Local and state governments require revenue in order to facilitate their operations. Government expenditure is the monies the government requires to finance its functions while revenue is their income. Generally, government expenditure is classified into three major classes; government final consumption, government gross capital formation, and transfer payments.
Government final consumption and gross capital formation form the largest part of state and local government’s gross domestic product. Moreover, the expenditure of local and state governments is financed by government revenue.
The local government acquires revenue through taxes and non-taxes channels; non-tax revenue includes government owned corporations, fees, licenses, or sovereign wealth funds. The state government can also finance its operations with borrowed money through grants and loans.
Categories of revenue and expenditure Expenditure
State and local governments have to provide different goods and services to the public. These services and goods include transportation system, water and sanitation, health care and education and payment of pensions and other benefits. Generally, the above expenditures are classified in three categories, consumption, investment, and transfer payments.
Government final consumption: According to Organization for Economic cooperation (2010, p.42), “government final consumption expenditure consists of expenses incurred by the government in the production of non-market final goods and services.” Primarily, the government spending on goods and services that are used for direct benefit of its population includes defense, provision of health care, water and sanitation and education.
It is further broken down into two categories; the value of goods produced by the government itself and purchases of goods and services produced by the other market producers and supplied to the community. In addition, consumption expenditure constitutes the largest share of expenditures; they include purchases of nondurable and durable goods. Non durable goods include food and clothing while durable products include appliances and vehicles.
Government gross capital formation: Government gross capital formation is also referred to as investment expenditure and it consists of two types, expenditure on fixed investment goods and inventory investment. Fixed investment goods are goods that are used in the long term examples are factories, commercial properties, and purchase of equipment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Part of fixed investment expenditure involves acquisition of new asset or repairs and maintenance, as well as depreciation charge of the already in use asset. Investment expenditure on institutional sector includes transport infrastructure and public buildings like school and hospitals (Organization for Economic cooperation, 2010, p.44).
On the other hand, inventory goods are goods waiting to be sold at the end of the year; they are considered as investment expenditure because they “eventually yield a flow of consumption or production services” (Organization for Economic cooperation, 2010, p.44).
Government Transfer payments: According to Baumol and Blinder (2008, p.225), “government transfer payments is the expenditure the local and state governments incur through payments that do not involve direct production of or goods or service.” Transfer payments are given to persons in order to assist them in basic living requirements; examples of transfer payments are social welfare, food stamps, and disability and retirement benefits. In addition, the need for transfer payments increases whenever there is a social or economic crisis. However, some transfer payments are temporal while others are permanent; for example, unemployment benefits are temporal while pension payment is permanent.
Local and state governments get their revenue through taxation and other non-taxation methods. However, taxation is the most reliable method of revenue collection; nevertheless, there are other sources like direct payment from federal governments, user fees, service charges, licensing, and lottery and gambling proceeds (Brunori, 2005, p.113).
Tax: Tax is a financial charge imposed on individuals or legal entities in a state. Taxation may be done directly or indirectly and the rates differ from one state to another. The governments levy different taxes on income, wealth and consumption; income tax and social security tax constitute the largest part of state government’s revenue while local governments depend on property and wealth taxes.
Taxes under consumption are sale and excise tax; sale tax is tax paid on basic goods in the market while excise tax is tax on luxury goods. Moreover, property tax is the levy imposed on homes, business premises, and land depending on their net worth at the given time of valuation.
Non-tax sources: According to Brunori (2005, p.114), “the use of non tax sources for revenue collection has developed over the past decade, it is approximated that $747 billion was collected from non tax sources in 2003.” Primarily, the local and state governments receive funds from the federals governments; however, they also obtain funds through fees like licenses, grants, unclaimed property, and loans and bonds issue. Inter governmental funds are funds collected from other regions, not in the area they are used to provide services.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Revenue and expenditure categories of local and state governments in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Non-tax source are very important; however, they are unreliable sources of revenue. For instance, gambling and lotteries contribute a small portion to state revenue; it is approximated that New York raised $13.7 billion in 2003 from state run lotteries, about one percent of the total state economy (Brunori, 2005, p.117). Finally, the governments can obtain revenue through grants or loans from other states or organization.
Trends and changes in revenue and expenditure categories In the past years, there have been some notable changes in revenue and expenditure, which have either helped or undermined the service delivery by the state and local governments. Generally, local and state governments do not control tax rates and property tax allocation (Garcea, 2008, p.13).
According to Brunori (2005, p.116), “Local and state governments cannot spend monies from the federal government as they wish hence reducing state control.” In addition, there is tight regulation on tax relief and the transfer expenditure to vet the people who claim these benefits. Moreover, issuing of grants and loans to local and state governments is regulated by higher forms of governments.
Factors likely to affect revenue and expenditure categories and why Some factors that affect the revenue and expenditure categories are; economic situation, mandate from higher levels of governments, policies and natural disasters (Honadle, Ciggler, Costa, 2004 p.5).
On the other hand, economic meltdown causes people to loss employment and business to collapse, and as a result, state and local government loss revenue from income tax, sale tax, and licensing of businesses. During an economic meltdown, the value of property goes down resulting to low revenue from property taxation, while expenditure increases due to increased number of unemployed people seeking food stamps or unemployment benefits.
Government policies and regulations on the mandate of state and local governments affect investment expenditure. In addition, regulation on transfer fund from the federal government and interstate funds can considerably lower the revenue of governments. The unpredictability of the federal funds to state and local governments affects the planning of revenue and expenditure.
Neighboring state tax policy could make business and individuals to move from one state to another. Generally, business people like areas where the environment is business friendly; thus, an influx on people in a state would result to higher revenue collection and at the same time, higher expenditure in government consumption expenditure.
Conversely, natural calamities can inflate the expenditure, leading to low revenue collection due to damage of infrastructure. In addition, an increase in life expectancy affects the transfer payments to pensioners in a state. Moreover, globalization of the market place will make administration taxes to companies difficult and more expensive.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Revenue and expenditure categories of local and state governments in the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Measures of reducing the impact of disruption and why Disruption of revenue collection and expenditure should be avoided since it could result in lack of vital goods and services. For instance, schools and health care services must not be disrupted. Besides, local and state governments are labour intensive; hence, they need funds to pay their workforce. Thus, functional sharing arrangements between local and state governments can help to reduce the impact of reduced revenue (Garcea, 2008, p.13).
From another perspective, two neighboring states can share the police force unit or any other service, and ensure that there are better policies on allocation and use of federal funds so as essential services are delivered to the public. In addition, local and state governments should develop a strong investment program, while the authority should make policies that would enable for quick recovery and avoid continued disruption.
Conclusion Local and state governments collect revenue through taxation and other non taxation methods. Some taxes levied on individuals and business are property, excise, sale, and income tax while some non-taxation methods include charges, fees, licensing and transfer revenue from the federal government.
Categories of expenditure include; consumption, investment and transfer payments, with the consumption and investment expenditures taking up most of the revenue. Changes in revenue and expenditure include regulation of tax rates and allocation of revenue.
Factors that can affect expenditure and revenue categories are economic melt down, natural disasters, tax policy in the neighboring state and legislation by higher governments. To reduce the impact of revenue disruption, measures can be put in place including proper policies and functional sharing of duties between states.
References Baumol, W.
Budgeting in USA: Property Tax Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction Taxes levied on property acquired in form of land and buildings are a huge source of revenue for local government in U.S.A. The value to be taxed is resolved by an evaluator according to the market worth of the property. Avoiding tax is taken to be a criminal offence in America and every owner of property is required to pay to the state some money in form of tax in regards to his property.
Property can be taken to be land, immovable property such as buildings or movable properties. The tax imposed on property varies in different countries and jurisdictions and this paper will focus on how property tax works in U.S.A (Karp and Klayman, 2003).
Origin Of Property Tax According to Galaty and Allaway (2001), property tax dates back during the colonial times at the beginning of the Revolutionary War. During this time, the colonies had come up with different types of taxes which included capitation taxes, levied mostly on slaves and the male adults at a certain fixed rate; property taxes levied on enumerated items and according to their worth; faculty taxes levied on traders and tariffs imposed on imported or exported products.
During the war, there were complains that the taxes imposed were unfair especially property tax which was not taxed as per the value of the property but as per acre basis which favored rich land owners. It was not until the end of the war that the complaints were heard and most states started to levy taxes uniformly. Property tax began being levied on the property itself and not on the occupancy of the property owner (in rem).
Basics of Property Taxation In order to further understand the topic, it is important to go over the basics of what property tax really entails. Since way back, imposing taxes on properties has been met with a lot of resistance from property owners. The State on the other hand relies heavily on this tax revenue imposed on the property as it serves as a major source of its income to plan their budget. It is the role of the local and state government to collect taxes on property (Sarah, 2009).
In most states in USA, the tax levied on real estate is based on the value of the property and its ownership. The tax is levied on a certain tax rate of the given value of the property.
Individual property tax is imposed in many states where the value of private properties owned inside the borders of the state is assessed on a yearly basis. The personal property in this category includes all objects of value such as vehicles and boat registration fees. Only household goods are exempted from this kind of tax.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Calculating Property Tax The rate of property tax is calculated on a percentage or permille or millage rate. As earlier mentioned, tax on property in U.S.A is collected by the local government at both the county and municipal level. Rates vary between 0.2% and 4% depending on the state in which the property is situated in. The tax assessment officer, appointed by the local government assesses the property which is categorized into two categories. The value of the property can either be based on its improvement or the Land value itself.
To compute the duty to be levied on the assets, the calculated value is proliferated by the mill rate and then it is divided by a thousand. The tax is paid on an annual basis in most states.
The Advantage Of Property Tax In Funding The State And Local Government Services Tyler (2000) argues that the use of property tax to fund the local government’s services has been favored by most members of the National Tax Association. This is because of the several strengths that it has been associated with to support the government.
Its main strength is based on the fact that it is one of the oldest tax systems in America. Property tax has been in existence before the Declaration of Independence and the same has continued to play a dominant role in supporting the local government. The historical reliance of this tax was due to the fact that the government did not have an alternative to finance its projects.
This was because that the general sales tax was implemented after the Great Depression onset while the Income taxes introduced a generation after the general tax sales. The government relied heavily on the tax levied on property owners.
The other reason for the government’s reliance on this tax is due to its stability. Being the oldest form of tax, it has provided a stable pillar to the local government as a source of revenue. The property rate tax is fixed according to the state that the property is situated in and therefore cannot be changed.
The government is sure to get money from property owners at a particular fixed time which makes property tax more stable than wage or sales tax. Its stability becomes more significant to the state because of the fact that property value appreciates. The appreciation of the property increases the value of the public tax revenue. Due to its future stability, the government can adjust the level of services to the locals from time to time hence being the most flexible fiscal source of income for the government.
We will write a custom Essay on Budgeting in USA: Property Tax specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The administration and compliance of property tax is easy and not expensive. Compliance is easy since property owners cannot hide their property from being assessed by the local government making it impossible to evade. Moreover, the property becomes the security incase of default whereby a lien is placed over the property. The lien prevents the property owner from disposing the property and if the tax accrues, then the government can sell the property to recover its tax owed and remit the remainder to the owner (Tyler, 2000).
Property tax has further been referred to as a benefits tax. This is because the revenue raised is used to support the locals and public services that serve the tax payer. The local government therefore place policies that protects the property and those that lead to the growth of the value of the property located in their jurisdictions. The public services serve the tax payer and therefore it has been argued that the tax paid by the property owner reverts back to him as a beneficiary in form of services.
Its visibility is also an advantage especially to the local government as it ensures accountability. Unlike other taxes, property tax is paid at a lump sum and the tax payer is aware of the burden he has annually and how much he pays for it. This enable the tax payer to compare the tax he remits yearly with the services offered by the local government and determine whether the services are worth.
Disadvantage of Property Tax It is widely known that almost all American citizens are against property tax with most of them arguing that it is oppressive and not justified. In a poll activity held by Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations (ACIR), it emerged that the property tax was the second tax that was disliked by citizens after the federal income tax. Several reasons have been given as to why the public dislike this tax (Cullingworth, 1993).
The tax, being more visible to the tax payer does not auger well with the public. The taxpayer receives a bill from the country each year with a lump sum amount required to be paid. The lump sum to be paid is not a voluntary act by the tax payer but rather an amount imposed on him merely due to his ownership of a property. The irony of visibility of property tax as discussed earlier is that though the tax payer dislikes it, it enhances the accountability of the local government on its spending.
Tax administration is another issue that creates distrust with the tax payers. The value of the property should be assessed as per the market value bearing the same tax burden. The issue that arises here is that some property values have been overstated for purposes of tax collection. The uneven valuations lead to inaccuracy of the exact value.
The other dissatisfaction of property tax is its shift from the commercial estate to the residential estate whereby the owners bear the larger tax burden. Many taxpayers argue that the increased tax burden does not compensate the services given by the council.
Limitations Of Property Tax From Performing Its Role The displeasure of the public as discussed above has had its effects on the role of the property tax to fund the local government. According to Cullingworth and Caves (2003), during the 1970s and 1980s, there was a property tax revolt that resulted to major limitations on property tax. There has also been a lot of political involvement which has been biased against the tax.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Budgeting in USA: Property Tax by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There have been laws imposed for limitation of tax rates. This laws act as a hindrance of imposition of rates over a certain period of time. The laws further set a certain amount of tax, for example in California the rate tax set is one percentage. This hinders the local government from raising the rate when it is necessary to do so.
Some states have also established a limitation on property tax revenue prohibiting the tax revenue from increasing above the set revenue levels. In case of a need to increase the revenue, then two remedies have been proposed by the states.
The first remedy requires that if the revenue exceed the set level, then the tax rates should be reduced or secondly, the assessments of the property should be reduced incase of revenue increase. This condition bears a significant limitation on the local government fiscal autonomy as it hinders its increased spending.
Some states have also imposed limitations on assessed property values hindering the property valuation conducted annually from increasing beyond the set statutory limits. In California State for example, the set assessment valuation is two percentages annually unless the property is transferred.
Research conducted over the past few years indicated a reduction on reliance on property tax nationwide by the local government as its source of funding and has instead relied on other alternatives of tax.
Property Tax Variation States in Northeast and Midwest have been known to rely more on property tax compared to the local government in the West or South. Some regions like New Jersey are considered to be the state that pays high amount of rate tax raising $16 billion in property taxes alone.
This is a high amount compared to the total revenue collected from the other taxes combined and it accounted for almost 46% of the total collection. New York on the contrary collected a minimal amount from the property tax collecting 59% of all tax revenues compared to New Jersey’s 98%. In Alabama, the state raised a mere 39% from property taxes while the Mississippi state collected 92% of their total revenue from property tax.
These variations have certain consequences in such that the citizens of the states that rely on property tax have more control over the public services of their state and stronger government systems. This acts to their advantage as they are able to control the services given by the local government in their states compared to their counterparts (Platt, 2000).
Conclusion Though it is evident that there is a lot of resistance from the tax payers over property tax, the government requires a source of income to plan its expenditure and failure to tax the locals will result to decline of public services. The law should however be flexible to allow more participation by the tax payers to run the affairs of the public services.
References Cullingworth, J.B (1993). The Political Culture of Planning: America Land Use Planning in Comparative Perspective. USA: Routledge
Chemicals in foods Research Paper argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Sources of chemicals in foods
Role of chemicals in foods
Protecting consumers from harmful chemicals in foods
Introduction There are various chemical components that constitute food, each of which plays a significant role in conferring health and nutrition to the consumers. Some of these chemical components of foods include carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, fiber, trace elements, and antioxidants, among others. The aforementioned chemicals components are naturally found in food, although their availability and composition differs from one type of food to another (Food Standards Agency para. 5).
These are the natural components of food and their consumption at the right quantities helps to improve the nutritional status and health of an individual. On the other hand, foods also have other chemical compounds that also occur naturally, such as solanine in potatoes, and cynogenic glycosides as found in cassava. These chemicals are often associated with certain toxic properties. Therefore, when consumed by humans, these chemical pose a danger to their health.
Sources of chemicals in foods A number of food processing techniques such as smoking of food are also known generate by-products that are toxic to humans. They include acrylamide or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Besides, there are also environmental pollutants that could be present in foodstuffs in differing levels. They include chlorinated compounds and lead. We also have toxic elements in the environment such as cadmium as found on the crust of the earth.
Others include algal toxins (for example, shellfish poisons and aflatoxins) and natural mould. These could also find their way into foods at differing levels. In order to ensure the safety and health of the consumer upon the consumption of foods, it is important to establish procedures that are in a position to assess the types of health risks that such compounds presents in food and the dangers this could pose to the consumers of these foods.
In addition, we also need to take into account additional sources of exposures. The presence of undesirable chemicals in foods could also be due to the absorption of certain material components by the food upon contact, like in the case of chemicals in food packaging material being absorbed by the food contained in the package.
The addition of chemicals into foods could also be with a view to achieving a certain technological function. For instance, we could ad chemicals into foods to impart color, accentuate flavor, or for purposes of preserving that food.
Besides, chemicals may also be available in food in the form of residues following their use in the day to day agricultural practices (for example, residues found in foods as a result of the use of veterinary drugs or pesticides). In these substances are to find use in food production, it is important to ensure that a detailed safety assessment of these residues is undertaken.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, in the environment, we have several chemical substances that may also acts as pollutants. Such contaminants could be available in the form of the raw materials that finds use during the process of the production and distribution of foods, albeit unintentionally.
As a result, we may not be in a position to avoid their presence in foods. The role of food legislation therefore is to help in the achievement of a balance between on the one hand, the benefits of the unintentional substances in foods and on the other hand, the risks that are associated with such substances. In addition, food legislation also aims at ensuring that contaminants of food are reduced drastically to the acceptable levels.
Materials used in the manufacture of food packages could also be of concern to the health of consumers if it penetrates into the food. For example, studies indicate that harmful chemicals from Styrofoam or plastic packaging have the potential to penetrate into foods. Consequently, they could also pose dangers to the health of the consumers, and some of these chemicals have been associated with causing cancer (Hunter 2).
In addition plastic wrappings as used in microwavable foods also have the potential to transmit the chemicals of their manufacturing process into the food during the heating process. It is important to have in place sound assessment procedures to examine the dangers posed by chemicals of packaging materials to the users. This way, we can then have in established limits of the levels of the chemical substances that consumers can tolerate with no risk to their health.
Role of chemicals in foods Chemical substances play a significant function in as far as the production and distribution of food is concerned. For example, food additives find use in helping to extend the shelf life of foods. On the other hand, food flavorings and colors are used in making food to appear more attractive to the eyes of the consumers. During the storage of food, issues of attractiveness and hygiene are very important.
As such, such food containers as plastics enable foods to remain attractive and hygienic. Although the aforementioned benefits justify the role of chemicals in the production and distribution of foods, however, the same chemicals are also associated with potential health risk to the consumers of such foods. This may be as a result of either the residues of such chemicals in the foods that they are meant to preserve, add color or flavor to, or other side effects.
The addition of preservatives in food is for purposes of ensuring that it remains safe for longer. Preservation therefore constitutes a key requirement for processed foods in order to extend its shelf-life (Food Standards Agency para. 5). The only time that preservatives may not be included in foods meant for extended periods of storage is if additional means of preservation such as canning, freezing, or drying, have been used.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Chemicals in foods specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, ham, corned beef, and bacon make use of nitrates and nitrites as a preservative, to control bacterial growth. However, from a health context, nitrites and nitrates are thought to be carcinogenic. Sulphur dioxide finds use as a preservative in dried fruits to control bacterial growth.
Protecting consumers from harmful chemicals in foods There is the need to achieve high protection levels of the consumers’ health in as far as the issue of chemicals in food is concerned (Foods Standards Agency 2). With regard to food chemical substances, the following are the fundamental classes of food legislation:
– The principle of food additives legislation holds that their use should only be restricted to just those additives that enjoy explicit authorization. Even then, their use should be in specifics foodstuffs, and in limited quantities (Europa para. 3). Before the Codex Alimetarius Commission gives its authority on the use of food additives, they first have to undergo through an evaluation process in an effort to assess their safety levels.
-Limits are usually established by the current legislation on flavorings as regards the presence of otherwise undesirable compounds (Europa para. 4). On the other hand, in as far as the flavoring substances that have already been chemically defines are concerned, already, a large safety evaluation program is being executed. In this case, authorization shall only be granted to the chemical substances with a favorable outcome so that they can be used in foodstuffs.
-scientific principles and advice are useful during the legislation process of contaminants in foods. As such, the intention is to ensure that low levels of the contaminants are maintained within the most reasonable capabilities through the use of good manufacturing practices (Smith 6). Already, we have in place the maximum tolerable levels for a number of contaminants (for example, mycotoxins, heavy metals, dioxins, chloropropanols, and nitrates, among others) with the intention of ensuring the safety of public health.
– We also have authorization on veterinary medicinal product residues that finds use in animals meant for food production as well as in pesticides. In this case, a scientific evaluation has to be provided for prior to the authorization of the respective products (Europa para 7). – we have in place a provision of food contact materials with respect to legislation which states that the transfer of the components of such materials into foodstuffs should not be
-In such large quantities as to put to danger the health of humans (WHO para. 3), or appear to later the taste, texture, or composition of the foodstuff in question.
Conclusion It is important to ensure that harmful chemicals are not found in food meant for human consumption. Already, we have international bodies such as the IPCS (International Programme on Chemical Safety) that have established diverse activities aimed at assessing the safety of the components of foods, natural toxic constituents of foods, pesticide residues in foods, food additives, food contaminants, and veterinary drugs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Chemicals in foods by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Europa. Chemical safety of food- introduction. 2010. Web.
Foods Standards Agency. Preservatives. 2001. Web.
Foods Standards Agency. Committee on toxicity of chemicals in food, consumer products and the environment cot addendum to joint statement of the committees on toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity on nanomaterial toxicology. 2010. Web.
Food Standards Agency. Chemical Safety. 2010. Web.
Hunter, Beatrice. Dangers of packaging chemicals getting into food. Consumers’ Research Magazine,76.12(1993): 2- 8
Smith, Eric. The international programme on chemical safety. An overview. 2010. Web.
WHO. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Chemicals in food. 2010. Web.
Hills Like White Elephants – Ernest Hemingway Analytical Essay college essay help: college essay help
People often face situations that require them to make tough decisions and they have to live by them for the rest of their lives. In the story Hills Like White Elephants, Ernest Hemingway writes about a couple that is in a dilemma about an unborn child and they have to decide on the best decision to take regarding the pregnancy.
Jig and his companion the American are in Spain at a rail station taking drinks while awaiting a train. The American tells Jig to abort the fetus because the procedure is simple. He does not entertain the thought of becoming a parent. After, the deliberation on the issue, Jig decides to carry out the procedure.
Jig and the American man is an unmarried couple who have consummated their relationship and as a result, Jig is pregnant. Her boyfriend the American tells her to get rid of the pregnancy even though the author does not use the word abortion we can deduce its meaning from the conversation, “It’s just to let the air in” (Hemingway 1). The man tells Jig, “It’s really an awfully simple operation. It is not an operational at all” (Hemingway 1).
The American wants the fetus aborted because he does not want it to interrupt his adventurous lifestyle. He is a man who likes to travel from one place to another, their travel bags had labels from the various hotels they had checked into during their travels (Hemingway 1). On the other hand, Jig wants to have the baby as she hints in the conversation. She seems to be tired of the adventure and wants to settle down.
The American man manages to manipulate Jig psychologically by telling her not to abort if she does not want to because he senses her hesitance, “I think it’s the best thing to do. But I don’t want you to do it if you don’t really want to” (Hemingway 1). He tells her that after she aborts they can have everything they want in the world.
However, she does not agree with him and tells him that, “No, we can’t” (Hemingway 1). She is aware that once she loses her child she can never have it back, “And once they take it away, you never get it back” (Hemingway 1). In spite of that knowledge, she seems like she is willing to go through with the procedure not to lose her American. Jig seems afraid of losing the American man “And if I do it you’ll be happy and things will be like they were and you’ll love me” (Hemingway 1)?
The question shows that she is not ready to lose him and says, “Then I’ll do it. Because I don’t care about me” (Hemingway 1). The only thing she cares about is being with him and his love. She also wants to make him happy and reduce his worry because he says the only thing making them unhappy is that baby. Therefore getting rid of the baby will remove the hurdle to their happiness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She also decides to abort because maybe she knows that marrying a man who is not wiling to settle down would only mean a difficult marriage. The American hints that he is ready to settle if she decides to keep the baby,
“You’ve got to realize …that I don’t want you to do it if you don’t want to. I’m
perfectly willing to go through with it if it means anything to you” (Hemingway 1).
This does not reassure her because the American keeps bullying her into procuring an abortion by drumming in the message that the procedure “is perfectly simple” (Hemingway 1). Thus, she chooses to have the abortion as it seems as the only way out of her current predicament. They do not discuss other options of dealing with the pregnancy such as giving up the baby for adoption and hence she might have decided to abort.
Finally, I think Jig should not abort simply because I belief that abortion is morally wrong. She does not seem to have her own voice. She is controlled by the American because she is willing to go along with his suggestions even if she does not agree with them.
She should keep the baby because she hints that she knows of people who have gone through the procedure and they are not happy. If she goes through with the procedure, she will live with regrets for the rest of her life because she will never be able to bring back her dead child to life again as most of the women who have gone through the procedure attest.
Even if, keeping and raising the child will be a burden she should be willing to bear the consequences of her actions instead of trying to look for an easier way out. She should be firm and tell the American that she will keep the baby and that it is time they stopped their adventurous lifestyle. On the contrary, if she goes through with the abortion she should take precaution not to become pregnant again by using contraceptives because she will find herself in the same predicament yet again.
We will write a custom Essay on Hills Like White Elephants – Ernest Hemingway specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Hemingway, Ernest . Hills Like White Elephants. gummyprint.com. n.d. Web.
The dark side of life in America Critical Essay essay help free
With the challenges of modern day living, most individuals have to go to all possible lengths to earn a basic living. This is an element that has been well presented in authors Barbara Ehrenreich and Lars Eighner in their essays titled Nickel-and-Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America and On Dumpster Diving respectively.
Ehrenreich assumes the life of a struggling low-wage earner while trying to find out how individuals in such levels cope with life. Eighner on the other hand finds himself in a tight spot after losing his job and has to contend with feeding off other people’s rubbish.
His essay is more of a guide on the ‘profession’ of dumpster diving and he tries to present the lifestyle in positive light. However, the unifying theme for both essays is poverty and the challenges that it brings along. The two authors spend a great deal of time trying to show how average and lowly individuals get by in life with or without a well defined income. This theme is well presented using such literary elements as style of narration and progression.
As far as the progression of the narrative is concerned, both authors begin by providing the readers with an explanation of how they find themselves in their current situation. Eighner dedicates a number of paragraphs explaining that she is a successful writer who however prides in experiencing the challenges that befall her subjects of study from a first-person point of view.
She goes ahead to explain the flow of events between the time she leaves her home and gradually takes the author through her experience as a low-income restaurant waitress upto the time that she throws in the towel and goes back to her old life.
The challenge of finding a decent place to live in at her income as is testament of how average unskilled female Americans have to contend with deplorable working conditions just for basic sustenance. The process of finding a job is equally tasking and it takes the author through disappointment after disappointment (Ehrenreich 174-175).
She answers the numerous call-outs for which she qualifies basing on the fact that she has no previous experience whatsoever and it takes some waiting before she secures one. The job search reveals the rot in the human resource departments of various companies when she learns that most of the job call-outs in newspapers are placed by companies as a way of finding easy replacements for the members of staff who quit or are sacked.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Eighner’s story has an equally well laid out narrative structure and he starts by elaborating his fascination with dumpster’s leading to a proper transition to the revelation that he went into dumpster diving even before he became homeless.
He then directly jumps into offering tips on how to successfully partake in the activity and he adopts a humorous approach that makes it easy for the reader to go through the journey of dumpster diving in a more relaxed way. The opinion of society as regards to poverty is elaborated when he explains how challenging it was for him to start out in the field occasioned by self-loathing and fear of mockery from friends and relatives.
The mistrust that most people have in regards to decisions made by the poor is manifest by how individuals have second thoughts pertaining to the quality of food items handed to them by the author “From time to time one of my companions, aware of the source of my provisions, will ask, “Do you think these crackers are really safe to eat?” (Eighner 167). It is definitely clear that the same individual would not question the safety of a mould-covered food item were it handed to him/her by a wealthy person.
Both stories provide thematic emphasis by having the narration from a first-person point of view. This works well especially because the two authors personally experienced the events in the narrations and only they are best placed to detail what they were going through at particular instances.
For instance, when Ehrenreich tells of her disappointment at failing to secure a job after numerous attempts, the reader can easily relate with her as she gives her heart-felt opinion using the same words that she would use were she to verbally narrate the story.
The same effect is created by Eighner’s assertion that he is “…not here by chance; the Dumpsters in this area are very rich. Students throw out many good things, including food. In particular they tend to throw everything out when they move at the end of a semester, before and after breaks, and around midterm, when many of them despair of college. So I find it advantageous to keep an eye on the academic calendar” (167).
In conclusion, it is worth noting that with the social aspects of urbanization and modernization, more and more individuals are finding it increasingly challenging to secure meaningful employment and most of them have to do with harsh working and living conditions. This has been well presented by two authors who narrate events from different perspectives but still succeed in trying to show the effects of poverty on the social fabric.
We will write a custom Essay on The dark side of life in America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Ehrenreich, Barbara. “Nickel-and-Dimed: On (not) getting by in America”. English Composition II: Writing about Nonfiction Prose. Slavicz, Susan, et al. Boston: McGraw‐Hill Learning Solutions, 2007. Print.
Eighner, Lars. “On dumpster diving”. English Composition II: Writing about Nonfiction Prose. Slavicz, Susan, et al. Boston: McGraw‐Hill Learning Solutions, 2007. Print.
Challenges of the Grant Administration Research Paper essay help free
During this period of grant administration, several challenges were encountered. For instance, Oakes Ames and Massachusetts who were known to be the representatives and top most stockholders in the union had an idea of forming a credit mobilier. This was a company which was initiated with main aims of completing the 600 miles of railway which was remaining.
During the process of conducting the work which was planned, both the stockholders and the national government were taken advantage of millions of dollars. Some plans of carrying out the investigations were initiated but Ames bribed the most influential people in the plan. Later in the year 1872, the deception action was exposed that Colfax who was the vice chairperson was the one who received some form of bribe.
During the elections of 1868, Grant had a major challenge of lacking strong political assurance and people considered him as a person who loved money and luxury. Grant faced a great challenge from people as they regarded him as a drunkard and Negro-lover. During Grant administration, United States had a public debt. This debt was incurred as a result of pension payment and in the process of insurrection.
Another major scandal was the black Friday. During the year 1869, some two opportunists Jim Fisk and Jay Gould tried to embezzle the trading place of gold which was used. These two opportunists enrolled the assistance of Grants brother in law, who was volunteering to put all the needed effort from preventing the chairperson in ruining the plan. These schemers went to an extent of developing their plans by buying massive amounts of gold which resulted tom the price of the commodity hiking.
Their main aim was discovered that it was to enjoy huge amount of profits. It was later noted that Grant relative was contributing much in causing harm to the nation. As a result, Grant commanded for an urgent sale of the government gold of about $4.5 million. This was very positive as it resulted to prices going down. On the other hand, a large number of people started suffering from great financial losses. Fisk and Gould avoided these losses by declining to reimburse their commitment.
The whiskey ring was another challenge which was experienced during the grant administration. During the civil war, a lot of expenses were incurred which left the cost of fighting being very high. For the government to compensate the incurred loss it decided to increase liquor taxes. These taxes were made extremely high which many distillers could not afford to cater for. This led to many distillers conceiving an idea of bribing the top personnel in the treasury sector.
During the Grant administration, was a secret organization known as ku klux klan, which began as a social organization but later turned to fight against the reconstruction and also against the government leaders. This secretive organization operated between 1867 and 1871. During the time of Grant administration, the government had a great challenge of debts. Some of the debts were genuine while others were as a result of illegal activities like bribery which was practiced by officials in the treasury sector.
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Constitution and Government System Cause and Effect Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Constitutional challenges and the Watergate scandal
Federalism in USA
This paper is divided into two parts. Part one discusses ways in which the Watergate scandal challenged the constitution of the United States. To achieve this objective, the paper explains President Nixon’s acts which led to various arguments which had significant constitutional issues. Part two discusses the issue of federal system of government in the United States. This is done through elaborating on its history, how it is exercised and how it is evolving with time.
Constitutional challenges and the Watergate scandal The beginning of Watergate scandal was marked by burglary activity at the “National Committee headquarters in June 1972” and it ended when Gerald Ford, the then president, forgave his predecessor, Richard Nixon, during the month of September 1974 (Cox 1). The whole process of Watergate outrage confronted the US laws in several ways.
Two significant issues were raised and they included president’s subjectivity to the legal procedure and the extent of his documents’ immunity (conferred by executive advantage) when undergoing investigations.
In the preliminary stages of the judicial process, Richard Nixon and his mentors denied any knowledge concerning the occurrence of the burglary activity. However, the cover-up was short-lived as some of the accused pledged guilty and informed that both the president and the White House had a prior knowledge of the criminal activity (Cummings and Wise 440).
This led to appointment of a specific prosecutor to facilitate the hearings. At his capacity, the prosecutor solicited for tapes recorded in the president’s office but Nixon dishonored the request.
The prosecutor continued to search for justice but Nixon tried to kick him out of office. However, his efforts were futile as the ‘attorney general’, Richard Kleindienst, the man in-charge of terminating prosecutor’s contract failed to do so and instead quit office. Another attorney general was appointed and refused to sack the prosecutor and resigned as well. However, the attorney general who was installed after the second one sacked the prosecutor and appointed another one.
These happenings brought up some issues regarding the constitution of the United States. At first, to what extent is the president of USA “subject to the rule of the law- to constitutional and other legal restrictions and obligations adjudicated by courts of law?”(Cox 1). According to the United States constitution, the courts have jurisdiction over individuals attached to the area where such courts are located.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More So, a court has authority over all the individuals in its area of jurisdiction. However, Nixon’s acts challenged constitutionalism and tested people’s morality and political will to implement the laws of the land. The president is the chief executive of the country and he should act as a role model for others through respecting the rule of the law. Furthermore, the president must be treated by the law just like any other individual. However, in this case, Nixon tried to interfere with the judicial process right from the beginning.
The other issue questioned the president’s responsibility in providing evidence to the courts and the parliament when required to do so. At first, the president was unwilling to give the tapes although he finally accepted, but, what if he completely denied access to them? Also, the level to which the president is shielded by executive advantage against such interrogations may be questioned although he has to act in the best interest for the nation (Cox 1).
Such issues made people to seek clarification on the nature of presidency as well as its relationship to other executive institutions. Additional constitutional difficulties constituted defining crimes, intents and acts which may lead to impeachment. This was necessitated by Nixon’s refusal to provide evidence. Further, it was questioned if “a subsequent President can issue a pardon in the absence of either a conviction or an indictment” (Cox 7). Currently, the main question is whether the constitution was effective in this case or it failed.
Federalism in USA Federalism is the embryonic rapport “between the states and the federal government of the United Stases” (Cox 18). Patrick et al (234) says that federalism is “the division of governmental powers between the national and state governments.” The regional administrations must always respect federal government laws in accordance to the constitution.
In case of differences, the superiority clause states that federal laws are absolute. The powers of federal administration are officiated in the constitution and the rest belong to regional governments. The regional governments exercise their authority over a demarcated geographical area while the national government encompasses all such states. Therefore, a USA citizen belongs to both the regional and federal governments.
Federalism in the United States has 5 distinct attributes. As such, it enables separation of power between “regional and central government” (Cox 18). However, overlap arises in some situations but the two forms of government still remain. In addition, regional governments are seen as subordinates of central administration in international issues and control of trade between states (Cox 19).
Furthermore, federalism enhances productive collaboration between regional and central administrations in activities like environmental conservation, education and infrastructure construction among others. Moreover, federalism enables individuals to enjoy dual citizenship and they are protected by laws of both the regional and central governments. Finally, federalism requires Supreme Court to settle cases involving the national and regional governments.
We will write a custom Essay on Constitution and Government System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People in the USA express varying views regarding the effectiveness of federal and state governments. Some argue that regional governments are more effective in addressing “public policy issues” while others say that in times of major disasters, regional governments are incapacitated and they need help from national government (Patrick et al 233).
The pros of regional rights and autonomy argue that “the constitution is a compact between the states and the federal government” while the supporters of dual federalism argue that central administration cannot interfere with the powers conferred to state authorities (Patrick et al 222). However, the concept of federalism in the US keeps on evolving.
The standards established by federalism in United States in the 18th C were audacious and significantly influenced the United States history. The effects are still being felt today (Cox 20).
Towards the end of 1970s, there were heated arguments between “Federalists and Anti-Federalists” concerning the endorsement of the constitution which had some impacts on privileges and authority of regional governments in relation to the central administration (Patrick et al 221). The ideologies contained in ‘federalists’ work serves as foundations of civic culture in the US and such ideas are highly copied in foreign nations.
Since the inception of federalism, changes related to distribution of power between the two governments have been witnessed. According to Patrick et al (221), authority of federal government has been extended by “Supreme Court decisions, constitutional amendments, executive orders, and federal statutes.”
However, he notes that ‘new federalism’ observed from early 1970s to 1990s has tried to give more power to the regional governments as opposed to national government. Clinton’s administration conceded more power to state governments in 1996. As such, regional governments could have total control over their economy and social wellbeing.
Conclusion Proper interpretation and application of the constitution is integral to effective functioning of any administration. Based on the principle of equality, all individuals should be treated equally under such laws regardless of social status, race or religion. In addition, good comprehension of the constitution is important for proper functioning of a federal type of government. This type of government is important as it enhances devolution of power and thus active democracy.
Works Cited Cox, Archibald. “Watergate and the U.S. Constitution.” British Journal of Law and Society 2.1 (1975): 1-13. Print
Not sure if you can write a paper on Constitution and Government System by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cummings, Milton C. and Wise, D. Democracy under Pressure: An Introduction to the American Political System. United States: Wadsworth Thomson Learning, 2001. Print.
Patrick, John J., Richard M. Pious, and Donald A. Ritchie. The oxford guide to the United States government. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. Print.
Small Business in South Africa Report custom essay help
Introduction With the world population increasing at an alarming rate, the rates of unemployment are expected to increase and people will have to find alternatives to the formal employment by finding other means through which they can make a living.
From all spheres of the world, it has been lately discovered that creation of small businesses is one of the way through which a country citizens can reduce their reliance on the nation and that small businesses play a very important role in the economic, political, and social development of a country. This sector however has been faced with many challenges on their establishments particularly in the developing countries such as in the Asian and African states.
The small business faces quite a number of challenges from taxation issues to lack of funding and corruption. The objective of this study will be to analyze the challenges small businesses face in South Africa and recommend on the likely solutions to these challenges. The reason for choosing South Africa rather than Sudan is the fact that in South Africa small business enterprises are very important particularly to the majority of the low skilled population.
It is a fact that:
“Small, medium and micro-enterprises (“SMMEs”) contribute 36.1% of the country’s gross domestic product (“GDP”) and employ 68.2% of the workforce in the private sector. In the agriculture, construction and retail sectors, SMMEs employ more than 80% of the total workforce. Over the last few years, the growth in employment by SMMEs has exceeded the growth in their contribution to GDP, highlighting the job creation potential of this sector of the economy”.
That is the reason why many refer small businesses as the development engine for most countries as they aid in economic growth and job creation. In the last few years, they have been the sole means which has accelerated growth in rather poor economic conditions as most of them create employment and enhance poverty reduction.
Definition of Small Business It is a very difficult process of defining what a small business is because it all depends on the perspective you look at it. The few characteristics one may look when defining a small business include the potential market size, the management, the size of the employees and many other factors. Some people define a small business as a business having less than 20 employees, categorizing them as non employing businesses, micro businesses and other businesses.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Others define small businesses in terms of ownership and management characteristics. These classes of small businesses include the independent owned, close control by owners and partnerships. In consideration that this study is based on South Africa, we will use the country’s definition according to the National Business Act that a small business is a business with not more than 50 employees with the turn-over rates varying according to the sector.
There is quite a big distinction in small businesses between service and manufacturing small businesses. The policy makers and business owners of small manufacturing businesses attribute old technologies and management strategies as some of the challenges they face on their way to growth while the service businesses are all about one’s attitude and adaptability of the business.
In terms of size, the service industries are also known to be larger than the manufacturing businesses and their out put per worker is higher compared to the manufacturing businesses due to the simple fact that while manufacturing rely on physical capital service, businesses rely on human capital which can be increased or decreased according to the situation. Small services businesses are also not entitled to registration for taxation in contrast to the manufacturing businesses which have to register and pay taxes.
For example, a small manufacturing business will require capital to buy the plant machinery while a service industry such as the hair salon requires the human effort only to earn the money. Another challenge lies on the differences in the costs of acquiring assets. It makes it more beneficial to start a small service business rather than a manufacturing one.
According to the South African law “”small business” means a separate and distinct business entity, including co-operative enterprises and non-governmental organizations, managed by one owner or more, which including its branches or subsidiaries (if any) is predominantly carried on in any sector or sub sector of the economy”
And the amendment of the bill in 2003 classified small businesses under the following categories (see appendix for the table).
Overview of the Small Business Context Small businesses in South Africa do not contribute more to the GDP compared to other developing countries due to several challenges which include the high unemployment rate and inflation. Many studies show that the small business sector contributes 30 to 50 % of the country’s GDP. SEDA puts the figures at 42% as of year 2002, 46% as of 2004 and at 30% as of 2007.
We will write a custom Report on Small Business in South Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aswani estimates south Africa had 2.5 million enterprises as of 1999 with 45% of south Africans working in the sector which represented 4.8 million people and at that time the small businesses contributed about 50% of the GDP. With the poverty rates having risen from 15.5 % in 1995 to 30.5% in the year 2002, the small business contribution has since reduced to the above said level. To the employment, the small business sector absorbed 57% as of 2002.
Constraining Issues As in any other sector in the economy, the small business sector faces quite a number of challenges as they try to improve and increase their contribution to the south African’s GDP. According to the SADE SMME (Small Medium and Micro Enterprises) development and support plan, the major factors hindering the growth of small businesses are:
“Finance, structural demands, intensity of competition, cost of labour, labour legislation, managerial skills, and managerial style”.
These above constrains will be covered in this study as under infrastructure, corruption, inflation, lack of credit and the human resources.
Corruption: (Legal – Political – Economic)
The act of unfair or illegal influence in decision making process by use of power or wealth, for example, the act of giving or receiving a bribe in order to give service or an illegal substance can be described as corruption. This vice occurs in every country in the world and in every level be it in the private or the public sector.
The giver and the receiver of the bribe are beneficially of the crime and thus both need to be punished by the existing laws. Instance of corruption have been reported in south Africa for example in places where crime rates are high, small business owners are reported having given policemen money in order to access their protection from the criminal activities.
If the small businesses are not protected from the criminals, they will continue losing their millions of investment but paying policemen in order to acquire their services (while that is the job they are assigned to do) amounts to corruption and losses to the already endangered small business enterprises.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Small Business in South Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Implication:
Corruption in South Africa is a major hindrance to the country’s small business sector and action need to be taken against corruption as it reduces the productivity capability of the small businesses.
Small businesses are also vulnerable to the low inflation rates which increase the cost of doing business and leads to a probability of businesses making huge losses as a result of the decreased prices. In the year 2010 the country recorded a 3.2% as of September this is very risky for those doing business within.
When inflation is at very low rates it reduces the chances of recovering the borrowed capital. For example, let’s say you bought an item for 10 Rands and then next time the price falls to 5 Rands that means if the money was from a borrowed source you will have to find ways of sourcing for 5 Rands per item and this makes the banks to take higher precautions when giving out loans.
Low inflation rates while they may be healthy for the population as a whole do not favour businesses in realizing their profitability due to the decreased prices of commodities.
Infrastructure: (Technological – Economic)
Despite the good infrastructure network in South Africa, a research based on Soweto youth entrepreneurs shows that infrastructure is a major barrier to the success of small businesses in that area.
They cites examples of the city of Johannesburg making some efforts in tarring the roads and providing taxi facilities but the report also complains that the city is doing nothing to support business activities in Soweto. The report also indicates that improvements in the transport sector would allow more people to move easily within the Soweto area and this could enhance their business activities.
If the infrastructure connecting major towns and rural areas such as Soweto could be improved, the small business sector could improve a lot as this would enhance cheaper movement and exchange of goods and services between the major and the minor players in the business sector.
Poor infrastructure increases costs of conducting business in any place and thus to increase the contribution of small business sector in South Africa infrastructure need to be improved in all places.
Lack of credit funding: (Economic)
Commercial banks and other financial institutions are unable to fund small businesses due to internal capacity problems. Most of the small business owners requiring financial assistance from the finance and banking sectors are unable to provide the banks with adequate reliable information which can allow their evaluation on their credit worthiness.
This makes the commercial banks in South Africa provide credit facilities to only those businesses which provide reliable information fulfilling the credit worthiness criterion. Offering loans to small business owners is also difficult in South Africa as most banks offer loans with high return rates and this increase the cost of borrowing in the country. Information from Investors Network indicates that on average when people present their business plans to financial institutions this is what happens:
“60% are rejected after a 30 minute review
25% are rejected after a 3 hour appraisal
10% are rejected after a full day evaluation 3% are rejected following failed negotiations
2% succeed in raising funds
Yes, read it again, only 2% of businesses seeking private equity are successful.”
With the high costs of borrowing most of the South African small business owners are unable to source for extra capital that may be required to expand their businesses and also the low probability of accessing loans in south Africa makes it hard for small businesses to succeed as in other countries.
The small businesses in the country will continue to suffer unless legislations are enacted which can allow most of the small business entrepreneurs access loans without much scrutiny as far as there are collaterals to the loans.
Human Resources: (Social Culture)
There is the inability of small businesses to obtain well trained and qualified personnel as they are unable to provide comfortable and better pay working conditions and most of the time they offer wages which are way below the current market rates . As a result, larger businesses remain way above small businesses.
Most small businesses as we saw with the country’s guidelines are made of few employees thus higher chances of understaffing. The apartheid era employed an inferior education system and unfair patterns of population settlements. Thus, it has been evident that most of the South Africans of the African origin are inadequately skilled in any field they are participating in and this has been a major challenge as they start up and run their small businesses.
The low education among the South Africans of African origin is one of the major causes of the limitation of small business staffing particularly those owned by the blacks. Understaffing is also a major problem as most small business want to gain higher profits; the result is exhaustion and poor workmanship.
As long as the small businesses are understaffed, their productivity will always remain low compared to the large business enterprises.
Recommendations To improve the small businesses situation in South Africa, the small business owners need to access funds for their business activities. The government and the banking institutions need to agree on the requirements one has to fulfil when acquiring loans.
To the question about infrastructure, the government should ensure that the transport network is well established in all places whether in the major towns or in the ghettos so as to promote the growth of small businesses in the country. The challenge of inflation is more of a global issue but the central bank in the country should control its releasing and hold up of money so as to avoid high inflation or deflation rates on the country’s currency.
To reduce inflation the government should design policies which enable its currency value to be at a stable position to avoid unexpected changes in prices. For the corruption part if the country authorities could ensure that every citizen is safe when doing business and that bribes are not given out in order to gain favours, small businesses will move miles ahead.
Understaffing is brought about by the inability of small businesses to acquire enough capital to run the business and thus by enabling small business owners access loans at lower costs will enable them hire more working personnel.
Conclusion The small business contribution to the country’s GDP is very low compared to other countries and thus for their contribution to be higher, challenges they face such as corruption, poor infrastructure, inflation and inadequacy in human resources need to be addressed and a good solution reached.
Bibliography Anonymous. “Small business in Australia.” Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2009. Web.
Aswani, Frank. “Barriers and facilitators to transitioning of small businesses (SMME’s) from the second to the first economy in South Africa: Gordon Institute of Business Science.” University of Pretoria, 2007. Web.
Centre for Development and Enterprise report. “Young Soweto entrepreneurs.” CDE, June 2007. Web.
Foreign Investment Advisory Service of the World Bank Group. 2007. South Africa.
Investors Network. “Private Equity Financing for SMEs in South Africa.” Investors Network. Web.
Minnaar. “BUSA Anticorruption Working Group.” Newsletter, 2008. Web.
Molapo, Sekoala. “Financial sector support for small business development.” University of Johannesburg, 2007. Web.
National Small Business Act. Republic Of South Africa, 1996.
National Small Business Amendment Bill. Republic of South Africa, 2003.
Newham, Gareth. “Tackling police corruption in South Africa.” Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, 2002. Web.
Stone Butch Blues (1993) Critical Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Stone Butch Blues is a novel authored by Leslie Feinberg that presents the day-to-day struggles of a transgendered individual by bringing to light the practices through which sexual and gendered identities are culturally generated and imposed in an orderly manner.
At first glance, the novel appears to be a fictitious narrative about a lesbian by the name of Jess Goldberg but on a closer look, a reader realizes that the book explores the lives of average working-class transgendered gays within the Northeast urban areas and showcases the conflicts and struggles they face in the society. The author utilizes narrative friction to portray the interrelationship of constraints associated with gender and class structures.
Stone Butch Blues may not be the first novel to explore the issues affecting transgender individuals but it is among the first to put an identity to transgendered individuals. Feinberg addresses the subject of female-to-male (FTM) transgendered by clarifying that FTM is a complex identity which should be recognized just as the male and female identities are. Feinberg argues in this novel that any individual whose expression of gender does not fall under the male or female gender is drifting towards the opposite gender expression.
In the novel, Jess is faced with a lot of challenges which she thinks are connected to her gender status and as such, she decides to take a few steps towards defining her gender including undergoing a breast-reduction surgery and putting herself on male hormones.
Ironically, instead of living an open life free of lies and deceit, the sex change further pushes her adrift from the kind of life she desires. Jess had hoped that the sex change would allow her more breathing space living as a transgendered individual but she gets the opposite from the society.
In presenting the life of Jess, Feinberg illustrates that gender issues and sexual identity entail social constructs which characterize the numerous humiliating and vicious punishments that transgendered individuals, including Jess, are put through for not confirming to the expectations of the society. It seems as though Feinberg is blaming the society for not accepting transgendered individuals for who they by subjecting them to unfair treatments on the grounds of their sexuality.
Jess is also shown as identifying with her male colleagues at the factories and warehouses where she works instead of the middle-class feminists. She also befriends oppressed individuals in the society who include African Americans and drag queens. From the people Jess seems to be befriending, it seems as though she is attempting to foster an amicable coexistence. From this, it is apparent that the author is questioning the revolutionary class consciousness-racism-sexism relationship in the society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Feinberg’s work of fiction examines the issue of gender identity from a different perspective by stating that when an individual is not comfortable with his or her assigned gender identity, it is not the cultural institutions that assign the gender identities that are on the wrong, but on the contrary, it is the individual.
Thought the novel, the author presents situations in which Jess views her identity as not only being fixed, but also essential for her existence. Interestingly, the author shows Jess as engaging in relationships and acts that go against this identity. This is the author’s way of stating that transgendered individuals who are uncomfortable with their sexual identity have something wrong with them.
In conclusion, this article has explored only a few of the unfair treatments that transgendered individuals are subjected to. From this novel, it can be concluded that the author does not agree with the way the society treats transgendered individuals and wished the society would accept their sexuality. The author also criticizes the transgendered individuals for attempting to change their identity.
Beauty within the Music Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Diana Ross – a personification of beauty.
Diva’s beautiful and unique voice
Diana Ross is the icon of glamorous beauty
The significance of the pillar of beauty in music
Diana Ross – a sparkle of beauty and style
Diana Ross – a personification of beauty. In 2007 the Kennedy Center awarded the gorgeous Diva of pop music, Diana Ross, for her “lifetime achievement in the performing arts” (Lee “Kennedy Center Names Five Artists to Lifetime Awards”). This is only one of numerous rewards which prove the recognition of Ms. Ross as a magnificent singer, talented actress and glorious woman who became an icon for millions.
Apart from the beauty of her sweet vibrating voice which made her romantic blues even more touching and sincere, Diana Ross was a personification of female beauty and style. This image inspired many women who realized that they want to be as attractive as that little women dressed in gorgeous gowns. Thus, Diana Ross has always been one of those bright sparkles in the world of music and, in fact, in the entire world of performing art.
Diva’s beautiful and unique voice It goes without saying that Diana Ross was a very special teenager who felt the strength inside her heart and knew the value of her talent. Her beautiful “girlish” voice won the recognition of one of the most famous labels Motown (Louie 120).
Initially, Ms Ross was a member of girls’ band the Supreme which in a few years became one of the most successful pop bands in the United States, and even worldwide. However, from the very start her unique bright voice and quite a huge ambitiousness brought her to the front in the group. She became a kind of solo singer within the group.
Someone called her too assertive and were rumoring about her relationship with Berry Gordy which enabled Diana Ross to play a leading role in the group. However, her success is determined by her constant challenging herself since she never stopped and tried something new to become better. When she was one of the Supreme singers she was constantly competing with Mary Wilson.1 In several years the beauty of her voice transformed the Supreme into “Diana Ross and the Supreme”.
After becoming the supreme within the Supreme Diana Ross understood that she can do more and she did. Her career as a solo singer was as successful (or, maybe, even more successful) as her previous career. Everyone knew her beautiful voice and wanted to listen to their idol. Of course, even in her seventies this greatest female singer ever continues pleasing her fans with her candy-sweet and at the same time strong vocal.2
Diana Ross is the icon of glamorous beauty However, not only specific voice made Diana Ross an icon of the culture of the sixties. In the very beginning of the Supreme, the girls were taught by Maxine Powell, former model. Gordy wanted to make the girls “black ladies” to attract more audience, especially among white people (Bloch and Umansky 155).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, Powell taught girls how to dress, how to move “gracefully”, how to behave “correctly” on and off the stage.3 The Supreme became a unique band of African American female pop singers who were exquisitely dressed in beautiful gowns. Of course, soon these girls became icons of style. However, Diana Ross stood out of this posh group. She has always had her own style was a queen wherever she appeared.
Her costumes even now impress people with their deliberateness and perfect taste. She brought about glamour and beauty into the culture of sixties which influenced the following decades greatly. It is necessary to add that this gentle little woman became the ideal of female beauty. However, not only physical attractiveness made Diana Ross commonly recognized queen. The beauty and strength of her spirit were those features which conquered everyone.
Ms Ross was not a mere pop singer or attractive pop idol, she was an active modern woman who created herself and her life. People could not but surprise how this remarkable woman could combine that determination and remain vulnerable at the same time. By all means, this enigmatic peculiarity of Ms Ross contributed to her development into a pillar of beauty within the pop culture.
The significance of the pillar of beauty in music At this point it is but natural to dwell upon the significant role Diana Ross played in the culture of the United States. First of all, it is necessary to point out that Ms Ross made a great contribution into the development of the music, and blues in particular. Her 70 hits are great illustrations of her profound influence on the minds of people.
Her iconic singing is now studied by many people to find the formula of success in music. Her lasting success in the world of performing art is the source for inspiration for many generations.4 Apart from this, the beauty of Diana Ross and her perfect style brought great changed as well.
First of all, many females followed the singer in the manner of dressing and behaving. The story of success of diva made many women understand that they should not be confined to household duties only. Females understood that they could do more than that. In fact, the logo that beauty will save the world is true in case of Diana Ross.
Diana Ross – a sparkle of beauty and style Thus, Diana Ross is an iconic symbol of beauty within the world of culture. She started her ascent as an ingenuous but ambitious teenager and reached the highest top of show business. Her beautiful voice, good looks and the strength of her spirit caused considerable changes in the cultural life and the entire society.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Beauty within the Music specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She became a symbol of female strength and success, profoundly talented artist and independent woman. The way of her performing and the way of her life are inspiring. Notably, the changes can be still traced since many contemporary stars have been inspired by the great little female pop singer. To date it is impossible to imagine the stage without its greatest queen Diana Ross who is still a sparkle of beauty and style in the contemporary world.
Works Cited Bloch, Avital H. and Umansky, Lauri. Impossible to Hold: Women and Culture in the 1960’s. New York: NYU Press, 2005.
Lee, Suevon. “Kennedy Center Names Five Artists to Lifetime Awards.” Arts. The New York Times, 12 Sep. 2007. Web.
Whitall, Susan. “From the archive: Diana loves Detroit. Diva brings her Motown spirit home for visit.” Media Prints. International Diana Ross Website, 9 January 2009. Web.
Louie. “Why Rumors Become Reality When Diana Goes Solo.” Ebony Feb. 1970: 120-126.
Sonneborn, Liz. A to Z of American Women in the Performing Arts. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2002.
Therapeutic Recreation – Prader-Willi Syndrome Report custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
People affected by the syndrome and its prevalence
Relationship to other medical disorders
Historical information and current research conducted
Significance of the syndrome in the recreation and leisure field
Introduction The prader-Willi syndrome results from the deletion or lack of expression of seven of the genes found on chromosome 15. It is as a result of disruptions in the paternal chromosome 15. Disruptions in similar regions of the maternal chromosome result in the Angelman Syndrome (Eiholzer, 2005).
People affected by the syndrome and its prevalence The syndrome’s incidence falls between 1out of 10,000 and 1 out of 25000 births that are live. It affects young children, adolescents and even adults. In some cases, it may affect fetuses developing in their mother’s wombs. Children suffering from the syndrome exhibit lethargy, retarded growth and coordination difficulties.
They also sleep a lot and often experience difficulties during feeding. Adolescents may become obese and show slowness in development. Adults suffering from the syndrome also exhibit obesity and have a high tendency of suffering from diabetes mellitus (Whittington,
How the First Four Commandments Separate the Jews from the Pagan World Report best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Worship no gods other than Yahweh
Make no graven images
Do not take the name of the Lord in vain
Keep Holy the Sabbath
The Jewish people originate from Israel and Judaism is their traditional faith, religion, and way of life. A pagan on the other hand can be termed as a person who has little or no religion. Pagans believe in many gods, goddesses or deities though one is chosen as a chief or supreme one to be worshiped. Although it is difficult to distinctly differentiate the Jews from the pagans, there are some distinct differences that can be seen according to their practices and beliefs.
For example, Judaism professes one God while paganism teaches of many or no god, Judaism teaches that the bible contains God’s words and messages to mankind while paganism does not have a main religious text or set of beliefs to follow and finally, the Jews believe that Jesus the son of God came on earth, died on the cross for the sins of the whole world and resurrected or rose to life again while some pagans believe in Jesus as one of the gods and do not give importance to Him as the Jewish do.
The Mosaic Law is regarded as a very essential tool in the Jewish way of life as it is viewed as a basis of their identity. The first four commandments distinguish the Jews from the pagans on the basis of how they interpret or believe in certain things (Cunningham and Reich 11).
Worship no gods other than Yahweh There is a great difference between the Jews and pagan beliefs on this issue. The Jewish people believe that there is only one Supreme Being, God, who should be worshiped solely and no other gods whatsoever. The Jews got this idea from the creation story in the bible where God created everything and nothing was created as a god. Most pagans believe that everything has a spirit and therefore it can be worshipped.
Make no graven images The Jewish believe that under no circumstance should an image be made to represent God or to be worshipped. Although the Jewish people were involved in artistic work like making of images and sculptures, they never used them to represent God and never used them as a worship item but for aesthetic and beauty value.
The idea is that no images should be worshipped or viewed as God. Those that don’t follow the Mosaic Law like the pagans may make or model some form of art/ images that stand for their gods, goddesses or deities and use them in worship.
Do not take the name of the Lord in vain Jewish people regard God as being transcendent. They believe that God is beyond the world and not part of it. It is therefore taken as a sin to use the name of the Lord lightly and with no supreme importance. The Jews believe God is invisible and it is not possible to physically interact with Him.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most pagans on the other hand believe that they can easily intermingle with their gods and goddesses as they are part of, not above the world. For example they viewed heroes and leaders as gods or goddesses with the believe that they descended from the gods (Cunningham and Reich 18).
Keep Holy the Sabbath Both paganism and Judaism recognize the Sabbath, the difference lying on how they carry out their practices. Jewish people take the Sabbath to begin on Friday evening to Saturday evening, the day was meant for prayers and meditation as they believed Yahweh was not materialistic but required holiness of the soul.
Pagans also honored their gods through celebrations and feasting since the gods were physically together with them in the celebrations. The Jewish and pagan cultures are quite different and each culture view the other as being inferior or not following the right path since each one of them believes in themselves. All in all, different cultures should be respected for what they are.
Works Cited Cunningham S. Lawrence and Reich J. John. Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. 7th ed. New York: Cengage Lerning Publishers, 2009.
Country Analysis: China Research Paper online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction China has a vibrant economy that forms potential for many investors. The government of China has improved the infrastructure of the country to ensure that investors have a good business environment. The legal systems of the country are favorable for conducting business.
The economy of the country has been good and this forms a good foundation for performing business activities. In addition, the political and legal systems support business activities in the country. China has a viable business environment and investors should consider establishing investments in the country (Harper
Running Head: Juvenile Justice System and Rehabilitation Research Paper online essay help
Introduction Juvenile justice is a justice system that operates under the juvenile law, which aims at trying the offenders who are mainly between 10 and 18 years (Maggio, 2010). The operation of the juvenile justice system takes into account the differences that exist between the youth and the adults in terms of accountability as well as room for rehabilitation. It operates on the basis that the youth can be successfully rehabilitated, hence improve security in the community.
Why Should the Juvenile Justice System Adopt Rehabilitation Program Due to a number of reasons, many children and teenagers engage themselves in criminal activities that make them end up in courts. United States being one of the countries that have a high number of child/teenage crimes in the world has been engaged in major debates on how to put in place a system that will help to curb the high rate of child/teenage crime (Cole
Idleness and the Reasons Why It Goes on Undetected Expository Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Idleness is a vice that normally does not raise eyebrows because it predominates in the lives of people and often goes unsuspected. The author in the article Idleness of November 18, 1758 talks about idleness and the reasons why it goes on undetected. He says it does not cause harm directly to the people such as fraud does or like pride which people notice because it dwells in demeaning others who are deemed inferior.
On the contrary, idleness has a peaceful quality and it is silent. I think this is the reason why not many people talk about idleness because they do not even notice its existence especially with people who have plans just as Mr. Sober who is an idler. Idleness takes many forms, some people know they are idlers while others appear busy but in the real sense, they are also idlers. Mr. sober embodies idleness.
Idleness is a power to reckon with because it ensnares people. Too much sleep is not good for anyone because it is a sign of laziness. He talks of people who do nothing apart from sleeping until they can sleep no more and wake up only to go back to sleep.
These people would rather have twenty-four hour nights and will prolong the nights using double curtains to keep out the sun light beans, which interrupt their sleep. Lazy people become accustomed to idleness that it becomes difficult for them to do anything. Thomas says that some are even proud of being idlers and take pride in doing nothing.
However, in idleness people waste their lives, which would have been used in doing meaningful things for themselves, their families and the society. In addition, Lumusa notes that apart from idling in form of sleeping some people make plans that they never get around to implementing. There is a popular saying that failing to plan is planning to fail. However, to the people who only concern themselves with making plans and not doing anything about them they are just as good as idlers.
Planning or having plans does not necessarily mean that one is not idle. Planning is a good cover up for idleness because one appears as if they have made a schedule and thus have some things to do and so no one considers them idlers. These people are under the control of idleness and thus cannot bring themselves to abandon this vice and work like he rest of the people.
Idleness can be a full time job. Thrasher observes that, some idlers have made idleness their main occupation. These kinds of people have many things going on but they master none. Mr. Sober is a good example of a person who does so many things to occupy himself and shut out the thought that he could be idle.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, Mr. Sober knows about so many jobs but he does not do even one of them perfectly. Instead, he occupies himself in gaining knowledge about the various jobs. He prefers talking just as many idlers do because talking is easy and not very tiring because one can talk without engaging one’s brain. Mr. Sober does everything yet ends up accomplishing nothing. These kinds of people though they appear occupied they are as guilty as the idlers because they do nothing meaningful.
Idlers prefer to do useless things to meaningful ones. Mr. Sober knows he is an idler and occupies himself with meaningless activities. For example, he likes chemistry and does distillations in his small furnace yet he knows the experiments are of no use and spends a lot of time at them.
This useless activity helps him to pass time that he would have used to do something meaningful things like gainful employment. McCann, sums this up by saying that idlers know the right thing to do but choose not do it. Instead, they prefer to fill their time with sleep and hobbies. Moreover, they manage to getaway with idleness because in their meaningless occupations do no affect other people hence no one bothers with what they do.
Yang says that idlers manage to string along in life because idleness is silent. Some do not even realize they are being idle because all day they are occupied with so many activities. They have all the time to do things that are not helpful yet never find time to engage in real activities. Choosing to engage in hobbies and other acts of laziness, the idlers forego their chance of engaging in real employment.
Finally, idleness is a vice just like any other. It must be fought against because it robs people of the time they would have used to get involved in meaningful activities. It is also important to note that idleness is not easy to detect as the author says it is silent. People are not bothered by idleness because many times it goes unnoticed thus by failing to detect it the vice continues to grow silently.
People must recognize the signs of idleness to able to overcome it and be bold enough to tell those who are idling to get up and work like the rest. Surely, idleness should not be a trait that anyone should be proud of possessing.
Documentary Film “The Big One” by Michael Moore Essay college admission essay help
The Big One is a documentary film by Michael Moore that was released to the public in 1998 as a follow-up to his 1989 film called Roger and Me. The film was produced during Moore’s tour around the U.S. in forty-seven towns to promote his book called Downsize This!
His visits made him to discover the unprofessional conducts of several American big businesses that they use as a means of cutting costs. The riveting and humorous movie also exposes the wrongs of some callous politicians in the United States. The main theme of the film centers on the economic conditions of our times.
The movie exposes a familiar pattern as appertains to the global assembly line. Company after company, in spite of recording high proceeds, has resolved to go south near Mexico, or to other places around the world so as to pay minimal wages, provide minimum employee benefits, and prohibit the employees from joining trade unions.
Moore and his crew discovered that because several smaller towns are actually dependant on a small number of huge companies, the loss of any one of them brings overwhelming consequences on both the economic and social infrastructure of the town; consequently, the remaining companies use this situation to oppress the employees.
Following a series of successful and unsuccessful interviews in various companies across the U.S., the film brings it home once more by ending at Nike headquarters with an interview with the company’s Chief Executive Officer, Phil Knight. This is interesting because Knight was the only corporate executive who agreed to meet Moore face-to-face. Moore gets the CEO to confess casually that he has never gone to the company’s plants in Indonesia in which its corporate image has been ruined by employing under-age workers.
In Indonesia, workers, as young as fourteen yeas of age, are making the company’s most fashionable athletic shoes. Perhaps, Moore reveals that the unfavourable business practices of Nike make it to be the “biggest one.” Even though the meetings were tense, Moore conversations with Knight were good-natured, and they were one of the most riveting, successful feats Moore has ever pulled off.
The theory of development that best describes Michael Moore’s viewpoint in the movie is the Marxist theory. The Marxist theory tends to give a materialistic interpretation of the society by criticizing the notion of capitalism. The social theory, proposed by Karl Marx, posits that in a capitalist society, like the one in the United States, an economic minority tend to take over and oppress an economic minority.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the system of capitalism is exploitative since the arrangement in which there are two opposing classes, the employers and the employees, the former tends to make huge profits by paying the latter meager wages. As pointed out in the earlier sections of the paper, Moore portrays various unfair practices by America’s big businesses to increase their profits. Perhaps he might not be aware of it, but this reveals the film’s director as a flaming Marxist.
On the other hand, other social theories, such as liberalism, which stress that individual liberty and equal rights are significant in the society, does not seem to represent the director’s viewpoint. Since liberals hold that the system of society ought to be the outcome of processes, this notion seems to justify the unfair practices of the corporations; therefore, this cannot fit with Mr. Moore’s ideologies.
Declaration of Independence Definition Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Declaration of Independence is a document that is most treasured in United State since it announced independence to American colonies which were at war with Great Britain. It was drafted by Thomas Jefferson back in July 1776 and contained formal explanation of the reason why the Congress had declared independence from Great Britain.
Therefore, the document marked the independence of the thirteen colonies of America, a condition which had caused revolutionary war. America celebrates its day of independence on 4th July, the day when the congress approved the Declaration for Independence (Becker, 2008). With that background in mind, this essay shall give an analysis of the key issues closely linked to the United States Declaration of Independence.
As highlighted in the introductory part, there was the revolutionary war in the thirteen American colonies before the declaration for independence that had been going on for about a year. Immediately after the end of the Seven Years War, the relationship between American colonies and their mother country started to deteriorate. In addition, some acts which were established in order to increase tax revenue from the colonies ended up creating a tax dispute between the colonies and the Government (Fradin, 2006).
The main reason why the Declaration for Independence was written was to declare the convictions of Americans especially towards their rights. The main aim was to declare the necessity for independence especially to the colonist as well as to state their view and position on the purpose of the government. In addition, apart from making their grievances known to King George III, they also wanted to influence other foreigners like the France to support them in their struggle towards independence.
Most authors and historians believe that the main influence of Jefferson was the English Declaration of Rights that marked the end King James II Reign. As much as the influence of John Locke who was a political theorist from England is questioned, it is clear that he influenced the American Revolution a great deal. Although most historians criticize the Jefferson’s influence by some authors like Charles Hutcheson, it is clear that the philosophical content of the Declaration emanates from other philosophical writings.
The self evident truths in the Declaration for Independence is that all men are created equal and do also have some rights which ought not to be with held at all costs. In addition, the document also illustrated that government is formed for the sole purpose of protecting those rights as it is formed by the people who it governs. Finally, if the government losses the consent, it then qualifies to be either replaced or abolished. Such truths are not only mandatory but they do not require any further emphasis.
Therefore, being self evident means that each truth speaks on its own behalf and should not be denied at whichever circumstances (Zuckert, 1987). The main reason why they were named as self evident was to influence the colonists to see the reality in the whole issue. Jefferson based his argument from on the theory of natural rights as illustrated by John Locke who argued that people have got rights which are not influenced by laws in the society (Tuckness, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the truths in the Declaration for Independence is the inalienable rights which are either individual or collective. Such rights are inclusive of right to liberty, life and pursuit of happiness. Unalienable rights means rights which cannot be denied since they are given by God. In addition, such rights cannot even be sold or lost at whichever circumstance. Apart from individual rights, there are also collective rights like the right of people to chose the right government and also to abolish it incase it fails achieve its main goal.
The inalienable goals are based on the law of nature as well as on the nature’s God as illustrated in the John Locke’s philosophy. It is upon the government to recognize that individuals are entitled to unalienable rights which are bestowed by God. Although the rights are not established by the civil government, it has a great role to ensure that people are able to express such laws in the constitution (Morgan, 2010).
Explaining the purpose of the government was the major intent of the Declaration for Independent. The document explains explicitly that the main purpose is not only to secure but also to protect the rights of the people from individual and life events that threaten them. However, it is important to note that the government gets its power from the people it rules or governs.
The purpose of the government of protecting the God given rights of the people impacts the decision making process in several ways. To begin with, the government has to consider the views of the people before making major decisions failure to which it may be considered unworthy and be replaced. Therefore, the decision making process becomes quite complex as several positions must be taken in to consideration.
The declaration identifies clearly the conditions under which the government can be abolished or replaced. For example, studies of Revolutionary War and Beyond, states that “any form of government becomes destructive of these ends; it is the right of the people, to alter or abolish it and institute a new government” (par. 62010). Therefore, document illustrated that the colonists were justified to reject or abolish the British rule.
The declaration was very significant especially due to the fact that it illustrated explicitly the conditions which were present in America by the time it was being made. For example, one of the key grievances of the thirteen colonies was concerning the issue of slave trade. The issue of abolishing slavery was put in the first draft of the declaration for independent although it was scrapped off later since the southern states were against the abolishment of slave trade.
Another issue which was illustrated in the declaration was the fact that the king denied the colonists the power to elect their representatives in the legislatures. While the colonists believed that they had the right to choose the government to govern them, in the British government, it was the duty of the King to do so.
We will write a custom Essay on Declaration of Independence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Attaining land and migrating to America was the right of colonists to liberty and since the King had made it extremely difficult for the colonists to do so; the Declaration was very significant in addressing such grievances. There are many more problems that were present that were addressed by the Declaration as it was its purpose to do so.
References Becker, C. L. (2008). The Declaration of Independence: A Study in the History of Political Ideas. Illinois: BiblioBazaar, LLC .
Fradin, D. B. (2006). The Declaration of Independence. New York : Marshall Cavendish.
Morgan, K. L. (2010). The Declaration of Independence, Equality and Unalienable Rights. Web.
Revolutionary War and Beyond. (2010). The Purpose of the Declaration of Independence. Web.
Tuckness, A. (2010). Locke’s Political Philosophy. Web.
Zuckert, M. P. (1987). Self-Evident Truth and the Declaration of Independence. The Review of Politics , 49 (3), 319-339.
African-American Students and Mathematics Achievement Gap: Stereotype or Reality? Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Existence of Math Performance Gap
Causes and Explanation of Math Performance Gap
Introduction The belief that Black students have worse performance in math in comparison with their White classmates has taken root among teachers, students, curriculum developers and researchers.
It is possible to assume that it rises from the first years of the “post- Brown v. Board of Education case” period when the “separate but equal” doctrine and segregation in education were declared unconstitutional (Martin 121), and when Black and White students began to learn together. Today many pedagogues have accepted this statement as given and adapt their teaching activity to it.
Nevertheless, today the question of Black students’ poor achievement in mathematics remains burning: understanding its validity and, if it is valid, its essence and source is very important, as it may give teachers valuable background for developing appropriate approach to teaching Black students. Besides, this knowledge may be valuable for Black students themselves to enhance their self-efficacy.
The purpose of this research is to find whether there is the evidence of the math performance gap between Black and White students and, if we find that it exists, to throw ling upon its origin. There are several hypotheses that we need to check:
The mathematics performance gap between Black and White students exists.
The existing gap between Black and White students is caused by cultural or cognitive peculiarities of Black students’ thinking and learning.
The existing gap between Black and White students is caused by Black students’ low motivation to studying mathematics.
The existing gap between Black and White students is caused or aggravated by the commonly accepted negative stereotype.
The existing gap is caused or aggravated by some other factors.
We will observe sources devoted to the topic of our research and test these hypotheses.
Existence of Math Performance Gap Several studies corroborate the statement about existence of the math performance gap between Black and White students; quantitative evaluation of their performance had been carried out for several decades. According to Rothman, the gap has reduced substantially during the 1970s-80s, but in the late 80s, the progress “stalled” (cited in United States Commission on Civil Rights 9).
In 2000, the gap still existed: while about 40 per cent of white 4th grade students’ math performance was at or above proficient, only 5 per cent of Black students performed at the same level (10). Moreover, Fuetsch and Ware (in Hayman and Ware 307) state that during the investigation carried out between 1995 and 2004, each year the gap was bigger than in the beginning of the observation at least in one of the observed grades.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More We may also allude to the fresher data on the discussed problem. According to the results of the 2006 investigation of school students’ tests results presented in (Anderson), Black students were 41 points behind non-Hispanic students.
Paige and Witty (35) state that in 2007, the difference between a number of White and Black fourth graders who performed at or above the proficient level was 51 per cent White versus 15 per cent Black; in the eighth grade, 82 per cent of White students performed at or above the basic level versus 47 per cent of Black students.
Besides, the investigation in (Anderson) demonstrated that there is no strong correlation between age and performance in math: the gap varied in different grades. Finally, the gap in math was bigger than that in other subjects, which makes studying of math achievement gap apart from gaps in other subjects reasonable.
This gives us opportunity to state that there are certain factors beyond ethnicity itself and students’ age that impacts Black students’ performance in math. Some suggestions on these factors were expressed in the hypotheses formulated in the introduction. We will discuss them in the next chapter.
Causes and Explanation of Math Performance Gap First of all, it is necessary to mark that today there is no single answer to the question on causes of the math performance gap. The range of opinions lies in different dimensions, even in such as ideological, racial and political. As for the scientific research, the given issue is mostly studied from sociocultural, socioeconomic, pedagogical and genetic perspective (Paige and Witty 59).
One of the existing theories is the “socioeconomic disparities” (60). According to this theory, the long period of slavery impacted Black citizens’ performance in math. Black people had no opportunity to study for centuries, and the consequence of this situation is today’s achievement gap. Paige and Witty state that the difference in “parenting” skills between parents of different social classes and professions has been corroborated by several researches (61).
However, not only past conditions are considered to impact Black students’ math performance. According to August 2000 NAEP report (in United States Commission on Civil Rights 10), the math achievement gap has connection with students’ current social condition: economically disadvantaged students perform poorer.
We will write a custom Research Paper on African-American Students and Mathematics Achievement Gap: Stereotype or Reality? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another significant question to discuss is Black students’ motivation to studying math. Significant investigation was carried out by Rech (1994 212-220): the researcher found that the attitudes of Black students, even those having high performance at school, are poorer than those of White students.
Rech argues that Black students demonstrate anxiety towards mathematics and have doubts about importance of learning it. To some extent, this can be linked with the “socioeconomic disparities” theory: analogically to parenting skills, parenting behavior also takes place in families (Paige and Witty 60).
Thus, it is possible to state that Black students have low motivation to studying math. This should be considered by math teachers, as studying mathematics is important for students’ career prospects. Wilkens (in Irons 340) states that this problem has now been taking shape in our society; to get prestigious high-paid jobs, Black students who are the future employees should acquire necessary background and skills in math.
Negative stereotypes and emotional environment also prove to be the factors that aggravate the math achievement gap. Haynes, Ben-Avie and Ensign (94) state that emotional environment is one of the strongest factors that impact Black students’ performance in math.
They emphasize that in many cases teachers have prejudice about Black students’ math skills and expect them to fail, which actually influences their performance. This statement is confirmed by the research carried out by Rydell, McConnell and Beilock (949-966): when Black students were reminded about negative stereotyping about their performance in math, they began to actually perform worse.
The research by Schweinle and Mims (501-514) also showed that Black students have lower math self-efficacy. Thus, there is one more point to consider for math teachers who work with Black students: motivation and self-efficacy in math are the issues that require working on beyond improving math skills themselves, and it is important to struggle against negative stereotypes and anxiety to cope with this task.
Finally, one more assumption about gap in mathematics achievements is that there is certain inherent cognitive difference between Black and White students that is caused by race. Finding the answer to this question is a very difficult task, as studying cognition is much more complicated than studying motivation and attitude.
Thus, despite a series of researches have been fulfilled, there is still no universal opinion on this issue. In (Cwikla 3), we see the comparative histogram of performance of students of different race in regards with different aspects of studying math. White, Black, Hispanic, Asian and other students are compared in being good at measurement, geometry, number sense, probability and statistics, and algebra.
Not sure if you can write a paper on African-American Students and Mathematics Achievement Gap: Stereotype or Reality? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The histogram does not provide clear answer to the question. On the one hand, the author emphasizes that the absolute difference between White and Black students varies in different areas, which may be interpreted as the evidence of cognitive difference between students of different races.
The research results demonstrate that Black, Hispanic and White students had their best performance in algebra, Asian students performed the best in geometry (9). On the other hand, we may notice that despite the absolute difference varies, the general trend is quite neat: Asian and White students have the best performance in all areas; other students have the third place; Hispanic students have the fourth place, and Black students the fifth; exception is probability and statistics where the performance of Hispanic and Black students are quite high and almost equal; besides, there is slight difference in algebra performance. Thus, the difference in performance in different areas exists, but is seems somewhat blurred.
One more point that should be considered is that there is the difference between the notions “cause” and “influence”. Despite we have outlined several factors that prove to impact Black students’ performance in math, it is difficult to state whether they cause the math performance gap or just aggravate it. Answering this question requires further study. Besides, it is important to take into account that these factors may be connected and influence each other.
For example, if the factor of heredity exists in regards with math skills, low motivation may be also “inherited”; negative stereotypes may impact math self-efficacy and thus cause anxiety; finally, social environment may “persuade” economically disadvantaged Black students that they have no opportunity to get high position and well-paid job and that there is anyway no need to learn math.
Conclusion Having observed the sources devoted to the gap in math performance between Black and White students, we can make the following conclusions:
The gap in math performance between White and Black students exists.
The gap in math performance is bigger than the gap in performance in other subjects.
Despite after elimination of racial segregation in education the gap was reducing quite rapidly, today this reduction has almost stalled.
Several approaches to explaining the gap in performance in math exist, and no one of them has been recognized the only correct.
There is the evidence that math skills and math behavior are “parented” in families.
Black students have low motivation and strong anxiety towards math.
Negative stereotypes influence Black students’ math self-efficacy and performance in math.
The question of inherent cognitive difference between Black and White students remains open.
The points discussed above should be considered by school teachers, as, regardless of causes and factors of the gap in math performance, their task is to make this gap as small as possible.
Works Cited Anderson, Nick. “Performance Gap on Tests Uneven for Black Students.” Washington Post. 2006. Web.
Cwikla, Julie. “Differential Mathematics Performance on the TIMSS-R across Delaware Students of Color.” Triangle Coalition. PDF File. Web.
Hayman, Robert L., and Leland Ware. Choosing Equality: Essays and Narratives on the Desegregation Experience. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2009. Print.
Irons, Peter H. Jim Crown’s Children: The Broken Promise of the Brown Decision. New York: Viking, 2002. Print.
Martin, Waldo E. Brown v. Board of Education: A Brief History with Documents. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 1998. Print.
Paige, Rod, and Elaine P. Witty. The Black-White Achievement Gap: Why Closing It Is the Greatest Civil Right Issue of Our Time. New York, NY: AMACOM, American Management Association, 2010. Print.
Rech, Janice F. “A Comparison of the Mathematics Attitudes of Black Students According to Grade Level, Gender, and Academic Achievement.” Journal of Negro Education 63(2) (1994): 212-220. Print.
Rydell, Robert J., Allen R. McConnell, and Sian L. Beilock. “Multiple Social Identities and Stereotype Threat: Imbalance, Accessibility, and Working Memory.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96(5) (2009): 949-966. Print.
United States Commission on Civil Rights. Office of the General Counsel. Closing the Achievement Gap: The Impact of Standards-Based Education Reform on Student Performance: Draft Report for Commissioners’ Review. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Office of the General Counsel, 2004. Print.
Schweinle, Amy, and Grace A. Mims. “Mathematics Self-Efficacy: Stereotype Threat Versus Resilience.” Social Psychology of Education 12(4) (2009): 501-514. Print.
Parthenon in Athens Essay cheap essay help
Parthenon was an ancient place of worship that was built in 438BCE on the acropolis of Athens by Phidias, who was a renowned sculpture. It was built as a dwelling place for the goddess known as Athena who was perceived to be the administrator of Athens.
Although the state of its structure has deteriorated there are still remains of what it used to be such as columns and roofing. It is easy to spot the temple in acropolis because it was built on a higher ground. The temple was later damaged during the battles that took place between Greece and her enemies.
Whitley explains that the temple was used as a place of worship by ancient inhabitants of Athens. This was evidenced by the marbles that were collected from the temple soon after the battles were over (35). Among the most important artifacts of the temple included the sculpture of the goddess Athena which had a very unique finish because it was composed of ivory.
The statue was later stolen by a roman emperor who took it with him to modern Istanbul but after a few years it was damaged during numerous battles that were experienced between the Roman Empire and her enemies that were aimed at forcing her neighbors to convert to Christianity.
In the years that followed acropolis was invaded by Ottoman who later used the temple as an Islamic place of worship and also as a store for keeping weapons. In September 1687 a shell busted which made the entire roof to cave in .The intensity of its smash up was so deep such that it could not be rebuilt.
The damage of the temple made some people to steal the artifacts that used to be housed in the temple. The early visitors to Athens included the ambassador of Britain who requested the Athens authorities to allow him to gather the artifacts of the temple. The ambassador assembled artifacts from the scene of the temple’s destruction and also bought some from the locals of Athens and later moved them to his country where they were and still are exhibited in the museum of London.
To this date Greece still insists that those artifacts should be returned to her but this has not gone down well with London because it does not wish to comply with the orders from Greece. The art in this temple reflects on the culture of Greece which is based on conflicting ideologies that are presented evenly. They include principles of light and darkness among many others.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Neils, the columns of the temple appear to be bending at the middle perhaps due to the stress exerted by the roof. They are well spaced from each other to allow the light to penetrate (63). Different points of view illustrate the evenness between light and darkness. There are no straight lines in the structure of the temple because the entire lines look distorted.
The temple is used to display the skills of ancient artists in the ancient days. The finishing of the temple is rough because one can still see the marks that the masons chisel made as he tried to dress the stones to create a uniform shape. The temple could have lasted longer were it not for the battles and the changes in climate that has led to erosion of its surface.
The walls of this temple look so bare but one can not tell whether its plaster was eroded by weather or was simply was not there. The columns of this temple appear to have been erected on the stylobate. The columns are of the same length and they tend to protrude outwards to shield the verandah from rain water.
The construction of Parthenon is said to have taken the longest duration due to the time taken to avail the building materials because they were not within close proximity to the temple hence more time was spent in ferrying the materials. Actually the decorations that are seen on its walls were done much later after the construction of the temple had been fully completed
The panes of this temple were chiseled in high relief which was common in a majority of such buildings during ancient days. They were perfectly mounted onto the outside of the walls and they were used as decorations as well as mediums of illustrating the confrontations that took place among the gods.
The temple also served as a bank because there was a designated room that was meant for storing money. Frieze was used to decorate the exterior walls of the temple and also illustrate the rituals that were practiced by the ancient inhabitants of Greece.
The east panel employs sculptures that illustrate how the goddess of Athens came into existence. The panels indicate that Athena was fathered by another god called Zeus. Athena is said to have been conceived in the head of his father Zeus and when his time was due for delivery he experienced a sharp headache on his head. He therefore instructed other gods to hit his head which caused his head to disintegrate and Athena was extracted from his head during this process.
We will write a custom Essay on Parthenon in Athens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The western panels illustrate the struggle for supremacy that revolved around Athena and Poseidon because each of them wanted to be recognized. The panels are no longer present because they were eroded by weather.
Works Cited Neils, Jennifer. The Parthenon: From Antiquity to the Present. Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Print.
Whitley, James. “The Archaeology of Democracy: Classical Athens.” The Archaeological of Ancient Greece. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Print.
Global Management Operations – Managing Resources writing essay help: writing essay help
PPQ Parts is a distributional company which aims at providing international expansion to Germany and Japan. There are a lot of different purposes and strategic goals which should be met to reach this aim. The strategic management plan provided in this report is going to cover some specific areas, like location consideration, managerial and financial strengths and weaknesses, economic, competition, and political environment, and short-term and long-term strategic goals of the company.
Environmental conditions in the sphere of global expansion including economy, competition, and political stability Being a distributional company, PPQ Parts works only on the territory of the USA but wants to provide its influence all over the world. Conducting an analysis of the economic position in the whole world, it should be stated that the crisis effects are reducing that makes it possible for the economy development.
Thus, if the real GDP growth in the world was -0.9 in 2009, not it is 3.8 and the forecasts show that it is going to be 3.5 the next year (Economic forecast, 2010). The distributional institution at the international arena is really necessary for the long term periods as the demand on different products increases. Moreover, the residual effects of the economic crisis allow this kind of business to develop and flourish in a number of reasons. It is crucial to state that demand plays a vital role in this process (O’Hara, 2006).
The competition in the sphere has always been strong, so much effort should be made to enter the international distributional market. Moreover, the company which enters the international market for the first time always feels more tension from the side of other members of the market than those who have already entered it.
The world market members unwillingly allow new entrants to become the part of their business as this increases the competition and makes some companies leave the market. In the relation to political environment, it supports the international business development. In spite of the fact that political environment in most cases is strong and tense, the current situation is stable and there are no essential hazards that can influence the distributional business.
Managerial and financial strengths and weaknesses The international expansion involves a number of different challenges which may be faced. The international arena involves the notion of the multiculturalism. Thus, managers may face the problem of multicultural barrier in the work at the world market. It is crucial to consider the main principles of work with clients and running business in the counties where the company wants to expand to, Germany and Japan in our case.
Germany and Japan are the countries which development may be identified as stable and successful. Still, there are some tendencies which may create a number of problems. Therefore, Japan development is unbalanced that may create a number of problems in the future. It is important to note that the developed countries invest in the business on their territory and invite the international companies if the local ones do not cope with the amount of work which should be done.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main weakness of the managerial and financial sphere is that it is more difficult to organize the business on the distance. The main office should be created in the country for running and monitoring the business. When the work will be completed and arranged, the office in another country is going to be the company strength.
Short-term and long-term strategic goals Planning to enter the international market and to increase the global expansion, PPQ Parts is planning to reach the following short-term and long-term strategic goals. Firstly, it is natural that the increase of the company influence presupposes the increase of the employees. Thus, the company is planning to increase the number of employees from 5,000 up to 10,000 in four years. Secondly, it is obvious that the international expansion requires from the company to increase its building potential worldwide.
The warehouses in different countries are extremely necessary for the international distributional company. Thus, the company is working on the increase of buildings which are going to be used beyond the territory of the USA. Entering the international market, the company is planning to increase its small SUVs market share from 5% up to 9% in the next four years.
Within this problem, it should be stated that the current stock price is considered to be $10 per share, while the company’s goal is to increase it up to $22 per share. Having a 6% profit margin in 3 year average, and the same level of industry average during this time, the company wants to reach the activity of 13% in four years.
The industry average activity of the employee turnover comprises 25%. It should be mentioned that the employee turnover in the company has been 28% for the last 3 years. This activity should be reduced and the company wants to lower it up to 17% in the nearest 4 years.
The company supports local communities and contributes to their business. The company donates 0.5% of its profit to this sphere. Being a company value, it wants to increase this charity rate up to 5%. Thus, here are the short-term and long-term strategic goals the company wants to reach with the help of the chosen strategy of entering the international market.
Location benefits and limitations Having considered some information, it is possible to state that the labor power involved in the distributional sector in Japan is much lower than that involved in the USA. It may be concluded that the location of the PPQ Parts in Japan is a successful decision due to the fact that this territory needs more distributional companies (Miwa, Nishimura,
Description of Conflict Essay writing essay help
Broadcast company decided to launch a new project aimed at enhancing the media coverage and improving the quality of transmitting information. According to the managerial stuff, particularly CEO Harrison Gatsby, the company should create a group composed of members from different departments to provide their plans for this program. They believed that the cooperative work of several departments would provide creative ideas and consistency in presenting the project.
However, the project leader, Tom Brown, the marketing managers faced challenges while making decision and coming to an agreement with other members of the project team. The major conflict burst out between Tom Brown and Gregory Fleming, research and development managers.
Both managers did not want to compromise. Hence, Mr. Brown was stand firm on the ground that it is necessary to make a focus on customers’ demand and market segmentation whereas Mr. Fleming was more concerned with innovation and creativity because this always determines supply and demand.
Three approaches to resolving the conflict situation To begin with, this intergroup conflict can be resolved through smoothing techniques. In other words, it is necessary to achieve the balance and harmony between the conflicting parties. This can be carried out through reasonable allocation of functions. Mr. Gatsby, therefore, should re-evaluate the established goals and consider other solutions to the existing problems.
On the one hand, such an approach can foster the process of decision making and enhance the success of the project. On the other hand, if the conflict is not serious, there is no necessity for smoothing it because it can contribute to a healthy development of creative and innovative ideas.
A second viable resolution of the conflict can be compromising. It means that either sales manager or research and development manager should yield to some of the principles. For instance, Tom Gatsby should pay attention to innovative ideas proposed by Fleming and take some of them into account if they do not contradict the main scope of the project.
Besides, the sales manager should keep in mind that technological advancement is a key condition for successful media coverage. One the one hand, compromising can trigger other members of the team to express their concerns about the project and, at the same time, they will have an opportunity to consider other members’ goal. On the other hand, compromising can weaken the authority of project leader who should be the first to analyze the proposals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, the third resolution to the conflict under consideration is creating an opposing force. In our case, Mr. Gatsby should be more concerned with the project outcomes rather than with personal preferences and ambitions. In particular, the project leader should bear in mind that if the project is not successful, this failure can negatively influence the company’s revenues. When focusing on the idea of competition, the group work can be enhanced that will also contribute to the effectiveness of the company’s performance.
However, such an incentive can negative influence the cooperation and decision-making because excessive pressure can prevent the congruence of work. What is worse is that the team member can become depressed by the process of working. As a result, the performance can be considerably diminished. In this case, the manager should take care of the process itself and make everything possible to strike the balance between the active work and competitive conditions.
Communications in Management: Information Campaign and Managerial Engagement Essay (Critical Writing) online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction to the Problem
Pros of Information Campaigns and Management Engagement
Cons of Information Campaigns and Management Engagement
Conclusion and Recommendations
Introduction to the Problem One of the most beneficial sets of information received by managers comes from employees by means of individual reports on the errors occurring in the process of working activity, certain difficulties, and recommendations and suggestions for improving the ways of communications within the organization, and methods for solving problems.
As suggested in the study by Adler-Milstein, Singer, and Toffel (2010), information campaigns within organization can be as useful as public information campaigns aimed at reducing the number of smokers and other different issues that can be discussed in public.
Pros of Information Campaigns and Management Engagement The importance of management engagement is very high because a manager should know about the difficulties experienced by employees in the workplace while performing a particular task. Adler-Milstein et al. (2010) report about opportunity given to managers by employees via reports about errors and certain suggestions on possible ways for improvement.
For instance, Quinlan and Sokas (2009) provide a thorough analysis of the public information campaigns in different countries and a right of employees to know about certain harms. In this respect, a manager is the first person to learn about some errors occurring in the organisation and take measures to fix everything.
Every employee should know his/her responsibilities in detail and be able to explain the necessity of making some decisions that could have caused some errors and difficulties. In this respect, an employee should not be afraid to speak up and report directly to the supervisor, manager, or another person who is responsible for the team work (Ruskin, 1993, p. 78).
So, the employee should not fear the reaction due to his/her immediate response to the error in the form of a report. Though some employee rarely happen to report about their failures to the supervisors, it should be a ‘must-to’ rule for every employee because it facilitates the development process guided by managers who state the research and development objectives based on the reports of employees about errors and difficulties.
Cons of Information Campaigns and Management Engagement The disadvantages of the speaking up in the workplace include the fear of aggression and occurrence of other stress factors that can contribute negatively to the effectiveness of performance and the working environment. As suggested by Barling et al. (2005), employees can be afraid of workplace aggression caused by exposures to representatives of the managerial.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In other words, aggression of colleagues or supervisors can be the stress factor for the employee who reports to managers about errors occurrence and difficulties experienced and those who work with him/her. So, reporting can be one of the most influential disadvantages hence leading to inability of managers to build an objective picture of changes to be implemented.
Conclusion and Recommendations An employee should report about certain failures when he/she believes this absolutely necessary, especially when employees are demanded to report about the slightest errors occurring in the organisation in their individual tasks or during performance of team tasks.
Each employee has a right to make suggestions of possible methods and techniques that can be applied to certain areas of the working process to improve the management or facilitate certain operations. In other words, reporting can be effective though employees can be afraid of immediate egression experienced in the workplace and other negative consequences of reports.
Reference List Adler-Milstein, J., Singer, S. J.,
Human Resource Management Report (Assessment) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Background Information Effective human resource management is essential for any company to succeed. This entails efficient management of the workforce in order to promote the performance of the company. The human resource at Proctor and Gamble is charged with the responsibility of ensuring excellent service delivery by the company’s employees and this positively impacts on the company’s remarkable global performance and this can partly be attributed to efficient management of the business (Anonymous 2010).
The company’s human resource sector aims at maintaining a skilled workforce as well as attracting the best talent to join the company’s workforce in order to ensure it enjoys high and efficient output from its human capital, which is essential for the good performance of the company.
Further, the organization puts more emphasis on evaluation and measurement of employees’ engagement and commitment to the roles assigned to them and has in addition established initiatives to promote involvement of the employees in the company’s strategic activities as well as sustenance of benefits.
To ensure that it achieves high standards of human resource management, the company has established and developed a human resource department that comprises of change agents, team builders advisors among other human resource specialists who constantly engage in activities aimed at motivating employees and promoting their welfare as well as ensuring the provision of a skilled pool of labor to the company through transparent recruitment of new qualified employees.
Human Resource Requirement for Service Being part of Proctor and Gamble human resource team entails the responsibility of developing systems and tools that are directed towards attracting a skilled pool of labor, reward and motivation of the existing employees as well as challenging the employees in order to promote efficiency, innovation, and invention (Anonymous 2010).
The human resource management is expected to promote and protect the company’s values, purpose, and principles through inspiring, enabling, and engaging the company’s employees as well as acting as change agents in order to drive towards positive transformation of the company and provide a solid foundation for the company’s culture, external environment as well as company’s goals (Anonymous 2010).
The Human resource manager is not only expected to be academically qualified in the field but also has to possess qualities of good leadership coupled with social responsibility which is necessary when dealing with people from diverse backgrounds and social settings who make up the workforce.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consultation with Stakeholders Proctor and Gamble ensures involvement of the human resource sector as an ultimate business partner in order to promote increase in the company’s growth. This is because the human resource sector ensures that there is simplification of work processes in the company and promotes the creation of a culture that focuses on innovation through pro active labor relations (Anonymous 2010).
In addition, the human resource sector in the company seeks to understand and address the needs and wishes of potential employees as well as the current employees in order to strengthen the company’s position as an attractive employer (Anonymous 2010). At Proctor and Gamble, developing the employees into future leaders is one of the major long term strategies of the company.
Options required for delivery of service Being on the forefront towards provision of intensely competitive consumer goods in the market, P
Vietnam War: The Battle Where There Could Be no Winners Expository Essay scholarship essay help
In spite of the fact that history is constantly repeating itself and the sad lessons that then next generation is about to learn, in fact, do not differ from the ones taught to the ancestors, people go on and on making the same mistakes. That goes for all wars that have ever been carried out on the Earth, and the Vietnam War is of no exception. One of the hardest questions that have ever occurred as the war broke out was why – why it all had to start. It was needless, useless and frightening; yet it was, as shocking and daring as it could be.
There are many points of view on what has happened during the long eleven years of fighting. It could be a good idea to take a closer look at all of them, analyzing the ideas that underlay them – if war could have something that underlay it. The brilliant scheme worked by Napoleon was supposed to be of great help to the general, the commanders and their troops.
Starting from the very bottom of the army roster, that is, from the soldiers, it would be important to say that these people fought basically because they were said to do so. Inflamed by the ideas of the patriotic behavior and the mission of protecting the interests of the native land, the American soldiers were eager to start the battle. However, they soon felt that there was something wrong about the whole situation.
With Moss’s book, it becomes clear that the battalion commanders knew only what was going on below, where the warriors were serving their country and doing their prior duty. They were merely the people who were acting according to the orders that were coming from the upper circles.
The same went for the individual commanders. They were aware of what they were supposed to as it came to the war and the strategy of the future actions, but that was as far as their plans went. The individual commanders were supposed to create the plans that would make the warriors stronger and create the system of the actions that could make the American troops benefit in the battle. Their prior goal was to build up a strong army of soldiers that could fight decently and make the country win in this fight, wherever it could take them.
It was a bit more complicated with General Westmoreland. In fact, he was the backbone of the whole idea and it was him to command to the whole army and the officers. The commanders followed his orders, and he was the brain of the tactics of the war. However, that did not mean that he persuaded the economical interests that actually lay in the basis of the war.
What was the goal that he pursued? Was it just making an advertising campaign of his own personality, as Moss suggests? For there was no actual reason for the war to get started. As Addington suggested, this could be an extremely complicated strategy of the general that put the campaign at such risks and proved wrong for the thousands of people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By the time President Johnson had decided to commit a large American ground force to the defense of the ROV, Westmoreland had conceived of a three-stage strategy for using it. (Addington 2000, 88)
Why did it end in the failure? Was it the fact that the soldiers were not trained well enough? The very fact seems absurd. Just as insane sounds the idea that the equipment of the American soldiers was worse than the one of the Vietnamese. Perhaps, that was the lack of certain something that the Vietnamese had. It is not for the sake of the word that Moss emphasizes,
From the gaining of their independence in 939, the Vietnamese endured a precarious national existence. They were threatened eventually by powerful foes, particularly China, the colossus of the North. Internally, Vietnam was frequently ruled by inept leaders, riven by civil wars, and suffered from a fragmentation of power. But the Vietnamese managed to maintain their independence for over 900 years. (Moss 2010, 6-7)
It all started to fall apart when people understood that there was something unsaid about the whole business.
“I cannot seem to convince the embassy that this is Vietnam – not the United States”, said Diem at the beginning of August 1963” (Moyar 2006, 229) – this phrase was the first sign of the fact that there was something deeply wrong about the whole idea of the war.
Every single citizen in the US started having doubts of whether the war was held the way it was described. The tragic consequences have not been forgotten, but in the light that Moss has shed on the war and its idea, they seem in quite different way. What goal did Robert McNamara pursue in this puzzle? What was his prior aim?
McNamara was desperate to end the war, and repeatedly implored me to extract from my invisible interlocutions any hint, however oblique, that would enable him to promote the cause of a negotiated outcome. (Kissinger 2003, 42)
We will write a custom Essay on Vietnam War: The Battle Where There Could Be no Winners specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A brilliant strategist, President Johnson was the Napoleon in this game for the power. Lyndon Johnson was the one who knew exactly every single detail about the idea of the war and the goals that the country was pursuing. He thought that he had calculated everything, but, unfortunately, his plans went wrong when he did not suppose anything or anyone to fail.
The Colossus took a step on his feet of clay, swayed in the air for a second and collapsed with a terrible racket. That was the battle that could not end in victory. The stakes were high, but there were too many things that the government did not take into account, among then the mentality of the people that they were going to fight with.
The idea of the orders delegated from the upper part of the governmental pyramid to its bottom, the basis of the war – the soldiers, was more than brilliant – it was genial, for it was the genius of Napoleon who created it. The American strategists improved it, creating the specific routes for the military actions and making the whole scheme closer to the present days, yet preserving the idea of the war held with the fierce temper of a tiger.
Rather unexpectedly, this proved to be a failure. However, there was nothing to blame the structure that Napoleon created for. The main reason for the defeat was the miscalculation that the government made when thinking through the strategy for the battle. The Communist forces that the American troops were to meet in June were the last straw that broke the camel’s neck.
Since it was understood quite well from the very beginning that the whole war was a big and tragic mistake for the entire United States, the actions that have been undertaken were the very kind of bravery that was supposed to show that even when losing, there must be the spirits kept up. And the top, the government and the structures that it was connected to, had a perfect view of the war result, with all the tragic consequences.
Once trying to get their brilliant idea to working, the government forgot about the fact that these were actually live people whom they were against, and their prior arms were live people as well. There are certain things that have to be remembered despite the bitter feeling they cause. Otherwise, the next generation will make the same mistake once again. Thus, people have to keep in mind all the things that they have learned from the past experiences, and derive the necessary lessons from these events.
References Addington, L. H. (2000) America’s War in Vietnam: A Short Narrative History. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
Kissinger, H. (2003) Ending the Vietnam War: A History of America’s Involvement in an Extrication from the Vietnam War. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Vietnam War: The Battle Where There Could Be no Winners by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moss, G. (2010) Vietnam: An American Ordeal, 6th Edition. London: Pearson Publishing
Moyar, M. (2006) Triumph Forsaken. The Vietnam War, 1954-1965. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
The Terrorist Attacks in the United States Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
The terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001 that took place in New York City and Washington were the most traumatic attacks to ever occur in the United States. The country was caught unawares as thousands of innocent civilians lost their lives in the ensuing attacks. The Intelligence Community (IC) within the country came under attack for failing to detect the 19 terrorists who had somehow managed to enter the United States and hijacked four planes that would later be used in carrying out the attacks.
In the subsequent months, the US Congress criticized the intelligence community for failing to monitor and detect any terrorism activities within the country. Members of Congress called for the disbanding of the community for failing to protect the innocent lives of Americans after the attacks (Hulnick, 2004).
Investigations and hearings were conducted to find out what went wrong in the intelligence community. The testimonies in these hearings revealed that the terrorist attacks could have been prevented if intelligence gathering had been conducted thoroughly. The officers in charge of the IC lacked the capacity and understanding of conducting terrorism intelligence gathering.
There were also bureaucratic rivalries, reduced resources and risk avoidance measures that led to the inability of the IC to detect and stop the terrorists from attacking the country. The IC’s system was also not able to deal with any terrorist attacks since it was designed for the Cold War in 1942 and from that time it had not undergone any improvements (Hulnick, 2004).
President Bush created through executive order the Office of Homeland Security that would fall under the White House administration. The office was charged with the role of disseminating information connected to terrorism in all the state and federal levels of the country.
The homeland security system was supposed to detect and provide terrorist warnings in the form of threat conditions that would be used to determine the risk of the threat. Each threat would require the federal and state agencies to implement preventive measures that would reduce the risk of the threat during a period of increased alertness in the country (Peterson et al, 2000).
The Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS) was a sub-branch of the Office of Homeland Security and its main purpose was to raise or lower the country’s threat levels between elevated yellow and high orange.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Homeland Security Act was signed into law in November 2002 which made the Office of Homeland Security to be known as the Department for Homeland Security. The new act would see the reorganization of the Department of Defense to protect the US from any terrorist attacks while at the same time reducing the vulnerability of the country to these attacks (Peterson et al, 2000)
The city that was most affected by the terrorist attacks was New York City. The attack of the World Trade Center in New York was the most devastating as thousands of lives were lost in the two buildings. New York City was a prime target given the high population of people and the number of government offices that have been established within the city.
This showed how vulnerable the city was to terrorism attacks before and after 9/11. Recently a lethal bomb was discovered in Times Square, a location within the city that normally has thousands of people in one day. This demonstrated that New York presented an irresistible attraction to people who were intent on causing harm to the country.
Even before the 9/11 attacks, a car bomb exploded outside the World Trade Centre in 1993. The main intention was to bring down both towers but it ended up destroying the north tower only. The 1993 February attack on the WTC was meant to be followed by several other attacks on major New York landmarks such as the UN headquarters, the George Washington Bridge and the Holland Tunnel (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks, 2004).
According to the National Consortium’s statistics, 284 terrorist attacks occurred in five locations within New York City between 1970 and 2007 with 98 percent of these attacks being attributed to the 9/11 attacks. The most deadly attack to occur in New York before September 11 was the terrorist bombing in LaGuardia Airport in 1975 that killed 11 people.
Together with the September 11th attacks, the total number of people who died as a result of terrorist attacks in New York amounted to 4,000. This demonstrated that New York City was the most common target for terrorism attacks. Most of the areas that were targeted included businesses such as the WTC, non-governmental organizations (UN Headquarters), government agencies, major airports and airlines (JFK and LaGuardia Airport) and American citizens (National Consortium, 2010).
New York City was a prime target given the high population and the number of international and foreign based businesses that were located in the City. New York City was also a common target for terrorists given that it housed the largest financial market in the world, the NYSE. Targeting the City would affect the New York Stock Exchange market in an adverse way which would negatively affect the US economy. The high number of active perpetrators within the city also increased the vulnerability of New York to terrorist attacks.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Terrorist Attacks in the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The presence of groups such as the Jewish Defense League (JDL) responsible for 27 attacks within the city, the Fuerza Armada de Liberacion Nacional (FALN) which was a separatist group from Puerto, responsible for 40 attacks within New York and Omega-7 which was an anti-Castro organization responsible for 16 attacks between 1970 and 2007. Al-Qaeda became the major face of terrorism in the US and in particular in New York as it was responsible for the 3,000 deaths that resulted form the 9/11 attacks (National Consortium, 2010).
The National Consortium report also identified other cities in the US that were common targets for terrorism attacks one of which was Miami, Florida. The city recorded 70 attacks between the1970 and 2007. The reason for being a common target was that Miami was home to the CIA’S second largest base of operations.
Miami was also home to the famous Miami Five who were believed to be Cuban spies. The Miami five were falsely accused for committing espionage despite their claims stating that they were monitoring the activities of a Miami based terrorist group that was planning an attack on Cuba (National Consortium, 2010).
Anti-Cuba terrorist organizations based in Miami were responsible for more than 3,000 Cuban and Miami deaths in both countries. Such terrorist organizations included Brothers to the Rescue and Commandos F4. The terrorist groups were responsible for the Cubana Flight 455 bombing in 90s.
The presence of terrorist training camps in Florida has also been a cause of concern for most Miami residents who fear reprisal attacks from Cuba on these terrorist cells. Other terrorist attacks that were committed against Cuban citizens by these terror cells include hotel bombings, attacks on Cuban diplomats, the bombing of a Barbados flights and the Bays of Pigs Invasion (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks, 2004).
Luis Posada Carilles who is one of the many Cuban terrorists that lives freely in Miami, Florida admitted to bombing varies hotels in Havana during the 90s. The number of casualties that resulted from these bombings was more than 3,000 people killed and injured. Carilles also admitted to being responsible for distributing guns to Nicaraguan rebels who attempted to assassinate Fidel Castro.
Such a high number of terrorists and terrorist groups in Miami has led to the state being a common target for terrorist attacks on Cuban terrorists and innocent Miami residents. 70 attacks have been reported to have occurred within Miami between 1970 and 2007 most of which were related to Cuban nationals who were based in Miami (National Consortium, 2010).
The third state in the United States that is prone to terrorist attacks is Washington D.C. which is the capital of the United States. This has made it to be one of the most likely targets of current and future terrorist attacks within the country.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Terrorist Attacks in the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Washington D.C. has faced a total 59 attacks from 1970 to 2007 based on the National Consortium’s statistics. The state houses major governmental bodies such as the US Congress, the White House and various historic US landmarks such as the Abraham Lincoln Monument that are important to America and its citizens.
Washington is also home to the Pentagon that was attacked during the September 11th terrorist bombings. After the 9/11 attacks, Washington faced another threat in the form of an anthrax attack that was disseminated through mail to the U.S. capital. Even though the two attacks were unrelated, they were both targeted at Washington and New York which were two of the most important states of the United States (Hulnick, 2004).
The state recently faced terrorism threats from a well known Taliban leader known as Baitullah Mesud who threatened to attack the US capital after the country continued to launch missile strikes against Afghanistan.
Apart from Mesud, Washington has also faced terrorist threats from groups such as Al-Qaeda. The reason for Washington’s vulnerability to terrorist attacks is that most of its organizations especially the US government agencies lack the control of human and vehicular traffic within and around their facilities.
The historic monuments also lack the proper mechanisms of controlling the number of visitors to the areas. Washington is also a suitable target for terrorism activities because of the large number of legislative offices and institutions that are based within the state (National Commission of Terrorist Attacks, 2004).
The terrorist attacks on the Pentagon in Washington affected the activities of the Department of Defense as the country grappled with the bombings of the World Trade Centre. The intelligence systems of the state were affected as one of the four hijacked planes crashed into one corner of the Pentagon offices.
Targeting the Pentagon was viewed to be targeting the country’s defense systems which fell under the Department of Defense. The US defense systems included the US Army the Navy and the Air Force. Other departments that have their offices within the Pentagon include the Missile Defense Agency, the National Security Agency, and the Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA).
References Hulnick, A. (2004). Keeping us safe: secret intelligence and homeland security. Westport, US: Praeger Publishers.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks (2004). The 9/11 commission report: final report of the national commission upon the United States. United States: W.W. Norton Publishers Group.
National Consortium (2010). Background report: terrorist attacks in New York City. Web.
Peterson, M. B., Morehouse, B.,
Required: Around 3 pages or about 1500 words. • A topic related to the course syllabus and learning outcomes scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Around 3 pages or about 1500 words.
• A topic related to the course syllabus and learning outcomes
• One essay question: Pick one quality tool and do some research and articles reading to write about the tool, a real case of its implementation and the benefits learned.
• Read about the use of one quality tool as implemented by some improvement practitioner or an organization. Do a short write-up on what you can learn from how the tool was used.
• Follow this structure:
• Introduce the tool (10%)
• About the context or industry (10%): nature of business and why quality is important in that industry or context
• Objective(s) of using the tool (40%)
o What are they trying to achieve, improve or prevent?
o How did they make the tool work for them?
• Conclusion (40%):
o With all the information that you have now, how do you make sense of the use of this quality tool?
o What can be done to further improve upon the problem/issues the business was facing, by using the tool?
• Appendix: Attach pictures or any additional relevant information if any, to further clarify the case used in your report.
Concept of the Multicultural Education Essay essay help
Table of Contents Classrooms and Learning
Stereotypes in the Classroom
Classrooms and Learning According to York (2003) multicultural education is not only appropriate but necessary for children from very early age. Children see the existing differences and form their own viewpoint basing on adults’ reactions and behavior. Thus, it is essential to make young pupils understand that these differences are normal.
To develop unbiased perception, the issues of cultural diversity should be included into the curriculum. Every day children should face some of cultural diversity issues. Of course, it is important to choose the right activities so that children accepted the information as a part of their study, and not as a kind of preaching.
One of the effective ways to form normal perception of cultural differences can be class environment. Thus, it is important to create friendly environment for learners (York, 2003). It can be helpful to put on the walls some photographs of children playing (of course, the children should pertain to different ethnical groups). It is possible to have some books depicting interesting habits and customs of various cultural groups. Thus, children can read (or simply look through the pictures in) these illustrated books.
By all, means it is helpful to introduce various activities in the form of the game. For instance, it is possible to hand in colorful letter to children. The letters may be made of rubber or another material, or cut from paper. The main thing is: they should be of different colors and form such words as friendship, happiness, support, etc.
So, the teacher points out that these letters when separated do not make sense and feel bored and unhappy, but when they unite and co-operate they may create something important and significant. The teacher then makes the corresponding words. It is also possible to ask children to copy one of the pictures on the walls (where children of different cultures play). Thus, the learners get accustomed to diversity without even noticing it, they just copy what they see and they see normal and friendly environment where children play.
Multicultural Literature Reading various books on corresponding issues is also a very effective tool in multicultural education. For instance, the book “Smoky Night” (Bunting, 1994) promotes cross-cultural friendship and particularly fits for considering such educational goal as prejudice (York, 2003).
The story depicts the night when Los Angeles riots took place. A boy and his mother are watching at those horrible things from their apartment’s window. Eventually, the house of the boy and his mother is set on fire and they are forced to leave their apartment. They see many people in the street; they see Mrs. Kim who owns a shop where the mother does not buy anything because she prefers buying from their own people.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The cats of the boy and Mrs. Kim cannot be found (those two cats did not get along). However, soon a fireman comes out of the house holding the two cats together in his hands. At this moment Mrs. Kim suggests that they should make friends with the family just like the two cats did. Eventually, everyone sees that in the street people help and support each other irrespective of their ethnicity.
Thus, it is possible to read the story with children making stops at some significant points. For example, it is possible to stop at the point where the relationship between the cats and people are depicted. It is possible to encourage children to contemplate on the reasons for such relationship.
Of course, it is necessary to discuss the reasons why the cats could be together, children should discuss the end of the story and state their opinion whether friendship among different people is important and why. The teacher should point out that together people can withstand any riots, disasters or any problems at all.
Stereotypes in the Classroom To become successful in multicultural education it is necessary to create friendly environment, develop the curriculum accordingly and devote much time to cross-cultural issues (York, 2003). Of course, it is also important to eliminate racial and other biased stereotypes which negatively influence the development of children. According to Banks and McGee Banks (2009) contemporary society has numerous stereotypes created and supported by media due to various political and social issues.
Moreover, even educators try to avoid considering such issues since they feel uncomfortable because of “their lack of experience in confronting such a potentially explosive issue, the conspiracy of silence about racism (as if not speaking about it will make it disappear)” and many other reasons or combination of such reasons (Banks and McGee Banks, 2009, p. 400).
However, it is essential to eliminate these stereotypes from the classroom. First of all, it is necessary to educate children so that they know that some stereotype is false and in reality many things are quite opposite.
For instance, one of the common stereotypes is that African Americans or Hispanic people perform poorly at school and cannot achieve good academic results. Fortunately, there are many examples which destroy such false statements, so the teacher can give some details from biographies of such famous people as Baraca Obama, Condoleezza Rice, Ralph Alvarez, etc. Of course, the teacher should point out how it is possible to achieve such great results, i.e. listen to the teacher carefully, try to fulfill all the tasks and help each other.
We will write a custom Essay on Concept of the Multicultural Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another common stereotype is that it is necessary to get along with people pertaining to the same group. So, if there are children from different groups it is necessary to encourage them to co-operate with each other, make them fulfill mutual tasks. Even if the class contains children from one ethnical group it is also possible to eliminate the stereotype.
It is necessary to read books considering corresponding issues, start discussions. It is essential to encourage children to express their own opinions. By all means, the teacher should help children to come to the right conclusions that cross-cultural friendship is beneficial for everyone.
Finally, the teacher should understand that children are, to great extent, influenced by their families. Thus, it is quite natural that the teacher should arrange meetings and define some major points of multicultural education.
Of course, there is no need to persuade the parents to change their personal points of view, but it is essential to explain that contemporary life requires elimination of racial and other stereotypes from children’s life since when the children grow up they can only benefit from positive perception of cultural and ethnical diversity.
Thus, it is necessary to point out that one of the major concerns of the teacher in terms of multicultural education is elimination of racial stereotypes since they contribute greatly to the development of racial and ethnical intolerance.
Teachers should use every possibility to remove these stereotypes from the class telling children stories of success, starting various discussions and meeting with children’s parents. Of course, it may seem quite difficult but it is essential to start the process now. Moreover, it is necessary to encourage people to start the discussion of such issues so that appropriate materials for teaching children can be worked out.
Reference List Banks, J.A.
Latin American Music Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction This paper discusses some of the colonial music composers in Spanish Caribbean. The author examines Tango, Baroque and Latin Jazz as some of the old classical music in the region. Further, the writer highlights the Latin American music during the 1970s mainstream and explains changes that emerged during this period.
Consequently, the paper describes how Latin music influenced the US and the world. The final segment of the pager discusses the achievements of Shakira as a modern popular Latin American musician and describes her contributions towards growth of Latin American music Industry.
Colonial Latin composers provided a benchmark for modern Latin American music. The colonial composers’ influence has led to sprouting of various musical styles, which, in a big way, revolutionized the music world. The prosperity and growth of modern musicians has its roots in the efforts of early Latin musicians; especially the composers. Modern Latin Musicians such as Shakira, Enrique Iglesias and others, on their part, have helped to popularize Latin music styles across the world.
Colonial Composers The colonial composers in Latin America, Spain and Portugal, were predominantly Roman Catholics. Their music compositions were tailored towards liturgical celebration. The colonial government in most Latin American countries influenced adoption of Roman rites and music.
Because of religion, popular spiritual music began emerging and impacting strongly on succeeding conventional music (King, 2004, p.275). Besides spiritual music, Portuguese and Spanish colonialists from the homeland also carried conventional music and style along to the colonies. The conventional music and style introduced complemented social, work and leisure aspects of the society.
Gaspar Fernandes is one of the most renowned composers of colonial Latin American music. He was a Portuguese and owing to his enthusiastic approach to music, the Spanish colonial masters appointed him as chapel master in Puebla, Mexico. His music propagated Christian ethics and was purposed towards the spiritual nourishment of the faithful.
Gaspar formed a choir comprising of African musicians that were former slaves. His composition and style focused on and stressed social issues such; ethnicity, race and slavery; the ills that bedeviled the colonial society. Besides, his compositions highlighted the cruelty of enslavement and how the same defined the relations that existed between African and whites in Mexico (King, 2004, p.132). One of Gaspar amiable song was “Eso rigor e repente”.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Joan Cererols is another colonial composer in Latin America. He was a Benedictine monk and he was very enthusiastic about composing Christian music (Buelow, 2004, p.414). Born at Martorell in 1618, he joined Escolania de Montserrat choir school in 1626.
Father Joan, who was fascinated by his talent and skills in understanding vocal entries and polytonal discourse, inspired his interest in music (Buelow, 2004, p.414). These skills made him a unique composer when compared to his compatriots. His ability in composition contributed to popularity of his music. Joan’s notable production included; “Missa pro defunctis” and “Missamartyrum” composed in the 17th century (Buelow, 2004, p.160).
Classical Music of Latin America Latin America was musically influenced by the arrival of Spanish, Portuguese and Roman Catholic missionaries (Moore, 2010, p.74). Some of the genres introduced included; Baroque, Latin jazz and Tango (Moore, 2010, p.74). Baroque was a simple music unlike European Baroque, this was because Latin Americans did not have quality and efficient instruments for training (Moore, 2010, p.74).
Latin Jazz is a classical genre of music that started in Latin America. The composition embraced the old Cuban style, exploited Latin and African rhythms (Moore, 2010, p.88). Consequently, it incorporated harmonies of US, Caribbean, Latin and European origins. Moreover, the composition encompassed a straight rhythm, which differed from mainstream backbeat common with US jazz. The composition enshrined clave, guiro for percussion, timbale and conga (Moore, 2010, p.88). Latin jazz was embraced by small groups or in orchestras.
Lastly, Tango is also closely associated with classical music to have emerged in the region. Tango classical embraced specific instruments which included; violins, Bandon eons, piano and double bass (Moore, 2010, p.96). In addition, clarinet and guitars were common in Tango performances.
The 1970s, the Return to the Mainstream During 1970s, Latin American music reflected the music of 1920s (Roberts, 1999, p.188). In the1930s, Latin music was unified in mainstream US popular genres as a musical sub style. However, in 1970s, it emerged stronger in the US society and across the world (Roberts, 1999, p.188).
Increase in Salsa album production was also a common phenomenon in 1970s. This period recorded the highest production of Salsa albums ever created in Latin American Salsa history. For example, albums such as, “Maquino de Tiempo Time” done by Rafael Cotijo’s had a blend of Plena’s and Afro-Rican flavors (Roberts, 1999, p.188).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Latin American Music specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “Maquino de Tiempo Time” was the first Latin jazz fusion incorporated in Salsa tradition. The fusion strengthened commercial appealing across the region leading to increased production (Roberts, 1999, p.188).
Development in the1970s led to strengthening originality and creativity in Latin American music. Willie Colon for instance was a Bugalu cohort; he instilled and brought new changes in New York salsa, which was lively and innovative. This innovativeness included creative use of sound elements and artistic use of new constituents. He combined Jibaro Music of Puerto Rico, and infused Panamian, Brazilian and Colombian features (Roberts, 1999, p.192).
Creating of new bands was also a key characteristic of 1970s Latin mainstream music. Toro was one of the successful Latin American groups formed in 1972(Roberts, 1999, p.192). It emerged as a popular and influential group, although their music failed to capture Salsa roots. Sequida was also another group formed in 1970s. Sequida branched from New York Salsa. It was a successful and ambitious group, which helped in strengthening salsa during this decade (Roberts, 1999, p.192).
Major Changes That Occurred In the Latin Music World between 1970 and Today Dramatic changes occurred in Latin Music in 1970s. Salsa musicians became very creative. For example, Yomo incorporated Puerto Rican guitar, Larry Harlow introduced electric piano whereas Cecilia Cruz embraced Brazilian tunes (Roberts, 1999, p.193). Besides, this period increased diversification of Salsa making it transform into smooth and sweet romantic. Thus, salsa ingrained lyrics directed towards romance and love (Roberts, 1999, p.194).
Jazz fusion also underwent various changes; the style was bubbling, renewed and exiting. In addition, integration of new ingredients to Jazz music such as, “free-form improvisation” was common to style up Jazz music (Roberts, 1999, p.191). Various incorporations therefore encouraged fusion of jazz music intensifying the improvisatory aspects to 1990s.
Moreover, fusions albums were popular; although created by similar groups, style differed exponentially. Instead of embracing a codified style, some musical compositions assumed formerly outdates styles.
Rock music in Latin America was throbbing especially in Argentina in 1970s. Its composition varied i.e. the national rocks and homegrown rock such as Almendra (Roberts, 1999, p.198). At the end of 1970s, popularity of rock music was entrenched in the society. The popularity further surged when the government of the time banned English music from being aired in radios (Roberts, 1999, p.198).
Popularity and Influence Latin Music Internationally The impact of Latin music in the global scene is intense and widespread. Its perplexing sounds and rhythms have gone beyond Caribbean to global. Latin music artistes use Spanish and English, which are diverse modern languages. This has transpired into its preference across cultures and thus entry into wider markets around the world.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Latin American Music by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Latin American music is has slowly but sure transformed to fuse with other different popular genres across the world. US artistes have heavily borrowed from Latin genres to establish their own compositions (Roberts, 1999, p.195).
Further, the influences of Latin American music find expression around the world through rumba, calypso and tango among other popular Latin genres (Roberts, 1999, p.197). This is because of diversity of culture and colonization. Embracing diversity and originality of style in music merged with unique cultures has contributed to its impact across the world (Roberts, 1999, p.253).
Influence of Latin Music in US Society US is endowed with diverse Latin and other Spanish speaking cultures. In recognizing their culture, a lot can be learned through Latin American Music. Away from Latin and Spanish cultures, Latin musical practice and style has influenced US in more than one way. The popularity of the Latin styles is noticeable in classical music.
Although it was heard earlier during ragtime, its influence inspired US and as such, US composers such as Philip Sousa and Victor Herbert. With a distinctive US musical language, the impact of Latin American music has stood resilient. Various elements of Latin music have been incorporated in popular US music and in other types of genres across the US (Roberts, 1999, p.246).
The Cuban musical style was a major influence on US music and society. Cuban music embraces a blend and varying extent of European, African, and units of homogenization origins. The blended style of “Habanera” is popular in US. This style had its origin from Argentinean Tango.
Tango also positively affected US music and altered jazz music as well (Roberts, 1999, p.245). The universality of Salsa is the major explanation for the popularity of Latin American music in US. The influence of Salsa is evident around major cities in US; it has influenced wearing style of most US musicians and public.
Latinos presence in the US and their music has evolved in forming a diverse culture. The Latin American Music has led to the establishment of “National Academy of Arts and Sciences”; an agency that recognizes and gives awards to prominent artist “the Grammys” every year (Waxer, 2002, p.263). The agency has added Latin American Music category assortment process. The category has further been broken down into various classes in appreciation of multiplicity existing in Latin music (Waxer, 2002, p.263).
The Latin American music has also influenced emergence of female singers in the US. Gloria Estafan, a Cuban female singer collaborated with Miami Sound machine in early 1980s (Waxer, 2002, p.263). Since then, women with Spanish heritage such as Selena and Shakira have emerged and shaped the American music industry (Roberts, 1999, p.194).
Emergence of Reggaeton in the music scene is credited to Latin music. Reggaeton hip-hop is one of the leading popular styles in the US music. Reggaeton combines rap like vocals and Latin rhythms. Artistes such as pit Bull and Daddy Yankee have been synonymous with embracing this style across the US (Waxer, 2002, p.263).
Popular Latin Artist Shakira is one of the most popular Latin artistes of our modern times. She was born as Isabel Mebarak Ripoll in 1972 (Krohn, 2007, p.35). Shakira is her professional or stage name. She is a songwriter, dancer and a musician. She emerged in music limelight in 1990s.
Her music life was influenced by her father, whom she used to watch writing stories using his typewriter. At the age of seven, Shakira was writing moving poems, which puzzled some of her friends. Some of her poems culminated to powerful music. Her first song was “Your dark glasses”; his father who had a taste of wearing dark glasses motivated it.
Her early exposure in public life helped her encounter Monica Ariza, a theater producer who later helped her to sharpen her music career. Monica convinced Ciro Vargas, a Sony executive to give Shakira an audition (Krohn, 2007, p.99).
The audition was granted and the talented Shakira mesmerized him and other directors. Impressive performance in the audition made the chief executive to sign Shakira to record her three albums i.e. Shakira’s Magia and Peligro album (Krohn, 2007, p.99). The albums were produced by Sony music in 1990 (Krohn, 2007, p.99).
The latter albums were officially released in 1991.The albums exemplified Shakira’s talent and influenced her exposure in Colombia. However, the album did not fetch enough money commercially. Shakira released her second album “Peligro” in 1992 and it was received with great enthusiasm than the previous “Magia” though it failed commercially because of failed popularization (Krohn, 2007, p.101).
In 1995, Shakira rose to the limelight and strengthened her attractiveness in Latin America through her album “Pies Descalzos” (Krohn, 2007, p. 103). She further recorded three tracks in Portuguese. The influence of this album and her popularity in many states encouraged her to return to Sony thus recording “Pies Descalzo” in 1995(Krohn, 2007, p.103).
Later, she successful performed “Esta Corazon?” and Pies Descalzos” which was available in Latin American markets in 1995 and globally in 1996. It was debuted as number one in more than eight countries around the world.
Shakira’s second self-produced album (produced by herself and Emilio Estan, Jr., as a co-producer) was known as “DondeEstan Los Ladrones?” This album was inspired by loss of her lyrics at the airport (Krohn, 2007, p.35). The album was a hit than “Pies Descalzos”. The success of “DondeEstan Los Ladrones” excited Shakira and she embarked on an English crossover album.
This was important for her to promote herself in a greater market while preserving the popularity of mainstream music and career diversification.”Whenever, Wherever” was the first English lead single in 2001 and 2002. The song is credited for having heavily borrowed from Andean music including Panpipes and Charango in its instrumentation. “Whenever, wherever” was internationally successful as it achieved number one slot in many countries (Krohn, 2007, p.88).
Shakira has encompassed several genres in her music productions. The most notably genres include folk, rock and mainstream pop hence her music is a synthesis of diverse features. Moreover, Shakira is one of the best and highest Latin America selling artists. She has sold over 60 million albums globally (Krohn, 2007).
“Hips don’t lie” was one of the most aired single in US radio history. Consequently, she was one of the first artists in history of commercial charts to claim a pre-eminent spot in top 40 mainstreams and Latin American Charts (Krohn, 2007).
Conclusion Colonialists helped to develop the Latin American music in a big way. Latin music styles are now appreciated all over the world. By embracing elements from Africans, Europeans and Indians among other cultures, Latin musical styles such as; Salsa, Tango, Baroque, Bassa and Nova have received a lot of attention internationally. Consequently, a good music foundation traced back to the colonial period has contributed to current level of performance by modern Latin American Musicians such as Shakira and Enrique Iglesias.
Reference List Buelow, G., J. (2004). A History of Baroque Music. Indiana: Indiana University Press
King, J. (2004). The Cambridge Companion to Modern Latin American Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Krohn, K. (2007). Shakira, Minnesota: Twenty-First Century Books.
Moore, R. (2010). Music in the Hispanic Caribbean. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Roberts, J. (1999). The Latin Tinge: The Impact of Latin American Music on the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Waxer, L. (2002). Situating Salsa: Global Markets and Local Meanings in Latin Popular Music. New York: Routledge
Countering to the Hepatitis Disease Term Paper essay help online free
Recent reports have indicated that an estimated 2% of America’s population has contacted chronic strains of the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) or the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). An average of 15000 annual deaths has been ascribed to Hepatitis or other liver related infections. It should be noted that up to 75% of the infected populace are not aware they have the disease. The state of affairs is worsened by the limited fiscal resources allotted by the exchequer.
A meager 2% of the medical budget is reserved for Hepatitis as compared to 69% slated for AIDS. The disparity exists; although, both diseases originate from viral infections (Peters, 2010). Limited resources have brought about reduced awareness levels in the public domain, which creates a challenge when enforcing disease surveillance measures. To counter the disease, enhanced societal education and accessible services are crucial.
This can be achieved by cooperation between management and healthcare providers at the different levels in which they operate. Prevention measures should also be enhanced, with prominence on vaccination against Hepatitis B promoted. This can be achieved if all states enforced legislation to make it a necessity before access to basic needs, like education (Peters, 2010).
Summarily, efforts should be launched simultaneously across all fronts, with emphasis on; outreach and awareness; deterring fresh occurrences, clear identification of infected persons; providing social and peer support for the identified persons; medical management of infected persons. Select groups in the society should also be monitored keenly, especially; users of illicit drugs; immigrants, tourists and other visitors; persons who were previously held or are currently serving jail time and expectant mothers (Peters, 2010).
Racial Inequality The differences occasioned by racial heritage play an integral role in determining the health status and lifespan of American citizens. It is notable that residents of color record lower life expectancy levels than their white counterparts. Surprisingly, killer diseases are similar across the board, with cancer, heart ailments and stroke being lead killers for both races.
The difference is occasioned by awareness levels and availability of necessary facilities. Statistics have also revealed that black women show lower rates of contacting breast cancer; although they are more susceptible to the same as compared to white ladies. This has also been accredited to lack of consciousness and necessary medical facilities (Gillian, 2010).
In addition, lifestyles of the two communities also add to their vulnerability. White residents live in affluent neighborhoods, with access to basic amenities and easy access to premier quality services.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In these areas, security is the least of concerns hence relative peace of mind is existent among the residents. In the black neighborhoods, security is a paramount concern, a factor which contributes to their stress levels. Coupled with other factors, the apparent uneasiness resulting thereof impacts negatively on them, affecting their health in the process (Gillian, 2010).
Lack of jobs is another factor that contributes to the existing difference between the two races. The closure of industries and other job creating ventures resulted in high-unemployment rates. This translates to a lack of proceeds, making it difficult for them to access therapeutic insurance policies or cash required before an individual gains the right to use these services. This compares poorly with the white youths who have disposable income to spend due to employment opportunities or the fiscal ability of their parents (Gillian, 2010).
Female Circumcision This practice is widespread across a number of nations especially in Africa. The process is carried out differently, depending on the cultural values espoused by a community. Some natives are known to rub turmeric on the genitals, while others draw blood from the clitoris. It is noted that others are known to cut off sections of the clitoris. It is noteworthy, that the magnitude of flesh which is removed off from the clitoris varies depending on the community.
For some nations, this trend is backed by religious principles. This includes Indonesia among other Islamic states. Medical personnel have indicated that this practice does not have any benefits. The male version of the practice has been applauded for the myriad of positives that arise. It is affirmed that instances of abridged HIV infectivity rates have been reported (Corbett, 2008).
It is commendable that several nations in Africa have taken the initiative of outlawing the practice, following similar moves by western nations. This equates to a drop in the ocean since many nations still engage in the practice, using religion and culture as an excuse to propagate the practice.
For them, this practice regulates hormonal levels in the ladies and makes them more appealing brides. In addition, their libido levels are normalized. Summarily, health officers attached to the UN have emphasized illegality of this act, exerting pressure on policy makers to outlaw the practice. The move is bearing fruit in some nations like Indonesia, where government practitioners are forbidden from performing the same.
While such efforts mark considerable steps in the right direction, activists should be on the lookout for a backlash from natives. It is essential to rope in all stake holders and cultural leaders in attempts to minimize the habit, as opposed to waging open war against them (Corbett, 2008).
We will write a custom Term Paper on Countering to the Hepatitis Disease specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Corbett, S. (2008). A cutting tradition. The New York Times Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/20/magazine/20circumcision-t.html?_r=1
Gillian, H. (2010). Racial inequality: a public health issue. KALWNEWS. Web.
Peters, D. (2010). Hepatitis B and C remain public health issue — up to 5.3 million Americans infected. Medical News Retrieved from https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-02/w-hba022310.php
The No Child Left Behind Policy Research Paper custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Benefits of NCLB
NCLB and Students
NCBL and Teachers
NCBL and Funding
Introduction In 2002, the then United States of America president George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) bill into law. NCLB affects the content of subjects, tests performed in school, mode of teacher training, education funding and spending of money in education circles.
Consequently, different people raised voices from all quarters in society with critics and adherents alike, giving their opinions. Nevertheless, it is important to analyze this act before passing any judgment. Like any other act, the NCLB act has its merits and demerits; therefore, any opinion should be grounded on facts to determine if the merits outweigh the demerits or vice versa. If the former outweighs the latter, then the act is beneficial. The reverse is also true. Given the validity and feasibility of this act, NCLB is beneficial.
Benefits of NCLB As aforementioned, NCLB affects three critical areas in education circles viz. students, teachers and funding. The benefits of NCLB to each one of these highlight how beneficial it is to the involved parties. Therefore, it is paramount to analyze each category separately in a bid to separate facts from propaganda. Notably, all the NCLB provisions seek to advance education standards thus benefiting, first the students and then to the United States of America as a country.
NCLB and Students Under NCLB act, students can transfer to better schools or access free tutoring. The legislation requires all schools to present Adequately Yearly Progress (AYP) thus enabling students to know whether their schools are progressing, retrogressing or stagnant.
In case where the school is not recording positive AYP results, students can transfer to better schools with a positive AYP results. The right to access better-performing schools empowers students for they can meet their academic goals without being restrained by unfavorable learning environments.
This provision standardizes the education system, moderating the hitherto scenario where students from a given demographic group could excel in school compared to other students in a different demographic setting. Moderating these dominant differences in education system is an achievement, because each student will be in a position to compete fairly on level grounds. Moreover, students will be empowered by knowing they can access quality education anywhere within a state.
NCBL calls for students to be “tested annually in reading and math in grades 3 through 8 and at least once in grades 10 through 12…science should be tested in at least one grade in elementary, middle and high school” (Hanushek and Raymond 299). On the face value, these requirements might not mean a lot; nevertheless, research carried out to determine the viability of NCBL indicates otherwise.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Margaret Spellings, the Education Secretary states that, NCBL is positively affecting education since its implementation. “The Act is challenging our students to succeed and our schools to improve” (Spellings 2). As aforementioned, NCBL seeks to improve performance and education standards and if it has achieved this objective, then it is beneficial.
NCBL and Teachers According to provisions of NCBL, teachers’ qualification to teach any core subject is preponderant. For instance, apart from possessing a bachelor’s degree, grade school teachers must undergo thorough tests to ascertain their competency in teaching core subjects. On the other hand, middle and senior high school teachers should aptly pass a given test to prove their competence in teaching. These provisions ensure students get seasoned information from quality teaching practices, thus elevating performance and education standards as well.
Research by the Education Trust shows that “students in schools with a large percentage of minority and low-income students are more likely to be taught by teachers who are inexperienced and lack a major or minor in the subjects they teach” (Peske and Haycock 15). In the wake of these findings, NCBL provisions come in handy to counter these poor teaching practices.
Instilling professionalism in the teaching career catapults students’ performance and education standards to great heights, something that the Education Secretary approves. “90% of teachers have met NCLB’s highly qualified teacher requirements… At-risk students are getting help earlier… children with disabilities are receiving more classroom time and attention… (Spelling 10).
These positive results from NCBL exemplify its usefulness in the education sector. Apart from seeking qualified teachers, NCBL seeks to incorporate qualified teacher’s aides in a bid to match the needs of all students. All these factors coupled with empowered students who are ready to learn, will foster education standards across all the states in the United States of America, hence qualifying NCBL as a beneficial act in contemporary America.
NCBL and Funding The above-mentioned programs cannot run without adequate funding and NCBL policy makers knew this very well as they structured its provisions. The policy makers stipulated sufficient funding avenues to ensure successful implementation of NCBL. Schools can now access and spend federal funds in teacher training among other programs geared towards improvement of education standards.
Under this program, schools can spend federal money to train or recruit and retain certified and seasoned teachers for the purposes of improving education standards. Moreover, federal funds can now be used to ensure students conduct scientifically sound researches as a way of empowering them.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The No Child Left Behind Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, “new regulations issued in October 2008 make it easier for schools to use Title I funds for outreach to parents to make them aware of their school choice and free tutoring options…spend non-Title I funds for teacher quality, technology, after-school learning, and Safe and Drug-Free schools” (Knaus 47). Given the fact that money is the driving force behind most successful stories, it is therefore important to support the NCBL act.
Even big companies sell shares to the public to raise money for development and expansion, and this underlines the important role NCBL is playing by enlisting federal fund as a source of funding schools’ projects. Moreover, as Spellings notes, this act will “ensure that high schools have resources to help low-income students” (10). This observation supports the bid to ensure equality in accessing better performing schools.
Conclusion The signing of NCBL into law in 2002 significantly affected the education system across the United States of America. By affecting different key issues from the syllabus content through funding programs to teacher training, NCBL act changed the education system positively.
Currently, students from low or poor performing schools can transfer to better-performing schools allowing students to compete fairly and meet their academic needs. On the other hand, teachers should be sufficiently qualified and seasoned in the core subjects for the well-being of the students.
Finally, schools can now use federal funds to equip students through teacher training among other issues that positively affect students’ performance. All these factors contribute to high education standards and this qualifies NCBL as a beneficial program.
Works Cited Hanushek, Eric, and Raymond Margaret. “Does School Accountability Lead to Improved Student Performance?” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 24. 2 (2005): 297-327. Print.
Knaus, Christopher. Still Segregated Still Unequal: Analyzing the Impact of No Child Left Behind on African American Students. Berkley: University of California Press, 2007. Print.
Peske, Heather, and Haycock Kati. “Teaching Inequality: How Poor and Minority Students Are Shortchanged on Teacher Quality.” The Education Trust, 2006. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The No Child Left Behind Policy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Spellings, Margaret. “Building on Results: A Blueprint for Strengthening The No Child Left Behind Act.” U.S. Department of Education, 2007. Web.
Efforts to Alleviate Ozone Depletion Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Depletion of ozone layer is the slow eradication of the ozone layer caused by the gases that are emitted into the atmosphere. The purpose of the ozone layer is to cushion the earth from the dangerous ultra violet rays of the sun thus it reflects back these rays. Were it not for this layer the earth could not be able to support any life (Hussen 128).
The ozone layer has its own mechanism of constructing and reconstruction which aides the process of sealing any openings on its surface. However there are some toxic substances that are capable of destroying the ozone layer permanently.
Dobson argues that these toxins contain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and Bromofluorocarbons (BFCs) which attach themselves to the ozone layer. They then split the molecules of the ozone layer and because they are permanently attached to the ozone layer they hinder the process of merging the split molecules thus the damage is cannot be repaired (1296).
That’s why products that contain CFCs have been banned in most countries. The ozone layer lies within the stratosphere which is a thin layer on the exterior of earth surface. Hussein asserts that since ozone layer acts as a barrier between the surface of the earth and the ultra violet radiations from the sun, any erosion of this layer will allow the ultra violet radiations to affect living creatures directly hence there would be no life on earth (128).
The stratosphere is the most prone area to depletion. The intensity of depletion is influenced by temperatures hence areas that have very low temperatures experience the highest intensity of depletion compared to areas that have high temperatures. CFCs were meant to be employed as a cooling agent in refrigeration.
This explains why developed countries are recycling old refrigerators because if they are not disposed properly they could emit these chemicals (Callan
Catatonic Depression Research Paper cheap essay help
Introduction Major depressive disorder is a mental ailment in which the victim exhibits an extreme mood, low self regard as well as loss of concern in activities that are usually considered to be pleasurable. Catatonic (depression) is a major type of depression that is exemplified by relentless motor function disturbances. It is nonetheless not viewed as a disconnect disorder but usually linked with other psychiatric conditions, such as, drug abuse.
It is caused by cognitions and environmental factors. The major cause of catatonic depression is negativity of a person or in the way he or she perceives different aspects of life. It is a disposition disorder and has an effect on an individual’s life, for example, the person’s health. It may even lead to suicide. This paper examines the causes, symptoms, prevention, treatment and various arguments in relation to Catatonic depression.
Dhossche (2006) asserts that catatonic syndrome is characterized by coexistence of psychiatric symptoms and motor symptoms. There is an association of catatonia with depression, alcoholism, syphilis and epilepsy. Catatonic signs can appear in a variety of disorders and it is not therefore purely a psychiatric condition associated with schizophrenia as it was earlier believed.
The identification of major depressive ailment is dependent on the self-reported occurrences from the patient himself/herself, demeanors accounted by acquaintances or family members, and a mental status test.
Nevertheless, there is no (laboratory) examination for the disorder (major depression). Therapeutic practitioners in general call for examinations for (physical) conditions that may result in similar indications so as to establish the outcomes and degree of the major depression. According to Gelder, Mayou and Geddes (2005), a depressive ailment may result in dawdling recovery of the sick individual and may impinge on or deteriorate the victim’s physical health if it is not noticed at some point in the early phases.
Beck and Alford (2009) asserts that in the class of disposition disorders, catatonic indicators are normally linked to bipolar I ailment which is a disposition disorder concerning depressive and mania phases. Signs and symptoms of catatonic exhilaration, for instance, unsystematic movement not linked to the surroundings or replication of phrases, words, and movements may take place for the period of manic stage.
The authentic catatonic indicators are unfeasible to make a distinction from those witnessed in catatonic (schizophrenia). The catatonic symptoms may also appear in combination with other mood disorders, including bipolar II disorder, mixed disorders and major depressive disorders.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Causes of Catatonic depression
Catatonic depression is mainly caused by problems in production of neurotransmitters within the brain. These are substances that carry out impulses beside a nerve (from one nerve unit to the other). Serotonins (as well as norepinephrine) are believed to be the most essential neuro-transmitters that are linked to depression. Other causes include psycho-social, genetic among other factors.
This involves different aspects of personality, where there is negativity in ones way of life, there is a tendency to develop depression since ones emotions are affected in a negative way. This is caused by the inability of an individual to cope with situations and low self esteem. A person may develop depression due to ealy relationships with the parents or caretakers for example during infant stage for example loss of a parent or mistreatment and rejection of the child.
Social factors like poverty can cause mental disorders one of them being depression. Child abuse which may be physical, emotional or sexual can cause depression later in life as the child live to remember the ordeal many years after its occurrence. This is built on the argument that it is during the childhood days that a person’s develops and learns how to be a social being. Any ill-treatment may disfigure a child’s character development and afterward lead to depression and other intellectual and expressive disorders.
Some kinds of long-term drug use or over-use of drugs and alcohol can also cause depression or worsen depressive conditions.
Major depression is associated with causing an increased individual reproductive fitness. Depression may be hereditary where the depression disorders may be passed genetically. This is linked to some species and the manner in which they adapt to various stimuli especially those who perceive things in a negative manner.
Signs of Catatonic dejection
The most discrete indications are; motor immobility, intense negativism and denial to speak, replication of other individuals terms and deeds as well as eccentric movements.
Mainly, people with catatonic depression remain motionless and may remain in a position in which they have been placed for a long time, unnecessary activity that is performed without a specific reason, feelings of worthlessness, unnecessary guilt and regret, helplessness, hopelessness, self-hatred, poor concentration and memory, withdrawal from social situations and activities, reduced sexual desires, and thoughts of suicide. Catatonic depression patients may be stigmatized (American Psychiatric Association, 2000)
We will write a custom Research Paper on Catatonic Depression specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Prevention of Catatonic depression
Although there is no one major preventive measure for depressive disorders, the recommended way to prevent Catatonic depression is through Beck’s cognitive-behavioral therapy. The therapy works by breaking a person’s negative perceptions about him or herself, the world, and their general view of different aspects of life.
Catatonic (depression) Treatment
Preliminary treatment is intended at mitigating the victim from the catatonic situation. The commonly used form of treatment is the use of antidepressants medication. Electroconvulsive remedy is also an effectual treatment for catatonia and its associated causes, for instance, depression.
It has a more rapidly effect than anti-depressant (therapy) and hence it is suggested for urgent situations for example where one is refusing to take meals. Care should be taken in the provision of the medication since wrong use can worsen the situation. When first line treatment fails, other means are used, for example amantadine which may lead to tolerance when its use is prolonged hence causing psychosis.
Memantine is another alternative and is ideal for persons who can not put up with amantadine for the reason that it has decreased frequencies of psychosis. Hospitalization is necessary for people who posses signs of being violent and the ability to harm themselves or others. Counseling is also essential to the patients as it helps them change their negative attitude towards life and value themselves.
It helps the patients to raise their self- esteem and learn to live positively hence avoiding stress. Psychotherapy is very useful especially to older people and should be offered in conjunction with medication since it minimizes the chances of the disorder becoming recurrent. Physical exercise is also crucial in clearing moderate depressive disorders since it keeps the mind occupied and the body fit (Martin, Volkar and Lewis, 2007)
It is believed that depressed individuals usually have shorter life expectancies than those without depression. This is because of greater vulnerability to medical illnesses that lead to deterioration a person’s of health and also cases of suicide. Deficiency in societal support, for example, from the close family members may result in stress and strain, which is the commonly reported reason for depression.
There are some speculations by the American Psychiatric Association(2000) that states that exposure to ultra-violet light reduces the chances of getting depressive disorders. 30 minutes of vigorous exercise three times a week also reduce the vulnerability of being a victim of depressive disorders.
The mainly employed treatments (for depression) are medication, psychiatric therapy, and electroconvulsive (therapy). Psychotherapy is the treatment moist suitable for people under the age of 18years while electroconvulsive therapy is only used where other treatments can not work because of one reason or another.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Catatonic Depression by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Care and treatment of depression is mainly done outside the hospital unless for cases where the patients are violent and have signs of causing harm to themselves or to others. It is nevertheless hard to get excellent cure of depression in third world nations due to limited competent personnel as well as medication facilities.
Conclusion Major depressive disorder is inclusive of various kinds of disorders each with its causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment. However most disorders share most of the symptoms and characteristics and it is therefore difficult to directly identify a disorder. It is advisable to take preventive measures to ensure that a person does not suffer from these disorders and if the disorder occurs the patient should seek medication early enough to avoid worse effects.
Reference List American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edition, text revised. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Beck, T. A.,
Car’s Unique Types Classification Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction Over the years, various types of cars have been developed. Manufacturing companies have designed and different types of cars to meet various consumer needs. However, there are three types of unique cars that have been marketed to meet specific consumer needs.
Characteristics: price and functionality
Unique characteristic: Low price
Example: Toyota corolla
Characteristics: Price and functionality
Unique characteristic: enhanced handling and speed
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Luxury cars
Characteristics: price and functionality
Unique characteristics: Enhanced comfort and safety, status symbol.
Example: Mercedes Benz S-Class
There are numerous classes in which cars may be classified, however complete classification is hard to pin down as a car may fit into a range of classes, or not entirely meet the requirements of any class. Cars can be classified according to their size, performance, price, shape and mechanical specifications. There are generally three unique types of cars common to modern consumers: economy, sports and luxury cars.
The most common type of car common in the market is the economy car. The economy car is designed and marketed in such a manner that the consumer can acquire it at a price much lower than the average cost of a new car.
Economy cars vary with respect to profitability, size, performance and production numbers. During early production, most cars produced were expensive and could only be afforded by rich. However, production companies realized that they could boost up their profits by manufacturing affordable cars for the general population. The Model T car produced by Ford in 1908 became the first economy car to be sold in the world. The first major characteristic of economy cars is that they have low prices.
Economy cars are also usually small and the features of the car usually depend on the year of manufacture. They usually have the compulsory safety features such as safety belts but they may lack convenience features such as GPS systems and air conditioning. An example of an economy car is the Japanese Toyota Corolla which has sold more units than any other car in the world.
We will write a custom Essay on Car’s Unique Types specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second type of unique cars is the sports car. Sports cars are vehicles designed to have better performance and power than normal cars. Many sports cars are designed for two passengers, have two doors and have sleek bodies. Originally, sports cars had small bodies however contemporary sports cars vary in size with many manufacturers increasing their seating room in order to enhance practicality.
These types of cars are designed to do extremely well at maneuverability, acceleration, braking and top speed. The main distinguishing feature of sports cars is that the handling characteristics of these cars have been greatly improved. The driver is usually able to keep the car in control even under very difficult conditions.
While a powerful engine is not a prerequisite, most sports cars do contain powerful engines. Sports cars are relatively expensive; much more expensive than economy cars and other typical cars common in the market. The Porsche Company is an example of a manufacturing company that has been linked with the production of unique sports cars designed to meet specific tastes and needs. As compared to other cars in the market, sports cars are intended to emulate sporting performance.
The final type of unique cars common in the market is luxury or comfortable cars. These cars are designed to boost ease and comfort. These cars usually are geared for luxury and contain features that aim to achieve this goal. Luxury cars usually contain innovative equipments, greater performance and features designed to convey prestige or brand image.
The principal characteristic of luxury cars is that they are designed for comfort far above typical cars. They usually contain features such as leather seats, custom dashboards, and anti-lock brakes. Modern luxury cars also offer better handling and performance but this is secondary to comfort and safety. Luxury cars are highly expensive and are usually targeted at wealthy buyers and collectors.
The style of construction and technological features of luxury cars are such that they convey high class. As compared to the other cars common in the market, luxury cars are intended for comfort and to convey prestige and status of the owner. Mercedes Benz is a company that has been linked with the production of luxury cars including the Mercedes Benz S-Class model.
Cars have evolved over the years to become an essential part of human life. There have been many types of vehicles designed over the years however three types of vehicles stand out in the contemporary market.
Economy, sports and luxury cars are vehicles designed for a particular group of consumers and vary in terms of price, functionality and embedded features. Consumer power, taste and preferences are essential elements in deciding the type of car one will buy and it is for these reasons that most manufacturers seek to design and produce these three types of vehicles.
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Online Persona: Ethical Implications Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
What are the ethical implications of an online persona that is radically removed from your real persona? Is it ethical to create an online persona that is inconsistent with the social or professional identities you have in real life? The short answer is no. Conscious misrepresentation of oneself in any way shape or form violates ethical standards of truth and moral constancy.
However, the question requires an additional consideration: what harm does this ethical manhandling cause? For the purposes of this essay, let us accept that a fabricated online persona remains ethically unsound, as we consider the social harm this causes, namely, the perpetuation of crippling social stigmas, and the erosion of social trust.
Freedom reigns online. Ordinary social constraints drop. As Professor John Suler explains, “the opportunity to be physically invisible” online frees participants to experiment socially, in what’s known in psychological discussions as the Disinhibition effect (Suler 1). “People don’t have to worry about how they look or…about how others look or sound in response to what they say.
Seeing a frown, a shaking head, a sigh, a bored expression, and many other subtle and not so subtle signs of disapproval or indifference can inhibit what people are willing to express” (Suler 1). Not so online. Anonymity creates a distance and “a form of altered ethical sensitivity, wherein digital objects are not perceived as real objects and, at the moral level, people judge them differently” (Capri and Gorsky 58).
The motivations to deceive online often stem from self-esteem issues (Capri and Gorsky 54). People whose authentic social identities limit or trap them often “play with their identity online” (Capri and Gorsky 58). Deceptions in these cases still fall under the purview of ethical violation, however, are they harmful?
Is it not more ethically suspect to deny an “unpopular, overweight, non-athletic, and unattractive” man or woman the opportunity to live a more socially fulfilling life through an “avatar…more self confident and self-contained” than his or her real self? (Capri and Gorsky 54)
The answer is no. The harm here roots much deeper than social ostracization. Online deception may offer a temporary means to escape social “loser” status, however, long term, it upholds the belief that these very same unattractive sorts have no value as they are, and must engineer an identity in order to acquire attention, social recognition, and even love.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ultimate forum for online deception remains the online dating world; however, one difference bears scrutiny: online dating culminates in a face to face to meeting, and the pressure of this inevitable “reveal” tends to restrain deception. “Online representations of one’s ideal self—when combined with the increased accountability engendered by an anticipated face-to-face interaction—may serve as a tool to enable individuals to minimize the discrepancy between their actual and their ideal selves” (Ellison, Heino,
The Strategies to Harvest Maximum Benefits Essay essay help online
My preferred topic is organizational change; it is essentially defined as a process that involves transition from one way or system of performing work (which includes the culture) to a new way or cultural relation of an organization. I have chosen Taxes Electric Inc which is a small organization with vibrant presence in the market.
To position itself effectively in the market, the management has identified particular areas that need to be changed. A strategic team has been appointed by the management to draft a paper on how the organization will implement the strategies to harvest maximum benefits. After several sittings, the strategic team identified several areas that needed some changes. Among some of the areas to be reviewed was, the organizational structure, operations, and organizational culture.
The organizational structure was reviewed with some of hierarchy levels being scrapped to avoid conflicts and redundancy. This meant that some employees would lose their position or be redeployed to serve under other departments. Those affected received this with a lot of resistance because of the change in the status quo. The current structure had a poor reporting relationship with many employees unable to tell whom to report to. There were many overlaps of duties and responsibilities that rendered operations inefficient.
The current operations of the company were very inefficient. With the global economic meltdown, the company employees had to contend with working more hours for less pay.
This strategy was not received well by the employees. The strategic team identified that to support the change strategies developed, a strong organizational culture had to be cultivated. The culture will encourage innovativeness and greater individual flexibility. The employees should develop ownership of the company and freely participate in increasing company’s productivity.
The transition mechanism put in place to oversee the changes was not successful. The greatest mistake was the composition of the strategic team. Top management was over represented giving an impression that is unbalanced. This invoked a lot of resistance from the lower level employees who felt left-out of the process.
The management did not communicate the need to change to its employees in time. The employees learnt of the changes through informal networks prompting the management to resort to damage control. The need to change though positive was critically negated by the management of transition process.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to change theories, people are always resistant to change. If the management of Texas Electric Inc needed to implement changes in the organization, they needed to be keen in managing the transition. Kurt Lewin theory explains change transition in his ‘freeze, ‘unfreeze’, and ‘refreeze’ model. Before the change, the organizational behavior is in the ‘freeze’ stage (repeated pattern of behavior based on the past experiences which people are unwilling to change).
To ‘unfreeze’ these behaviors, the organization should communicate and develop the need to change amongst its employees. When all the employees have understood the need to change, then the desired change strategy can be implemented. After implementation, behavioral effectiveness and efficiency can only be achieved when individuals ‘refreeze’ the changes. This can be done through monitoring and support where necessary.
Texas Electric could have easily managed change and obtained the desired result if they had adopted such a system. The company needed to have communicated the need for change to all its members. The next stage would be to build consensus on what areas need to be reviewed and the potential implication to both the employee and the employer.
Appointments to the strategic team should reflect the composition of the organization in order to build credibility. When specific strategies have been achieved, then the implementation process should be followed by close monitoring mechanism and support in order to achieve the desired goal.
Special Education; the Inclusion Debate Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction In the current society there are those people who need special attention if they are to be successful in education system operated. These people are people with either mental or physical disability. They are people with an emotional imbalance and thus they learn at a slow pace than emotionally stable people. When in school children require special attention from teachers.
Traditionally, the system that existed is segregating the disabled to schools that could cater for their needs. However, there are some conditions that can be handled by ordinary schools. Inclusion refers to making learning institutions compatible to both the needs of special education and ordinary children. It takes the form of administrative measures to be taken, teachers, and infrastructures. The curriculum should be adjusted to ensure that children with special needs are catered for.
Advocators of an inclusion system quote the numerous advantages that the system has on the disabled person; they are of the opinion that disability is not a disease but a condition. It takes the collaboration of teachers, pupil’s participation, policy makers and parent to make these programs a success (Hines, 2008). This paper discusses the need for special education in today’s society; it will discuss the methods that are used in an inclusion system and the advantages that the system brings to a child.
Literature review Forms of inclusion
There are different forms of disabilities that schools have to cope with. There are those who cannot see those with mental disability, the dump, and the physically disabled. If all these classes of pupils are in a class, then there are deliberate measures that need to be taken to accommodate them. Sometimes the measures may be on an individual child or the entire group. To accommodate them there is the use of Modification and Accommodation strategies, they are used interchangeably; however they have a slight difference in approach.
Modification targets at the situation in class where a student with disability is taught according to the level that he can understand. If he can only get the basics then he is allowed to read only that. In times of homework allocation, his work may be lesser than that of other students or have more time.
On the other hand, if the disability is such that the child cannot keep up the pace of others in class understanding, there should be recorded learning tools to be given to the child. The role of the parent in such a case comes because he has to ensure that the child learns. The same can be done to the blind. Class modification takes three angles they are;
• Instructional modification
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is where the role of the teacher takes effect, the teacher should ensure that the disabled has been accommodated in the class and understands to his level best. This may include involving the disabled in various class activities to make them develop a good sense of themselves. When the student is given homework and exams the work load of the disabled may be reduced or the time of its submission increased. The use of Braille’s and record taping is another modification.
• Assignment modification
This is where the assignments given to the disabled are leveled to his capacity. The much he understands is the level that he should be given exams and assignments on but graded with the rest of the class.
• Grading modification
This is where the student is graded with others but the exam that he undertook is different from the rest. On the other hand, the length of the exam in terms of questions may be reduced or the time allocated increased. This will ensure that the student feels that he is playing on the same ground with the rest while he is actually not. This will make him feel as others and not regard himself as inferior (Rainforth
China – Key Statistics on Economic Development Research Paper college essay help online
China is an important and strategic nation not only in the Asian continent, but from the international perspective as well. In recent years, with China adopting the liberalization and globalization policies in right earnest, the world community has been forced to take note of China’s strength while expressing different kinds of reactions.
While on the one hand China is not liked by some countries for the cheaper labor rates, some countries issue boycott calls for products exported from the mainland China for a number of reasons. Infringement of intellectual property rights (IPR) laws was another reason for which the country has received negative media coverage.
Even after organizing a never before show in the form of Olympics in the year 2008, by pumping in huge amounts of its resources, the country has been able to take the recessionary trends in its stride. While a number of developed nations like US, Germany, UK etc. were under acute pressure on account of recession, China continued to showcase an average GDP growth of 10.3 percent during the period of 2003–09 (Datamonitor, 2010).
It is worthwhile here to note that while the credit crunch led recession resulted in negative growth figures in many countries around the world, China was able to come out with growth figures of around 9 percent even in the year 2008, a dip of about 4.6 percent from the 12.6 percent in the year 2007 (Datamonitor, 2010).
Stimulus packages provided by the government certainly had a big role in maintaining such growth figures, but then such packages were also provided by other governments as well. Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao was a satisfied person after finding out that the economic stimulus packages had the desired impact on sustaining the economic growth of the country.
The stimulus packages worth more than $595 seems to have the desired impact on almost all aspects of the economy, as the industrial sector was also able to provide an estimated 22 million jobs to the job market (Xinhua, 2010). It is worth pointing out here that despite the stimulus packages provided by the US government the job market in America has lost about 7.9 million jobs since the start of the recession (Reuters, 2010).
Respective Chinese governments have put in place the economic reforms for about two decades now. It has witnessed gradual transition of Chinese economy from a highly regulated economy to an open one.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Impressive GDP growth, improvement in economic indicators, increasing income levels of an average Chinese are some of the factors pointing towards the increased say of Chinese people in world affairs. Hoguet, (2004) pointed out that Chinese economy has shown a growth rate of 9.3 percent per annum, with a per capita income that is growing at about 10 percent per annum.
The country seems to have continued the trend with a robust performance from its industrial sector. The industrial sector accounted for 49 percent of the GDP in the year 2009 followed by its services and agriculture sector with contributions of 41 percent and 10 percent respectively (Datamonitor, 2010). Key statistics of Chinese economic development include;
Robust GDP figures: On an average the GDP growth rate was 10.3 percent during the period 2003-2009. There were some dips in between, which were set off by impressive growth figures in subsequent years.
Inflation: The inflation figures have been a cause of worry for almost all major economies around the world, with unabated efforts from respective governments to bring it under control. Rising inflation figures have been a cause of worry for the Chinese economy as well. The National Bureau of Statistics of China indicate that the year-on-year consumer price inflation rate reached a high of 3.3 percent in July 2010 from 2.9 percent in June 2010 i.e. in just about a month (EIU, 2010).
Investment inflows from abroad: Foreign investments have played key role in the revival and sustenance of Chinese economy. While on the one hand China has been providing a cost effective manufacturing environment to the leading industrialists from around the world, on the other the indigenous manufacturing sector has been able to provide better export figures for the country. During the beginning of the liberalizing policies the focus of Chinese government was towards inviting as much of foreign investment as possible, but with consolidation of investments from abroad, the government has started focusing on the quality of investments instead of sheer quantity. While the FDI figures for 2006 stood at $69.5 billion, it was $108 billion in 2008 (Datamonitor, 2010). Leading manufacturing units in different sectors like Automobile, Computers, and Telecommunication etc. have ensured that they are in a position to leverage the location advantage by shifting their manufacturing facilities in the mainland China. Attractive areas for investments from abroad include manufacturing, energy conservation, environmental protection and modern services.
Strong Focus on Infrastructure Development: Infrastructure facilities prove to be the backbone of a vibrant economic environment in any country. If the industrial sector is provided with a robust infrastructure, it helps in instilling a sense of confidence amongst the manufacturers as well as service providers. The transportation system of China is stated to be one of the best in the Asian continent. With an effective and widespread railway network China has been able to connect even the remotest corners of the country to the centers of shipping and manufacturing. The study by Datamonitor (2010) indicates that Chinese railways had its footprints on an area of more than 78,000km by the end of the year 2007. The railway network is amply supported by the road network and other means of transport.
Overseas Investments: In sync with the invitation to foreign governments and companies for investment in the country, a number of Chinese companies have also been venturing out by entering into strategic tie-ups with foreign companies and governments. This is helping the economy of China in many ways. While the revenues generated from such ventures have a role in boosting the economy of China, it is also helping in putting off the deceleration in domestic investment climate in the recent past. It is pertinent to note that the nominal urban fixed-asset investment growth in the country has slipped from 25.5 percent in January-June 2010 to 24.9 percent in January-July 2010 (EIU, 2010). In August 2010, Tongling, and China Railway Construction came out with announcements of their intention to develop a copper project in Ecuador at a cost of about $3 billion (EIU, 2010). Corriente Resources, a Canadian mining company, was also acquired by Chinese investors in the year 2009.
Adherence to the environment issues: There have been allegations to the effect that Chinese companies have not been following the environment standards. But, the government of China has been continuously on an effort to improve its environment adherence record. In August 2010 itself the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued orders to over 2,000 energy-intensive factories in this regard (EIU, 2010). Such measures are bound to further strengthen the Chinese economic environment.
References Datamonitor (2010). Country Analysis Report – China: In-depth PESTLE Insights. Datamonitor Americas, New York.
EIU (2010). Country Report –China. Economic Intelligence Unit, UK, London.
Hoguet, George R. (2004). How Best to Benefit from China. State Street Global Advisors, Boston 2004.
Kaiser, Emily (2010). Will the U.S. job market break its losing streak? Reuters, Jan 3, 2010. Available online at https://www.reuters.com/article/us-economy-weekahead-outlook/will-the-u-s-job-market-break-its-losing-streak-idUSTRE6021CC20100103 (Sept, 16, 2010).
Xinhua (2010). China’s economic stimulus creates 22 million jobs. Available online at http://www.china.org.cn/business/2010-09/16/content_20945671.htm (Sept 16, 2010)
Chrysler Group LLC Report a level english language essay help
Executive Summary The competitiveness of a business in the changing business environment is dependent on the quality of decisions that its managers make. When making business decisions, there is need to use past and the present to make futurist decisions.
This calls for a pool of information to be available for interpolation and analysis. Use of information technology can keep such important information; Business intelligence tools are the tools that a business can use to keep such information to be used in decision making. It is thus important for the company to adopt business intelligence tools.
Introduction Chrysler Group LLC is an automobile company that was incorporated in 1925. It has its headquarters in Detroit, Michigan in United States of America. It is ranked the thirteenth successful motor company in the world. Seven years in the last ten, the company’s sales have been decreasing (see appendix 1). The trend of sales is a reflection of how competitive the motor industry has become (Chrysler official website, 2010).
The competitiveness of a business is vested on the quality of its management decisions. A number of systems that aim at meeting a certain objective in the business arena have been developed. They are either home-made or all user systems (commercial systems). Business intelligence is the name used to refer to the total collection of such system; it was first coined in September 1996, in Gartner Group report.
To make informed decision there is need to have reliable information (Olszak
A Clean, well lighted Place Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The short story “A Clean, well lighted Place” has been written by the author named Ernest Hemingway in the year of 1962. The story is basically a narration of different stages of life where the interest and thought process of people changes with time. Age is the biggest focus line of this story as people’s thought process changes with the growth in age.
The author had illustrated different stages of human life with the help of illustrating characters of old waiter, young waiter and an old man at the café. This paper evaluates the similarities and differences in the traits of all three characters.
The author had illustrated the younger age of human’s life to be full of excitement. The author has portrayed the character of the younger aged waiter as a young human who has his short terms goals. The author claims that the young waiter did not really felt considerate of the older persons around him.
To the young waiter, older people are filthy and clumsy who have nothing better to do in life (Hemingway). In the story, the author had described the traits of younger waiter’s personality as impulsive, inconsiderate of older people, focused to a conservative vision of sleeping with his wife and one who had no idea how death could come to his life in his later years of older age.
“I have a wife waiting in bed for me (Hemingway 28).”
The second stage of human life has been projected with the help of character of an old man who stays in the café till late night to drink. He does not spill a single drop of liquor on the counter and when he leaves the bar, he walks with dignity instead of unsteady walk. The older age of the man had been regarded to a stage where there are no hopes left but the fear of darkness at home (Hemingway). The darkness had been used as a symbol of death. Staying at the café for longer hours helped the older man to escape from the fear of darkness. The café was well-lighted that had been used as an escape from the darkness.
The light is very good and also, now, there are shadows of the leaves (Hemingway 62)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The third character which is quite similar to the character of old man is the waiter at the café who is also old. The young waiter asked him about the old man who stays for loner hours at the café late night.
“I wish he would go home. I never get to bed before three o’clock. What kind of hour is that to go to bed? (Hemingway 8)“
In reply to the question of the young waiter, the older waiter answers from his experience stating that older stage of life is full of fear of darkness (death). The older waiter states that the older man was in a progression towards old weary days that ends with death (Hemingway).
Through the above analysis of the traits of the three characters of the story A Clean, well lighted Place, it comes to our understanding that the old man was in a progression of an older age and had similar personality traits as the older waiter had. The younger waiter had been projected as a different human who is in his younger age and does not understand the fear of death and the need of light as an escapee in the older age.
Works Cited Hemingway, E. A Clean Well-lighted Place. New York: Creative Education, 1990.
The Role of Marketing in Business Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The role of marketing
Introduction Marketing refers to the commercial processes involved in promoting and selling and distributing a product or service. It is basically the mechanism through which producers of commodities and service providers build up consumer interest in their goods and/or services.
Marketing comes up with an elaborate and systematic course of action that forms the base for sales methods, business communication and enterprise growth. It is an incorporated practice by way of which firms establish and develop solid client affiliations and build value for their commodity and service consumers and for themselves.
Marketing application was perceived as a creative trade in years gone by and it involved promotions, circulation and general trading. However, with the advancement of intellectual study in marketing, there is a wide scale use of other sciences like psychology, economics, mathematics, among others, which end up making marketing a science in itself.
Nevertheless, marketing is also interconnected to many of the imaginative arts. Marketing literature is normally proficient at recreating itself and its lexicon in relation to the prevailing times and the culture.
The whole process commences with marketing exploration and passes through market partitioning, commerce arrangement and implementation, finishing up with pre and after-sales promotional undertakings.
The role of marketing The main purpose of marketing is to identify the consumer of a product or service, to retain the client, and to gratify him or her. With the customer as the spotlight of any business, it is therefore appropriate to conclude that marketing is a key element of the running of such establishments. Over time, marketing developed to meet up the stasis in growing new marketplaces brought about by already developed client bases and overproduction of commodities and services.
Marketing strategies Taking up and practicing of marketing schemes and strategies calls for business establishments to alter their emphasis from just production to the observed needs and wants of the commodity and/or service end users as the way of staying gainful.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Attaining organizational aspirations is usually dependent on establishing the needs and wants of the target clientele and working toward achieving them. Any business organization needs to satisfy the needs of its customers in a much better way than its competitors in the marketplace. This is what gives a distinction between good and bad marketing approaches.
Approaches used in the past are generally considered to be below par as compared to their contemporary counterparts. These approaches have had to change with time in line with consumer tastes. The earlier strategies were namely; the production approach, the commodity/service approach and the selling approach. In the production orientation, the profit driver(s) lay in the production processes.
An establishment laying emphasis on this orientation specialize focuses on generating as much as possible of a given commodity or a service(s). The company in question basically takes advantage of the economies of scale, ensuring that the least effective scale is hit. This approach is effective when a high demand for a commodity or service is in the offing and there is a certainty that customer likes do not swiftly alter.
The mainstay of the product approach is the commodity or service quality. An establishment using this approach assumes that so long as its commodity(s) and/or services are of acceptable quality then customers will always buy them.
Selling methods are the profit drivers in the selling approach. A firm employing this lays emphasis on the selling or promotion of a given commodity or service, minus establishing new customer wants or needs. As a result, this involves selling an already present commodity/service by use promotion skills. This orientation is not the best as it relies on likelihood that changes in customer likes and wants leading to a reduction in demand will not arise.
Good marketing has various approaches which include; relationship marketing which lays the spotlight on the consumer, business marketing which lays emphasis on an establishment or a firm and the social marketing approach that has its emphasis on the society. The mainstay of the relationship marketing orientation is establishing and maintaining good customer relations.
The entire association between suppliers and consumers is normally under focus here, with the intention being to provide the best possible consideration, consumer services and thus ensure client devotion.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of Marketing in Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the business marketing orientation, establishment and maintenance of relationships between firms or companies is the main profit driver. In such a set up, marketing occurs between organizations. The commodity or service focus is on industrial goods or services rather than end user products.
The profit driver for social marketing is normally the gain for the society at large. The approach has the same attributes as the marketing approach but has an additional provision that there will be no detrimental activities to society in the commodity itself and all other processes involved in getting the product to the end user.
Conclusion Good marketing needs to focus on the customer or the end user of a commodity or service. With this, a lasting relation between the producer/marketer and the client will be created. With the advancement of technology, marketing needs to be taken to an even higher level by use of the worldwide web through internet marketing, commonly referred to as e-marketing. More precise target on an audience is easy to achieve in such cases.
The Concept of Reconstruction Analytical Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Reconstruction is regarded as the phase of struggle for United States after the defeat of confederacy in the civil war in the year of 1877. The phase of Reconstruction experienced a number of resolutions as proposed by Republicans and federal government to make positive effort. In the same era, Abraham Lincoln observed the plans of effort laid by Republicans.
Lincoln stood forward and critiqued the plans along with the proposal of better options to practice during the era of reconstruction. Another major contribution was by Congressional Republicans in the era of reconstruction. In this paper, we shall compare and contrast the concept of Lincoln and republicans with respect to reconstruction.
The Reconstruction idea that appeared the most valid was Lincoln’s idea on Reconstruction. In 1863, Abraham Lincoln planned to reconstruct the south back in to the Union which was the most reasonable plan in contrast with the Republicans. The Republicans were surprised to know that how the Southern states were allowed to be back in the Union.
Later on, the Republicans produced the same idea that had put Lincoln in the direct confrontation and after a little while it was cleared that the idea of Lincoln is more reasonable. Republican plan for reconstruction was to give the control to the American Army and take away the controls from the southerners.
The plan by Congressional Republicans is named as Radical Republican Reconstruction. The plan by Republicans was greatly debated as it was being regarded that Republicans were basically implementing their interest of staying in power through the plan of Reconstruction (Belz, 1998).
On the other hand, the plan by Abraham Lincoln plan was being accepted by masses rapidly and trouble-free. He gave reason that as South did not succeed their economic and political leaders instigated the secession and the war (Belz, 1998). Lincoln sought to harmlessly re- integrate the South back into the Union.
He presented arguments that the government was indissoluble and was for sure politically unfeasible (Belz, 1998). In other words one of the Lincoln plans for the Reconstruction was earlier than a state could be readmitted in the Union 10 percent of the voters wanted to take oath to the U.S.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To stop this plan of Lincoln, the Republicans introduced Wade-Davis Bill of 1864. This design of Republicans gave rise to the voters and it increased 10percent to fifty percent of the number of voters. However, this bill did not get passed because Lincoln, the president refused to sign.
This decision had put Lincoln in a clash with the congress. The drastic Republicans only hunted to help white Northerners. In order to solve the situation of turmoil, Black Code was enacted by the southern governments because Black Code completely restricted the voting rights of black. Black Code was an opinion of northern or whites as they had a fear that if the blacks were to come to the North it would possibly mean smaller quantity of jobs for white Northerners, or even opposing for them.
For a political group to desire something so poorly that they would think about hurting people for their personal benefit seemed cruel. Lincoln’s Reconstruction design possibly did not go into complete effect but it was still extra logical than the Lincoln’s design (Belz, 1998). Republicans understood that the South should be penalized for beginning the war and they wished to guard the constitutional rights of Freedmen.
Moreover, Lincoln’s another plan took place in the period of 1865-1877. In the following duration his government exercised to readmit the confederate states back into the United States.
Republicans panned to divide the South in 5 different districts and then wanted to place them under the military rule. Thirdly, it should be noted that the plan of reconstruction by Abraham Lincoln supported the black and whites altogether that was purely an American vision that was required in the era of reconstruction.
The Republicans of Congress sought to enfranchise blacks and supply economic help in the South for two major reasons. The first reason was to maintain blacks in the South so it would not damage or race with whites in the North and secondly to generate a midpoint for the Southern Republican Party (Belz, 1998).
Through the above argumentative analysis it could be said that the concept of Reconstruction was perplexed by different people through their contributions but the accurate is Lincoln’s Reconstruction design which was reasonable due to facts that he had notion to put into the design or plan as he knew not extra that 10 percent of people would all have a allegiance oath, there was no exceptions in Lincoln’s plan, whatever was assumed was done, and he did generate laws for his own individual benefit.
We will write a custom Essay on The Concept of Reconstruction specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While the other party Republican had an entirely different perspective of Reconstruction opposite to Lincoln’s Reconstruction plan of re- integrating the South back into the Union, and was for an enrichment of the U.S.
Reference List Belz, H. (1998). Abraham Lincoln, Constitutionalism and Equal rights in the Civil War Era. New York: Fordham Univ Press.
Women and Political Life Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Historically, women have been on the wrong side with fewer political and legal rights as compared to men. Even in career opportunities, women have failed to secure high positions due to male dominance.
It is as if these women still live in the colonial world. However, as compared to the colonial woman, today’s woman has achieved significantly rights that they never had or participated. Traditionally, the society viewed women as people with low intellectual power and weak to perform muscular tasks. They therefore subjected them to motherhood and wifehood.
Nonetheless, the dawn of the 20th century saw women assume some roles that men described superior to women. In fact, during the colonial times, women could note even vote to elect a leader. Voting was a prerogative of men. Some nations prohibited women from schooling and instead, assigned them household cores.
Since the dawn of the 20th century, women in some nations gained their right to vote, started attending schools and colleges to get education and some even acquired big jobs including political seats. This did not happen just by chance. Women had to fight in order to gain such rights. It was not easy to change a society deeply rooted in traditionalism and traditions that segregated women to accept ‘feminization’.
In order to gain political and legal rights, women had to convince the society to reevaluate its traditional views on women. The current society not only views women as a creative foundation of human life, but also, equal with men. In the past, the society considered women intellectually inferior compared to male. In addition, the society that mainly constituted male dominance considered women as the spring of evil and enticement.
For instance, in the ancient Greek mythology, a female by the name Pandora, opened the forbidden box and from there came despondency and plagues that continues to invade human beings even up to today. On the other hand, in the Roman world, the society enacted laws that portrayed men as children, perpetually lesser to men. Surprisingly, even the then theological teachings condemned women as a spring of all evil and wickedness (DinKin, 1995, pp. 1-12).
For example, St. Jerome who served Christian Church as a Father in the fourth century wrote that women were like the gateway of the fiend, the conduit of impiety, serpent’s sting, and overall, a dangerous object. Other theologians also had their own way of describing women. Thomas Aquinas in one of his theological sermons said that God created women to act as assistants to men, and that their main role was to conceive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He went further to say that if men needed assistance, only other men will assist them. In Asia and particularly in the Middle East, the society was fair towards women. In countries like India, women had the right to own property and exercise other freedoms. However, after 500 BC, Hinduism evolved and set out new dimensions regarding women. According to Hinduism, women had to respect men and always be obedient towards men. In addition, the religion prohibited women from walking in front of men.
Moreover, the religion disallowed women from owning property and prohibited widows from remarrying. In general, the society valued a male child more than a female child. The paper examines the roles of women during colonial times. Further, the paper will examine how the roles of a colonial woman have changed to fit the modern environment. In the past, women participated in roles different from the contemporary.
The paper will analyze the past and present roles of women and as to whether these roles befit women. Even with the changed roles, women still face enormous challenges. Yes, it is true there are opportunities for women all over the world, but the society continues to delegate minor responsibilities to women. History has shown that if societies grant women personal and intellectual freedoms, women can achieve great things.
For example, history portrays women as hardworking when it comes to political and legal matters aimed at changing the society that all of us live in. in the Middle Ages, women who participated in church activities as nuns, performed imperative roles that later shaped religion in Europe. The aristocratic women performed vital societal roles emanating from the reputation and authority they had.
From one era to another, women rulers influenced generations towards achieving success. For example, women rulers like Queen Elizabeth who ruled England in the 16th century remains an icon even up to today. On the other hand, the political lives of Catherine the Great of Russia and Victoria of England remain great inspiration to women around the world who aspire to be political leaders (Elaine, 2005, pp. 13-41).
Role of Colonial Women in Political Life During the colonial period, women had few roles to participate. This is because the society did not value women much and instead, it delegated household responsibilities to women. These and many other legal injunctions ensured women never participated politics and other public sphere cores. However, during American Revolution, perceptions about women started changing slowly. Women had to fight to have a say in political life and other freedoms.
In United States, men dominated the public space of both politics and occupation. Thus, women had to fight in order to join their male counterparts in political life. They instigated liberation fronts to demand the denied freedoms. Little they know that the struggle had to take more time than expected. Nevertheless, they never got discouraged easily but instead, increased their determination and strength to achieve the denied freedoms.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Women and Political Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although they did not achieve all of their rights, women assumed new responsibility termed “Republican Motherhood” that improved their accessibility towards educational prospects and gave them a chance to take part in public roles. Ironically, women did not achieve full lawful egalitarianism and voting citizenship (Compton New Media Incorporation, 1995, p.1).
In America, there were three types of women with different roles. These included African, Native Indians and Europeans. These women had specific roles that they performed within their societies. In most cases, these roles were traditional in nature. For example, preparing meals was the role of women.
Women also wove clothes, took care of children and taught them how to be good citizens. When colonial masters entered America, they got appalled with the way women performed these household chores. They especially goy mesmerized with the manner in which women stayed around homesteads raising children, doing artistry works, cultivating farms. Men engaged themselves in hunting, building houses and doing fishing. Consequently, the colonies established commercial companies and employed men to work for them.
However, with time, the colonial masters wanted to instigate permanency in their mining and tobacco firms. Therefore, they decided to employ women. The roles of women did not change because they got involved in farming for the colonial masters. Life was not easy for them in colonial farms. In fact, some of them even died of diseases, while the few who survived got married to rich men (Brown, 1996, pp.70-82).
Women never participated in politics but helped men in making political rights. The fact that women never voted is a surety that women were mere creatures in political decision-making. In fact, the society required women to get married before they reach 25. Any woman who was not married above this age became a social misfit. Surprisingly, as soon as they got married, the laws considered them dead. It is this particular law that prohibited them from participating in politics and instead delegated them household chores.
Moreover, women had no control over family earnings, land or property acquisition and never appeared in legal courts to give evidence. These curtailments became obstacles for women to participate in politics. Thus, their political life was doomed and reduced to hearsay rather than actively participating in it (Kamensky, 1995, p. 41-43).
Changed Roles Women have fought tirelessly to gain political status. For example, since 1920, American women participate in election through voting. Nevertheless, they still have long way to go as their political roles are quite minimal.
For example, up to today, no woman has served United States presidency. In United States, women serve in senate and governor posts. Until recently, Hillary Clinton, the wife of former President Bill Clinton, served as the senator of New York.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Women and Political Life by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More She is currently the chief diplomat of United States serving as the Secretary of State in Obama Administration. In Africa, the president of Liberia is a woman while is Asia, the sitting president of Philippine is a woman. Today, most nations allow women to elect their leaders and women have the right to vie to vie for political seats. Thus, the contemporary woman has the role of electing leaders she wishes.
Major constitutional amendments all over the world have awarded women parliamentary seats and in some governments, women get automatic percentage of seats to serve either in the public service or in politics. Today, women have the right to own and inherit property (Eileen, 2009, pp. 8-43).
Historical versus Contemporary Roles of Women The historical women engaged themselves in household chores leaving prestigious roles to men. This is because the society considered women inferior to men in all spheres of life. For instance, in past, women could not participate in politics, practice medicine, preach or become lawyers leave alone appearing in court to give evidence.
However, with long struggles coupled with civilization, women now enjoy varied positions in politics, medicine, teaching, writing, teaching and many more. It is important to note that the political gear termed “feminization” contributed greatly during the women movement in America and Europe. They instigated reforms that saw men change their attitudes towards women.
In the colonial era, the societies disallowed women from schooling. As a result, many women did not know how to read and write. At a snail’s pace, major political reforms in many countries for example, United States saw acceptance of girl child education. In 18th century, women could acquire professional education but limited to medicine. The few medical schools present trained women on obstetrics only.
However, a century later, women started training in other medical field like nursing. Research done in 1890 showed that about five percent of doctors in United States were women ninety years later, the percentage increased to 17 percent. (Compton New Media Incorporation, 1995, p.1)
In the past, women could not even give evidence in court. However, this has changed where women can now take law as a profession, previously regarded as a man’s job. Statistics reveal that by 1989, there were as many as 22 percent women lawyers and judges. In addition, women serve in other professions like engineering previously dominated by men. However, there is still a challenge as women regard themselves inferior to men.
That has seen many women take simple careers like teaching art subjects leaving science and engineering fields to men. Research shows that there are many women working as elementary school teachers than other levels of learning like high schools, colleges and universities. The few who teach colleges and universities handle disciplines like home economics, sociology, art subjects and nursing.
In other positions of work, women serve as less involving positions like secretarial, bookkeeping, typing and other service jobs that do not require much energy. During the Second World War, women had the opportunity to serve in the Army just like their male counterparts but as secretaries, nurses and typists.
However, they contributed significantly in the war through resisting underground movements. In other countries like Israel, women are almost equal with men where both male and female recruited in the force participate in full combat training. Thus, it is clear women can perform chores initially preserved for men.
Unlike in the past where women only performed household chores and farming, the contemporary woman can do diverse jobs including working as a civil servant or serving people in politically. In United States alone, women constitute about 45 percent of working Americans. Unlike in the past, women are now assuming managerial positions ranging from managers to head of private and government institutions. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 saw women start earning the same salary like their male counterparts.
Thus, women are now in a position to own property. With money, women can engage in active politics and compete with their male counterparts for political seats. Despite these major changes, the contemporary woman still participates in historical roles performed previously by the colonial women. For example, the contemporary society still believes that women should perform household tasks like washing, cleaning and cooking.
It is quite hard to find a man involving himself in any of these tasks. Research indicates that majority of women perform household cores in addition to raising children. Nevertheless, some men are now involving themselves in these activities especially in homes where both the husband and wife work as employees.
Challenges facing women Poverty
Poverty remains an issue affecting most households. In most cases, women from poor backgrounds lead a poor political life. Many of them do not participate in choosing their leaders. Poverty-stricken women are prone to human rights violation. Many of them do not have accessibility to basic needs and clean water.
These are many other inadequacies violate women’s human rights. In some countries, women fail to secure employment due to sex discrimination. They end up leading a poor life. In some situations, women receive less pay as compared to men. Traditional practices that prevent women from inheriting property and land remain a major challenge to women ailing from uncivilized communities. If the society denies women right to education, those women will remain ignorant and live a wretched life.
Institutions and Electoral Laws
In many countries, institutional and electoral laws prevent men from participating fully in the political arena. These laws contain some element of exclusion that locks out women from exploiting their political ambitions. For example, in Europe, the uninominal voting system has prevented women from acquiring political seats as many view it as an acme of individualizing the process of competition.
The system supports famous women who might be holding other constitutional offices hence making them double office holders. Such scenario becomes detrimental to the ordinary women, as it tends to maintain the political class through feminization. This feminization enters government level and showers it with oligarchic manners to continue developing self-replicating elites (Council of Europe, 2003, pp. 23-26).
Opportunities for women Gender Equality
Once imposed, gender equality will earmark a new era in the political lives of women, as they will favorably compete with their male counterparts minus favoritism. For a long period, politics has been the preserve of men. However, women can use their numbers and trespass this perception.
Gender equality break fundamentalism of any kind, discard male superiority and promote competition. In addition, countries that have successfully imposed gender equality have empowered women and instilled gender hierarchy in their system of governance.
This great opportunity will make women shine politically if fully adopted. Under parity democracy, both women and men represent a certain institution. Some researchers call it a mechanism of rethinking democracy even as people continue to deliberate on it. Parity democracy leads to social partnership between male and female hence forming a social contrast. Where there is democracy, women do not exist on paper, but they actively participate in politics to promote democratic edifice (Council of Europe, 2003, p. 23).
Reference List Brown, M. (1996). Good Wives, Nasty Wenches
Students Procrastination Problem Problem Solution Essay college application essay help
Procrastination is the habit of postponing doing things that needs to be done. It can also be defined as the act of avoiding doing certain things that ought to be done. This is a problem affecting most of my classmates especially when it comes to assignments.
I have observed that most students tend to avoid doing assignments until the last minute and some are not even able to meet the deadline. It is normal to procrastinate (and most people do it) but excessive procrastination often leads to problems. People are left with guilt feelings when they are not able to accomplish a task at the right time.
This is not a problem that is only affecting learning institutions; it also affects employees in the work place. It is like an addiction and once you develop it, it becomes very hard to leave. In this paper I will address the problem of excessive procrastination, look at the reasons why students procrastinate and give recommendations. In doing this, I will use books and the internet to gather information about the problem that will help me in making recommendations on solving the problem.
I have reviewed different perspectives from different scholars and found that, excessive procrastination causes anxiety because the tasks being avoided must be done. It also results in poor performance because the assignments are done in a hurry when the student does not have ample time to research on the topic. If this problem is not addressed, it can interfere with individual’s school performance as well as their personal success.
American Psychological Association Essay essay help online: essay help online
Introduction In future, I would like to join American Psychological Association. The reason for this decision is the benefits that I am going to get from the organization. This paper gives an analysis of the organization as well as expanding further on the reasons that makes me take the decision.
Background and History
APA (American Psychological Association) was founded by 31 members in 1892, as a professional body for psychologists from United States of America. Currently it has a membership of over 150, 000 in 54 branches. The association is the largest in United States and combines scholars in different areas of psychology. It has its headquarters in Washington DC.
Mission Statement for the Association
Advancing the communication, creation, communication, and psychological (knowledge) application in a bid to improve individuals lives as well as the society at large.
Continual Pursuit of Excellence
Knowledge and Application Based on Methods of Science
Outstanding Service to its Members and to Society
Social Justice, Diversity, and Inclusion
Ethical Action in All That We Do (APA Official website, 2010).
Reasons for Choosing the Organization The organization is composed of different professionals who have specialized in different areas of sociology, philosophy, and psychology. Annually the organization has meetings with its members where they share different observations in their area of specialization. Other than being a local organization, the company has international recognition.
It calls international meetings with other nations where they share experiences and knowledge. These interactions bring about net working environments and give a chance to enlarge ones knowledge in a certain area. When a member has attended a meeting, he is given a certificate which is recognized all over the world and given preference in America.
On a monthly basis there is a magazine and a journal produced for the members to read on various developments of the firm. The magazine is freely available to members who have paid annual subscription. In the magazine discussion focuses more on current trends in psychology and the way it affects the world.
To be a more productive member in the organization; I am planning to enroll in psychology classes. Other than understanding different trends in psychology, I will also understand different aspects in current changing world. Understanding the world will assist me in my main field which is economics; I will be able to understand the trends that are in business and the world economy at large and making decisions will be easier.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In America the organization members are highly respected due to the precedence of integrity set by other members. Being a member of the organization will not only boost my knowledge in the area of psychology but will assist me when making decision in future on my career. The core values set on the other hand place responsibility of care in me and thus I will become a respectable professional with integrity (Jo-Ida
The Concept of Metadata Essay college application essay help
The concept of metadata has gained popularity. Creation of videos and photography make use of metadata. It is also used in web pages and in a library to archive information. The metadata must always meet worldwide standards. Metadata is well structured using established schemes like models and standards of metadata. It has three categories.
They include descriptive, structural, and administrative type of metadata. Metadata mean different things. Some say it is a device that understands information while others use it as a record. Main uses include data recovery, framework of electronic resources and digital documents.
Metadata is also used in the extraction and maintenance of information. 99% of the information is digitally created while only 0.1% is written on the paper. About seventy percent of the created data is never printed and, only 20% may be printed. This has seen metadata gaining popularity.
The term metadata simply refers to any amount of information providing in depth information on one material or other multiple. It provides insight on the ways of creating data, the reasons for the data and the date of creation.
It also captures the data author, where on network the data is and standards which were used. The concept of metadata applies to electronically stored data and its use. It describes the structure, meaning and how the files are administered. Its main rationale is to make it effortless to repossess, handle or use as a resource. The web page usually displays metadata in Meta tags form (NICO, 2004).
Metadata can be related to some discussions I experienced. The discussion was about state of art in Sub-Saharan Africa. Internet acted as a major source of information to the discussion. The United Nations website and other principal sources provided detailed information on the topic. Several sites gave insight to every situation under discussion. There were linkages to other websites with detailed information, which made the discussion easier than books.
The sites spelled out clearly the dates of publications and places of publications. Some websites required authentication. An article was written after the discussion. It came out with information art in Sub-Saharan Africa to back up other previous findings. The report contained the list of participants. It spelled out the place of discussion and soft copies given to the relevant authorities. A copy will be posted on the Internet.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A good example of metadata is an image. It may comprise of metadata which specifies its size. The size may include side dimensions and units of measurements. The color aspect may also be depicted. This may entail contrast, colors used and the extent of the colors. Metadata specifies the resolution of the image.
The date of creation and who created the image are also shown in the metadata. Related information like the links to the image and where it is found in the metadata.
Electronic discovery is cheaper than the discovery of paper-based information. Large corporations and societies and states have an easy time going through the information.
This has increased overall production. The Collection, storage and evaluation of information act as evidence (Michele