture of the people.

Objectives This paper will study the various impacts of football both on the social life of people and on the economy of the country. It is evident that football in England is well developed and its impact is material to both people and the economy.

The main objective of the paper is to examine the impact of football on both the fans and the country’s economy at large. It will also highlight the various positive and negative impacts through qualitative research methods.

Review of Literature History of Football and its Social and Economic impacts on England

England is renowned as a country where football was developed and codified. However, it is believed that Romans brought football to England in ancient times for it to be developed later. The earliest form of football in England was referred to as mob football and was played between members of neighboring towns and villages.

The game back then involved an unlimited number of players playing with an item such as an inflated animal’s bladder. They aimed to get the item to a selected geographical point such as a school or church on either side. The game took place in the open space between the targets. The game was played during special gatherings as a form of entertainment (Szymanski


Cross-Curriculum Priorities Essay a level english language essay help

This paper offers a discussion on the representation of cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian Curriculum (AC) and pedagogical considerations in the Key Learning Area (KLA) of History. Many schools in Australia are still struggling to adopt and implement the AC, due to the many changes involved especially in the emphasis on cross-curriculum priorities.

The current AC is more oriented towards the study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, sustainability, globalization, and creative thinking. These fields are essential to learners in Australia as they relate to their lives while tackling the contemporary problems that they face. The draft syllabus in the KLA of History mirrors the changes called for by the national curriculum.

This curriculum presents novel challenges for educationists to adapt their pedagogy to mirror these considerations well in their classrooms. The presented curriculum materials are not free from criticism, as they are inadequate in terms of pedagogy that promotes self-autonomy (Harris


“The Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power” by Joel Bakan Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Corporation

Corporate Social Responsibility

Corporations as Externalizing Machines

Corporate Power and Democracy

Curtailing Corporate Powers



Introduction In the book, The Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Power and Profit, Bakan (2004, pp. 34-53) provides a critical analysis of modern day organizations. His arguments revolve around the power and the objectives of companies and organizations. He traces the foundations of corporations to the 17th century and asserts that the objectives of the corporation have changed tremendously.

His main aim is to prove that corporate organizations exist purely to maximize their profits to increase the wealth of the shareholders (Carroll


Racial Stereotypes Impact on People Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Thesis Statement

Effects of Racial Stereotypes

Academic Performance

Unclear Attributes

Unrealistic Targets

Other Harmful Effects


Works Cited

Introduction Stereotypes are thoughts that are adopted by people pertaining to specific ways of undertaking things. Stereotypes are the most profound behaviors of inter-group attitudes. They represent the most common of all prejudicial reactions. The people who stereotype show the views they hold about the group that is being stereotyped. The former group ascribes certain characteristics to the latter that are seen through an emotional response.

Prejudicial reactions can be developed into negative reactions that result in discrimination. In most cases, the reasons behind the attributes that people ascribe to groups are unknown. Two types of stereotypes that are common are ethnic and racial stereotypes.

Exaggerated mental images held by a particular group of people over all members of a certain racial group are referred to as racial stereotypes. This type of stereotype does not give due consideration to the differences that may exist among the different members of the stereotyped racial group. People disregard any type of information that deviates from what they hold as automatic and collective behavior of the racial group.

Surprisingly, racism which is negative stereotyping is spread by the media in our everyday lives albeit subconsciously. The effect of negative racial stereotypes cuts across all societies and unconsciously affects people’s attitudes and behavior. It is, however, important to note that the media also fosters better social relationships as people who hold open ideas are given a chance to be heard.

Thesis Statement Whether the stereotype is positive or negative, there is a general agreement that it has a great effect on the group it is aimed for. There are questions that are still under research on whether stereotypes are imposed on others, the size of the impact that the stereotype has on people, and the role of the media.

Further studies analyze the role of racism in the modern culture that is very dynamic. This paper seeks to asses the effects of racial stereotypes on people putting into consideration its nature whether it is negative or positive.

Effects of Racial Stereotypes Most of the effects of stereotypes stem from how they are developed. This happens, as a natural human characteristic that people make things that seem complex to become simple by putting them into categories. The media, parents, and peers are the main agents who implant these social patterns.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This creates a form of a tendency to stick tags to different racial groups as good, bad, inferior, or superior. This propensity increases as people grow from childhood to adulthood through puberty.

Reduced contact between a person and the stereotyped racial group tends to cement the negative notion one holds about the group (Graham 53). This notion becomes clearer if the first members from the stereotyped racial group give impressions of confirming the ascribed behavior.

What could be learned through exchange programs between the individual and the stereotyped racial group to appreciate the differences is reduced once the fears generate a barrier that demonstrates that great disparities exist.

Academic Performance The negative stereotypes directed at the African-Americans are said to affect their academic performance. A survey conducted shows that the African-American students who were exposed to racism performed poorly in mathematics on average than white students. The students who understand the stereotype that Black students do not do well in school end up failing to excel academically.

The impact of this is so viral that it touches even the groups that hold the views in addition to those who even think about them. These groups of people tend to flow towards the stream by acting in manners that the stereotype. This is despite the fact they may not believe in the stereotype and neither do they belong to the group that abhors the notion. Membership into the group is not pegged on the fact that one must believe in the stereotype.

People who aver this ideology draw examples from situations that young children who often interact with mature people are more likely to behave maturely compared to those who spent their time with young people such as the house help.

This idea is one that leaves many gaps with questions that need answers. Facts exist where practically white students do not necessarily have to be clever than black students and especially in mathematics. It is clear knowledge that brightness versus foolishness is brought about by other factors (Lowery 37). The first among them is genetics. Brightness and stupidity can be inherited and passed over to generations.

We will write a custom Essay on Racial Stereotypes Impact on People specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The other cause is the environment. It becomes very difficult to plant a seed that is viable in a field that is either infertile or one that lacks water. A good learning environment increases the chances of a student performing well.

Another stereotype is the belief that Africans are likely to excel as athletes more than other races. Such a stereotype cannot stand the test of water. One of the reasons that they may excel in this area is because of their topography. Some of these areas are very hilly and need endurance for normal activities such as schooling and trading to take place. Stereotypes may be good or bad, but in the end, they have particular impacts.

Unclear Attributes People who belong to the stereotyped group feel uneasy as they find it difficult to know the reasons leading to the other people characterizing them in a specific way. Most of the attributes are negative and as such the members of the group feel inferior (Grabmeier 73). This could be associated with laziness or incompetence. However, positive stereotype could still be interpreted to mean sympathy or lies.

If any African football team plays against any team and the match officiated by an official from South America, the result of the match would be easily acceptable to the African fans. This is because of the stereotype that South America has close links with Africa and an official from such a region would either be fair or favor the African team.

The responses from the above stereotype show a lack of self-esteem and confidence from members of the stereotyped group. Confidence in one’s ability helps him, or she understands the difference in the capacities of people.

Unrealistic Targets Stereotypes can develop tensions among the members of the stereotyped race. This creates an environment that makes these members set targets some of which cannot be achieved. Any performance below what was expected is considered an unreasonable and therefore, a failure.

Such events may cause permanent effect and as such, change the course of people’s life. In some extreme actions, people may commit suicide or take to drug and substance abuse if proper mental counseling is not done.

Other Harmful Effects There is a consensus from most academic scholars in various fields that not all racial stereotypes are negative. However, most of them are and do not put into account the rich and diverse human differences. Failure to appreciate this diversity has the effect of developing a feeling of being devalued, limited in capacity, and it is very demeaning (Jarvis 23). Others feel pained at heart that they lose self-esteem and tend to withdraw from the masses.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Racial Stereotypes Impact on People by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Racial stereotypes are real and exist among all human races. Appreciation of this will be a big step towards reaching a unanimous conclusion. Culture is diverse and dynamic. It carries people’s beliefs; knowledge of this will offer alternative ideas about the rich society of humanity.

If this is taught to people from the school going age and then taken up by the media, diversity will be appreciated. The impact of the media in educating the masses cannot be wished away. Media personalities must take a leading role in demystifying the stereotypes by covering alternative information that is factual.

The most important role that the media can undertake is to expose various cultures to the people who access their outlets. The church and other religious groups must also widen diversity by holding open discussions on the issues about racism.

International sporting bodies such as FIFA, IAAF, The Olympics Committee, and International Cricket Council have a chance to use their huge following to spread and make the issues that are factual to engage people on the topic. If the above recommendations among others are implemented, then the negative effects of racial stereotypes will be history and the differing scholars will have to agree on the matter.

Works Cited Grabmeier, Jeff. Racial stereotypes hurt academic performance. Ohio: Columbus University press, 2001.Print.

Graham, Sandra. Racial stereotypes can be unconscious but reversible. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.

Jarvis, Blair. Experimental psychology. Ohio: Columbus University press, 2001.Print.

Lowery, Brian. Priming Unconscious Racial Stereotypes about Adolescent Offenders. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.


Animal Cruelty Essay essay help online free

Animal Cruelty Controversies about animal cruelty

Animal cruelty is whereby one inflicts suffering upon an animal. In most cases, the harm is inflicted on them to gain from them. Animals have historically been killed for food, fur and other products that are beneficial to human beings.

However, humans overdid this and turned cruel. They fail to realize that such cruelty has an indirect effect on themselves. They suffer as a result of inflicting suffering upon animals. There are several ways in which animal cruelty is shown.

One of how animal cruelty is exercised is in the way they are used to obtain meat and eggs. For a long time, chickens have been used to obtain food. However, the need to commercialize this activity has led to their congestion in bureau farms (Akhtar 69). These animals are kept in huge numbers in relatively small areas such that the conditions in the confinements become unfavorable.

When animals are kept in huge numbers, it is difficult to manage the diseases that arise within the confined areas. Various strains of diseases arise in these areas and have the potential of becoming lethal to the animals. The H5N1 virus, for example, is highly contagious as it spreads fast. This leads to the death of birds in large numbers.

Another way in which animals are used for gain is in the fur trade. Millions of animals are killed yearly for their fur. These animals include the rabbits, chinchillas, minks and raccoon dogs.

The fur trade has sparked outrage from concerned individuals due to the inhumane way the animals are bred and killed. Most companies involved in this trade usually rare animals in cages. In such confinement, animals usually undergo stress due to the conditions in the cages.

Furthermore, certain activities (which inflict suffering) are done to the animals to preserve their fur. Some of these include the breaking of the neck, gassing, and anal electrocution. In China, cats and dogs have been used for their fur. They are turned into trinkets and trim. However, the conditions in which they are kept and the pain that is inflicted on them is unbelievable.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These animals are kept in bad conditions and then beaten, hanged and left to bleed to death. Some are strangled with wire nooses or skinned while still alive. The fur may then be mislabelled to deceive people that it belongs to other animals. This way, they may be sold to other countries.

Another way in which animal cruelty is shown is through animal testing. Some argue that animal testing is important when it comes to the advancements of medicine. They use animals to test certain treatments for humans. However, various campaigns argue against this unfair activity. It has been argued that human treatments should be done on humans instead. Every year, millions of vertebrates are used for these activities.

Even though the use of certain invertebrates for experiments is important and necessary, this is never regulated. Animals are used for research in medical schools, farms and other industries.

Institutions that support the use of animals for research argue that animals should be used for advancements in science to understand the relationships between cells, organisms and the surrounding environment. However, other organizations (PETA) argue that animal cruelty arises since these activities are not regulated.

Cruelty towards animals may also be seen in dolphin and whale slaughter. In Taiji, for example, several of these animals are trapped in coves and slaughtered in their hundreds. Seal hunting has also drawn media attention. This may be seen in the mercilessly killing (through clubbing) of the pup seals. Several countries such as Belgium have tried to combat this by banning the trade of seal products.

How to deal

In the case where animals must be used for experiments and other economic benefits, this should be done in a regulated manner. Statistical considerations should be done to ensure that the number of animals killed would not have an impact on their survival. Overkilling of certain animals may have an impact on their survival since they may not be able to reproduce at a rate as high as the rate at which they are killed.

This would lead to their reduced numbers and may cause them to become endangered. Certain animals are usually located in specific areas only (endemic). Such animals should be preserved rather than exploited.

We will write a custom Essay on Animal Cruelty specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, it is also important for those individuals exploiting animals for monetary gain to assess the sustainability of that exercise to ensure that the future generations would be able to utilize the same resources while ensuring the survival of the species.

In areas where animals must be used for fur, food or other products, the persons responsible should also ensure that animals are kept in good conditions. Caging many animals in a small area might lead to congestion and stress. Stressing animals inflicts suffering, and this is unacceptable.

Therefore, the conditions in the confinements should be conducive. The health of the animals should also be monitored frequently to ensure that the sick ones are quarantined so that they do not spread the diseases.

Another way of combating animal cruelty is through banning of trade of the products of certain animals. The sale of dolphin products and seal products, for example, could be banned. This would stop the merciless killing of thousands of these beautiful animals.

However, if certain countries wish to continue with this trade, they could strictly regulate the exercise. Akhtar argues that this could be done by coming up with regulations to ensure that only a specific number of adult animals are harvested (Akhtar 71). The killing of young animals may endanger the survival of the species.

How they affect

Animal cruelty also affects humans. It has been determined that the congestion of animals for commercial use may result in potentially lethal strains of avian viruses (Capua 361). For example, H5N1 has been determined (through research) to be a lethal and rear strain.

This pathogen also can spread among human beings. The congestion of birds in farms acts as a lab for the fast growth of the rare strain. Several attempts, including vaccination and culling, have been made towards reducing the viruses. However, research has argued that the H5N1 strain will continue to re-emerge for as long as the bureau farms are in existence.

Animal cruelty may also affect future human generations. As humans continue to kill a huge number of animals, they (animals) diminish at a high rate. If this is not monitored effectively, their numbers will be so low that they would not be able to serve future generations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Animal Cruelty by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As animals become endangered, their use is strictly limited. Therefore, if the present generations do not take care of the animals or use them effectively, future generations may not be able to benefit from them.

It has also been argued that childhood development is severely impaired by exposure to cruelty towards animals. When children observe adults harm and abuse animals, their mental health is affected since they begin to think that cruelty and abuse (of animals) is a norm. Therefore, they become accustomed, and they may resort to violence in the future (Beirne 40).

Interview What is your definition of animal cruelty?

Classmate: Animal cruelty is any activity that causes unnecessary harm to an animal.

Have you ever witnessed any form of animal cruelty?

Classmate: I witness animal cruelty almost every day. In the media, I see people kill thousands of animals for food, fur, and skin. Some are killed to use some of their body parts to make jewelry or medicine.

Do you support animal cruelty?

Classmate: On the contrary, I am strongly opposed to the act. This is unacceptable since the animals are treated ruthlessly. Animals feel pain as humans do.

What are you doing to help reduce incidences of animal cruelty?

Classmate: One way is by acting as an example. I have pets and treat each one with respect and dignity. I also advise my friends on how to treat them well. I am a big supporter of PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals).

What do you think the government should do to help?

Classmate: The government has the power to put in place policies to ensure that animals are treated well even if they are being killed for food or other purposes. There are better and humane ways of killing animals.

Works Cited Akhtar, Aysha. Animals and Public Health: Why Treating Animals Better Is Critical to Human Welfare. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. Print.

Beirne, Piers. “From animal abuse to interhuman violence: A critical review of the progression thesis.” Society


Mali as One of Developing Countries Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Introduction This is a report about Mali. It focuses on a range of issues, challenges, and controversies that Mali faces as a developing nation. It also highlights how actors and interests affect the country’s development.

Mali is a West African landlocked country. Over the last 20 years, Mali has strived to develop a stable democracy after the coup that toppled Moussa Traoré. Amadou Toumani Touré (ATT) ruled the country in a way many observers claimed was stable. However, in 2012, Mali has experienced a coup twice. This situation has made the country unstable for investments.

According to the African Report of 2011, Mali has over 13.3 million people (African Report 1). About 33 percent of people live in urban areas. The country’s GDP (gross domestic product) was approximately US$ 10.98 billion in 2011 (see fig. 1).

Figure 1: Mali Profile, 2012 from the African Report, 2012

Before the general election of 2012, many citizens and professionals believed that the new president would bring stability to the country. They presumed that the new president would tackle the issue of neglected policies and act tough on elements of Al Qaeda that reside in the Maghreb in the northern part of the country.

This group is responsible for several attacks on government establishments. Also, there are also Tuareg militias in northern Mali. These groups present serious threats to the security of the country.

Recent Developments The African Economic Outlook report notes that the real GDP grew by 1.1 percent. The primary sector recorded a growth of 5.8 percent. The secondary sector had a growth of 8.3 percent while the tertiary sector recorded a growth of 3.8 percent.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A forecast had predicted a growth of 6.9 percent based on good yields from agricultural sector rising prices of gold (Reuters 1) in the international markets. However, the unstable political environment has negatively affected these gains (African Economic Outlook 1).

The growth in population has increased consumption. Consumption increased by 2.8 percent during the year 2011. This was due to pay rise among civil servants and increased employment in other areas of the public sector.

In the last five years, the government of Mali has endeavored to improve the northern part of the country through road construction. It has spent over “$1.4 billion on road projects, which covers 227 kilometers from Bamako to Ségou” (African Report 1). The aim of this project is to reduce the marginalization of northern Mali. The Chinese contractors are also working on an airport at Kayes. This will supplement the main airport at Bamako.

There are also developments in power supply in which the government aims to supply power to iron-ore and gold mining areas. These power projects will provide additional 84MW to the national grid upon their completion. The dams shall also supply agricultural water to nearby farms.

Prices of commodities in the global markets have favored Mali’s export earnings from gold. Indian firms have also invested in the country to increase the mining of iron-ore.

The military seizure of power in March 2012 has altered support from the US and other development partners.

To facilitate economic growth, the government of Mali has identified key investment areas and offer incentives for investors. These areas include:

We will write a custom Research Paper on Mali as One of Developing Countries specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Agribusiness

Human and animal health promotion enterprises


Tourism and hotel industries

Mining and metallurgical industries

Housing development


Cultural promotion enterprises

Fishing and fish processing

Vocational and technical training enterprises

Livestock and forestry

Water and energy production industries

In 2013, the World Bank report of Doing Business Mali indicated a serious decline in ranking of some key areas relative to the previous year (World Bank 1). Mali dropped to position 151 in 2013 compared to position 145 in 2012. This represented a drop of six positions out of 185 countries in the report. We can attribute such negative developments to the military seizure of power in March and December of 2012.

Table 1: Doing Business 2013: Mali

Topic Rankings DB 2013 Rank DB 2012 Rank Change in Rank Starting a Business 118 115 -3 Dealing with Construction Permits 99 93 -6 Getting Electricity 115 111 -4 Registering Property 91 91 No change Getting Credit 129 127 -2 Protecting Investors 150 147 -3 Paying Taxes 166 167 1 Trading Across Borders 152 150 -2 Enforcing Contracts 133 133 No change Resolving Insolvency 120 118 -2 Source: The World Bank, 2013 (Doing Business 2013 data for Mali)

Openness to Foreign Investment The government of Mali has advocated for foreign investments in the past. Under this initiative, both foreign and domestic firms undergo the same processes. The country has enhanced structural adjustment facility (ESAF) to encourage foreign investment and resource mobilization since 1992.

The ESAF got support from the World Bank and the IMF. To fight poverty in the country, the World Bank and other partners in development recommended the important roles of the private sector in facilitating development.

Mali’s past structural adjustment program had focused on key areas like mining, investment, and trade for economic growth. The government has encouraged direct investment and export-oriented economy through its development policies.

Foreigners doing business in Mali can own 100 percent of their ventures. Also, the government allows foreigners to buy shares in during privatization of public companies. On this note, foreign investors can also create joint ventures with citizens of Mali.

The government uses job creations as a way of determining tax rates for firms. It argues that companies that hire young graduates should have tax advantages because they pay reduced rates.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Mali as One of Developing Countries by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Political Violence Mali is a multi-party state. For the last two decades under ATT administration, the country has strengthened its democracy. This stability has encouraged investments from both local and foreign areas. There are instances of political demonstrations, students’ riots, and violence. However, these are minor cases, which cannot deter investors.

Mali is mainly Islamic nation. However, it has a tolerant form of religion. The Al Qaida in the north has created instability in the region by attacking government installations and declaring independence.

The government also has to deal with Tuaregs in the north. According to the Heritage Foundation 2013, these Tuaregs are fighters who had served in “the security forces of former Libyan leader Muammar Qadhafi” (Heritage Foundation 1). They have perpetuated fragile rule of law in Mali.

Most recently in 2012, the military took control of Mali from the government. This has affected Mali because investors have shunned the country as an investment destination. Also, donors, especially from the US, have withdrawn their support to Mali (Bureau of African Affairs 1). Mali has good relationships with the neighboring countries, but coupled to sanctions from some countries (Callimachi 1).

From the recent activities, it is evident that the Malian army lacks the capacity and resources to control insecurity in the country. This was the case when rebels took control of several towns in Mali. Security in the country depends on safety in the northern Mali and political transition.

Corruption In Mali, corruption remains a crime that is punishable under the law. Despite such provision in the law, there are widespread cases of corruption in Mali. These cases affect large-scale investors and investment. Corruption has been a major obstacle to foreign direct investment in the country.

Government officials openly take bribes for routine jobs. According to Transparency International (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index 2012, Mali ranked 105 out of 176 countries (Transparency International 5). The score of 34 represents countries with high rates of corruption.

Table 2: Corruption Ranking:

Rank Country CPI score 105 Mali 34 Source: Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2012

Corruption in Mali is rampant in procurement procedures and the criminal justice system. The government officials demand their commission that ranges from ten to 15 percent of the cost. The government created the “Direction Generale des March Publiques” in an attempt to fight procurement corruption.

This body must establish that all procurement processes meet “requirements of fairness, price competitiveness, and quality standards” (Bureau of African Affairs 1). This shows that the government has committed to fight corruption in the public sector.

Cases of corruption are severe in dispute settlements. Also, the judiciary is slow and incompetent. Judiciary officials have low pay while the system has inadequate resources. These factors have increased the rate of corruption in Mali. Countries that operate under anti-corruption laws may find it difficult to operate and compete with firms that do not adhere to any form of ethics or do not have such legislation. This is why Chinese companies may thrive in Mali.

In some cases, the Court of Appeal has turned questionable judgments. Also, Mali has weak copyright law (Heritage Foundation 1). While such laws are available to protect inventions, the weak, corrupt, and inept judiciary has facilitated abuse of copyright law.

Labor Labor is readily available in Mali, but with varying skills, experience, and qualifications. In the past, some qualified individuals have lost their jobs from state-owned firms. These people have increased the rate of unemployment in the country. Most graduates are also in search of jobs.

According to African Economic Outlook, the results of “the national employment policy and initiatives such as the youth-employment program (YEP) are below expectations as unemployment hits young people hardest, with the rate standing at 15.4% for 15‑39 years old” (African Economic Outlook 1).

Also, young job seekers represent “81.5% of all unemployed people” (African Economic Outlook 1). On the contrary, the supply of qualified labor in areas with high growth like mining, telecommunication, and construction has been low.

According to the Global Economy, the average rate of unemployment in Mali for the last ten years is 8.8 (Global Economy). It notes that the average rate provides an accurate picture because a figure from a single year might be misleading.

Table 3: Unemployment rate: averages for the period from 2000 to 2010

Country Value Country Value United States 5.91 Mali 8.8 India 4.37 Hong Kong SAR, China 5.51 United Kingdom 5.52 Germany 8.73 Canada 7.09 Australia 5.45 Source: The Global Economy, 2013

The Accelerated Economic Growth Strategic Objective (AEG) The USAID started a ten-year program (AEG) that aimed at increasing economic growth and combating poverty through a partnership with the government, private firms, and development partners.

The AEG focused on promoting agricultural sector, trade in selected goods, and facilitating access to financial services (USAID 1). The aim of this initiative is to accelerate trade in agricultural products. It also focuses on promoting fast trade in products that Mali has a relative advantage.

The structural reform in Mali did not bring the desired changes because the growth stagnated at some points. Mali relies on export commodities, which suffer from fluctuations in international prices. This suggests that Mali must focus on alternative ways of growing its economy rather than depending on exports. Diversification of the economy shall create jobs and improve the competitive advantage of the country.

Mali must also form a partnership with neighboring countries to promote regional trade. Mali is a member of the West Africa Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) that consist of 15 states. Such trade agreements have preferential advantages in terms of gaining access to market opportunities.

The country is also a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). Under AGOA, the country has free access to the US market. The USAID in Mali has facilitated trade under the Sustainable Economic Growth Strategic Objective (SEG). SEG has aimed to improve the accessibility of market information under the OMA program.

OMA has emphasized livestock and cereal produce. It aims to provide farmers with reliable market information that can improve trade in the agricultural sector. OMA has focused on developing the same system across the West African region. It also organizes market outlook forums for regional farmers. In this regard, the program has enhanced the integration of the region’s economy.

The Africa Trade and Investment Program (ATRIP) has conducted many studies in the agricultural sector, especially on manufacturing, rice, and livestock sectors to establish growth opportunities in the sector. The USAID has also organized training and development programs under ECOWAS and WAEMU. Such training programs develop business skills, capacity, and encourage participation in the market.

The USAID reviewed challenges to Mali’s economic growth and listed them as follow:

Inadequate managerial skills in most enterprises because many of them are informal

Underdeveloped trade-related infrastructures

Lack of business support services like financial aid, market information

Weak links between private and public organizations

Weak integration and enforcement of regional agreements

Government Reforms The private sector is small in Mali with wide differences in cash flow. Such small enterprises depend on informal relations and networks. Private firms are also small. The government of Mali has focused on developing the private sector to spur economic growth and reduce unemployment. According to the Doing Business report, Mali recorded some improvements among WAEMU member states.

However, the political instability in the country has eroded such gains. In the year 2011, the government of Mali introduced a new investment standard to promote the growth of the private sector. On this note, technical and financial partners like AfDB (the African Development Bank) have also focused on Mali’s private sector by conducting studies and provide the missing information about the sector.

Accessibility of financial services in Mali has remained low with only “10% of Malian companies having obtained credit to finance their activities” (African Economic Outlook 1). Gaining access to credit facilities has been difficult due to the inability of traders to provide adequate guarantees, complex applications procedures, high-interest rates, and a lack of real need for credit.

In this respect, the government has responded through studies that have resulted into “the creation of a private-sector guarantee fund (FGSP) and a capital-stock investment company (SICR)” (African Economic Outlook 1). FGSP aims to guarantee short-term credit facilities, whereas SICR aims to promote the acquisition of shares in firms.

The AfDB has also responded by providing a loan to the Malian Solidarity Bank to spur growth in the private sector, especially among small and medium enterprises and traders. The government also embarked on privatization to induce development in the private sector.

Mali experiences serious environmental challenges such as desertification, shrinking forest cover, silting, inadequate rainfall, and decline in biodiversity. These conditions are likely to increase in the coming years. As a result, the government and other private partners have embarked on effective management of environmental resources to combat the effects of climate change.

Bilateral Economic Relations and the US assistance to Mali In terms of trade and investment, Mali remains a small market for the US. However, Mali has a huge potential for growth because it has not exploited its resources for economic expansion. The volume of trade between the US and Mali remains low.

Before the military coup of March 2012, there were a number of US agencies like USAID and Peace Corps among other organizations, which provided developmental assistance to Mali. The USAID focused on promoting peace and stability in northern Mali and enhancing political and economic integration of West African states.

The US Department of Defense has initiated training programs in Mali to develop the capacity that can allow Mali to combat security challenges it faces from rebels and Al Qaida. There are also agricultural development plans.

However, following the military seizure of power in Mali, the US ended all aid to Mali except humanitarian aid. The US reviews such assistance on a case-by-case basis. It will only resume development programs in Mali if the country reinstates a democratic government.

Conclusion Mali has made some achievements since it embraced democracy some 20 years ago. However, the instability in the north has made the country vulnerable to terrorists’ activities. Also, the current political instability has eroded gains that the country has achieved.

Mali depends on agriculture and exports of gold and iron-ore for economic growth. However, fluctuations in the international market prices have affected the economic growth of the country. As a result, development partners and the government of Mali have seen the need to diversify areas of economic growth.

Weaknesses in key institutions like the judiciary and other public offices have facilitated the poor growth of the economy by encouraging corruption. Corruption has made an inept justice system that is prone to political control.

The country has not reformed various issues like free trade, investment, and agreements, which affect investors.

Mali has started some reforms in public and private sectors to spur economic growth. However, these reforms face serious challenges like political instability and weak institutions. The country must gain investors confidence and develop credit facilities for small traders to spur economic growth in the private sector. This will facilitate trade, investment, and increase consumption.

Works Cited African Economic Outlook. Mali. 2012. Web. 16 March 2013. .

African Report. Mali: Country Profile 2012. 2012. Web. 16 March 2013. .

Bureau of African Affairs. U.S. Relations With Mali. 2012. Web. 16 March 2013. .

Callimachi, Rukmini. Post-coup Mali hit with sanctions by African neighbours. 17 April 2012. Web. 16 March 2013. .

Global Economy. Mali: Unemployment Rate. 2013. Web. 16 March 2013. .

Heritage Foundation. 2013 Index of Economic Freedom: Mali. 2013. Web. 16 March 2013. .

Reuters. Mali gold reserves rise in 2011 alongside price. 1 Jan. 2012. Web. 16 March 2013. .

Transparency International. Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2012. London: EYGM Limited, 2012. Print.

USAID. Mali Accelerated Economic Growth Strategic Objective Program. 2007. Web. 16 March 2013. .

World Bank. Ease of Doing Business in Mali 2013. 2013. Web. 16 March 2013. .


“Psychology, 10th Edition” by David G. Myers Essay college admissions essay help

Hunger and obesity One of the most interesting topics discussed by Myers is that of hunger and obesity. It appears that hunger and obesity are culturally-mediated (Myers 407). In other words, culture and social conditions play a huge role in how individuals perceive hunger and how they cope with overweight.

Myers’s point is that motivation to eat and motivation to stay hungry to lose some weight are also influenced by numerous biological, genetic, and physiological factors (411). However, I do not fully accept Myers’s position. The role of genetics and biology in the development of obesity can hardly be underscored. Still, it is more about psychology and individual motivation to pursue healthy lifestyles.

Motivation can help win the struggle with genetics and physiology because motivated individuals can set ambitious weight-loss goals and achieve them, even if their bodies work against them.

Motivation at work Another important topic is the motivation to work. We often ask ourselves why, in the presence of equal rewards, some employees are more motivated than others. Myers writes that it is always fascinating to have individual talents and skills fully engaged in the work process (451). Simply stated, individuals are much more motivated to work, when they enjoy their workplace obligations.

Look at Bill Gates – a person who is inspired by his work – and you will see how far a passion for work can go. Unfortunately, it is difficult to imagine that any leader or industrial psychologist will ever achieve a perfect employee-workplace fit.

This is the problem of the curse of knowledge, which Myers describes (455). More often than not, industrial psychologists and leaders implicitly assume that the level of their knowledge is equal to that of their subordinates or followers. They may not be able to deliver the knowledge and skills needed to motivate workers, and the level of motivation will always be lower than expected.

Cognition and emotions Have you ever heard somebody telling you that you do things before you think? Emotions often come first, and people do things they would have never done, had them a chance to think them over. Different theories were developed to explain the relationship between cognition and emotions, one of the most interesting being that of Zajonc, LeDoux, and Lazarus (Myers 462).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This theory helps explain why emotions override cognition. In certain situations, our emotional stimuli bypass our cortex; as a result, we make decisions based solely on our emotions, not reason. That emotions do not involve any cognitive thinking is a very important suggestion.

However, it also implies that there is nothing we, as psychologists, can do to reduce the power of emotions. What we can do is to evaluate the extent of emotionality in our clients and help them adjust their responses and utilize their best cognitive potentials.

Stress and health The relationship between stress and health is well-documented (Myers 482). On the one hand, stress impacts all organs and systems of the human organism; in this sense, almost any physical disease can be regarded as having psychological roots. On the other hand, because stress generates physiological responses, it can also be categorized as a physiological disorder.

To a large extent, the concept of stress is slippery, but the negative impacts of prolonged stress on individuals’ cardiovascular system cannot be denied. What makes me curious and even concerned is the way Myers describes the relationship between stress and AIDS (Myers 493).

If stress is at the heart of all immune problems in humans, then why are antidepressants not used to treat and prevent HIV and autoimmune diseases? I believe that it is too early to say that stress is responsible for every health problem, although timely psychologist’s help could potentially save thousands of people from long-term health complications.

Traits and personality Trait theories represent one of the essential approaches to personal psychology (Myers 526). However, I am confident that the excessive use of trait and other personality theories is the source of hidden professional dangers.

Whenever it comes to personality theories, including trait theories, the boundary between effective analysis and stereotyping/standardization becomes very blurred. I think that no theory can fully explain why and how certain individuals choose to behave. Thus, one of the main functions of a professional psychologist is to consider each case individually and avoid unreasonable generalizations, based on theories.

We will write a custom Essay on “Psychology, 10th Edition” by David G. Myers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Self-esteem The current research provides abundant information about self-esteem. Myers also speaks about the benefits of self-esteem. We are used to believing that individuals with high self-esteem have better chances to find themselves in life. They do not give up their positions easily and are more prone to struggle with challenging assignments and difficult tasks (Myers 545).

The question that lingers in the air is whether too much self-esteem good for a person. I can imagine a person who, due to increased self-confidence and unreasonably high self-esteem, assumes the responsibilities and accepts obligations, with which he (she) is not able to cope. This is why I would encourage a deeper analysis of the accepted levels of self-esteem and the impacts, which high self-esteem has on individual productivity and personality growth.

Attribution error While trait theories consider personality to be the central element of decision making, the role which the environment plays in our decisions should not be ignored (Myers 554). Attribution error occurs when we place too many hopes on our capabilities and talents and do not account for the potential environmental influences (Myers 554). In most cases, the fundamental attribution error keeps us from making objective and reasonable judgments.

I think that this attribution error comes into play when we evaluate our first impression from meeting a new person. For example, we can see a young man, who is sitting silently at his table and is keeping at a distance from other people in the room. We may come to believe that he is dull and uninteresting.

He may simply be in a bad mood, or he may not like his surrounding, or he may have family problems. The attribution error tells us that we should not be prejudiced and stereotyped, as well as avoid judging people by their appearance.

Prejudice Myers describes prejudice as a product of both emotional and cognitive processes. Myers recognizes that prejudice can flourish because of the social conditions, which favor it and grow from the passions of the heart (577). However, prejudice is not only about holding rape victims and individuals with AIDS responsible for their mischief. Prejudice is associated with conservatism and does not allow legislating major social changes.

I think that we should start to look at prejudice as a complex cognitive, not social, process. Myers provides interesting information as to how prejudice impacts the human brain (577). I am sure that this is one of the best ways to understand the mechanism of prejudice and prevent it.

Anxiety disorders In this chapter, Myers describes the way anxiety disorders develop and how they work. The researcher also discusses the relationship between observational learning, genes, and cognition and their relative contribution to the development of various anxiety disorders (614).

Not sure if you can write a paper on “Psychology, 10th Edition” by David G. Myers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, I still feel that none of the existing explanations is compelling. I have seen people with fears and phobias, and I cannot say that they have an anxiety disorder. I also cannot say that any of the abovementioned factors were responsible for their fears.

In most cases, the roots of fears and phobias are difficult to explain. I think that present-day philosophy of anxiety disorders requires further analysis. The boundary between simple anxiety and an anxiety disorder is very vague. I am confident that future researchers should focus on the development of more valid criteria for various anxiety disorders.

Schizophrenia To my mind, schizophrenia is one of the most controversial topics in Myers’s textbook. Myers compares schizophrenia to psychological cancer. Myers also writes that schizophrenia will develop in 1 out of 100 people, 60 percent of them being men (631). The number is very high, which means that thousands of people around us can face the risks of the disease.

Still, is schizophrenia a disease? I have read several studies and books, which question the relevance of schizophrenia. Myers takes a position that schizophrenia is the most heavily research mental health disorder, but is the objective in his judgments? (633) In my view, the reader should be able to create a complete picture of the diagnosis and evaluate all existing perspectives and viewpoints.

However, Myers does not say a word on what is going on about schizophrenia in professional research. Reasons, why the validity of the schizophrenia diagnosis should be better understood, are numerous. The social implications of the diagnosis can be profound. Individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia can experience considerable economic and social problems. This is why it is important to pay more attention to this problem.

Humanistic therapies I believe that, when it comes to psychological therapies and disorders, no theory or approach can be universally effective. The choice of the most appropriate treatment model should be based on several factors, including personality, social conditions, and individual preferences. Still, humanistic therapies described by Myers can serve as a universal basis for the development of novel psychological theories and practice approaches (655).

Humanistic theories reflect the fundamental tendency of modern psychologists to promote client-centered care and provide their assistance in ways that help clients grow in their self-awareness and self-fulfillment. Humanistic theories rest on the assumption that all individuals have the capacity and resources to grow, and this is also why I am going to use these theories in my practice.

Traditional and alternative theories One of the main questions facing psychologists is how to evaluate the relative effectiveness of various therapies, especially alternative ones. My opinion is that everything in our science should be evidence-based. Both traditional and alternative therapies can have positive impacts on our clients, but we should be very thorough while making the final choice.

We may certainly judge the effectiveness of these therapies, based on our experiences and clients’ responses. When it comes to using traditional or alternative therapy for the first time, empirical evidence should always govern our choices.


Prepare a negotiation strategy in a report format for a company or government or other legal entity on a project or undertaking of your own choosing. Be sure to clearly describe the nature of that pro college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Be sure to clearly describe the nature of that project or under taking. You will need to establish a plan for negotiations that will permit negotiators to maximize the ability to obtain best value, based on the requirement and established evaluation factors. In that regard you will need to determine an overall negotiation approach. This would include;
•Selecting the strategy and tactics that are likely to be most effective in accomplishing the priorities and objectives for the negotiation.
•Planning the order in which issues will be addressed during negotiations. 
•Identifying potential concessions, including:-
– Potential concessions that the entity would be willing to make in response to projected offeror concessions.
– Concessions that the entity would expect from the offeror in response to potential concessions.
•Planning bargaining tactics suited to the negotiator’s personality and the tactics that will probably be used by the offeror’s negotiator.
•Examine the likely impact and outcomes of the strategy applied.
The length of the report will not be more than 2500 words excluding references. References should ideally be the latest (year 2010 and onwards) and use the American Psychological Association (APA) or Harvard format.


Wealth Accumulation and Its Effects Essay essay help online: essay help online

Introduction The current disparities in wealth have been in existence for many years. The gap between the rich and the poor started to widen due to the emergence of industrialization. Inventors of various technological components monopolized their inventions. This enabled them to accumulate enormous wealth (Portes 1).

This article examines two authors namely George Henry and Carnegie Andrew and how they argue about wealth accumulation and its effects. Their ideas on the effects of accumulation of wealth in the development of America are indeed conflicting.

For instance, Henry believes that accumulation of wealth by a few individuals negatively affects America. However, Carnegie exudes confidence that there are myriads of positive effects when individuals are allowed to accumulate enormous wealth.

Analysis According to Henry (Portes 2), the true wealth of an individual should be limited to the individual’s ability. Other factors (such as monopolies) that allow certain individuals to accumulate mass wealth should be discouraged. He believes that the difference in the innovativeness of individuals is not as large as the gap that exists between the poor and the rich (Portes 3).

In addition, he supports his argument with case studies of millionaires who existed during his lifetime. He describes the way those millionaires accumulated their wealth. From his analysis, it is evident that several wealthy people employed high levels of manipulation, monopolization, and fraud to acquire their riches. He asserts that all human beings have the ability of becoming rich.

However, the current gap between the rich and the poor coupled with individualism has made it almost impossible for the poor to acquire wealth. He advocates for government regulations on the amount of wealth that can be owned by an individual. In his paper, he also philosophically asserts that the true wealth of Americans should almost be equal.

Henry’s perspective is a complete contrast to Carnegie’s point of view. Carnegie believes that Americans who are being allowed to accumulate wealth allow better economic development. He envisages that the spirit of individualism encourages competition and self-actualization (Portes 2). Moreover, he has no problem with Americans accumulating wealth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He perceives it as a normal occurrence in humanity since an individual’s social status is dependent on effectiveness and. He offers explanations on the relevance of wealth accumulation and how it has helped to further the industrial revolution in the country.

In addition, he believes that if Americans’ freedom of wealth accumulation is restrained, the developments realized so far will be significantly affected. His opinion is based on the natural human instincts of an individual’s success rather than group success.

The efficiency of Americans will be downgraded if individualism is prohibited. Furthermore, he argues that most Americans may not realize their full potential. Therefore, the accumulation of wealth from Carnegie’s point of view is seemingly better for the sake of all Americans.

The two authors agree to some extent that the emerging gap between the poor and the rich should be addressed. However, they offer different methods of addressing the growing disparity between the poor and the rich. To begin with, Carnegie believes that nobody should acquire riches using fraudulent deals. However, he advocates for incentives so that all Americans can be enabled to accumulate enough wealth.

This is opposed to direct wealth redistribution. He offers several measures such as increasing training facilities and educational support that will enable the poor to bridge the gap between them and the rich. Additionally, he advocates for active utilization of the accumulated wealth. In addition, he proposes the initialization of government policies that compel the rich to help the poor in society.

This contradicts Henry’s perspective who believes that the available wealth should be distributed among all the Americans. He suggests that this is the only way that equality can be realized in the American society. Furthermore, he narrates that the accumulation of wealth is a means of manipulating of government processes. He compares it with the way judiciary has been manipulated for long as a result of accumulated wealth.

The rich people use wealth to acquire almost everything they need including justice. In order to avoid such occurrences, he suggests equitable distribution of wealth among the Americans. Carnegie rejects this proposal by arguing that wealth distribution will not solve the problem since it is a temporary solution to the challenge.

We will write a custom Essay on Wealth Accumulation and Its Effects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He believes that redistribution of wealth will eventually result into emerging cases of the rich and the poor due to the management styles of those who own property. This is opposed to Henry’s suggestion.

Analyses of the two authors’ arguments confirm that that they agree on the problem that is facing Americans, namely the growing gap between the poor and the rich (Portes 8).

While Carnegie trusts that the two diverse groups will always exist and nothing can be done to bring everything on the same level, Henry is emphatic that all Americans can be equal provided that the necessary measures are put in place to tackle the disparities. Carnegie suggests that very little can be done in terms of uplifting the poor people.

Redistribution of the wealth will downgrade the achievements that were made during industrial revolution. The revolution was a success because individuals were allowed to obtain maximum returns from their contributions. Hence, it encouraged competition for resources and eventually enhanced development (Portes 10). The acknowledgement of excessive wealth accumulations because of capitalism and individualism is quite intriguing.

The author advocates for wealth accumulation but believes that there should be a maximum amount of wealth that an individual can posses. He points out on the available mechanisms that can be used to redistribute wealth. The most common mechanism is the distribution of wealth to family members.

He note that this option of wealth redistribution may be ineffective since individuals may not be willing to share their wealth with family members before they die. Besides, most people die without the proper documentation on wealth distribution.

One of the solutions offered is that in cases where individuals own massive wealth, they should use the same to uplift the society during their lifetime. He is against cases where individuals’ wealth is used to help the society when the actual owners are already dead. This offers no room for appreciation of the help offered and therefore, it limits the number of people who are willing to give back to the society (Portes 13).

To recap it all, the arguments posed by the two authors are indeed substantial although some recommendations may be unrealistic. However, both of them are advocating for all Americans to be rich. Henry believes that all Americans are wealthy but they have been denied their riches, while Carnegie emphasizes that the rich should use their wealth to develop a platform for bridging the gap between the rich and the poor.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Wealth Accumulation and Its Effects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Portes, Alejandro. Social Capital: Its Origins and Applications in Modern Sociology. Annual Review of Sociology 24(1998): 1-24. Print.


Water Crisis Essay online essay help

The issue of water is a global affair because of the alarming rate at which limited fresh water reservoirs is depleted. Water is important for the sustenance of human life and most people treasure it. Due to its limited supply and the reduction of fresh water sources, it has become a sought after natural resource the same as oil.

The documentary ” Blue Gold: World Water Wars” talked about the disturbing rates at which individuals use water commercially and domestically to a point of altering nature including the wetlands and excessive mining of underground water.

A large number of corporate companies have control over water resources, including the distribution systems, in view of the fact that third world governments have relinquished their responsibilities in terms of protecting water supply as well as water conservation (Barlow


Coastal Erosion of Kivalina Island Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

The article Coastal Erosion and the Threat to Kivalina, Alaska highlights in great detail the dangers of coastal erosion in Kivalina, Alaska. The erosion of the coastal land poses a great danger to the inhabitants and their livelihoods. The island of Kivalina has reduced significantly because of erosion, and people live in fear.

The natives live in uncertainty as they see the imminent danger posed by the loss of coastal land as a result of climate change. The community is at risk, and there is a need to relocate the village to safer grounds. Similarly, in the article Voices: How coastal erosion contributes to poverty: Time for a new federal approach by Courtney Howell and Diane Huhn the coast of Louisiana faces risks because of erosion of its lands.

The erosion of the coastal land has led to a rise in poverty for the people. Fishing is a major economic activity in Louisiana, and fishermen are not able to support their families because the number of fish has gone down with the destruction of marsh that acts as a source of food for the marine life. Moreover, the community suffers economically as they have to keep rebuilding their houses after storms that leave destruction.

Insurance is expensive, and most cannot afford to pay high premiums. The most affected people are those who are in the low-income brackets, and yet they live in areas that have no protection against the storms because the natural protection was destroyed by human activities and climate changes (Howell and Huhn 1).

Likewise, in Kivalina, the erosion of the coastal lands has led to fear and uncertainty among the people as the environment they depend on for their livelihood changes before their own eyes and the changes are negative. The seasons for harvesting have changed, and anyone not keen to note the changes may miss the harvesting season.

The village depends on fishing and hunting. Hence, relocating them would affect them adversely economically (“Coastal erosion” 1). Moreover, moving the communities from both areas to a safer place is very costly, and there are inadequate funds available to undertake that kind of a task.

Consequently, both communities have to come up with ways to protect their coastal lands from further destruction and mitigate the damage already done. They require the help of the government and the corps to take measures that will protect the coastal lands as opposed to temporally ones that work only for a while as the damage continues. Unfortunately, the government does not finance the relocation project because of the high costs involved.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, the impact of the erosion of coastal lands developing world and third world countries is greater than in the developed world, yet those governments lack funds and proper policies to protect their coastal lands.

The gains achieved in fights against poverty in developing and third world countries risks being reversed by coastal erosion as livelihoods of many people are destroyed. Likewise, many people living in coastal lands in Louisiana and Kivalina will be pushed into poverty as the effects of climate change take a toll on their communities.

In conclusion, the government and all stakeholders must take decisive action to protect the coastal lands now because delaying the process through bureaucracy is only worsening the situation, and mother nature will punish the delays harshly.

The government must be willing to fund the projects that aim at restoring the coastal lands instead of focusing only on quick-fix solutions. More importantly, concerted efforts must be made to curb climate changes through the enforcement of laws against the pollution that contributes to global warming. Now is the time to take action and safeguard the future of thousands of people and their future generations.

Works Cited Coastal Erosion and the Threat to Kivalina, Alaska. 2008. Web. 14 Mar. 2013. <


“Where do we come from?” by Massimo Pigliucci Essay best college essay help

The main aim of science is to give a meaningful explanation of natural phenomena (Pigliucci 21). Among the phenomena that science has not been able to give a satisfactory explanation is the question of the origin of life. Currently, no one knows where the origin of life is. There are several theories that have been advanced to explain the origin of life. The theories postulate that life either began here on earth or elsewhere in the universe.

There are those who believe in the supernatural creation of life. Some scientists who gave us such theories include Hoyle and Chandra who suggested the existence of a creator. However, their view of creation is different from the traditional creation story. They believed that there is a supernatural creator who seeded the earth with life forms. Another theorist is Duane Gish whose theory is more similar to the traditional creation theory.

The main weakness of the two theories is their inability to give an explanation that can be tested. It seems that the theories shift the debate of the origin of life to a place outside our planet. They do not pinpoint the exact place where life began and the dynamics involved in the creation.

Another explanation on the origin of life is that life originated from extraterrestrial space. Inherent in this theory is the assumption that organic matter from outer space entered the earth without losing viability. The theory has been supported by the discovery of organic molecules in space that may have played role information of the first life forms.

Perhaps the most realistic explanation is that of molecular origin. Living systems are made up of proteins and nucleic acids. Between the nucleic acids and the proteins, it is not clear which appeared first. However, it is thought that the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) may have appeared first.

Primordial soup and primordial pizza are closely related to this theory. To understand the origin of life, an understanding of what qualifies life is necessary. Living systems have the following qualities; growth, replication, response to the environment and metabolism.

The author of this article has tried to be objective throughout the article. However, in some instances, it is apparent that the author has taken a stand and is not arguing from a neutral point of view. For example, the author is quick to dismiss the creation theory without doing a proper examination of the facts. However, he is accurate in pointing out that the absence of positive evidence does not prove the existence of a phenomenon.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author examines the theories and can point out the merits and demerits of each. To a large extent, the author can maintain objectivity. However, his use of the first person singular leaves the reader with questions as to whether the author is arguing objectively. Scientific papers or articles are usually written in the third person singular.

This is because in science the reader is not interested in the author. The reader is interested in the content. Use of the first person singular gives the impression that the author is merely giving his opinion. This may affect the credibility of the paper.

The article examines the majority of the theories on the subject. This ensures that no important arguments are missed. Comparing several theories gives the impression that the analysis is thorough and proper. The article ends by recommending further testing of some theories. This is a proper stand to take since no theory has fully explained the origin of life.

Works Cited Pigliucci, Massimo. “Where do we come from?” Skeptical Inquirer. 23.5 (1999): 21-29. Web. 14 March 2013.


“Memento” by Christopher Nolan Essay college essay help

Memento is an American psychological thriller by Christopher Nolan that narrates the story about Leonard Shelby, a man who suffers from loss of long-term memory, which prevents the heroes from storing new memories. In order to remember the events from the past, Shelby develops a system of notes, photos, and tattoos that remind of his intentions. The movie has a peculiar narrative structure that is composed of two chronologically opposite lines.

The first sequence of scenes proposes a set of black-and-white episodes that provide a chronological order of events. This part is combined with as series of colored scenes that are presented in a reverse order. Both sequences are logically united at the end of story to make sense of the scenes. The nonlinear organization makes the reader be concentrated on the plot, which is a peculiar feature of all Nolan’s movies.

The sophisticated structure of the movie prevents the viewers from making sense of the scenes and contributing to their puzzling nature. Despite the fact that the main plot runs backwards, the logic is still underscored in the hero’s actions for which logic is the only tool for coordinating his everyday world.

Shelby’s short-term memory does not allow him to find his wife’s killer; it also makes him an antagonist of the story whose only goal is to find the man who killed his wife. As he strives to remember, the hero develops an advanced system of recollections that permit him to continue his searching for the truth.

The tattoos on his body testify to his firm beliefs in the fact of killing, but Leonard never understands that facts imprinted on his body could be as subjective as the recollections. Therefore, the conclusions he makes about the surrounding events premise on his solid observations rather than on facts and hard evidence. Therefore, Sheldon faces a challenge of distinguishing between true and false facts.

According to Lin, “Logic is no help against the nuances of this situation and its inadequacy is perfectly illustrated when Leonard…is confronted by a warning from another dubious ally” (27). Due to the slight boundary between the subjective and the objective, there are considerable doubts concerning the adequacy of Shelby’s intentions.

The main plot of the movie prioritizes the protagonist mission despite the disoriented scene structure and Shelby’s failure to build the sequences of events stipulating the crime. However, at the end of the story, two scene sequels are united to organize the entire picture and makes sense of the hero’s actions. The end of the movie also undermines the logic and objectivity that Leonard employs in the pursuit of justice.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Throughout the movie, the hero suffers from constant victimization because the recollection about the moment of his wife killing never leaves him alone. The hero, therefore, is considered the victim of short-term memories and violence.

Failure to feel the sense of time, the hero could not realize how long he lives without his wife. At the same time, the undertone of uncertainly is intertwined with his wives’ remarks about Leonard’s genuine intentions and goals. In fact, further events in the movie make the viewers focus on the uncertainty and ambivalence of his notes and conclusions that distort the facts.

Aside from the plot of the movie, as well as the objectivity of Leonard’s judgments, the film focuses on the hero’s ability to cognize, reason, and connect the facts into a logical chain of events. As Sternberg notes, “the film illustrates the ways the brain continuously collects…inputs from our surroundings and our emotional responses to them to form the memories that create our own unique and constantly evolving identity (1661).

Mysterious events of Leonard’s life are combined with the horrible death of his wife, and the viewers try to collect the glues into a whole. The story, therefore, emphasizes the incredible importance of memory for putting all episodes into one logical story. For the hero, the present time is the only time he lives in, but the viewers receive new experience while observing the hero’s recollection and evolution.

Therefore, Sternberg agrees that, “without memory, events happen, emotions are felt, and times moves, but those experiencing the passing show cannot retain any of it” (1661).

The hero, therefore, is doomed to face old experiences and re-live them again and again to focus on the moment he needs. Therefore, the sense of the self is exterminated because Leonard stops changing his experience whereas viewers gain new experience while viewing new details revealed in the scenes.

While watching the movie, the viewers should also rely on their memory only in order to keep track of all the details throughout the movie. However, the end of the story is so sophisticated that they should go back to the very beginning of the movie to find out the logical sequences (Sternberg 1661).

We will write a custom Essay on “Memento” by Christopher Nolan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the same time, while connecting the events by means of our memory, viewers also question themselves whether the memory is a reliable tool for analyzing and reasoning the objective reality. Various approaches to storing and retaining memories are brightly highlighted in the movie; more importantly, the movie also focuses the connection between body and mind that premise on the Freudian theory of Skin Ego.

Therefore, film discovers the sophisticated structure and interaction of time and space in forming the memory storage. At the same time, it is also necessary to define how the hero’s subjectivity influences the perception of temporal and spatial characteristics. On the one hand, memory is the only warehouse of information that a person relies on to shape their outlooks and experiences in live.

On the other hand, Christopher Nolan questions the reliability of memory as an objective source of data because each detail that the hero finds out focuses on his previously forgotten experiences (Pile 135). So, each time he receives information, Leonard can interpret it differently in the light of the new circumstances surrounding the facts.

With regard to the above-presented arguments, the concept of time, as the factors that influence the searching for absolute truth, creates new concepts in the movie.

Memento refers to a mediation in which there is no place for absolute truth but a series of lies that are followed with other false assumptions based on these lies (Lyons 130). Therefore, the movie does not focus on details, but also on Shelby’s ability to connect these details by means of logic and order, but not by means of memory.

In conclusion, Memento bears a complex mixture of temporal and spatial deviations that premise on the hero’s failure to gain new experiences and connect them to the old ones. Without a memory, a person loses the opportunity to feel and understand.

The second focus of the movie refers to the reliability and objectivity of the hero’s judgments because the facts he learns within the short cam perceive differently. Therefore, there is no absolute truth, but a reasoned, logical change of facts that are connected by memory and experience.

Works Cited Lin, Francie. “Double Think”, The Threepenny Review. 87 (2001): 27. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “Memento” by Christopher Nolan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lyons, Diran. “Vengeance, the Powers of the False, and the Time-Image in Christopher Nolan’s Memento.” Angelaki: Journal Of The Theoretical Humanities 11.1 (2006): 127-135. Print.

Pile, Steve. “Topographies of the Body-And-Mind: Skin Ego, Body Ego, And The Film ‘Memento’.” Subjectivity: International Journal Of Critical Psychology 27.1 (2009): 134-154. Print.

Sternberg, Esther. “Piecing Together a Puzzling World”, Science. 292.5522 (2001): 1661-1662. Print.


Free Trade Agreement Colombia and USA Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction Free trade agreement between Colombia and the United States (US) is based on cardinal performance objectives that aim at promoting economic growth in the nations. The agreement has come at the right time when various nations are gearing towards forming strong economic blocks. The nations are keen to enhance their competitiveness and negotiation power on various issues about economic and social advancement.

Indeed, nations that seek to expand their growth in terms of investment, production, and distribution of goods should join viable strategic trading blocks. This is essential since no nation can achieve its performance objectives in isolation. They need the input and support from other nations with the same level of passion and determination for growth.

Scholars affirm that the agreement that has been signed between the US and Colombia is a major step forward in ensuring that the economies benefit from each other effectively. The agreement will facilitate trade, political engagement and international relations between the nations. This is evident since the agreement provides requisite guidelines that hold the capacity of fostering peace between the nations.

In particular, the agreement is set to eliminate the existing bottlenecks that have been affecting trade and other activities between the nations. It provides a favorable environment that will advance smooth operations between the nations under mutual ideals.

The agreement also seeks to ensure that the borders between the nations are opened to facilitate the smooth flow of goods. That is the opening of the borders is set to enhance importation and exportation activities between the nations.

The objective of the foreign policy As noted, the trade agreement between Colombia and the US is an important step in promoting commercial activities in the nations. The agreement is to facilitate trade or exchange of goods through the elimination of trade barriers that have been impeding commercial activities between the countries. It is based on clear-cut policies and strategies that are economically oriented to ensure that its execution is well on course.

According to the international trade commission (ITC), the agreement brings together two big economies in the region. This is evident since the US is a big economy that produces and suppliers a lot of goods such as wheat, beacon, barley, soybeans, and vegetables.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Colombia also has a vibrant economy as it is ranked third best economy in Central and South America regions. This shows that the nations will greatly benefit from the new trade arrangement that they have signed (Platzer 2). The objective of the agreement is to eliminate the evident trade barriers that have been affecting importation and exportation of goods between the nations.

This is essential in ensuring the improved exchange of goods through importation and exportation to manage consumer needs. The key trade barriers that are to be eliminated include trade tariffs, the balance of payment deficit, quota system and trade embargoes. The removal of these trade barriers is set to facilitate a duty-free transfer of goods between the nations.

The agreement also stipulates that the remaining issues that affect trade between the nations that have not been covered will be addressed within 15 years. Indeed, duty-free transfer of goods between the nations is to ensure that the nations acquire essential products that they do not produce effectively (Platzer 5). For instance, the United States is bound to import fruits from Colombia while Colombia will import grains from the US.

This exchange program is to ensure that the locals in these nations can acquire basic items with limited complications. The program will also facilitate absolute integration between the nations economically, politically and diplomatically. This will enhance their international relationship that is necessary for meaningful growth.

Analysis of the policy’s impact on geopolitics and international relations

The policy that is under adoption present various scenarios in which it seeks to impact operations of the two nations locally and internationally. Firstly, it will present far-reaching internal and external changes in the two nations. That is the trade agreement will have an immense impact on the nations political, social, economic and international relations.

According to ITC, the agreement that has been signed will foster economic growth by increasing GDP performance in both nations. For instance, the US economy is projected to record a GDP growth of $2.5bilion. This will facilitate the development of strong structural adjustments that foster international interrelations. It will also expand trade between the nations by promoting import and export activities.

This will ensure the effective transfer of goods and services that will contribute to the development of the economies. Imperatively, it will support the creation of more jobs for individuals with employment potential who lack jobs in the two nations. Diplomatically, the agreement will help in building a strong and cordial relationship between the nations (Villareal 19).

We will write a custom Essay on Free Trade Agreement Colombia and USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More That is the agreement will see the nations improve on their engagement at the international level. Indeed, the agreement gives a clear picture that the nations commit working together to enhance performance in their economies. The agreement also portrays the nations as potential business partners to other nations who may need joining the agreement.

This gives the nations leverage advantage since other countries see them as international partners (Villareal 9). Politically, the agreement will help in ensuring that the nations adopt viable political policies and guidelines. They will strive to formulate issue-oriented guidelines to help in aligning their political systems. This is essential since politics is an integral element that affects operations in various nations.

The unfavorable political environment cannot support meaningful business activities in any setting. Therefore, the agreement between the nations will go along way in aligning geopolitical activities in both nations. Further, the agreement would present a significant impact between the two nations and other global economies. This is because some nations may consider the move by the two countries as an isolative move (Platzer 16).

However, other nations may consider the move as a noble step towards achieving economic integration in the entire region. Authorities in the nations may establish that the nations are ready for regional integration that is vital for economic integration. Such divergent views may affect the realization of the noble intentions of the agreement since lack of unity is a recipe for great failure.

Conclusion It is proper to conclude that the agreement between the US and Colombia will be of great benefit to both nations. This is evident since the agreement will promote economic growth in the nations. In particular, it will expand trade by increasing the number of products that both nations can import or export from each other.

It will also enhance the competitiveness of the two nations and support more job creation for the citizens. Consequently, the agreement that is set with the aim of promoting the duty-free transfer of goods will help in increasing the GDP growth of the nations.

Works Cited International Trade Commission (ITC). U.S.-Oman Free Trade Agreement: Potential Economy wide and Selected Sectoral Effect. New York (NY). DIANE Publishing. 2008. Print.

Platzer, Michaela. Pending U.S. and EU Free Trade Agreements with South Korea: Possible Implications for Automobile and Other Manufacturing Industries. New York (NY). DIANE Publishing. 2010. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Free Trade Agreement Colombia and USA by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Villareal, Angeles. Proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement. New York (NY). DIANE Publishing. 2009. Print.


Performance Improvement: A Guide to Improving People, Process, and Performance. Book genesiswebmaster. (2010, June 22). Training and performance improvement [Video file].YouTube video. a level english language essay help

For this assignment, research the shift from training to performance. Write a paper that describes the shift by providing a rationale for the occurrence or non-occurrence, and the importance to the field of global training and development. Include the following in your paper: Include a discussion on organizational learning and the impact on training Include a discussion on the changes in learning and instruction Length: 5-7 pages not including title and reference page References: Minimum of 3-5 scholarly resources. Your paper should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts that are presented in the course and provide new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your paper should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards.


Community Organizing Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Demographic characteristics

Resident characteristics

Problems in the community

System and Ecological Perspective


Intervention Plan

Conclusion and viewpoints about community

Reference List

Introduction Community is a group of people living in the same geographical location sharing some common beliefs or even culture. It is an important unit in the social sciences. Therefore, understanding it is crucial. The best way to describe the community is by experiencing the values first hand. This strategy involves living in that community. It is with this knowledge that I will attempt to describe the community in which I live with the purpose of understanding cultural diversity.

A brief description of the community will be done with the use of statistical and geographical characteristics followed by an evaluation of the changes through time since I joined the community. The issues that the community deals with will then be discussed with appropriate recommendations being made.

Demographic characteristics Having moved from Colombia a few years ago at the age of 18 years, I settled in the city of Downey California, which still serves as my current city of residence. Downey had a population of 111,868 people in 2011 representing a population change of 4.2% since the year 2000 (Farley,


Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s Era Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Franklin Delano Roosevelt served as the 32nd U.S president between 1933 and1945. It is during this period when the great depression was experienced not only in the United States but also in other parts of the world. The great depression was a period of global economic meltdown that followed the smash of the stock market in 1929.

During this time, most businesses collapsed, and joblessness persisted for a longer period. The Great Depression resulted in overwhelming impacts in both rich and poor nations. In his first inaugural address to the people on March 4, 1933, Franklin Roosevelt affirms that in the “dark hour” of the nation, the economy was in dire straits (p.40).

Accepting that values had “fallen to fantastic levels,” the economy was in great pressure, and the government was facing “serious curtailment of income” with raising taxes, frozen exchanges, and dented savings and high rate of unemployment (p.40), approximately five million (p 50). Franklin Roosevelt was committed to ending the great depression in the United States of America by introducing “a definite program for putting people to work” (p 50).

Roosevelt’s propositions to end the plight of distress caused by the great depression centered on the themes of recovery, relief, and reform. Most of the plans and strategies commenced following his introduction of a “new order of things (p 48).

He outlined “a wide field” of work including “clearance of slums”, “rural electrification”, “reforestation of the great watersheds, “constructing national highways designed to handle modern traffic”, extension of the Civilian Conservation Corps, and other important projects, “mostly self liquidating and highly useful to the local divisions of the government” (p 52).

Roosevelt’s plans were intended to provide relief from the great depression, increase jobs and ensure the safety of the environment through conservation and restoration. The potpourris of policy initiatives proposed by Roosevelt were aimed at the general welfare of the people.

His relief policies aimed primarily at the task of providing jobs to the unemployed through the construction of dams, parks and other infrastructure projects which Roosevelt believed would create 3.5 million jobs and cost 5 million (p 47). Roosevelt developed proper plans to boost the farmers’ incomes. These plans comprised of, amongst other activities, controlling the farm production.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Franklin took several initiatives for evolving and implementing codes of unbiased commercial activities. Among the several programs Roosevelt’s administration undertook to revive the economy, was the “cutting back or eliminating federal welfare programs” (intro 47) by making the daring statement in his speech that the “Federal government must and shall quit this burden of relief” (p51).

Roosevelt’s plans of opening new parks, constructing new dams influenced the Congress to enact several laws and regulations, which were intended to provide liberation to individuals who were worst hit by the Depression, and restructuring the commercial, economic, as well as agricultural practices. However, during the second election, Roosevelt daringly confessed in his speech that “people want more than promises” (p 56).

His address to the people affirms that some of the plans had not met the desired expectations. Nevertheless, Roosevelt’s promise of continued efforts “to improve working conditions for the workers of America”, “to increase wages”, “to end the labor of children” was greeted by roaring enthusiastic crowds who had been lifted out of their sagging spirits from the great depression, welcomed Roosevelt’s second term with open arms.

Roosevelt spelt out his plans for a better America to the people by promising to continue to “stop every effort to end monopoly in business, to support collective bargaining, to stop unfair competition, to abolish dishonorable trade practices” (p 56). Outlining more specific plans than ever, Roosevelt appealed with the assertion of continued efforts for cheaper electricity and transportation, low rates of interests and better banking facilities for the people.

This speech, more than ever, is a clear indication of the clear set of plans Roosevelt’s administration had a set of plans for ending the great depression, not exactly consistent, but aimed at the general welfare of the people of America.

Work Cited Polenberg, Richard. The Era of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 1933-1945: A Brief History with Documents. Bedford Books.


Bushfire in Australia Essay online essay help

The main thrust of the reading is the comparison of modern day fires and the ancient fires in Australia. The author brings out the contract between the fires. The old day fires in Australia, which the author refers to as Aborigines bushfires is depicted to have been of greater importance to the livelihood of people at that time. Aborigine’s bushfires were never as devastated as present or modern Australia fires.

There were little or minimal killer fires in Australia because they knew to prevent such fires and worked harder to make the fire malleable. The bushfires also never had devastating effects because the country was properly looked after and it much harder for large scale bushfires occurring. Bush burning during the period was controlled, predetermined by season and predictable.

Additionally, burning was purposefully done to either benefit animals, allow re-vegetation, and attracting game. The locals had proper timing, and frequency helped regulate fire intensity (Gammage, 2011). Conversely, modern Australia fires are more devastating than the Aborigine fires. This is attributed to cluttered, grassy and scrubby vegetation cover.

Furthermore, the devastating fires are attributed to poor biodiversity conservation and lack of skills, awareness, and inclination to fight such fires. The forests are dense today, which is a great risk in case of fire breakup. The present generation is more centralized and disregards the local knowledge that is vital in fire management (Gammage, 2011).

The author observes that killer fires are prevalent today due to modern society’s lack of important knowledge in the control of such fires. The main issue arising from the reading is the present day devastating effects of the modern fires as compared to the old days when the fire was an ally in Australia.

From the presentation of the explanation of the causes of this phenomenon, it is clear that the differences in the utilization of the biodiversity are the key indicator for the variance. Another key issue arising from the commentary is the differences in the management of the biodiversity between the past Australian society and the modern society that was created after the arrival of the European.

I tend to agree with the fact that poor management of the natural resources or rather biodiversity is an explanation for the devastating effects of the bushfires presently. I also agree with the authors’ suggestion that for the present Australian society to combat this killer fires effectively, local knowledge on how to manage fires and biodiversity a critical strategy in the elimination of the fires and its devastating effects.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reference Gammage, B. (2011). Fire in 1788: The Closest Ally. Australian Historical Studies, 42(2): 277–288.


“Balkan Fascination: Creating an Alternative Music Culture in America” by Mirjana Lausevic Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

In her ethnography, Balkan Fascination, ethnomusicologist Mirjana Lausevic seeks to understand why so many Americans take part in Balkan music and cultural activities to which they are not connected either by family or ethnic affiliations. The ethnography is divided into four main parts. In the first part, she looks at the ethnography of the Balkan music and the dance scene.

Folk dancing and turn-of-the-century of America are discussed in part two. Part three deals with International folk dancing between the period 1930s and 1950s. Lastly, part four deals with the period after the 1950s. Balkan fascination deals with the dancers, music artists, the gatherings and seminars that together make up the Balkan music scene.

Members of the so-called ‘Balkanites’ are white in the urban areas who are professionals in different fields. The professionals are of non-South East European heritage. They attend the summer Balkan music and seminars regularly.The book is written from the real Balkan view of the cultural import by the American people. This is so because the writer is an authority in Bosnian music.

He is an outsider to the seminars earlier described. The writer is biased basically from the fact that he is not a part of the seminars or one of the ‘Balkanites’ so to say. However, as a researcher, the bias is quickly covered since she even uses such tools as questionnaires in her quest to know the relation between the ‘Balkanites’ and the Balkan itself. She relies on earlier researches done on the same line.

Over and above, she relies on statistical data to prove her case as seen in her classification of the different ways of classifying the members. Dancers hold hands as they look smile at each other as they form circles that move anti-clockwise around the dance hall. The members grow closer to each other as the cultural days’ progress. Also, the author believes that Balkan music offers realness that is wanting in the American culture.

In other words, the experience gives the American people a feel of peasant traditions. For instance, in one of the seminars, the author describes how students, as well as the teachers, would gather in small groups and break into dance without a schedule. Balkan music also offers a chance to get a glimpse of the Balkan culture.

For those who cannot travel to the Balkan countries, the Balkan dance offers a sample of the Balkan culture through the music, dances and seminars or scenes as they are commonly called. The book has enabled me to understand the community of ‘Balkanites’ better. The author has classified different members of the community using various criterions. These include the ethnic background, gender, age, location of living, education, and occupation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, she has shown that the composition of the ‘Balkanites’ is so diverse with members from as far as Israel, East Europe, and West Europe. Regarding gender, they are being able to understand that women are usually more than men. When we come to the age of the members, the average age is around forty-two, and male participants are usually older than the female participants.

Most participants, in fact, 96 percent, have been brought up in urban areas. Even for those in rural areas, they once inhabited the urban areas. The level of education among the participants was extremely high considering that 44% of the participants were graduates and only 3% reported high school as the highest level of education. Most participants are professionals in fields such as engineering, education, administration as well as law among others.

I have also understood the community better because the author informs us that the Balkan music and lovers of the dance are mostly white who inhabit urban areas. Also, they are highly educated and professionals in various fields. In a nutshell, the scenes are not for idlers.


“The Singer Solution to World Poverty” by Peter Singer Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Article Summary

Article Analysis



Works Cited

Introduction Poverty is one of the problems that have continued to afflict some people in the world. Governments and policymakers all over the world have tried to come up with a feasible solution to world poverty. However, no solution has been found yet, and poverty rates, especially in the developing world, continue to rise with negative consequences such as hunger and disease being experienced by the populations affected.

The article “The Singer Solution to World Poverty” by author Peter Singer attempts to provide a workable solution to the world poverty problem. Singer proposes that the problem of poverty can be solved if each person in the developed world gave away some of the excess money that they have. The author argues that people in the developed world make more money than is necessary to sustain a comfortable lifestyle.

They then use the excess money on luxury goods and leisure. By using analogies, the author demonstrates that it is immoral for a person to spend their money on luxury while the same money could be used to save the lives of children who die because of poverty. In my opinion, the solution provided by the author would not help solve world poverty issues since it does not address the underlying causes of poverty in the developing world.

Article Summary The article begins by giving an example of Dora, a Brazilian retired schoolteacher, who delivers a street child to organ peddlers in exchange for $1000, which she uses to buy herself a new television. The author argues that while it is easy to condemn Dora for her selfish actions, this is the same situation that happens in affluent nations where people have more than they need to survive comfortably and they use almost one-third of their income on luxury goods and leisure.

The article states that if this excess money was donated to an international charity, it could save many children from dying or suffering from hungry, malnourished and treatable illnesses. Singer provides an imaginary example that is meant to make people think about the morality of living in abundance while others live and suffer from poverty.

The example is about Bob who must decide on whether to save a child from a runaway train at the cost of a very rare and valuable Bugatti, which represents his financial security, or do nothing and cause the child to be killed by the runaway train. Bob decides to do nothing, and because of his choice, the child is killed, but his financial security is guaranteed.

Singer reveals that most people would condemn Bob’s conduct, but then, we also have opportunities to save the lives of children just as Bob had a chance by donating to organizations such as UNICEF and Oxfam America. He proceeds to state that if Bob’s action were wrong, then refusing to donate to the organizations whose contacts he provides is equally very wrong. The article reveals that most of the people who are capable of giving donations to overseas aid organization do not do this.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The fact that most people are not doing it does not make it right. The author then addresses the level of sacrifice that each person should make and he states that each person should give more than their fair share to help the world’s poor. The author concludes by asserting that we are all in a situation where we must “choose between the life of an innocent child and the sacrifice of most of our savings” (Singer 331).

Article Analysis The article assumes that everyone is aware of the poverty issues affecting much of the developing world. It also assumes that people are guided by ethics in their actions. The author does not attempt to provide a balanced view but instead only expresses his opinion that making donations will help solve the problem of poverty.

The article by Singer is well organized, and his ideas are coherently expressed. He begins by providing a stirring example of an action that the majority would consider wrong and then relates the same to how we can solve poverty in the world. The ending of the paper effective ties to the “Singer solution” for solving world poverty.

The article is written for a general audience comprising of individuals of various ages and educational backgrounds. With this consideration, Singer uses language that is easy to understand and avoids using technical terms. The article makes use of logical, emotional, and ethical appeal to support its arguments. The author makes use of logical appeals by providing rational arguments on why individuals should take it upon themselves to donate.

By use of statistics, Singer can assert that “the United States Government is not going to meet even the very modest United Nations-recommended target of 0.7 percent of the gross national product” (330). The article also quotes Peter Unger who is an acclaimed philosopher to make its point. Singer also uses emotional appeal. One of the ways that Singer does this is by using vivid images in the essay.

To begin with, he draws a parallel between refusing to donate to overseas aid agencies in sacrificing a child for one’s material comfort. Singer explicitly asserts that the reader who can donate but refuses to is “acting as at least as badly as Bob was acting when he chose to let the runaway train hurtle toward the unsuspecting child” (329). An ethical appeal is also used with the reader’s sense of right and justice being called upon.

The article declares that those who are well off should make an effort to assist those who are in need. Singer states that it is immoral to spend money on luxuries while there people who are in dire poverty. He asserts that a donation of a mere $200 will “help a sickly 2-year-old transform into a healthy 6-year-old — offering safe passage through childhood’s most dangerous years” (327).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on “The Singer Solution to World Poverty” by Peter Singer specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The reader is therefore encouraged to donate to charitable agencies and help the needy since this is the right thing to do. The most dominant appeal used is an ethical appeal. The author does not use the logical appeal effectively since very few authorities on the subject reference. The author is guilty of using weak analogies throughout the article.

The article begins by giving an example of a woman who sells a child to organ traffickers, and this is equated to refusing to give to the poor. The author suggests that those who refuse to donate because others do not are as guilty as the Germans who chose to do nothing during the Nazi era. The two issues being compared by Singer are not of equal gravity or relevance, and this makes his analogies weak.

The effectiveness of the arguments made in the article is therefore weakened because of these uses of weak analogies. The article also commits the “appeal to authority” fallacy by referring to authorities on the subject to support the arguments made. The author uses an example given by the philosopher Peter Unger to make his case and refers to statistics given by the same authoritative figure.

Without offering any reasoning or evidence that this authoritative figure used, the effectiveness of Singer’s arguments is reduced. The article also appeals to ignorance by arguing that there is no conclusive evidence that the donations made do not have a positive impact on the lives of the poor. Concluding this lack of evidence weakens the arguments made by the article.

Response I do not agree with the position taken by Singer. To begin with, I feel that his solution, which only entails making donations, ignores the fact that there are many other issues responsible for poverty in the developing world. Mbaku contends that one of the reasons for the extreme poverty and deprivation faced by many people in Africa is the lack of democracy and opportunistic behaviors such as corruption by civil servants and politicians (108).

If these issues are ignored and only donations are made to Africa, the poverty problem will never be solved. For poverty to be dealt with effectively, people must look at more than just the monetary aspect of poverty. Blackmon asserts that donor countries must have a broader understanding of the concepts of poverty and development, as opposed to the traditional monetary and financial focus (198).

I also disagree with the article since the solution offered by Singer fails to provide a way for sustainable economic development by the poorest counties. The author suggests that if cash donations are made by every person who is capable of doing so, then the poverty problem in the world will be solved since this money will be used to tackle the issue.

This argument fails to consider that for donations to have the most impact there have to be good domestic policies and institutions in place. As it currently stands, this is not the case with most developing nations. Major reforms are needed in countries to tackle the problem of poverty.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “The Singer Solution to World Poverty” by Peter Singer by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ashraf asserts that “development assistance has little or no positive influence in poor countries that avoid economic reforms which could help alleviate poverty and improve health (1019). If the developed nations want to tackle the poverty problem, they should look for ways to foster change and positive reforms in the developing nations in question.

Conclusion This paper set out to provide a detailed critique of Peter Singer’s article “The Singer Solution to World Poverty.” It began by giving an overview of the article and providing a summary of this essay. An in-depth analysis was then given to demonstrate how the author made use of various types of appeals to persuade the reader.

The dominant appeal was the ethical one while the logical appeal was the least effective. The paper then discussed the logical fallacies committed and how they weakened the arguments made. I disclose that I do not agree with the position expressed by Singer because it fails to consider the non-monetary reasons behind poverty.

Poverty is an issue that needs to be tackled urgently by the international community. However, this will not be achieved by increasing donations to poor nations. Solutions that factor the underlying causes of poverty and try to foster sustainable economic growth will be better placed to solve the problem of poverty.

Works Cited Ashraf, Haroon. “Aid will only Help if African Countries Kick Start Reform.” The Lancet 357.1 (2001): 1019-1020. Academic Search Complete. Web. 7 Mar. 2013.

Blackmon, Pamela. “Rethinking Poverty through the Eyes of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.” International Studies Review 10.1 (2008): 179–202. Academic Search Complete. Web. 7 Mar. 2013.

Mbaku, John. “Institutions and Poverty Alleviation in Africa.” African and Asian Studies 6.1 (2007): 107-134. Academic Search Complete. Web. 7 Mar. 2013.

Singer, Peter. “The Singer Solution to World Poverty.” Perspectives on Contemporary Issues. 6thed. Ed. Katherine Anne Ackley. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage, 2012. 326-331. Print.


“The Black Spider” by Jeremias Gotthelf Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction – Summary



Point of View




How does it relate to the country’s culture and literature?

Works Cited

Introduction – Summary In this selection of the story, readers are introduced to what is a christening party at a local farmstead. There is a considerable level of a description placed on the background of the farm, the activities of the people within the home, the type of food that is being prepared as well as the various temperaments and personalities of the major and minor characters as they are quickly introduced one after the other.

It is at this point the story slowly transits from the farm to the group (consisting of the godfather, the father, the godmother, and the maid) slowly making their way to the church where they are about to christen a child. Overall, from this section of the story “The Black Spider,” readers can immediately tell that the style of the author is full of considerable hyperbole, metaphorical allusions as well as symbolism (Dalton, 34-37).

This can be seen in the first three paragraphs of the story which allude strongly to the concept of God, creationism and the connection between the world we know of at present and the divine miracles that God has wrought to make it a reality (Gotthelf, 3-15).

However, the overly metaphorical style of the author does not end there; as it can be seen in other parts of the story the author places a considerable amount of time in describing minute details about the background of the home, what goes into the dishes that are created for breakfast as well as the background stories behind various characters.

Gotthelf spends so much time describing the backdrop of the story and its characters that the dialog within constitutes barely 5% of the entirety of the initial section itself! This is indicative of a literary style that focuses more on descriptive qualities advancing the plot rather than through dialogue in between the characters.

Characterization While lacking in actual dialogue, the author has adopted the strategy of describing the events and characteristics of the characters to help readers better understand what “drives them” so to speak. Such a style can be compared to that of Brian Jacques in his Red Wall series as well as that of noted science fiction author Isaac Asimov.

Such a style can be considered “lazy” to a certain degree since it easily allows readers to understand the various forces that drive a character almost all at once instead of relying on plot development or dialogue as a means of having readers construct their character profiles of the various actors within the story (Dalton, 34-37).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, through this style readers are introduced to a far richer story backdrop wherein how the details are mentioned in creative and amusing ways help to enhance rather than detract from the story.

Setting As mentioned earlier, the setting of the story is apparently in the countryside of Switzerland (exact location is unknown) and is relatively near to a local village that has a church and an inn. Based on the level of technology that was mentioned and the fact that there have been no references to any form of motorized vehicles, telephones, or advanced forms of technology, the exact date is most likely during the early 16 to 1800s.

Further research into the mention of mulled wine revealed that it was a prominent fixture in the diet of many European regions before the 1800s at which point additions to wine such as cinnamon and saffron was discontinued in favor of serving wine as is.

This justifies the claim that the story took place prior to or during the 1800s, but it is still uncertain given that no specific historical point has been expressly mentioned.

Point of View The point of view of the story is based on a third person perspective which focuses on describing the characters and situations within the story within little in the way of actual dialogue. If it was not for the dialogue interspacing the fanciful descriptions, the story itself could have been mistaken for pure narration.

Plot The plot of the story focuses on the approaching christening and the interaction between the godmother, the godfather (whom she is attempting to court), the father, the maid and the innkeepers (Gotthelf, 3-15). The mother and grandmother were phased out in the early half of the story, and the plot no focuses on the previous characters that were mentioned.

Tone The tone of the story seems to be rather light-hearted and slightly comedic. Given that the initial scene of the godmother and her apparent force-feeding was meant to elicit humor, the rest of the story has a light-hearted tone without any apparent morose or depressing elements to it.

We will write a custom Essay on “The Black Spider” by Jeremias Gotthelf specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Style As mentioned earlier, the style of writing of this particular author seems to focus more on having the story progress more through description rather than through character interaction and dialogue. Evidence of this can be seen in the lack of significant dialogue among the characters and the sheer proliferation of descriptions that account for even the smallest detail such as even the ingredients in the mulled wine that was served to grandfather and father (Dalton, 34-37).

How does it relate to the country’s culture and literature? Throughout the story, there are words interspaced such as batzen, Bernese, and neither which are not traditional words within the English language. Not only that, dishes such as a Bernese cake and fritters are mentioned which are also not traditional dishes that are served either in the U.K. or in the U.S.

It is based on this that despite the extensive use of descriptors as the primary method of conveying the story, the author purposefully included words and phrases that alluded to the culture of Switzerland as an apparent homage to his home country (research into the birthplace of Jeremias Gotthelf showed that he was born in Switzerland).

This part of the story though fails to delve deeper in the culture of Switzerland given that it alludes to merely the food, the backdrop and the people within it (Gotthelf, 3-15). There is no mention of particular cultural traditions (christening a child is not a tradition unique to Switzerland), culturally important locations or events or any other form of distinct cultural nuance that focuses specifically on some factor that is unique to Switzerland itself.

Aside from the use of the words mentioned earlier, there are no other parts that I can see which carry a distinct cultural identity. For example, in the case of the Harry Potter books, it is evident throughout the story that there is a definite reference towards the culture and traditions of the U.K. albeit in a way that has been changed to incorporate the fictional aspects of the magical world that Rowling had envisioned.

In the case of this section from the Black Spider, I see no specific cultural identity, and it seems to be more generalized that it is specific.

Works Cited Dalton, Quinn. “10 Steps To Analyzing A Great Short Story: Take A Masterful Work Apart—Layer By Layer—And You’ll Gain Valuable Insights Into Improving Your Own Writing.” Writer 119.8 (2006): 34-37.

Gotthelf, Jeremias. The Black Spider. 1st ed. Richmond: Oneworld classics ltd, 1842. 3-15. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “The Black Spider” by Jeremias Gotthelf by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More


A Structural Analysis of the Obsessional Character by Ronald Fairbairn Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

The model used by Fairbairn views attachment to excellent objects as the unchallengeable component of ordinary development. The child often sees the parenthood failures as unbearable and begins the dividing resistance that separates the infuriating characteristics of the object adjacent to the part of the personality of the child that merely combines to that component object.

This essential defense guards the child against the facts that he is independent of unresponsive objects and conserves his attachment. The arrangements of diversity, part-self, and part-object are excessively disruptive to stay conscious, yet regardless of being reserved make themselves recognized through recurrence compulsions and devolution.

The precise distinctiveness of families that bring into being children who are of obsession, impact the developing of the child’s personality structures in comparable ways. This method of developmental account creates unsurprising configurations of self and objects in the internal world, which then interpret via recurrence pressure into a behavior that is of obsession in adulthood.

This paper reviews the structural model used by Fairbairn in the structural analysis of the obsessional character. The structural model used by Fairbairn starts with a blameless and legitimately deprived infant, in distinction to the Freudian devilish infant born with a combined, though immature ego, into relations who, either via malice, ineptitude, indifference, or nonattendance, does not to meet his urgent developmental desires.

The child undergoes an impossible quandary of being categorically emotionally reliant upon things that he has less or no authority to influence, and which never satisfy his irresistible developmental desires. The theory by Fairbairn theory is a supernatural metaphor made on a sequence of complex relations between three theoretical personality structures of the character and three objective structures that are slowly built in the inner world from real reminiscences of the objects (Fairbairn 126).

These personality structures are prearranged, first, to defend and in some scenarios create a deceptive sense of accessory to his objects. Accessory to an object is necessary for his version as lacking it; the child is not able to manage his devastating terror of rejection, which if not reserved in abeyance, might collapse his whole ego structure.

The first reaction of the child to sentimental insufficiency is to fixate on the snubbing object for the reason that the support of progression that is missing discontinues all progress towards advanced forms of maturity (Fairbairn120). In children with constantly grudging parents, the intense center of attention on the object is aggravated by demands from present and past unmet requirements.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Fairbairn utilized the idea “schizoid” to signify every person who has splits in his ego structure (Fairbairn120). Glimpsing further into the roots of that logic of dissimilarity from others that differentiates the schizoid component in their individuality, facts of these amongst other characteristics are found:

that in their early existence, they achieved the confidence, whether via apparent unresponsiveness or via apparent domineeringness on their mother’s part, that their mother never really adore and treasure them as people in their right;

that, prejudiced by an ensuing sense of deficiency and weakness, they stayed profoundly obsessed upon their mother.

Consequently, in the model Fairbairn, it is the deficiency of sensational support that delays the development of the child and, as a result, he stays intensely obsessed on his desirable object, hanging on for the necessary emotional provisions.

This obsession on the negligent object makes the child mislay out on necessary developmental practices that are obtainable to his colleagues who are consecrated with caring parents, thus making him plunge developmentally behind equally aged children.

The early requirements that are not met accumulate and amplify the requirements on the child for sentimental espousal that strengthens his fascination on the object that is depriving. Internalizing the negligent objects alters the underprivileged concentration of the child away from the unmanageable peripheral world and towards his interior one.

The interior world of the child gives him the authority to the objects that are absent that gives him a sagacity of right and also authorizes him to partially pay no attention to the maddening, enraging bewilderment of the being of his family. This concentrated focus on the internal world was one of the modules of Fairbairn’s meaning of the “Schizoid” situation (Fairbairn 127).

His poor option of the word schizoid that already had a divided and conflicting analytic meaning and that served as a needless supra grouping under which every other disarray were subsumed, extra confusion to his replica. I have opposed Fairbairn’s state that the two sub characters (defiant libidinal and libidinal) constantly remain reserved, in addition to his supposition that the thrilling object is unbearably teasing and appealing.

Working with harshly split averages gives the clinician the authority of seeing patients in which the two ego sub characters (defiant libidinal and libidinal) removes the essential ego and becomes the overriding ego of the character.

We will write a custom Essay on A Structural Analysis of the Obsessional Character by Ronald Fairbairn specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, these sub egos attain an influence in patients who could, at the heart of a hostile outburst about the rebuffing features of the object, turns out to be panicky about the likelihood of thrashing of the similar object and unexpectedly reverse their situation and affirm their unending love and faithfulness toward that person (Fairbairn 134).

These limits show that the essential ego can never remain principal in the confront of the influential sub egos that temporarily turn out to be the cognizant ego. The not uncommon situation of the battered female, who proceeds to her exploiter in a libidinal personality state, apparently ignorant of the fresh physical mistreatment, shows the passion and simplicity of the sub egos when they control the consciousness of the individual

My other opposition to the position of Fairbairn is his declaration that the libidinal personality and its thrilling object should be reserved in subjugation for the reason that the anticipation of affection from the thrilling object is excessively frustrating to put up with.

Numerous borderlines consciously rely on the appealing feature of the object to maintain themselves from misery and fall by adhering to a deceptive but reassuring fantasy that affection from the thrilling object is just nearby. Both the libidinal personality with its impractical hope and the defiant libidinal personality with its continuous resentment, pessimism, and yearning for vengeance are covered with intense sentimentality and create extremely strong affections to the thrilling/rejecting objects.

The superordinate requirement of the child is not for enjoyment or need satisfaction, but a strong bond with a different person (Fairbairn 123). If purely excruciating skills are given, the patience of the child never dies and seek experiences that are pleasurable somewhere else but pursues anguish as an instrument of communication with the significant other.

The pleasure is what that is primary than the contact. Sore feelings, self-destructive relations, self- disrupting situations, are re-formed for the whole time in life as a means for the maintenance of early bonds to considerable others. The principled defense and isolating defense together, play essential parts in the internal world of the personality disarray that is of fascination.

The earlier dividing defense separates and represses the most horrible reminiscences of desert or abuse, even as the later shaping moral protection consciously exonerates the parents of the future compulsive for their antagonistic and humiliating handling of him.

Works Cited Fairbairn, Ronald. A Structural Analysis of the Obsessional Character. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis 67 (2007): 119–140. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on A Structural Analysis of the Obsessional Character by Ronald Fairbairn by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More


Television Shows and Obscene Language Essay online essay help

The media influences people’s consciousness significantly. People are inclined to react to the visual and audio television messages more actively than to the information presented with the help of the other media. That is why all the information discussed in television shows should be assessed with references to certain principles of censorship.

Nevertheless, these principles are not followed today, or they are openly ignored by the producers of television shows who intend to make sensations, but not to care about the ethical issues. As a result, the audience can observe the tendency to use a lot of obscene language in modern television shows.

Thus, television shows should not be allowed to use the obscene language because the television language is based on the definite language norms, and the usage of obscene and profane words cannot be discussed as a norm; the great part of the audience of television shows is children; the usage of the obscene language on TV reflects the society’s general cultural level and contributes to its further decline.

The problem is in the fact the usage of the obscene language in television shows is prohibited about the Federal Communications Commission policy. The ignorance and violation of the policy end indefinite fines and restrictions. However, the television audience continues to hear the obscene language used in television shows.

From this point, definite obscene words can be perceived by the public as a norm because they are broadcasted with the help of the media (Andersen and Taylor 43). Some people can state that the obscene language is used in everyday life by many persons, and television shows only reflect the tendency.

However, the obscene language is not a norm, and the usage of profane words in television shows should not be allowed because the usage of such words cannot be perceived as the normal situation. Furthermore, television shows are watched by many children.

The TV channels should not be allowed to present television shows where the obscene language is used because children cannot analyze the information perceived about its appropriateness, and obscene and abusive words become the part of the children’s vocabulary. Parents should control children’s watching television shows. Nevertheless, the role of the policy in regulating the language used in shows is also significant.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If TV channels are allowed to broadcast shows in which the abusive language is used, people can become interested in the question of the cultural level of society. Television shows often represent the aspects which the audience wants to watch and hear. However, the presentation of the ‘street’ language in television shows does not reflect the real picture and does not provide present-day information about society.

Furthermore, the usage of the obscene language only provokes its usage everywhere as a kind of a norm because of violating all the possible principles and policies (Andersen and Taylor 44-45). The fact of allowing television shows to use the abusive language can be discussed as the negative factor for the development of the people’s culture.

Television is developed to provide people with a definite message. The character of the message is also based on the language used. The accents on the offensive and abusive words describing immoral and violent actions can stimulate the audience’s perception of this language and associated aggressive behavior as a norm.

That is why television shows should not be allowed to use the obscene language to protect children from perceiving this language and to protect the wide audience from being offended by the open usage of inappropriate words on TV.

Works Cited Andersen, Margaret, and Howard Taylor. Sociology: The Essentials. USA: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.


“The Black Spider” by Jeremias Gotthelf Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction – Summary



Point of View




How does it relate to the country’s culture and literature?

Works Cited

Introduction – Summary In this selection of the story, readers are introduced to what is a christening party at a local farmstead. There is a considerable level of a description placed on the background of the farm, the activities of the people within the home, the type of food that is being prepared as well as the various temperaments and personalities of the major and minor characters as they are quickly introduced one after the other.

It is at this point the story slowly transits from the farm to the group (consisting of the godfather, the father, the godmother, and the maid) slowly making their way to the church where they are about to christen a child. Overall, from this section of the story “The Black Spider,” readers can immediately tell that the style of the author is full of considerable hyperbole, metaphorical allusions as well as symbolism (Dalton, 34-37).

This can be seen in the first three paragraphs of the story which allude strongly to the concept of God, creationism and the connection between the world we know of at present and the divine miracles that God has wrought to make it a reality (Gotthelf, 3-15).

However, the overly metaphorical style of the author does not end there; as it can be seen in other parts of the story the author places a considerable amount of time in describing minute details about the background of the home, what goes into the dishes that are created for breakfast as well as the background stories behind various characters.

Gotthelf spends so much time describing the backdrop of the story and its characters that the dialog within constitutes barely 5% of the entirety of the initial section itself! This is indicative of a literary style that focuses more on descriptive qualities advancing the plot rather than through dialogue in between the characters.

Characterization While lacking in actual dialogue, the author has adopted the strategy of describing the events and characteristics of the characters to help readers better understand what “drives them” so to speak. Such a style can be compared to that of Brian Jacques in his Red Wall series as well as that of noted science fiction author Isaac Asimov.

Such a style can be considered “lazy” to a certain degree since it easily allows readers to understand the various forces that drive a character almost all at once instead of relying on plot development or dialogue as a means of having readers construct their character profiles of the various actors within the story (Dalton, 34-37).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, through this style readers are introduced to a far richer story backdrop wherein how the details are mentioned in creative and amusing ways help to enhance rather than detract from the story.

Setting As mentioned earlier, the setting of the story is apparently in the countryside of Switzerland (exact location is unknown) and is relatively near to a local village that has a church and an inn. Based on the level of technology that was mentioned and the fact that there have been no references to any form of motorized vehicles, telephones, or advanced forms of technology, the exact date is most likely during the early 16 to 1800s.

Further research into the mention of mulled wine revealed that it was a prominent fixture in the diet of many European regions before the 1800s at which point additions to wine such as cinnamon and saffron was discontinued in favor of serving wine as is.

This justifies the claim that the story took place prior to or during the 1800s, but it is still uncertain given that no specific historical point has been expressly mentioned.

Point of View The point of view of the story is based on a third person perspective which focuses on describing the characters and situations within the story within little in the way of actual dialogue. If it was not for the dialogue interspacing the fanciful descriptions, the story itself could have been mistaken for pure narration.

Plot The plot of the story focuses on the approaching christening and the interaction between the godmother, the godfather (whom she is attempting to court), the father, the maid and the innkeepers (Gotthelf, 3-15). The mother and grandmother were phased out in the early half of the story, and the plot no focuses on the previous characters that were mentioned.

Tone The tone of the story seems to be rather light-hearted and slightly comedic. Given that the initial scene of the godmother and her apparent force-feeding was meant to elicit humor, the rest of the story has a light-hearted tone without any apparent morose or depressing elements to it.

We will write a custom Essay on “The Black Spider” by Jeremias Gotthelf specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Style As mentioned earlier, the style of writing of this particular author seems to focus more on having the story progress more through description rather than through character interaction and dialogue. Evidence of this can be seen in the lack of significant dialogue among the characters and the sheer proliferation of descriptions that account for even the smallest detail such as even the ingredients in the mulled wine that was served to grandfather and father (Dalton, 34-37).

How does it relate to the country’s culture and literature? Throughout the story, there are words interspaced such as batzen, Bernese, and neither which are not traditional words within the English language. Not only that, dishes such as a Bernese cake and fritters are mentioned which are also not traditional dishes that are served either in the U.K. or in the U.S.

It is based on this that despite the extensive use of descriptors as the primary method of conveying the story, the author purposefully included words and phrases that alluded to the culture of Switzerland as an apparent homage to his home country (research into the birthplace of Jeremias Gotthelf showed that he was born in Switzerland).

This part of the story though fails to delve deeper in the culture of Switzerland given that it alludes to merely the food, the backdrop and the people within it (Gotthelf, 3-15). There is no mention of particular cultural traditions (christening a child is not a tradition unique to Switzerland), culturally important locations or events or any other form of distinct cultural nuance that focuses specifically on some factor that is unique to Switzerland itself.

Aside from the use of the words mentioned earlier, there are no other parts that I can see which carry a distinct cultural identity. For example, in the case of the Harry Potter books, it is evident throughout the story that there is a definite reference towards the culture and traditions of the U.K. albeit in a way that has been changed to incorporate the fictional aspects of the magical world that Rowling had envisioned.

In the case of this section from the Black Spider, I see no specific cultural identity, and it seems to be more generalized that it is specific.

Works Cited Dalton, Quinn. “10 Steps To Analyzing A Great Short Story: Take A Masterful Work Apart—Layer By Layer—And You’ll Gain Valuable Insights Into Improving Your Own Writing.” Writer 119.8 (2006): 34-37.

Gotthelf, Jeremias. The Black Spider. 1st ed. Richmond: Oneworld classics ltd, 1842. 3-15. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “The Black Spider” by Jeremias Gotthelf by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More


Political Satire in American Literature Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction Political satire has been a valid literary device for a long time. Examples of it can be found as early as the 1600s, and it is an art form that exists today. One period in which satire seemed to hit its peak was during the 1920s in America. That was a period of boom-time for America as wealth was high, the war was over, and the Great Depression had yet to strike. People everywhere, but particularly in the cities, were reacting against the strict boundaries of the Puritan dogma.

Yet, censorship remained as these religious ideals continued to hold steady among the older set as well as in rural areas and among conservative politicians. Satire during this period was mainly used as a means of pointing out errors in thinking that emerged during this period in time yet was still required to remain couched in ‘socially acceptable’ disguises.

Satire in The Great Gatsby by Fitzgerald F. Scott Fitzgerald was one of the more famous satirists of the time, particularly in his production of the work The Great Gatsby. Within this novel, Fitzgerald ridicules the contemporary concept of the American Dream as being something empty and shallow based on meaningless material goods rather than more satisfying spiritual development.

Describing one of Gatsby’s smiles, Nick says “it understood you just as far as you wanted to be understood, believed in you as you would like to believe in yourself, and assured you that it had precisely the impression of you that, at your best, you hoped to convey” (48). In this description, Nick sums up the entire attitude of the nation in its superficial presentation and shallow understanding as well as suggests a much deeper meaning and potential lying in wait for those who would seek it.

Satire in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Twain Mark Twain was another well-known satirist of his time. Throughout his writings, Twain continued to question the values his society claimed as compared to the actions they committed.

More about This Topic What Role Do the First Lines of The Great Gatsby Play? 5 17 What Does Gatsby Tell Nick about Himself and His Past? 5 218 How Did Gatsby Get Rich? 5 37 Why Did Gatsby Fail to Achieve the American Dream? 4.7 1298 What does Old Money vs. New Money mean in the Great Gatsby? 4.4 3258 How Did Jordan Describe Daisy’s Background? 5 63 In novels such as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn or the semi-autobiographical story Roughin’ It, Twain continues to question ideas that black people are somehow inherently meant to be slaves or that Indians are necessarily more savage and evil than white men. The concept of unequal race relations can be found in almost all of his works as he struggled to point out that the measure of a man cannot be placed in the color of his skin alone but must be judged instead upon his ability and willingness to do right instead of wrong.

Satire in In Our Time by Hemingway Ernest Hemingway revealed some of the more common fallacies of his age regarding gender relations. Throughout all of his writing, he continued to celebrate the quintessential man’s man – the guy who traveled the world, shot elephants and rhinoceros, drank hard whiskey, and was capable of passing along the best of tall tales.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His short stories focused on the virtues held by men a generation or two earlier than him as well as the effects and aftereffects of war. Often accused of hating women because of the way he portrayed them, Hemingway’s stories in In Our Time reveal there is strength in women than men continue to ignore and forget that makes them equal or perhaps more powerful in different ways.

Hemingway’s women are intentionally quiet and shadowy because “he discovered [women] more fully by giving them little to say. His women embody the 7/8ths of the iceberg that is down under…” (Miller, 2002, p. 6). Hemingway never allows his women to be stopped or stalled by grief in spite of the fact that they frequently experience sudden and surprising losses.

In most cases, the women are able to walk away in strength, leaving behind them the broken and battered men still unsure of what happened.

Conclusion All three of these authors satirize the important concepts of their day – the American Dream, the supposed substandard status of minority races, and the substandard strength of women – through the medium of satire. This enabled them to disguise their true messages to avoid the Puritanical censorship of their time while still exploring the implications of these concepts in full.

Works Cited Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1925.

Hemingway, Ernest. In Our Time. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1925 (reprint 1970).

Miller, Linda Patterson. “In Love with Papa.” Hemingway and Women: Female Critics and the Female Voice. Lawrence R. Broer (Ed.).

We will write a custom Essay on Political Satire in American Literature specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 2002.

Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Norwalk, CT: The Easton Press, 1994 (1884).

Twain, Mark. Roughing It. New York: Harper


R.Descartes’ and T.Aquinas’ Views on God Existence Essay essay help free

In human history, the existence of God has been a subject of contention. To date, human beings have been trying to ascertain the legitimacy of God’s existence (Knight, 2008). Rene Descartes and St. Anselm is considered as the greatest philosophers to question the existence of God. The two philosophers’ findings left a lasting impression on the minds of their followers.

Unlike their predecessors, the two philosophers argued rationally and logically on their positions. This paper focuses on the two philosophers’ positions on the existence of God and highlights their similarities. In the book Meditations on First Philosophy, Rene Descartes focuses on epistemic and metaphysical matters (Donald, 2000). Through this, Descartes aimed to shed more light into the being, senses, and answers about God.

In the first part of his book, Descartes argues that as a child he had conformed to false beliefs. According to him, he had to eliminate all these false beliefs for him to be knowledgeable. Through this analysis, Descartes questions the existence of God as a supreme being. In his writings, he questions whether God was deceiving him through physical features.

To him, he wondered whether the sky, colors, earth, and shapes existed or whether there were dreamed illusions. The third part of Meditations on First Philosophy asserts that after Descartes tried to eliminate his thoughts and feelings, he wondered whether God was deceiving him. He argues that though his questions were unanswered, he still had no reason to doubt the existence of God.

According to him, God was a perfect being hence he would not deceive him. Therefore, he perceived that God was all good. According to him, human beings are imperfect while God was perfect. Therefore, he attributed the realities of perfection to God. As such, innate human ideas of perfectionism were derived from Him. Descartes concludes that God’s existence is real as mathematical truths.

Many scholars believe that Descartes’ theistic arguments fit into his epistemology. Through his arguments, Descartes presents two distinct arguments on the existence of God. In the first part of his meditation, he highlights that there is a possibility that God was deceiving. He argues that since God was perfect, he could not tolerate errors. Considered that human being’s actions are full of errors, Descartes asserts that no perfect being exists.

It should be noted that modern foundationalism is attributed to Descartes. Before him, foundationalism was taken for granted. His writings focused more on answering his skeptics the most critical epistemological issues. He asserted that in our pursuit of knowledge and understanding, humans must accept their subjective psychological states.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After that, humans should proceed to argue their perceptions about the external world. Through this, he aimed at defeating his critics by illustrating to them that if they systematically analyze issues, some truths could not be doubted. Equally, through foundationalism theories, Descartes tried to explain the existence of God. In the third part of his meditation, Descartes highlights his beliefs and identifies the beliefs he doubted from those he could not doubt.

For instance, he argued that the fact the evil was deceiving him that he did not exist could not persuade him into believing that he did not exist. In the second part of the meditation, Descartes mentions of Cogito. He uses this term about the philosophical principle that affirms that everyone thinks. The use of the first person in cogito is the reason behind its success.

Over time, heated debates have been generated focusing on whether Cogito should be considered as indefeasible knowledge. According to Descartes, Cogito is a fundamental part of knowledge. Cogito arguments fit into foundationalism when Descartes argues the existence of God and proceeds further to prove his existence. To achieve his conclusion, Descartes analyze his beliefs in an attempt to see if they could overcome his doubts.

Through this, he learned that it was impossible for him to deny the existence of God. At the start of this article, Descartes is skeptical about the external world and other minds. However, after analyzing the nature of God, he realized that some things in nature are different from the way we perceive them. Therefore, with the help of his foundationalism theories, humans can comprehend these issues with clarity.

Another philosopher who questions the existence of God was Anselm of Canterbury. Like Descartes, Anselm suggested that God existed and tried to refute critics’ arguments (Charlesworth, 2000). In his writings, he defines God as a deity that no other being can be conceived. He asserted that if humans believe in their minds that a greater being exists, then there is no doubt that this greater being exists in reality.

According to him, even the fools acknowledge that God exists. In the initial part of his article, he focuses on the dissimilarities between two forms of existences. These existences were mind and reality existences. He argued that if humans perceive that a perfect being exists, then it is absolute that this perfect being existed in reality. In general, his understanding of God was that no other being could be conceived as him and he exists in human minds.

Since God existed both in human minds and in reality, he asserted that God was greater than any being that only existed in human thoughts. In his third chapter, Anselm contradicts his earlier claims by asserting that his analyses are not after proving the existence of God but rather proofing the need for God’s existence. In the chapter, he argues that the lack of God’s existence was impracticable. He reaffirms further that God’s perfection could not be compared with any being’s perfection.

We will write a custom Essay on R.Descartes’ and T.Aquinas’ Views on God Existence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, he notes that humans cannot understand God existence. In the same way, he postulated that God could not be thought to be non-existence by humans. If humans tolerated such thoughts, they would have ruled out Gods thoughts.

A comparison between the two philosophers’ analyses illustrates that the two individuals were after proving God’s existence. As such, the two philosophers agree that God exists and that he is perfect than human beings are. From this analysis, it is eminent that Descartes arguments were developed based on Anselm’s arguments. Anselm’s ideas are evident in Descartes writings.

For instance, Descartes argues that God’s existence was perfect just as Anselm had argued that God existence could not be conceived. Equally, it is apparent that the two philosophers try to prove God’s existence from using the grounds of God failing to exist.

In conclusion, it should be noted that their critics have challenged the two philosophers’ arguments greatly. Despite this, it has become very difficult to refute their arguments as they are based on logical and rational findings. Their arguments have stood the test of time due to the two philosopher’s approach to arguing God’s existence from the grounds of his in existence.

References Charlesworth, M. J. (2000). St. Anselm’s Proslogion (4 ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Donald, C. (2000). Rene Descartes, Meditations On First Philosophy. Raleigh, N.C.: Alex Catalogue.

Knight, K. (2008). The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas. New York: Benziger Bros.


Teratogens, Its Effects and Types Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Teratogens are any type of agents in the body that interrupt or halt the normal embryonic and fetus development. Generally, these are agents that cause mostly non- reversible malformations, which destroy children’s lives.

Sensitive Period Sensitive periods are times of a child’s development that are of great significance. During these periods, children or fetuses are able to acquire certain abilities, which will determine how they will generally grow. In most cases, the sensitive time when a fetus can be attacked by teratogens is between ten days to two weeks after conception, but this may vary slightly.

Effects of Teratogens Prescription and Non-prescription Drugs

Some medicines such as tetracycline have harmful effects such as inhibiting the growth and development of bones, because it normally crosses the placental membrane, after which it dumped on bones. Other therapeutic products for instance anticonvulsants can result in fetal hydantoin disorder mental problems.

Illegal drugs

Harmful drugs such as cocaine can cause premature birth, miscarriage, delivering stillborn babies and excessive bleeding, more so when a pregnant mother consumes them at any stage of pregnancy.


Alcohol ingested during pregnancy can lead to growth anomalies, heart problems mental retardation, and other malformations.

Generally, mothers who take alcohol during pregnancy are likely to give birth to young ones who are susceptible to heart ailments, as this is one clear indication of fetal alcohol syndrome. Fetal alcohol syndrome is a group of cerebral, growth and bodily anomalies that may occur in a child when a mother used to drink alcohol before birth.


Exposure to ionizing radiation can gravely harm the growing embryo, because this may cause death of cells and mutation of others. In most cases, the severity of its effects will depend on the extent of exposure. Radiations can also cause brain damage.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tobacco

Although there is no direct connection between congenital malformation and nicotine, accumulation of nicotine can greatly affect the flow of blood to the developing fetus, as such accumulation constricts or blocks the uterine blood flow.

Environmental Pollution

Although there is no direct connection between environmental pollution and child development, because most environmental polluters are chemical agents that are harmful to human beings, exposing a mother to dirty air and other polluters can lead to giving birth of underweight babies and babies with serious growth problems.


Viruses can greatly affect a fetus’s development. The rubella virus is known to cause congenital heart defects, blindness, glaucoma, growth retardation, blindness, microcephaly and cerebral calcification. The HIV virus, which is the cause of AIDS, can cause immune deficiency, which in turn can impair the normal development of a healthy fetus. When it is transmitted from mother to fetus during birth, it can greatly affect a child’s growth and wellbeing.


This kind of bacterial infection causes malformations, mental retardation and cerebral calcification. Other bacteria, more so those that cause dangerous infections can also impair the development of a fetus, and in extreme cases they can even cause premature and still births.

Maternal Factors Exercise

Physical exercises are highly recommended for pregnant mothers as they help the general health of both the mother and the fetus. Exercises can help to determine the kind and amount of nutrients that a baby receives, which they in turn help to determine whether one will give birth to an underweight, obese or a healthy baby. Good exercise can also help to improve breathing movements.

Emotional Stress

The emotional instability of a mother can be very detrimental to the developing child, more so when the mother feels very anxious, depressed or stressed. Extreme stress levels may cause a brain and development problems, because some stress related hormones can affect a mother immune system.


Eating of healthy foods promote the heath development of a child, because fetuses depend on their mothers for nutrition. Poor nutrition may impair growth and brain development and cause other numerous before birth and after birth defects.

We will write a custom Essay on Teratogens, Its Effects and Types specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


The Dilemmas of the American Dream in The Great Gatsby Essay college essay help near me

Introduction The Great Gatsby, a novel by F. Scott Fitzgerald, examines the concept of ‘the American dream’ in regards to contemporary people and some obstacles they face on the way toward their dreams. The novel does not focus on Jay Gatsby, the main character, only; it is full of short stories that all contribute to the theme.

Though readers can assume that the author justifies the class division and suggests that marriage should not be treated as a spiritual union, this paper will look at the inward struggle of Jay Gatsby and the difficulties and dilemmas he encounters on the way to achieving his ideal American Dream: the attainment of acceptable social status to possess Daisy and enter into a spiritual union with her.

The American Dream in Contemporary Culture The concept of ‘the American dream’ can be considered one of the more renewed continuously themes in contemporary culture. Notably, different authors in literature and even in the more recent film industry have different ideas of what the American dream is and how to obtain it.

The Great Gatsby is a story of a young man in the early twentieth century who seems to know what he wants in the way of that dream and what to do to achieve it. However, his plans are challenged along the way. Daisy’s status in society makes her unattainable to him. In this respect, Gatsby can be considered faced with a dilemma; what Gatsby is willing to do to be wealthy and obtain all the privileges of the rich for the sole purpose of possessing Daisy, his ideal American Dream.

More about The Great Gatsby What Was Gatsby’s Reaction to Daisy’s Child? 5 162 Which excerpt from The Great Gatsby best indicates that Nick is not fully content with his life? 5 47 How Does the Narrator Describe Gatsby? 5 39 “So We Beat On, Boats Against the Current…” Explain the Quote 5 901 “Life Starts All over Again When It Gets Crisp in the Fall.” Explain the Quote 5 327 What Does The Great Gatsby’s Ending Mean? 5 81 Gatsby first dilemma is that he has to turn his back on what he dreamt for his life to pursue Daisy “Gatsby saw that the blocks of the sidewalks formed a ladder and mounted to a secret place above the trees—he could climb to it if he climbed alone, and once there he could suck on the pap of life, gulp down the incomparable milk of wonder.” (110)

Once the decision is made, he does not hesitate to do what he needs to do; make his fortune which entailed starting from the bottom “For over a year he had been heating his way along the south shore of Lake Superior as a clam-digger and salmon-fisher or in any other capacity that brought him food and bed” (98), change his persona which included changing his name, and disavow his past and even his own family “Of course we were broke up when he run off from home, but I see now there was a reason for it. He knew he had a big future in front of him.” (172).

Five years after Gatsby’s life-changing romantic affair with Daisy and upon his return from the Great War, he comes back to find her married Tom Buchanan. Though years had passed, he knows in his heart that she still loves him and that she would leave her husband for him if he could attain the social standing required as we find out with his statement to Jordan in chapter 7, “She never loved you, do you hear?

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She only married you because I was poor, and she was tired of waiting for me.” (130). Fitzgerald confirms this when he has Daisy exclaim, “I did love him once – but I loved you too” (132). Gatsby is faced with the dilemma of destroying a marriage, a permanent part of the American Dream, for him to attain his own American Dream.

Conclusion By the end of the novel, Gatsby and Daisy know that he can offer her nothing but a single mansion and parties attended by questionable figures and financed by illegal activities, and that was not going to be enough for Daisy. She let go of her idealized American Dream of a spiritual marriage long ago in a room drunk and alone with a string of pearls. Gatsby might have fared better in life if he had done the same.

Work Cited Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby: Scribner trade paperback edition 2004.


Frida Kahlo’s and Material Culture Essay (Article) college admissions essay help

Frida Kahlo’s artworks and personality have a big influence on material culture. Several influences shaped Kahlo’s perceptions as an artist. Kahlo’s artistic talents can be seen through her artworks which appeal to many people across the world. The renewed focus on linguistic and cultural issues in art by mainstream segments of the society has made Kahlo more popular.

She had a colorful personality which had a big impact on her artistic drive. Her works earned her a lot of recognition because they conveyed deep social imagery (Pankl and Blake 5). They talked about conscious themes of material culture and other contemporary political issues. She was heavily influenced by the Mexican revolution of the early 20th century which made her identify with revolutionary ideas (Ankori 67).

Her partnership with Diego Rivera, a Mexican artist, awakened revolutionary ideals she stood for, which later became evident in her works. Kahlo’s identity construction happened when she used her wedding photo with her husband Diego, as a source for her artworks. She also falsified her date of birth to make it look like she was born during the time of the Mexican revolution.

She had a soft spot for Jewish culture, which made her claim in her biography that her father was a Jew when in fact, he was not. Her role as a female icon in Mexico is heavily linked to revolutionary ideas which shaped the country’s destiny (Pankl and Blake 9). Her artworks draw artistic inspiration from the Mexican revolution; one of the earliest 20th-century revolutions (Conde 46).

Kahlo lived in post-revolution Mexico City and her experiences constructed her identity as a ‘material culture’ icon. The Mexican revolution brought about a strong awakening which impacted on the way artists represented various themes relevant to the country in their works. This awakening inclined heavily towards native Mexican culture as opposed to European and other Western influences.

Kahlo was able to overcome the male dominance stereotypes represented in many artworks during the Mexican renaissance by producing works which uplifted the status of women (Pankl and Blake 11). Her works leaned towards the flapper culture of the 1920s because she was well exposed to modern trends in popular culture taking place in the U.S. and Europe. She was swayed by the allure of material culture, an identity she adopted in her personality as well as her artworks.

Kahlo’s works were able to display strong feminist ideals which showed that she was an open-minded artist (Flores 14). Kahlo also identified strongly with Tehuana culture, whose women are famous historically for producing items with valuable material culture. Her husband, Diego, made her adore Tehuana culture because he portrayed her as a Tehuana woman in his murals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Diego persuaded her to include native Mexican influences in her work. This made her appreciate various aspects of traditional Mexican material culture which she represented in her works (Pankl and Blake 17). Her iconic status in Mexico and beyond helped her to redefine the female form from an object of desire to an object of pain.

She used iconic symbols and influences from her natural environment to produce artworks which conveyed strong messages of material culture. The relevance of her works to contemporary issues has made her be regarded as an icon (Dragomir 49). Her influence goes beyond national and international borders because her artworks represent timeless ideas.

Works Cited Ankori, Gannit. Imaging Herself: Frida Kahlo’s Poetics of Identity and Fragmentation. Westport: Greenwood Publishing, 2002. Print.

Conde, Teresa. “Frida Kahlo Once Again.” Voices of Mexico 39 (1997): 45-50. Print.

Dragomir, Adriana. “Living and Dying in The Limelight: Performing The Self in Frida Kahlo’s Diary and Paintings.” Word and Image (2009): 47-60. Print.

Flores, Tatiana. “ Strategic Modernists: Women Artists in Post- Revolutionary Mexico.” Woman’s Art Journal 29. 2 (2008): 12-22. Print.

Pankl, Lis and Kevin Blake. “Made in Her Image: Frida Kahlo as Material Culture.” Material Culture 44.2 (2012): 1-20. Print.

We will write a custom Article on Frida Kahlo’s and Material Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Sociological Insight: An Introduction to Non Obvious Sociology by Randall Collins Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Why Collins believes in nonrationality


Works Cited

Introduction Collins asserted that nonrationality is society’s foundation owing to the free-rider problem, the contractual nature of society, and limitations of rationality. Contrary to popular assumptions, human beings are not distinctly rational. Therefore, they do not use rational principles to form a society.

Why Collins believes in nonrationality Collins explains that rationality is not a definitive aspect of human relations because it is not absolute. If rationality lived up to its expectations, then adherents would always agree with each other (Collins 4). Additionally, actors who follow rigorous processes often end up with unwanted consequences (Collins 5). One such instance is bureaucracy, which is a seemingly rational structure that creates irrational outcomes.

Another scenario is capitalism, which advocates for profit maximization; it creates irrational results by reducing the value of human life thus destroying the very system that created it. Rationality is a situational quality that cannot work in many instances (Godwyn


Frankenstein: the Theme of Birth Essay writing essay help

Introduction In the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, various themes begin to develop, and they show the experiences in her life. She wrote the book while she was on a summer holiday in Switzerland with her lover Percy Bysshe Shelley whose wife was expecting a child. Later on, Percy’s wife committed suicide, and the two got married. Despite this, her life gets marred by deaths and tragedies, and that may have inspired her to write. The book reflects her thoughts and ideas about birth, biology, and gender equality.



“Future Shlock” by Neil Postman Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction



Works Cited

Introduction In 1988, author Neil Postman wrote an article known as “Future Shlock” in which he espoused that television is numbing America’s intelligence. He said that television, as a mode of technology, was trivializing public discourse, historical facts, and language, and this would jeopardize the culture. A lot of information is available today to prove that some aspects of intelligence are reducing; The National Endowment for the Arts conducted one such research, and thus affirms Postman’s findings.

Evidence Postman (8) warned that when a culture becomes preoccupied with irrelevancies, then the demands that the written word places on people’s attention will be too much for them. Sadly, this seems to be happening today; young people find reading to be too demanding, so they do not do it for pleasure anymore.

The NEA (33) found that, in the past two decades, reading patterns are dramatically reducing. In 1984, 17 year-olds who hardly every read represented 9% of the population, yet this percentage increased to 19% in the year 2004. These young people were referring to books that they read for fun.

Even proficiency levels have diminished; as proficient readers at the twelfth grade reduced from 40% to 35% between 1992 and 2005. Among college seniors, 28% of them spent less than an hour on reading while 35% read nothing at all in 2005 (NEA 9).

One may wonder whether reading habits have a direct implication on intelligence levels in the country. Postman (2) often cited instances of intelligence erosion using the absence of books. For instance, Germany’s propaganda Minister declared war on art criticism and burnt the books of some of the most intelligent writers in the world.

Scholars, thinkers, and innovators all rely on books as their medium of communication. Therefore, if a population refrains from reading, then it curves the path towards its demise. NEA (15) illustrates this point by showing how literacy correlates with school achievement. Frequent readers perform better in school than infrequent and hence unskillful readers. 12th graders who hardly ever read score 136/300 in writing.

Those who read daily score 165/300 in the same (NEA 15). Additionally, NEA (17) also demonstrates that efficient readers have higher paying jobs than basic readers. The former group often secures jobs in management positions within financial, professional and business sectors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Postman (6) stated that “demands of entertainment take precedence over the rigors of learning” on television. Therefore, if people watch more television and read fewer books, then learning will diminish, and intellectual pursuits will weaken.

The NEA article demonstrates that television watching is one of the activities that replaced reading for pleasure. On average “15 to 24-year-olds spend two hours a day watching television and only dedicate 7-10 minutes to voluntary reading” (NEA 10). This indicates that television does indeed have an erosive effect on people’s intellectual pursuits.

Additionally, because the population is overly preoccupied with visual media, then these media often intrude on people’s ability to engage with written text. Almost 58% of all young people listen to music, watch television or send instant messages when reading. This severely hampers their ability to focus on book content. Television watching is eroding the country’s intelligence because it limits people’s ability to concentrate.

American culture is in danger because fewer people are participating in civic and cultural life. NEA (18) pointed out that readers are more inclined to participate in sports, attend a classical music concert or visit a museum than their less proficient counterparts.

They are also more likely to do charity work or volunteer in an activity. Proficient readers represent 84% of the voting population while 53% represent the less than average reader. Less television watching and more reading thus make people better citizens.

Conclusion The wide menu of leisure activities, including television watching, has minimized America’s intellectual pursuits. Diminished reading levels illustrate this point and show that visual media are the cause. The country’s culture is under threat because fewer people will engage in charity work, cherish historical sites like museums, perform civic duties or find fulfillment at work if these patterns continue.

Works Cited National Endowment for the Arts – NEA 2007, To read or not to read: A question of national consequence. PDF file. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. ‹›

We will write a custom Essay on “Future Shlock” by Neil Postman specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Postman, Neil 1988, Future Shlock. PDF file. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. ‹ Studies/NeilPostmanFutureShock.pdf›


Frankenstein scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Introduction The Industrial Revolution was the cause of a great time of change, also referred to in literary circles as the Victorian period. The comfortable old social and cultural norms were being challenged in ways that had never before been experienced as new technology in the form of machines, and modern social structures in the form of growing cities emerged as driving forces in many people’s everyday lives.

“By the beginning of the Victorian period, the Industrial Revolution, as this shift was called, had created profound economic and social changes, including a mass migration of workers to industrial towns, where they lived in new urban slums” (“The Victorian Age,” 2007).

The rising middle class began breaking down the old class structure that had formed the backbone of European society for so much of its history just as advances in technology and machinery touched off new debate regarding the existence of the soul and the nature of God.

More about Frankenstein How Many Frankenstein Plays Exist? 5 18 What Tale Did Frankenstein’s Monster Tell Victor? 5 24 What Does the “Frankenstein Complex” Mean? 5 41 How Is the Theme of Horror in Frankenstein Revealed? 5 23 Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution touched off new debate as well regarding the integrity of the Bible itself. With the availability of new jobs in the cities, traditional women’s roles were also being challenged as more and more young women sought better futures for themselves within the factory setting.

The public was becoming more and more involved in the debates being waged, particularly as newspapers and other periodicals became more prevalent with the introduction of the printing press, introducing and maintaining widespread discourse in the political and social issues of the day. “The Victorian novel, with its emphasis on the realistic portrayal of social life, represented many Victorian issues in the stories of its characters” (“The Victorian Age,” 2007).

The Issues of the Enlightenment in Mary Shelley’s Novel Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein explores many of these issues of the enlightenment, eventually seeming to conclude that it was not the positive motion it was assumed to be.

Victor Frankenstein suffers from a severe lack of foresight or heedfulness in his endeavors. Goodson (1996) suggests that perhaps this was the result of Victor’s inner desolation and search for fulfillment and enlightenment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While he was creating his creature, he could only envision something beautiful and pleasant even though his instructors had warned him of the unnatural teachings of those ‘pseudo-scientists’ he had admired in his earlier years. “The ancient teachers of this science,’ said he [Frankenstein’s first professor], ‘promised impossibilities, and performed nothing.

The modern masters promise very little; they know that metals cannot be transmuted and that the elixir of life is a chimera” (Shelley, 1993: 40). He purposefully and intentionally turned his back on the natural world as a means of concentrating on discovering the secret of bringing life to inanimate material, a process in which he was “forced to spend days and night in vaults and charnel-houses.

Further Research Is Frankenstein a True Story? 5 19 In What Way Did the Monster Take Revenge of Frankenstein? 5 57 What Was Victor Frankenstein’s Curse? 5 32 How Did Young Frankenstein Spend His Childhood Years? 5 27 My attention was fixed upon every object the most insupportable to the delicacy of the human feelings” (Shelley, 1993: 45) while “my eyes were insensible to the charms of nature” (Shelley, 1993: 49). Thus, Shelley is seen to structure her novel around some of the more concerning features of her time period. That was primarily the emergence of the factory and the machines replacing human workers in what was becoming a frightening question regarding the worth of a human.

Knowledge as a Frankenstein’s Theme Despite the few warnings he’d received and the obvious challenge to the natural order of things, Frankenstein continued his search for in-depth knowledge. He continued to work on the creature he had started, continued to envision it as a beautiful thing that would give all homage to him and remained unable to foresee the true nature of what he was doing until it was too late. The living monster stood facing him in all its horrendous grotesqueness.

Shelley’s protagonist makes a bid for knowledge beyond that of the ‘modern man’ when he attempts to create life on his terms, seeking enlightenment as it was then defined. “Victor Frankenstein, the ‘modern Prometheus’ seeks to attain the knowledge of the Gods, to enter the sphere of the creator rather than the created” (Bushi, 2002). This is in keeping with the signs of the times in which men continued to work on new designs for machines that were intended to replace the hands and minds of human workers within the factories.

Like these men who created machines that performed more uniform work at faster rates for less expenditure, Frankenstein envisioned himself creating a better human than the one created by God, presuming he could somehow circumvent the powers of nature established by God to impose the better, stronger and more economic powers of man. “The deification of science, as described in Shelley’s work, depends upon the defiance of God. Victor is at first charmed by natural science because of the grand dreams of its masters in seeking power and immortality” (Bushi, 2002).

In his pursuit of knowledge, Frankenstein is able to ultimately push aside any of the compunctions against his actions that normal men may face, braving the worms and other decaying matter of the charnel houses to develop his messy workshop in which he pieces together his oversized creation using terms that are as applicable to the feminine role of procreation as well as the mechanic’s role of machination. This, too, is consistent with the times. “The comment that seems evident in Frankenstein is that God has abandoned Man; the progression of history sees Man abandon God in the Victorian era” (Bushi, 2002).

We will write a custom Essay on Frankenstein


Education Instruction and Assessment Essay online essay help

Effective learning and instruction occur when instructors use appropriate strategies to measure student response to intervention. Instructors use summative or formative assessments to evaluate the learning progress of students. Formative assessments help many struggling students to make good progress without arranging for serious intervention, which may involve special education placement (Nitko


Children Obesity Issues and Role of Parents in It Essay essay help: essay help

Obesity is a chronic, complex, and multi-factorial preventable problem. It is a process that usually begins in childhood and adolescence, which is set by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, there is an increase in obesity, which affects children socially, environmentally, or metabolically.

It is observed that in the third world countries children are starving; on the contrary, in developed nations, there is an increasing trend towards obesity. The US tops the list of countries in the world with the highest rate of people with obesity, and it has reached to the extent that this public health problem threatens to overtake smoking as the leading cause of death (Johannsen et al. 431–439).

In previous national surveys of nutrition and health, an alarming number of school-aged children have been recorded suffering from overweight or obesity issues. It is a strong indicator resulting from greater unhealthy practices, which cause obesity or overweight diseases. The growth of childhood obesity in the US is striking and disturbing.

Since the last 15 years, the number of school-aged children obesity problem has increased at a great pace. There are now three times more obese children than there were 15 years ago. The consequences of this development can be very troubling, but solutions exist which require a change in the habits of individuals. The figures are a clear warning sign that must be addressed soon.

It is proven that overweight children are more likely to be obese throughout their lives; hence, consequent problems will arise from this notion (Faith et al. 1711–1722). There is the existence of a strong genetic component in overweight children. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity is attributed to the environmental factors that promote expression and excessive caloric intake and decreased physical activity.

Unfortunately, most parents, who need to play an important role in guiding and controlling school-aged children, live a sedentary lifestyle. They fail to control what their children eat, encourage them to exercise, and help them not to eat under stress and anxiety (Wrotniak et al. 1089–1096).

Considering these circumstances, it is clear that the attitude of parents plays a major role. Indeed, other than the genetic, endocrine, or neurological factors that can lead to obesity there are many environmental factors that may predispose a child to suffer from this disease. Moreover, family socioeconomic status and educational level of parents matter towards habits and customs within the home that children later follow.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are several dangers involved for children with the growing trend of obesity. First, obesity may lead to severe physical problems including diabetes type II, hypertension, triglycerides and cholesterol and psychological issues such as low self-esteem and social stigma (Faith et al. 1711–1722).

The question is simple, but the answer generates excessive debate. What is the cause of this epidemic? It is a reality that there is no single key factor, which causes this issue, but largely change requires a thorough review of habits, knowledge, and understanding by parents and teachers.

With this notion in mind, I plan to research about parents residing in the US to unravel their perceptions of the phenomenon of obesity and what role they can play to solve this growing concern. However, an important factor, which my study will cover, is to test how often parents let their school-aged child do what they want and fail to discuss the negative aspects of excessive eating.

Moreover, in my study, I will identify significant health risk factors which are caused by obesity (Johannsen et al. 431–439).

Question: Does parenting actions play an important role in growing obesity amongst school-aged children than other factors?

Hypothesis: Parent behavior plays a much more important role in increasing school-aged children obesity than any other factor causing obesity in children.

Population: School Aged Children

We will write a custom Essay on Children Obesity Issues and Role of Parents in It specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cause: Parenting behavior supporting obesity

Effect: Reduced obesity amongst school-aged children

Male Female Supportive parenting behavior Reduced Obesity amongst school-aged children Reduced Obesity amongst school-aged children Works Cited Faith, M., et al. “Parent-Child Feeding Strategies and Their relationships to Child Eating and Weight Status.” Obesity Research 12.11 (2004): 1711–1722. Print.

Faith, M., K. Scanlon, L. Birch and L. A. Francis. “Parent-Child Feeding Strategies and Their relationships to Child Eating and Weight Status.” Obesity Research 12.11 (2004): 1711–1722. Print.

Johannsen, D., N. Johannsen and B. Specke. “Influence of Parents’ Eating Behaviors and Child Feeding Practices on Children’s Weight Status.” Obesity: Research Journal 14.3 (2006): 431–439. Print.

Wolfenden, Luke L., C. Bell, J. Wiggers, M. Butler, E. James and K. Chipperfield. “Engaging parents in child obesity prevention: Support preferences of parents.” Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health 48.2 (2012): 4-6. Print.

Wrotniak, B., L. Epstein, R. Paluch and J. Roemmich. “The Relationship between Parent and Child self-Reported Adherence and Weight Loss.” Obesity Research 13.6 (2005): 1089–1096. Print.


Arteriosclerosis’ Causes, Signs and Diagnosis Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Causes of arteriosclerosis

Signs and symptoms of arteriosclerosis

Diagnosis of arteriosclerosis


Causes of arteriosclerosis Arteriosclerosis is a condition where fatty materials, calcium deposits, cholesterol, and other impurities accumulate in the arteries forming a hard block that hampers blood flow (Buzzle, 2012). The impacts of blood blockage are fatal since it can lead to a heart attack, stroke, and other peripheral vascular diseases (Buzzle, 2012).

Arteriosclerosis is a progressive process that is responsible for most cardiovascular diseases. According to Buzzle (2012), Arteries have an inner emaciated coating of cells called the endothelium that is in charge of building a smooth coating in the arteries to allow blood flow (Buzzle, 2012). The destruction of the endothelium marks the beginning of atherosclerosis.

The damage is caused by smoking, high blood pressure or high levels of cholesterol (Buzzle, 2012). The presence of cholesterol in the inner lining of the arteries destroys the endothelium. As the process continues, cholesterol forms a plaque, which after some time if the process persists may form a bump (Buzzle, 2012). The bump formed can grow into a big block hence hampering the flow of blood causing a heart attack or stroke.

Signs and symptoms of arteriosclerosis Signs and symptoms of Arteriosclerosis are not easily detected until the artery affected becomes very narrow causing a blockage. Many people overlook the symptoms due to lack of knowledge or by attributing the symptoms to other factors like stress and bad shape.

Some of the most notable symptoms of arteriosclerosis include cold hands and feet, blurred vision, high blood pressure, and chest pains (Moll, 2011). However, the most serious symptom that shows a person is suffering from arteriosclerosis is chest pain. This condition is medically called Angina.

Nonetheless, it is important to note that signs and symptoms depend on the affected artery. If the coronary arteries, which carry blood from the body to the heart, are blocked, symptoms such as heart attack or chest pains are experienced.

Moll (2011) asserts that obstruction in the carotid arteries that take blood to the brain might cause impulsive lack of sensation, vertigo, or weakness. The arteries that carry blood to the arms and legs when blocked may cause Legs to pain a condition called intermittent solidification. Male erectile failure and impotence may also be caused by atherosclerosis.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Diagnosis of arteriosclerosis A stethoscope is an instrument used to listen to the heart and lungs beat. A doctor carefully listens to the patients’ heart and lungs using the stethoscope (Obeck, 2013). There are also other tests that can be administered including CT scans, cardiac stress tests, which are performed using sound waves to get inner images of the arteries, to mention but a few.

Lab tests can establish the presence of cholesterol and evaluate the levels of blood sugar and other impurities that may enhance the chances for arteriosclerosis (Obeck, 2013). The difference between the blood pressure in the arm and the ankle, ankle-brachial index, may indicate a possible risk of arteriosclerosis.

Other diagnostic procedures for arteriosclerosis include the use of Electrocardiogram ‘ECG’ that records signals traveling through the heart (Obeck, 2013). An anagram is a special method of injecting dye into the blood of a patient before a chest x-ray is performed to delineate the spots where blockage of blood is taking place.

A medical instrument called the Doppler ultrasound can also determine the speed of blood flow and blockages (Obeck, 2013). The speed of blood flow can be used to identify the possibility of a blockage in the arteries leading to arteriosclerosis.

References Buzzle: Arteriosclerosis: Symptoms and Treatment.(2012). Retrieved from:

Moll, J. (2011). Arteriosclerosis. Retrieved from:

Obeck, L. (2013). Diagnosis of Arteriosclerosis. Retrieved from:

We will write a custom Essay on Arteriosclerosis’ Causes, Signs and Diagnosis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


The Jewish Freedom Fighter Recollection Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Why we need to fight against the British


Works Cited

Introduction I at this moment offer myself as a Jewish freedom fighter against the British as well as other enemies of Zion. The British must be fought and eradicated because their restrictive policies are preventing our people from immigrating into Palestine from Europe and other parts of the world. I believe that if I render my services in this resistance group, then together we can facilitate the escape and entry of many of our beloved Jewish brothers.

Why we need to fight against the British The Zionists have been diplomatic with the British for too long. It is evident that this strategy is not working, and the armed struggle is the way forward for our great people. If the Jewish populace cannot purchase land in their rightful country, then it is time to fight entities that make such laws exist. The Second World War has shown beyond a reasonable doubt that the British are only interested in safeguarding their interests.

Many Palestinian Jews died for a foreign occupier who did not care about their well being. Britain was the very reason why we, the Jews of Palestine, remain stateless (Calder 440). Therefore, we must fight this enemy as all costs. Having been freed from Nazi Germany, I am immensely aware of the need to have a Jewish state where persons of Jewish descent from all over the world can find a haven.

We are in urgent need of a nation of our own, but must be willing to respond to the issue of Arab inhabitants within our territory. To create a mighty land of the Hebrews, we should consider the alien occupation of Arabs in this region. We could utilize peaceful means to exchange populations. However, if worse comes to worst, then we must employ military might to safeguard what is rightfully ours.

Nobody said that the redemption of our land would take place without armed struggle. Consequently, as a freedom fighter, I am willing to do whatever it takes to eradicate those who come in our way. Anti-Semitic sentiments are rife in the Middle-Eastern region. Many Arabs despise Jews and feel that we do not deserve to have our own country (Hays 36).

Some of them may resist this Zionist attempt through forceful means. If we stand aside and watch them exert their influence upon us, then we will never reign supreme. The violent will only respond to violence, so I am willing to deal with this matter aggressively.

The problem with the British is that they are propagating imperialism within our land. They have a lot to gain from their occupation of this territory, and it is unlikely that they will leave this land out of their own free will. Therefore, we must demonstrate our commitment to the Zionist cause by doing whatever it takes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sometimes this may involve attacking infrastructure that the British regard so dearly. Alternatively, we can also attack representatives of Britain in Palestine. It would be better to attack a handful of individuals than to destroy an entire group of people (Nachman 105). Therefore, this resistance group should take care of its own by causing harm to some of the most influential British subjects in the land.

Conclusion I believe that Jews have the right to have their nation, but Britain is impeding this objective. We must show our resolve for personal freedom by fighting this colonial group. The Arab inhabitants of our territory are also our enemies, and we must be ready to fight them.

Works Cited Calder, Walton. “British intelligence and the mandate of Palestine: Threats to British national security immediately after the Second World War.” Intelligence and National Security 23(4): 435-462. Print.

Hays, Jeffrey. Tensions and fighting between Jews and Arabs in Palestine and Israel. 2012. Web.

Nachman, Ben-Yehuda. The Masada Myth: Collective memory and mythmaking in Israel. Madison: Wisconsin University, 1995. Print.


“African Material Culture” by Mary Arnoldi, Chris Ruud Geary, and Kris Hardin Essay (Book Review) essay help: essay help

African Material Culture is a book written by Mary Arnoldi, Chris Ruud Geary, and Kris Hardin. The book gives the reader stimulating as well as fascinating revelations into the numerous arenas of material culture. The term “material culture” is at most times used by archeologists when referring to concrete things as well as artifacts left by past cultures.

In this case, the “archaeologist” is the person conducting the material culture study of a past society. In the introduction, the authors discuss the relevance of art and ethnographic or history museums by quoting what Ivan Karp stated. Ivan Karp said that ethnographic museums have not done well especially in financial aspects particularly during the post World War II period and that ethnographic museums in the modern world thrive in poverty (Arnoldi et al. 2).

Changing and updating exhibition regularly has become challenging, and this aspect makes ethnographic museums content to appear less important as compared to art or history museums. Karp also adds that universal aesthetics presentation attracts the interest of the public as opposed to the enterprise of coming up with cultural specificity.

This element means that if the public is more interested in universal and formalism categories, the exhibitions, as well as research, should head in the same direction. The authors have used fourteen essays to explain the material culture and show how it comes out in different African cultures. They look into the process of fashioning from quite several various perspectives.

The essays show two main historical moments that exist in the material culture study. Firstly, they underscore the need to be rethinking of the classic dichotomy that exists between context and form-based analyses (Arnoldi et al. 35). Scholars tend to identify this dichotomy as a difference between anthropological and art history analyses.

However, the essays show that anthropologists have tackled form while art historians have handled context, but other scholars have used form and context to their advantage. Secondly, the essays come from a period that knows the influence caused by changing modes of characterizing Africans in the West have affected the African objects ways, which are handled in the scholarly study.

The essays suggest that the appropriating process is part of the day-to-day life; therefore, being able to understand the objects in appropriating needs research, which goes through both national and regional boundaries. The authors continue to assert that to show the use of African objects to come up with African definitions as opposed to being tools for an understanding experience of African material in new ways.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some strategies continue to emphasize African objects as art. After 1954, several fine arts museums started “Primitive Art” departments and commenced on making collections or augment more actively the existing African collections and non-western sculpture (Arnoldi et al. 102).

The more African objects have to be defined on a formal basis especially as art, the less interested in material culture the field of anthropology becomes. The institutional homeland of anthropology by 1930s changed to the academy in museums mostly in the US and Europe as evolutionary paradigms, and their sole focus was decoration, objects, and technology. A replacement with different interests that were challenging to illustrate in material form existed.

Consequently, material culture interests especially in English and French-speaking countries were slowly triumphing over by the study of aspects of culture and society that were nonmaterial. However, German anthropology maintained its focus on material culture.

As French and English speaking ethnographers who worked in Africa went ahead to observe and write about material culture, this study, which was later seen as the initial research strategy, meant to gain entry into various nonmaterial and esoteric aspects of cultural and social life as opposed to as the end itself (Arnoldi et al. 136).

Material culture studies particularly those that are not within Africa always following the Gerbrand’s dichotomy aesthetes by also putting its focus on studying the object on a formal terms basis. Anthropology was no longer having an interest in material culture, and so there was an increasing interest in African sculptural forms coming from dealers and collectors.

A combination of this interest in a manner that resulted in the African art emergence as an art history field of study existed. Also important to note is the growing of museological, academic and popular interests in Africa as well as African art, which can be associated with some of the biggest political events that also played a part in emphasizing the importance.

According to the authors, the end of the colonial period was equally imperative. As from 1957, African countries got their independence from the colonial powers, which meant a new awareness of Africa. This aspect led to the definition of African objects in terms that were formal like “high art,” which created new and important statements in regards to the African American heritage.

We will write a custom Book Review on “African Material Culture” by Mary Arnoldi, Chris Ruud Geary, and Kris Hardin specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The authors of this book continue to quote other scholars who emphasize the research they did concerning African societies, which did not coincide with that of the western categories. In the past two decades, there has been a shift in the focus of material culture studies done outside Africa to a concern with the relationship of objects onto the societies using or producing them.

One of the authors, Kris Hardin, handled the topic of technology whereby she looks into the technological style mainly three production contexts among the Kono people who hail from eastern Sierra Leone. She wants to prove that sharing of technological style patterns is not always identical; however, the different emphasis usually comes out in different contexts.

Hardin indicates that the Rural Kono people are principally shifting agriculturalists. She goes on to talk about the way Kono people live about agriculture, cloth production, and ceramics (Arnoldi et al. 165). Hardin uses the technique of technological style to delve deeper into the relationship that exists amongst production domains in the Kono area located in Sierra Leone.

She uses an analysis that compares textiles and ceramics production with that of rice. From the book, it is clear that in the African material culture, there exists a network of multidimensional and encompassing objects coupled with scholars as well as information. The association between material culture objects and scholars is primarily information and most especially how the information is gathered, codified, and lastly communicated.

The main network is the one that entails people and especially scholars who are involved in studying the object. There is also information concerning the object involving its use as well as function coupled with its formal and esthetic qualities, while its economic, social, and historical contexts arise from numerous sources.

The published African material culture literature is the visible and formal record of scholarly inquiry about material culture objects. One of the most outstanding features of the book is the fact that the authors used simple language that the reader can read and understand the point they are putting across.

Readers who are not well conversant with archaeology and things such as material culture would also be in a position to understand what material culture is all about. The authors have managed to point out some of the different tribes within Africa. They provide a vivid description of how some of these communities live by using essays that explore African material culture as well as shaping from a variety of different perspectives.

The fact that there is a reference to renowned scholars makes the information provided valid and factual. This aspect shows that the authors took the time to conduct their research well before writing the book. For instance, they quote, Harold Osborne who is a famous theorist and many others. The book is also appealing in a logical or intellectual manner as most of the new things relevant in class or the future, as they are part of history.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “African Material Culture” by Mary Arnoldi, Chris Ruud Geary, and Kris Hardin by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More History is always part of us no matter how long ago the events happened because we can never move forward without focusing or learning from our history. One of the main challenges in this book is that it is somehow boring, at least some parts of it. There is not much to make it extremely interesting for the reader.

There is too much talk about archaeological research such that it does not give the reader morale to read the entire book. In addition to this aspect, the different essays also rather distract the reader from the main topic, which is material culture. There is too much digression as one essay has this topic while another handles a completely different issue.

The book does not also appeal to the reader on an emotional level despite the fact it has some information that the reader might not be aware of before reading it. Nevertheless, the book is informative concerning the African culture coupled with deep knowledge of African tribes and communities. Also, the reader learns that material culture is a product and not a culture.

Culture has different definitions, and one of them is socially transmitted rules on how people think, behave, and act. Whether in religion, law, or language, culture is learned and mirrored in ways that shape the physical world. On the other hand, material culture is in many cases regarded to be synonymous with artifacts, which are objects that humans use as a coping mechanism.

Consequently, this aspect enables social interaction coupled with benefitting people’s state of mind. After going through the book, material culture can be widely defined as that zone of people’s physical environment, which they change via culturally determined behavior.

Art and culture can be a very motivating topic only if brought out in a manner that will entice and make the reader want to learn more. In most times, people see art as an outdated topic, which belongs to the past, but those who appreciate it are aware of the enormous and invaluable lessons that run deep in art.

Works Cited Arnoldi, Mary, Christraud Geary, and Kris Hardin. African Material Culture. Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1996. Print.


“Material Culture in America: Understanding Everyday Life” by H.Sheumaker and ST.Wajda Essay (Book Review) best college essay help

The book Material Culture in America: Understanding Everyday Life illustrates the material culture of the people who have lived in the United States of America for a considerably long time. The introductory part of the book offers an overview of this piece of literature and brings material culture into focus. Specifically, the book has emphasized three different aspects of material culture (Sheumaker and Wajda 29).

The author notes that most of the studies that entail material culture have been studies a lot in the United States and also in various interdisciplinary fields. By studying the book, the readers are capable of identifying the solid foundation of American studies and material cultural studies that stress the importance of relying on the methodologies and theories of various disciplines.

This is an indication that the author of the book is capable of using appropriate techniques to show all the material culture studies that were undertaken by different researchers in this field. The first aspect is an elaborate description of the different scholarly disciplines that enhance the incorporation of material culture in studying society and the history of America.

This aspect entails various theoretical issues, professional practices, and methodologies that make it easy for people to be conversant with the material culture in America. Some of the entries found in this category include archaeology, anthropology, social history, and various studies that focus on disability.

The second aspect includes all the other entries that link with the aspirations of the culture in the United States, the sepulchral monuments, religious dress, trailer and mobile home parks (Sheumaker and Wajda 47). The last aspect lays a lot of emphasis on the experiences of individuals in material culture. It is evident that the author is in a position to expound a lot of issues in the initial sections of the book.

This assists the reader to obtain prior information on the content of the entire book. Also, the strategy used in the introductory section of the book offers significant contribution especially to people who might have challenges in understanding the concepts used in the book.

All the entries in the book are arranged alphabetically. Each of the entries ranges from one to six pages in length. However, it is important to note that the majority of the entries in the book have approximately two pages. Also, the book contains other features that facilitate the reading process.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, cross-references, a list of further readings and references are some of the elements in the book that make it appealing to readers. Most of the entries in the book are authored by co-editors while the bibliography that contains fifty-two pages is arranged according to the type of material and the corresponding topic.

An example of a topic found in the book is theory and methodology. Besides, journals, cultural, ethnographic and social approaches represent good examples of some of the materials that have been used in the book.

All the entries in the book are presented well and this makes the reader gain a more understanding of the various snippets that contain information on the movement of freegan, the history, and development of sex toys, the establishment of sweepers made from carpet, and the appearance of toilet paper rolls that are produced using highly advanced technologies (Sheumaker and Wajda 87).

Though the criteria used for selection is unclear, the scholarship in the book appears to be presented quite well. The author argues that the “meaning” or “message” of a given object was easily understood since the study continued to receive a lot of attention among people in the United States.

I am reflecting the incorporation of art-historical analysis and other studies on material culture assisted in communicating the importance of collecting and studying information. The latter appeared to be relevant in helping the Americans to gain an adequate understanding of the material culture.

In spite of the ability of the author to provide a vivid explanation of the above issues, it is worth to mention that some of the entries in the book only explain the material culture of a few years thereby ignoring the full spectrum of the culture in the history of America.

There are some issues in the book that cannot be easily understood by the reader. For instance, the brevity of some of the entries, choice of topics and exclusion of other topics is not clear. This may easily become a major hindrance to people who would want to read the book. The signed entries in the book are capable of representing a wide range of categories.

We will write a custom Book Review on “Material Culture in America: Understanding Everyday Life” by H.Sheumaker and ST.Wajda specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These categories include physical objects such as political ephemera, human body, attics, and fanzines. The commercial and social activities found in the entries include the yard sales, utopian communities, and auctions while the aesthetics entail modernism and art nouveau. Gender, illicit pleasures, and mourning are typical examples of the aspect that involve human experiences.

On the other hand, the servant quarters and shopping centers are used in the book to represent the place aspect. Apart from the signed entries that are directed towards the general or undergraduate readership, the entries also help to portray interesting stories on objects (such as mobile homes) that are generally common. The use of stories in these entries enables the reader to grasp all the vital information found in the entry.

Eventually, it enhances the study process on material culture. The author asserts that the studies on material culture in the United States are relatively new in academic circles even though all the artifacts used in the study were collected long before the nation was founded. Most of the artifacts used in the study were collected by men and women who lived between the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries.

By using this information, readers can understand how the study on material culture began in the United States of America. The objects collected for undertaking this study were mainly those that provided a fair representation of American history. It is interesting to learn that most Americans enjoyed developing their collections.

For example, children preferred to create curiosity cabinets that were mainly filled with unique and natural specimens such as minerals, moss, and leaves. A thorough study of the book also offers an opportunity for readers to understand the inception of historical societies in the United States. For example, most of the American states began with the establishment of the Massachusetts Historical Society in the year 1791.

The book explains how historical societies and the state valued antiquarian material culture. This was the time when studies on material culture began. Also, the study process involved the interpretation of material culture to facilitate an adequate understanding of the culture and also make it easier to narrate the past.

The author reiterates that the material culture study was to a larger extent, democratized and enhanced mostly by the new deal that was funded by the president. When the Second World War came to an end in 1945, studies on material culture were reinforced and firmly incorporated in the academic field.

It is not surprising to learn that studies on material culture emerged and spread rapidly such that they even surpassed other several disciplines that had been earlier established. The author vividly explains the level of study which the American scholars were able to embrace when examining American history, literature, and art (Sheumaker and Wajda 112).

Not sure if you can write a paper on “Material Culture in America: Understanding Everyday Life” by H.Sheumaker and ST.Wajda by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is vital to both the past and modern American civilizations since it provides a platform for increasing individual knowledge on material culture. By so doing, individuals can direct their actions by aligning themselves with the requirements of the culture.

Although this piece of literature provides detailed and vital information to the reader, it is not completely infallible. The book has quite several weaknesses such as the inability of the editors to explain the selection criteria and the important issues that should be contained in the various entries of the book.

In terms of the issues that the author can identify, it is evident that the number of pages allocated for each entry may not be sufficient to provide an adequate explanation of each of the issues outlined. Secondly, the arrangement of the entries in alphabetical order and the absence of a well defined or thematic indexing make it very difficult for the reader to have a clear picture of the expected overall conceptual framework.

Moreover, the book entries appear to have titles that not necessarily match the contents. Titles such as Second Hand Goods and Shopping and commercial food venues do not appear appropriate to the reader. This may negatively interfere with the reader’s attitude and perception of the book.

In my view, incorporating a lot of issues in the book makes it difficult for the readers to grasp the study process of the material culture in the United States. It would make sense if the author could avoid being too wordy to explain some concepts that do not offer a significant contribution to the study.

In any case, the author should focus on the outstanding issues that enhance individual understanding of material culture. For instance, issues that provide a thorough explanation of how the study began and the various strategies or techniques used by researchers to study the culture are indeed vital.

In conclusion, it is pertinent to assert that this book is an interesting piece to study. Although it has slight weaknesses, it should be adopted by both the public and undergraduate academic libraries since its content is academically acceptable. Besides, it has detailed literature on the aspect of the material culture of people in the United States.

The book can also offer a significant starting point for other researchers who wish to undertake further research in material culture. It is worth to note that the author of the book has managed to explain all the vital information that relate to material culture. This has this enhanced and equally expanded the knowledge of the audience on the subject of material culture in the United Sates.

Works Cited Sheumaker, Helen and Shirley, Teresa Wajda. Material Culture in America: Understanding Everyday Life. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2008. Print.


Cortes and Machiavelli’s Type of Conquest Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction





Introduction Cortes was a Spanish soldier who was among the first to negotiate with the Indians living in Mexico under the claim of spreading Christianity. In his bid to conquer Mexico and make it the New Spain, Cortes applied several tactics, some of which are outlined in Machiavelli’s types of conquest and ways of securing princedom.

According to Machiavelli’s account, several ways can be used by any interested individual to secure power whether in a local or foreign dynasty. Irrespective of the language barriers and geographical locations, Machiavelli identified several effective ways through which an individual can rise to power. The following paper will demonstrate how Cortes applied some of Machiavelli’s tactics to gain political control over Mexico.

Analysis One of the strategies applied by Cortes upon landing in Mexico was introducing Christianity as the right religion.1 To prevent his soldiers from going back home, Cortes destroyed their ship, a strategy that was meant to ensure that he gained loyalty from all his soldiers to have a significant military power before engaging in any conflict with the red Indians.

Firstly, Cortes applied one of Machiavelli’s tactics, which entailed installing Spain’s rule, or his rule in the new area, and convincing some of the loyal chieftains to prince Montezuma to support his troops. Machiavelli considered this approach very effective since not only did it separate loyalties but also separated the minority groups and made it easier for those seeking power to get it without a struggle.

To gain control over the city of Mexico, Cortes brought together his people and convinced some of the individuals closer to the prince that his ideologies were true and that any loyalty granted to his troop would be highly remunerated. In this regard, Cortes ensured that there were new loyal groups, who were ready to fight against their people to acquire the favors from Cortes. Secondly, Cortes also made it clear that he was better feared than loved.2 According to him, seeking unnecessary favors from chief Montezuma, would not have guaranteed Cortes the conquest he desired. He, therefore, resolved to establish a negative image to ensure that even during conquest his troops would not be undermined.

Based on Diaz’s account on how Cortes got to befriend and nag Montezuma, it is clear that the prince feared Cortes’ group despite being outnumbered.3 Practically, it seemed impossible for Cortes to succeed in any military encounter with the Mexicans. Both Cortes and Montezuma understood the imbalance between their troops, and it was expected that the Spaniards would lose.

However, Cortes made sure that all his troops were always armed even when they went to meet the prince to negotiate religious terms and to introduce Christianity to the Mexicans. In addition to the fear generated by Cortes due to the weapons carried by his troops, Cortes did not seem to fear the prince, and in several occasions, he directly insulted Montezuma’s gods and called them devils.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The other strategy used by Cortes in the conquest of New Spain was by putting down powerful people. To ensure that he enjoyed full benefits of his conquest, his first attack was on Velázquez, whom he termed as a tyrant and, therefore, undeserving to serve.

Secondly, he targeted the prince, Montezuma, who was oblivious of Cortes’ plans, until he was arrested and held hostage before dying in the fight for Spanish conquest. This approach is identified by Machiavelli as being effective in the fact that the subjects are left with no ultimate direction and in confusion, it becomes very easy for a new prince to rise to power and establish his dynasty.4

Based on this approach, Cortes identified that the immense power bestowed on the priest made everyone regard him as a god, and his demise would bring helplessness and hopelessness among his subjects. Diaz made specific reference to the number of mistresses, workers, slaves, and chieftains under the prince and identified how he was adored and worshiped.

Using Machiavelli’s approach, an attack on the top most position was strategic in weakening the Mexicans loyal to the prince, and hence Cortes ensured that in the first attack, Montezuma was arrested and subjected to heinous activities. Similarly, when the Cholula’s were claimed to be staging an attack, Cortes tortured and killed in large numbers as a way of threatening others against indulging in similar activities.

Conclusion All these accounts demonstrate various ways through which an individual can rise to power by strategically identifying weaknesses and capitalizing on any opportunity possible.

Using Christianity as a decoy, he found his way up to the top and succeeded in overthrowing Montezuma, who had been previously doubtful of being outnumbered by Cortes’ men. The analysis demonstrates the practicality in the use of Machiavelli’s conquest tactics, which were used by Cortes during the conquest of New Spain.

Bibliography Díaz, Bernal. The Conquest of New Spain. New York: Penguin, 2003.

We will write a custom Essay on Cortes and Machiavelli’s Type of Conquest specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Footnotes 1 Bernal Díaz, The Conquest of New Spain (New York: Penguin, 2003), 146.

2 Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 91.

3 Bernal Díaz, The Conquest of New Spain (New York: Penguin, 2003), 246.

4 Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 91.


Native Indian Arrowheads Essay essay help online: essay help online

Indians are believed to be among the oldest settlers of northern America. This paper will examine the arrowheads used by the native Indians as an artifact from the pre historic period. This paper will focus on the stone curved arrowheads used by the native Indians in northern America.

The sizes of these arrow heads ranged from small to large. This indicated that there was the continued use of the arrowheads through sharpening that eventually made them diminish in size. The cloves were the simplest forms that were equally heavy and crude (Western Artifacts par. 8). The notched arrowheads were also simple but had a handle and were sharper than the cloves.

Other forms of large arrows also existed. They appeared like knife blades attached to a handle. Most of these arrowheads were decorated with plant fibers and animal sinew (Western Artifacts par. 11). The glue used to attach the arrow to the handle was extracted from the pine tree. The size of the Clovis measured four and a half inches and had a width of one and a quarter inches.

The Cumberland measured 3 1/8 inches by 1 inch. It had a steamer attached to it (Dee Artifacts par. 3). The native Indians used several types of arrowheads during prehistoric times. Each of these arrowheads was named according to the function and the first place they were found by archeologists. Besides, most of these arrowheads were named after the most significant nearest place to the point of discovery, such as a city (Western Artifacts, par 9).

Examples of such arrowheads are the Clovis discovered in New Mexico, and Cumberland discovered near the Cumberland River. The method used in identifying the arrowheads involved observing the shape of the base, the style used in flaking, and the material used to make the arrowhead (Western Artifacts par. 11). The ancient Indians were very economical when it came to the carving and use of stone tools.

They used their tools for extortion. Most of the arrowheads found in northern America suggested prolonged use of the arrowheads and the conversion of some arrowheads into other types of tools (Museum of Native Artifacts par. 5). The native Indian’s arrowheads were used mainly for hunting purposes. They were designed to be thrown and be able to penetrate the skin of the animal hence making the animal bleed to death (Museum of Native Artifacts par. 3).

Some of the arrows were used in the provision of security. They were used by ancient warriors in protecting Indian villages from attack by strangers and wild animals. The invention and use of arrowheads, therefore, helped the ancient Indians to improve their hunting tactics as well as security details. The advancements and improvements of these tools enabled the Indians to secure food easily.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The modern world has witnessed such artifacts being stored in the museums for historical records (Museum of Native Artifacts par. 1). However, some modern-day production of such tools still exists. They are used for home beautification purposes. Some are sold to the domestic and international markets and consequently earn revenue after the producers of such tools.

The historical significance of such tools amongst the Indians helps in getting more information about the history of the Indians (Dee Artifacts par. 1). The Indian arrowheads have been used by archeologists to place Indians as one of the oldest communities of northern America.

They also help modern people to appreciate the past. The use of such artifacts in academic work has made the inhabitants of northern America to appreciate the diversity, skills, and knowledge of every community in the evolution of humanity.

Works Cited Dee Artifacts. Paleo Arrowheads, Artifacts, Cloves, Cumberland, Folsom, Dalton. 2010. Web.

Museum of Native Artifacts. Paleo Period 12000 BC – 8000 BC. 2013. Web.

Western Artifacts. Texas Arrowheads and Indian Artifacts. 2012. Web.


The Dighton Rock Discovering Essay essay help online free

Dighton rock was discovered in river Massachusetts. In the year 1963, it was excavated for storage and later listed among the artifacts in the year 1980 ( par. 23). Dighton rock is sandstone of about 40 tons. It is a six-sided slanting block, approximately 3.4m long, 1.5m high and 2.5m wide ( par. 23). It is classified as an artifact due to the inscriptions found on one side of the rock.

The rock has a crystalline, grey-brown appearance. Currently, the rock is located in Dighton museum in Massachusetts and can only be viewed on an appointment basis. The original place where it was found has been converted into a park open to the public (Department of Conservation and Recreation par. 1).

This inscription dated back in the 17th century. It has been classified as an important archeological tool. The inscriptions found on the stone are believed to have been made by the Indians according to the 17th century American scholars ( par. 24). Other scholars urge that this historical landmark is linked to Portuguese explorers who visited the Americus.

The surface where the inscriptions are located has a trapezoidal countenance inclined at an angle. The stone was found inclined 70 degrees northwest, with the inscriptions oriented towards the waters of the bay ( par. 24). The inscriptions found in the rock were identified to have originated from Portugal by an American scholar in the 20th century.

This scholar went ahead to suggest that the tool used to make the inscription to be bug-eyed aliens ( par. 27). The evidence retrieved from the site back the theory suggested by the American scholar. There are many theories that have been put in place to try to explain the origin and meaning of the inscriptions (Massachusetts Historical Society par. 1).

Currently, scholars have not adopted any theory as that can be used to explain the mystery surrounding the rock. Artists, on the other hand, have also come up with numerous arguments about the artistic nature of the rock leading to varied explanations about the origin of the art used to decorate the rock (Massachusetts Historical Society par. 10).

The most credited explanation on who made the inscriptions goes to Rafn Carl C., the Secretary of the Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries in Copenhagen in the year 1830 who linked the inscriptions on the rock to the Norse explorers who are believed to be among the earliest explorers to have reached North America ( par. 28).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The information available about Dighton Rock places it at the center of three important groups in American history (Department of Conservation and Recreation par. 1). These groups are the Portuguese, Indians, and the Norse. This proves that these three groups must have been among the earliest settlers of North America.

All these groups of people are linked to this artifact proving that they might have something to do with the artifact or maybe they interacted at the time this artifact was made creating a link of all three groups to the artifact. This artifact can, therefore, be used in the development of American history. As a form of evidence, it can trace the origin of three of the ancient American settlers.

Therefore, it is a significant archeological artifact that can be studied and used in explaining the cultural practices carried out by the ancient settlers of the Americas (Massachusetts Historical Society par. 9). The form of communication relayed by the inscriptions on the curving proves the existence of writing skills in the enceinte times.

Besides, the message put in the inscriptions is linked to natives and explorers. The most important aspect of this rock is the rich history it carries and therefore, its use in historical studies enhances understanding of the past civilizations.

Works Cited Department of Conservation and Recreation. Dighton Rock State Park. 2013. Web. Dighton Rock in Berkley 2003. Web.

Massachusetts Historical Society. Seth Eastman on Dighton Rock. 2013. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on The Dighton Rock Discovering specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Alcohol and Drugs Effects on High School Students Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction Drug abuse and illegal drug trade have become common vices in society. In the USA, the issue of substance abuse has been a major concern, especially, in high schools. Many individuals have adopted various perspectives on how the drug issue should be handled. For instance, some individuals contend that drug legalization is the only viable tool for handling the war on drugs.

Thus, in a bid to reduce the social costs associated with the use of illegal drugs, governments usually enforce stringent rules and regulations. Generally, illicit drugs do not have a rightful place in the general public; they have little relevance in the secondary learning institutions. This paper focuses on the effects of alcohol and drugs on high school students.

Causes of Drug Abuse There was a period when high school students in America were rated as the healthiest and most lively population. Nonetheless, an increase in drug consumption has today tarnished that reputation. Several factors account for the prevalence of drug abuse among students. There is a connection between a family’s financial status and misuse of drugs.

For example, a student from an extremely poor family may engage in drug abuse to nurse his frustrations. On the other hand, a student from a wealthy background may easily access alcohol at home or money to buy it. Today’s society also applies a lot of pressure on young students. This can make some of them to resort to drug abuse as a way of coping with their frustrations.

For example, many parents expect their children to perform well in school even if they are not academically endowed. Worse still, a student interested in nurturing his or her talent may be compelled by his parents to prepare for a conventional employment. Such a leaner can suffer serious depression, which can lead to misuse of drugs.

In high school, “students may abuse drugs so that they can feel grown-up, to fit and belong, to relax and feel good, to take and rebel, or to satisfy curiosity”. Many young students also tend to crave for peer recognition more than academic excellence. Adolescents never want to lose their social groups, and they also seek sociability and recognition from their age mates.

Hence, they can indulge in drug abuse in order to fit into their peer groups. Young adults who lack adequate parental care and affection have high chances of indulging in consumption of illicit drugs. According to Martin, “society also advertises the image of individual and social happiness for alcohol and drug users; this misconception results in the societal decrease of achievement, especially, of high school age students”.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is a widespread notion in the society that alcohol enhances one’s social life, yet in most cases it has an opposite outcome. This notion can mislead students to misuse alcohol.

Impacts of Drugs Alcohol

“Alcohol abuse has been a major concern in most schools because of its pernicious effects on the well-being and academic performance of students”. At present, one might contend that misuse of drugs among students has become an epidemic that has permeated many learning institutions. Alcohol is arguably the most commonly available hard-drug on the shelves that is within the reach of many students both at home and in school.

“The link between drug use and not liking school is strong, which is why it should be rationalized as a common factor to academic deficiency”. For example, in the U.S.A, dismal academic performance among some candidates is closely linked to substance abuse. Alcohol consumption impairs the capacity of a learner to concentrate in the learning environment; hence, it retards his or her academic performance.

For instance, a student who wakes up in a trance after a heavy drinking spree can boycott lessons or fail to accomplish and turn in course work assignments on time. Thus, there is a close connection between poor performance in academics and alcohol abuse. “National Bureau of Economics conducted a research in 1994 and revealed that students who consume beer or use marijuana are statistically less likely to graduate from high school than abstainers”.

Apart from poor academic performance, students who consume beer are often rebellious. This best explains why cases of violence are prevalent in many schools today. Unintentional deaths can also be caused by excessive ingestion of alcohol. Drunken students can easily obstruct traffic and cause fatal accidents on busy highways. Unfortunately, many students are oblivious of the impacts of these drugs on them and the society at large.


Besides alcohol, cocaine and marijuana are also commonly abused by students. Cocaine is not only a potent stimulant of the nervous system, but also a suppressant of appetite. In addition, it has the ability to cause anesthetic effects on the users. The most common forms of cocaine include salt cocaine, basic cocaine, and crack cocaine.

Cocaine is an illegal drug in the U.S. and other countries in the world, which means that its commercial production is not allowed. However, it is usually produced under controlled situations for medicinal purposes. The use of cocaine is associated with serious health conditions, such as heart attack. Its use is also associated with the rise in crime among students in various parts of America.

We will write a custom Essay on Alcohol and Drugs Effects on High School Students specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Research further indicates that students who use a cocktail of hard drugs often stand high chances of suffering long-term brain damage that can be manifested in terms of poor memory and inability to grasp concepts in class. Empirical studies on the causes of crime among students in the U.S. A have found that the use of cocaine has a strong correlation with the increase in crime.

Most students that use cocaine live in the ghettos of American cities and other poor areas, where poverty, unemployment and low standards of living are prevalent. Since cocaine is very addictive, its users usually resort to crime in order to access it, especially, if they lack the money to purchase it. This involves stealing or robbing others in order to obtain the money for purchasing cocaine.

The use of cocaine has led to an increase in the proliferation of illegal guns in American learning institutions. Most of those who sell or use cocaine prefer to arm themselves with guns for self defense. Such weapons are often misused, and sometimes lead to the death of innocent students. As a powerful stimulant, consistent use of cocaine can prompt an individual to engage in violent crime and fighting in school.

Consumption of cocaine is associated with serious health conditions. Such health conditions include the following. First, cocaine has a powerful influence on the central nervous system. “The user normally experiences euphoria, increased energy or motor activity, feelings of competence, as well as, sexuality”. It is this kind of stimulation that prompts cocaine users to engage in acts of violence.

Second, overconsumption of cocaine leads to anxiety and paranoia. In some cases, the user becomes restless, or experiences very high temperature, convulsion and tremors. Apart from affecting the nervous system, the use of cocaine causes serious diseases, such as asthma, lung trauma, shortness of breath, and sore throat. These respiratory diseases are common among those who smoke cocaine.

Excess inhalation of cocaine is also a major cause of heart attack. Severe health conditions such as heart attack, and respiratory diseases are responsible for the rise in death cases among cocaine users. Such deaths have both social and psychological effects on relatives of the deceased. Friends and relatives may experience extreme grief due to the loss of one of their own. In some cases, the deceased relatives develop conditions such as depression which can lead to their death.

Parents who use cocaine in any of its forms are bad examples to their children because they may expose them to the drug, especially, when they keep it in their houses. Consequently, their children can easily access the drug and begin using it without their parent’s knowledge. Like any other drug, cocaine contributes significantly to the development of the subculture of crime.

Cocaine users are normally condemned and isolated by the rest of the society. Thus, cocaine users, especially the youth, tend to congregate and develop norms, which are unique to their lot. Such norms are meant to help them to retaliate for being isolated by the society. The crime subculture not only reinforces the use of cocaine, but also leads to the use of other drugs such as alcohol and marijuana.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Alcohol and Drugs Effects on High School Students by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Marijuana

The use of Marijuana is also prevalent among students, and it has negative effects on the health of its users. This has to do with the fact that it can cause mental illnesses and complications such as lack of concentration. It can lead to behavior disorders. Finally, its addiction is very difficult to deal with; hence, it is likely to have long-term effects on the users and the society.

Although Marijuana has devastating effects, it may be used on special medical grounds since it has been empirically proved that it has therapeutic effects. Modern research indicates that marijuana can be used to treat “neuropathic pain, nausea, spasticity, glaucoma, and movement disorder”.

Moreover, it can act as an alternative medicine to patients who have developed resistance to other medications commonly prescribed for patients. Nonetheless, students should not abuse it under the pretext of exploiting its medicinal value.

Although students that abuse Marijuana may not easily recognize its detrimental effects, they may slowly develop long-term heath complications. For example, they can suffer mental breakdown that is often manifested in form of unusual anxiety. Irrational fear can also be experienced at some stage in life.

When students begin consuming drugs, they often think that it is only for a season, and that they will eventually stop using them. However, they mostly risk being addicted to drugs which can ruin their future. The outcomes of drug abuse that range from malnutrition to long-term health complications have compelled many secondary learning institutions to incorporate health services.

Averagely, 66 percent of learning institutions across the U.S.A bestow health services that are dispensed by qualified psychologists. Over 80 percent of the states presently enforce drug use sensitization programmes in schools. Provisions of these health services in schools have further strained the already meager learning resources. Even the curriculum designers have had to rework the school programmes by incorporating health related lessons in the curriculum.

Thus, schools have assumed the primary role of educating children on moral issues, which was once handled at a family level. The nature of drug abuse in schools varies considerably from one institution to another. Hence, various schools handle their drug related challenges differently. In some schools, health lessons are mandatory and graded; in others, tutors plead with students to refrain from drugs.

Conclusion The above analysis shows that hard drugs have pernicious effects on students and the society at large. This is because students that abuse drugs can cause chaos in school by engaging in unlawful acts. In some cases, it may lead to unplanned school dropout. Moreover, “illicit drugs cause health complications such as coma, low blood pressure, malnutrition, heart problems, and permanent destruction of tissue in the body”.

Thus, decisive steps and proper mechanisms should be adopted to handle this menace before it spirals out of control. The school authorities should not be overburdened with handling the challenge of drug abuse among students, but everyone should take responsibility and see to it that students stay away from drugs.

Works Cited Fewell, Christine. Impact of Substance Abuse on Children and Families: Research and Practice Implications. New York: Wiley, 2006. Print.

Fields, Richard. Drugs in Perspective: A Personalized Look at Substance Use and Abuse. Ohio: McGraw-Hill, 2003. Print.

Martin, Robert. HIV, Substance Abuse, and Communication Disorders in Children. New York: Routledge, 2007. Print.

Richard, Jessor. Longitudinal Research on Drug Use. New York: Wiley, 2001. Print.


“The Wealth of Nations” by Adam Smith Essay essay help

In his book The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith makes several important claims about the functioning of economic and tries to explain the welfare of the society can be improved. His central thesis is that countries should increase the value and productivity of their labor in order to promote the welfare of citizens. To some degree, this goal can be achieved by removing trade barriers or making market more open.

Even though Adam Smith’s ideas have been disputed by many thinkers, they have shaped the way in which many governments and economies work. Moreover, his views remain relevant to modern societies. In order to elaborate his argument, Adam Smith first focuses on the role of money. First of all, the author challenges a popular opinion, according to which money and wealth are “considered as in every respect synonymous” (Smith, 248).

He does not agree with the idea that rich country should only accumulate silver and gold. The author urges people to remember that this view of wealth completely overlooks such things lands, consumable goods or houses that are also important for the wellbeing of the society.

Furthermore, he objects to the idea that such metals as gold and silver should not be carried away from the country because such prohibitions only impede trade and prevent people from maximizing their wealth. To a great extent, Adam Smith views had profound implications for the strategies of many governments.

The discussion of money and its functions helps Adam Smith introduce such concepts as productivity, free market, and comparative advantage. First of all, the author notes that some countries can manufacture some products better than others and at a lower cost. For instance, he mentions that is more prudent to import wine from France, rather than encourage its costly production in Scotland (Smith, 265).

At this point, he introduces such a concept as “natural advantage” of a nation (Smith, 265). Among such advantages, one can distinguish climate or geographic position. On the whole, Adam Smith enabled people to look at economic relations from a different angle. His work demonstrates that the well-being of a nation greatly depends on people’s ability to create extra value.

Furthermore, the author points out that protectionist policies can be destructive and irrational. Adam Smith creates a very powerful analogy in order to illustrate his argument. In particular, he says that “the shoemaker does not attempt to make his own clothes, but employs a tailor” (Smith, 264). Similarly, people buy goods that can be better manufactured or produced by someone else (Smith, 264).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This example is supposed to illustrate the benefits of open markets. Thus, the government that erects trade barriers limits the choices that are available to the citizens. Thus, the welfare of the nation greatly depends on the ability of a nation to use its natural advantages. In turn, the presence of competition forces manufacturers to improve their work and make better offerings to buyers.

Therefore, Adam Smith succeeds in showing that the wealth of a nation should not be reduced only to money. Instead, people should pay more attention to the ability of the industry to create additional value and raise effectiveness of manufacturing. Furthermore, governments should focus on the welfare of citizens, rather than only production. On the whole, the works of this thinker has contributed to the evolution of economic science.

Works Cited Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, New York: Publishing, 2009. Print.