Ricker Oil’s Marketing Plan Essay Essay Help Free

Executive Summary Armstrong (2000, p.22) defines a marketing plan as a written document which details the necessary actions necessary to achieve the marketing objectives formulated. A Marketing plan is a blueprint for communicating the value of your products and services to your customers (Anon, 2005, para. 2).

Ricker Oil limited was founded in 1979 and currently operates 49 convenience stores in Indiana State. The company distributes high quality oil products to various categories of consumers in Indiana. The company according to Simpson (2010, p.15) is committed to community service, customer service and corporate trust as its foundation.

This Marketing plan is a one year strategy in response to the recent spillage in the Gulf of Mexico. The spill has affected the business. The future implications that it has to the company is analyzed. The spillage is a threat to the business and hence there is a need to have a clear way forward in handling the situation at hand. In order to attain this, the firm has developed a marketing plan. The strategies herein are in line with the overall business plan and acts as a strategic blueprint.

Situation analysis One of the major challenges facing the oil industry in United States is as a result of oil spillage in the Gulf of Mexico by the contracted supplier that is British Petroleum Public Limited Company. The outcome of the spillage according to BP (2010) has affected a large number of entrepreneurs and independent distributors who deal with the brand.

Being one of the businesses dealing with BP products as a distributor, the management team has to consider how to survive in business amid customer complaints regarding the situation. Some of the stations such as the Ricker Oil which deal with BP brands cannot distance themselves from the challenge facing the oil company as stated by Elliot (2007, p.130).

This is due to the fact that these stations are in existence as a result of a contract between them and BP Oil. These contracts stretch for a number of years hence it is impossible to terminate them without incurring huge financial obligation and legal consequences.

Company analysis The Companys goal is to run the most profitable and professionally managed petrol station in the United States. In its operation, the firm focuses on customer care, employee and shareholders satisfaction. The company’s objective is to own 50% of the oil market share in Indiana by the end of the 2010.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Its market share has decreased recently as a result of customers shunning companies carrying BP brands which are attributed to the oil spillage crisis in the Gulf of Mexico. However, the management team is determined to ensure that the crisis does not greatly affect the business.

Competition within the oil sector in Indiana is not stiff. In addition, there are a few established brands in Indiana. Most of these dealers are independent stations.

The company has adequate resources available to fully implement the marketing plan. For example, during the previous financial year, the firm managed to register high profits. A significant proportion of the profit was put in the reserve which is in line with its policy. This means that the firm has sufficient amount of finances to implement the marketing plan.

PESTEL Analysis

According to Decision Group (2000, para. 2), the US political environment has undergone a change over the recent past. The government has formulated a policy aimed at enhancing the oil industry’s capacity to deal with the oil spillage crisis. For example, the government offered tax rebate to cushion against diminishing sales as the crisis is being dealt with.

This cushions Ricker Oil against economic changes such as inflation and rise in interest rates. This is favorable to the company’s operation. The daily journal carried an article which showed that drill oil in Indiana would be hard. In an effort to promote oil industry, the US government has formulated a policy aimed at increasing exploration of oil and gas (Department of Energy, 2010, para. 5).

In order to exploit this opportunity, firms dealing with oil production are required to invest heavily on technology in order to be effective in drilling. Changes in the social environment have had the largest impact on business operation. One of the social changes relate to the low demand for the company’s products as a result of change in consumer behavior and attitude towards BP brands.

On the other hand, technology has played a favorable role in the operation of the firm. This arises from the new eco-friendly petrol products launched by BP. Currently; the petrol product is the best quality in the market. Incorporation of new technology in oil storage and transportation will greatly reduce losses incurred through evaporation and spillage.

We will write a custom Essay on Ricker Oil’s Marketing Plan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This will significantly reduce costs incurred by the firm. Legal issues in relation to health and safety are still unchanged though there are indications that the government will enact new regulation to prevent future oil spillage crisis and in handling oil crisis.

Market Analysis

The oil market has a high potential for growth despite the low sales which are attributed to the oil spillage crisis. Ricker Oil is well established in Indian state. However, the firm’s management team intends to acquire a 50% market share within the next one year.

Through acquisition, the firm has been able to increase the number of its petrol stations. The recent acquisitions entailed two stations which were previously under one of our competitor’s brand. BP Company is communicating facts related to oil spillage to the consumers hence retain their trust to the brand.

Recent demand for high quality eco-friendly petrol products coincided with introduction by BP of the same to the market. This gives the company differential advantage over its competitors. Establishment of a new college, a branch of the State University in the region with a capacity of 1,000 students will generate new market for our products.

Consumer Analysis

The current oil spillage crisis has resulted into a change in consumer buying decision. The 5.4% drop in sales is attributed to the crisis. Compared to other players in the market, Ricker Oil has a high potential of growth. The new drive inns experienced depicts the trust customers have on the brand.

According to Simpson (2010, p. 6), consumers are loyal to the company because of the good customer care and efficiency in service provision compared to the competitors. If consumers cease purchasing from the company’s stations, they will be hurting the local economy. This is one of the the public relations campaigns that the company has considered in order to deal with the situation.

The changing consumer behavior and attitude is attributed to the BP crisis. Consumer dissatisfaction is minimal and the crisis has been blown out of proportion as shown by groups in Facebook and other social websites.The company considers this as a personal issue. It therefore does not cut across the whole consumer base.

SWOT Analysis

Gillespie (2007, p. 4) defines a firm’s strengths and weakness as inherent advantages the company has over other players in an industry. The strong brand and good distribution networks maintained by Ricker Oil, financial capability and operating capabilities are our strengths. Employees of the firm will have to play a critical role and use their skills for the company to grow.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ricker Oil’s Marketing Plan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To overcome our weaknesses the company will be launching a new brand of engine oil from its own production line hence reduce overreliance on BP brands. The oil crisis has provided Ricker Oil with an opportunity to buy of our competitors stations at bargained price hence establishing a higher market share and effective distribution network.

Launching of new eco-friendly petrol product coincided with demand for high quality environmental friendly fuel. This gives the company an added opportunity over its competitors in the market (Anon, 2010, para. 3).

The only threat experienced relates to competition from stations carrying other brands which have been innovated as a result of the crisis. However, this is temporary and the company expects normal operations in two month’s time. Threats of new entrants to the market have been foreseen and the company is repositioning itself as a leading oil provider. In addition, the firm offers other services such as convenience stores, free oil change and Children Park.

Marketing analysis The market for oil products has grown tremendously over the past one year.This trend is expected to grow in the future due to the favorable economic environment brought about by strong dollar relative to other currencies. In addition, implementation of the stimulus package will promote market growth.

The company expects a market growth of at least 5% per month which will be consistent throughout the period of the plan. The company is expanding its market target to satellite towns within the state through recruiting small distributors who have established businesses in these areas.

Market segmentation

It is important for Ricker Oil to expand its market by targeting institutional customers such as corporate organizations and schools in the region.This category of customers are loyal and entering into contractual agreement with them to be their suppliers ensures a sound customer base.

The company intends to use market segmentation strategy in order to retain customers and to create product differentiation to meet the customer needs. Market segmentation is important in the company’s effort to position itself in the market as the leader via provision of high quality and reliable oil products. Price discrimination will also be exercised thanks to clear market segments and target as stated by Bangs (1992, p.3).

Market share

Ricker Oil market share has undergone a significant increase over the past few years it has been in operation. For the next one year, the firm projects its market share to increase with a margin of 50% as a result of marketing its products in Indiana. The market share is expected to be boosted by the convenience stores. This arises from a change in consumer behavior. For example, consumers are considering purchasing product at convenience store while refueling.

This plan sets a one year period as the maximum time allowed to gain half of the share of the oil products market (appendix). Increasing the market share is expected to generate more sales. Convenient stores contribute more than half of its annual profits. Over the last period, there has been a sustainable growth in customer base.

Improving outlook, display, branding and services in the stores will eventually increase sales from oil products and increase customer base and market share. Sustaining the existing customers is key to achieving the desired levels of sales and a consistent 5% monthly increase in sales level. According to Lewis (2002, p.1), sustaining a company’s projects is more important and crucial than mere implementation of strategies.


There is stiff competition in the industry arising from independent stations which sell oil products for other brands. Competition is based on customer relations and service. The company will focus on efficient and effective customer service, relationship building and reliability in services provision.

To gain a competitive advantage, the company will embark on expanding its convenience stores to include children parks in an effort to attract potential customers who have families. The Chartered Institute of Marketers (2008, para. 4) states that relationship marketing is important in achieving company goals and a database of all customers will be created within this period.

The company will carry community empowerment and social responsibility twice this year, the main aim is to restore trust and market confidence as stated Verma (2006,p.20 ).

Marketing strategy The company will adopt a new marketing strategy which will consider value addition. By offering extra services to clients ranging from free oil change, windscreen wiping, expanding convenience stores and free oil products delivery to loyal customers will go along way in building customer relations.

There will be a change in positioning of premium unleaded petroleum products to suit needs of the corporate target market. The company will cease from selling repackaged diesel engine oil, rather it will act as a reseller to BP’s oil. These will lead to savings in relation to production costs.


The Company’s oil products will still carry the BP brand. However, the convenience stores will introduce new customized products relating to the brand. Extensions in petrol oil products are necessary due to rising competition and changing consumer demand. Our products are known to be reliable, convenient and dependable and this is our strong foundation that we should uphold.

Branding of company products is integral and with the BP brand under scrutiny from the market in the short run, the company will focus on selling benefits rather than the brand it carries. In the long run the company intends to do branding on the products but under license from BP.


Pricing decisions for oil products will be based wholly on global prices, forces of demand and supply and competition. In order to retain and maintain the current customer base amidst the oil spillage crisis, quantity discounts will be offered to customers. For corporate clients, base payment options will be available provided.

This will enable the company to achieve high levels of customer retention. Price discrimination will be exercised by charging different prices to different consumers groups. The criteria to practice price differentiation will be based on geographical distance and consumer loyalty.

Consumers with loyalty cards will get cash discounts on products thus building loyalty and trust. Pricing decisions will be based on total cost plus mark up at same time ensuring the prices are competitive in the market for the sake of market penetration and market expansion.


In the short run, that is the next three months, depending on the outcome of the oil spillage crisis to the business and public relations will be the main promotional which will be used. The BP brand will aid in communicating and advertising to leverage the company against the oil crisis for the next two years. BP will send sales representatives who will work with the company’s sales force in implementing new sales promotion to be launched in 6 months time.

Cash discounts will be given to loyalty card holders and bulk buyers at a rate of 5% on total purchase. In addition, advertisement will form a major promotion tools.Bangs (1992, para. 4) stated that advertisement is critical in building brands and reminding consumers of the products existence in the market during their buying process.

In most cases, consumers will purchase brands they are aware of. Advertisements serve in enhancing brand awareness. The company will for the first time run game shows to be aired in the local television. This will help in building brand awareness thus countering competition.

To increase product availability in the market, distributors will be awarded trade discounts and rebates. A sales promotion targeting distributors will be launched to increase their competitiveness and reward them for carrying Ricker Oil products.


The Company has the largest distribution network in Indiana State. Another station will be opened in the sprawling up market of Indian town. New logistics software is in place to aid in logistics related to electronic distribution hence a high level of efficiency in the network. With regard to warehousing, the refurbishment will be completed in a month time. This will in turn increase holding capacity by more than 25% of the current holding capacity.

The company has considered incorporating small independent distributors in an effort to ensure that its products are accessible in the entire market. Kotler (1996, p.120) describes a good channel of distribution as one which takes the shortest time and is cost effective to operate. Based on this definition, the company has integrated the Critical Path Method of identifying the shortest and most effective distribution channel to use (Heerdens, 2005,p.76).

Implementation Implementation of the firm’s strategies will be faced with a number of challenges in relation to personnel requirements, financial requirements and change management as described by Kennedy (2000,p.34). The implementation of the strategy will be done in three phases.

These phases include dealing with the challenges brought resulting from the crisis, adopting changes and taking corrective measures. Alternative strategies will be developed to meet changes in the environment and unforeseen circumstances (Klastorin 2003, p.54).

Personnel requirements

New staff will be required in some of the firm’s departments. These include warehousing, sales and marketing, operations, finance and talent acquisition. Recruitment will be done in the next one month. The staff recruited will enable the marketing plan to be well executed by providing enough human capital. As a result, the plan will be achievable within the one year as it is stipulated. Restructuring of the marketing department will be conducted on sale and marketing functions under the head of marketing (see appendix).

Financial requirement

Huge financial outlay is expected with recruitment of new staff, expansion of convenient stores, establishing a new station, warehouse renovation and increased promotion activity. This will result into a 20% increase in the company’s total expenditure. Returns expected will be 10% of sales revenue. Theis figure is expected to rise to increase so as to cover operational costs over the next phase of the firm’s operation.

Change management

Other than restructuring the Marketing department, all managers are expected to embrace the plan in their departmental levels. As departmental heads, managers will be the change management in implementing the strategies and evaluation will be done at the end of the year to check on performance.

The company expects all departments, staff and management to work together to successfully implement the plan. Deviations noticeable during the implementation process will be communicated directly to the Marketing department under strategic management. All departments will be treated as strategic management units thus ensuring maximum effort and energy is driven towards achievement of the set goals as per the plan.

Financial Summary The main assumption taken is that the dollar rate will remain constant over the year with no major fluctuations. The balance sheet will change to reflect the inclusion of a new Children Park to be built in convenient stores and a restructured warehouse. A significant change in the income statement is expected with more capital outlay and increased expenses brought about by expansion measures.

The cash flow statement will also be affected because more cash from the reserve will be used in expansion. Therefore a lower profit margin is expected. However, at the end of the year investments, the firm will expect higher returns. According to Kerzner (2003, p.32), capital expenditure and related expenses are considered as investments rather costs to the company’s account.

Scenarios There are two scenarios expected. First, if the BP oil crisis escalates beyond the firm capacity to deal with, the company will experience a significant loss thus running into the risk of insolvency. Incase of this occurring, there will be a reduction in customer loyalty. The customers will completely cease from purchasing BP products. The only option left to the company will be to close down its operations or obtain its supplies from other suppliers. This will amount into breach of its contract with BP.

The second case scenario relates to whether the crisis will be resolved soonest possible. If this is attained, the firm will attain a favorable business operating environment backed by consumer confidence and trust for its brands. This forms the foundation of this marketing plan (Verma, 2009, p.21).

Conclusion The marketing plan provides a blueprint which the company will utilize in its operation during the next financial year. The ongoing oil spill crisis has resulted into a challenge in the firm’s effort to improve marketing strategies to meet changing customer demands, behavior and characteristics.

In order to deal with the crisis, the firm’s departments will be allowed to develop alternative strategies. However, these strategies must be in line with the overall plan. This plan acts as a guide regarding Ricker Oil’s market position during the next year of its operation.

The marketing department is responsible for drafting the marketing plan with consultations from other departments. In addition, it will ensure that the plan is effectively implemented. The top management team of the company will be responsible for providing leadership and resources to implement the plan successfully.

The oil market is characterized by fluctuating prices and hence the biggest decisions a firm has to undertake relates to pricing. Market research is very important. Firms which conduct continuous market surveys remain competitive, are adaptable to changing environment and meet changing consumer demands.

In depth understanding of consumer behavior enables a firm effectively meet market needs. As a result, the customers are satisfied by consuming the firm’s products thus increasing the probability of the firm attaining its organizational goals as a going concern entity (Cohen, 2006, p. 21).

Reference List Anon. 2010. Swot analysis.Web. Available at: https://www.12manage.com/methods_swot_analysis.html

Anon. 2005. Marketing plan. Web. Web.

Armstrong, G. Harker, M.


How readily terrorists can acquire nuclear weapons Research Paper essay help free

Nuclear terrorism is one type of Weapons of Mass Destruction terrorism and it is one of the gravest threats posed by terrorism today. It entails the terrorists’ acquisition and use or threat of use of nuclear weapons or materials in which a sustained fission reaction takes place.

Thus, nuclear terrorism is limited to the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium (Pu) bombs; however, some individuals use the phrase in reference to any terrorist weapon using radioactive substances, which entails the use of radiological dispersal devices (RDDs).

Terrorists, with the intention of causing havoc over a wide area, can use RDDs materials such as cesium-137, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. These materials are commonly used in various places around the world. Despite the attempts that have been made to secure nuclear weapons, various gaps remain that may make them available to the terrorists.

As was demonstrated by the 9/11 attacks on the U.S., terrorists desire to cause violence and widespread destruction in the world. Al-Qaeda and al-Qaeda-inspired terrorist organizations can readily accomplish this by the use of unconventional weapons of destruction, for example, chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear detonation. Among these means of attack, the use of nuclear detonation guarantees the possibility of mass casualties.

A nuclear weapon can lead to widespread destruction in the heart of a city, causing the demise of hundreds of thousands of innocent individuals and making others to suffer from radiation sickness and cancer in the long run (Etzioni, 2004). Moreover, a city’s infrastructure can experience radioactive contamination. This may require several years and a lot of money to decontaminate. The wider economic costs of such an attack can negatively influence the economy of a country.

In this century, the possibility of the occurrence of a nuclear terrorist attack has been increased by the fact that the terrorist groups are not limited to geographical boundaries.

They operate in different places around the world and corporate with other terrorist groups. More so, these terrorists are usually driven by strong religious convictions and they feel that they are heroes when they sacrifice their lives on a ‘godly’ mission causing destruction.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To initiate a nuclear attack, potential terrorists must first acquire the destructive weapons. They can be able to accomplish this in three main ways: accessing them illegitimately, purchasing them, or building them (Ferguson, 2006, p.9). All of these possibilities pose significant difficulties to terrorists. However, it is not in order to discount these possibilities to devastating nuclear terrorism.

Terrorists can illegitimately acquire intact nuclear weapons. Currently, different nations have expressed interests in acquiring nuclear weapons, and about 27,000 of these weapons are in the arsenals of eight nations in the world. This makes the terrorists to have a target-rich environment.

Russia and the U.S. have the largest concentration of nuclear weapons. In these countries, the nuclear weapons are usually under intense security, which makes them difficult to steal. However, being hard to access illegitimately does not imply impossibility. To be specific, the shipment and deployment of these weapons outside the areas that they are under intense surveillance can enhance the vulnerability to illegal access.

In a situation whereby terrorists have succeeded in stealing an intact nuclear weapon, they have to find a way of countering their in-built security devices. These weapons are usually protected by security and arming devices, which must first be activated before they are ready for use.

For instance, specialized security locks referred to as permissive action links (PALs) are needed for activating the United States nuclear weapons and they allow only a limited number of trials in entering the right code. Other countries such as Britain, Russia, China, and France have also adopted the use of PALs.

Even though the majority of Russian nuclear weapons have this protection, some of the older Russian tactical nuclear arms are feared to be lacking this security system since most of them may have been destroyed, are about to be destroyed, or have been deployed to unsafe areas.

It is not known whether some countries like Israel, India, and Pakistan use this security system to protect their nuclear weapons. It is feared that terrorists can collude with army officials to provide them with information concerning PAL unlock codes or any other security information.

We will write a custom Research Paper on How readily terrorists can acquire nuclear weapons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As much as the terrorists’ acquisition of nuclear weapons seems difficult to surmount; however, concerns have been raised about the security of Pakistani and Russian nuclear weapons (Blair, 2001). This is because some of their nuclear weapons are relatively portable, hence may lack in-built security systems, and they may not be kept in secure locations.

Terrorists can acquire nuclear weapons by purchasing them from a nuclear nation. They can also acquire the weapons when a nuclear nation transfers them to them at no cost. Nonetheless, both recognized nuclear powers and nuclear-armed “rogue” states may not be willing to work together with the terrorists in this regard since they are likely to suffer from devastating retaliation if they are found doing this.

The dishonesty in nuclear custodians and the black market are possible ways that the terrorists can employ in acquiring nuclear weapons. In addition, a coup in a country can bring a regime that is ready to cooperate with the terrorists in their acquisition of the dangerous weapons.

In this perspective, Pakistan is notable as a susceptible route that the terrorists can use to acquire the weapons. The country has a fairly new command and control system which the terrorist groups, such as al-Qaeda and Taliban forces, can take advantage of.

More so, these terror groups have a formidable presence in the region and some of the country’s Inter-Service Intelligence (ISI) agency sympathizes with them. There are attempts that have made to murder Pakistan’s government officials so as to allow the terrorists sympathizers to come to power.

The most notorious nuclear black market started in Pakistan and a metallurgist called Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan ran it. The nuclear distribution network sold nuclear materials and weapons to various nations across Europe, Africa, and Asia. There is no outright evidence that the network supplied terrorists with nuclear weapons or materials.

However, the program supplied blueprints for a nuclear bomb to Libya. Probably, terrorists may have acquired this sensitive information or ultimately they would acquire the information. This black market illustrates that some countries in the world, such as Pakistan, are susceptible to an insider threat.

Terrorists may also possess nuclear weapons by constructing them. At present, no terrorist groups have the capacity to build nuclear weapons and they would need to obtain HEU or Pu to build the weapons. HEU is not present in nature. On the other hand, Pu is present naturally but only in minute amounts.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How readily terrorists can acquire nuclear weapons by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The uranium that occurs in nature contains less that one percent of the type of uranium that is needed for making nuclear weapons; therefore, it must be enriched to make it effective. The type of technology required to achieve this is beyond the reach of terrorists, except they get state sponsorship.

In absence of the industrial-scale resources to enrich uranium, terrorists may acquire existing caches of HEU. Unfortunately, HEU stockpiles are abundant, with about two thousand metric tons available in the world, and Russia and the U.S. possess almost ninety percent of these.

The HEU stockpiles found in less secure regions are susceptible to theft. Similar to enriching uranium, making Pu is beyond the reach of terrorists, except they receive financial and industrial assistance of a state(s) or they steal from the existing stockpiles. The Manhattan Project constructed a basic type of nuclear bomb called the gun-type device, which is less technically challenging since it simply shoots one lump of highly enriched uranium into another to initiate a destructive chain reaction.

The gun-type bomb can only use HEU for starting an explosive chain reaction. A crude HEU gun-type bomb has the capacity of causing widespread destruction and skilled terrorists are able to build this type of nuclear weapon without state-sponsorship (Baker, 2002, p.2).

In conclusion, most terrorist organizations in the world have expressed their willingness to acquire weapons of mass destruction and use them to cause chaos in the world. This calls for establishment of drastic measures that can prevent them from obtaining or accessing these dangerous weapons.

Reference list Baker, R. (2002). Nuclear terrorism. New York: Novinka Books.

Blair, B. (2001). What if the terrorists go nuclear? Center For Defense Information. Web.

Etzioni, A. (2004). Pre-empting nuclear terrorism in a new global order. The Foreign Policy Centre. Web.

Ferguson, C. D. (2006). Preventing catastrophic nuclear terrorism. Council on Foreign Relations. Web.


The U.S. Secret Service; Are they worth it? Term Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction As President, Barak Obama and other leaders deal with issues affecting Americans, it is clear that times have tremendously throughout history. This change has resulted into transformation of problems and emergence of unique challenges, only known to the current generation. Being one of the most respected American presidents, Abraham Lincoln was confronted with a series of issues, which called for radical and sober solutions.

He is historically remembered for his outstanding role during the Civil War and the fight against slavery, which was augmented by the signing of the Emancipation and Proclamation. Nevertheless, he established the United States Secret Service, which continuously works with other security agencies in the country to promote security and combat crime (Reese, 2012).

This term paper focuses on the internal affairs and budgetary issues facing the Secret Service. Throughout the analysis, the paper will describe the structure, practice and procedure of the Service, and compare it with other agencies. Importantly, the paper is divided into segments, including methodology, discussions and conclusion, structured in a concise manner.

Methodology The issue of security has received a wide range of literature coverage by American writers, researchers and investigators. As a result, the topic has well-documented information, covering different issues, including security agencies like the United States Secret Service. This paper will therefore focus on secondary methods of colleting the information required to achieve the objectives of the research.

In particular, the information will be sourced from books, journal articles and authentic websites. With regard to books and journals, they will be obtained from the university library and from the internet.

United States Secret Service Although the United States Secret Service could be performing other functions today in the United States, it is worth noting that the Service was mainly established to deal with the illegal production of money in the United States. This was based on the fact that the country’s monetary system was somehow disorganized in 1800s; every state issued coins and bills, through banks, which produced different forms of genuine currency (Reese, 2012).

Due to this massive circulation of bills, it was easy for individuals to produce counterfeit money and put it into circulation without being discovered by authorities. It was during President Lincoln’s reign that the country witnessed the highest level of this exercise as more than a third of America’s money was illegal.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through advice by the treasury, the president established a commission to counter the problem, which was threatening the country’s economy, a move that was followed by the establishment of the United States Secret Service on April, 14 1865 to execute the commission’s recommendations (Homeland Security, 2011).

The Service became fully recognized in July, 1865, with William Wood being appointed as its first chief. He was highly applauded for his success during the Civil War, and by the end of the first year, more than two hundred counterfeiting plants had been shut down.

This was viewed as a milestone, with most leaders realizing its practical role in taming counterfeiting of money. Its national headquarters was established in 1866, under the U.S. Department of Treasury (Homeland Security, 2011).

Although President Lincoln is considered to be the pioneer of the Service, he never lived to see its achievements and expansion. He was assassinated on the same evening he launched the service, sending the country into national mourning. Lincoln’s assassination was the first in the country’s history, since no other president had been assassinated (Homeland Security, 2011).

As a result, Congress began deliberating on the need of improving the president’s security by including it among the roles of the Secret Service. However, this was approved thirty six years later, after the assassination of two more presidents, James Garfield and William McKinley. As a result, the protection of the president has always been under the Secret Service from 1901, during the reign of President Theodore Roosevelt.

In 1917, threats against the president’s security heightened, forcing Congress to include the entire First Family under the protection of the Service. In 1951, the protection of the vice president was included, as President Lyndon endorsed the inclusion of all presidential candidates, after the assassination of Robert Kennedy in 1968 (Miller, 2008).

Structure Since its establishment, the agency remained under the Department of Treasury, until 2002, when it became part of the Department of Homeland Security. This was achieved after the ratification of the Homeland Security Act of 2002.

We will write a custom Term Paper on The U.S. Secret Service; Are they worth it? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Based on this, the Service is tasked with the protective-investigative mission, which is aimed at safeguarding the financial infrastructure of the nation, encompassing the integrity of the currency, protecting leaders of the nation, visiting heads of state, selected sites and National Special Security Events (Miller, 2008).

Importantly, the protective mission includes a host of activities, which could be related to identification of threats, counteracting vulnerabilities and the attainment of a secure environment for those being protected. On the other hand, the investigative mission includes enforcing U.S. laws, which are related to financial, technology and electronic offenses (Miller, 2008).

From this structure, it is evident that the U.S. Secret Service has a demanding role, which is key in determining the country’s development. The Service has more than one hundred and fifty offices around the world, with more than 6,700 employees, who carry out varying responsibilities to ensure that its goal is achieved. The following chart shows a summary of the organizational structure of the Service.

It is essential to note from the organizational structure that the Office of Protective Research, OPR plays a major role in supporting the dual protective-investigative mission pursued by the Secret Service. Under OPR, the CIO and the Information Resources Management Division IRM are crucial sources of information technology support and expertise.

In particular, the CIO office provides IT solutions and services, which are paramount in realizing the Service’s dual mission. Of significance is the fact that this office provides strategic leadership, advice, direction and any form of assistance, which is related to IT programs of the entire Service.

Moreover, IRM personnel are handy in developing, providing and management of IT, which is necessary to support the investigative and protective operations of the agency (Miller, 2008).

Moreover, the agency is composed of two major divisions, which are the Special Agent Division and the Uniformed Division. The principal role of the Uniformed Division is to offer sufficient protection to the White House and its environs, the residence of the Vice President, and all embassies, which are located in Washington, D.C.

The division was created by an act of Congress in 1922 and was initially known as the White House Police. This was under the leadership of President Warren G. Harding’s (Gaines, 2001).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The U.S. Secret Service; Are they worth it? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Driving Forces The U.S. Secret Service operates within an environment, which continues to expose the country’s leaders, economy and major events to criminal attacks. As the world experiences emerging technology and new weaponry, more criminals are willing to employ these new tactics to threaten the security of the United States (Gaines, 2001).

As a result, the Secret Service examines and incorporates new technology and practices, where possible, together with partnering with the private and public organizations in enhancing knowledge and experience.

Global Economic and Technological Trends Unlike in the past, the accessibility to electronic technology has widely spread in the United States and around the world in the 21st century. Additionally, there has been an increase in international and global internet connection. These advancements have led to exponential growth in e-commerce and online banking across the country.

Likewise, there has been an increase in electronic payment, including the use of credit and debit cards to facilitate international and local business transactions (Gaines, 2001). Due to this, electronic and financial crimes have become more common across the country, than it was before.

Besides this, it is also believed that the complexity of the problem has been contributed by the global scale of the internet and lack of cooperation from foreign countries in prosecuting such cases. In the year 2006, 8.9 million Americans were reported to have suffered identity theft, which had a cost implication of approximately $50 billion.

Budget and achievements According to the director of the U.S. Secret Service, Mark Sullivan, 2011 was a special year in terms of the achievements realized by the agency. This was pegged on an array of issues, including the commitment of employees and professionalism of the entire workforce. In the year 2011, the agency used a total of$1.515 billion to deliver commendable results through its duo protective and investigative mission.

In the same year, the Service provided incident-free protection for 3,284 domestic presidential travel stops, together with 376 international stops for the President, Vice Presidents and other national leaders (USSS, 2011).

Additionally, the budget included 2,355 travel stops by 216 foreign heads of states from 136 countries from around the world. Moreover, the Secret Service was able to secure the enactment of the Uniformed Division Modernization Act, which gave the agency the authority to recruit and retain its workforce.

Aside from these, the agency arrested 9,022 suspects of various financial crimes, which was equivalent to 8% percent increment from 2010 fiscal year. Due to enhanced services, the Secret Service recovered more than $72 million through seized assets, which was equivalent to an increment of 34%.

In addition, the IT infrastructure was stabilized with $47 million investment, which supported the duo-mission (USSS, 2011). In general the Service has continuously delivered outstanding protective and investigative services, coupled with pinnacle levels of loyalty and integrity.

It has exceeded several levels of trust and confidence throughout its history. From William Wood to Mark Sullivan, its leaders have redefined and expanded the foundation and value of the agency, through dedication and commitment to the driving goals.

Failure Whilst the United States Secret Service has been highly rated with regard to its outstanding performance, reputable history and achievements, it has also failed the nation in several ways, which will be highlighted in this segment of the analysis. Many security analysts believe that the U.S. Secret Service as failed to perform its tasks in several terror attacks, which have hit the country.

Among these attacks is the September 11, 2001. It has been argued that the Service was in a position to act in several ways to save the nation (National Commission O Terrorist Attacks, 2010).

A major failure of the Service on 9/11 was its inability to provide enough protection for the president after it had been known that the country was under attack. Even though the president received Secret Service protection on that particular day, he remained exposed to danger in various instances.

On the fatal day and hour, the president entered several buildings, for activities which had received massive publicity even though there was knowledge of hijacked airlines (National Commission O Terrorist Attacks, 2010). The Secret Service allowed the president to give a televised speech, allowing the world to know where he was.

After he left, there was no air cover for his motorcade or Air Force One reinforcement. The Vice President equally remained exposed to attack, as he was evacuated from the office after the first plane had already hit the city.

Conclusion Since 1865, the U.S. Secret Service has remained a major security agency in America. Of great significance has been its role in dealing with counterfeiting of money, which was a serious problem during Lincoln’s reign. Through its duo-mission, the Service has also been on the frontline in protecting U.S. leaders.

However, the Service’s greatest failure was in 2001 when it failed to protect the president and his vice, leaving them vulnerable to attack. Regardless of this failure, the Service needs to be strengthened and empowered to enable it execute its mandate holistically.

References Gaines, A. (2001). The U.S. Secret Service. New York City: Infobase Publishing.

Homeland Security. (2011). U.S. Secret Service’s Information Technology Modernization Effort. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved from https://www.oig.dhs.gov/

Miller, C. (2008). The U.S. Secret Service: Protecting Our Leaders. Minnesota: Capstone Press.

National Commission On Terrorist Attacks. (2010). The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. New York: Cosimo, Inc.

Reese, S. (2012). The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved from https://fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL34603.pdf

USSS. (2011). United States Secret Service Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Report. United States Secret Service. Retrieved from https://www.secretservice.gov/


Relationship between Institutionalized Racism and Marxism Essay online essay help

Abstract The theory of institutional racism is frequently used in the field of sociology to explain any type of system of inequity that is based on race. The theory explains how race is used to differentiate society, particularly the institutions of government, private enterprises and institutions of higher learning, such as universities and colleges.

An activist group led by Stokely Carmichael, referred to as Black Power, first used institutional racism in 1960s. A report investigating the death of a black citizen defined institutional racism as the collective failure of an organization, particularly governmental organizations, to offer adequate and specialized services to citizens mainly because of their skin color, civilization and ethnic background.

Since then, sociologists have used the theory to establish the effects of ethnicity in society. For instance, material and social resources are distributed based on racial lines, something that hinders the fulfillment of goals and objectives among a section of the population. In 1990s, the theory took a new shape when blacks and other minority groups pressurized the government to exercise fairness in the labor market.

Currently, the theory is used to explain racial injustices in organizations, given the fact that institutions have failed to stem out racism. This paper will attempt to analyze how institutional racism affects an individual’s opportunities in life. This means that the theory influences other subjects, particularly economics. The paper will go ahead to explain how the theory is used in the field of political economy.

Introduction Institutional racism can be defined as the degree of difference to access of goods, services and opportunities in society. In the American society, the practice is common in the institutions of government, making it hard to rectify the mess. The situation is worsened by the acts of conformers and newcomers since they do not think of other strategies that would help stem out the vice.

In the American society, the government cannot claim to fight racism, given the fact that a single or identified perpetrator cannot be traced. Therefore, it could be concluded that racism has turned out to be a collective action of the American society. Scholars observe that three forms of racism exist, including personally mediated racism, internalized racism and institutionalized racism.

Mediated racism consists of specific social perspectives that are inborn, which facilitate racially prejudiced acts (Dupre 56). This would include differences in abilities, motives and aspirations. It would also incorporate discrimination whereby an individual develops certain forms of actions towards others, considering that they belong to different races.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Racism has led to the emergence of some antisocial acts such as stereotyping, which is defined as commission and omission social acts. This may perhaps entail disregard, distrust, depreciation and dehumanization of other individuals in society who do not belong to one’s race. Internalized racism is a scenario whereby members of the inferior race accept their position in society, as people with low social statuses.

This acceptance is characterized by negative acuities concerning their own capabilities, fundamental values characterized by low confidence, and little respect of other members belonging to his or her race. Such form of racism amounts to stratification based on skin complexion, self-devaluation, such as cultural insults, monikers, negative response towards own culture, acquiescence, defenselessness and despondency.

For school going children, they might end up dropping out of school while other members of black race might end up boycotting political processes such as voting (Naughton 68). Another section of society consisting of inferior races may end up engaging in health-risk practices such as rape, drug abuse and kidnapping. This paper will analyze how all these affect economic prosperity of the nation.

Institutionalized Racism in the US Institutional racism stems from importunate pessimistic stereotypes, which would as well as affect interpersonal relations in social interactions. It is proved beyond doubt that social labeling amounts to racial residential segregation, meaning those believed to be from superior races would have better chances of living comfortable lives that is, in well-established residential areas.

State authorities usually neglect those perceived to be from inferior races meaning they might find themselves living in remote areas with appalling conditions. Minority races are associated with social evils such as rape, kidnapping, mugging and drug trafficking. Furthermore, policy formulators and implementers are usually influenced by race in their process of policymaking.

White Americans have a tendency to believe that blacks and Latinos are lazy individuals, who are less intelligent preferring to engage in shortcuts, such as robbery, instead of working hard to achieve their dreams. This makes it hard for Whites to associate well with both blacks and Latinos.

Institutional racism is different from racial bigotry because institutional racism is supported by the government through formulation of policies that infringe on the rights of minority races.

We will write a custom Essay on Relationship between Institutionalized Racism and Marxism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the US, the government has propagated the formation of policies that would always subjugate the minority races economically and politically. For example, the government has always exercised racial discrimination, particularly in the education sector. The public school budgets have always been discriminatory because the government has been assigning quality teachers to schools perceived to be with many white students.

The education policy recommends that schools should be allocated resources based on property values. It is expected that rich neighborhoods would have many whites hence schools in such areas are allocated quality teachers and enough resources. This would have an implication to the economic lives of individuals because students from such public schools are expected to excel.

Those from poor neighborhoods are given inferior services, including undertrained teachers and few resources. This would definitely lead to dismal performance among students from minority races. Such students will end up in mid-level colleges that would only guarantee them low paying jobs, as compared to their white counterparts who join prestigious universities, offering well paying courses in the labor market.

Institutionalized racism borrows heavily from the system theory, which argues racism stems from a number of mutual cumulative aspects. Systems theory does not subscribe to the postulations of reductionists but instead believes in the interactions among institutions, which leads to widespread structural racism.

From the systems theory, it is true that social class theory, as formulated by scholars such as Karl Marx and Max Weber, is directly related to racism. In the US, property appraisal system was formulated in 1930s and was incorporated into the government’s lending system.

The system was purely based on race meaning members from the minority race could not access loans using the same techniques as the whites, who were the majority.

This could be interpreted to mean only whites were eligible to apply for governmental loans since their properties were rated highly, as compared to those of blacks and Latinos.

Relationship between Institutionalized Racism and Marx’s Economic Theory In economics, financial aspects are usually taught in isolation meaning that politics is to be separated from economics. However, economic life cannot be understood without understanding social and political forces that affect the lives of the minority races in the US and other parts of the world.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Relationship between Institutionalized Racism and Marxism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Economists could not predict the 1997 economic meltdown in the Asian continent because they failed to incorporate other theories from other disciplines in their investigations. The 2007 global cash crunch was not exceptional because economists did not predict it at all. For economists, they believed capitalism would go on uninterrupted.

In fact, economists gave wrong results in 1998 since they predicted that financial growth of the Asian continent would expand. Economists misled investors to believe that their stocks would generate more profits, which would be used to expand their business elsewhere. In fact, many people lost their capital through defective economic predictions.

Economists utilize mathematical figures and statistics to predict the performance of financial systems. Mostly, they would use graphs and charts to show how economic aspects would be realized. Marx however formulated a theory that would predict economic performance from a human perspective. Marx analyzed the relationships between people and classes.

In this regard, he interpreted the economy to mean a struggle between races, classes and age groups. The economy, according to Marx, is full of contradictions and uncertainties meaning that it is subject to constant changes. In this paper, the theory of Marx shows that economics is not about goods, prices or supply and demand but it is all about people, as well as their social relationships.

It is established that a section of society owns wealth while the other section owns nothing, apart from their labor (Hallman 44). The owners of the means of production are referred to as the bourgeoisies while the working class is the proletariat.

The owners of the means of production utilize their power to subjugate and dominate the inferior class, which is the minority race in the US. Life is all about production and distribution of scarce goods and resources. From the above analysis, it is true that economics should be understood to mean political and social struggles in life.

Marx started his analysis of economic aspects by first appreciating the existence of classical economic theories. Adams Smith and David Ricardo supported new industrialization and the banking system. However, they did not appreciate the fact that the two sectors were dominated by a single race. Other races were incorporated into the two sectors as underdogs.

They came up with a labor theory of value suggesting that the working class was an important element in any production system. The two economics scholars observed that the value of a product would be determined by the amount of time spent in producing it. In this regard, all commodities would be sold based on the labor applied in producing it.

Smith never explained some of the important concepts because he only suggested that the commodity or a service would be sold based on its production costs. However, he did not explain the relationship between the worker and the capitalist. Ricardo came up with another concept that affected the lives of workers in the 19th century.

He argued that workers were spending little time in producing goods and services hence their wages had to decline (Lockheed 19). Marx capitalized on the findings of Ricardo to claim that workers were being robbed of their skills. Following widespread complaints concerning exploitation, economists rejected the labor theory of value, given the fact that it exposed the secrets of the bourgeoisie to the proletariat.

Marx conducted a private and extensive research to define the concept ‘labor’. Marx came up with a perfect answer to issues to do with socio-economic and political economy. Just like other commodities, labor possesses a use-value meaning various types of labor exist.

Some of the forms of labor are important and rigorous training is needed to achieve such forms while others are simple forms of labor, which is readily available in the labor market. In the US, the readily available labor is more than the skilled labor (Chappell 78). The minority races possess this cheap labor meaning they cannot achieve their dreams through employment.

Marx noted that theoretical aspects and the amount of labor applied in the production process influence the exchange of values of commodities. Marx believed that wages are not determined by the expertise of an individual or the skills applied in the manufacture of the product.

Marx differed with other scholars such as Smith and Ricardo because he believed that use value and exchange value could only be applied in the context of labor. According to this scholar, what mattered most was the ability to work not the skills possessed by an individual. He referred to this as the labor power.

Social classes determine the labor power. Those belonging to the white race have higher labor power as compared to peasants belonging to the inferior races, such as African, Asian and Latino.

Race, Ethnicity, Discrimination and Stereotyping Racial and ethnical discrimination and stereotypes are some of the issues that affect economic capabilities of individuals. In this section, we are going to address the issues of race and ethnicity and define and analyze the components of discrimination and stereotyping.

Contemporary discrimination practices have their roots in the history of development of the United States and closely related to American anti-Semitism that was part of the late-nineteenth century racism emigrant from all parts of the world, as well as African Americans, Native Americans and Mexicans.

The discriminatory treatment included closing the doors to immigration from Europe and Mexicans, between 1882 and 1927. Contemporary discriminatory practices are similar for African Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans; they include denying equal access to opportunities, certain housing areas or membership in social organizations.

In the contemporary society, there is still a room for hidden forms of racism against ethnic groups mentioned earlier. The situation has changed since the early 1990s, when blatant racism was more common for them.

Barriers to Implementation of Policies Various interpretations of the terms “race” and “ethnicity” can lead to the types of discrimination identified in the first section. Thus, “race” is often associated with physical specifications such as skin color, and “ethnicity is defined through the background, historical or cultural aspects of an individual. Historically, people created various forms of prejudices about race and ethnicity.

Thus, the prejudice that African Americans are “low-intelligent” race leads to the institutional and employment discrimination. There are two models (social and biological), according to which race and ethnicity are defined. Both of them state that there are dominant and subjective race. However, they have considerable gaps.

For example, from the biological perspective, all people have the same construction and functions of the body and it is ridiculous to distribute people into different races. From the social perspective, all people are members of the society they live in and live according to the same social rules, thus, this gap in the sociological model cannot properly reflect race and ethnic identity.

There are voluntary and involuntary models used to promote discrimination. Separatism model suggests that racial groups should be segregated from the rest of society. Assimilation model is associated with the issue of racial supremacy. For example, it defines what races are allowed to assimilate with the dominant culture, and what races will not fit social and political standards of the dominant race.

Pluralistic model define a racial group as a distinguished one and, according to Naughton (14), “groups will not dissolve into an anodyne melting pot, but individuals will have considerable leeway in deciding how and how much group identity matters to their lives”.

Thus, racial profiling contributes to personal, spiritual, political, and procedural conflicts identified in the previous chapter. For example, as it has already been mentioned, the PATRIOT Act’s provisions are discriminatory and leave many individuals especially aliens vulnerable to harassment and torture (Ewing 12).

The race of the individual becomes “an identification” used to attribute him/her to terrorists. Moreover, federal agencies have right to freeze bank accounts of persons perceived as terrorist, it a form of racial discrimination as well. This analysis can be helpful in addressing the issue racism in the United States.

It is necessary to consider the diverse nature of employees within organizations, as well as people in communities, schools and other organizations. Racial prejudices should not be issues for classifying people in “bad” and “good” ones. In addition, international relations should be improved with diplomacy being preferred instead of military confrontations based on racial diversity.

Race and ethnic identity of a person is often a reason for social discrimination. The PATRIOT Act should find different approaches to international relations so that prevent racial and ethnic discrimination.

Conclusion The problem of Ethnicity and race is a big challenge to the policymakers both in private and public organizations. It is an issue that has threatened to divide the country into various subcultures because every ethnic group and race identifies itself with certain distinct features.

The government officials have found it hard to come up with strategies that are all encompassing mainly because of the continued resistance from some groups feeling that their interests are well catered in the plans. In general, the government is trying but more effort has to be put for there to be equality and equity in distribution of both material and non-material resources.

It can be concluded that ethnic and racial groupings cannot be eliminated in the country but instead it can be engaged to function positively. The policymakers should conduct an extensive research to identify how racial groupings have affected the development of the country.

Upon the findings, the government should design policies based on the findings. The issue of extending favors to racial members at workplaces should be discouraged and severe measures ought to be formulated to deal with the problem.

Works Cited Chappell, Marissa. The war on welfare: family, poverty, and politics in modern America. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010. Print.

Dupre, Ben. Fifty Philosophy Ideas You Really Need to Know, New York: Quercus, 2007. Print.

Ewing, Doyle. The USA Patriot Act Reader, New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2005. Print.

Hallman, Max. Traversing Philosophical Boundaries, New York: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2007. Print.

Lockheed, Marlaine. Gender and social exclusion. Paris: Education Policy series publishers, 2010. Print.

Naughton, John. From Gutenberg to Zuckerberg. What You Really Need to Know about the Internet, New York: Quercus, 2012. Print.


Foreign Direct Investment in Internet Service Provision Proposal online essay help: online essay help

Executive summary Kamuga Internet Providers is an internet service provider that seeks to begin its operations in partnership with Jamii Telecom in Kenya. A team comprising of a regional director, marketing manager, operations manager, and human resource manager will oversee the management of the company. The objective of the venture is to exploit the vast market in Kenya.

The company will collaborate with Jamii Telecom in offering the internet services to the target market. Among the strategies that the company intends to apply to attract clients, include offering its services at a lower cost relative to other companies. Additionally, the company will run promotional programs like offering free internet services to clients.

To cater for cash shortage, the management will ensure that it identifies those clients that take long to pay for the services and ask them to deposit an amount of money as retainer. Among the risks that the company is likely to encounter include, security risks and sensitivity risks. Nevertheless, there are high prospects that the company will succeed, with its operating profit expected to be approximately $50,000 annually.

Introduction Demand for internet services in the developing countries is in the rise. Majority of the companies in the developed countries outsource their human resource tasks to developing states. This underlines the reason why many business-outsourcing firms are emerging in developing countries like in Kenya. Outsourcing firms process the tasks and send them back to their clients.

All these activities require internet. Demand for internet services in Kenya is what prompted the desire to establish Kamuga Internet Providers, an internet service firm aimed at offering internet services to Kenyan companies. The firm will operate in collaborate with Jamii Telecom, which is a Kenyan company that offers internet services to clients.

This paper will focus on the benefits of establishing the company in Kenya, prospective success, and challenges that might arise in the process of running the company in Kenya.

Advantages of establishing the business Engaging in international trade brings numerous benefits to an organization. These benefits include, risk diversification and growth (Rose and Van Wincoop 387). One of the benefits that Kamuga Internet Providers will enjoy for engaging in international trade will be enhanced growth. Because of high demand for internet services in Kenya, the business will make good returns, which will facilitate in its growth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Besides, the business will enjoy a better margin. The Kenyan currency is weaker relative to the U.S dollar. Consequently, the business will require less capital to start, while the returns will be high. Jamii Telecom will also benefit from this investment in different ways. The company’s income will increase. Currently, Jamii Telecom is in partnership with other companies.

Hence, this partnership will act as a diversification strategy to the company. Another benefit that the trade partner is likely to enjoy from this investment is earlier payments. Majority of the overseas payments are made upfront, and Kamuga Internet Providers intends to observe this.

Challenges and opportunities The investment is likely to face numerous challenges, as well as opportunities. One of the challenges that this investment will encounter is cultural challenge. Jamii Telecom and Kamuga Internet Providers operate in different environments. Hence, the two companies use different organizational strategies. The companies will encounter challenges when managing the joint venture.

Besides, there will be an economic challenge. Because of political instability in Kenya, the country’s currency keeps on fluctuating (Kenya National Bureau of Statistics 34). This implies that it will be hard to estimate the total working capital for the investment at a given year. The two partners will have to monitor the business’s working capital and to increase it whenever necessary.

Another challenge will be competition from other internet providers. Already companies like Safaricom and Orange have invested in internet services. Hence, Kamuga Internet Providers will face stiff competition from these firms.

To operate in the Kenyan market, the company will have to obtain a license from the Kenyan government. Besides, the company will site its operation base at a strategic position. To contribute to its success, it will have to look for labor capital. Despite collaborating with Jamii Telecom, Kamuga Internet Providers will require having local employees to facilitate in marketing its services.

Moreover, the company will have to obtain intellectual property protection rights to avoid conflicts with rival companies. This will facilitate in safeguarding its innovations and technology, therefore, enhancing its competitive advantage (Kameri-Mbote 18).

We will write a custom Proposal on Foreign Direct Investment in Internet Service Provision specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In spite of the numerous challenges, there are many opportunities in Kenya. Currently, the existing internet provider companies focus on key firms and offices. Kamuga Internet Providers intends to target business outsourcing companies, as well as leading institutions like universities and banks. These companies cannot operate without internet.

Therefore, there will always be a ready market for the company. Majority of the companies that source their internet services from Safaricom and Orange, complain about the reliability of their services. Therefore, consumers will be willing to try a new service provider, giving Kamuga Internet Providers an opportunity to expand and consolidate its consumer base.

Covering logistics Logistic is one of the challenges that affect internet-providing companies. Poor logistics lead to consumers complaining about the quality of the services. Kamuga Internet Providers will liaise with Jamii Telecom to supply the internet services through its fiber optic cables. This will ensure that consumers are satisfied with its services.

Besides, Jamii Telecom will help it to do the networking in all the institutions that require its services. For the major institutions like Universities and business outsourcing firms, the payments will be on postpaid basis. The companies will pay after using the services.

This strategy will facilitate in winning the trust from the clients. A Majority of the clients would decline to pay for the services they have not used in fear that they might frustrate them. Nevertheless, requesting them to pay after using the services would encourage the majority of them to use the services.

Key risks The venture might be prone to a number of risks. The risks include security risk and sensitivity risk. As the company grows, it might not be able to secure its broadband, making it possible for unauthorized people to use the internet services. This will call for the company to monitor its broadband regularly and work to enhance its security. Sensitivity risks are other key risks that Kamuga Internet Providers is likely to encounter.

The sensitivity risks include government regulations, interest rates, and exchange rates. Variations in the exchange rate might affect the company’s profit. On the other hand, government regulations like intellectual property rights might hamper the company’s innovation capacity.

Revenue, cost and profit estimates To arrive at the estimated revenue, cost, and profit of the investment, the company will make numerous assumptions. One of the assumptions is that no conflict will arise between the company and the clients, which might lead to clients withdrawing in the course of the contract. Another assumption is that the cost of operations will remain constant throughout the year.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Foreign Direct Investment in Internet Service Provision by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company will also assume that there will be no changes in government regulations or increase in the inflation rate, which might lead to the operations cost going high. It anticipates that employees’ salary will remain constant throughout the year. Apart from the overhead costs that will remain constant, other costs like customer service and billing are expected to vary from time to time.

Operating statement for year 2013 Total Revenue $100,000

Variable costs $ 20,000

Gross Profit $ 80,000

Fixed costs

Salaries $10,000

Rent $10,000

Utilities $ 5,000

Depreciation $ 5,000

Total Operating Expenses $ 30,000

Operating Profit (EBIT) $ 50,000

Startup costs To start this investment, the management will require at least $700,000. This will cater for employee recruitment, marketing cost, rent, and broadband procurement, among other recurrent expenditures.

Marketing strategy Marketing mix is a superior business tool that facilitates in marketing an organization’s products or services. At times, the term four Ps is used to refer to marketing mix (Van Waterschoot and Van den Bulte 85). To promote the success of this investment, the company will employ the marketing mix strategy.

Kamuga Internet Providers will offer its services at lower prices relative to other companies to attract customers. While the majority of the companies offer their services at $0.75 per megabyte, the company will offer its services at $0.5 per megabyte. Besides, the company will run promotional programs to recruit new customers.

It will give its target clients a free internet service for one week. This will encourage many customers to use the service. The company will work in collaboration with Jamii Telecom to distribute its services.

This will help in ensuring that clients have access to its services. Jamii Telecom will help it to lay fiber optic cables in all areas with high demand for the internet services.

Operating plan A management team comprising of a regional director, human resource manager, marketing manager, and an operation manager will run the company. The company will hire local employees to help the management team. From the hired employees, the management team will select a sales team that will be responsible for marketing the company across the country.

Jamii Telecom will assume the responsibility of identifying the suppliers to supply the company with materials necessary for laying down the required internet platform.

Financing plan To maintain a smooth running of the company, the management team will have to identify strategies to cover for cash shortage. Clients that are stubborn in paying for the services will be required to deposit some retainer money, as a strategy for addressing cash shortage.

Besides, the team will make sure that it issues invoices on time for all services rendered. This will facilitate in the collection of cash from the clients. Moreover, it will facilitate in avoiding cases of overdue debtors.

Conclusion The success or failure of any investment depends on the ability of the management team to stick to the laid down business plan. If the management team observes all the outlined strategies, it will succeed in seeing the growth of Kamuga Internet Providers in Kenya.

Works Cited Kameri-Mbote, Patricia. Intellectual Property Protection in Africa: An Assessment of the Status of Laws, Research and Policy Analysis on Intellectual Property Rights in Kenya, Nairobi: University of Nairobi, 2004. Print.

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Kenya Facts and figures 2012. PDF file. 2012.

Rose, Andrew K and Van Wincoop, Eric. “National money as a barrier to international trade: the real case for currency union.” The American Economic Review 19.2 (2001): 386-390. Print.

Van Waterschoot, Walter and Van den Bulte, Christophe. “The 4P classification of the marketing mix revisited.” Journal of Marketing 56.4 (2006): 83-93. Print.


Valuation Conclusion Essay essay help free: essay help free

In this assignment, you will recalculate the value of the company’s stock based on your company’s specific required rate of return. To do this, you will calculate the required rate of return for your chosen publicly traded company using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). *My company is UPS*


Geography of Australia and New Zealand Report (Assessment) college application essay help

Map comparison Agricultural production and mineral extraction are among Australia’s economic backbone. With regards to agriculture, no other state within the pacific realm enjoys the benefits stemming from this sector other than Australia. To them this is a pipe dream. Australian farmers are a ‘jack of all trades’ (MacLeod and Jones 677). They rear domestic animals and practice farming.

To this end they have a favorable climate to boast about. However, as depicted in figure 11-5, this climate is biased towards the territory of New South Wales, extending along the borders anticlockwise towards Western Australia forming an inverted ‘U.’

The same pattern recurs for minerals though with disjointed areas at some parts of Northern and Western Australia. Among the minerals mined include gold, Iron ore, silver, coal, and copper. On comparing this map with the spatial distribution of population map (G-9) one thing emerges: the population density follows the same path (Kimble 510).

On analyzing the spatial population distributions of both New Zealand and Australia with respect to climatic patterns, several common findings can be drawn. Basically, a population will always be drawn where the climatic conditions are favorable for agricultural production.

For instance, in Australia, the population density within the central part is less. On correlating this with the region’s climate it is evident that the area is located on a dry climate. On the other hand, at New South Wales where the population density is high it enjoys temperate climate. With regards to New Zealand the area receives adequate rain throughout the year (humid equatorial climate with no dry season).

However, the physical geography of the region is what now dictates the spatial population distribution. Both these countries follow the same pattern of population distribution; most settlements are skewed along the coastal lines (Schaefer 230).

Map 1: Physical geography of Southwest Asia.

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Map 3: Economic Urban Information.


A-Broken Hill


C-Mt Isa

D-Conation Hill

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Works Cited Kimble, Hebert. “The Inadequacy of the Regional Concept” London Essays in Geography 2.17 (1951): 492-411. Print.

MacLeod, George, and Jones Mother. “Renewing The Geography of Regions.” Environment and Planning 16.9 (2001): 669-800. Print.

Schaefer, Frankline. “Exceptionalism in Geography: A Methodological Examination.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 43.3 (1953): 226-245. Print.


Local government agencies budget in the United States Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Local government agencies in the United States include county governments, towns, municipalities, and special purpose local governments such as school districts and special districts. County governments are authorized in state constitutions and statutes.

Similarly, town governments are allowed by the existing laws of the land governing various states such as the Northeastern and the Midwestern. However, they only govern a defined area.

Municipal governments govern a corresponding population Centre. School districts govern public elementary and secondary schools while the special districts are authorized by state law to provide specific designated functions (Wilson


The Paradox of Comedy: A Society’s Watchdog and Entertainer Term Paper essay help

A comedy is a play, script or a live performance meant to entertain the audience and make people laugh. Comedy comprises of jokes and satirical lines. Subversive comedy and social comedy are among the broader categories of drama. Subversive comedy reveals the different fissures under the smooth surface of official ideology in society and the play ends in a ritual celebration such as a marriage.

On the other hand, social comedy addresses threats against hegemonic cultures by disciplining upstarts and the commonwealth man in society. Careful analysis of William Wycherley’s play “The Country Wife”, as an example of a subversive comedy, and Aphra Behn’s play “The Rover”, as an example of a social comedy, reveals a clear distinction between the two categories.

Subversive comedy defines the cracks on the unscathed surface of the official ideology. These cracks exist in the Restoration comedy “The Country Wife” through the oppression of the Puritans Commonwealth during their reign from 1642 to 1660.

The play displays how the present government oppresses its citizens to the right of public expression and mocks the societal view of marriage and sexuality in London.

The cynical view of the shift that occurred in the English attitude towards marriage in the middle of 1670’s has portrayed in Harry Horner’s explanation of how he plans to have sexual escapades with London’s upper class women and how they still keep their honor in society as moral beings (Norman 40).

These sexual escapades are carefully planned by Horner’s lie of being a eunuch after recovering from a venereal disease that rendered him impotent. It aims at fooling the husbands and fiancée of the women who get involved with Horner to allow them do so without raising eyebrows.

Major themes, such as hypocrisy, are addressed through the wants of men and women to appear as being more virtuous than they actually are. The importance placed on money in the society given rise to capitalism and absurdity that drives humans to yearn for sex without love is also tackled. Norman’s comment reveals the different fissures in society that are hidden under the smoothness of official ideology (Norman 52).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Social comedy in contrast to the latter reveals the rebellion against the ruling élite and main virtues in the society. It addresses threats against hegemonic culture by disciplining upstarts.

In the play “The Rover”, the characters revolt against vulnerability of women towards sexual abuse, and the men that marry women whom they consider of a higher social class as compared to the women considered of low social status and hence branded as whores. Angellica is sexually exploited by Willmore for mistakenly falling in love with him.

Willmore wants Angellica Bianca to marry Hellena but Angellica goes against the society’s view of women being sexual objects and she threatens revenge on Willmore. Hellena’s sister, Florinda, revolts against the practice of women being married off to suitors chosen for them.

She goes against her brother’s will and chooses to marry her true love, Colonel Belvile. Women are also portrayed as capable of being thieves as the girl who according to the false assumption of provincial Blunt, has fallen in love with him (Carlson 530).

In conclusion, it is fair to stress that the comedy mocks the underlying issues in society. Subversive comedy reveals the fissures under the smooth surface of official ideology as the play ends in ritual celebrations while Social comedy addresses threats against the hegemonic culture by disciplining upstarts and commonwealth men in the society.

Works Cited Carlson, Susan. “Cannibalizing and Carnivalizing” Reviving Aphra Behn’s The Rover. Theatre Journal 47.4 (1995): 517-539.Print.

Norman, Holland. The First Modern Comedies: The Significance of Etherege, Wycherley and Congreve Massachusetts: Cambridge, 1959. Print.

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