Review Of «Adapting Kohlberg To Enhance The Assessment Of Managers’ Moral Reasoning» By James Weber Analytical Essay Essay Help Free

Table of Contents Introduction

Background information


Critical evaluation


Works Cited

Introduction This write-up intends to review an article written by James Weber titled Adapting Kohlberg to Enhance the Assessment of Managers’ Moral Reasoning. The main areas that this essay will tackle include: the basis of the article, the main points presented in the article and a critical evaluation of the article with reference to how well the article achieves its goals, shortcomings, possibilities suggested by the article and conclude with the most convincing points.

In the article, Weber seeks to illustrate how to enhance Kohlberg’s Moral Judgment Interview and the Standard Issue Scoring Method by conducting an empirical study that uses four adaptations.

The main purpose of the article was to illustrate that, there are other scientifically acceptable methods, which are, a modification of Kohlberg methods that can be utilized in the quest of enhancing the assessment of the level of moral reasoning for managers. Based on the evidence presented inform of discussions and sample interview questions, Weber was able to convince me on the applicability and generalization of his findings.

Background information Conflict resolution in any organizational setting is an essential facet that ensures proper workplace relations, interactions and performance thus ensuring that organizational goals are met in due time.

Weber in this article strives to provide better ways of assessing the manager’s level of reasoning with reference as to how they deal with emerging conflicts in the workplace. In order to critically evaluate the applicability, generalization and the internal validity of Weber’s empirical research, I will evaluate the nature and scope of his literature review, sample size, data collection tools, data presentation and analysis and discussions.

Summary Weber has justified the relevance of assessing the level of moral reasoning for managers by indicating that managers are continuously faced with substantial conflicting issues in the work place thus, the need to assess their level of ethical and moral reasoning in dealing with such issues (293).

Further, to justify for the need to come up with adaptation strategies that are relevant for assessing the moral reasoning for managers, Weber identifies the major shortcomings of Kohlberg instruments of moral assessment by indicating that, “Kohlberg’s objective was to assess the development of an individual’s moral reasoning from childhood to adult hood”, which is contrary to what Weber sort to assess (294).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Further, Weber has explained Kohlberg assertion of the reasoning development stages as proconvetional, conventional and postconventional. Weber explains that, according to Kohlberg method of assessing the level of moral reasoning, this stages are relevant in the sense that they present an individual’s reasoning from childhood through to adult hood in relation to the environment that the inhabit (295-296).

To test his hypothesis, Weber prescribes four adaptation strategies that build on Kohlberg’s methods. They include more moral dilemmas that are familiar to the client as opposed to familiar dilemmas, probe questions that expound on organizational values, written interviews, as opposed to oral interviews and a Standard Issue Scoring that is more particular on moral concepts (297-304).

Weber’s findings indicate that when the managers’ moral reasoning were assessed based on familiar dilemmas, and unfamiliar dilemmas, the responses assessed indicated that familiar dilemmas scores were low and, that they were better placed to assess the level of moral reasoning.

Results also indicate that more managers were willing to be interviewed through written interviews “97%” as opposed to the “50” response rate recorder for oral interviews (304). Further, the introduction of follow up questions that were related to organizational values was significant in evaluating the managers’ moral responses. Results also indicate that the inclusion of a Standard Issue Scoring tool that was centered on moral concept was insignificant (308).

Critical evaluation The main agenda behind Weber’s article was to demonstrate that, there were other viable recognize scientific options other than the conventional Kohlberg moral reasoning assessment tools. Through a well though sample size for the two sets of interviews (oral and written), Weber was able to prove that more managers were inclined to written interviews as it took less time (304-305).

Further, the inclusion of the used interview questions (Appendix A) and the use of correlation analysis were tremendously important in this study in order to indicate the differences between Weber’s adapted methods and the original Kohlberg methods. Therefore, the article was able to achieve its goals.

The article suggests that, it is possible to come up with a Standard Issue Scoring method that is more competent than Kohlberg’s, by conducting more research on the tool.

We will write a custom Essay on Review of «Adapting Kohlberg to Enhance the Assessment of Managers’ Moral Reasoning» by James Weber specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He also suggests that, there is a possibility that, a researcher who uses his third adaptation (use of probe questions that focus on organization value) might not get the exact level of moral reasoning because, that adaptation requires careful considerations with reference to the type of questions asked (308).

Generally, the article indicates that, it is possible to use the four adaptations and arrive at a much better conclusion. The general format and presentation of the article was excellent; however, there were some minor shortcomings which included an extremely short literature review and a shallow discussion that had minimal comparison to other research findings on the same topic.

Conclusion In conclusion, Weber’s article was exceptionally informative as it derived various convincing points such as it is possible to conduct better moral reasoning assessments for managers by using interviews in written form as opposed to oral interviews and using more familiar dilemmas as opposed to unfamiliar dilemmas. The article also acknowledges that, organizational values have a lot of bearing on how managers resolve conflicts and that a more consistent Standard Issue Scoring tool needs to be developed.

Works Cited Weber, James. “Adapting Kohlberg to enhance the assessment of managers’ moral reasoning.” Business Ethics Quarterly 1.3 (1990): 293-318. Print.


Strategic Management: The case of Coca-Cola Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Strategic Management Process

Growth Strategies

Strategic growth through diversification

Growth through Differentiation strategy


Introduction The Coca Cola Company is a leading multinational company in manufacture, distribution, and marketing of non-alcoholic beverages. The compay owns over 400 brands, including waters, juice drinks, diet, teas, energy and coffees. The Cmpany has recorded tremendous progress in respect of sales units, buyer loyalty, growth in product portfolio, and profitability. This paper seeks to examine its strategic process and growth stategy that could account for this trendy growth.

Strategic Management Process This is a process of defining an organization’s strategy. It also refers to a process by which the management selects a set of viable strategies that will facilitate its performance (De Wit


Organization Change Management and Role of Mangers in Change Research Paper argumentative essay help

Abstract Management can generally refer to either an art or a science of completing a task by using other people, according to Dale (1969). In an organization, management is a way of using available resources to make employees meet certain objectives and achieve set goals in an effective and efficient manner.

It includes planning, organizing, recruitment, guiding, and showing the way in order to achieve the set target. An issue in management can be an event that causes significant, mostly sustained, news coverage and open examination. Issues in management are numerous and diverse, however, the purpose of this paper is to single out organizational change issues in management.

Organization change management, on the whole, has its own right become a powerful business. Organization change in management is beneficial, but one never fails to notice its shortcomings and the mounting challenges. The challenges can be overcome with careful planning by managers and attention to the way the change is conducted.

Organization Change Management and Role of Mangers in Change Often, a good number of companies employ various organization change programs. As it has already been mentioned, organization change management, has become a powerful business. For example, it stands for billions of dollars in developing programs, implementing and training fees for consultants. For senior managers it can be a way to survive, profit and grow. For customers, it means better and efficient service, while for employees it can mean a chance for job improvements.

Change in management is beneficial, but one never fails to notice its shortcomings that include the following three examples. In case organization change is seen to have failed, senior employees or managers may be dismissed, which finds its way into the equity of shareholders.

Secondly, whether it fails or it succeeds, a lot of fundamental changes will likely lead to loss of jobs, demotion and dissatisfaction with the introduction of new ways of working. The third point is, the unwanted change experienced with customers can make them dissatisfied or decline the services.

Organization change process nowadays is much shrouded in fear and threat as it is part of a powerful discourse of management in the present world. A quick look in any newspaper in the business section, journals on management, magazine or management articles will show that a key management discourse is organizational change (Mills, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While the focus may vary, the fundamental message is the same. If the company has not been involved in some sort of change initiative, there are chances that it may be operating below its full potential. Indeed, those who have been doing well at advancing change have been elevated to expert-status.

Although present discourse of change consists of many basics of the earlier, pre-1980 approach to change, the difference between then and today is that organization change has come to be thought of as a holistic, rather than the piecemeal approach to organizational effectiveness (Mills, 2008).

The focus of change in the past used to be on strategies for managing. According to Mills, organization engaged in OD techniques to improve the behavior or structural levels of the company (2008). In that way, the organization was guaranteed to capitalize on its effectiveness.

Nowadays the emphasis on organization effectiveness and customer satisfaction are often seen as cutting edge. Despite the application of the latest techniques, the senior manager can derive satisfaction from the knowledge that he/ she will be seen as a forward-thinker in their attempts to ensure company survival and growth in a global economy.

Many case studies carried out in management issues show a set of accounts of what took place in a certain business, organization, or industry within a certain period if time. The organization is a complex system, which is confronted with many challenges, as a result of external and internal influences. Change management at the level of the organizational, according to Badescu, is a key issue in ensuring most appropriate strategic way for realizing competitive advantage in the business atmosphere (2005).

People are always afraid of change and are nervous whenever change occurs, such as an organizational change. Most will resist it both consciously and subconsciously. Many a times, those fears are strong that the change will result into a negative effect for them. However, the target people to embrace change will eventually recognize that the change was intended for the better.

The speed of change is always increasing, especially, with the emergence of the internet and swift installment of modern technologies, methods of doing business and demeanor of one’s life. Organizational change management strives to find out the attitude of the target people and work together to enhance effective and efficient delivery of change and passionate support for the good results. The major concern of organizational change management is to win the target people to change their behavior and the way of life.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Organization Change Management and Role of Mangers in Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Change is often a shift in technology or internal hierarchy, when a key change is experienced by a company; it demands a response where the organization makes a significant alteration in the way the work will be done. During the change, the following guidelines should be considered for changing corporate culture.

In order to get a satisfactory result, the target group should be given a concrete reason to accept the change. A respected person should be put in charge and should involve all parties in change. For smooth running of the program create a management team to oversee change, and provide necessary training in work methods and expected new values.

Organization needs to adequately prepare for implementing the change successfully through a process of change management. The first stage is preparation which involves preparing employees for the change, describing the changes comprehensively to the target group, researching on the proceeding of the last change which occurred in the organization, assessing organizational readiness and making additional changes that are critical.

What follows next is planning for change. This stage is referred to making contingency plans, which impact personal performance and productivity, encourage employee input and set timetables as well as objectives to measure change progress. The third stage is creating transitional structures.

Special activities required at this stage include creating a transition management group to oversee the change, develop temporary policies and procedures during the change, create new channels of communication and arrange frequent meetings to provide feedback on the change progress.

The fourth stage in organization change management is its implementation. Implementing change covers appropriate training in the new skills, encouraging the self-management, provision of frequent feedback that will help people to forget the old and to adjust to changes within the shortest time. Finally, acknowledge the people who have made the change in the process of work.

The manager plays a pivotal role in organizational change management. Their duty is to move or lead employees and teams through a change process, in an efficient way possible in spite of how well or poor the change has been introduced. A manager will have to choose the approach and plan to change, create a favorable climate for change and culture for sustainable change.

References Badescu, C. (2005).Case Studies in Management Issues. Bucharest. Editura Mica Valahie

Not sure if you can write a paper on Organization Change Management and Role of Mangers in Change by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Dale, E. (1969). Management: theory and practice, McGraw-Hill series in management. California. Rex Bookstore Book Inc.

Mills, J. H., Dye, K.,


Carroll, Archie cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background information


Critical Analysis


Introduction This study is a review of the issue article “The Business Case for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)”, whereby the chief focus is the business case (Carroll 86). This article revolves around the responsibilities of business enterprises in the society which goes beyond making of profits.

The writer acknowledges this as a subject that has been discussed over the past half century without arriving at any conclusion. The main focus of the discussion in this review includes the possibilities suggested by the article, the points that are very convincing and those that are not convincing and finally how well the article has been able to achieve its goal.

Carroll and Shabana in this article try to review some of the ways through which CSR has been reviewed and discussed through a long period of time and what has been achieved so far. They illustrate how w ell or how poorly this issue is doing in its bid of the attainment of Corporate Social Responsibility, (CSR).

The key issue that the business case poses is what benefits and returns a community and more importantly the organization gains out of carrying out CSR initiatives and whether such benefits are in any way tangible or measurable. Another major thing that this document seeks to do is bring the reader to understand the real meaning of business case and its importance in relation to CSR.

Background information In order for me to fully express the importance of this subject, I review the origin of CSR which can be traced way back from the World War 2, but the most important remarks recalled from way back then are those of Dean David addressing the new students of MBA in the Harvard Business School, 1946, whereby Bert Spector argues that CSR’s origin was founded during that period and thus Dean David together with some of his other counterparts are responsible for its founding (Carroll 86-94).

Summary Carroll and Shabana observes the way by the 1950, the issue if CSR was not a subject of discussion among many business corporations and excerpts “Frank Abrams, a former executive with Standard Oil Company” remarks that pioneered the discussion after an appraisal that majority of the corporations were not in any way considering their employees, customers and the public in their wide-ranging plans, but were just concerned in income generation.

Carroll and Shabana are well able to justify these observations and argue that, according to research carried out concerning the 1950’s, the main ideas that made CSR to get appreciated in the business world included the manager being viewed as a public trustee, achieving a balance in the competition for corporate resources and the philanthropic support of good causes by businesses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He also takes note of other important pioneers of CSR such as Theodore Levitt who closed the 50’s by being a pessimist about CSR, claiming it was posing some dangers to the corporate world. He dreaded that this attention to social involvement would divert the business’ attention from revenue generation.

There are some groups and movements that emerged and defined social changes through involving the business world and such groups focused on such issues as the rights of women, consumers and environmental conservation. Another important avenue through which CSR was being communicated well and was growing fast was through literature and books as Carroll noted (Carroll 86-88).

Carroll and Shabana findings illustrate that CSR’s development was pushed forward by these activists and the transforming social environment, which was on the other hand aggravated by these movements. Their key role was to bring about an understanding of CSR to the people and business corporations, what it meant and why it was important.

These ideas were transitioned into the years that followed and up to date they are still upheld as the main pillars. These authors acknowledge Patrick Murphy’s argument that 1960’s and 1970‘s were the ‘Awareness’ and ‘Issue’ eras of CSR. “This was a period of changing social consciousness and recognition of overall responsibility, involvement in community affairs, concern about urban decay, correction of racial discrimination, alleviation of pollution, and the continuing philanthropic era” he said (Carroll 96).

Critical Analysis The main objective of this document is to illustrate the meaning and importance of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). They have been well able to do so using feasible examples of CSR and the efforts that have been put in the past to emphasize on the issue.

Through such examples as of the activists and movements that have been formed in the past to epitomize the subject expresses its relevance to majority of the people. They have also given examples of the people who have been for and against CSR over time entrenching their arguments and bringing up a conclusion that each of the reader is able to identify with.

Although the authors are able to bring out these justifications, their observations have not been brought out so entirely thus it takes a lot of effort to distinguish whether they are for or against CSR. They do well though by first analyzing the two sides before drawing to the conclusion of “business case”, and finally make their remarks in support of CSR.

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Key Drivers of HIV/AIDS in Sub Saharan Africa and in San Francisco Research Paper college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

HIV/AIDS in Sub Saharan Africa

HIV/AIDS in San Francisco

Comparison between the key Drivers in the two regions

The Response of the Church to the Key Drivers of HIV/AIDS


Works Cited

Introduction HIV/AIDS continues to be a leading cause of alarm globally. New infections and deaths due to HIV/AIDS related complications are major issues that need to be dealt with urgently. It is particularly alarming in the sub-Saharan Africa where an average of 10% HIV prevalence in adults has been recorded. This is very high compared to the global average of 1%. The Southern Africa region accounts for about 40% of the global population living with HIV.

However, the female gender is more affected by the pandemic with women and girls accounting for about 60% of this population. Although the records indicate optimistic results, there is still need to enhance the campaign. In San Francisco, the new infections and death tolls may be on a down slope but the marginalized groups are still at a risk and this needs to be addressed. In this paper the key drivers of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa and San Francisco will be discussed.

HIV/AIDS in Sub Saharan Africa The extent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in the region can be attributed to such things as; Sexual behavior-many men and women in the region have different sex partners concurrently; these may be in cases of polygamy, small houses (side partners apart from spouse) and prostitution.

Many of them do not use condoms consistently meaning that safe sex practice has not been cultivated in them (Jana et al, 13-16). Secondly, male circumcision is practiced in very low levels and as we know, male circumcision is a major boost in the prevention efforts so lack of it is on the contrary. A third driver is the stigma associated with infection. This lack of acceptance by the individual and the community forces an infected person to keep their status secret which leads to further spread of the virus.

In some cases some people do not want to know their status for fear of stigmatization and this brings down the efforts of treating the infected persons. Also many sexually transmitted infections go untreated mainly due to this fear and they are a factor that encourages HIV infection. Male attitudes towards gender related issues such as reproductive health is also another contributing factor.

Men do not involve themselves in such issues and therefore many of them lack the knowledge to curb the pandemic. They involve themselves in intergenerational sex, gender based violence and sexual violence. This means that the women and girls are the major victims of the men’s ignorance hence the high number of infections in females (Expert Think Tank Meeting on HIV Prevention in High-Prevalence Countries in Southern Africa 5-7).

HIV/AIDS in San Francisco In San Francisco, the efforts of prevention and treatment have born fruits since the number of new infections and HIV/AIDs related deaths is on a downward trend. The reduction in these numbers can be highly attributed to the change of sexual behavior in heterosexual men and women and non-injecting drug users.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cases of new infections in these groups of people are very rare. However, there are still other driving forces in the spread of the disease and these include; Homosexual behavior; men who have sexual relationships with other men are at a major risk of infection. Transfemales are also another group of people who are on the higher side of the risk and hence their behavior is a key driver for the epidemic.

Injection drug use is another major driving force. HIV transmission among this group of people is very likely and so the risk of new infections is unacceptably high. Disparities and unequal treatment for different groups of people may have been a major drawback on the efforts but it is now on the downward slope. This is as a result of the efforts by different care groups to involve representation of all the communities; including the marginalized groups, in the decision making process (San Francisco HIV Prevention Plan 1).

Comparison between the key Drivers in the two regions The driving forces in these two regions are very different since they are driven by the people’s lifestyles which in these cases are worlds apart. As a comparison of the key drivers in these regions, we look at the drivers the way they affect the efforts made to eradicate the disease.

As we have seen in the discussion earlier, the major driving forces in the sub Saharan Africa can be attributed to the regions position in terms of development. Most countries in the region are developing countries; and factors such as gender and sexual violence, poverty which leads to intergenerational sex and prostitution especially in women are inherent in these countries.

This makes the prevention and treatment processes very hard since some people are driven to the wall by circumstances; meaning that they may be willing to change their ways but the situations they are in cannot allow that.

In San Francisco however, the major driving force is the sexual orientation of individuals as well as drug and substance abuse. These can not be attributed to under development, therefore, the efforts to curb the epidemic can only be strengthened by the people’s willingness to change their ways.

If the high risk groups of people are willing, they can put in their efforts; for instance, the gay community can accept to learn and use preventive measures, the drug users can accept rehabilitation plans or in extreme cases they should take precautions in their sharing.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Key Drivers of HIV/AIDS in Sub Saharan Africa and in San Francisco specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Response of the Church to the Key Drivers of HIV/AIDS The church has made a lot of efforts in the fight against HIV/AIDs; However, this has not prevented the spread of the disease. This continued deterioration can be attributed to the churches’ ethical, liturgical and ministerial practices. These have encouraged the spread of the disease both passively and actively. These factors include the lack of an open, realistic way of involvement due to the shyness in addressing sex education and sexuality issues which are involved in prevention of HIV spread.

Exclusion, theological interpretation of scriptures and definition of sin have contributed to increase stigmatization and suffering. A plan has been put forward to add an ecumenical dimension to the church’s effort and if implemented, it is bound to yield better results (Global consultation on the ecumenical response to the challenge of HIV/AIDS in Africa 9)

In the US, the church’s involvement is mainly through faith based organizations. These have continually offered support to the infected and affected in terms of medical care, food supplies, cancelling and the general support needed morally and spiritually. They have also offered care to the care givers and education to the communities on the risk factors and prevention services.

The government has since supported these organizations through federal funding. Laws have also been put down to prevent discrimination against such organization, the beneficiary or volunteer on the basis of religion. Also, it ensures that nobody should be forced to get involved in any religious activity involuntarily. These partnerships ensure that the church’s efforts are delivered painlessly and the beneficiaries are satisfied.

Conclusion From these findings, we can conclude that the spread of HIV is highly dependent on a people’s lifestyle. This covers the level of development, the cultural beliefs and religious beliefs. The Church and the various arms of government can play a major role in the effort to curb the pandemic especially when they work together.

Works Cited “Expert Think Tank Meeting on HIV Prevention in High-Prevalence Countries in Southern Africa.” SADC 2006: 5-10. Web.

“Global consultation on the ecumenical response to the challenge of HIV/AIDS in Africa.” The Ecumenical Response to HIV/AIDS in Africa 2001: Web.

Jana Mere, Nkambule Paul and Tumbo D; One Love: Multiple and concurrent Sexual Partnerships in Southern Africa: A Ten Country Research Report. 2008:13-36 Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Key Drivers of HIV/AIDS in Sub Saharan Africa and in San Francisco by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More “San Francisco HIV Prevention Plan.” San Francisco HIV Prevention Planning Council 2010: 1-3. Web.


Drivers of HIV and Aids in Sub-Saharan Africa and San Francisco Research Paper cheap essay help

The last three decades bear testament to the devastating effects of HIV and AIDS on all spheres of society. No society has gone untouched by the epidemic. While poorer countries have the highest infection and casualty rates, richer countries continue to devote significant resources towards research and financing of the fight against the virus.

San Francisco represents the developed world while sub-Saharan Africa represents one of the worst hit regions by HIV. The goal of this paper is to compare the impacts of the epidemic on these two regions by looking at the driving factors and the intervention efforts by the church.

San Francisco holds an important place in California. It was once the largest settlement in the east coast of the United States. It played a significant role in the Second World War by acting as an exit point for troops headed towards the pacific.

This city became the heart of civil liberties movements in the United States after the war. The movements set out to expand the traditional definitions of marriage and to mainstream same-sex unions. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that the largest community living with HIV in the city is gay (San Francisco AIDS Foundation).

Another factor driving up infection rates in the city is drug use characterized by sharing of syringes. As the drug problem spread out in America, San Francisco took its share of the burden, resulting in a large community of addicts. Access to syringes has improved over time but it remains a controversial intervention in the control of the spread of HIV.

The HIV case in Sub Saharan Africa lies in the larger issues of poverty, tradition, and ignorance (Umunna 25). This part of the world provides case studies on absolute poverty (WHO and UNAIDS 20). As a region, Sub Saharan Africa is home to majority of the worlds poor and has some of the most deplorable health care systems. Because of poverty, the infection rates have soared since most people do not have access to credible information because there is no infrastructure to relay the information (WHO and UNAIDS 20).

Traditions amongst the people living in sub Sahara Africa also contributes significantly to the spread of HIV. Some of them promote practices such as wife inheritance, communal circumcision using the same set of knives and polygamy. All these are risk factors in enhancing the spread of the virus. Ignorance makes it impossible for the people to know how to conduct themselves to avoid infection such as mother to child transmission.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A keen look at the factors driving the spread of HIV in both areas reveals that the same basic elements are responsible for the spread of infection. Sharing of needles and knives both use the same transmission mechanism of sharing infected instruments. The major mode of HIV transmission, which is sex with an infected partner, plays a big role in both places where people have multiple sex partners.

In San Francisco, they are mainly same sex couples while in sub Saharan Africa, traditions allow for polygamy and wife inheritance, which both amount to sharing multiple sex partners. In the event that one person in the pool contracts the virus, then all the people involved end up infected.

The main difference between the nature of infection in San Francisco and in Sub Saharan Africa comes from the economic divide that characterizes the two locations. San Francisco is relatively wealthier and better connected than Sub Saharan Africa. It is easier to use community-based programs in San Francisco to control infection rates in San Francisco because of the infrastructural outlay already available.

However, in sub Saharan Africa, limited communication infrastructure delays transmission of information and materials for use to prevent the spread on HIV. In conclusion, the social and economic disposition of a region influences how HIV spreads and influences the results of the efforts to control it (Umunna 27).

The church is one of the important players in the fight against HIV. The church has certain unique characteristics that place it strategically as a key institution in the fight against HIV. The church is an outward looking entity with a mission that seeks to engage with its immediate community.

Normally, church outreach efforts target the less privileged and the vulnerable in society. These segments of the society suffer most from the impact of HIV in both San Francisco and in Sub Saharan Africa. Churches have programs to help widows, orphans, the sick, and drug addicts by offering practical help and hope.

One such church is the Metropolitan Community Church of San Francisco which felt firsthand the devastating impact of the virus in the mid eighties when there was no effective means to manage the epidemic (MCCSF). This church developed mechanisms to support members affected by the disease. It meant taking care of widows, providing emotional and spiritual support for orphans and sensitizing the community on the impacts of the virus.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Drivers of HIV and Aids in Sub-Saharan Africa and San Francisco specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In sub Saharan Africa, a large segment of the population is religious. This means that there is a favorable disposal by the communities to the messages given by clerics. Primarily, churches concern themselves with the moral issues sorrounding sex and as such, they are able to dissuade sexual relations outside marriage and sex with multiple partners because of the spiritual ramifications.

In addition, the churches, just like in San Francisco, are part of the community efforts in taking care of AIDS orphans, widows, and patients. Some of them run hospitals where medical care is available for HIV patients. The key message that the church has towards the world is compassion and this is the key requirements for dealing with the aftermath of the epidemic.

However, the church does not promote the full range of measures available for prevention of the spread of HIV since some of them go against the principles that the church stands for. The most significant issue in this regard is the condom debate.

On one hand, research reports indicate that there is a significant reduction in the chances of infection by using a condom when having sex. However, churches cannot embrace this approach because of the moral issues surrounding sex between unmarried parties. The Catholic Church actually rejects the condom in total because it goes against the natural philosophy that it believes ought to govern sexual relations.

The fitting conclusion is that the church has assets and presence in both sub Saharan Africa and in San Francisco which are vital in the fight against AIDS. However, it is impractical to expect the church to abandon its traditional values to embrace the full range of options available in the fight. Therefore, the best thing is to allow the church to play the roles that suits it best in the fight against HIV without interfering with its core message.

Works Cited MCCSF. History of Metropolitan Community Church San Francisco. 10 March 2011. 4 October 2011 .

San Francisco AIDS Foundation. Statistics. 2011. 4 October 2011 .

Umunna, Gregory Ejiogu. HIV/AIDS: Political Will and Hope. USA: Xlibris Corporation, 2011.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Drivers of HIV and Aids in Sub-Saharan Africa and San Francisco by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More WHO and UNAIDS. AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2009. Geneva: WHO Regional Office Europe, 2009.


The Enlightment Term Paper essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction During the middle ages, Europe experienced a dogmatic style of leadership from the church and state respectively. The Catholic Church was then an established church thus making Christianity the prevailing religion in Europe. The state, on the other hand, was governed by monarchs. These two established institutions had an overwhelming authority. While the church practiced orthodox Christianity, tyranny was the state’s way of leadership.

Undermining the authority of these institutions meant prosecution or sometimes even death. Therefore, absolute adherence to the principles and dogmata of both, the church and state was the only option.

But, as time passed by, change became eminent and all efforts by the church and state to subdue people and then make them succumb to their wimps and caprices became a mirage. (Israel 2001) This was the beginning of the Enlightement movement. It was the time of rebirth of Europe and the time that will never be forgotten by humanity.

Age of Enlightement From 1650-1700, there was a movement in Europe which was spearheaded by intellectuals who sought to change the abuses in the church and the tyranny in the state. This movement which was one of the greatest the world had ever seen, is often described or referred to by scholars as the “Age of Enlightement” or “Age of Reason.” (Staloff 2005)

As already aforementioned, prior to the “Age of Enlightement,” the church and state respectively were the institutions that controlled people and the state of affairs, in general. Anything outside the confines of the church’s teachings was considered to be evil and satanic. The Catholic Church had zero tolerance to anyone who objected or acted contrary to its orthodox and rigid teachings. In the case of the state, any person, or group of persons who dared to challenge its tyranny was prosecuted.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, precisely from 1650-1700, intellects across Europe campaigned for societal reforms. Such great people like, Isaac Newton, Benjamin Franklin, John Locke, Baruch Spinoza, Pierre Bayle and others were part and parcel of the Enlightement movement. During this time, the movement which had originally started in France quickly spread throughout Europe and even America. (Staloff 2005)

Scholars have various opinions about the actual purpose of the Enlightement movement. While some believe that political and economic reasons were responsible for the agitation, others think differently.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, it is important to note that, prior to the “Age of Enlightement,” civilization was based on faith in the teachings of the Catholic Church as well as absolute respect for the monarch’s authority, thus, giving immense power to such institutions. But the movement agitated for democracy instead of tyranny and the dogmatic way the church taught. The “Age of Enlightement” played a significant role in the history of Europe and indeed the entire world.

The Impact Enlightement Philosophy had on Europe’s Religions In The 16th and 17th Centuries Prior to the “Age of Enlightement’” the Catholic Church was the established church in Europe which made Christianity the religion prevalent among Europeans. But the church was dogmatic in its teachings and the Pope being in charge of the Catholic Church, had an immense power. Due to the powers that were bestowed on the Pope, any challenge, deed or act that contravened the teachings of the Catholic Church meant outright prosecution to the people involved.

During the dark ages, the church killed thousands of people. Furthermore, the rigidness of the church was a stumbling block to development and scientific discoveries. For instance, Galileo Galilei was prevented from teaching because in the year in 1632 he had written that the earth moved round the sun. He was a catholic priest and he was taken to the Vatican and made recant his writings and beliefs.

His theory about the earth’s movement was absolutely correct. The church was against it because the Bible explicitly states that the sun moved round the earth and not vice versa. As a clergy and a scientist, Galileo was in a very good position to defend his theory but the church never gave him that privilege. Any other person in Europe with a scientific discovery that contradicted the church’s dogmata would not have dared to publish it due to the powers of the Pope. (Sorkin 2008)

What is more, the church never witnessed for slavery. The failure of the church to out rightly condemn slavery made things a lot easier for the Europeans. During the 16th and 17th century when slave trade was the trend in Europe, the Catholic Church was the only institution that was powerful enough to confront the state, however, it chose to remain mute. All these were the acts of the church prior to the “Age of Enlightement.”

But after the Enlightement campaign, scientific discoveries were freely and openly made even if they contradicted or disputed the Bible. People became bold and more enlightened due to the impact of the Enlightement Age. Religion survived the Enlightement era but it weakened due the impact of the movement. Furthermore, the Catholic Church was transformed significantly bearing a slight resemblance to what it had been before .

The Impact of the Enlightement Philosophy on Europe’s Political Institutions In the 16th and 17th Centuries In the early ages most European countries were ruled by monarchs. This means that royal families ruled nations and members of such families were treated with respect. The entire wealth of nations was used for the upkeep and welfare of the royal families at the expense of the social class. Due to the absence of human rights, the masses didn’t have a say so they continued to live in abject poverty while the monarchs flourished in stupendous wealth and luxury.

We will write a custom Term Paper on The Enlightment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Enlightement movement agitated for democracy which would cater for the well being of the masses. It also made people realize that with democracy, social amenities like hospitals, educational facilities, flexible health systems and industries would be provided. Having realized this fact, the masses were quick to believe the ideologies of the philosophers who led the Enlightement campaign.

As people began to realize the benefits of living in a democratic state, they began to speak up and demand justice. This led to declaration of the rights of man and of citizens in France. In Poland, the Polish-Lithuanian constitution was written in 1791. But this change was not limited to Europe as well. It also had an impact on the America’s political systems. In the United States of America the Enlightement campaign led to a revolution and its later declaration of independence. (Robin


Migration, Immigration, and Emigration, and their Effects on Religion, Women, and Minorities in Egypt Research Paper college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Overview of Migration, Immigration, and Emigration in Egypt

Impact of Religion in Egypt

Egypt Ethic Make up and Christian Minorities

Societal Issues



Introduction People relocate to new residences with the intent of attaining diverse goals. Evidently, such persons may relocate within their countries or cross their nation’s boundaries. Diverse repercussions often exemplify the livelihoods of citizenry who relocate to a novel environment as illustrated in the paper. It is imperative to acknowledge that Immigration connotes people’s relocation to diverse nations with the intent of enhancing their livelihoods. Interestingly, immigrants may move willingly or relocate since the situation in their countries may be dire.

Notably, professional immigrants engage in work processes after their willful relocation. Additionally, immigrants who reposition regularly often become refugees in the novel nations. Emigration connotes abandoning one’s own nation of birth thus moving to another country. This rearrangement assumes a permanent dimension thus depriving the origin nations, the necessary expertise that can spur progress.

Migration connotes the movement of a person from their entity of origin or part of a nation to another with the intent of engaging in diverse activities. Concurrently, migration focuses on temporary change of residence. It is remarkable that these movements culminate in diverse benefits and drawbacks to a nation or her citizens. This paper investigates the effects of these movements on religion, women, and minority entities in Egypt

Overview of Migration, Immigration, and Emigration in Egypt Apparently, shifts in locations by individuals in Egypt have been evident for decades. It emerges that emigration rates continue to escalate as evident in the last four decades. Initially, legal restrictions controlled rates of emigration to curb magnanimous numbers of professionals who preferred Western countries.

Egypt’s adoption of her 1971 constitution, spiraling fuel prices, and augmenting requirements for the migrant workforce elicited monumental emigration from Egypt (Sika, 2010). It is notable that most emigrants still head to Western countries. Sources establish that migration to Europe is increasing. However, this process culminates in an unbalanced nature of migrants.

It is evident that Egypt hosts massive numbers of migrant workforce. Similarly, the country amasses huge proportions of immigrant registered as displaced and asylum seekers from diverse countries. Interestingly, the refugees house Palestinians uprooted from their habitats during the 1948 hostilities (Sika, 2010). Further, refugees dominating Egypt emanate from “Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan, and Eritrea” (UNFPA, 2011).

It is also outstanding to mention that emigration to Europe is attributable to gender equity and elevated skill levels arising from professionals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, relocation to Arab countries encompassed massive proportions of males with minimal training and diminished skill levels thus seeking employment (Sika, 2010). Likewise, the proliferating immigrants hardly obtain opportunities to add value to Egypt’s progress because of their dire situation. Gender equilibrium among immigrants appears inclined on women, youngsters, and the old.

This emanates from the notion that, men and young boys participate in the hostile tendencies. The diverse models of movements generate concerns as regards to religion, women, and minorities in Egypt (UNFPA, 2011). Certain movements appear to escalate because of conflicts, which result from doctrine aggressions. It is evident that movements into and outside Egypt present diverse challenges to women together with minority groups (Sika, 2010).

Impact of Religion in Egypt Evidently, Egyptians have historically followed Islamic decrees at expansive lengths. This has led to the sustainable peace in Egypt. Migration occurred due to the search for employment in other countries. This has persisted over decades leading to the social revolt. This calls for initiation of employment opportunities (Christian Today, 2011). The revolt facilitated President’s Mubarak defeat and subsequent ousting from power.

Prior to Mubarak’s defeat, slight religious conflicts continued silently. The vacuum led to open religious inconsistencies, which competed to fill the emptiness. Muslim Brotherhood’s together with Salifists battle for supremacy thus the need to gain power. This necessitated attacks on the Christian minority groups (Mnnonline, 2011). Muslims engage Christians in conflicts because they appear unhappy with Christian followers. It emerges that religion contribute to present conflicts in Egypt thus necessitating migration.

Egypt Ethic Make up and Christian Minorities Magnanimous proportions of Egypt’s population include Eastern Hamatic tribal groups. They comprise of native Egyptians, Berbers together with Bedouins (MacDonald, Marshall Cavendish Corporation


Emily Grierson in “A Rose for Emily” by William Faulkner Essay online essay help: online essay help

The character of Emily Grierson in William Faulkner’s short story, “A Rose for Emily”, leaves the reader in dilemma as to whether Emily is the protagonist or the antagonist. Faulkner uses an unknown narrator reveal to the reader a woman who has mixed character traits. So complex is her character that the reader is left wondering who the real Emily is. Emily is a recluse, out of choice and fate.

Despite her reclusion, Emily is a monumental unmovable figure who can be pitiful yet irritating at times. She also portrays other contrasting characters such as stubborn yet gullible thus attracting the description, the eccentric woman. Thus Emily’s character plays an important role in the development of the plot as well as the story.

Emily is a monumental figure imposed upon the town by Col Sartoris. Col Sartoris had withdrawn her obligation towards the town to pay tax and as such making her a dependent of the town therefore making her “a duty, and a care; a sort of hereditary obligation upon the town….” (Faulkner 47). Privileges such as being exempted to pay tax are only a reserve of the most honorable citizens of any land. The reader expects Emily to show gratitude to the town’s people and as such be more agreeable and open to them.

However, Emily chooses to live in seclusion, irritatingly demanding to live by her own rules and often refusing to obey the societal norms. When she opts to marry Homer’s without making proper wedding plans, this anger and irritates the town’s people. So much were people irritated by this scandalous affair that they at one time thought that she was crazy (Faulkner 52).

Faulkner also presents Emily as both the protagonist yet and an antagonist. As protagonist Emily is seen as the good person who has attracts the love and honor of the town’s people. When she dies every one in the town attend her funeral. Mostly, the men did so out of thoughtful affection for her (Faulkner 47). This means that despite her irritating behavior people still found it appropriate to show love and respect to her.

Despite the affection she attracts from people, Emily is also seen as the antagonist, the character who goes against the grain and general expectation. Despite her reclusive behavior, the town’s people do knot expect her to be a murdereress, let alone to the person she is intimate with. When she orders for poison, people think that she would kills herself but ends up killing Homer her lover (Faulkner 55). This adds to her eccentricism.

Emily is also presented a stubborn yet gullible woman. Her gullibility is seen in the fact that her father is able to totally control her entire life. He refuses all attempts to marry her and treats the men who approach her with a lot of disdain. Her father exerted so much control over her that the reader is tempted to think that this was the possible cause of her reclusiveness.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Yet still Emily was a stubborn woman and no one could convince her easily to do anything. Even in the face of grief and loss she stubbornly refused to show any emotion (Faulkner 52). This further confuses the reader further as to her true identity, and thus support the claim that she very much the eccentric woman.

Emily behavior leave no doubt that she is s peculiar character. Most of the things that she does are the opposite of expectation. However, she still attracts pity from the reader as well as the town’s people. Thus she still can be seen as a normal human being struggling with common human weaknesses.

Works Cited Faulkner, William. “A rose for Emily.” Selected Short Stories. New York: Modern Library. 1993. Print


Role of Judicial Review: Bush vs. Gore Research Paper essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction: Description of the dispute

Reasoning of the court in the case

Why the decision was Problematic

Justification for using judicial review


Justification of ending vote recount

Alternatives for the court


Introduction: Description of the dispute Judicial review is a distinctive feature of constitutional law in the United States. This is The reason why the power held by federal courts to test federal and state legislative enactments and other actions can be overlooked by the supreme court which in most cases its faced by disagreements among the detractors and its supporters about its doctrines and its application.

The conduction of a presidential elections and declaring a winner is the most important decision to be made in a democratic state. As simple as it all sounds presidential election are complex processes.

The United States was a victim of the interesting interplay experienced between the executive and the judicial branches of government during the 2000 U.S. general elections.

This report describes and analyzes the role of judicial review in the outcome of the 2000 presidential results in America. The election results ended up being a court issue where the United States Supreme Court had to intervene and pronounced George W. Bush the winner even though the election was closely contested.

In this paper, I will seek to analyze the threat that was posed by the Bush V Gore case to the judicial procedures in this country whereby in the 2000 presidential elections provoked indifference between the running candidates and their supporters leading to a series of court procession to determine the outcome results. Americans turned out to take part in the elections through casting votes and following the vote the counting process.

However this was disrupted by the dispute that erupted as vote counting process came to a close in the state of Florida. The principal problem during the 2000 American presidential elections was the manner in which the votes were counted since the election victory hung upon a terribly close margin and the most challenged fight for Florida’s 25 electoral votes. According to many experts like Thayer views, there was no uniformity standards employed while in counting the different types of ballots across the nations for years.

The nature of balloting during an election in United States varies from state to state across the nation. The variation could be in terms of the size of areas in geographical measures or the number of people who are eligible and registered voters. How an individual will cast the vote is entirely a process that is overseen by the local officials because most of the voting systems are paid for locally.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They oversee the kind of equipment to be used and the forms of ballots to be used. Absent ballots which had not been counted in some jurisdictions were left out once, it was determined there were fewer absentee ballots than the difference in the vote between the two leading candidates. According to the Electoral College system, a candidate who wins the elections is considered to “take-all”,having been allocated all votes he/she is declared the victor.

On November 7, 2000, after the completion of a nationwide count of ballot papers records showed that Al Gore was in the lead against his opponent Bush with a total of 266-246 of the electoral votes. The winning candidate had to garner 270 electoral votes. At that time Florida had not yet concluded its voting outcome for the 25 electoral votes due to machine counting error.

But thereafter as soon as the machine count was over Bush was leading despite the minimal margin that was present, about 100 votes. After declaring Bush as the victor of the elections, Gore requested a manual recount of the ballots to be conducted in certain counties in the state of Florida and his request was backed by a number of state officials who including Florida’s Attorney General Bob Butterworth who headed the Democrats’ campaigns in Florida.

Reasoning of the court in the case The Florida Supreme Court then extended the deadline for completion of recounts as they ordered a recount of the votes through the manual method for all the ballots which counting machines had not recorded to having any presidential choice. The precise legal claim presented by Bush was that he sorts a stay from the Florida Supreme Court order permitting an electoral recount of the ballots for the presidential elections.

The electoral voting turnout declared Bush the winner over his counterpart by a very small margin. The results of the counts then saw Gore seeking the Florida Supreme Court to order a manual recount of the votes because of the “under votes”. After examining the arguments presented by Gore the Florida Supreme Court ordered a recount to be conducted across the state of Florida.

This decision led to Bush appealing the judgment passed by the Florida Supreme Court to the United States Supreme Court arguing that their decision was violating the federal statute which requires electors to have finalized all the works at hand before the meeting at the Electoral College commenced. He was being represented by Theodore Olson who claimed that recounting of the votes was violating an equal protection clause that is presented in the fourteenth amendment of the United States constitution.

Bugh (2010) notes “the main issue was the questionable votes cast those for democrats’ who may have been confused by how the balloting was being conducted” The procedure for voting involved punching a hole next to an individual preferred candidate a procedure which many Democrats’ supporters complained of having been confused with the name placement of the candidates forcing many to vote for the wrong candidate.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Role of Judicial Review: Bush vs. Gore specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Others claimed to have had a problem as the machines failed to make a hole at the correct sport and hence they were only able to indent their choice. Apart from these there are those people who voted for more than one presidential candidate amidst the confusion, sparking more controversies as to whether or not a vote recount could be conducted.

Why the decision was Problematic Once the issue was presented to the legal institutions, it brought into light the use of policy in solving matters involving judicial decision-making (Cannon, 2000). According to the courts, procedures governing the manual count did not satisfy the minimum requirement for no arbitrary treatment of voters a clause found under the Equal Protection of the Fourteenth Amendment.

The Florida Supreme Court ordered a recount of the cast votes but the appeal of the case to U.S. Supreme Court verdict is that their decision is to overturn the decision taken by the Florida Supreme Court calling off the manual recounting of the votes.

This decision was the final rule by seven justices who pointed out the decision by the Florida Supreme Court to conduct a recount was an action that failed to observe the constitutional rights stating, “Because it is evident that any recount seeking to meet the Dec. 12 date will be unconstitutional … we reverse the judgment of the Supreme Court of Florida ordering the recount to proceed”

According to these justices, vote recounting in Florida did not meet the minimum requirement needed for non-arbitrary treatment of voters necessary to secure the fundamental right to vote (Bush v Gore, 121 S Ct 525, 530 (2000).

Justification for using judicial review Courts are becoming major players in the political arena as demonstrated in the case Bush v. Gore. The intervention made by the United States Supreme Court in declaring the 2000 election victor made the institution become an object of political controversy. Those who opposed the decision ruled by the Supreme Court viewed the verdict as favoring one party, making the Court partisan.

According to these people (opposers), the courts helped Bush ‘steal the election’ while those proposing that the court had done its best based their argument on the fact that they considered their ruling with the help of legal considerations.

The main problem following the ruling of the case was the dissatisfaction of both those in the political field opposing the verdict and the supporters of Al Gore. “Justices are sometimes accused of targeting their partisan and ideological foes that makes them more liable to strike down laws passed by bipartisan majorities as by ideologically distant majorities” (Bugh 2010).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Role of Judicial Review: Bush vs. Gore by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another problem arising from the ruling of the case Bush v Gore was that the verdict suggested that the court was motivated by a particular kind of partisanship. A kind of which could not even be compared to the promotion of broad political principles through the development of constitutional doctrine.

In this case, it is clear that there is a difference between the commonly referred to as high politics played by political principle and the low politics of the partisan advantage. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Bush 5-2 from voting that was carried out by justices who had before contributing to the revolutionizing of constitutional doctrines.

Hence it would be fair to note that during the case these justices were in a way obligated to promote a relatively consistent set of ideological positions which protected the state government process from being interfered with by the federal supervision. However the justices failed and instead they adopted whatever legal arguments they found favoring the Republican candidate George W. Bush. (Kelly 2003)

According to Mark Graber’s reasoning, the twenty first century has brought about a number of changes in U.S Supreme Court’s justices. The Supreme Court justices announced constitutional limits on federal and state power by declaring federal and state laws unconstitutional. There are statements that are used by legal officials to restrain federal and states officials routinely “we hold that the act exceeds the authority of congress”, or “we hold that the congressional veto provision in


Opposition to the Legalization of Same Sex Marriage Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Science and homosexuality

Reversibility of the trait


Works Cited

Introduction The term homosexuality appeared to have been used for the first time in the year 1869. In 1871, Germany government criminalized against such act. By 1947, an Institute for Sex Research was incorporated in Indiana. In the year 1961, a Vatican said that anyone involved with homosexuality was not eligible to take religious vows. Later in 1972, a church in Netherlands argued that gays and lesbians could also serve as pastors.

The United Methodist Church in U.S.A. voted against the issue of “compatibility between the church and homosexuality”. Ever since, there have been a number of advances on the subject of gay affairs. In a good number of States, prejudice of groups based on their sexual orientation has been forbidden. This document aim to argue that validation of homosexuality has a harmfully influence on the community ethical fabric or cause discrepancy in relations.

Concession Majority of spiritual associations have based their opinions on holy scripts and argued that justification of homosexuality has led to erosion of ethical values within the American people. This moral approach has played enormous position throughout political movements where people values have superseded the aspiration to decriminalize homosexuality particularly in school boards and sacred unions.

In their point of view, spiritual groups argue that marriage is sanctified union and therefore holy. They as a result argue that God created man and bespoke him to fill up the world through his union with the female partner and not people of same sexual category (Ayers and Brown 15).

Secondly, opponents of homosexuality advice that marriage amid people of identical gender does not hold any logic as it lack rationale and purpose. They emphasize that marriage between man and woman has a primary objective of giving birth. Conversely, marriage between people of the same gender does not have this objective. On top of siring, marriage of similar sexual category can be done for the main intention of material goods allotment and companionship.

The anti-homosexuality bodies argue that these can be accomplished without marrying. There are regulations that would contentedly attend to the matters of material goods sharing and heritage (Sherman 14). These urgings nevertheless, have not been able to persuade pro-homosexuality bodies. It is based on this that I personally oppose legalization of marriages of the same sex.

Science and homosexuality Initially, they dispute that homosexuality is normal and inherited. Whilst anti-homosexual lobbies dispute that this is a conduct acquired from the setting, science has confirmed that homosexuality is an innate issue (Garber 16).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Le Vay’s 1991 research showed that there are structural distinctions within the mind of homosexual men and their heterosexual complements. According to the research, it was acknowledged that interstitial nuclei located in the anterior hypothalamus of individuals’ brain demonstrated structural diversity in the two categories of men.

In homosexuals, the structure was minor in comparison to the heterosexual counterparts. He affirmed that the dimension of this structure had a responsibility to tackle in determining person’s sexual orientation. This implies that homosexuality is not a behavior acquired from the surrounding but an inborn occurrence. It is therefore crucial that such groups are given sovereignty as any other groups with hereditary deformations that lead to body disabilities.

This is according to science but still ethically, marriage of the same sex should not be allowed and instead, the concerned parties should be counseled and guided to avoid such immoral behavior. In brief, policy makers should structure a set of laws that will strongly discourage people engaged or those who have intentions getting involved in such disgusting inhuman behavior and the whole community in general from strongly leaning towards homosexual tendencies.

Reversibility of the trait Most people say that homosexuality is an innate and irreversible progression that cannot be downcast by restrictions. This might not hold true considering the fact that in the beginning homosexuality was not there. Mostly, legal prices are imposed on these acts to depress persistent involvement in this act (Kamiat 230).

This serves the purpose of dispiriting people from appealing to this act. It is very true that an infant with homosexual genes can be transformed to a normal human being. A biological study suggests that once exposed to new environment old characteristics in human beings extinct with time. On the contrary, some scientists argue against this. Anyway, let us believe these genes do not even exist considering that these characteristics did not portray themselves in the beginning of the world, and so they have been learnt later.

Conclusion In brief, it has been argued by conformists and spiritual bodies that homosexuality should not be endorsed. As far as discrimination neglects right to those who have already conformed to homosexuality, we should think of living in holy and sacred society. We should not join hands to support such dirty acts that soil the moral standards that God put in the beginning of this world. Indeed, we should recognize that God teachings weigh more than people’s own decisions and practices that emerged the other day (Borg 36).

This will enhance respect and dignity in today’s society. As a result, we shall live in a blessed world and escape wrath of the Lord our Father. Therefore, a man should marry a woman and sire children, and as a result fill the world as God said. Therefore marriage of the same sex should not be legalized.

We will write a custom Essay on Opposition to the Legalization of Same Sex Marriage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Ayers, Tess, and Paul, Brown. The essential guide to gay and lesbian weddings. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco, 1994. Print.

Borg, Marcus. Reading the Bible again for the first time: Taking the Bible seriously but not literally. New York: Harper Collins, 2002. Print.

Garber, Marjorie. Vested Interests: Cross-Dressing and Cultural Anxiety. London: Routledge, 1992. Print.

Kamiat, Arnold. “A Psychology of Asceticism,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 23 (1928): 223-231.

Sherman, Suzanne. Lesbian and gay marriage: Private commitments, public ceremonies. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992. Print


Strategic Management Process Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Strategic management is a process that assesses the business areas that an organization operates. The process scrutinizes the organization’s competitors, both current and future, and comes up with its goals and objectives. Strategic management process has several components, including the vision, environmental scanning, strategy formulation, strategy implementation, and strategy evaluation (Moore, 2000).

The vision formulation directs the company into its mission. A mission statement states how the management plans to offer products and services to its customers. Johnson and Whittington (2008) affirm that environmental scanning entails the process of analyzing the companies’ processes and coming up with detailed information about its strategic needs: It examines both the internal and external issues that control the organization.

Environmental assessment is important because continuous evaluation of the organization’s environment helps the management to identify areas that require improvement.

After analysis of the environment, strategy formulation is the next step, which involves making decisions on the best actions to take to achieve the organization’s goals and objectives while considering the political and society factors, opportunities and threats and the potential strengths and weaknesses. The company then formulates its business and corporate strategies (Moore, 2000).

Strategy implementation is the next step, and it entails putting the chosen strategy into work. This is where the company’s structure is designed: allocation of human resources and issuing resources in all the sections involved with change. The last component is strategy evaluation, which implies evaluating the performance of the implemented strategies and taking the best action in case it diverts from the set objectives (Moore, 2000).

Liebeskind (2002) conforms that strategic management process is important in an organization because it helps in planning the steps and procedures to follow for the processes to work according to the set goals and objectives. Additionally, strategic management helps the company to carry out its procedures using a systematic method in a smooth flow to achieve corporate goals.

In this regard, The Ford Company is a typical company that uses the components strategic management process. The company has many plans, which are operational for a given period to check on performance. The management implements the plans if there is improvement in the company’s processes. Thus, Ford assesses each process to make sure that they are working according to the set plans and objectives (Johnson


Sexual assaults against children; with adult and juvenile offenders Research Paper a level english language essay help

Introduction Child sexual assault/abuse (CSA) falls under the larger context of child abuse. An act qualifies to be child sexual abuse when for purposes of stimulation an adult or older juvenile engages in an activity that can be deemed sexual. Within the above-defined context, child sexual abuse is takes numerous forms. It includes exposure of children to pornographic material or using juveniles in the production of materials with adult content. It may also include physical contact and exposure of juveniles’ genitals.

Additionally, it may include coercion or pressuring a juvenile into engaging in sexual acts, mild o otherwise with or without her/his consent. Additionally, CSA includes selling if children sexual services and pressuring a child to engage in sexual activity with or without her/his consent and regardless of the outcome.

According to Tracy (2008, p. 56) child sexual abuse is especially complicated because of the psychological impacts it has on the victims. The effects of child sexual abuse include but not limited to, low self-esteem, nightmares, insomnia, and fear of the things that are associated with or that remind the child of the abuse, sexual dysfunction, fatalities, pain, anxiety and depression.

Others include posttraumatic stress order, mental illnesses that include a wide range of personality disorders and suicidal thoughts. In some cases, sexually abused children grow up to become abusers themselves.

One of the most consistent characteristics of child sex abuse in many researches is the fact that the abusers are close people who are normally trusted by the child. Strangers do account for a significant portion of the abusers but over 80% of the molesters are family members and friends including baby sitters, family friends, and neighbors (Hunter, J.A et al., 2003, p. 276).

The problem is widely prevalent and it’s believed statistics have not yet effectively captured the true picture. Many cases still go unreported owing to the shame and guilt that is associated with it. Estimates show that close to 15% of men and 25% of women in the United States did experience sexual molestation when they were children.

Causes of child abuse are as complex as the problem itself. It’s important to note that most offenders act on their own. However, the extent to which operations of the criminal justice system and the failure of the social justice system cannot be overlooked when examining the causes of the problem.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The widely prevalent vice of sexual assault against children has reached alarming rates. It has therefore necessitated the need to come up with a new approach using sociology, law, psychology, and ethics to find a lasting solution that will help eradicate the vice besides the existing legal mechanisms.

An already existsing mechanism that draws information from the mentioned disciplines is doing a good job. However, there is no doubt that there needs to be an overhaul to the established strategies of combating child sexual abuse.

In the US, the criminal justice system is closely linked to the social justice system through the constitution. Child sexual offenders are accorded rights through established mechanisms that are expected to help their reintegration to the community. This approach has however fallen short of reducing child sexual abuse by the levels envisioned.

That is why it’s important to consider drastic measures that ill curtail child sexual offender rights and basic liberties. The main point behind this move is to rid society of the pedophiles and deter would be offenders. The harsh sentences and measures will deny CSA offenders the basic rights that prisoners are accorded and will ensure CSA offenders express genuine remorse and desire to change and get reintegrated to the community.

Most of the measures entail both community and legal systems that incorporate elements of the legal systems and healthcare that CSA offender will be accorded. It will leave them little maneuver to use the existing legal loopholes to secure freedom. The measures are the resolutions that will discussed in greater detail in the last section of this paper.

Owing to the fact that the mechanisms that have been put in place seem to be overwhelmed, it’s important to consider establishing a parallel system that addresses all issues in the social and criminal justice systems that help in the reduction of the instances of the vice. The legal justice system supersedes the other systems and in a way it determines how they operate.

It’s therefore imperative that the legal system incorporates sociology, law, psychology, ethics measures that will address the issue. The epitome of this paper will be a proposal of a comprehensive solution to the problem of child sexual abuse incorporating all the elements mentioned above.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Sexual assaults against children; with adult and juvenile offenders specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Definition of terms Throughout the paper, CSA will be used to refer to child sexual abuse. Additionally, the terms sexual abuse and sexual battering will be used repeatedly and will stand to have the same meaning in this context.

Incidence and demographic characteristics

According to a Department of Health and Human Services report to congress in 2006, the prevalence of child sexual abuse has experiences a significant drop compared to where it was ten years earlier. The report titled National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect concluded that reported CSA crimes had shown a decline of 38%.

In 1993, the CSA cases stood slightly over 217000. The number had dropped to slightly over 135000 in 2006, according to community professionals and other stakeholders. The report however cites lack of reporting from victims and close members of the family as still highly rampant. Close to 70% of the cases are unreported especially when the abuse is going on.

Despite the apparent drop in the cases of CSA, it’s important to bear in mind that the number of unreported cases are higher than the reported cases. Therefore the picture painted by the report can easily be changed if all factors were taken into account (Hunter et al., 2003, p. 276).

The frequency with children are sexually abused is not clearly known because the vice i often hidden. A report by (Hanson, R.F., et al., 1999, p. 67) says that one in three girls and one in seven boys are likely to be abused in their childhood.

The prevalence of the voice is also captured by the organization Stop It Now where in a telephone poll found out that 29% of women and 14% of me who were surveyed reported to have been sexually abused as a children. In 2006, 78,000 cases of CSA were reported to authorities and substantiated. This however represents 12%-30% of the cases that are reported.

The majority of the cases are not reported. This therefore translates to between 260,000-650,000 cases of CSA in any given year. An important point to note and that is indicative of social trends as far as CSA is concerned is the fact that CSA found to be common in all racial backgrounds, religions, ages and ethnic groups and social economic levels.

Many reports point to the fact that the victims of CSA know their attackers. In fact 93% of victims personally know the person(s) that commit the abuse, according to Douglas


Drivers of automobiles should be prohibited from using cellular phones while driving Research Paper college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Physical Distraction

Cognitive Distraction

Effects of Mobile Phone Use

Company Policies

Comparison with other Distractions


Works Cited

Introduction Driving demands a large quantity of attentiveness in order to keep the highway, and the users secure. Currently, scores of citizens have a driving permit without being capable of driving in a liable manner. This reveals the issue regarding handsets. When we reflect on it, numerous other aspects add up to mishaps.

Ingestion, eating, applying makeup, and talking to commuters are as well a number of other rudiments that takes the drivers concentration away from the boulevard. Handsets are not an exemption, although they can furthermore be very helpful. On the other hand, they moreover present a risk for each person; as a result, I concur that handset use should be forbidden while driving.

Many citizens pass on each day from road catastrophes. The gigantic majority of mishaps are because of slapdash driving. In various occasions, the citizens are fortunate enough to dodge of it with only several marks, others are not so fortunate. By chatting on a handset, the driver’s concentration is more on the discussion than on the path, and in case of an urgent situation he or she could not have sufficient moment in time to respond.

The lesson of the penalty that handset use has is imperative, particularly to the juvenile cohort. It is common seeing people sending texts while driving. It appears unlikely that citizens are doing this kind of things even as operating an automobile. Whatever thing distracting the driver’s concentration from the road is competent to cause a mishap (Nilsson 21).

Physical Distraction When utilizing a hand-held handset, drivers should take away one hand from the steering wheel to grasp and maneuver the phone. They should also get away their eyes off the highway, at any rate shortly, to hoist and lay down the handset and to phone up figures.

Whilst bringing into play a hand-held handset, the driver needs to carry on concurrently operating the automobile that is, bundle, modify gear and apply sign, with just a single hand. Even though the physical distraction is much superior with hand-held handsets, there are several bodily actions with hands-free coordination. Although they do not require to be apprehended at some stage in the call, the drivers have to divert their eyes from the highway to position the handset and (frequently) compress in any case one key.

Cognitive Distraction When rational (cognitive) functions are carried out concomitantly, the presentation of both duties is regularly shoddier than if they were executed disjointedly, since concentration has to be separated, or toggled, between the chores and the they have to battle for the similar cognitive practice.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When a driver is utilizing a hand-held or hands-free cellular phone at the same time as driving, she or he should dedicate part of their concentration to operating the handset and sustaining the phone discussion and part to operating the automobile and act in response to the relentlessly varying boulevard and traffic state of affairs. The requirements of the handset discussion must battle with the needs of driving the automobile securely.

There is confirmation that older drivers need more glimpses of gadget panels to regain required information, need more time to conclude gadget duties and need more time to shift their eyeballs between the boulevard and an appliance exhibit.

Various researchers have identified that using hands-free cells still divert drivers’ attention and weakens secure driving aptitude, even when driving mechanical automated vehicles, which are perhaps simpler to drive than the physical transmission vehicles mostly used in the UK (Haigney 04).

There is as well proof that using a cellular phone when driving leads to bigger tribulations for those drivers who previously have a towering mishap risk that is the youth, trainee drivers and aged drivers

Effects of Mobile Phone Use One investigation recommends that the danger of being implicated in an accident is four times more when utilizing a mobile as opposed to when not utilizing it. Conversely, it is hard to enumerate the augmented danger because of insufficient mishap information pertaining to the utility of cellular phone.

This is because, for in instance in the United Kingdom, and the majority of other states, the existence or use of a cell in a van is not documented, apart from at times in very severe mishaps. Several regions States in the USA that are starting to document cellular phone use in their mishap information structures is growing, and, accordingly, it appears as if the enhanced records will happen to be accessible (Alm 86).

In spite relevant information, there is however proof from epidemiological investigations and from mishap intelligence that those drivers who use handsets even as driving have elevated mishap rates as opposed to those who shun away from such behaviors. Since the use of cell is increasing so fast, it is very liable that they will turn out to be a progressively familiar source of road collision.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Drivers of automobiles should be prohibited from using cellular phones while driving specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Company Policies The big corporations have realized that talking over the phone while driving is harmful. In a recent study conducted within these organizations, those who replied had strategies aimed at forbidding or limiting the use of cell while driving for work rationales.

The companies were soundly alert of their lawful tasks, and of the dangers produced by using a cell when driving. The majority of these corporations control the use of hand-held cells when driving. Nonetheless, numerous of companies offer hands-free equipments to facilitate their employees to use handsets when driving under restricted circumstances.

This puts forward that as companies are familiar with a number of perils in using a hands-free handset when driving, they view that the dangers can be controlled in a number of conditions. By doing this, companies may perhaps be harmonizing the danger alongside the business requirements of production and concluding that the peril of using hands-free handset is not satisfactorily great to totally forbidding their use while driving.

On the other hand, several great corporations proscribe the use of any cell when driving for employment reasons, and demand workers to use their handsets simply when parked in a secure position. One can consider the use of cell phones when driving as imperative for business competence but does not want to calculate the risks involved (Cain 37).

Comparison with other Distractions The confirmed data points out that chatting to a commuter does not cause equivalent level of disruption as using a cellular phone, possibly because of the image contact indication that escort interpersonal discussion and because a traveler can notice the traffic condition and adjust the discussion consequently. Using a handset can be contrasted with fine-tuning a broadcasting gadget or shifting a videotape, the outcomes generally demonstrate that the cellular phone causes more tribulations.

On the other hand, tuning the broadcasting gadget has furthermore been established to sidetrack drivers and weaken their performance (Lamble et al 45-47). A vicinity of escalating concern is the increase in the quantity and density of electronic apparatus being built-in in cars: steering gadgets, internet processors, and fax equipments, even small screens.

Whereas a number of apparatus, for instance map-reading paraphernalia, might assist in secure driving, nearly all of these gadgets are redundant trappings and must not be used when driving (Verhoef 11). However, just as drivers utilize handsets when driving, countless are expected to use other apparatus as they drive. The interruption and mishap risks appear to be comparable to those shaped by handsets.

Conclusion Most researches point out that drivers’ preservation of a steady suitable path position is weakened when using a handset. The majority of studies specify that drivers find it trickier to uphold a suitable and unsurprising velocity while using a handset, which from time to time leads to reducing the velocity and occasionally mounting it. The proof point out that drivers take longer to sense and react to variations, for example an automobile in front slowing down, which leading to slow reduction of speed.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Drivers of automobiles should be prohibited from using cellular phones while driving by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When using a handset, drivers are expected to decrease their subsequent space from the automobile ahead. When this outcome is joined with slower response periods, the danger of a crash is even larger. Finally, using a handset moreover spoils drivers’ conclusion of suitable fissures in traffic jams, leading to drivers’ ingoing or tolerating openings that are not big enough.

Works Cited Alm, Nilsson. “The effects of a mobile telephone task on driver behavior in a car following situation,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, 27.5 1995.

Cain, Burris. Investigation of the use of Mobile Phones While Driving. Florida: University of South Florida, 1999.

Haigney, John. Mobile Phone Use Whilst Driving: The Safest Set-up? London: RoS PA and Aston University, 28, 1998.

Lamble. et al. “Cognitive load and detection thresholds in car following situations: safety implications for using mobile (cellular) telephones while driving”, Accident Analysis


Coping with Cultural Shock Term Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

Abstract Culture shock results when a person finds it challenging to adapt to a new culture. If not managed, culture shock can lead to low productivity among staff and even health complications and stress. Globalization has enhanced international trade and increased the frequency of employee movements around the world and having to adjust to the local culture. This calls for such workers to recognize ways by which they can cope with culture shock.

Strategies of coping with culture shock include admitting that feelings arising from culture shock are normal, making friends with the locals, learning some elements of the local culture, maintaining close contact with family members and friends back home, participating in recreational and physical exercises, and looking all the positives of living in a new culture. All of these strategies all focus on embracing and understanding the local culture.

Introduction Culture shock is a form of homesickness felt when a person moves into a foreign country or society that has a markedly different culture from his own. These differences are normally in the form of language, climate, social norms, sanitation, food, climate, and so on.

Culture shock causes a difficulty in adjusting into the new culture characterized by nostalgia, loneliness, depression, mental fatigue, confusion as to how to proceed with work, boredom, and a lack of enthusiasm. In extreme instances, culture shock may lead to physical discomfort, withdrawal from social activities, eating disorders, stereotyping of and hostility towards locals, and irritability.

Behavioral scientists have shown that culture shock occurs in various stages, each stage characterized by a set of symptoms mentioned above. The first stage is known as ‘honeymoon’ phase, followed by negotiation phase, then adjustment phase and finally the mastery phase.

Today, the number of corporations with operations in various regions of the world continues to rise, thanks to globalization that has immensely promoted international business (Ferraro, 2010).

As a result, employees are forced to move from country to country, meeting different cultures that are different from their own cultures by a large margin. For this reason, cross-cultural solutions to international business that aim at alleviating culture shock have been devised to help employees that have difficulties adjusting to other cultures, thereby increasing their productivity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Coping with Culture Shock Due to the adverse effects of culture shock on an employee working in a culture that is significantly different from his culture, it is vital that such employees are introduced to ways by which they can alleviate the effects of culture shock. The increasing number of employees working in foreign countries (expatriates) stresses the importance of training employees on how to cope with culture shock.

Admit that Culture Shock is Normal The first and easiest way by which an employee can cope with culture shock is to admit frankly that culture shock is a normal feeling. There will always continue to be confusion when a person moves into a new culture. Indeed, culture shock is not an admission of weakness that an employee feels uncomfortable, tense, or confused in a new land.

Having admitted this feeling, it is important that such an employee talks about the feelings with other people. This strategy can help employees narrate their own experience of culture shock, and how they coped with the feelings. This can help an employee that feelings of culture shock are normal and can be felt by anybody. Besides, such stories can help an employee to learn from friends about how they overcame culture shock (Harris, 1998).

Make Friends A second way of coping with culture shock is to make friends with other people. Although it will be easier to make friends with people from your country, it is important that a person makes friends with the locals and with people from other countries. Making friends from diverse cultures can help an employee learn about other cultures, and will always have something to talk about when around friends.

A second reason why it is important to make friends from the local population is that they can help a person in learning various aspects of the local culture. These strategies will help a person to adjust to the new culture, and reduce feelings of hostility towards locals. Making friends with the locals will help in overcoming cultural barriers and increase an understanding of the culture and country. It will also teach an expatriate how to be sensitive to cultural practices and beliefs.

Learn some Element of the Local Culture A very effective way of adjusting to the new culture is to learn some aspect of the local culture. For instance, a person can learn about the national cuisine, and especially the main food of the inhabitants of the region in which the person is staying.

By developing interest in the local cuisine, the person can learn more about the local culture and even appreciate cultural diversity. With time, a person will (hopefully) begin to enjoy these local dishes and delicacies and this will make the person feel like a part of the culture, rather than a stranger (Gudykunst, 2005).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Coping with Cultural Shock specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It also pays to travel around the country during the weekends or any free time and learn of historic and amazing sights within the country. If travel is restricted by work commitments or other reasons, then perhaps watching a television show or movies about the host country can be helpful.

Apart from cuisine, a person can get to know the national and local political landscape. He can begin by learning of the national politics and how the locals perceive of national and local leaders. Other issues include topics that are presently generating heated debates in the public domain and in the press (Gudykunst, 2005).

A basic comprehension of these issues will lighten feelings of estrangement, and even provide a topic of conversation with other local members. It will also make participation in a conversations touching on these topics easier, rather than remaining quiet in such discussions of related topics, which can only increase feeling of culture shock.

Perhaps an even important way to adapt easily to the local culture is to learn the local language. The benefits of this tact are very obvious; it will improve interpersonal communication with the locals (Wong


Financial Problems at GM Report college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

About The Video

Analysis of the Video




Introduction General Motors Company commonly referred to as GM is one of the largest automakers in the world. It started its operations back in the year 1908. It’s global headquarters is in Detroit. GM employs close to 210,000 people in every major region of the world and its operations are spread in more than 120 countries.

GM produces cars and trucks in 31 countries and the company sells and provides service to these vehicles through well known brands like Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Daewoo, Holden and Isuzu among others. China is the GM’s largest market.

General Motors has continuously enjoyed a welcome to the market and that is the reason why it was able to grow very fast. The market attention that General Motors got was not like the one its founders anticipated. Soon GM made a lot of profits and eventually became one of the top 200 companies that were accepted in motor car market (General Motors, 2011).

During the 1900’s, a lot of motor companies found themselves in financial problems. This posed a market opportunity for GM. It bought companies that built car parts as well as accessories. In the year 1908, the wide range of companies started operations under the umbrella of GM. This made GM to control a significant number of market share in automobile.

This as well made GM to experience high rate of growth than experienced before.GM continues to make world class cars and trucks but of late it has been faced by a number of financial problems. The financial problems have been caused by various factors but key among these include resisting change, health care for retirees, too many dealership and pensions among others.

It is clear now that General Motors has awakened to financial problems and worries. Of late it has grown desperate for a federal bailout. The question which financial analysts and interested parties are asking is whether the bailout will postpone the inevitable given the internal and external factors at play or not (General Motors, 2011; Burtonshaw-Gunn


Financial Problems at GM Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

About The Video

Analysis of the Video




Introduction General Motors Company commonly referred to as GM is one of the largest automakers in the world. It started its operations back in the year 1908. It’s global headquarters is in Detroit. GM employs close to 210,000 people in every major region of the world and its operations are spread in more than 120 countries.

GM produces cars and trucks in 31 countries and the company sells and provides service to these vehicles through well known brands like Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Daewoo, Holden and Isuzu among others. China is the GM’s largest market.

General Motors has continuously enjoyed a welcome to the market and that is the reason why it was able to grow very fast. The market attention that General Motors got was not like the one its founders anticipated. Soon GM made a lot of profits and eventually became one of the top 200 companies that were accepted in motor car market (General Motors, 2011).

During the 1900’s, a lot of motor companies found themselves in financial problems. This posed a market opportunity for GM. It bought companies that built car parts as well as accessories. In the year 1908, the wide range of companies started operations under the umbrella of GM. This made GM to control a significant number of market share in automobile.

This as well made GM to experience high rate of growth than experienced before.GM continues to make world class cars and trucks but of late it has been faced by a number of financial problems. The financial problems have been caused by various factors but key among these include resisting change, health care for retirees, too many dealership and pensions among others.

It is clear now that General Motors has awakened to financial problems and worries. Of late it has grown desperate for a federal bailout. The question which financial analysts and interested parties are asking is whether the bailout will postpone the inevitable given the internal and external factors at play or not (General Motors, 2011; Burtonshaw-Gunn


Cournot Competition as an Economic Model Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Cournot competition is an economic model wherein industries compete depending on the mass of produce they manufacture (Tirole 24). This name, Cournot, was derived from Antoine Augustin Cournot who was motivated after viewing duopoly rivalry in spring water industry. Cournot competition model is typically observed in cases of oligopoly or monopoly (Tirole 24).

The basic principle behind the model is that oligopolies boast elevated yield and lesser prices than monopolies, but lesser yield and higher prices than perfect competition. The model also requires that: there are different firms which produce the same product, each firm has market power, there is no cooperation between firms and the figure of firms is fixed.

A vital assumption of this model is that every firm aspires to capitalize on profits, founded on the anticipation that its own production decisions will not impact rival’s decisions (Tirole 24). Price is a universally recognized falling function of the entire output. Moreover the price functions are taken to be ordinary knowledge.

The price functions can be identical or unlike among firms. The market price is placed at a height which ensures that demand is same as the sum quantity produced by every firm (Powell 57). Every firm takes the amount laid down by its rivals, assesses its outstanding demand, and subsequently acts as a monopoly.

The fundamentals of this model need rivalry to be centered on the amount of a specific good produced. Generally, price goes down when more of a good is produced. However, this does not essentially apply to this model as duopolies or monopolies do not encounter demands from rivalry to decrease prices. Prices only reduce when outputs exceed demand, making the business not to produce more, and motivating rivals to act similarly.

In Cournot competition model, the goods produced are identical, cannot be stored and the costs are determined by the market. Products in this model are sold and distributed right away. This model is mostly applied on agricultural products such as cotton, rice and wheat (Powell 56).

Today, Cournot competition model is usually used in cases whereby businesses desire to maximize profits founded on the intensity of output. The rationale is to keep away from saturating the market so that the prices do not decrease and to guarantee production of adequate products so as to acquire the highest quantity of revenue.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Businesses make use of the sum production level of the market and gauge this alongside the demand so as to compute the much that it should yield. The dissimilar businesses will operate as a monopoly by applying an identical strategy.

Ineffectiveness transpires in a business where Cournot competition is present. The equilibrium cost becomes elevated than the marginal cost of production leading customers to pay beyond what they would in a case of perfect competition. Excesses are also present as there lacks downward demands for the business to decrease output. Collusions also can take place in businesses with Cournot competition.

Businesses possess an incentive to lift prices or decrease production so as to boost profit.

In conclusion, Cournot competition model can be applied in cases of oligopoly or monopoly. The model assumes that every firm aspires to capitalize on profits, founded on the anticipation that its own production decisions will not impact rival’s decisions. Today, Cournot competition model is usually used in cases whereby businesses desire to maximize profits founded on the intensity of output

Works Cited Tirole, Jean. The Theory of Industrial Organization. London: Sage, 1988.

Powell, TC. European and North American Origins of Competitive Advantage. London: Emerald Publishing, 2010.


The Concept of Same Sex Marriage and Child Adoption Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Argument against same sex adopting kids

Arguments supporting same sex couples adopting children



Introduction The paper is a critical examination of the concept of same sex marriage and child adoption. A brief overview of same sex marriage is provided. Similarly, arguments supporting and opposing individuals in same sex marriage to adopt children are succinctly brought forth. “Adoption is a legal process whereby an individual or a couple presumes the parenting for another who is not kin and, in so doing, permanently transfers all rights and responsibilities from the original parent or parents” (Pertman, 2000).

Globally, it is only 14 countries that have legalized same-sex adoption. In most countries, the phenomenon is against the law despite the fierce debate to allow such a phenomenon to be practiced. The opposing main argument stems from the question of whether the adopting parents are in a position to be better parents.

In America, between 6 and 14 million children are living with at least one gay/lesbian parent. Most of the American States no longer hold back the consent of accepting peoples’ sexual orientation. It is worth noting that the courts as well as State agencies put in practice a principle of best interest of the child standard in order to arrive at a solution.

It is as a result of this approach that an individual sexual orientation can’t be used to limit them from adopting children least it is proven beyond doubt that the relationship will be harmful to the child. Close to 22 states permit gay men and lesbians to adopt children via state or private run agencies.

It is worth noting that since the 1977 Florida is the only State that had completely banned gay and lesbian couples from adopting children. The legislation of 1977 was passed in the wake of a campaign dubbed, “Save Our Children”. It is the following States Vermont, New Jersey, Massachusetts and California that allow same sex couples to adoption. Some States permit single people to adopt, others discourage it. According to Wardle, 2008, the American academy of paediatrics declared that gay, lesbian parents should be allowed to adopt children.

This provoked outcries from all quotas. Despite the fact that the proponents have strong arguments supporting the notion that gay parent should be allowed to adopt children, the paper will strongly argue why this is wrong by drawing and presenting ideas in a succinct manner. “Same-sex marriage also known as gay marriage is legally and/or socially recognized marriage between two persons of the same biological sex or social gender” (Boswell, 1995: 43).

Argument against same sex adopting kids In the reflection of same sex couples adopting children, there has been constant dispute on the issue of their custodies. It has widely been believed that the children who have been headed with heterosexual parents are better off by far than the one from single sex especially from the gay parents (Limpkin, 2005). There several aspect that have been cited to affect these children

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sexual identity is one of the major concern that the children who have been adopted by gay parent experiences difficulties in the development of sexual identity. It has established that children who have been brought up by gay/lesbian parents are constantly disturbed by gender identity where they are unable to personally identify themselves as male or female.

In addition, they are disturbed by gender roles where they cannot be able to distinguish the degree to which different culture are regarded as feminine or masculine. Moreover, they are reported to get a problem of sexual orientation where they get a lot of problem in choosing the sexual partners. They get confused on whether to have a bisexual, homosexual or heterosexual relationship.

According to religion and science, kids are brought to the world by both a man and a woman. For this reason, it is only natural for kids to be raised in a family that has both father and mother as this is the natural order and perverting it is wrong to say the least. For this reason same sex marriage should not be allowed to adopt children. It is no doubt that human are influenced by a number of factors among them those people they closely associate with such as parents

First of all, we are all influenced as we grow up by our parents which means they may take on the same sexual preferences as there parents. Homosexuality is common place in society but in the natural order of things it is not normal. We are born into this world by man and woman not by the same sex (Chartier, 2001). Secondly, children have a hard enough time trying to figure who they are and how they fit into society as they approach puberty and in to there teens.

They don’t need to deal with teasing and ridicule from peers and there parents. Some things should not be allowed. Our society has become a joke and I will definitely petition against this. If you grow up and decide that you want to be gay that’s your business but it is not fair to allow homosexuals to influence innocent children period (Chartier, 2001).

Majority but not all of couples in same sex marriage practice some social ills that will be definitely transferred to the adopted kids. Research has shown that most of such couples actively engage in activities such as drug abuse (sniffing cocaine), alcoholism, smoking marijuana to mention but a few.

When the children adopted by such parent grow up, they have higher chances of practicing what they see in their childhood. Although not proven yet, it is asserted that such children usually turn out to be violent as they seek to defend their ‘confused identity (Ball, 2004).

We will write a custom Essay on The Concept of Same Sex Marriage and Child Adoption specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Arguments supporting same sex couples adopting children It has been argued that providing such parents an opportunity to legally adopt children offer such children an opportunity of being ‘loved’ and feel the presence of parents. When compared to those children that do not have parents or the parents are there but are unwilling to provide for them due to economic difficulties, those adopted by parent in the same sex marriage (SSM) are better off.

Similarly it is no doubt that child home cares are past their carrying capacity and service delivery to a larger population of children is not upto standard (Wardle, 2008). When SSM adopt them they ease the pressure in such facilities thereby making the government spend less while at the same time those remaining in such facilities are provided with efficient services.

On the same note it has been brought forth that adopting children by couples in SSM is in line with the American constitution of equal rights. Apart from allowing them to marry which in their opinion is fair and just to their commitment to marry the person they are in love with, providing them the opportunity to have children makes them to be just like heterosexual couples. Those in support of this kind of an arrangement argue that children adopted have higher chances of performing better in academics (Ball, 2004).

Conclusion From the review of the concept of same sex marriage adopting children there both pros and cons of such an initiative. For instance among the strong arguments against the idea of same sex married couples adopting children include distortion of natural order, children assuming ill behaviours such as drug abuse among others. On the other hand supporters argue that the arrangement ease pressure on children homes, provide them with an opportunity to have parent to mention but a few.

References Ball, C. (2004). “The Positive in the Fundamental Right to Marry: Same-Sex Marriage in the Aftermath of Lawrence v. Texas, Minnesota Law Review, 88 (1): 1184-1232.

Boswell, J. (1995). The Marriage of Likeness: Same-sex Unions in Pre-modern Europe. New York: Simon Harper and Collins.

Chartier, G. (2001). “Natural Law, Same-Sex Marriage, and the Politics of Virtue,” UCLA Law Review , 48(2): 1593-1632

Limpkin, R. (2005). “The Harm of Same-Sex Marriage: Real or Imagined?” 11 Widener Law Review, 11(3):277-308.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Concept of Same Sex Marriage and Child Adoption by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Pertman, A. (2000). Adoption Nation: How the Adoption Revolution Is Transforming America. New York: Basic Books

Wardle, D. (2008) “A Response to the Conservative Case for Same-Sex Marriage: Same-Sex Marriage and the Tragedy of the Commons,” BYU Journal of Public Law, 22(4): 441-474.


Heinekein Company Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Company Profile Heineken is one of the largest beer brands in the world. In addition the company has more than 165 international. In this company the main aim is to have a worldwide best brand portfolio and be the leading brewer.

Today beer is widely available and enjoyed in most countries and cultures all over the world. Heineken is one of the largest companies in a global network of distributors and breweries. In addition, Heineken manufactures the world’s most popular beer brands.

The headquarters of the company has both centralized and decentralized organization to enhance global marketing. Specific guidelines have been put up to provide the face of the brand with fundamental values and add value for local marketers.

The company has an executive board that creates and implements the corporate strategy and manages all companies related to it. The board members are appointed by shareholders of the company who ensure that the company’s strategies are enacted.

The company aims at striking equilibrium between the various managerial positions within the whole conglomerate.

Promotional events of the company entail incorporation of the various managers’ submission of budgets and strategies in the specific market spheres. These are then viewed by the headquarters to allow for consistency in Heinekens international advertising.

Product Name The name of the product is Heineken beer. Heineken has a cooperate culture whereby it enables the organization to adapt and integrate into the culture in which they will be operated.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Heineken’s name is picked after being viewed as an integral part of the societies it is present. Much value is put on respect, honor and understanding the socio-political nature and the local culture consuming the product.

History In Central Europe, Heineken is the largest brewery; it has a number of brands that are well marketed. Heineken is usually marketed around the world as a premium brand; in terms of price towards the customers (Sharon 300). The company adopted the laid down ideology of the Dutch Corporate Governance Code (Ashish and David 34). The company has a strong foothold in the european markets that account for almost half of its revenues.

Information According to a study done by Project Come it proved that the brand’s uniqueness arises from a strong foundation that comprises of various unique attributes of the Heineken brand. It was evident that the Heineken beer brand was loved and adored by many consumers due to these unique characteristics.

The ingredients of the beer mainly include, hops water and yeast. All these are supplied by farmers nearest to the production plant.

Target market The target market of the brand is wide with much focus put on the youth above eighteen years of age. The brand is also widely found throughout Europe, Africa and America.

A higher percentage of those who consume the product are middleclass individuals who enjoy their drinks in bars. However, in certain countries the beer is taken during occasions while others take it as a daily consumption beer (Heiat, Gross and Krumholz 1685).

Strengths Heineken as a beer is produced on the high quality standards.

We will write a custom Essay on Heinekein Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The beer has attractive packaging that pleases the customer.

Heineken is a lighter beer with less alcoholic content.

The beer has a special unique taste.

The formula used to prepare the beer is original with none of it used anywhere.

The brand is widely available.

Heineken is a premium brand beer that is available to its customers in terms of price.

An additional strength to it is that it is the most heavily advertised premium beer in Europe and worldwide and use TV commercials heavily. The appearance and make of the Heineken bottle and logo puts the brand ahead of the rest.

Weaknesses The brand lacks an integrated marketing campaign.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Heinekein Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The efforts necessary for brand revitalization are not present.

The brand image is not consistent with the brand communication.

In certain areas there is no production base.

Cultural factors have played a big role in limiting the expansion of the Heineken brand in various markets. Heineken is usually consumed by patrons of a slightly older generation when compared to other brands. There is a challenge in enabling the brand to be accepted by teenagers and younger individuals.

Cost; the cost of Heineken compared to most beer brands are on the higher side.

There brand lacks worldwide advertising thus market for the brand is not well reached.

The TV commercials that are aired basically reach the larger markets only.

Opportunity The company has an opportunity of sponsoring sports both at local and regional levels.

Information technology has created an opportunity to Heinekens upgrade on security. Business operations in and outside the company is increasing. For example, the current advancement in technology has opened a large market to access world population without any barrier. This has enabled the company to reach various areas of the world.

Threats The long-lasting proclaimed of superiority the Heineken brand may in itself be a threat. This is to enable the brand to flourish and have a strong reputation.

Heineken meets a challenge to enhance a global recognition through the identity of the brand, to maintain a healthy financial position.

With globalization going on, more brewers are looking for new markets, while governments on the other hand have an intention of gaining maximum profit and also get empathy on ethical grounds by imposing taxes that are heavy on beer imports.

In London, drinking alcohol on public transport is prohibited; this will hence decrease the market of Heineken as individuals want to enjoy their beers wherever and whenever they want to.

Economic changes that occur in revenues of a country would also pose a threat to the sales of Heineken. Currency fluctuation could create a threat to the company’s results.

Recession in certain countries has brought individuals to choose an alternative drink that is cheaper; as a result Heinekens distribution aspect faces a threat.

The brand might face a decline in consumption as the lifestyle of this new generation has changed due to lack of time and individuals spend less time in bars. This would then lead to a fall in sales volume.

The threat for power of supplier is high as the main suppliers of raw materials to the company are farmers.

The threat for power of buyers is also high as the consumers have a wide variety of companies serving beer and thus the choice of the customer’s preference is not limited.

Today, there is a high number of small breweries being opened up making the industry very competitive, making Heineken have no choice but to share the market with other brewers. Therefore, there is a threat of probable new entries in the beer industry.

The threat of substitutes; Due to the above threats Heineken may be forced to create a new and unique product that can sustain the competition the face in the beer market.

Since beer is an alcohol beverage, an individual may choose to switch to drink wine which also contains alcohol. This will also affect the beer market which as well affects the sale of Heineken. As a result, the threat of substitute for beer market is high.

Recommendations Different stages of the product in different markets dictate employment of different strategies such that in growing markets both pulling and pushing strategies are suitable (Britton, et al. 115). In these advertisements they should also be able to focus on the local market thus market mix should also be observed whereby the consumer will develop a greater emotional link to the company.

The website developed for the company should be able to attract every consumer depending on the area. Thus local language should be used on different countries.

If the company is involved in sponsorship, there is a high chance of it opening up to its marketing. This can be through sports and music events or films targeting to appropriate demographic profiles.

Also, its global branding strategy should account for the socio-cultural influences, attitudes and the perception of its consumers in all foreign markets.

This will enable the headquarters marketing forces to play an important advisory role for local partners (Herring, Patti, et al. 427).

Works Cited Ashish, Chandra, and David, Paul. ‘Modern Brewing technologies‘. Hosp Top 3.81 (2003): 33-38.

Britton, Annie, et al. “Beer brewing: Threats to success on heineken“. Journal of Breweries 4.2 (1999): 112-121.

Heiat, Asefeh, Gross, Cary, and Krumholz, Harlan. ‘European business techniques,’ Beer Industry 162.1 (2002): 1682–1688.

Herring, Patti, et al. ‘Understanding the challenges in attainig an excellent beer industry: The beer study,’ Ethn Dis 14.3 (2004): 423–430.

Sharon, Mason.‘How Europe and worldwide and use TV commercials.’ Heineken beer 30.1 (2004): 296-304.


Psychology in the Media: Extrasensory Perception (ESP) Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free

ESP is discussed in the book, ‘Introduction to Psychology’ by Rod Plotnik and Haig Kouyoumdjian. The concept explains the utilization of what is referred to as the sixth sense other than that of sight, smell, hearing, touch and taste.

The concept is however controversial among psychologists since it cannot be quantified or demonstrated repetitively. ESP is defined as “a group of psychic experiences that involves perceiving or sending information (images) outside normal sensory processes or channels” (Plotnik


Rising power, anxious state Essay essay help online free

There are all indications to show that China is poised to become the world’s largest economy in the next few years. All this withstanding, the country is under threat to continue with this economic success because of various reasons.

Resistance to reforms and the recent resurgence are some of the reasons that are bringing up an anxious state. Emotions are running high in the country on the perceived authoritarianism that has been gaining prominence as time goes by (The Economist 5).

This was well captured by the prime minster who argued that socialism enhances decision making thereby making it possible for resources to accomplish big undertakings that touch on every citizen’s life. As much as the global power is shifting considerably in China’s favor, it has not done well at home as far as the mood of the minorities is concerned. The country has become an object of worry because of various reasons and these are aspects that need to be looked at.

Chinese diplomats have been treating their counterparts with a lot of condescension and this is because of the perceived dominance of the communist party. The party should approve everything and these are some of the issues that have led to an anxious state though a rising power. The country’s leaders are always nervous and this can be explained from their increased spending on domestic security (The Economist 6).

It should be known that the police have been launching assaults while increasing surveillance in neighborhoods in recent months. China risks entering into a middle income trap because of its population and this might bring problems because supply of labor in the countryside has been reducing as time goes by. State owned businesses have a lot of clout and this is worrying because of their political and economic influence.

China is a rising power and this is undeniable based on its economic success and growth. As much as this is enviable, the country needs to open up to political and social reforms. There is no doubt that its model has been effective based on what the prime minter terms as effective decision making but people should be given space to express themselves. The government has been increasing its spending on domestic security and this confirms their fears.

In this case, the middle income group is anxious of this issues and that is why the party is worried that things might go wrong based on uprisings that have been witnessed in the Arab world (The Economist 9). For instance, lawyers, activists and bloggers have been assaulted by the police to discourage any dissent. As much as these leaders might manage to silence the minority, the system is ultimately vulnerable.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The country has disappointed those people who thought that its economic success and prowess will also come with political reforms and enhanced democratic space.

Greater political freedom should be encouraged in the country to give it a new sense of direction and relief as much as it is successful economically. There is no doubt that the country’s economic success will be threatened by resurgence that needs to be checked. Political leaders should not be resistant to reforms because the middle class will not be held back for ever (The Economist 7).

Peace and prosperity in China will depend on political reforms that will be undertaken in the next coming years. As a matter of fact, the good relationship between the middle class and the ruling party has waned considerably thereby raising concerns. As far as social security is concerned, the country still has a long way to go.

Works Cited The Economist. Rising power, anxious state. 2011. Web.


The Relationship between Corporate Social and Financial Performance Report online essay help: online essay help

With scholars contributing volumes of literature on the topic of corporate social performance, the relationship posted between corporate social performance (CSP) and corporate financial performance (CFP) has been known to differ greatly.

The differences have resulted to confusion in the process of identifying the contributions of CSP in determining the CFP. The differences between the two attributes have given varying results; with some studies suggesting that CSP has high correlation with CFP, while other studies reporting lower or even negative correlations between the two.

A closer analysis of the correlation trends posits that research results carried in social issues in management journals, journals of business ethics among other social science journals reports higher correlations compared to studies carried in accounting, finance or economics journals. In this regard, the hypothesis of this article seeks to show that the differences in these studies have been shaped by institutional logics that affect the cognitions of researchers rather than methodological and factual reasons.

In advancing his hypothesis, Orlitzky, (2011), states that research results are socially constructed and thus the social constructions are responsible for the varying scores as far as the correlations of CSP and CFP is concerned. Researchers in varying disciplines have specified institutional logics that affect the quality of the results that they post after the research findings.

To unravel the contributions of the institutional logics in determination of the research findings, the article uses a meta-analysis approach whereby various inputs from varying research findings are pooled together and analyzed analytically. In the meta-analysis process, the concept of data input in the article has been given preeminence to ensure that the variance in the correlation posted does not originate from data quality.

At the end of the study, Orlitzky, (2011) proves that researchers enter into a research field with a mindset shaped by the institutional logics. Therefore, the social constructs are responsible for the varying result as far as the correlations of the CSP and CFP is concerned.

Researchers in financial, economic and accounting fields have approached the topic with a mind set that the social responsibility has no significant effects to the financial performance of an institution.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, researchers in the business ethics and related fields approach the same topic with a mindset that explains the importance of the corporate social responsibility in the overall performance of the organization. The institutional mindsets, therefore, are responsible for the varying correlations of the concept of CSP and CFP when examined by different schools of thought.

In conclusion, the acceptance of Orlitzky’s hypothesis can have tremendous effects to researchers in the field of CSP and its correlations to CFP. This is because Orlitzky, (2011), manages to prove that social constructs are responsible for the differences of the correlation figures posted by different researchers. The result can also have a significant effect to researchers as their objectivity and elimination of research bias is concerned.

What Orlitzky, (2011) proves to researchers is that the concept of bias is yet to be overcome by the numerous researchers and thus the result of some of the research conducted may be in doubt. The study has also managed to show the extent to which individual inputs have on the results of a study. The results also has some implications for future research as it offers insights that may be helpful to researchers in order to minimize the effects of institutional logic in the process conducting research

Reference Orlitzky, M. (2011). Institutional Logics in the Study of Organizations: The Social Construction of the Relationship between Corporate Social and Financial Performance. Business Ethics Quarterly 21 (3). Pp 409-444


Market Trends of Luxury Cars Research Paper a level english language essay help

Introduction The background of the present luxury car is extremely expensive, frequently the custom-bodied luxury sporting cars of 1920s to 1930s. Normally made by Bugatti, Alfa Romeo, Delahaye, Lincoln, Delage, Cadillac, and Mercedes-Benz among others, these highly stylish status cars were preferred by aristocrats, film stars, gangsters and playboys for projecting elegant and profligate images.

Two such examples were Mercedes-Benz SSK and Duesenberg Model SJ, very expensive and fast automobiles which avoided both complete sports performance and pure luxury in support of unique mixture of style, power and craftsmanship which combined to create cars that resulted to status symbols (Knowles 5).

This idea of luxury has evolved in diverse shapes since the start of civilisation. Its function was only vital in ancient eastern and western empires like it is in present societies; with obvious variances amongst the social classes in past civilisations, the use of luxury was restricted to prestigious classes and whatever the less privileged could not have was considered to be luxury (Knowles 5).

In economic terms, a luxury good’s demand raise exceeds proportional adjustment in revenue, plus it contrast with necessity good, which demand does not connect to income (Knowles 7). Luxury goods normally have “high income elasticity of demand” ( as individual become rich; they increasingly buy luxury goods, which imply that decrease in income will result to decline in demand.

“Income elasticity of demand” contrast with income, plus its signal changes at diverging income levels but to be precise, the luxury good may turn out to be normal good or inferior good at varying income levels ( For the firm to charge a higher price to the consumers it must carry out price discrimination, which is the purchase or sale of varying units of service or goods at price discrepancies indirectly matching to variances in cost of supply (Armstrong 14).

The question whether price discrimination is an ethical issue is a subject which when seeking the answer, one must comprehend the reasons why firms find this particular practice acceptable, whilst amongst the consumers it is perceived to be unfair.

In modern business world cultural division amongst those who recognize price discrimination to be acceptable and just way of conducting business, plus those who differ. However, Christians may be traced on the two sides of the division, where indifference does not play part. Price discrimination is recognised as ethical when efficiency is a matter of concern, plus fairness or justice does not matter (Chen 11).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Discussion Price discrimination

Price discrimination can be found on a company’s ability to differentiate amongst its buyers, according to their demand characteristic differences for specific products. The price discrimination becomes perfect if the company is capable of discriminating more (Armstrong 14).

In economics, for price discrimination to exist, three conditions should prevail in order for the company to be able to profit from price discrimination: the company should have the marketplace power, the company should be able to differentiate amongst buyers according to their demand-linked characteristics plus it must be capable of restricting the resale between customers with low and high demand elasticity (

The company can charge each buyer (a or b) differently based on their demand of elasticity or either split the buyers into submarkets, with every submarket having its demand curve and autonomously maximize gains in every submarket (c) (

Source: (

Three major classes of price discrimination exist; one is the personal discrimination where prices are charged to consumers based on the differences amongst individual buyers, while the second is group discrimination which applies inter-group variances plus product discrimination which charges product in a discriminating way.

A luxury good will normally use the product discrimination, where the product is priced high based on its quality which enables the firm to attain a huge mark-up with high quality product compared to low quality goods (

Economists merely considered price discrimination as proof of monopoly practice, thus an indication of failure of the market. Monopolists may utilise price discrimination just to increase their earnings, or utilize it as entry barrier to new entrants in the market. Any method basically makes all things bad.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Market Trends of Luxury Cars specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The only occasions to make discrimination, are few instances which ensure goods ease of access that the marketplace will never support in any situation ( The degree of price discrimination reduces as new entrants in the sector increases, thus price discrimination may also apply in an oligopoly market structure, which is mainly subjected to few manufacturers, each having a certain market control (Armstrong 15).

Price discrimination splits the link between costs and prices, where prices must be linked to costs since price mirror costs on relative scarcities of commodities (Chen 12). Therefore, prices cannot be depended on as indicator of shortage to the clients on where they must cut down. However, the majority of price-sensitive consumers in discrimination may come across an incremental-cost charge, whilst others might not.

The sellers utilize price discrimination to increase earnings above the competition level and the high earnings ordinarily play the function of drawing new entrants in the sector; in case barriers exist no new entrants will follow. These barriers may include price discrimination, higher fixed costs and patents. In case higher earnings do not draw new entrants, then normally there is no social function and may merely be alleged as unfair, this is an indication of monopoly power (

Price discrimination can be used to support requirement of higher fixed cost goods that may not be offered by the marketplace and may be accepted as fair in specific situations. For instance, luxury goods such as cars may appeal based on the fact that discrimination is practiced according to the product quality or model.

Poor individual will actually get a break in this type of practice, as the product discrimination is progressive in the allocation effect ( It also account for the common opinion that individual will purchase the luxury car when they have more income or has income increases, thus high prices will discourage individual from buying such cars. In case the high prices for wealthier discourages the most economical amongst them from purchasing the luxury car, the price system may be said to be inefficient (Chen 13).

On the other hand, all transactions or trades are just or fair only if they deliberate on either side, to be precise, so long as no bodily coercion was engaged to compel either party to engage in trade (Tiemstra 11).

A consummated transaction implies that the parties recognize themselves to be at an advantage after trading than if they had not traded at all. This therefore, makes the trade just despite how unequally the earnings from the transaction are divided amongst the parties, and notwithstanding how unevenly it may deal with equals (Tiemstra 11).

Conclusion The justice assumes that even must be treated evenly. Besides, unrestrained justice would propose that the suitable reward for a manufacturer of products is recouping the production costs, with the opportunity cost of investment and time taken in that business.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Market Trends of Luxury Cars by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In such a case earnings will be allocated equally between seller and buyer, and no party will exercise uneven power over the other, resulting to efficient allocation of resources.

For that reason, price discrimination must be alleged to be off beam, plus prices must mirror production costs. Particularly, it’s unethical for businesspersons to utilise their power in market to extort from consumers the bulkiness of value they gain from consumption of the product.

Work Cited Armstrong, M. “Price discrimination”, 2006. Web.

Chen, Y. “Oligopoly price discrimination by purchase history”, 2005. Web. “Price discrimination: A summary”, 2009. Web. “Arctic Monkeys Luxury car Market Trends”, 2011. Web.

Knowles, M. “Luxury news: Market Trends”, 2008. Web.

Tiemstra, J. “Price discrimination and fairness”, 2011. Web.


Should people be banned from using cell phones when driving? Why or why not? Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

The 21st century has been associated with an advanced technology and in particular an enhancement in information technology. The advancement in communication through the use of mobile phone has greatly impacted many sectors positively. Cell phones are very important devices in the modern world because they have greatly boosted successful communication.

Effective and efficient communication has in return facilitated the performances of businesses and organizations. Despite the many advantages that are associated with cell phones, cell phones have also been associated with a number of challenges among them being linked with facilitating an increase in crimes and accidents.

Many people have blamed the cell phones to the current high increases in the number of road accidents witnessed worldwide, while others argue that the use of mobile phones while driving is not wholly to blame for the rise in accidents since there are also other vital causes such as over speeding, bad weather, sleepiness, driving while drunk among others.

Road accidents account for about 1.3 million deaths and an approximately between 20 to 50 million injuries annually. It is noted that road accidents is among the three most prevalent causes of deaths for those people aged between five to fifty years. In addition it is noted that the governments use billion of dollars annually as costs that results from these accidents.

Thus, there is a dare need to implement better road usage mechanisms that will guarantee responsible road usage (Powers 2). The introduction of these mechanisms will ensure adherence of proper road usage practices that will help to cut down the high rates of accidents that are associated with poor road usage and especially to those drivers that use their cell phone while driving.

It is common that any law legislation that aims at prohibiting usage of cell phone while driving is likely to experience a lot of resistance from many people globally. Most resistance is likely to come from those people that are of the opinion that there is no offense in simultaneously driving and using the cell phone. This is in contrast to many researches conducted on the causes of road accidents.

Majority of these researches have identified the use of cell phone while driving as a major contributing factor to the high increase in the road accidents witnessed nowadays. They depict that the use of mobile phone while driving disrupts an individual’s concentration significantly such that one is not in a good position to deal with emergencies effectively (Banning the use of cell phones while driving makes sense par. 4).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is generally accepted that the use of mobile phone while driving creates a considerable rise in the number of accidents both to the user and other road users. This is because its use impairs the drivers’ control of the vehicle and in addition, it reduces a driver’s awareness of the roads happenings. The two major factors contributors of road accidents while driving can be categorized in two; Physical detractors and cognitive distracters (The Royal Society for prevention of accidents 2).

The physical distraction occurs when drivers remove one hand from the steering wheel to use their cell phone. Moreover, drivers occasionally remove their eyes from the road as they pick and replace their cell phone or while dialing. The cognitive disruption occurs when two or more cognitive activities are executed simultaneously.

When this happen, the effectiveness of the performance of these tasks is much compromised compared to a situation where it is only one task that was being executed. The performance is reduced because the attentiveness is often divided or switched between the two activities and the two compete for common cognitive processes. Therefore whenever a driver uses the cell phone while driving, what this means is that he/she has to operate the phone and maintain the phone conversation.

Similarly, the drive will also be required to control the vehicle and ensure he/she responds occasionally to the changing traffic conditions. This is not an easy task for many. These two kinds of disruptions are the one that boosts accidents for those drivers that use the phones while driving (The Royal Society for prevention of accidents 3).

Despite all these allegations that use of mobile phone while driving increases road accidents, it is surprisingly that use of cell phone while driving is not the leading cause of road accidents. Over speeding and bad weather are rated among the leading causes of road accidents worldwide.

Over speeding continuously remains the leading cause of road accidents, despite the various programs launched worldwide aiming to create awareness about the risks associated with speeding. There is no much that have been achieved. The recommended speed limits vary from one nation to the other, but there is one thing that holds; the faster you drive, the more risky you are prone to accident and other road users.

Bad weather is considered as the next leading cause of road accidents. Bad weather such as rain, snow or fog is known to facilitate accidents as a result of slippery roads and blurred visibility. Thus, drivers are advised to drive extra carefully, while driving in these conditions as they have limited control on them. Driving while drunk or high with drugs is also a significant contributor of increased risks of road accidents. Use of alcohol and drugs reduces the body’s reflexes which makes an individual more aggressive.

We will write a custom Essay on Should people be banned from using cell phones when driving? Why or why not? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Drunk drivers exhibit more aggressive behaviors such as driving too close to the vehicle in front or applying the brakes forcefully (Nita par.3). In addition, drunkards are known to be reckless and not able to see the consequences of their actions. This is why driving while drunk is prohibited by law. Sleepiness is also a leading cause of road accidents. For instance approximately 100,000 accidents due to sleepiness are recorded in U.S. annually (Launce par.5).

Thus, the high rise is road accidents cannot only be blamed on the increased use of mobile phones while driving. There are other factors that have been identified that increase road accidents in a greater extent than the use of the mobile phones while driving. Among the other factors highlighted as major cause of accidents are over speeding, bad weather, driving while drunk and sleepiness.

Nevertheless, this does not mean that the use of mobile phone while driving is not an issue to be worried about, drivers should ensure that they put into consideration all the factors that are linked with increase risks in road accident and act responsibly to safeguard their life and that of other road users such as pedestrians. By observing these safety precautions, many lives will be saved and the State will save the huge costs that are associated with road accidents and being invested elsewhere.

Works Cited Banning the use of cell phones while driving makes sense. 28 Jan. 2011.Web.18 July, 2011

Launce, Kim. Cell Phone Statistics. 19 Aug. 2010. Web..

Nita. Drunk driving is a major cause of accidents in India.7 Dec.2006 Web.

Powers, Tom. 10 Reasons Why Road Accidents Happen And Finding Legal Representation.2005 Web..

The Royal Society for prevention of accidents. The Risk of Using a Mobile Phone while Driving.18 Aug. 2004. Web.18 July, 2011

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Different Sources of Energy Definition Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Energy can be transformed to a range of states. Energy in different states can be used for various physical works. Energy can be utilized in natural processes or in supplying services to the community. For instance, an inner combustion engine transfers the latent chemical energy present in petrol and oxygen into heat, which is next changed to kinetic energy for use by automobiles and a solar cell changes solar energy into electrical energy which can be used to power television or light a bulb.

Fossil fuels are products of decayed residues of ancient animals and plants. They consist of oil, natural gas and coal. Currently, they provide more than 90 percent of the world’s sum energy (Vas, 1998). Fossil fuels remain attractive for use today since they are cheap, easily distributed, easily available, and can directly generate heat and electricity. However, they emit hazardous substances to the environment. As a result, alternative sources like wind and hydro electricity which are less harmful to the environment are being explored.

Hydro electricity is produced by streaming water through turbines. In generation of hydro electric power, water is bunged up in dams. Big pipes run through the dam construction directing water to the turbines which are turned round by the power of water. The power stations then control the level of the water by opening and closing water gates that ferry water into the turbine quarters.

Hydropower has several benefits over other energy sources. It does not pollute the environment since water is a clean source of fuel. It is also a renewable source that is easily available. Impoundment hydropower builds dams and pools that offer various leisure opportunities, particularly boating, swimming and fishing. Hydropower installations are supposed to offer public access to the reservoir. Other benefits of using hydropower as a source of energy include: flood management and water supply.

On the other hand, hydropower has several limitations. Dams can be a cause of soil erosion and may cause threats to downstream animals and plants in case of floods. Also, developing hydro electricity power plants is really expensive.

The other alternative source of energy is wind energy. Wind energy is a reproducible source of energy that is fueled by the sun so as to produce electricity. Since the earth is enclosed by almost 70 percent water, there is a difference in the manner of heating between the land and the sea (Muljadi


Franco Zeffirelli: “Romeo and Juliet” Adaptation – Essay scholarship essay help

William Shakespeare’s play Romeo and Juliet was first published in 1597. The play tells the story of two young lovers, Romeo and Juliet, whose families are feuding, and therefore despite their love, they are both caught up in the ensuing conflict. Both Romeo and Juliet end up dead at the end of the play following a series of misunderstandings occasioned by the continued fights between their families (The Literature Network Para. 7). Romeo belongs to the Montague family while Juliet is born of the Capulet family.

There have been several film adaptations of the play but the film adaptation referred to here was produced in 1968, under the direction of Franco Zeffirelli. The film, going by the name “Romeo and Juliet” just like the play, starred Leonard Whiting as Romeo Montague, and Olivia Hussey as Juliet Capulet.

This film adaptation, unlike most of the others which were produced in later years, depicts the families, lifestyle, practices, and acts as portrayed in the play, and does not adopt a ‘modern’ version of events as many of the subsequent films want to do (Rothwell 326). The director makes every effort to depict an era similar to that intended by Shakespeare.

In most cases, the written text of a play has variations from any movie adaptation. The written texts of any play contain stage directions that serve as a guide for the reader. Although stage directions in the text of a play tend to give the reader a clearer and better understanding of the setting, they can also be interruptive for the reader.

As the plot of the play develops and the reader gets more involved in the reading of the play, the constant need to read the stage directions has a disruptive effect on the reader’s interaction with the play. Film adaptations of plays, as is the case of this particular film adaptation by Franco Zeffirelli, eliminate the part of stage directions, and the viewer is able to enjoy an uninterrupted revelation of the plot of the play.

In this film version of Romeo and Juliet by Franco Zeffirelli, the director has altered, removed, or re-created several scenes. In the play, when Paris faces up Romeo outside the tomb, he executes Paris. The film version does not however portray this part and the entire scene in Act 5 of the play is conspicuously missing in the film.

Since Romeo is the one that kills Paris in an effort to get to his ‘dead’ wife Juliet, the murder of Paris casts him in bad light, and may deny him the sympathy of the viewer. The film thus omits this act of murder so that Romeo may experience the full sympathy of the viewer of the film.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The series of actions preceding Juliet’s swallowing of the sleeping potion has also been altered in the film. In the play, Juliet delivers a long monologue prior to taking the sleeping potion, communicating her fears, her hopes, and her love for Romeo to the audience. However, in the film, Juliet simply swallows the sleeping potion without much ado, simply asking for strength in love before taking the portion.

The film version reduces Juliet’s monologue because of several purposes. Since she proceeds to take the potion anyway, the need for a long speech beforehand may have seemed unnecessary in the eyes of the director. Therefore, there is an element of directive license in this instance. Secondly, in the film, the single sentence by Juliet comes across as very powerful and memorable; the phrase by Juliet asking for strength from love is memorable and is more poignant, and the viewer’s emotional connection with the character/actor is enhanced.

A similar directorial edit occurs in the scenes of the play concerning Romeo’s acquisition of the poison that he takes and finally dies after believing Juliet to be dead. In the text of the play, Romeo purchases the deadly poison from an apothecary, and proceeds to insert it in his pockets. In the film, the scene where Romeo acquires the poison is entirely missing. Therefore, when Romeo is distraught by his lover Juliet’s side, and believes her to be dead, he appears to unleash the poison from his pockets and drinking it with ease.

The element of surprise and a need to create suspense informs the director’s deletion of the scene of Romeo acquiring the poison. In the play, when Romeo buys the poison, the reader can predict, to a certain extent, his next cause of action since he believes that Juliet is dead. Since he has already bought the poison, his devastation at seeing his ‘dead’ wife can easily lead him to take the poison and commit suicide.

In the film, the audience does not see Romeo buy the toxicant; therefore, the audience remains in suspense, not knowing what Romeo would do next. The viewer is unsure of Romeo’s next course of action after his wrong perception of Juliet’s death. The deletion of the scene that shows Romeo purchasing the poison thus enhances the suspense in the film version of the play to the very end.

Additionally, in the text of the play, Romeo’s friend Mercutio dies away from Romeo’s presence, but in the film he dies in the presence of Romeo. Mercutio here plays a role of a very loyal friend, because he dies while defending the honor of his friend, Romeo.

Romeo cannot accept the challenge of Tybalt, Juliet’s cousin, because unknown to Tybalt, Romeo has just married Juliet. Romeo thus has his reservations on dueling with his wife’s cousin. Mercutio, ever a loyal friend, steps in on behalf of his friend, but he unfortunately dies in the ensuing battle.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Franco Zeffirelli: “Romeo and Juliet” Adaptation – Essay specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the play, another friend, Benvolio, leads Mercutio out of the stage, thus he dies out of Romeo’s sight. In the film however, he dies in the presence of Romeo and the scene is quite powerful as Romeo mourns the death. The reason for altering this scene in the film to make Mercutio die in the presence of Romeo is thus to powerfully project the sense of sacrifice of Mercutio, and to convey Romeo’s grief more powerfully.

Various characters in the play are dead or are said to be dead, but are alive in similar circumstances in the film. In the play, Romeo’s mother dies from the shock of her son’s excommunication from the city, but in the film, she does not die and even attends the funeral of her son and Juliet.

Rosaline, an earlier love interest of Romeo, comes up in the film even though she does not appear anywhere in the play. Giving Rosaline a face settles the curiosity of the viewer, since she spurns the interest of Romeo, and thus her character and looks are important for the viewer.

In conclusion, the decision to adopt a play into film always carries the burden of the level of creative license the director should employ. The film should also allow the reader to make his or her own conclusions (Halio 323).

The film should ultimately tell a similar story to the play, but should also incorporate elements that will make the entire efforts worthwhile and enriching. Franco Zeffirelli’s film provides a different angle to one of Shakespeare’s most famous plays, Romeo and Juliet, thus enriching the viewer’s sense of understanding of the play, even for those who may have previously read/watched the play.

Works Cited Halio, Jay. “Zeffirelli’s Romeo and Juliet: The Camera versus the Text.” Literature Film Quarterly 5.4 (1977): 322-326.

Rothwell, Kenneth. “Zeffirelli’s Romeo and Juliet: Words into Picture and Music.” Literature Film Quarterly 5.4 (1977): 326-331.

The Literature Network. Romeo and Juliet, 2011. Web.

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The Movements and Reactions of Dogs in Crates and Outside Yards Term Paper essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Natural Observation


Future Trends


Works Cited

At present, several dogs live as treasured cohorts and chums for the young and old similarly and frequently are treated as indispensible elements of the family. However, since most dog owners confine the dogs at home improperly during the day when they go to work, dogs undergo social withdrawal which in turn affects the movements and reactions of dogs.

This study discusses the types of movements and reactions exhibited by dogs in the two confinement areas, the crate and the outside yard. According to theoretical and empirical research, dogs confined in yards exhibit unwanted behavior like barking, chewing and digging while those confined in crates exhibit behaviors like hyper impulsivity and social withdrawal.

Throughout its early relationship with human being, the dog acted as a gifted and an indispensible support for survival. In various parts of the globe, dogs were sorted to guard homes, move farm animals and support hunters.

However, as our customs developed and modern expertise took the place of most of the dog’s responsibilities, the dog’s working role reduced. At present, several dogs live as treasured cohorts and chums for the young and old similarly and frequently are treated as indispensible elements of the family.

However, since most dog owners confine the dogs at home improperly during the day when they go to work, dogs undergo social withdrawal which in turn affects the movements and reactions of dogs. Adjustment difficulties often manifest themselves in form of destructive behaviors, excessive vocalization and hyper active movements (Case 205).

It is important to confine dogs properly when one is away from home. Dog trainers and behaviorists report that difficult matters frequently occur in owner-absent dogs that are not confined well, especially those that are usually left in a dog crate for a long time or outside the possessors yard (Dunbar 156).Most dogs never get challenging opportunities that come as a result of exposure to the outside world as they are always confined in yards (Miller 56).

While in the yard, the dog intensely goes through social deficiency and thus resorts to barking, chewing and digging so as to alleviate distress. Left alone in the yard, many dogs will spend much time barking so as to reduce boredom and to seek attention from the absent pack (Dunbar 156).Dogs left at home may also bark in reaction to outside stimulus, a threat, physical needs or annoyance (Miller 57). Too much barking is much dangerous once it becomes habitual as changing it is very difficult as long as the dog stays outside.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most dogs build up a habit of digging when left unattended in the yard (Donaldson 34). Though, some types of dogs are more likely to exhibit digging manners than others, many dogs will finally dig in reaction to a smell, to bury an item, to be reunited with their group, to preserve or diffuse heat, or to amuse themselves. Digging is also hard to stop once developed (Case 207).

Dogs left at the outside yard develop destructive chewing. Most dogs in the yard chew so as to alleviate nervousness, monotony or just for pleasure (MC Connell 76). Similar to digging and barking, chewing is a normal canine action that can be foreseen and channeled. Clearly, if we are not there to mediate, this action can lead to damage of property and can cause severe hurt to the dog, such as intestinal obstruction or damage.

There are other reactions that are exhibited by dogs that are confined outside. Some dogs will engage in self-damaging actions such as making lick granulomas to ease their nervousness or monotony (Case 207). The enclosure itself may strengthen any basic territorial violence in vulnerable dogs.

Dogs left outdoor may experience unkind or inconsiderate behavior from human beings, with lasting behavioral effects, or can be uncovered from undomesticated or wandering animals, which can spread infections and parasites (Miller 57). Outdoor dogs can build up storm fears and are at a danger of acquiring heatstroke and hypothermia. Dogs left alone outside tend to jump, scale the barriers, excavate under the fence, or get through electric barriers so as to ease their suffering or to trail some outside stimulus (Case 207).

On the other hand, some dogs left indoors are usually confined in crates. Paradoxically, the very tool that is intended to provide safe indoor confinement, the crate, is at times used well or wrongly creating problems instead of reducing them (Donaldson 35). Dogs restricted in crates for extended periods of time may build up unwanted behaviors, and too much crating often aggravates any previous behavior problem.

Too much use of the crate can create a dog that is hyper impulsive outside the crate (Donaldson 35). Equally, many dogs that are crated for long durations become depressed. An already existing behavior like hostility or diffidence may strengthen in reaction to the dog’s aggravation at being crated too much. Conversely, a crate can act as a dog’s cave that is a source of security and relieve in the absence of the owner, if used correctly (Miller 78).

Avoiding undesirable behavior by using the right way of confinement at home is easier than regulating unwanted behavior after it has been formed. Since most unwanted behaviors in dogs are caused by feelings of social withdrawal, the owner should provide him with regular exercise so as to ensure that he does not feel isolated the moment the owner leaves for work. At the same time, it’s important for the owner to offer sufficient intellectual stimulation and social contact during hours of leisure.

We will write a custom Term Paper on The Movements and Reactions of Dogs in Crates and Outside Yards specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A dog’s movements and reactions are usually determined by the environment of the dog. For the purpose of this research, we have explored the movements and reactions of dogs in different areas of confinement: in the crate and outside yard. By integrating various theoretical frameworks with natural observation we have drawn a concrete conclusion on the topic. Previous studies in this area of study have not managed to do this, making this research unique.

Natural Observation For this study, I observed two three ear-old female dogs of the same breed. The owners of the two dogs were both employed in a certain Industrial Company in the city. One dog used to be left indoors in a crate while the other dog used to be left in the outside yard.

I observed the frequency at which the two dogs were barking, chewing, making lick granulomas, jumping, exhibiting hyper impulsivity and other general unwanted behaviors. I made these observations three times per day for two weeks, in the two different homes. Limitations of the Experimental Evidence

The research was limited to only two dogs.

The research was limited to only female dogs.

The research was limited to a period of three two weeks.

Implications Dogs exhibit different reactions and movements when left at home depending on the mode of confinement. Dogs that are usually confined in a crate are usually hyper impulsive, easily aggravated, depressed, hostile and totally withdrawn. On the other hand, dogs confined in the outside yard frequently bark, chew and dig. They also jump around and try to remove barriers that restrict them to their areas of confinement.

Instead of leaving a dog in a crate, it would be better to confine the dog in a room with barriers when going out for more than five hours. In case one is confining his dog to the crate one should always visit the dog during mid day if it is possible so as to offer social contact to the dog, with the aim of avoiding the development of unwanted behaviors.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Movements and Reactions of Dogs in Crates and Outside Yards by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If this is not possible, acquire the help of a friend, a pet sitter or a neighbor. No dog must be crated all through the day as this is harmful to the dog. Finally, be ready to keep your dog active immediately you reach home. Whether he was restricted when you were not there or not, you cannot expect him to wait for you unwearyingly as you place your feet up and examine the paper, when you get home from work.

You should be aware that the dog has been trying to cope with social deficiency the whole day and thus is worthy your complete concentration once you arrive. Obviously you cannot leave your job so as to settle home with your dog, but with arrangement, pre-emptive guidance, and the right confinement, you can create those inescapable times of social separation much less hectic for him.

Future Trends Further research can be done on the same but using two different breeds of dogs. As this research was done during the day, another research can be done at night for comparison.

Conclusion In conclusion, since most dog owners confine their dogs at home during the day when they go to work, it’s important to do it properly. This will aid in reduce the chances of the dog developing undesired behaviors.

As seen from the theoretical and empirical research, both methods of confining dogs; confining the dog in a crate and leaving the dog in the yard; result to different undesirable behaviors. However, confining dogs in a crate results to more severe unwanted behavior. Since we cannot leave work to stay with our dogs, it is preferable to confine dogs in the outside yard.

According to the theoretical and empirical research, dogs confined in yards exhibit different unwanted behaviors. While in the yard, the dog intensely goes through social deficiency and thus resorts to barking, chewing and digging so as to alleviate distress. They spend much time barking so as to reduce boredom and to seek attention from the absent pack. Dogs also dig when left unattended in the yard .

However, some types of dogs are more likely to exhibit digging manners than others, many dogs will finally dig in reaction to a smell, to bury an item, to be reunited with their group, to preserve or diffuse heat, or to amuse them. Most dogs left in the yard also chew so as to alleviate nervousness, monotony or just for pleasure.

Other reactions and movements of dogs in the yard include: self-damaging actions such as making lick granulomas, jumping, scaling the barriers and excavating under the fence. Dogs restricted in crates for extended periods of time may build up unwanted behaviors, and too much crating often aggravates any previous behavior problem. Equally, many dogs that are crated for long durations become depressed. An already existing behavior like hostility or diffidence may strengthen in reaction to the dog’s aggravation at being crated too much.

Works Cited Case, Linda. The Dog: Its Behavior, Nutrition and Health. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2005.

Donaldson, Jean. The Culture Class. London: James and Kenneth Publishers, 1996.

Dunbar, Ian. How to Teach a New Dog Old Tricks. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Mc Connell, Patricia. The Other End of the Leash. London: Sage, 2003.

Miller, Pat. The Power of Positive Dog Training. London: Thomson Learning, 2008.


American Football in American Culture Research Paper cheap essay help

American football evolved from British roots but has closer relations to Rugby that to soccer (Camp, 2009). It got its name from the fact that men playing it were on foot and not on horseback (Camp, 2009). Outside of the United States, the name football mainly refers to soccer. In this case, players use their feet to play, as opposed to American football, where hands are the key limbs used in the sport.

The distinction between American football and rugby came about with rule changes instituted to improve the game in the early part of the twentieth century (Camp, 2009). The Second World War saw the introduction of American football as a standard part of recruit training. This era saw the sport become a national unifying element. It encapsulated, in the view of some generals, all the values required of a soldier (Falk, 2005).

American football has certain elements that relate closely to American culture (Falk, 2005). America as a country came about as a melting pot of cultures because many immigrants from different parts of the world moved to the States in search of the American dream (Gems


Julius Caesar and Rome Essay essay help online free

How Julius Caesar came into conflict with his political opponents in Rome Caesar was an ambitious army general who commanded fifty thousand soldiers. It was through their support that he managed to conquer new territories for Rome. Certain members of the political system interpreted this as a ruthless endeavor. They believed that Caesar was driven by his personal ambitions and not any noble sentiments.

Consequently, a number of political leaders such as Pompey began opposing him. In fact, Pompey spearheaded firm opposition against Caesar through the Optimate group. This was a faction that had predominant support from aristocrats. They were a conservative lot and wanted to preserve the status quo.

To them, Julius Caesar’s policies were too radical; he needed to be ousted as soon as possible. Julius also lost support from the Senate because he was perceived as a leader of the masses rather than the aristocrats. Caesar therefore came into conflict with his political opponents because he belonged to a rival political group which undermined their influence. Pompey had also conquered vast territories and his leadership was incompatible with Caesar’s (Plutarch, 45).

Extent to which Caesar was personally responsible for the civil war Julius Caesar was partly responsible for the civil war. He had been pushed to the edge by Pompey and his group. The Optimates had started threatening him with persecution if he came back to Rome as a private citizen. At the same time, they wanted him to relinquish his position as governor of Gaul.

Caesar had devoted a lot of time and resources to the acquisition of vast territories. It would have been immensely dishonorable if he yielded to his opponents. Because of excessive pressure from Pompey’s supporters, Caesar decided to attack another province by marching across River Rubicon and this immediately became a civil war. In ancient Rome, a governor was never supposed to supersede his own borders.

One can therefore assert that Caesar was partly responsible for the Civil war because he wanted to safeguard his political interests. He did not want to lose what he had worked so hard to get. On the other hand, he was pushed into this position by his political enemies. He would never have started the civil war if they had not threatened him with persecution.

Their political ambitiousness forced Caesar to engage in it. It can be said that Caesar and Pompey were in a deadlock and none of them could progress unless they confronted one another through a civil war (Suetonius, 23).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Extent to which Caesar was responsible for the fall of the Republic Caesar was just a small piece of the Roman Republic puzzle. The eventual collapse of this institution was brought on by several social and political factors that Caesar has little control over. First of all, Rome had initially started as a city and grew rapidly to a state as seen during Caesar’s reign. Because of this vast expansion, the political structures became insufficient to rule these vast territories. Additionally, the Senate which was considered as a supreme organ in the republic’s political system became really weak.

This institution was not flexible enough to accommodate the ever changing aspects of Roman life. The Senate largely propagated an aristocratic agenda and therefore perpetuated class based inequality. Consequently, partisan politics was rife in this Republic. Some legions supported the conservative elites i.e. Optimates while other groups supported the Populares which propagated the interests of the lower classes (Plutarh, 45).

Julius Caesar contributed slightly to these problems by supporting one faction. He did not bother reconciling these two groups and therefore intensified the weaknesses in this political system. The Republic collapsed because it lacked someone who could control the unruly Senate, the legions and the masses. Romans urgently needed someone who could stabilize a corrupt and ineffective system and Julius Caesar failed to implement these changes.

Rome was pervaded by immense anarchy and for the Republic to survive, it was necessary to tame all these forces. Caesar removed members of the Senate who opposed him but failed to suppress them completely. Instead of taking away their wealth, he let them enjoy it and this eventually led to his death. Had Julius Caesar effectively tamed these contravening forces, then there may have been hope for the Republic.

Julius Cesar’s plan for the Republic Julius Caesar had very ambitious and noble intentions for the Roman Republic. It was unfortunate that he did not have time to accomplish all these plans. First, he wanted to resolve the debt crisis. He was also concerned about the plight of the soldiers who had settled abroad after rendering service to the nation. He wanted them to settle down but did not want to displace persons in those conquered lands as well.

Julius Caesar therefore demonstrated that he was concerned about the needs of his populace. He also wanted to establish peace in Italy and the provinces. He therefore understood that unless he could calm down political unrest among the masses then there was no chance of survival for the Roman Empire. He wanted to strengthen the middle classes. Caesar knew that class inequality was a problem in the Roman state so the only way he could deal with that challenge was to facilitate the rise of the lower classes to the middle classes.

He wanted to enlarge the senate to 900. The major problem with this last objective was that Caesar rarely solicited the Senate’s support during decision making processes. Since he did not give them a chance to vote and debate about major policy issues, then it was completely useless to increase their numbers. Enlarging the senate was not going to help Caesar because it was not in line with his leadership style (Suetonius, 151).

We will write a custom Essay on Julius Caesar and Rome specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Caesar’s leadership as king or god Caesar claimed that he did not wish to be king when Antony offered him a diadem. In those times, such ornaments were only won by monarchs. He politely declined the offer and explained that only Jupiter was King of the Romans. Nonetheless, Caesar’s actions contradicted these words.

He often surrounded himself with objects that portrayed monarchical status. For instance, he wore a purple gab, adorned his seat with special decorations and even engraved coins with his image. Also, his failure to involve the Senate in decisions made him appear like a King.

He also saw himself as a god when he ordered inscriptions of the statement ‘unconquerable god’ on public commodities. He even placed statutes of himself around various provinces. When he prepared for a battle against the Parthians, he was warned about certain dangers but he stubbornly refused to leave with a body guard. He was therefore playing god by assuming that he was beyond reprimand.

Statesman versus ruthlessly selfish politician To some extent, Caesar was a statesman because he cared about the needs of the lower classes. He often inspired his soldiers to do more than they thought possible. For instance when they were tired of their journey to Brundusium, “they came thither, and found Caesar gone off before them, their feelings changed, and they blamed themselves as traitors to their general.” (Plutarch, 33).

His plans for the country are also indicative of his statesmanship. However, he may also be seen as power hungry leader because he continued to expand territories regardless of the repercussions. Caesar’s political enemies became aggressive when they realized that his thirst for power had spiraled out of control.

Nonetheless, this distinction is not helpful because he was a villain to certain people and a hero to others; Caesar’s selfish leadership style isolated the Senate and this put Rome at his mercy. On the other hand, he was also a reformer and a champion of the masses. So this distinction cannot be helpful because these classifications were not universal. Others saw him as a statesman while others thought of him as an overambitious and rebellious danger.

Works Cited Suetonius, Tranquillus. On the life of the Caesars. London: Loeb classical Library AD 121

Plutarch. Caesar. 75 AC. Internet classics. Web. Retrieved

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The Problem of Atmospheric Pollution in Modern World Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Atmospheric pollution is the existence of dangerous gases, solids or liquids in the atmosphere (Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Atmospheric pollution occurs as a result of various types of noxious wastes.

Particulate matter, the first type, comprises of liquid and solid aerosols suspended in air. This occurs as a result of hazardous industrial processes and burning coal. It speeds up the erosion of construction materials and the decomposition of metals which destructs the human respiratory system by introducing poisonous materials into the system.

The minute particles cause ailments such as: lung cancer, bronchial asthma and emphysema among others. Sulphur oxides, the second type, mainly come from burning coal and manufacturing industries. The nature of acidity of the sulphur oxides causes harm to human beings, plant life and other materials on the earth’s surface.

Carbon monoxide, the third type of pollutant, is a colourless gas which people have no guard against. Haemoglobin, present in blood, mixes with carbon monoxide and transports less oxygen to the body tissues posing a risk of health and heart effects. A number of health issues originate from the exhaust fumes seeping out from automobiles. Hundreds of Americans lose their lives as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning every year.

Hydrocarbons, the fourth type, are chemical complexes made up of carbon and hydrogen only. Hydrocarbons come up from vehicles powered with gasoline and industrial procedures. Hydrocarbons are emitted when power in the engine burns up incompletely. Whenever hydrocarbons get in touch with sunlight, they create ground level ozone, a chief ingredient in the creation of smog. Ground level ozone damages lungs, causes eye irritation as well as general respiratory problems.

The final type is nitrogen oxides which originate from high-temperature ignition, for instance in electric power plants, motor car engines and general use of fuel. Nitrogen oxide adds to acidity during the production and precipitation of chemical fog. Nitrogen oxide is however hazardous as it springs severe illness and demise even in cases of short periods of exposure.

Description of the Problem Atmospheric pollution is an environmental problem that has to do with contaminants in the air. Atmospheric pollution leads to several health and environmental problems. The world is getting hotter, making people to suffer. Each day, a common person inhales almost twenty thousand litres of air. Each time we inhale we risk drawing in hazardous chemicals that have made their way into the atmosphere. Atmospheric pollution includes all pollutants found in the air. These hazardous substances can exist in the type of gases or particles.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Atmospheric pollution can occur both in and out-of-doors. It poses health risks like emphysema, cancer and asthma. It also leads to the exhaustion of the ozone layer which causes the melting of ice caps as well as global warming. Up to the industrial age, the air was rather clean. Afterwards, the use of vents and the burning of coal added many pollutants in the air. The amplified use of fossil fuels nowadays also contributes to this.

If pollution goes on as badly as it is currently, the O-Zone layer will be run down adequately to allow ultra violet waves into the earth leading to skin cancer and other issues associated with the ultra violet rays.

Since ozone layer protects the earth from dangerous ultraviolet radiation, ozone exhaustion is believed to cause high number of skin cancer cases in nations like Australia and Saudi Arabia. It is expected that the Montreal Protocol which constrained the emission of artificial pollutants like the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) would direct ozone layer’s recuperation by 2050 (Sunyer, 2001).

Smog is a blend of many contaminants, primarily particulate matter and ground-level ozone. Ozone is produced from nitrogen oxides and volatile organic composites. During summers, most people get exposed to ground-level ozone absorptions that are greater than the present national ambient quality of air objective of eighty two parts per billion in one hour (Goss et al., 2004). In the United States, the key sources of nitrogen oxides are industries, transport sector, and use of fossil fuels as a source of energy.

Non-artificial sources of nitrogen oxides are usually insignificant. The chief sources of artificial volatile organic composites are petroleum and solvents. While non-artificial sources of volatile organic composites (chiefly from plants) are 5.5 times artificial sources, it is significant to note that locally, in crowded smog-affected areas, volatile organic composite emissions tend to rule during ozone events.

Though ozone changes only a small number of regions, many big cities experience heights of particulate matter which are said to have major effects on human wellbeing. Particulates and ground-level ozone are related to a variety of bad health impacts, among them being respiratory problems, augmented emergency cases of illness and early death.

Nonliving and Living Factors that Contribute to or Are Affected by the Problem Human beings are the major living factor that causes atmospheric pollution. This is so because human beings cut trees for use in industries and use fossil fuels as sources of energy. The rising earth population is also significantly associated to this matter. A large population causes pollution in that as the number of people increase, the demand for timber as a construction material increase, thus increasing deforestation.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Problem of Atmospheric Pollution in Modern World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Numerous forms of transport are available globally. So long as these forms of transport rely on fuel to run, they will forever emit pollutants. Exhausts from vehicles, aircrafts, and ships have become the main pollutants of the globe. If bikes and other non-fuelled modes of transports can be employed, the presence of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere could be reduced. Exhausts from cars weaken the o-zone layer. By not smouldering plastics or using fossil products, we can aid in preventing atmospheric pollution.

The altitude of oceans is normally elevated by global warming that occurs as a result of atmospheric pollution. The heightened levels of water ingest low land areas and islets which cause problems to humans, plants and other creatures that inhabit that area. Water coats plants inhibiting their growth. As a result, aquatic animals lack food and in severe cases, they die. Loss of plants and animals depress the whole ecosystem and particularly, the lives of human beings.

Furthermore, global warming augments the ocean temperatures, thus endangering the lives of ocean animals (Tuner, 1994). The most affected by this process is the algae. Algae manufacture food for the sea habitants by photosynthesis. It also acts as a meal to a many creatures like crabs, small fish and whales.

The loss of algae leads to malnourishment of other animals and consecutively the sea kingdom begins to die out. The emission of greenhouse gases raises temperatures which results to the drying of trees leaves. As a result, the forest burns since dry leaves easily catch fire. Green house gases also cause acid rain which is corrosive. It affects both plants and animals lives.

Positive or Negative Human Impacts Human forces on forests like forestation can be helpful. However, deforestation can greatly impact the ecosystem as it raises the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

Evaluation of Current Sustainability Strategies and Solution At present, there are many luminous sustainability strategies and solutions that have been started by several organizations, governments, firms and civic groups.

An example is the emphasis on use of solar energy as opposed to use of coal. Clean Air Acts was also established to safeguard the atmosphere against pollutants (Goss, 2004).

By making electric vehicles, pollution that occurs from gasoline powered vehicles can be reduced. Scientists and car makers have joined hands so as to establish how they can make cars that are powered by batteries or that use air to run (Turner, 1994). So far, these cars have not yet been released into the market as they are still being worked on. If these cars are released, then they will play a great role in prevention of atmospheric pollution.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Problem of Atmospheric Pollution in Modern World by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Several attempts at reducing atmospheric pollution have been made. The Clean Air Acts was effectual for a short while. The Act illegalized the use of a number of polluting matters. However, this did not work since people did not adhere to it. Use of solar energy is another solution that has been tried.

This type of power is excellent because it is a substitute energy source to petroleum and other fossil fuels that contaminate the atmosphere. The only limitation to use of solar energy is that it is very expensive. However, it is broadly used universally. Another effectual way of reducing air pollution would be the making of electric vehicles. The employment of these electric vehicles would entirely lessen the amount of pollution in the atmosphere caused by gasoline motorized vehicles.

These vehicles can be run on batteries as a replacement for gasoline and other fuels. Although solar cars appear to be very pragmatic, they would be very costly to build up. The major variation amid solar and electrical power is that solar vehicles would be more costly to construct. The potential of creating a cost efficient electric vehicle is to a large extent more sensible than creating a cost efficient solar vehicle.

By creating ecologically secure and reasonably priced electric vehicles, the extent of pollution due to gasoline powered cars would lessen. Devoid of making these adjustments, the world will go on to heat up at a yearly rate of more than two degrees, which will lead to the melting of ice caps (Holland


Ethnicity Problems in United States Essay essay help online free

Introduction The United States is a host to many varied cultures and is considered the world’s super power with developments that are envied all over the globe. The country’s democracy has undergone various changes over the years. It has also made several steps towards peace, and equity, among other principles of its foundation. However, this was not achieved in a day; in fact, it took several decades of civil wars and conflicts, among other problems to realize the American dream.

The country boasts of varied culture that arises from immigration. Every year, it receives people from other countries as immigrants. This has improved its credibility in the world. Some of the ethnicities that live in the United States include, Native Americans, African Americans, Chicanos, Asian Americans, among others. These ethnicities did not find it easy settling in the country.

They went through various obstacles such as discrimination, among others. This led to conflicts that spurred acts of atrocities. The strategies employed to fight against racial discrimination included political participation, armed resistance, legal system, and economic participation, among others. This paper will therefore explore each of these ethnicities, their most effective along with the least effective strategies employed in fighting against racial discrimination, as well as the evidence (Baugh 133-146).

Native Americans These were indigenous people found in North America by the European colonialists. They lived in areas such as Alaska, Hawaii, among others parts. The community was composed of various tribes, ethnic groups and States. In most cases, these communities are referred to as Indians or American Indians.

The largest of these tribes included Apache, Iroquois, Navajo, Sioux, Cherokee, among others. In the last 500 years, the community encountered discrimination and wars with European populations. These were mainly because they had encroached on their Native lands and also tried to displace them. In the process, most were killed; some assimilated, and others removed. In the 19th century, the communities were granted citizenship after several treaties and wars.

During United States’ fight, for independence against British, Native Americans sided with the latter hoping that they would help them avoid land seizure. This later backfired as the British handed over their land to Europeans. They also sided with Southern States during the civil war. George Washington later helped in restoring them as citizens with rights to vote even though they were not given the opportunity to govern themselves (Colin 34).

African American These are black Americans who were largely from the African continent during slavery. They were also known as American Negroes. It is quite important to note that this term is usually employed when refereeing to people with African ancestry (sub Saharan Africa). The majority of these communities were descendants of victims and survivors of slavery era.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They faced several problems as they fought for freedom, these included slavery, racial segregation, reconstruction and civil rights movement, among others. This community forms the second largest racial community in United States, only second to Whites. They formed part of the American military conflicts during civil wars. In addition, the community has been active in politics ranging from Martin Luther to Rice and the country’s current president Obama, among others (Baugh 133-146).

Chicanos These are United States citizens of Mexican descent. This term was used widely during Mexican movements and was aimed at fighting against racism in the 1960s. The community is said to have lived in the United States as early as 1848, even though they are sometimes considered as the latest of immigrants, to arrive.

This is mainly because some of them crossed over and joined with indigenous American Mexicans. The war against mainstream whites between 1846 and1848 in New Mexico among other parts, left many casualties on Mexicans and attributed to their bitterness towards federal government. Their movement was also formed to help fight for affirmative action, immigration rights, globalization, among other issues (Toro 1).

Asian Americans These are American citizens with origins from peoples of Asia. They were first referred to as Orientals and this displeased them as they considered it a colonialist term. In this regard, they adopted the term Asian Americans, as a way of identification. They benefited from elimination of the Hart-Celler Act, which had restricted them from moving into the United States.

This development led to increased influx from Asia. Asian Americans are now estimated to have the highest attainment of education in United States. Moreover, they also form some of the best-paid employees in the country. Their fight against racial discrimination was also difficult as they fought against acts instituted to exclude them. These included among others, Asian as well as Chinese exclusion acts (History World International 1).

Areas in which they have been most effective when fighting against racial discrimination These communities faced several challenges in their quest for equality and citizenship as well as acceptance in the American society by mainstream whites. This was achieved through many ways that included political participation, armed resistance, legal system, and economic participation, among others.

Native Americans

Native Americans fought for their rights to own ancestral land in the United States. However, this failed as they lost the battle to retain that land. In this regard, the most effective way of fighting against racial discrimination was through political participation.

We will write a custom Essay on Ethnicity Problems in United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More African Americans

African Americans have had a long history of civil rights activists, conflicts as well as politics. In this regard, the most effective way of fighting against racial discrimination was through political participation.


The Chicanos fought to govern themselves but lost to the federal government. In this regard, the most effective way of fighting against racial discrimination was through political participation.

Asian Americans

Most Asian communities immigrated for jobs in the 19th century. This helped empower them economically. In this regard, the most effective way of fighting against racial discrimination was through economic participation.

Areas in which they have been least effective when fighting against racial discrimination These communities used various means to fight against racial discrimination, some of which caused many casualties and was least effective. These were:

Native Americans

Native Americans had their own culture, which was anti-western. Therefore, in their quest for recognition, they fought against mainstream whites and lost. This was therefore the least effective method of fighting against racial discrimination.

African Americans

African American used several means to fight for freedom and racial discrimination. The least effective way of fighting against racial discrimination was through legal system.


Chicanos believed that they had the right to govern themselves; the least effective way of fighting against racial discrimination was through armed resistance.

Asian Americans

Asian Americans came as laborers at the coast. The least effective way of fighting against racial discrimination was through the legal system.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethnicity Problems in United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Evidence Throughout the history of fight against racial discrimination, various occurrences ranging from conflicts to political participation proved to be either the least or most effective way of fighting racism. These were as follows:

Native Americans

These were the indigenous people found in North America by the European colonialists. They suffered from racial discrimination in the 1700s when slavery was a racial caste. This led to various wars in response to this, as they tried to protect their land and culture. Infightings also led to their downfall as some groups were assimilated.

This proves why use of armed resistance was the least effective. On the other hand, their ways of governing was widely adopted by United States Presidents like Benjamin Franklin, among others. In addition, wider political participation allowed them to reduce racial discrimination through George Washington. Political participation was therefore the most effective (Colin 34).

African Americans

These black Americans were largely from the African continent during slavery. They faced several problems as they fought for freedom, these included slavery, racial segregation, reconstruction and civil rights movement, among others. Like Native Americans, the law was against freedom to African Americans who were racial castes.

The least effective method was through legal system since their position as slaves was in law until reconstruction period and civil right s movements. The most effective way was through political participation, which has enabled them to improve in leadership (Baugh 133-146).


This community lived in the United States as early as 1848, even though they are sometimes considered as the latest immigrants. This is mainly because some of them crossed over and joined with indigenous American Mexicans.

Their least effective method of fighting racism was through armed resistance as they were excluded and displaced from their land. This was also witnessed in Texas. On the other hand, their most effective method was through political participation in the Chicano movement that kept pushing for equality since 1960s (Toro 1).

Asian Americans

The Asian community benefited from the elimination of Hart-Celler Act, which had restricted immigrations from Asia. This led to more influx of Asians. Currently they are estimated to have the highest attainment of education in United States.

Their attempts to mitigate racism through legal system were least effective as the acts defended Asian and Chinese exclusion (Wong 25). The most effective method of mitigating racial discrimination was through economic participation, which made them superior in education and pay (History World International 1).

Conclusion United States is a home to various cultures of the world. This is due to influx of different communities, which started over 500 years ago. Among the communities that live in United States include, Native Americans, African Americans, Chicanos, Asian Americans, among others. These communities did not find it easy settling in the country. They went through various racial subjections in the hands of mainstream whites. This led to several conflicts that caused high numbers of casualties.

The strategies employed in fighting against racial discrimination included political participation, armed resistance, legal system, and economic participation, among others. Most of these communities realized their dreams through political and economic participation, while those that opted for armed resistance lost in many occasions as was seen in Native Americans and Chicanos, as well as African Americans (Toro 1).

Works Cited Baugh, John. “The Politicization of Changing Terms of Self Reference among American Slave Descendants”. American Speech. Vol. 66, No. 2, 1991, pp. 133-146.

Colin, Calloway. “Native Americans First View Whites from the Shore”. American Heritage. Spring 2009.

History World International. “ASIAN AMERICANS”. World History center. 19.07.2011. Web.

Toro, Luis. “Chicanos as a Racialized Minority”. The University of Dayton School of Law. 31.12.2010. Web.

Wong, Sau-ling. “Asian America.Net: Essays in Ethnicity.” Nationalism and Cyberspace. Routledge University Press.


Gymnastics Market Profile Report essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Future Prospects

Works Cited

Introduction One of the oldest participatory sports activities in the world is Gymnastics. The sport’s activities require physical strength, agility, flexibility, coordination balance and grace which enable performers to perform extraordinary moves. There are many gymnast sports but artistic arts are the best known of them all.

Men and women gymnastic activities both involve vault and floor exercises. The rest of the activities are specialized including balance beams and uneven parallels for females and pommel horse and parallel bars for males. Besides artistic gymnastics, other sports under the wide gymnastics field include rhythmic gymnastics and trampoline.

Like all sporting activities nowadays, gymnastics is a big business sports that involves many industries that are interconnected together. These sectors together develop gymnastic programs for sporting entertainment. In this paper, the market profile of gymnastics will be examines through an overview of the sport, current consumers, the demand for the sporting activity and the future prospects of the sport.

Overview Gymnastics can trace its origins to the ancient Greek. The ancient Greeks performed a number of gymnastic exercises for fun and recreation. Individuals especially children and young adults were encouraged to perform athletic feats according to their own notion.

The authorities then incorporated these feats into the curriculum of the Greek education system and gymnastics was performed besides art and music. After the ascension of the Roman Empire, gymnastics was used for military training and soldiers were required to perform the gymnastic feats in preparation for hand-to-hand combat (Colin and Shelia p 1).

Gymnastics governing body Federation of International Gymnastics (FIG) was founded in the year 1881 and facilitated gymnastic competitions in the first Olympic Games in the 1896. Different types of exercises including some from the circus evolved with time and developed to form the current gymnastic moves that characterize the industry (Colin and Shelia p 1).

Gymnastics nowadays is a major sporting activity wit thousands of participants from different countries. The most dominant countries include Japan, Russia, China, the US Romania, Germany, Hungary, and Italy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The sport has over time continued to grow since its inception. For along time Japan produced the world’s best gymnast only to be overtaken by Russia and China ad the US. Participation of the sports is almost presented in all major competitions including the Olympic, All Africa games, European championships, Pan-American games, common wealth games, and Asian games.

In the countries mentioned above the sport is well developed and in some cases like the US it has been integrated into the education curriculum In the US for instance there are over 5000 gymnastics clubs with an estimated membership that tops 100,000. Some of the equipments used in gymnastics include chalks, mats, braces, and apparatus. Others are balance beams, pommel horse and vaulting table. Gymnastics is performed by both men and women especially of all ages (Verrow. et al 40).

Consumers Considering gymnastics is part of sports entertainment, there are passive consumers who mainly make up the fan base of gymnastic enthusiasts. These groups of consumers are involved in gymnastic events for fun. They mainly consume in a business sense display gymnastics normally performed by groups of athletes numbering 6- 150. These athletes perform highly synchronized moves that are choreographed to easily followed routines (Verrow. et al 46).

One of the world’s most famous gymnastic events performed by gymnasts for casual consumers if the World Gymnaestrada. Gymnastics also perform in circuses like the MonteCarlo circus for passive consumers. They mainly attend gymnastic events to enjoy gymnastic events as performed by professional gymnasts. The kind of activities these consumers enjoy are laced with acrobatic and balance moves.

Besides the casual consumers of gymnastics describes above, there are core consumers of gymnastics that engage in gymnastics especially for sports. They include aerobic gymnast popular in sports. Aerobic gymnastics involves routine performances by individuals normally in pairs or trio.

The performances emphasize flexibility, strength, and fitness. It is important to note that this form of gymnastic does not involve acrobatics and balance. Many sports teams in different categories such as soccer, American football, and athletics employ these kinds of gymnastics in their trainings (Conrad 87).

Demand Gymnastics is a young sport in terms of consumption and market penetration. Participation is concentrated in pockets inconsistently distributed in the world. Only a handful of countries mentioned earlier have fully developed gymnastic sports ventures. As its popularity grows especially with the entry of the Chinese into the competitive club of gymnastics, the demand for the sporting event is growing steadily.

We will write a custom Report on Gymnastics Market Profile specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the factors that have led to the unprecedented growth of gymnastics is the advancement in technology. The Chinese especially are on record as having finely fused the Japans and Russian styles of gymnastics to produce unique Chinese moves. They have been able to achieve this though technology (Conrad 87).

Popularity of the sport in the US has led to growth in demand of the coaches. As result, the country has contracted the services of coaches from traditionally gymnastic powerhouses such as Russia, Japan, and Europe. Many colleges and universities due to growing demand have incorporated gymnastics into their curriculums in order to satisfy the demand.

However, some experts point to a discouraging trend in the sport. There has been failure to develop new performed elements in the last decade. Jozsa says that the number of new elements developed between 1994 to 1999 is less than the new elements developed between 1987 and 1993. The experts blame the lack of development in bad judgment and lack of creativity in the sport (68).

Future Prospects Considering the sport is not saturated like say soccer, there is potential fro growth in the next ten 5-10 years. According to Rosner, there is a new code in the judgment and evaluation of gymnastics that has discouraged innovation effectively hampering the development of new elements (38). He further says that the new code has discouraged creativity because coaches and gymnagists don’t see the values of developing new elements. If the trend continues, the sport is likely to be monotonous and risks losing its entertainment value.

The future of gymnastics is bright and there is likely to be significant growth in the next 5-10 years but, only if the sports leaders adhere to the following; development of new performance elements, assessing the difficulty of the elements and emphasis on the originality of the elements performed. The last point included connections and routine construction.

Additionally there needs to major investment in the sport considering the equipment used are capital intensive. The field of competition will also need to be expanded in the next decade for its participation and fan base to equal other major sports. That way gymnastics is assured of growth.

Works Cited Colin, Blakemore and Shelia, Jennett. “Gymnastics.” The Oxford Companion to the Body. 2001. 19 Jul. 2011

Conrad, Mark. The Business of Sports: A Primer for Journalists. Burlington: InfoBase Publishers, 2010.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Gymnastics Market Profile by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Jozsa, Frank. Big sports, big business: a century of league expansions, mergers. London: Routledge, 2006. Print.

Rosner, Scott and Shropshire, Kenneth. The business of sports. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Verrow, Row. et al.Sports business: law, practice and precedents. New York: Sage Publishers, 2005. Print.


Southwest Airlines Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

The southwest airline, which was founded by Herb Keller the then CEO in June 1971, has been one of the most profitable businesses since it commenced its operations.

It was ranked among the top admired airlines in the past as per a survey conducted by the American customer satisfaction index from 1997 to 2001 in terms of satisfactory customer service. The southwest airlines applied a shorthaul approach, which entailed a 55 minutes flight time. It also paid its crews by each trip and used the less congested airports for its operations.

In addition, the southwest pilots were not members of a national union that limited the number of hours a pilot could fly an airplane. The duration between landing of a plane and its takeoff was about 20 minutes, in which four ground crew and two gate agents were required, as opposed to the united airlines, which required approximately 30 minutes with an additional ground crew of 12 and 3 gate agents.

The CEO’s philosophy of putting employees’ needs first contributed to satisfying the employees, who resulted to being dedicated and motivated, thus working towards satisfying the customers’ needs. When customers are pleased with the services offered, they definitely come back for more services (Achtmeyer, 2002). In June 2010, Southwest Airline celebrated 40 years of service, which is remarkable.

Industry Analysis of Southwest Airlines Southwest Airline has been constantly profitable, as opposed to other airlines, some of which have been declared bankrupt. Its reputation hails from low-affordable fares, timely flights, and an attractive corporate culture. Nevertheless, each business is influenced by Michael porter’s five forces, which include; “supplier power, buyer power, threats of substitutes, degree of rivalry and threats of new entrants” (Orcullo, 2007, p. 49).


A competitive market is always associated with rivalry, because of market concentration. As a result, each airline fights to achieve a competitive advantage. The southwest Airlines offer low fares as one of their competition strategies and offers many on-time flights to its customers. Price wars are evident in the airline industry as a means of attracting customers; for instance, Southwest Airlines offers low cost fares that are readily available on the internet.

In addition, Southwest Airline has managed to beat Delta Airlines in terms of fares, since the latter’s fares are quiet high. In addition, Delta Airlines has outweighed Southwest Airlines due to the acquiring of Northwest Airlines, hence capable of offering passenger access to all cities in the United States and across all corners of the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More United Airlines recently merged with Continental, posing as a threat to the Southwest Airlines. Nevertheless, Southwest Airline knows that low fares alone cannot guarantee a competitive advantage; therefore, it pays its pilots handsomely, 40% higher as compared to other airlines, hence motivating the pilots to fly at least an extra hour as opposed to other airlines (Mouawad, 2010).

In addition, Southwest Airline does not charge for the customer flight changes, therefore, customers are easily lured. In contrast, Delta Airline distributes majority of its tickets to travel agents, thus, costs are incurred, which result to rise in the ticket prices for customers. However, Southwest Airline creates online ticket booking at low prices, a strategy that has proved to be a reliable over the years.

Threat of Entry

Due to the deregulation of airline industries, new airlines may emerge, to avoid some airlines being declared bankrupt because of stiff competition. Southwest Airline has been faced by a lot of threat from the emerging airlines that have adopted the low cost and quality customer care services; for instance the Jet Blue Airways, hence being a challenge to the Southwest Airline in fear of loosing customers to the growing airline.

Threats of Substitutes

Most of the services offered by airlines are almost similar; hence, a customer may be tempted to try out another airline with similar services. The airline industry faces threat from other means of transportation, for instance, buses or trains. This may be relevant in short distances, however, in long overseas destinations, most people prefer the airlines, as they are fast.

The southwest airline is exposed to the threat of the substitutes offered by the rival airlines, for instance, some destinations traveled by Delta Airlines are also covered by Southwest Airlines – New York, Miami and other countries. In addition, Jet Blue Airway has proved to be a major threat in terms of the low fare strategy, whereby, it offers approximately low fares, as it is the case with the southwest airline.

The Suppliers Bargaining Power

Due to the competitive airline industry, airplane manufactures like Boeing and Airbus have a high bargaining power due to the switching costs incurred when changing airplane models. However, Southwest Airline has been using one kind of airplane, Boeing 737, hence saving a lot of cash in terms of maintenance and training of engineers. This measure gives Boeing manufactures a high bargaining power over the Southwest Airline, as it only uses one plane model.

However, the recent remarks made by Kelly Gary, the current CEO of Southwest Airline, on a possible shift from the Boeing manufactures to other manufactures with fuel-efficient aircraft could render Boeing manufacturer’s bargaining power to decrease. Nevertheless, Boeing manufactures may have a low bargaining power over its other customers like Jet Blue Airways, since it is not as enormous as the southwest airlines.

We will write a custom Essay on Southwest Airlines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Buyer Bargaining Power

Southwest Airline offer friendly fares to their customers as a way of attracting more customers. However, there are a number of services that are spiced up to make the passenger comfortable – bags are not charged, pets accompanied by a passenger are allowed in the plane, and pet cabins are provided.

Moreover, change of flights is not charged, therefore guaranteeing customers flexibility. These strategies give customers a bargaining power, as they are able to choose from any affordable traveling classes, and have the freedom of bringing their pets along.

Conclusion Since its operations in 1971, Southwest Airline has proven to be effective and reliable, in terms of customer service, flexibility, and productivity. The adopted strategy of cost leadership and product differentiation has led to a competitive advantage.

Despite the short trips it made in its early years, those trips were accompanied by a large number of passengers, and the flights were always on time. Providing relative low fares to its customers and paying its employee handsomely has contributed to loyalty from both the customers and employees. In addition, Southwest Airline has a unique culture, which involves allowing its attendants engaging the passengers in songs and games.

References Achtmeyer, W. (2002). Southwest airline corporation, No.2-0012. Turk school of business at Dartmouth. Web.

Mouawad, J. (2010). The New York Times; business day. Web.

Orcullo, N. (2007). Fundamentals of Strategic Management. Quezon City: Rex Bookstore Inc Publisher.


Economic Productivity: An Unnatural Condition in Man Essay college essay help near me

Modern day man is defined as an economically productive person who strives to maximize profit and to progress in life. The values of being successful and wanting more in life are held in high regard in all societies and all people aim for a better life. With this reality, it may be argued that being economically productive is a natural condition of man since all human beings seem to instinctively want more from life.

However, I do not agree with this opinion and instead believe that economical productivity is an unnatural phenomenon in man. In this paper, I will argue that being economically productive is not a natural condition in a human being but rather, it is a habit acquired through time and as a result of history. To reinforce this claim, this paper will highlight the lifestyle of man in the early ages.

In this modern age, being economically productive is almost instinctive for man and we are all born and raised to recognize the virtues of being progressive in life. However, early man did not have the same values of productivity and instead, he was keen only to ensure his daily survival. If being economically productive was instinctive to man, early man would have shown more ambition and innovation.

This is not the case as is evident from the fact that the hunters and gatherers who existed in the post ice age era. This people did not engage in economic activities but only sought to fulfill their daily needs. Schmidt-Bleek (2010) reveals that this early man only worked for some 2-3 hours a day so as to acquire the food that he needed to sustain himself. It can therefore be inferred from this that man’s natural inclination is to survive and not to be economically productive.

Economic productivity arose from the need by man to improve on the conditions provided by nature and hence increase his chances of survival. Schmidt-Bleek (2010) reveals that while the hunters and collectors of the post ice age era were well-nourished and happy “they did not live very long, and many succumbed to lack of health care and the uncertainties of nature”. Economical productivity was therefore a means through which man could increase his lifespan and deal with the uncertainties of nature.

Advocates of economic productivity as a natural condition of man point to the dissatisfaction that the poor feel and their constant strive to prosper. According to this reasoning, if economic productivity was not a natural condition, the poor would be comfortable with their conditions and they would not work hard to improve their living conditions.

Hunt and Lautzenheiser (2011) further reveal that man’s natural inclination is to improve productivity and make the most capital in any undertaking. While it is true that the poor aim to achieve success and man shows some inclination to maximize profit, these are not instinctive conditions. Instead, the drive to improve once livelihood results from the standards that the society has placed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This paper set out to argue that being economically productive is not a natural condition in a human being. This paper has documented how early man lived and the reasons why he sought to improve his life. From the arguments I have presented in this paper, it is clear that being economically productive is a factor of history and society. Where it not for these two factors, it would be more instinctive for man to be economically unproductive and he would only strive for survival as animals do.

References Hunt, E.K.


Economic Crises in Economic Growth Through Economic History Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction History of economic thought captures the origin of modern day economics. It began with the rise of industrialization and the growth of agrarian societies (The World of Economics 1). The works of philosophers reveal different schools of thoughts that explain how different concepts originated and were adopted.

The ideas of the philosophers which were adopted explain the present day economy (Kurz 28). Economic growth has led to wide spread education and technological advancement across the nations. However, there has been crisis in economic growth which has been triggered by different schools of thought. This essay will discuss the economic crisis in economic growth through economic history.

Describing the concepts history, contributors and the how the changes occurred in the economic history

In line with the World of Economics (1), economic thought began with the onset of industrialization. What triggered this thought was the desire to accumulate wealth, provide employment and improve the quality of life. The economic thought progressed in stages as different philosophers gained different understanding of the economy.


Mercantilism is the thought that was held by statesmen of 1600-1700 AD. To them economic growth would be realized if the state accumulates gold as well silver. State leaders introduced import and export taxes. Economic growth would therefore come as a result of imposing heavy taxes for exporting and reducing taxes for importing gold along with silver.


In 1800 AD Physiocrats who were French philosophers contradicted with the Mercantilist and argued that agriculture was the ideal option for economic growth. Therefore, they promoted less state interference in the economy. They discouraged trade and encouraged agricultural practice that would produce surplus as the source of economic growth.

Classical thought

The classical thought came with the publication of Adam Smiths, The wealth of Nations. It argued that the market could regulate itself for economic growth if the human resources, capital and states territory would be used effectively.

Although Smith refuted that agriculture was not productive, he believed that individual’s freedom to trade would lead to greater productivity hence economic growth would be realized. Another classical thought held by Thomas Malthus was that the increase in population led to increase in production.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Towards the end of the 19th century John Stuart Mill, a classical thinker, said that the economic growth favored a few. This is because the economic benefits were unevenly distributed. The population increase led to lower wages and unemployment. Only owners of means of production benefited.


Marginalists came up with the idea of demand and how it relates to supply. They argued that the income from the market was proportional to the investment. They also pointed out that economic growth would be realized from following the rule of demand and supply. To get hold of economic growth one would produce what the market demands. By supplying what is demanded one would make sales that lead to growth. This led to production of machinery that increased the supply of goods in demand.


Marxist thought came in the mid 1900 and refuted Karl Marx thought that capitalism was a periodic phase of economic growth that would eventually collapse. Marx had argued that laborers who were exploited gained little as land owners enjoyed the large revenues. Competition among the land owners would lead to invention of technology to replace laborers and then the unemployed laborers would unite against the land owners and the production would cease.


The institutionalist thought came in with the notion that the state should intervene and introduce measures that would regulate certain aspects of the market. This was a call for equality in the distribution of wealth. Thus, economic growth would be realized if individual interest would be replaced with societal interest.


John Keynes in the 1936 wrote the General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money. Keynes argued that low wages led to less spending hence low economic growth. The government intervention was necessary to sustain the economic growth. This thought justified taxation by the government and is commonly referred to as Keynesian.

Other contributions

Galor and Moa (2) contributed to the concept of economic growth by relating it with Darwins theory of natural selection. They argue that population growth has an impact on the growth of the economy. A period of stagnation existed before economic growth where the population increase was also constant. Technological development was constant. This era set a platform for a constant economic growth that followed in the next period.

Higgs (1) indicates that before 1500 AD, the world population lived by producing food for subsistence. Later, they began agricultural farming which led to deforestation and environmental changes. The population growth and economic growth were similarly slow and there were rare innovations on technology. By 1700 AD people began domesticating animals and had cleared a large area of the forest for agriculture, a move that affected the ecology.

We will write a custom Essay on Economic Crises in Economic Growth Through Economic History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The economic growth was still slow with increased technological developments as mining began and extraction of oil became an asset for development. The period following 1900 AD was characterized by a sharp increase in oil extraction and mining as well as enrolment in education institutes. The generation and use of energy are advancements that change the economy and lead to rapid growth.

Discussing assumptions it is based on whether they are still relevant, and whether the method of reasoning used is still valid in my opinion

The crisis in economic growth has shifted different economic thoughts due to the changes in the society and the ability of the population to adapt to change. It is evident that desire to accumulate wealth is constant across history and that adaptability to change is important for economic growth (Galor and Moa 2).

Economic growth is dependent on human resources. The manpower to manufacture and to operate machinery is important. Moreover, natural resource is an asset to obtain wealth. For instance, extraction of oil has led to rapid and sustained growth of the economy of the oil producing companies. Sustaining economic growth may be challenging as there are different factors that are considered.

Mitch (1) points out that economic growth is largely dependent on how a state makes use of their human resources. The training, skills, agility and decisions have an impact on the outcome of the economy. In order to enhance economic growth, human beings have enrolled in educational institutes to acquire knowledge and skills that are needed.

The training is important and is seen as human capital. This is because education is viewed as an investment to enhance economic output. Moreover, advancement in technology calls for manpower ability to operate the technology so as to realize increase in production. Education is universally accepted and creates many opportunities.

Education has significantly led to technological change which has caused speedy economic growth. Skills based on experience have been used to improve economic growth. Experiences vary from one person to another and people with certain experiences may be valuable in the economic sector yet they have little education than others. Therefore, education should not be perceived as a necessity for economic growth.

Thus, education improves the economic growth and complements other factors that lead to economic growth. These factors include general health and political environment among others.

The increase in population leads to increase in human capital hence production leads to economic growth. This is because increased production makes people to accumulate wealth which causes them to change lifestyle. Moreover, economic growth can be realized from producing surplus instead of increasing tax as Mitch (1) indicates. Although motivation of the human resource is relevant for economic growth, it is highly unpredictable.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Economic Crises in Economic Growth Through Economic History by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Discussing how the concept is still being used today and how it influences decision making today

The idea of taxation of imports is used to date and has been extended to other commodities and not on gold alone. The concept is used today as countries see wealth as a source of power hence economic growth is a prerequisite for many states. Other states have decided to invest in technology, education among other initiatives so as to support a continuous economic growth.

Some economies have dependent on agriculture for their economic growth with the help of technology. Individual skills are highly considered and expertise training is given high regard in some sectors like nuclear energy. Nuclear energy is used as a source of energy so as to support a fast growing economy (Higgs 1).

Mitch (1) says that some countries have colonized others so as to acquire wealth. The raw materials obtained from less developed countries are cheap. When they are processed, the goods are sold expensively. Similarly, the cost incurred in extraction of oil is far less than the cost of the end product, hence the commodity is expensive because it is rare and the demand is high.

Summaries of two main articles Great economist and their time: a history of economic theory, by the World of Economics

According to the World of Economics, economic crisis began as soon as the society changed their focus from agriculture to industrialization. This article outlines the history of the stages of the economic thought that have occurred in order to understand the economic crisis in economic growth. The stages begin from mercantilism, physiocratism, classical thought, marginalism, Marxism, institutionalism and keynesian.

In mercantilism, statesmen believe that economic growth would be realized with the accumulation of wealth through gold along with silver. Economic growth will be realized if taxes on imports and exports are imposed. This thought is contested by the physiocratists who argue that the state should not interfere with the economic growth. Instead, agriculture should be adopted in place of trading the precious metals. Surplus agricultural produce could lead to growth in economy.

Thereafter, the classical thought emerged with the proposition from Adam Smith, a classical thinker, that the market can control itself to realize economic growth. Smith did not believe that agriculture would lead to economic growth. Smith also proposed that effective management of the human resources, the land and the resources can lead to economic growth.

Thomas Malthus a classical theorist also suggested that increase in population would lead to increase in production hence economic growth. John Stuart Mill criticized the classical thought by saying that the idea brought inequality. The land owners benefited from production and the laborers gained very little; hence it promoted unfair distribution of earnings.

Marginalism emerged with the idea that economic growth can be obtained if the principles of demand together with supply are adopted. Marxism followed and Karl Marx was criticized for the idea that capitalism will crumple after the unemployed masses that are replaced by technological equipment unite and overcome the land owners.

Thus the institutionalists also come forward to propose that the state intervene in the economy so that equity of income is realized. Lastly, Keynesian thought argued that low income does not lead to economic growth because it reduces spending.

Natural Selection and the Origin of Economic Growth by Galor and Moa

Galor and Moa (2) mention that economic growth has gone hand in hand with the population of the world. According to them economic growth can be understood by looking into the phases the economic history has undergone. First, there is a phase of stagnation in economic growth and population growth. This phase which existed before the year 1750 is known as Malthusian stage and there is little technological development. Human resources constant and quality of life is not emphasized.

The second phase existed between 1750 and 1870. In this phase, the population and the economic growth have a positive relationship. Technology increase is higher than in the previous phase and the economic growth slowly increases because of the high increase in population. People become motivated to advance quality and the idea spreads across the globe. This stage sets the stage for industrialization.

The third phase that begins from 1870 onwards has a steady increased economic growth. The economic growth is higher than the population growth. Human resources are devoted to quantity and higher production. Humans are as well focused on the economic growth (Shearer 1). The technology development is rapid and leads to greater increase in economic growth. They note that technological advancement has not guaranteed a stable economic growth.

Conclusion Economic thought has shifted from one theory to another as changes in the society occurred. Due to different economic ideas, economic crisis in economic growth have occurred. Economic growth began with the onset of industrialization. The economic thought history stages are mercantilism, physiocratism, classical thought, marginalism, Marxism, institutionalism and Keynesian. The concepts emphasized how a state could accumulate wealth to realize economic growth (The World of Economics 1).

Galor and Moa (2) mention that at the beginning, the population and economic growth were positively related and little advancement in technology existed. The next stage was followed by increased population growth and economic growth. Technology development increased and led to positive change in growth although the effects were absorbed by the population growth. The last stage had numerous technological developments. The economic growth was high but the population was low.

Today, economic growth is important since accumulation of wealth is seen as a source of power. Education, agriculture and technology have been given great attention as they produce opportunities for economic growth. Furthermore, decisions are made in the interest of realizing growth.

Works Cited Galor, Oded and Moa, Omer. Natural Selection and The Origin of Economic Growth. Quarterly Journal of Economic, 2002. Web.

Higgs, Kerryn. A Brief History of Economic Growth, 2011. Web.

Kurz, Heinz. D. Whither the history of economic thought? Going nowhere rather slowly, 2007. Web.

Mitch, David. Education and Economic Growth in Historical Perspective: EH.Net Encyclopedia, 2005. Web.

Shearer, Ronald. The concept of economic growth, 1961. Web.

The World of Economics. Great economist and their time: A history of economic theory, 2011. Web.


Pros and Cons of Physical Assisted Suicide Essay best college essay help

Introduction Physical assisted suicide refers to deliberate annihilation of life done by another person through an open request of the individual wishing to die. It may entail killing a sick person out of apprehension and sympathy for his suffering. For years, medical doctors have been proscribed from assisting long- suffering patients in committing suicide (Dahl, 2008, p. 127).

This issue is touching and controversial and ranges from abortion. It has not been established whether the physical assisted suicide is expedient for a community. This paper will discuss the pros and cons of physical assisted suicide. In my opinion, I believe that physical assisted suicide is beneficial and should therefore be legalized.

Discussion Major argument – Pros of Physical Assisted Suicide

Premise 1: Physical assisted suicide saves patients from terrific pain and misery.

Many disorders such as cancer lead to a slow death and doctors have adequate knowledge and skills to know when the days of a patient are limited. Patients suffering from such ailments know that they will die, and their pains only continue increasing day by day. It is, therefore, questionable about why the doctors should let these patients suffer continuously till their bodies collapse. It is humanitarian to give the patient the choice to articulate when he has had enough pains. “Imagine what it would be like to spend six months vomiting, coughing, enduring pain spasms, losing control of excretory functions and suffering psychologically” (Hendin


Market Structures Essay cheap essay help

Introduction In an ordinary market structure, there is the assumption that there are several and different sellers and buyers. The result of this is fair competition where price of goods is determined by the forces of demand and supply. This is so because, in such a market, both the seller and buyer are equally able to influence the price.

However, this is not always the case. Some market industries have only a single seller or much fewer sellers than consumers, limiting the buyer’s ability to influence the price. This paper discusses the various market structures that exist in our market today and the various pricing strategies that could be applied in their management.

Types of Market structures Pure monopoly

This type of market exists when there is only a single seller controlling the supply of goods or services in the entire market. He alone can control the price and prevents other businesses from entering the market. They commonly exist in a government-regulated setting. A case in point is the provision of electric and Natural gas utilities in the United States.

The government is the sole provider of these utilities and regulates their delivery to the public through the state, federal and local agencies. The prices are not arrived at through the forces of demand and supply but by the structures of the government. “The agencies govern the prices they charge, the terms of their services to consumers, their budgets and construction plans, and their programs for energy efficiency and other services,” (Regulatory Assistance Project 2011, P. 3).

Competition in this sector cannot thrive since the government provides subsidies to these utilities so as to provide cheaper services to the public, something that small private entities are unable to do. In addition, the infrastructural and technological requirement for the provision of the services would be so much of an expense for a private entity to meet.

Even though the government is the price maker here, it cannot set prices at a level that the consumer will not be able to afford if it wants to make profits. To set the prices, the monopolist should use the market demand curve and use it to set its own prices. The position marginal revenue for the monopolist should be less than the marginal revenue (MR). The position and elasticity of the demand curve works to limit the pricing mechanism of the monopolist.

The firm can only make maximum profits, on a short term, where the additional cost used to produce one more unit is equal to the resulting revenue from that one unit. For normal profits, the average revenue (AR) should be equal to the Average Total Cost (ATC). In the long run, the firm will only make profits where the AR is greater than the average cost (AC). (Mcconnel


Analysis of Walmart and Coca Cola Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Internal Environmental and External Environment

Competitive advantage and strategies used

Swot Analysis



Introduction In analyzing the internal and external environment of the two companies, Walmart and Coca Cola, we shall need to use an environmental scan.

Environmental Scanning: This involves “careful monitoring of an organization’s internal and external environments for detecting early signs of opportunities and threats that may influence its current and future plans. In comparison, surveillance is confined to a specific objective or a narrow sector” (Carpenter


Concept of Nursing Diagnosis Essay (Critical Writing) college application essay help

Sickle Cell Anemia is a disorder that normally increases blood thickness hence affects the smooth flow of blood. This is caused by the destruction of red cells where the normal shape of red cell becomes a stiff sickle shape. As a result, sufficient oxygen does not reach the vital organs.

A vaso-occlusive crisis arises from hindrance of blood circulation by sickle shaped blood cells. It is characterized by sturdy pains and in some cases; it may cause permanent organ damage. This paper seeks to formulate a nursing diagnosis, as well as a plan of care that includes nursing interventions and the methods to be used to evaluate whether the interventions are successful (American Sickle Cell Anemia Association, 2010).

Nursing diagnosis is a clinical assessment of health problems experienced by a family or an individual and their response to this health problem. It helps in determination of interventions that are to be put in place so as to realize the desired outcome. This diagnosis enables the nurse to come up with a care plan for the patient (National Institute of Health, 2002).

In this case, the nursing diagnosis is probably a sickle cell crisis and the possibility of shift in self perception that is linked to the notion of being different from peers. Outlined herein, are some of the interventions with their rationale and outcomes. Firstly, Maya and the family should be encouraged and helped to alternate the intervals of resting and activity. The rationale is that this could help their bodies reduce the demand for oxygen and hence reduce their hypoxia level.

Maya should also be assisted in taking deep breath movements and mild body turning exercises. The rationale behind procedure is that it promotes chest expansion, which boosts the circulations of secretions thus reducing the risks of blood clotting (Sickle Cell Disease Association of America, n.d.). The outcome is that the patient’s family will know the precautions to be taken and the strenuous activities to be avoided for them to keep fit.

Another intervention is to encourage Maya and her family to take sufficient fluids, like eight glasses per day. The rationale is to keep the body well hydrated to prevent or reduce viscosity of blood so as to have proper circulation. Here the outcome is that the concerned people will know the amount and the exact fluids to be taken (Hockenberry


Classism, Ableism and Sexism in the 1939 film “The Hunchback of Notre Dame” Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

In the 1939 film adaptation of The Hunchback of Notre Dame by Victor Hugo, various characters are subjected to different forms of discrimination due to their social statuses, physical appearance, and even gender/sex. Discrimination in all its forms is a timeless issue in the society; classism, ableism, and sexism, as forms of discrimination, are prevalent in the film The Hunchback of Notre Dame and similar examples exist in the contemporary society.

There are various sectors of society portrayed in the film “The Hunchback of Notre Dame”. Nearly all spheres that comprise the modern day society find representation in the film. The King, who plays a prominent role in the society potrayed, represents the leadership authority or structure of governance.

The clergy and the church find symbolism by the gigantic cathedral of Notre Dame. The Cathedral, according to Tonkin, is “a vindication of the Gothic style” of art and architecture, still prevalent in many western towns and cities even today (40). There are gypsies, street urchins, and all other members of society as can be found in any of today’s ‘modern’ society.

Esmeralda herself is a gypsy, a factor that bears down on her sense of self, because she experiences discrimination for her lifestyle on the fringes of society and the accompanying poverty. At one point in the film, Esmeralda prays and acknowledges her frustration at being an outcast. She wonders if her prayers will ever be heard because in her mind the prayers of other more economically endowed members of society should take precedence over her own.

The society depicted in the film thus practices a level of classism as a form of discrimination. As a gypsy, Esmeralda and her companions experience a system of discrimination that leaves them economically underpowered and socially downtrodden, a typical classism. In contemporary society, low earning members of society who engage in all sorts of activities in order to earn their keep (as exemplified by gypsies) are usually relegated to the lower classes of society.

In both the film adaptation and the book itself, one of the chief protagonists is Quasimodo, a hunchback variously described as ugly and portrayed quite grotesquely in the film. Quasimodo is the church bell ringer, an occupation that renders him deaf due to the loud sounds of the bell. He is abandoned as a child; most likely his mother was uncomfortable with his looks because he is exchanged for the fairer and more beautiful Esmeralda.

Throughout the film, people mock and deride Quasimodo for his looks and his disability. He is crowned the “pope of fools” during the “feast of fools” festival. According to Whittington-Walsh, “People with physical and mental disabilities have been displayed for human entertainment and profit as human oddities for hundred of years” (696). Ableism, the practice of discriminating against another based on his or her physical disabilities is meted out on Quasimodo.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When Quasimodo is up close with the beautiful Esmeralda, the contrast in their looks bears down on him and he laments at how ugly he is especially since Esmeralda is strikingly beautiful. He describes himself as half man and half beast, stating that he is as shapeless as they come. Even the compassionate Esmeralda is revolted by his look to a point of not letting him kiss her hand.

In various instances in the film, Quasimodo simply looks down at people from the cathedral’s walls and wonders what it would feel like to mix and mingle with other people. He craves non-discriminative and non-judgmental human interaction.

In all his life, people have interacted with him based on their view of him as an ugly and deaf hunchback. In today’s society, discrimination similar to the one experienced by Quasimodo is common. For entertainment purposes, many circuses have, within their ranks, either people with stunted growth or people whose bodily formation is unusual and thus such people are deemed a source of entertainment. One of the worst genocides in the history of humanity was the Holocaust.

One of the aims of Nazi Germany was to eliminate and kill all the Jews in Europe; however, the Nazis also wanted to create a perfect society that was free of persons with disabilities and therefore, the very discrimination that Quasimodo experiences in the film can lead to horrors such as the Holocaust.

The Nazis rounded up all persons with disability (and interestingly, the gypsies too) and sent them to concentration camps where they would be killed. Gallagher states that, doctors in the Nazi government “systematically killed their severely disabled patients” (401).

Many beggars in the major cities and towns of the world have one form of disability and this attests to the fact that they are recipients of discrimination based on their disability. Due to this discrimination by society, many of the people with disabilities end up occupying low paying jobs or worse still find themselves with no jobs at all – leading to their economic marginalization.

In the film “Hunchback of Notre Dame” Esmeralda, played by Maureen O’Hara, comes out as the ultimate feminine beauty. Young and innocent, she dazzles men with her charm and near perfect peach. Inevitably, she attracts a host of admirers in nearly all the men in the film.

We will write a custom Essay on Classism, Ableism and Sexism in the 1939 film “The Hunchback of Notre Dame” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To begin with, Esmeralda obsesses Claude Frollo, the judge who has the Kings ear. Frollo lusts after Esmeralda, a woman young enough to be his own daughter. His obsession with Esmeralda leads him to commit several crimes that in the end prove self-destructive as he dies by Quasimodo.

Although Frollo is kind enough to adopt an abandoned Quasimodo as a baby, he lets all the good deeds that he has done in his lifetime become clouded by his lust for Esmeralda. As Quasimodo’s adoptive father, he ruins his relationship with Quasimodo in his lascivious pursuit of Esmeralda. When Esmeralda spurns his advances, he willingly frames her for the crime of the attempted murder of Phoebus, his rival for Esmeralda’s love whom he stabs in a fit of jealousy.

Therefore, as an innocent victim of sexism, Esmeralda gets the death sentence yet the men in her life, who only desire to bed her, do not intervene; for instance, Frollo, watches as Esmeralda is about to be hanged and does nothing, not even shedding crocodile tears. However, in the film Esmeralda is saved before she is hanged.

Similarly, Phoebus wants to take advantage of Esmeralda by having sexual intercourse with her. Phoebus disregards the emotional well-being of Esmeralda, a woman he intends to use to satisfy his sexual desires, since he would easily move on and marry his fiancée meanwhile leaving a devastated Esmeralda, who has genuine love for him, behind. Both Frollo and Phoebus seem to view women as simply objects for satisfying one’s sexual desire.

In conclusion, even as a film adaptation of a story from the Nineteenth Century, the film “The Hunchback of Notre Dame” analyses classism, ableism, and sexism as forms of discrimination prevalent even in today’s society.

Works Cited Gallagher, Gregory. “`Slapping up spastics’: The persistence of social attitudes toward people with disabilities.” Issues in Law


Presidential Powers and the War on Terror Research Paper college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Abstract



Domestic Surveillance and presidential powers

Presidential powers and preemptive war

Presidential powers and relation to homeland security


Works Cited

Abstract By answering various relevant questions, this paper seeks to look into the aspect of the presidential power and its relation with the war on terror. To this end, an analysis of the various incidences that called for the intervention of the president shall be delved into before a shift is made to identify the key aspects and discourses that play a role in the establishment of presidential supremacy.

The paper shall make attempts to identify and put into use a multi-sited ethnography by not only borrowing examples from various timeframes in the various continents across the globe but also taking into consideration the uniqueness of the situations at hand.

This paper will serve as an analysis of the theoretical propositions implied by political ideologies and present them in conversation with human nature as a global manifestation of the phenomenon. This project shall also serve as an illustration of the theory of multidimensional transnational involvement of politics in their historic and contemporary manifestations as well as present the argument that current analysis as has been presented by various scholars.

Introduction The September11, 2001 attacks on the United States put the powers of the president on a spot-check and led to a generalized debate on what the president could and could not do even in the pretext of the war on terror. Among other items, President Bush argued that presidential powers allowed him to define the status and handling of individuals regarded as proponents of terrorism.

This element was later implemented with the president being allowed to issues orders without congress approval. The American constitution and indeed the constitutions of most nations in the world hold that the individuals who entitled with public authority must note that they cannot be above the law.

This guidance by the law should be maintained even when dealing with terrorists. So, to what extent are the powers of the president limited? This essay seeks to point out the extent to which the president can act when faced with administration and leadership decisions. To this extent, a number of publications shall be consulted outlining how some presidents handled certain situations especially in relation to the war on terror.

Methodology Data will be extracted from various journals, articles and books. The criteria of selection for the literature will be the relevance to the research topic as well as the year of publication. Both public and private libraries as well as online libraries will be visited in order to access the data.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This research will be partly evidence based and partly founded on professional research by professionals in the field. Various articles will be studied in order to provide background information which will essentially give credibility to the final essay.

History analyses cannot be effectively presented without obtaining information from real case scenarios. This will definitely make for some interesting research and in as much most of the information will only be used for reference purposes, it will effectively came round to form the back-bone of the paper.

Domestic Surveillance and presidential powers Following the September 11 attacks, officials tasked with the role of ensuring state security had to come up with new goals and objectives as well as ways of assessing the homeland security strengths. Homeland security’s new mandate in the eyes of the president was described based on three of its strategic objectives.

First, it can be said to be a national effort applied with the sole aim of curtailing terrorist activities. Secondly, it can be defined as the utilization of all state machinery in the reduction of a state’s vulnerability to terrorist attacks (Edwards, Wattenberg and Lineberry, Rober299).

Finally homeland security can be described as all the conscious effort by a nation to try and reduce all the destruction occasioned by terrorist attacks and recover from such incidents. The performance of homeland security is mainly assessed in the view of the national strategy. The latter is in turn founded on law, technology, information and international unity. The law aspect of the national strategy comes in to ensure the utilization of federal laws in a bid to fight terrorism while securing the public welfare (Guy 353-356).

In 2005, President George W. Bush jnr. was accused of commissioning domestic surveillance without seeking the required parliamentary approval. In his support, it was argued that the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 gave him the leeway to do that. However, it was later revealed by the Attoney General of the time asserted that FISA did not give the president any inherent authority to carry out electronic surveillance (Genovese 52, 124).

Following the September 11th attacks, the government tried to justify acts of domestic surveillance by citing inherent powers. Upto now though for the president to conduct any institutional or personal check, even in the name of the war on terror, he must seek approval from special courts according to guidelines established by the Congress.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Presidential Powers and the War on Terror specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Presidential powers and preemptive war In 2001 and onto 2002, George bush was on record for having declared a war on terrorism whose start was symbolized by the Afghanistan invasion (Paolucci and Clark 88). In addition he said that there was a domain of terror present in the Middle East particularly around the borders of North Korea and he said that the United States President had the right to enter into preemptive war as a way of protecting his country’s borders.

The attack on the United States in 2001 was the first time Homeland security had been challenged in 79 years and it came unexpectedly. It was difficult to device an appropriate response following the attack and this could be the reason why the president had to respond in the way that he did.

The president in personally announcing preemptive war might also have been considering the fact that state armies could also be agents of terrorism (Welch, Gruhl, Comer and Rigdon 315). For instance the London bombing by Germany and the destruction of the Hiroshima by the United States were both terrorist acts committed with the aid of state armies.

States by virtue of their ability to access more resources in the form of artillery are more likely to exercise terrorism within the realm of international diplomacy as compared to insurgents. With changes taking place after the Second World War terrorism strategies became entrenched with institutions and usage of violence as a diplomacy tool came to be seen as an acceptable form of state conduct.

State armies can also be used as agents of terrorism against a government’s own people with the sole intention of creating a fear of the state. This has been particularly evident in developing nations and more-so those in the Middle East where individuals are subjected to extrajudicial murders.

Presidential powers and relation to homeland security By presidential powers leaving the office holders pre-occupied with issues of homeland security, the threat of terrorism is bound to speed up in the advance of globalization.

This is because the collaborative effort between nations that has helped keep terrorist activities in check is gradually declining and states are becoming more and more self-centered. Country borders are becoming more and more porous as nations try to ignore the welfare of their neighbors and are therefore not particularly keen to establish who crossing over into the said neighboring countries is.

If global security against terrorist attacks is to be attained, presidential powers clauses should be amended to allow him direct homeland security to extend its influence beyond national borders. In this way, events taking place in other nations will serve to guide states on what measures to take against impending security threats. Unfortunately, the threat of terrorism has an impending effect on globalization in the sense that the more people become suspicious of foreign leaders, the more they will make efforts to lock them out of their country.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Presidential Powers and the War on Terror by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This in a way creates a vicious circle in which each country tries to prevent the entry of members of other nations. This will to a great extent slow down the process of attaining global unity and nations will tend to stick to their traditional ways of doing things even when new and better ways have been devised elsewhere due to the perennial fear of foreigners.

Conclusion This paper had set out to accomplish a number of goals and it has effectively achieved them. A well detailed analysis of presidential powers and its relation to the war on terror has been presented with the focus being particularly around the aspects of preemptive war declaration.

The analysis has revolved around the elements of fluidity and flows especially by focusing on the multidimensional participation of allowances inherent in presidential powers. In the light of the discussions above, it can be concluded that ideologies have a crucial role to play in both the social and political developments of contemporary nations. This analysis of the relations between the politics and legislation has illustrated how governing principles describe the limits of presidential powers.

Works Cited Edwards, George, Martin Wattenberg and Robert Lineberry. Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy (10th Edition). United Kingdom: Longman Publishing, 2005. Print

Genovese, Michael. Presidential Prerogative: Imperial Power in an Age of Terrorism. California: Stanford University Press, 2010. Print

Guy, James J. People, politics, and government. 7th. Ed. Scarborough, Ontario: Pearson Education, 2010. Print

Paolucci, Henry and Richard Clark. Presidential power and crisis government in the age of terrorism. New York: Griffon House, 2003. Print

Welch, Susan, John Gruhl, John Comer and Susan Rigdon. Understanding American Government. Florence: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print


Coca-Cola Business Communication in Practice Report college essay help

Executive Summary This report provides an analysis of the Coca-Cola Company’s communications internal and external practices and strategies, and how their communication practices and strategies help company’s success. Methods of analysis include literature review of the materials devoted to the Coca-Cola management strategies and analysis of the company’s business communication activities. In particular, the ones that focused on the improvement of the working conditions and enable communication with customers.

The report finds the current business communication strategies provided by the company successful. Its internal and external strategies confirm with the needs of the modern business environment and focus on the customers’ satisfaction which is the main point of every producer. Three main policies present the basis of the internal business communication, ensure free exchange of information among employers and employees, as well as guarantee successful organizational culture.

The company’s external communication practices spread over such areas as brand management, media management, public relations, and media management that ensure the implementation of the company’s strategy to provide grow of the existing brands and satisfy consumer demands. These business communication strategies contribute to company’s success and improvement of effectiveness and efficiency of the brand, as well as of the “go-to-market” models utilized by the company’s managers.

Our recommendations concerning improvement of the company’s communication include:

Provide more possibilities to the young employees, as well as workers to motivate them provide their ideas which can be a valuable contribution to development of the efficient communication environment.

Be more oriented on the development of the international relationships and retain talented workers from all around the world.

Introduction Coca-Cola is an international soft-carbonated manufacturing company known for its innovativeness and creativity; it has been in the business for the last 125 years. The success of the company is driven by a workforce of approximately 139,600 employees spread in over 200 countries. A large workforce requires a well-coordinated communication system that builds and nurtures team spirit; other than the internal customers, the company has an external environment to pass messages.

For the last 50 years, the company has had increased dividend and continues to record high sales and profit margins. One pillar of competitiveness that company supports is its effective internal and external communication systems/structures (Coca-Cola Official Website). This paper discusses internal and external communication strategies as adopted at Coca-Cola.

Main Message The Coca-Cola business communication is aimed at developing successful internal and external structure of the communication system which is based on creating favorable working environment for all employees, free exchange of new ideas at all levels of management and among workers, as well as focusing their external communication on maintaining successful business relationships with stakeholders and consumers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Internal structure Coca-Cola management team recognized the need to have an effective communication system in different branches, outlets, and marketing areas. The first structure that facilitates communication is its organizational culture that ensures that employees maintain respect for each other and can talk freely sharing their ideas.

The company’s orchestrate team works for a single destiny and the belief that every department plays an important role to play in the attainment of corporate objectives and goals. Coca-Cola organizational culture and behavior follows that of freelance structure were ideas and opinions flow freely upwards and downwards; irrespective of the rank of employees, leaders are obliged to listen and consider every employees suggestions when making decisions.

The structures are supported by three main policies as:

Effective message strategy

Under this approach, the management ensures that message communicated from any corner of the organization is spread across the organization and retains its intended meaning. To do this the administrator chooses the messages that are sent through the intranet and controls those people who can access and comment on the message. On the other hand, different ranks are given different powers and mandates so that a certain rank can be accountable for certain messages. When a message has been given, there is high secrecy for those that are meant for internal communication while those that the public can access are not protected.

Communication channels

Leaders at Coca-Cola have enacted effective communication channels that allow free flow of message from/to the management; the channels include internally made mechanisms like telephones extensions, intranets, emailing systems, notice boards, and meetings. Depending with the message and the intended recipient, it is controlled to ensure that it only gets to the intended parties.

When communicating across the borders, the company ensures that branch managers get the information at the most appropriate time and can decode the message to get the intended audience.

Organizational culture and behavior

Communication within an organization is affected by the culture and behavior as adopted in the firm, Coca-Cola has largely invested in an organizational culture that supports free interaction among employees and the management. When someone has made an observation/invention, there are channels of letting the management get aware and ensuring that the person is given credit for the same.

We will write a custom Report on Coca-Cola Business Communication in Practice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Effective message strategy

Structures of communication are only successful if the management has control over the message that passes through them, in the case of Coca-Cola; the management has a central department that dispenses information across the organization whether for internal or external consumption.

The internal communication adopted by the company has been able to create ideal working conditions that ensure success and employees’ motivation has been attained. Employees are kept inspired and much concentration is put on making their working conditions favorable to nurture talents and grow them (Short and Terrie 45-78).

External communication External communication involves those actions that an organization undertakes to sell and create a strong brand name with its stakeholders. The stakeholders include banks, customers, shareholders, government and the society in general. Some of the strategies adopted by Coca-Cola are:

Brand management

The company has ensured that it has built a strong brand name; the name is known and respected for quality and satisfaction. To maintain the strength of the brand and attain brand loyalty, the company ensures its products are differentiable in the market; this call for high quality good and brand salience. It is the role of the marketing department to ensure that the brand is on top of consumers mind.

The marketing department conducts some research on the needs of customers and ensures that it gets the right approach to capture their needs.

By the mention of soft beverages, Coca-Cola Company has ensured that customers will think of the company first unconsciously. The mention of a soda is sometimes associated with Coke- the most sold brand by Coca-Cola Company.

It has created the need for emotional attachment with the brand. Thus, from the figure 2, we can see how the popularity of the brand had grown since it was invented. The successful business communication led to the growth of sales.

Public relations

Coca-Cola has one of the world’s largest advertising budgets where it ensures that it sells products to people of different classes by creating adverts and marketing’s that fit the particular class. When marketing, the company guarantees and promises its customers satisfaction, quality, and unique products. In order to support communication among company management, customers and employees, company makes use social network system that ensures a fee exchange of information.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Coca-Cola Business Communication in Practice by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To create a good name among different societies, the public relations department has the main role of talking and informing customers on the goodies that the company has in store for them. Public relation department collaborates with corporate social responsibility department to come up with activities that can add value to customers. Some of the programs that the company has enacted include sponsoring sports, reality shows like American Idol, school fees sponsorship among others.

Media management

In the changing business environments, the company is forced to maintain some close links with stakeholders via the media. It posts some articles that explain its nature of business as well supports some programs through the media. In international journals and magazines, the company posts some articles that aims at creating better linkage and understanding with its customers (Ryan and Theodore 23-34).

Indeed, these days, media is a primary tool used to send a message to the customer. It works effectively and contributes to the external business communication. The figure 3 demonstrates how it works.

Recommendations The Coca-Cola’s communication strategies are quite successful and contribute to the successful development of brand and “go-to-market” models. In addition to the company’s current activity, we would provide several recommendations that might contribute to the development of more successful business communication environment. Thus, our recommendations are the ones that follow:

Provide more possibilities to young workers and motivate them express their ideas. In addition, these workers should have a possibility to implement their ideas and thus, be more motivated to share them with other workers and employees.

Develop a more flexible infrastructure of the company so that ideas could be spread freely.

To be more oriented on the maintaining relations with stakeholders and foreign partners so that enable international communication and be more oriented on the needs of customers from all over the world.

Work out new strategies to ensure that each worker understand the company’s vision and strategies and is able to provide his/her contribution to creating effective message strategies and favorable working conditions.

Conclusion Effective communication is a vital business competitive tool that needs to be strategically managed; Coca-Cola has an effective internal and external communication system that facilitates the growth of orchestrate teams in its different outlets as well as developing good relations with its customers.

The company understands that consumers acts consciously and unconsciously when making a decision on the products to buy; their psychological predispositions, attitudes, beliefs and mental pictures influence their decision; with the understanding, it accustoms its external communication to address customers’ psychological needs. When passing a certain message, the management ensures that it has the right tone and language to facilitate the right understanding.

Illustration Section Figure 1. Demonstrates how company makes of social net-work system to ensure internal and external communication among employees, company management and customers.

Figure 2

Selling Numbers of Coca-Cola 1886 9 glasses per day 1899 over 100 million 1902 over 200 million 1903 over 300 million 1907 over 1 billion 1910 over 2 billion 1912 over 3 billion 1914 over 4 billion 1915 over 5 billion 1919 over 10 billion 1936 over 100 billion 1944 over 100 billion 1952 over 200 billion 1958 over 300 billion 1962 over 400 billion 1965 over 500 billion 1973 over 1 trillion 1982 over 2 trillion 1993 over 4 trilion 1996 over 5 trillion 2003 over 6 trillion Figure 3.

Presentation Outline (Speaker’s Notes) Background: Coca-Cola is very success company which is known all over the world. There are many premises that lead the company to the success that it has today. One of them is an efficient use of the business communications strategies.

Issue/Problem: The issue under consideration is the Coca-Cola Company’s communications internal and external practices and strategies and the main benefits they provide for the company’s development.

Question: How do Coca-Cola’s communication practices and strategies help improve company’s success?

Main message: The Coca-Cola business communication is aimed at developing successful internal and external structure of the communication system which is based on creating favorable working environment for all employees, free exchange of new ideas at all levels of management and among workers, as well as focusing their external communication on maintaining successful business relationships.

Supporting Points:

A large workforce requires a well-coordinated communication system that builds and nurtures team spirit.

The company has a successful management organisation that ensures communication system in different branches, outlets, and marketing areas. It is based on three main communication policies about the free spread of information and new ideas through all levels of the management structure: Effective message strategy, Communication channels, Organizational culture and behaviour.

The company involves all areas of the external communication management that are aimed at supporting strong brand name, and successful communication with government, shareholders and customers.

Conclusion Coca-Cola has an effective internal and external communication system that facilitates the growth of orchestrate teams in its different outlets as well as developing good relations with its customers. It focuses not only on the consumer, but psychological need of the customers, as well as consumers.

Works Cited Coca Cola Official Website. Coca Cola, 2011. Web.

Ryan, William, and Theodore Conover. Graphic communications today. London: Cengage Learning, 2004. Print.

Short, Jeremy C., and Terrie C. Reeves. “THE GRAPHIC NOVEL: A “COOL” FORMAT FOR COMMUNICATING TO GENERATIONY.” Business Communication Quarterly 72.4 (2009): 414-430. Print.


The Issue of Immigration, Its Causes and Effects Essay essay help online: essay help online

Introduction The issue of immigration has been in the limelight for a long period of time now. The most affected region being the United States of America which forms the destination of most immigrants. Immigration generally entails people moving from their native lands to other destinations where they end up settling (Williams 83). There are various reasons as to why people decide to leave their land and move to other regions. Some of which include search for employment, political uproars and natural disasters just to mention but a few.

The immigrants who get into another country are broadly classified into two groups that are the legal and illegal immigrants. Legal immigrants are those seek the authorization from the immigration department of the state’s government on entering the nation. That way, they possess legal documents and become just like the citizens of that nation.

Illegal immigrants on the other hand are people who enter the borders of a nation without proper immigration procedures and choose to remain in that country without permission (Williams 83). Therefore the problem of immigration is usually caused by the illegal immigrants and not the legal ones. This paper is therefore a synthesis of the issue of immigration especially in the United States where it is most prevalent.

Illegal immigrants The United States of America is one of the most preferred destinations for most illegal immigrants in the world because of its open border policy. As a matter of fact, the United States has procedures in its constitution that allow the presence of illegal immigrants in the country. Thus it is deemed to have the highest number of immigrants according to research done by the Department of Homeland Security where the population of illegal immigrant was 10.8 million in 2009 (Espenshade 195).

Illegal immigrants in the United States of America have led to both negative and positive impacts in terms of economic and social status. For example, they have created problems of a bilingual society, drug trafficking, traffic congestion and the free-rider problem. However, illegal immigrants contribute greatly to the society by performing tasks that the civilized Americans would not perform such as the construction industry.

Causes of Immigration The reason as to why people flee from their country is because of different problems that may have cropped up in those regions. Thy therefore decide to move to safer and more comfortable regions. Some of the major causes of immigration in the current world include;

Political unrests and wars

This is one of the common causes of immigration in various regions of the world. The fact that most people live in regions where the governments and politicians practice corruption hence being inefficient in their duty of work leads to people moving to other regions in search of peace and harmony (Swanson 1). At the same time, in nations where they are experiencing civil wars with their neighboring nations, people will therefore flee to the peaceful regions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Freedom and Rights reasons

Every human being desires to have freedom and rights to do whatever they would wish as long as it is in accordance with the law. The deprivation of rights has been another cause of immigration. In areas where people are prosecuted because of their religion or culture, they tend to run away from such thus finding places where they will be accepted.


People are forced to move in search of greener pasture when the pain of hunger grows stronger than they can hold. This occurs as a result of areas that have been draught stricken or flooded such that getting food is a problem. That way people move to areas that have food for them to consume lest they die of hunger.

Effects of immigration Immigration has both negative and positive impacts on the nation in which the immigrants settle. However, the cons of immigration outweigh the pros with the only benefit being a source of cheap labor for the informal employment (Swanson 1). The negative effects of immigration therefore include;

To begin with, immigration is major cause of overpopulation in the United States of America. As a result the resources are constrained since they have been overwhelmed by the increasing population.

The overpopulation issue is what now leads to other problems such as increased crime rates, pollution, congestion in housing and use of public amenities (Beck 165). In other instances, if the immigrants are left to grow in numbers, then they may at one time cause wars with the natives as they fight to possess the lands they have settled in for a long time.

Current Immigration policies and remedies The fact that immigration is not acceptable both socially and economically, it should be curbed out. Some of the ways through which immigration could be reduced to minimal levels is through enactment of strict rules governing the immigration issue.

For instance the government of the United States has put in place The Secure Fence Act of 2006 as well as the Comprehensive Immigration form at its border with Mexico. This was initiated by the former president Bush in a bid to reduce the number of immigrants coming from Mexico to the United States.

We will write a custom Essay on The Issue of Immigration, Its Causes and Effects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This act enabled the construction of a fence along the border with Mexico at the south. Other than this, the Act led to the authorization of additional vehicle barriers, checkpoints and increased lighting at the border so as to ensure that only legal migration took place. On the other hand, the Comprehensive Immigration form has increased the funding allocated for border security thus ensuring that safety was enhanced at the border as a result of additional border patrol agents and guards.

Conclusion From the above discussion, it can be clearly seen that the issue of immigration is a cause for most societal and economic problems. However, the immigrants cannot be blamed for their acts since they do so in search of peaceful regions. It would therefore be against the human rights to chase and reprimand the immigrants. As a matter of fact, some of the immigrants enter the border for genuine reasons such as being safe and getting cheap employment to sustain their livelihoods.

Thus assist in industries such as the construction, restaurants, truck driving, and masonry among others which heavily depend on the labor from the immigrants. It has been noted that most of the employers prefer using labor from the illegal immigrants because they end up saving so much on the cost of wages. Therefore, despite the fact that the illegal immigrants do not pay taxes to enjoy the public goods and services, their contribution to the economy counterbalances the argument.

Works Cited Beck, Rita. The case against immigration. (2001)Oxford, UK: Norton Publishers, Shapiro, Richard.

Espenshade, T. “Unauthorized Immigration to the United States” Annual Review of Sociology. (1995). Volume: 21. pp. 195.

Swanson, Marisa. The causes and effects of Immigration. 2010-2011.

Williams, Mary. Immigration. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2004. Page 83.


Assessing the Impact of Single Motherhood on Public Health Research Paper essay help

Recent studies show that, single mothers are likely to suffer more health complications when compared to their married counterparts. This trend is worsened by the fact that, more children are born in single families now. Studies show that today, about 40% of newly born children are born in single parent families.

This figure has increased because in the 60s, the percentage of children born in single-parent families was only 10% (Melnick 2011, p. 1). Many researchers explain that, first-time single mothers are twice as likely to develop health complications by the time they reach the age of 40 (when compared to first time mothers in marriages). As a result of this trend, there is increased concern about the impact of single motherhood on public health.

Kristi Williams (cited in Melnick 2011) explains that, “We are soon going to have a large population of single mothers who are entering midlife, when many health problems just begin to emerge” (p. 1). Considering the above assertion, it is clear that, there is a looming public health crisis in the UK. However, the most unfortunate thing is that, not much attention is given to this impending crisis.

The relationship between single motherhood and increased health risk is not entirely clear but it is assumed that the stress of raising a child alone and the financial toll on the same task is likely to be the main reason for increased health risks among single mothers (Melnick 2011, p. 1).

The stresses associated with raising a child alone are therefore perceived to have long-term health effects on single mothers. Melnick (2011) elaborates that, “Research has clearly shown the toll that long-term stress takes on health, and we know that, single mothers have a lot of stress in their lives. Their economic problems only add to the problem” (p. 2). Due to the impending health problem facing single mothers, this study seeks to assess the impact of single motherhood on the UK public health system.

Research Questions

Is the UK public health system prepared to tackle increased healthcare needs of single mothers?

Will the impending health crisis associated with single motherhood have an impact on the well-being of children born in such families?

Are there enough healthcare personnel to meet the increased healthcare needs of single mothers?

What is the extent increased healthcare needs of single mothers in the UK have on the UK public health system?


The UK public health system is not prepared to tackle the increased healthcare needs of single mothers

Increased healthcare needs of single mothers will have a negative impact on the well-being of their dependants

There are not enough healthcare personnel to tackle the increased healthcare needs of single mothers

Increased healthcare needs of single mothers will have a significant impact on the UK public health system

Literature Review Recent research studies document that, unwed mothers are likely to suffer significant health problems when they reach their mid-age (Melnick 2011, p. 1). This finding was derived after undertaking research studies to compare the health status of single mothers and married mothers, by the time they were 40.

The negative health impact of single motherhood was noted to be irreversible. This means that, negative health was still evident even after single mothers got married later in life. E Science (2011) proposes that, the government should come in to promote marriage in the society, at least based on the evidence that, marriage promotes good health among women. This debate has however only started.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research studies done to investigate the relationship between single motherhood and negative women health were also done in America, but they exposed some significant differences in women health if the impact of single motherhood was assessed along ethnic lines.

For instance, it was noted that, the negative health effects of single motherhood was stronger in white and black women, when compared to Hispanic women (Melnick 2011, p. 1). It was however explained that, this observation was evident because if Hispanic women have children out of wedlock, it occurs in relationships that almost resemble marriages (Melnick 2011, p. 1).

These relationships are often long-term and “cohabiting” in nature. Furthermore, it was explained that, Hispanic women live in closely knit communities and families when compared to women from other racial backgrounds. These family relationships were seen to provide support to the single mothers, and therefore, Hispanic women find it easier to cope with their situation when compared to women from other racial backgrounds.

In analyzing the impact marriages have after childbirth, it was affirmed that, marriages did very little to impact positively the negative effects of single motherhood. However, it was affirmed that, if women married the biological fathers of their children, they were likely to experience some reprieve in this regard (Melnick 2011, p. 1).

From this observation, it was noted that, women who staid married to the biological fathers of their children (for a long time), experienced improved health by the time they were 40 (Melnick 2011, p. 1). The opposite was however observed for women who did not have a partner at age 40.

Studies have also shown that, black women are more likely to suffer the negative health effects of single motherhood because they are more likely to be single mothers than women from other racial backgrounds (Melnick 2011, p. 1). This observation was supported by the fact that, black women were more likely to have children out of wedlock when compared to white Hispanic women.

The greatest impact of negative health was therefore observed to be strongest among black mothers. Since studies already affirm that, marriage provides financial and emotional support to women, it is noted that, black women are disadvantaged on both fronts (Melnick 2011, p. 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Assessing the Impact of Single Motherhood on Public Health specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This observation was evidenced because black women were observed to marry men from poor socio-economic backgrounds when compared women from white or Hispanic backgrounds. The reason for this observation was that, black women were tolerant to men coming from lower socio-economic backgrounds because decades of poverty decreased the likelihood of finding marriageable men (Melnick 2011, p. 1).

Research Methodology This research study will be qualitative in nature. Semi-structured interviews will be used as the main research approach. However, the research will first be done by asking unstructured questions to gain background information about the research topic.

It is estimated that, about 30 interviews will be done in 30 public health hospitals across the UK to gather information about the level of preparedness of public institutions (with regards to the healthcare needs of single mothers). These interviews will be qualitative interviews. The interviews will be recorded in tapes and used as documentation evidence for the study. These tapes will act as tools for data analysis because they will be recorded as computer files.

These documents will contain information obtained from field studies. The ethnographer will be used to analyze the data by categorizing them into various groups. The ethnographer is a computer software built to use a coding system that analyzes data in different groups (using number and letters) (Distance SYR 2011).

The sample population group consists of health experts and public institutions. Health experts will provide insight into the health effects of single motherhood (when analyzed over long periods). Moreover, they will explain the relationship that, women health effects (associated with single motherhood) have on the public health sector. Administrators of public health institutions will give information regarding the level of preparedness of the UK health sector to the impending burden of increased healthcare needs of single mothers.

The main ethical concern in this study is obtaining consent form research participants when taking part in the study. Consent will be obtained freely. Confidentiality issues will also surface as part of the ethical issues to be considered in the study.

To ensure the confidentiality of information given, the researcher and the participants will have to sign a confidentiality document stipulating that all information obtained from the participants will strictly be used for purposes of the study alone. Moreover, the names of the participants will not be disclosed during the research.

Conclusion An assessment of the impact of single motherhood on the UK public health system is an important social and medical issue that needs to be addressed.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Assessing the Impact of Single Motherhood on Public Health by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This research study seeks to undertake this research and recommend areas of policy improvement that needs to be done before the full impact of increased healthcare needs of single motherhood is felt in the public health sector. The findings of this study will therefore be used to improve the level of preparedness of the UK public health system in meeting increased healthcare needs of single mothers.

References Distance SYR. (2011) Time between: the Full-Time Adult Undergraduate. Web.

E Science. (2011) Single moms entering midlife may lead to public health crisis Web.

Melnick, M. (2011) Single Moms Have Worse Health, and Getting Married Doesn’t Help Web.


American cultural imperialism in the film industry is beneficial to the Canadian society Term Paper college essay help near me

Imperialism may be regarded as a situation where a nation exerts a lot of effort to influence and dominate other countries and mostly politically and economically. Cultural imperialism on the other hand is considered as the situation where the western countries dominate the media worldwide and in the process exert a lot of influences on the cultures of the developing nations that in turn conform to theirs. Imperialism has both negative and positive consequences to both the donor and recipient nations.

One of greatest advantage of the imperialism to the donor nations which are generally the western nations is its success to influence the cultures and views of the residents in the third world nations. They thus end up embracing foreign cultures since they perceive them as being more superior to theirs.

This process has necessitated the growth and expansion of the western firms and in particular American companies. The advancement of technology and especially the Information Technology (IT) has greatly boosted the concept of American cultural imperialism as a result of the enhanced integration that is associated with the advanced IT that greatly enhances globalization through e-commerce.

The high spread of the American culture in many parts of the world has become an issue of concerns to many nations as is sometime being taken as a modern form of colonialism. The American imperialism is characterized by an increased consumption of American products and the dominance of the American culture worldwide.

Many nations are complaining because of the domineering aspect of the American culture. Many nations associate American cultural imperialism as a key factor that has greatly contributed in eroding their native values and traditions. The aspect of imperialism is not a new phenomenon in the 21st century; Imperialism has been in existence since the time of the Roman emperor and also the 19th century during the period of European colonization.

The cause of the great worry on the American cultural imperialism is the impact in which it is spreading. The American culture imperialism has seen widespread proliferation of the U.S. products across the globe. Despite the complain from some nations on the domineering aspect of the American culture, some nations such as Canada are now happier due to the American culture imperialism as it has caused them more good than harm (Culture and Globalization, 2011).

The concept of the use of media to promote imperialism has been an issue of controversial for long. It has been addressed by various scholars among them Latin American thinkers who included Tomlinson who argued that globalization is a term that is used to refer to the latest phase to a process that has a long history.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He considered the concept as a process that is aimed on propagating western cultures where the developed nations dominate all the other cultures. There is a perception that the media imperialism believe that the western countries apart from controlling the international media trade , also use the same media to convey their cultures, economic values and especially capitalism and consumerism to majority of the third world countries.

According to the renowned Herbert Schiller, the idea of cultural imperialism represents the manner in which society is transformed into the modern global system. To realize this objective, the western countries use the mechanism of pressurizing, forcing and occasionally bribing in order to change the social institutions so that to conform to those of the western nations and also promote their values.

The Cultural Imperialism model depicts that the worldwide culture is predominately American culture. He considers the global culture as being conquered by graphic and visual arts such that he considers it having been greatly influenced by the current televisions, films, images and methods of advertisement (Culture and Globalization, 2011).

The popularity of the United States of America books, music and films in many countries across the global has raised a lot of interest to many diverse groups of people ranging from politicians, economists and academicians. There have also been diverse views about the impact of globalization of American culture to foreign cultures.

There is a great concern of whether the propagation of American goods in these countries is causing any influence on the domestic or international policies of these nations. Similarly, there is also a worry of whether the Proliferation of the American goods to these nations and especially American films is a threat to the traditions and values of the indigenous people.

There are many benefits that are associated with the phenomenon of globalization of both the production and distribution of goods and services. One most important aspect of globalization is its ability to give individuals access to products/services that they do not produce.

In addition, some scholars argue against globalization as it creates a challenge in consumption of locally produced goods because of availability of foreign goods at a lower cost. Some countries are successful in producing their products at a lower cost due to their advanced technology, cheap labor, energy and other factors of productions.

We will write a custom Term Paper on American cultural imperialism in the film industry is beneficial to the Canadian society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This helps them to sell their produce at reduced prices. Thus, availability of such commodities can cause a lot of harm to local companies that are not able to lower their cost of their goods as a result of high cost of production. Globalization also is noted to enhance international trade and in particular in cultural products/services such as TV productions, soaps and operas, music among others.

The increase of cultural trade is associated with introducing all societies to foreign cultures which have in turn enhanced mutual cooperation and peace in the diverse global society. There is a perception that exposure to the foreign culture and products is associated with changing the local cultures, traditions and values adversely. This can result to a society undermining its own cultural identity

The issue of the American cultural imperialism is a significant issue under consideration. A study conducted by UNESCO revealed that there is a high rise in the growth of cultural trade. The film trade recorded a rise from $ 47.8 billion by 1980 to a high of $ 213.7 billion in 1997.

This represents a great expansion in demand and sale of cultural goods and especially games, films and sporting goods. The united States of America have realized the demand of these products and thus have greatly invested in this area to become the leading export of culture trade and especially the films.

According to the UNESCO findings, US has become the dominant country in the production and sale of cultural goods globally and mostly in the audiovisual sector. 85% of all the movies that are sold globally are produced in Hollywood. Surprisingly, even in the Europe the U.S. movies are the one that dominate the market.

The study reveals that 80% of the movies that are watched in Europe originate from Hollywood. This is surprisingly of the cultural dominance of the American culture worldwide even in Europe. This is despite U.S being not the leading in film production as it is currently ranked the fourth largest. The three leading film producing countries in the worlds are China, India and Philippines.

The dominance of the United States of America films worldwide has thus become a controversial issue since majority of the nations are complaining that their culture is under siege due to the cotemporary increase in the American culture as a result of increased globalization supported by current advancement in Information Technology.

The reason behind the extensive adaption of the American culture and especially the American movies and TV productions is as a result of the market mechanism the U.S. has established to retain a competitive advantage over its rival countries such as India and China, but not the presumed assumptions about its conspiracy to propagate capitalism agenda. The well established American competitive edge has enhanced the sale of American cultural products worldwide.

Not sure if you can write a paper on American cultural imperialism in the film industry is beneficial to the Canadian society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The competitive advantages of the American products have ensured them being universally accepted worldwide and especially the American films thus dominating the market globally. The trade has also experienced some challenges such as an increase in piracy and bootlegging of the American films. This also explains why the high adaption of American movies is as a result their universal appeal worldwide, but not due to the presumed conspiracy of capitalism (Rauschenberger, 2003).

The American movies, music and other TV productions such as soap operas and sitcom enjoy the inherent advantage of being produced in America. This is because U.S. is among the countries that are leading worldwide both in technology and having the largest economy with a per capital GDP of approximately $ 37,600.

The capitalism of the American trade has also benefited their film industry greatly as it has established a competitive market economy where private individuals and firms make most of their business decisions with very minimal interference from the government in comparison to other films from other areas such as Europe or Asia that have ventured in the same industry.

American films are more flexible in their day-to-day operations such as have more flexibility in decision making processes such as; expansions lay off surplus and in the development of new products.

In addition, the American films have more advantage in being a bit ahead in the technology. The United States are regarded as the leading in the development of internet. The United States of America are thus leading in the internet development that has also enabled them become the leading in country e-commerce which greatly enhances the propagation of their products and especially in the film industry.

Thus, the U.S. cultural industry has propagated that much due to the prevailing conditions that are enjoyed by American films. The U.S. films enjoy a larger production budget, strong home returns, greater flexibility and a more advanced technology. The other factor that has enhanced the propagation of the American imperialism industry is the fact that these films are produced in English language which is among the commonly spoken language worldwide (Rauschenberger, 2003).

As earlier outlined, globalization allows firms to distribute American cultural products that range from films, books and music worldwide. The spread of these products goes hand in hand with the propagation of American culture.

To Americans a cultural industry is treated like any other industry and brings the country a lot of revenue in the form of local and foreign sales. For Canadians, cultural industries are not treated like other industries. In addition to bringing the nation a lot of returns, they create products that are responsible for the fundamental survival of the Canadian culture.

The globalization has seen countries like Canada being adversely affected by the American cultures. This is because Canada is one of the greatest consumers of the American products. In addition, the close relation that exists between America and Canada has greatly contributed to the high America cultural imperialism of the Canadians (Leonard, 2001).

Recently there have been an increased number of television productions that feature American films worldwide. Many United States companies have expanded outside the United States and particularly in Canada.

A study carried out between 1990 and 1998 revealed that the number of American films and television productions that were being produced outside U.S. has almost doubled from 14 percent to 27 percent. The same study showed that the number of U.S television films that were being produced in Canada had increased from 122 to 154.

The total value of the television productions and films amplified to over $ 3.5 billion in 1999.The major destination of the U.S. film and television productions are Canada, Ireland, United Kingdom and Australia. These countries are believed to share four characteristics that greatly boosts cross border trade and cooperation. The four aspects they share all share include; all speak English language, have very competent workforce, offer a range of incentive programs to the film sector and lastly all possess a fast growing film industry.

Despite these similar traits, Canada is by far the largest recipient of U.S. film productions. The estimated value of U.S productions in Canada is about US$ 573 million to US$ 2.24 billion by 1998. The film productions in Canada have currently greatly increased and this is closely linked with the U.S. film productions. The film and television productions in Canada have increased to as much as US$ 2.4 billion in 1999.

The industry is believed to create approximately 100,000 direct jobs in Canada alone with majority of them believed to be U.S productions. Canada has also benefited from the U.S films in enhancing its domestic film productions based greatly from the doings of the U.S film makers (Leonard, 2001).

The presence of the American films industries as identified there above have greatly assisted Canada in creation of job opportunities for its citizens. There are many films industries that have expanded their operations from America to Canada. These multinational companies have greatly boosted the Canadian economy greatly.

In addition to the job creation, they have also contributed in building the Canadian economy by the taxes they pay to the Canada government. This revenue has in turn been used by the Canada government to develop other sectors such as Canadian healthcare facilities, education and infrastructure.

These American films industries that operate in Canada has greatly enhanced the growth and development of Canadian films industries. They have done so by empowering the Canadians monetary through offering them employment opportunities. Through the money they receive as compensation for working for the American films industries located in Canada, many Canadian have saved these money and started their own film industry.

By working for these multinational companies, the Canadians have received a very important opportunities to learn from the Americans their sophisticated methods of films and TV productions. This has been a great step for the Canadian films’ since it has enabled their films productions to sell very well both locally and internationally (Leonard, 2001).

The America cultural imperialism has highly associated with eroding the values, cultures and traditions of many societies globally. There has been many complain worldwide to those that perceive the Americanization as a new form of colonization.

Such nations or individuals consider the America cultural imperialism as a mechanism that is designed by the U.S. to propagate their agenda of capitalism and individualism. Globalization has been noted to greatly boost the America cultural imperialism through the widespread adoption of e-commerce and particularly in the cultural trade.

Despite this outcry, there are some countries that have greatly benefited from America cultural imperialism. Canada is a good example of such a country that has greatly benefited from the Americanization phenomenon. The cultural trade and in particular the U.S film industries located in Canada have boosted the Canadian economy greatly through taxes paid to the government or salaries paid to Canadians employees and as a consequence of technology transfer among others.

Reference List Culture and Globalization. (30 September, 2011). Web.

Leonard, B. (2001). Migration of U.S. Film and Television Production: The Impact of Runaways on Workers and Small Business in the U.S. Film Industry. New York: Prentice Hall.

Rauschenberger, E. (2003). Examining the Mechanisms Behind U.S. Domination of the Global Cultural Trade. Web.


Demonstrative Communication Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction Communication helps people to exchange ideas and feeling through various ways. Common means of communication are through exchange of words (verbal communication), written, and demonstrative communication. Demonstrative communication encompasses virtually all non-verbal and unwritten forms of communication such as facial expressions, body language and voice tones among others.

Effectiveness of demonstrative communication For demonstrative communication to be effective, various attempts should be made by both the receiver and sender of information. One of the requisites is to pay ardently rigid attention to all non-verbal signals such as body movements, Gestures, voice tones, postures while not negating maintenance of eye contacts.

As Cherry (2011) notes, “all these signals can convey important information that is not put in words (Para. 2)”. Demonstrative communication is particularly effective and positive to the receiver of information when the context of the communication varies.

In situation where formal behaviors are required, choosing the appropriate demonstrative communication is crucial. As a way of example, during formal interviews despite deploying use of positively identified way of answering queries, certain body movements help to enhance courtesy in communication. In fact, failure to sit still or making some funny body movements may speak sound about an individual’s character.

Changing of tone is especially effective in portraying discontent or one’s negative perception about another person’s line of thought or subscriptions’ through delayed confer of meaning. It has been established through research that, delaying appreciation of meaning in communication process has the capacity to attract lesser harsh ridiculing response from the receivers end. Cherry (2011) points out that, “tone of voice can convey a wealth of information, ranging from enthusiasm to disinterest to anger” (Para 8).

On the other hand, the incorporation of animated voice tone helps to demonstrate effectively one’s genuine interest on a particular topic. Demonstrative communication is essential and effectively aids in delivery of desired meaning in discursive forums and presentations involving large groups of people apparently by drawing and maintaining their attention all through.

Furthermore, demonstrative communication is effective in situations where communication barrier is evident using all written and verbal means of communication. Consider, French and a native English speaker. How can one depict sadness bearing in mind the two have no experience in speaking each other’s language. Facial communication through wrinkled faces can amicably help to do this. Again, a picture is worth a million words.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In case the sender wants to communicate effectively some information likely to attract varying understanding, a picture would sufficiently help accomplish this. For example, how could one describe clearly and precisely some biological information such as describing the shape of a part of a human body such as ulna or femur? Using words either verbally or in written form can never leave the same mental picture of what these parts look like than a picture would do.

Ineffectiveness of demonstrative communication In as much demonstrative communication may be highly effective in some situation, it fails miserably in others. Substantial ineffectiveness in demonstrative communication occurs in situations where long conversations are required, where details of the messages are desired, and where impressions are intended to be created on the receivers of information.

In the majority of demonstrative means of communication, mixed reactions are commonly evident since the meaning attached for instance to gestures depends on the individual’s capacity to interpret information conveyed in the gestures due to lack of standard gestures with particular meanings as opposed to verbal or written communication.

According to Keltner (1970) “the enactments of nonverbal behaviors may be associated with scenes in which these behaviors occur and where there were first learned” (p.59). Consequently, demonstrative communication is non-influential and thus cannot be used in all scenarios.

How demonstrative communication involves listening and responding No matter the kind of communication is deployed; meaning must be transferred from the sender to the receiver. For information to be received listening constitutes a major tool in the communication process. In demonstrative communication, seeing the sender’s mood change from say, good to bad, through change of facial expression, would then encompass the listening element.

To exemplify this scenario, consider a miss understanding between two people. An analysis of what might have triggered the miss understanding may reveal that the words that were used never caused the miss understanding, but rather the way the words were presented. Such realization point out evidence of missed element of communication: listening (the demonstrative communication never took pace).

As Cherry (2011) notes “making the nonverbal communication more clear, misunderstandings can be resolved” (Para. 9). The receiver of the information must send some reaction to the sender back for the communication process to be complete; otherwise the sender would make an assumption that his/her message didn’t reach the intended target and may be forced to contemplate a repeat.

We will write a custom Essay on Demonstrative Communication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a way of example, if gestures were used as means of demonstrative communication, the failure of the receiver to give a response would be treated by the sender as failed communication. The sender will thus attempt to draw the attention of the receiver to listen (look out for the gestures) to him/her by physically touching the receiver.

References Cherry, K. (2011). Top Ten Nonverbal Communication Tips: Improve Your Communication Skills. Retrieved From

Keltner, J. (1970). The eloquence of action: Nonverbal communication, In J.W. Keltner, Interpersonal Speech-Communication. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.


Art and human values Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Regional aspects and Arts

Art and politics

Works Cited

Introduction Art is a very important element. It is a concept that has been in existence as long as human beings have existed. Art have a lot of importance which can be derived in terms of the values attached to it. The values are of different kinds depending on the type of art and the way people perceive them.

Despite the fact that art has been there since time immemorial, there are still people, especially in developing countries, who do not recognize and appreciate the human values that are contained in these arts as a result of many factors for instance ignorance, which has in turn been caused by lack of proper awareness creation on the values and importance.

The importance of a given piece of art is determined by the message it gives and how well it does so. This therefore necessitates that artists be more careful in their work to ensure that the intended message and meaning is passed to the right people at the right time. They should also ensure that they do no please some people at the expense of hurting the majority, an aspect that could not be received in a positive manner.

There are various forms of art for instance music, paintings, sculpture, dance, theatre, literature as well as architecture. This piece of work is going to give an in depth discussion of Art and human values as well as other aspects associated with it with much emphasis being given to the sectors from which human values can be deduced for instance religion, politics as well as social and cultural sectors.

Regional aspects and Arts Art has been deemed to have various functions and importance both at individual as well as societal level. Some of the functions of art include entertainment, edification or desire for experience as well as exaltation among others. Some of the values attached to different arts include bringing about social benefits through expression of feelings and social values, aesthetic value and documentation of traditional beliefs among others.

Religion is also another aspect that has been so much into art. Special forms of art are used by different religions and particular meanings attached to them where a slight deviation is treated as a form of blasphemy. Problems occur where art is taken as a form of criticism among religions where some are considered better than others on the basis of the kinds of art that they adopt and use in their religious proceedings and practices.

Art can also be categorized or associated with regions where different regions adopt, present and appreciate different forms of art. Some types of music and theater work could for example be popular in some regions and unknown in others depending on the populations, their culture and what they believe in and adore.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The regional aspect of art can well be understood through the aspect of culture where each culture is characterized by particular elements. The world is however becoming a global village and people are integrating so fast and so is the concept of multiculturalism which has led to spread of various art concepts from one region to the other (Gurley 51).

Art and politics Art is a very crucial element when it comes to politics and the different aspects that are associated with it. This is so because it is used to perpetrate different political activities and processes through passing of different ideologies and policies in an appropriate and effective manner that allows for easy understanding by the intended target population.

It is even argued that all forms of art are political in nature due to its excessive use to pass political information to the public or else challenge some form of governance. Artists have also been receiving public funds so that they may engage in manipulating people politically, an aspect that have been received with a lot of controversy especially where the artists affect the majority of the public negatively.

Even though there are instances where art has been used positively in politics, the negative aspects seem easier to identify. This is because most of the artists seem to be used by politicians and other interest groups, not for the gain of the public but rather for their own gain and that of the politicians. In other words, art has been viewed as a business and most of the human values cannot be clearly depicted. All in all, this does not disqualify different form of arts as fundamental elements in the contemporary society when it comes to politics.

Another perspective in which arts could be discussed in regard to politics is the manner through which some arts are recognized more than others not because of their content but rather on the basis of the artist and how best he or she is known. This has in a way contributed to lack of nurturing of good talents that would be of greater value to the world as a whole (Gurley 59).

Works Cited Gurley, Gregory. Art and Human Values. Cognella: San Diego, CA, 2011.


Hero’s journey: “Little Obama” Movie Analytical Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction From the presidential campaigns and now his leadership, the life travels of Barack Obama have been important for discussion in understanding the forces which shaped his personality and behaviors. Many have suggested that his success in politics stems from the fact that he was a man of many nations. As this movie proves, Obama had a history of living in more than one continent. He had different places to call “home”.

As this movie suggests, the places he lived in, especially when he was a child, had the effect of transforming and shaping him into the personality he is today. In this movie, the character of Obama is the focus. How his stay in Indonesia as a child (possibly) shaped such is the focus of the movie. In the movie, the role played by Obama’s parents in shaping the personality of the young boy is also highlighted.

Thesis: Little Obama depicts how Obama was shaped by his stay in Indonesia into becoming a strong willled, friendly and diplomatic person.

In Little Obama (Obama Anak Monteng), there is no struggle to present Obama the president. Instead, the childhood of Obama is traced in the most probable way it happened. In the movie, young Obama is allowed to be the child he was (Adams 2).

He is allowed to do things which a child would be expected to do (without focusing on him as the future president). As would be the case for any child, the movie presents Obama learning most of his life lessons through play. In the movie, other major characters are the children whom Barry (Obama’s name in the movie) plays with.

As the movie is framed, these characters help the young Obama to understand many things about his life. They help him to search for his own identity. Watching the movie, one realizes the intention of the producers to insist on the point that without this stay in Indonesia, Obama would have probably not encountered the critical questions on his identify as he did.

Besides the idea of Indonesia as the setting for changing his behaviors, the movie also brings out parenting as an important issue. In this regard, the movie, besides highlighting the interactions which the young Obama had with friends, also presents the conversations and interaction with his parents. As the movie confirms, Obama learnt from, and was taught much, by his mother and stepfather.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Little Obama captures the period of Obama’s childhood from six years to when he was ten years. The belief of the movie is that these years were the most important one in laying ground to the character of Obama. The events in the movie happen in Monteng, Jakarta of Indonesia. They occur between the years of 1967 to 1971, indicating a capture of four years of obama’s childhood.

The movie opens when young Obama, referred to in the movie as Barry Obama comes to Indonesia. As it unfolds in the movie, little Obama comes into the country (Indonesia) alongside his mother (Ann Dunham). They were in the country because it was the homeland of the boy’s stepfather (Lolo Soetoro). By extension thus, Obama was coming into Indonesia as his second home because of the fact that his mother had been married to Soetoro (Asia Society 3).

This movie is based on the important elements of pluralism as well as differences. In the movie, scenes are expressly developed to create an experience of thematic learning. In the first scenes, Barry Obama comes to meet difficult question on his identify as a person. Meeting these people for the fist time, one kid asks Barry, “What are you actually? Going by the way Barry is astounded by the question, it comes clear he had not in his life thought about ‘whom’ he indeed was.

This question in the end becomes the main concept on which the whole of the movie develops. In the movie, Barry has to identify who he is because questions on his identity are not dying. In another of such questions, another kid wonders, “westerner, but dark colored…?”. Going by the way he was astonished again, this must also be the first time that Barry has to question himself on the ‘kind’ of a westerner that he was.

It was the first time he had to come into hard questions on his identify as an African-America. The ‘westerner’, which is the reference used by the other kids simply means that they were aware of where Barry and his family had come from. On this ground, it is clear the kids were in some way conscious of the history of westerners including their physical identifies.

In this scene thus, these kids wondered because to them there was no synergy between Barry and ‘westerners’. To Barry, these questions were to linger and disturb the mind. He was to question his identity and the differences he had with the other westerners which had prompted this reaction.

As the movie unfolds, one finds that Barry was being helped to answer questions on his identity. This was especially the case as questions kept coming (from the kids) which forced Barry to think more of ‘who’ he was. Another statement, which was almost a rhetorical question was, “weird hair. Big nose….”. In this scene, this kid was indeed pin-pointing on some of the things which according to them made Barry, a ‘different westerner’. They for example pointed out his hair here.

We will write a custom Essay on Hero’s journey: “Little Obama” Movie specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As the movie unfolds, it comes clear that young Barry (Obama) was learning so many things which besides his belief also related to his attitudes and perceptions. In learning positive attitudes and perceptions, the movie presents Barry’s parents as having played the greatest role.

In one of the scenes, Barry Obama learns from his stepfather on how to do boxing. In this boxing lesson, young Barry is taught by (Lolo Soetoro) his stepfather that in life one has to be strong. He learns that life has to be approached with a complete resolve to defend the self from the extremity by others.

After highlighting the immigration as well as the problems of acceptance by his friends, the movie presents young Obama as finally gelling with these people. At this point, the movie moves to the friends that young Obama had as well as the games they play. Here, the movie moves to the friendship he develops with Slamet (Slamet Djanuadi) and Yuniardi who are other children in the neibourhood.

There are many things that these friends are able to do together. Play is the most important thing they do all the time. In this, the young boys play tennis and another game called marple. These games are seen to be uniting the little Obama more and more with the two friends Yuniardi and Slamet

An event during these games with friends is of worth noting. This is when while playing with his close friends, Barry encounters and does clash with a boy named Carut. Carut belongs to a gang of bullies. In this event, Barry effectively defeats the bullies and shows his fighting (karate) prowess. As he comes out of this event and analyzes it later, young Barry has learnt many important lessons. The most important lesson that the young boy learns is that to fight, “isn’t the solution”.

He learns that conflicts can be amicably resolved. Here, he also learns that differences should not be a cause to war. In the scene, he comes out identifying that violence does not pay and instead is a loss to all parties who would benefit more if they negotiated and made peace. From this fight, Obama learns that besides avoiding war, he also has to accept himself and who he is as different from others.

From the incident, the young Obama learns that opening up and thus sharing is the best path to take. He learns that he has to accept that he has differences with others but has also to respect others who are different from him. In the movie, these lessons on how to live with others do not just come from his own experience. Instead, as the movie presents, they are lessons which are also impacted to him by his mother in the scenes she teaches him to avoid seeking the path of confrontation.

As the movie unfolds, Barry Obama in the end learns who he is and comes out able to appreciate and accept differences. After this full turn-around in personality development, Barry no longer shrinks into himself. He does not discriminate either. This full self-acceptance comes out clearly, when Obama plays with his friends.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Hero’s journey: “Little Obama” Movie by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He comes out an effective player. He is very good in the game of ping-pong. His friends adore his talents in the game. They like him to play with them more and more. Confidence having been built, young Obama moves beyond his neibourhood. He begins to interact with not only his peers but also well-known people in the locality. As the movie progresses, the young boy is, for example, seen riding on motorbikes with great singsong. At this point, it is clear that the young Obama has developed.

Towards the end of the movie, Barry is seen as having fully adopted to the environment and was now leaving in harmony with his friends and neighbors. He had many friends and was now known to many in the neibourhood. However as this process is happening; the family is engaged in a conflict. The mother and stepfather have to part ways. This makes the beginning of the conclusion to the movie when young Obama is now leaving for United States.

Conclusion The above discussion proves that Little Obama is a complete depiction on how Obama was shaped by his stay in Indonesia into becoming a strong willled, friendly and diplomatic person. As the discussion identifies, from the discrimination he initially received and the questions he had to answer on who he is, Obama learnt on his identity.

This identity in the end made him believe that he could do anything because the differences he had did not limit him in any way from doing anything that others did. The movie identifies that as he interacted and conflicted, he learnt on the need to take paths of diplomacy. According to the movie, in the country, Obama made friends across the social and cultural divide and thus leant on the need to be friendly.

Works Cited Adams, Jonathan. Movie about Obama’s childhood opens today. 1/7/2010. Web.

Asia Society. Barack Obama on Film: ane movie reccounts president Barack Obama’s childhood in Indonesia. 21/3/2011. Web..>


The Evolution of the Division of Labor Theory Starting From Ancient Greek Economists to the Present Essay essay help online: essay help online

Introduction Division of labor is an economic theory that has been in use for many centuries. As a result, there have been several definitions accorded to the term depending on the use of the theory.

However, a more acceptable version that has been relied on by many is that of Peter Groenewegen in the New Palgrave’s Dictionary of economics (1987, p. 901) which defines division of labor as the “division of a process or employment into parts, each of which is carried out by a separate person”. This is to mean that individuals will cooperate with or without their conscious to perform processes or employment that is divided.

The question that results is, why and how the separation of people in processes and employment concurs with the social and economic consequences? This question and many others are best answered using the evolution of the ideas generated from the theory of division of labor. This paper is therefore an in-depth analysis of the evolution of the division of labor theory starting from the ancient Greek economists such as Adam Smith, Karl Marx and William Petty, among others to the present.

The analysis will begin by examining the relationship between increasing returns and the division of labor as stipulated by Smith. This will be followed by the important insights by Karl Marx on the division of labor in the society and division of labor in manufacturing. The theories of other great economists on the division of labor theory will also be explored and finally comparing them to the modern theory of division of labor.

The history of Division of labor Theory The evolutionary history of the theory of division of labor has been explained through various mechanisms. It was long ago used by the Sumerians to group their jobs and thereafter allocate them to the skilled people in the society.

However, according to Plato Socrates, the origin of the theory of division of labor is based on two main facts. The first one is the fact that human beings are endowed with different abilities (Bogers 2). The argument states that if at all human beings had equal strengths and abilities then the issue of division of labor would not have arisen since everyone can perform all tasks.

Secondly is the issue of the variation in the external conditions on the earth. This again leads to the creation of division of labor since had all the external production conditions been similar everywhere, then division of labor would have been of no use. After the realization of the theory of division of labor, several economists have tried to argue their points on this theory.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Ancient Theories on Division of Labor Adam Smith

Adam Smith is one of the greatest economics known who lived from the year 1723 to 1790. He engaged in many works in the economics field where he had major contributions in the theory of the division of labor. Smith explored the various advantages of the division of labor. In one of his books titled The Wealth of Nations, Smith explained how the breakdown of a task into several operations made production easy (Dhamee 1).

He gave the example of a pin-factory, where he claimed that such a company’s production could increase by up to 240 times higher just because of the division of labor. The main reason for this is because the worker becomes acquainted to what they are doing hence becoming experts in that field. On the other hand, workers remain in their jobs for a long period hence saving time unlike when they have to switch tasks in the course of the day.

Smith continues to say that this was what led to the success of the Victorian factories in the 19th century. This was as a result of productive labor which is meant to fulfill two essential requirements which are creation of surplus that could be ploughed back into production and secondly lead to production of objects that are tangible. “The ideas of Smith were based on perfect liberty in order to assert the principle of organizing labor solely by a free market” (Bogers 4).

After his assertions, Smith identified the shortcomings of the theory of division of labor. He pointed out that it created boredom due to the monotony of performing a similar task for a long time. This in the long-rum would lead to dissatisfied and ignorant workers.

Charles Babbage

This was another of the ancient economics who lived between 1791 and 1871. Charles continued with Smith’s work in which he focused on simplifying and integrating the tasks. He argued that simplifying and integrating tasks had a great impact on the labor costs in that it minimized them greatly. The reason behind this is the low bargaining power of the worker since workers will require minimal time to get acquainted to each task.

Karl Marx

Within his short life span of 65 years, Karl Marx made inevitable contributions in the field of economics. His, was criticism on the present theory of division of labor arguing that it led to the alienation of people. In his assertions, Marx claimed that there ought to be very little or no division of labor at all.

This would make workers have control over work thus being contended with it unlike when there is division of labor. Karl Marx thus wrote that “with this division of labor, the worker is depressed spiritually and physically to the condition of a machine” (Bogers 5). He further claims that alienation is great societal problem that could be easily generated through division of labor.

We will write a custom Essay on The Evolution of the Division of Labor Theory Starting From Ancient Greek Economists to the Present specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the same theory, Marx describes labor to have value. He goes on to describe value as being a fraction of the total labor that is present in the society within a stipulated period of time for instance a year, and used in the production of a given product. Therefore to find the value of labor, the average labor available is divided by the number of units produced hence expressed in time of hours, days or eve months.

However, Marx’s greatest contribution in this theory is when he classifies the two types of division of labor as technical/ economic division and the social division. He stipulates social division of labor to be based on the different social classes and status of hierarchy that are present in the society. Technical division is usually as a result of the different skills that people have.

William Petty

Sir William Petty is again one of the ancient economics who lived in the 1623 to 1687. As a matter of fact, he was the first writer to take note of the theory of division of labor where he made its significance to the Dutch shipyards. Petty made several contributions in political economy which eventually led to the differentiation of classical political economy as a science on its own.

Among other notions in economic science such as labor theory of value to econometrics he is the founder of the notion behind surplus and the division of labor. Petty claimed that the society could be equated to the human body which has several functions. In the society people will play different roles and functions all of which are of great importance to the societal functions.

Treatise of Taxes and Contributions

If there be 1000 men in a Territory, and if 100 of these can raise necessary food and raiment for the whole 1000, if 200 more make as much commodities, as other Nations will give either their commodities or money for, and if 400 more employed in the ornaments, pleasure, and magnificence of the whole; if there be 200 Governors, Divines, Lawyers, Physicians, Merchants and Retailers, making I all 900 the question is, Since there is food enough for this supernumerary 100 also, how they should come by it? (Gianni and Groenewegen 30).

Fredrick Taylor

Another great contributor to the division of labor theory is Fredrick Winslow Taylor who named his developments as ‘scientific management’. This theory of scientific management has been thoroughly developed and the final version of it is to be named after the innovator that is ‘Taylorism’. According to his theory, Taylor argued that the industrial process could be broken down into several unit tasks that are able to be well organized and timed. Despite having widespread application, it was of great use in Japan.

This theory generally entails working out the best and efficient way of organizing work such that the monetary allocation to the work equates the output generated. Taylor proposed that the tasks be distributed in accordance to knowledge, experience as well as skills of the worker. Therefore if the Taylor system is well applied in an organization, it will result into good labor returns.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Evolution of the Division of Labor Theory Starting From Ancient Greek Economists to the Present by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The only shortcoming with Taylor’s theory on the division of labor is that human beings are treated like robots or animals having to work tirelessly and continuously. There is monotony in work and less chances for creativity and inventions.

Max Weber

Max Weber is often referred to as the father of bureaucracy due to his invention of the theory of bureaucracy. This theory was an opposition to the theory of the division of labor since it argues that occupational duties and workers can be freely interchanged such that there is no specific position for workers. The workers are therefore to move from one task position to another within the same organization.

The list of the ancient economists who made their contributions (whether small or big) to the theory of division of labor is endless with other being people such as David Hume, Henri-Louis, Durkheim and Henry Ford just to mention but a few.

The Modern Theory on Division of Labor The modern theory of the division of labor has undergone several reforms from the ancient economics discussed above the most recent ones such as Romer and those to come in the future. It is arguable that not all the constituents of the ancient models have been incorporated in the modern theory since some of them have been left out and other modified.

Taking the example of Romer, who is a more recent economist to handle the theory of division of labor, he argues that Adam Smith had two ideas which conflicted. “In the first idea, Smith claims that competition leads to efficient resource allocation and in the second he notes that growth is an indigenous phenomenon” (Robert 76).

Both claims have been proved wrong after the developments of economics whereby growth is no longer viewed as an indigenous process. Other modern contributions concern the introduction of fixed costs in computation of profits, something that was not done before among many other developments.

Nevertheless, some of the ancient theories on the division of labor have still found their way into the modern society. A good example is the contribution of Emile Durkheim which is of great significance today.

In his book entitled The Division of Labor in Society of 1893, Durkheim majors on the effects that come with specialization (division of labor) and how they affect the society. For Durkheim, division of labor is infinite separation of occupations such that even the final product is independent. This is very evident in the modern society, take the example of a student who joins college and is asked to select a ‘major of specialty’.

Let us say, they select accounting, thus throughout the college years they will be specializing in accounting being prepared to be accountants. They graduate as accountants and get a job in an accounting firm where they perform accountancy services and duties. Their whole life revolves around accountancy. This is a perfect example to show that specialization or division of labor is inevitable and in practice in almost all areas of life.

In a nut shell, it can be said that the modern world is making great use of the theory of division of labor. It is mostly applicable in the management and organization functions of any business enterprises. Given the fact that societal hierarchy is inevitable, division of labor has been used to cater for such differences as well as others.

Conclusion From the above discussion, it can be seen that the theory of division of labor has undergone various evolution from the ancient time to the present. The theory of division of labor has found its application and use in the present society by a great deal. As a matter of fact, the increased productivity in the current society can be attributed to the division of labor.

According to Robert, “a major shift in firm’s strategies and organizational structure driven in part by increased global competition and technological process” (Robert 184). He further continues to argue that, despite the many variables and processes involved emphasis should be put on specialization and division of labor.

On the other hand, division of labor has been found to have negative features since time immemorial. Some of these negative features include; boredom, demoralization and imposition of the discipline of labor among others. These negative features can be easily overcome by removing the direct producers from the market and the fact that repetitive performance of a task increases the efficiency of the operation.

Works Cited Bogers, Marcel. Division of Labor. 2002. Web.

Dhamee, Yousuf. Adam Smith and the Division of Labor. 1995- July 24, 2011.

Gianni, Vaggi And Groenewegen, Peter. A concise history of economic thought: from Mercantilism to monetarism.-2003. Palgrave Macmillan.

Groenewegen, Peter. “Division of labor,” The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics -1987. v. 1, pp. 901–07

Roberts, J. The Modern Firm. – 2004 Oxford University Press, New York, NY.


What qualities does Henry embody that would serve a modern-day president? Essay custom essay help

Introduction The Henry V movie concept is set in the early fifteenth century. It takes place after the death of King Henry IV, the young King Henry V is the next heir to the throne. Therefore, in order to gain both court and public respect and acceptance, Henry is forced to leave his youthful past, in which he associated himself with drunkards and criminals at the boar’s head inn situated at the seamy parts of London.

Basing on some technical interpretation of the ancient law concerning land, King Henry V claims some portions of France. Dauphin, the youthful prince of France sends Henry an offensive message in reaction to his claims; this compels Henry V to continue with his plans of conquering some portions of France. Therefore, with the backing of his country’s clergy and noblemen, King Henry V assembles his troops for the invasion of France.

However, some severe civil wars over the years had left the people in England even more restless and discontented with more such imminent wars. Through some cunning expertise, King Henry later on discovers a conspiracy plot, which is meant to end his life, before he headed to France for the war with his fleet.

He then finds out that Scrope, his former friend is among the conspirators employed by the French and therefore orders for their immediate execution. It is arguably evident from the movie that King Henry V demonstrated qualities that are essential for an effective modern day president. This paper discusses the qualities of Henry in the King Henry V movie that will suit a present day president.

King Henry V and his convoy, which had army officers from all corners of Britain such as Captain Fluellen who was of Welsh origin, and many others headed for France against numerous odds but manages to conquer towns as they fight their way across the French countryside.

However, as they advanced, some members in his troop such as Bardolph and Nim are detained for looting and this compels Henry to call for their hanging. Despite such disciplinary issues, King Henry also conquers the French town of Harfleur and goes on to give a heartfelt historical speech that was intended to motivate his troops for further victories.

The battle of Agincourt becomes the climax in the movie as King Henry and his soldiers are outnumbered by their French opponents. Despite this disheartening fact, King Henry goes around the camp in disguise as a fellow soldier to talk and comprehend on his army’s thoughts over their general mission the night before the great battle.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More King Henry is in an awkward position since he is unsure of his ubiquitous liabilities as a King. The morning after his subterfuge episode into his army’s camp, he seeks divine help by praying to God and then giving a stirring speech to his army. Amazingly, King Henry and his soldiers win the great battle and triumphs over their proud French opponents who eventually surrendered to the English.

Later on in the movie, the English works out a peace negotiation with the French and King Henry marries Catherine, who was the daughter to the King of France and the resulting marriage would unite both the British and French Kingdoms. King Henry’s son was the next heir to the French throne. Even though he defeated the French, he allowed Charles, the King of France, to hold onto his throne.

According to the movie, King Henry V decides to put away his wild youthful past in order to become a legitimate and an effective leader. Such leadership qualities are quite desirable in the contemporary political scene, as they serve well a modern-day president. First, King Henry’s resolution to change his youthful behaviors for the purpose of his new role tells us of his visionary attitude for the country he was going to serve, as it was bigger than his personal happiness and satisfactions, and this would largely shape a contemporary president.

A presidential figure should not let his past interfere with his work, whereby he only serves a few friends and individuals due to their previous relationship and should instead have a visionary map of serving the whole country by also bypassing party lines and affiliations.

It also enhances democracy because of the principle of public equality. In addition, King Henry’s leniency towards a solitary union of respect and brotherliness without any form of national prejudice is a significant leadership quality that is needed for a modern day president.

Henry established peace with his French opponents and was not consumed by power to hold it out against them. A lenient president would also try to foster peace with their enemies especially in the current political scenarios. An effective president should not hold onto experiences as a basis for longtime enmity because as demonstrated by King Henry V after his battle and triumph over the French, we should cement our union by not being repressive but by looking for any peaceful means.

In addition, King Henry is relentless in pursuing his ambitions, well focused, fearless, committed, and his brilliancy illuminated his oratory skills, which he uses to put forth his claims while also motivating his own troops. These leadership qualities serve a modern-day president, as they are relentless in pursuing the people’s dreams and expectations.

We will write a custom Essay on What qualities does Henry embody that would serve a modern-day president? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, when the country goes through a period of hopelessness towards achieving these targeted expectations, a president’s oratory skills would best serve in motivating and uniting the country at large in order to realize these expectations while renouncing the things that divide us. Occasionally, a leader may experience uncertainty over their progress stature as shown by King Henry before the main battle of Agincourt.

It is always comforting for the people to know that their commander still has both hands on the daunting situation and this eventually instills hope for a winning mentality that would enforce the zeal to be persistent in achieving a common objective without being strenuous. In general, King Henry’s oratory skills were a double-edged sword with nearly as much force and strength as that used by his soldiers.

His words would inspire or even stir up his supporters while intimidating his adversaries and influencing nearly all those who listened to him and this is reflected by his wintry and menacing rhetoric while addressing Prince Dauphin’s messenger, and during his inspiring speech at St. Crispin. In other words, the modern-day president should not rush into war in a deadlock situation before being explicitly frank with their motives.

In conclusion, Henry portrayed the leadership qualities that would fit a modern day president. The most outstanding leadership qualities possessed by King Henry was his resolved set of mind in accomplishing whatever goal he had his eyes and mind focused. He would use any kind of resource, which was readily available to see to it that his objectives were eventually accomplished.

He was an inexorable force that had to be carefully contended with by others who must opt on how to act energetically in response to his actions that were ethically questionable at times. Although his conducts may seem quite horrendous to the populace, King Henry was an exemplary leader who took a serious mantle over his Kingship since he elevated his responsibilities above personal gains and that is why the film portrays him both as a protagonist and as a hero, despite the mitigated effects of his personal pronouncements.

Work Cited King Henry V. Dir. Olivier Laurence. Perf. Sharman Bruce, et al. 2000. Film


Biography of a Long Island Town Research Paper essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

History of the town


Declaration of Rights


American Revolution


Works Cited

Abstract Specifically situated on the Southeast side of America, the Long Island is one of the ancient Islands in America. This Island stretches to the Northeast side of the Atlantic Ocean and has a number of towns and counties. This discussion looks at one of the Long Island towns, how it has developed over the years and the impact that events in America have had on the development of this town. The town of choice is the Town of Huntington.

History of the town The history of Huntington Town dates back to the year 1653 when some men namely Robert, Richard and Daniel, who came from Oyster Bay bought a piece of land which would later come to be referred to as the First Purchase. The three men would later sell this piece of land to other people who had settled nearby.

A great majority of the people who settled in this town in the early days were English men, whom came to this town either via Connecticut or Massachusetts. Due to the constant settlement of English people in this town, it did not take long for the town to become well established.

The very first settlers of this town mainly settled in one area which was known as town spot (Wilson 45). This is what is known presently as the Village Green. As time went by, this town continued to prosper and so did the increase in the population. Social institutions such as schools, saw mills, forts, tanneries and places of worship began to emerge as well.

Economy With the growth in population of this town, there were equally many economic activities that the settlers in this town engaged themselves in. The harbor was one of the busiest places in this town and formed an integral part of its economy. Ships from within the town and even beyond as far as West Indies became common.

Other businesses that contributed immensely to the growth and expansion of the economy of this town were, ship making and other activities related to the sea (Boroff 66). The inhabitants of this town used the water as a means of transport as it was the only most efficient means of transport both for cargo as well as people considering that this was a town within an island.

Declaration of Rights In the year 1744, an adaptation was made by the authorities of the Town of Huntington which was known as the Declaration of Rights. This declaration affirmed that the property of every free man was his own and that any kind of taxation which was done without some form of representation amounted to a violation of the rights of all subjects of British origin (Bessel 47).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Further, the declaration required that all colonies would unite and refuse to transact any kind of commercial transaction with the government of the Great Britain. This was a move that was received with great enthusiasm by all inhabitants of this town.

However, this would be short lived because the rebel forces would lose the Battle of Long Island and this saw the British army enter and occupy the entire Long Island (Huntington 56). People in this island including those that were in the Town of Huntington were forced to comply with the requirements of the British and they were even forced to take an oath of allegiance and loyalty to the British government.

For the people who continued to rebel against the British government, they suffered a major blow as they lost all their property. There are those who would however not back down and continued engaging the government in guerilla wars until the year 1783 when the war ended and the British left the town.

In the year 1776, a man named Nathan Hale was sent by George Washington to spy regarding the British forces that were in this town and the entire Long Island as well as the city of New York. This man was however captured and what followed was an execution in the same year.

Slavery Just as was the case in many other parts of the world during this time, slavery was very rampant in the Town of Huntington. The white settlers who engaged in farming would use slaves to provide affordable labour in their fields. Most of the slaves were black and the higher the number of slaves one had, the better their status in the society. The economy of this town did not however depend greatly on slavery for labour and by the nineteenth century, slavery had been totally abolished in this town and the entire island.

American Revolution The American Revolution which took place between the years 1775-1783 is one of the wars that hit the Town of Huntington really hard. This war threatened to cause the collapse of this town and especially economically. This is because during this war, the town was not getting a lot of business from the outside owing to a lot of tension. By the end of the revolution, the town had lost a lot in terms of business and was on its knees. The rebuilding process was not a downhill task but nonetheless, they managed.

In the year 1867, a railroad was established in this town and this marked the beginning of the decline of maritime activities and economy. Although the use of water still remained important until the twentieth century, its use declined significantly when the railroad was established.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Biography of a Long Island Town specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The people of Huntington were not ready to give up on shipping just yet because it is the one that ensured that this town remained connected to the rest of the world for all this while. Therefore, this town was not isolated as other towns in the Long Island were. Those living in New York would find it easy to come to Huntington using either ships or the newly established railroad (Ross and Pelletreau 33).

When the Second World War came to an end, it is as though people had discovered as safe haven in the Town of Huntington and the entire Long Island. This is because, the population size of this island and the Town of Huntington in particular began to swell. It was amazing to note that 200 years after its establishment, the town had only experienced gradual growth and especially in terms of population increase. This however took a drastic change after World War II as the number of people increased significantly.

Conclusion The Town of Huntington has continued to grow with the population going up and the economy of the town expanding even further. There are now no vacant lands anymore as they have been replaced with social institutions, industries and factories.

Works Cited Bessel, Matthew. A brief history of the town of Huntington. New York: Town of Huntington, 1983. Print.

Boroff, David. The State of the Nation. London: Prentice Hall, 1966. Print.

Huntington, Elijah. History of Stamford, Connecticut: From its Settlement in 1641. Virginia: Huntington Publishers, 1868. Print.

Ross, Peter and Pelletreau, William. A history of Long Island: from its earliest settlement to the present time, Volume 2. Lodnon: Lewis Pub Co, 1905. Print.

Wilson, Rufus. Historic Long Island. New York: Berkeley Press, 1902. Print.

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“Cross” by Langston Hughes [Analysis Essay] best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Persona

Use of Metaphor

The Overall Theme


Works Cited

Introduction Langston Hughes’ poem entitled ‘Cross’ is a one stanza poem with a title that carries a deep and rich meaning and one that perfectly reflects the overall theme. The author has used the first-person persona to pass the message to the reader (Bloom 20). This paper intends to explore the identity of the author and the critical figure of speech as well as the overall theme that is being discussed in the poem. The analysis of “Cross” by Langston Hughes shall be provided in this essay.

The Persona The persona is this poem represents a son who is born by a white father and a black mother. He is full of anger because he has been brought up in a mixed heritage, which consists of two races, which are different. Although the persona regrets later for disapproving his parents for having sired him in different racial communities, his anger seems to be strongly inflected by issues of racial discrimination (Bloom 20).

Use of Metaphor The title of the poem (the cross) has a deep and rich meaning and great significance. The significance of this title reflects the central theme that was intended by the author. There are scores of meanings that can be attached to the word ‘cross’ used as the title.

As the analysis of the poem “Cross” evidences, the persona is very dissatisfied and angry for the reason that his heritage is torn between two ends. At first, he vents this anger towards his parents, only to regret his actions later. Cross has been used metaphorically to portray this anger and dissatisfaction.

The persona’s mixed heritage has indeed put him in a testing moment that can be described as a burden. The cross represents this burden to emphasize suffering. The persona’s predicament can also be compared to the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, who was tried with no wrongdoing. Similarly, the persona is suffering from being brought up in a mixed heritage, even though it is not his fault.

Assording to the summary, the persona crosses over from being angry and offensive, to adopt a forgiving character. This transformation entirely gives the word ‘cross’ another meaning. Finally, after making over and forgiving his parents, the persona is torn between uncertainty fates. He wonders whether he will die a bi-racial. In other words, he is left in a crossroad (Juhasz 56). Thus, one can see the meaning of “Cross” by Langston Hughes as very important.

The Overall Theme The poem is generally discussing problems of racial heritage. The speaker is particularly perturbed for being born in a mixed heritage – having a black mother and a white father. Indeed, the speaker is full of grief and frustrations for belonging to a diverse culture. He is reported as regretting having hated and disapproved of his parents for being responsible for the purported regrettable fate.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The deep feelings exhibited by the persona reflect the significance of racial heritage, and besides, portray some degree of disconnection between the black and the white. Perhaps, the persona was born during the age of the slave trade, when Africans were being enslaved in America, resulting in bi-racial heritage. Thus, the main theme in “Cross” by Langston Hughes is the character’s inner confusion about his mixed heritage.

The anger that the persona vents originates from the negative feelings of slavery. Also, the persona is reported saying that his father died a wealthy man while his mother died a poor woman, perhaps to portray how the white was using the black to enrich themselves. In essence, discrimination of one race against the other must-have contributed towards the persona’s offensive attitude towards a mixed heritage (Bennett 16)

Conclusion The anther’s use of metaphor has attracted my attention and encourages me to think critically about the issues being discussed in the poem, and as such, understanding the themes in a more profound and more precise manner.

The figure of speech has made me emphasize with the speaker who is in great turmoil, as I imagined his predicament. Overall, as the analysis of “Cross” by Langston Hughes shows, the author has successively used the speaker to pass on his rich message to the reader (Bennett 16).

Works Cited Bennett, Sandra. Identifying themes and poetic devices in selected poems. Utah: University of Utah, 1972. 16. Print

Bloom, Harold. Langston Hughes. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2007. 20. Print

Juhasz, Suzanne. The metaphor and the poetry of Williams, Pound, and Stevens. London: Associated University Presse, 1974. 56. Print

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