Rethinking Rights And Global Development Essay Essay Help Free

Table of Contents Introduction

Problem Statement

Theoretical Approach

Case Study

Introduction With regards to the statement made by Jack Donnelly, the human rights regime is as a result of globalization. The ideology of social, political and economic stability has been widely spread to a number of nations all across the world. the fight for human rights and equality has also followed the same trend. For many centuries, human beings have been living in civilizations that are characterised with oppression and inequality.

This was especially so in traditional societies and early civilization. As a result, it was only the rich, the powerful and the elite who enjoyed the powers and privileges of the community at the expense of the less fortunate individuals in the society. With regards to this, only a small portion of the community enjoyed the full benefit of the society at the expense of the entire population.

However, since the 15th century, a lot of changes have taken place. More individuals have become enlightened and hence fought for their rights and freedom. This process started during the enlightenment period in the 15th and 16th century in Europe and quickly spread around to North America, Asia and finally it became a global phenomenon.

The resultant effects of this revolution during its early days were the Napoleonic wars in France, the division of the Roman Catholic Church, the independence of the United States and the abolition of slave trade. With this enlightenment, individuals wanted economic, social and political development in their states. At the same time, they wanted the rights and freedoms of all individuals to be respected.

At the present time, there are some states that exhibit high levels of democracy as compared to others. Due to this fact, the developed nations try to integrate their values, customs and procedures into the governments of developing nations. This has been done to ensure that strong political regimes have been put in place in the various states of the world.

As a result, there has been the establishment of international bodies that fight for the rights and freedoms of individuals at a global level. These include international courts, triburnals and committees. The main aim of these bodies is to ensure that the rights of all individuals are respected at an international level so as to achieve a global social, economical and political growth.

Problem Statement The fight for human rights has come about as a result of globalization and the need for equality among individuals. With the current trends in the growth and development of the global approach of solving common issues that affect many states in the world, a lot of international bonds and treaties have been made.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This has been done to ensure that the welfare of all individuals in the world is taken care of at an international level. Government have found it easier to combat issues together as a team rather than as individuals. To fully explore on this issue, this study will focus on the humanitarian crisis that hit the horn of Africa mid this year as a result of food crisis and the reaction of the global community to the issue.

Theoretical Approach The theory of protection of human dignity and life will be the main theory that will be tested in this study. It is part of human nature for an individual to care and have mercy for another individual, especially when the other party is in need of help and attention.

Another theory that will be tested is the theory of global sustainability. Man has worked hard for many years to ensure that he lives a comfortable life and creates a better environment for future generations. Due to this fact, governments have come together as a team to ensure that a social, political and economic growth of all states in the world. All these theories will be tested in the study.

Case Study The case study of this project will be the horn of Africa, Somalia to be in particular. To collect relevant data for the study, secondary sources of information will be used. This will include the use of books, journals, media and other print materials.

This information will provide an overview of the issue at hand and the impact of other nations to alleviate it. Simple data analysis will be conducted from the data that will be collected and inferences and conclusions shall be made.


The Experiences of the Asia-Pacific Area and Their Influences on the Relationship Between Democracy and Economic Growth Essay essay help: essay help

The Asia-pacific area is an economically, culturally and politically diverse region. Asia has risen to become a leading global market due to proper implementation of proposals to upgrade ports. A lot of public ports have been transformed into profitable business entities.

This has been due to the universal emergence of reform- based privatization. Kalpana and Jolly (2001, p. 200) describe that to date, communication industry in the Asia-pacific area have been boosted by flexible and mobile networks and the relevant maintenance of data systems.

However, the industry is affected by barriers that tend to limit opportunities. Such limitations include fluctuations in network prices and destruction of delicate equipment used in the industry.

The transport industry in the Asia-pacific area boasts of greater development largely attributed to influential stakeholders in the industry. Traveler realization and baggage allowance techniques are aimed at improving overall passenger satisfaction and experience.

The healthy economic growth in the Asia-pacific area is attributed to a quick recovery from the recent global economic crisis. The remarkable recovery and improvement in economic growth is due to good governance and great involvement of such international economic organizations as the World Trade Organization (WTO).

The maintenance of high economic growth reduces the hardships that the people from the Asia-pacific area had to endure previously. The growth has also been due to efficient supply chains, regional cooperation and integration. In addition, aids to trade have acted as powerful engines in poverty reduction and in ensuring equitable growth.

The Asia-pacific area can attain high economic growth with a systematic institutional arrangement that aims at arriving at political decisions that will enable individuals to acquire the power to decide, and have the freedom to join unions and organizations. The democratic systems in this area have respect for human race and the supplementary systems of administration that have grown into vibrant market responsive economies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Experiences from the Asia-pacific economy show that democracy has an indirect progressive influence on growth. This is because democracy positively impacts on the key determinants of economic growth.

The key determinants of economic development are education, human capital, inflation, investment, and income distribution. Democracy promotes cost-effective responsibility and reliance because its relevance governs financially viable contacts and public policy.

Universal and democratic social liberties influences donor funding because this encourages free journalism that helps in uncovering corruption or incompetent paperwork. Media freedom also helps in sending early warnings thereby putting pressure on the state to take prompt action.

Fostered democratic government helps to release creativity amongst members of the society, thereby enhancing accountability and active participation, leading to economic development (Maus 1997, p.47). Democracy also encourages human rights agenda and this serves to strengthen the influence and competence of nongovernmental organizations that form an integral part of the positive growth of the economy.

The democratic administration has helped in reducing the level of poverty and removing the restrictions that previously hindered proper decision making. This symbolizes the standard shift in the governments’ task to oversee and contribute in responsible and equitable promotion of the rule of law. This ensures that all citizens are included in the decision making process.

Reference List Kalpana, R. et al., 2001, Maternities and Modernities: Colonial and Postcolonial experiences in Asia and the Pacifi.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Maus, I., 1997, Inequality, Democracy and Economic Development. New York: Praeger.

We will write a custom Essay on The Experiences of the Asia-Pacific Area and Their Influences on the Relationship Between Democracy and Economic Growth specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Opinions on Corporate Social Responsibility: A Perspective from Joseph Stiglitz Research Paper college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Joseph Stiglitz: Opinions on Corporate Social Responsibility



Introduction Corporate social responsibility is a term that has gained significant prominence in the past two decades. For a long time, it was held that the only purpose companies were created is to generate profits. While this is true, people began to realize that corporations also have an obligation to the society as prescribed by law.

According to Carroll (1999), the first real definition of corporate social responsibility was provided by Howard Bowen in 1953. Bowen described social corporate responsibility as the obligations of corporations to act in such a manner that is desirable with regards to societal values and objectives.

This definition has undergone various changes and has been refined by various economists to set out a more concise statement on what CSR is about. Carroll (1999) defined corporate social responsibility as a voluntary obligation which a corporation has to the society other than that set by contract or by law.

Joseph Stiglitz: Opinions on Corporate Social Responsibility Various arguments have been brought up about the topic of corporate social responsibility. Most of the arguments raised are mainly due to differences in definition about Corporate Social Responsibility and the nature of businesses (Hussain, 1999).

Various economists have different views about CSR and understanding these views may pave the way forward in forging a comprehensive standard to guide Corporate Social Responsibility. Joseph Stiglitz is a Nobel Laureate and an influential American economist.

He has written several books on different economic issues and has also served as a policy maker in the Clinton administration (Friedman, 2002). From his various writings and policies, it can be shown that Stiglitz is one of modern proponents on Corporate Social Responsibility.

In his book Making Globalization Work, Stiglitz looks at the problems brought about by globalization and holds the view that globalization victimizes several countries as well as individual citizens. He argues that globalization has led to loss of jobs, unfair competition and an increase in drug cost for serious illnesses such as AIDS (Stiglitz, 2008).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Companies make deals with governments (especially developing countries) such that they can operate with minimum intervention and with little regards to the society in which they operate. In this book he also notes that the environment is one of the most precious resource people have and that governments and corporations have an obligation to reduce the effects of global warming (Stiglitz, 2008).

He notes that pollution, unfair subsidies and tariffs have led to the destabilization of the global economy. He proposes that to solve this problem, more transparent institutions should be created (Stiglitz, 2008). These views basically propose that both governments and institutions should embrace corporate social responsibility if societal problems are to be solved.

In an interview held in 2010 by tikkun Magazine, Stiglitz offers his direct opinion on corporate social responsibility. In the interview, Joseph Stiglitz asserts that the only way to create a fair society is through collective action between the various stakeholders in the economy (Lerner, 2010).

Global poverty, health and environmental degradation can all be mitigated through proper government policies and through voluntary participation of the various stakeholders in the global economy. During the interview, Stiglitz also affirmed his support for the current government policy requiring that all large corporations should get a corporate charter that is renewable every five years.

The Environmental and Social Responsibility Amendment requires that a charter be given to those corporations that have a good past with corporate social responsibility as per a jury of average citizens (Lerner, 2010). He however has reservations on the applicability of the Act as he notes that the definition of corporate social responsibility is diverse and different individuals have different comprehension on its meaning.

He notes that some companies embrace going green but readily offer loans to cigarette companies whose very existence is a form of social irresponsibility (Lerner, 2010). He further adds that there should be precise sets of standards that set the expectations of corporate social responsibility.

From his interviews and books it can be noted that Joseph Stiglitz supports corporate social responsibility but has several worries on the interpretation and application of CSR in companies. He proposes that collective participation is required in order to solve societal problems both at the local and the global scene.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Opinions on Corporate Social Responsibility: A Perspective from Joseph Stiglitz specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the issue of Corporate Social Responsibility, he argues that all companies have an obligation to the society and should thus try to act in the best interest of the society.

However due to differences in interpretation and misunderstanding as to what really constitutes Corporate Social Responsibility, it is necessary for the government to set up a given set of standards that would serve as the guidelines for companies to meet the said obligations (Lerner, 2010).

Stiglitz also notes that this government intervention should not be rigid as standards change over time and thus the government should constantly review the standards set for corporate social responsibility.

Conclusion Joseph Stiglitz has had a very illustrious career both in policy making and as an economist. He is particularly known for his criticisms on the management of the International Monetary Fund, free market economist and the failures of globalization.

Most of his criticisms are based on the fact that most international institutions do not practice corporate social responsibility and are only there to make profit with disregards to the community they are supposed to serve. His views has granted him several prominent position in the government and has also seen him attain top position within the World Bank, at one time serving as the senior vice president.

His work on these subjects has also granted him several prize and award recognition the most notable being the 2001 Nobel Prize in economics. He teaches at various universities in the world and also has been noted to be one of the most referred economists in the world.

Stiglitz also began the Initiative for Policy Dialogue, a corporation dedicated to promoting global development through proper policy making and sound business practices such as CSR.

While many economist do not readily agree as to what constitutes as Corporate Social Responsibility, the consensus is that every corporation has an obligation to the society it serves. Joseph Stiglitz has campaigned vigorously for global development both in his writing, work as a policy maker and activist for change.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Opinions on Corporate Social Responsibility: A Perspective from Joseph Stiglitz by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Looking at his various achievements, it can be easily shown that people have noticed the need for change and that his beliefs have granted him various advantages. Corporate Social Responsibility is not just a fad but a real development that has slowly gained influenced in the business field.

Reference Carroll, A. (1999). Corporate Social Responsibility. Business and Society, 28(3), 268 – 295

Friedman, B. (2002). Globalization: Stiglitz’s Case. New York Review of Books, 49(13), 26.

Hussain, S. (1999). The Ethics of ‘Going Green’” The Corporate Social Responsibility Debate. Business Strategy and the Environment, 8, 203-210.

Lerner, M. (2010). Economics for a Global Community – A Conversation with Joseph Stiglitz. Tikkun, 25(5), 12-16.

Stiglitz, J. (2008). Making Globalization Work – The 2006 Geary Lecture. The Economy and Social Review, 39(3), 171-190.


What role do bodies play in experiencing the world Essay essay help online: essay help online

Due to revolutionary discoveries that took place during the course of 20th century in the fields of physics, biology and psychology, the conceptual fallaciousness of metaphysical conventions, which presuppose the separate existence of soul and body, is now becoming increasingly clear to more and more intellectually honest social scientists.1

In its turn, this implies that the emanations of one’s existential psyche should not be discussed outside of what happened to be the specifics of individual’s biological makeup – apparently, it is namely one’s body which predetermines the workings of his or her consciousness and not vice versa.2

In this paper, I will aim to substantiate the validity of an earlier articulated thesis in regards to how the particulars of person’s bodily constitution, reflected by the qualitative essence of his or her cognitive capabilities, affect the manner in which such a person perceives surrounding realities.

In his book, one of 20th century’s most famous anthropologists Levy Bruhl was able to expose the innermost preconditions for the fact that; whereas, Westerners proved themselves capable of driving forward cultural, social and scientific progress, many representatives of so-called ‘indigenous cultures’ failed even at advancing beyond the Stone Age.

According to the author, this can be explained by clearly ‘pre-logical’ essence of how these people indulge in cognitive reasoning. Bruhl explains this by the fact that, unlike what it is being the case with intellectually advanced Westerners, ‘pre-logical’ savages actively strive to ‘blend’ with the nature:

“Identity appears in (native) collective representations… as a moving assemblage or totality of mystic actions and reactions, within which individual does not subjectualize but objectualize itself”.3

In its turn, this explains why despite the fact that many highly ritualistic activities, practiced by ‘pre-logical’ tribesmen, do not make any sense, whatsoever (and are often utterly repulsive, as shown by Metcalf)4, these rituals nevertheless continue to define the essence of primitive people’s mode of existence.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, according to Herdt, in traditional societies men’s willingness to follow the ritual is often considered the foremost indication of their masculine adequacy: “Ritual makes use of physical, instru­mental routines in restricting, cleansing, and ingesting things; and the ritual behaviors funnel subjective attachments to conventions, persons, and natural species”.5

Following the ritual, however, is being often concerned with the process of people intentionally suppressing their individuality and adopting clearly communal stance towards addressing life’s challenges. This explains the methodology of teaching Asian martial arts, for example.6

Nevertheless, it was on the account of our early ancestors beginning to oppose/subjectualize themselves against the environment that they were able to attain a complete dominance over the representatives of competing species. This allowed them to establish objective prerequisites for the consequential emergence of human civilization, as we know it.7 As Taylor noted: “Perception is basic to us as subjects.

To be a subject is to be aware of, to have a world. I can be aware of the world in many ways”.8 And, be able to gain awareness of the world, one must be able to asses reality’s emanations’ three-dimensionality – that is, he or she would need to be capable of expanding its mind: “We certainly need to perceive the world to know which end is up; and we can be fooled if our perception is restricted in some way”.9

This points out to the full academic legitimacy of an idea that the particulars of people’s physical appearance are indeed being illustrative of their varying ability to properly address life’s challenges, as there is a well-defined correlation between the particulars of people’s physical appearance and the manner in which they indulge in cognition.

Therefore, it is fully appropriate to discuss the specifics of how people experience world within the context of what happened to be the qualitative characteristics of their bodies, because it is namely the essentials of individual’s physiological constitution, which more than anything else define his or her socio-cultural attitudes: “In all these ways, our perception is essentially that of an embodied agent.

Its structures only make sense in relation to this agent’s activities, and it requires at its margin the agent’s sense of his own stance”. 10 In its turn, this partially explains the phenomenon of ethnic immigrants sticking close to the ideals of ‘traditional living’; well after they relocate to Western countries11 – apparently, they never cease acting as the ‘embodied agents’ of a ritual.

We will write a custom Essay on What role do bodies play in experiencing the world specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After all, as it was proven by the founder of Positive Criminology Cesare Lombroso, person’s endowment with ritualistic-mindedness often extrapolates itself in such person exhibiting the marks of anthropological atavism (the measure of evolutionary underdevelopment)12, which in turn presupposes atavistic individual’s tendency to indulge in anti-social behavior.

Hence, the phenomenon of so-called ‘natural born criminals’: “Many of the characteristics of primitive man are also commonly found in the born criminal, including low, sloping foreheads, overdeveloped sinuses, overdevelopment of jaws and cheekbones, prognathism, oblique and large eye sockets”.13

Nowadays, the fact that people’s individuality is indeed being reflective of their bodily characteristics is considered unmentionable – the provisions of political correctness deny even the slightest possibility for individual’s physical appearance to play an important role in determining the qualitative subtleties of his or her existential self-identity.14

This, however, does not undermine the validity of a great number of anthropological studies, the authors of which have succeeded in exposing biologically predetermined correlation between the specifics of people’s racial affiliation and the essence of their perceptional uniqueness, which in turn defines their chances to attain social prominence through education.15

For example, the fact while IQ-tested, the majority of African-Americans score rather poorly, as compared to what it is being the case with Chinese-Americans and Caucasians16, is now being commonly addressed as the consequence of these people being continuously exposed to ‘poverty’, ‘undernourishment’ and ‘institutionalized racism’.17

There is, however, a better explanation to this phenomenon, related to purely physiological aspects of maturing process, on the part of African-Americans. After all, for duration of at least a century, physicians and anthropologists never ceased being aware of the fact that sutures on most Black people’s skulls close by the time they reach the age of 20-25 years old.

The sutures on skulls of majority of Whites, on the other hand, fully close by the time they reach the age of 40-50 years old.18 Yet, it is specifically the fact that not fully closed sutures permit brain’s expansion in size, which establishes objective preconditions for individuals with this particular cranial characteristic to be continuously advancing, in intellectual sense of this word.19

As it was pointed out by Morriss‐Kay and Wilkie: “The evolution of human intelligence was made possible by the ability of the brain to expand within its protective casing; similarly, the development of full mental capacities in the growing individual depends on long-term expansion of the skull to allow free growth of the brain”.20

Not sure if you can write a paper on What role do bodies play in experiencing the world by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The earlier articulated suggestion, however, should not be thought of as being intentionally malicious, due to what may be perceived as its ‘racist’ undertones that supposedly imply Black people’s inferiority, because the academic legitimacy of scientific data does not depend on the extent of its discursive appropriateness/inappropriateness, but solely on the extent of its objectiveness.21

After all, the same methodological approach can be well utilized within the context of exposing what predetermines Black athletes’ overwhelming dominance (superiority) in short-distance running, basketball and football, for example.22

As it was shown by Vogler and Schwartz, the reason why African-American athletes dominate earlier mentioned sports is that their bodies’ cell-breathing is much more intensive, as compared to what it is being the case with the bodies of non-Black athletes, which in turn results in supplying more energy to Black athletes’ muscles.23

Therefore, it does not come as a particular surprise that there are strongly defined sporting overtones to African-American culture, in general24 – people’s cultural/cognitive leanings always reflect the genetically predetermined mechanics of their bodies. This is exactly the reason why socio-cultural attitudes, on the part of African-Americans, appear being heavily affected by these people’s mental sport-orientedness.25

The soundness of paper’s initial thesis can be further substantiated in relation to what constitutes an apparent difference between Western and Oriental modes of perceiving the world.26 According to Bower: “In a variety of reasoning tasks, East Asians take a ‘holistic’ approach.

They make little use of categories and formal logic and instead focus on relations among objects and the context in which they interact… (Westerners) on the other hand, adopt an ‘analytic’ perspective. They look for the traits of objects while largely ignoring their context”.27 Such Bower’s observation explains the particulars of how most Asians tend to reflect upon the environment.

Unlike what it is being the case with Westerners, they appear ‘context-conscious’ – that is, Asians do not assess the emanations of surrounding reality as ‘things in themselves’ but rather as ‘things in entourage’.28

Such Asians’ tendency reveals itself in the design of Oriental advertisement posters, for example, most of which feature advertised products placed towards the corners; whereas, most Western advertisement posters feature advertised products at the very centre29:

This indirectly exposes the essence of East Asians’ (particularly Chinese) talent in replicating Western technological innovations on industrial scale30 and explains why Oriental existential mode has never been strongly affiliated with the process of people taking the full advantage of their endowment with creative genius.31

As it was implied in the Introduction, even though it still remains a widespread practice among many social scientists to discuss the specifics of how people shape their worldviews outside of what happened to be the qualitative characteristics of these people’s bodies, such practice can hardly be referred to as being full appropriate, in academic sense of this word.

The reason for this is simple – just as it was shown earlier, individuals’ physiological (bodily) makeup does predetermine the operative subtleties of their world-perception and consequently – their varying ability to act as the agents of progress. In its turn, this points out at the conceptual erroneousness of socio-political philosophies, based upon the irrational assumption of people’s absolute equality.

References Alter, JS, ‘The once and future ‘apeman chimeras, human evolution, and disciplinary coherence’, Current Anthropology, vol. 48, no. 5, 2007, pp. 637- 652.

Ambler, T


Eurozone Economic Stability Report essay help

Executive Summary This report is aimed at analyzing the effects of the Euro zone economic crisis on international business. The report also gives an account on the actual and potential business risks that are likely to be experienced in the Euro zone by prospective businesspersons. The results of this report assert that the crisis in the Eurozone is not a regional problem, but goes beyond Eurozone.

Globalization has precipitated a global and interlinked business village in which economic problems are no longer solitary. Moreover, it was established that poor economic policies and a culture of impunity are some of the driving forces behind the crisis in the Eurozone economic crisis. Furthermore, the report posits that the adverse effects of the crisis in the Eurozone will reverberate to other parts of the world.

Relevant recommendations have been outlined to assist that dissects the Eurozone’s economic woos and provides a succinct analysis of the core strategies potential investors in the region may wish to pursue to cushion them against impacts of these problems.

Introduction Countries, just like firms, operate their within the principles of theories of capital structure. The theories of capital structure attempts to provide an explanation between the mix of securities and financing sources that may be employed by nations to finance their real investments.

These theories of capital structures emphasize on the levels of debts and equities on firms and are determinants to the capacity of a nation to finance its projects. Several theories have been advanced on the debt-equity choices without one being universally accepted.

This suggests that the path a firm or nation will follow does not depend on a universally accepted throry of capital structure, but is guided by the internal structures of a nation’s financial characteristics and its debt levels.

The pecking order theory on the other hand advances that a firm will borrow, rather than issue equity, when internal cash flows are not sufficient to fund capital expenditures, suggesting that the amount of debt will reflect on the firms cumulative need for external funds.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The free cash flow theory on the other hand proposes that dangerously high debt levels will increase value, notwithstanding the threat of financial distress, when the firms operating cash flow significantly surpasses its profitable investment opportunities.

The crisis that currently afflicts the Eurozone is not a unique economic crisis to the European region. Despite the fact that its impact in the region is greater, it is shifting the balance of trade with the regional trade partners. This implies that as long as the Eurozone continues to exist within this shaky economic situation, the rest of the world must brace itself for tough economic times ahead.

As stated above, the aim of this report is to demonstrate the economic destabilizing effects that impacts on Eurozone countries. Whereas the report will make these observations, it is not limited to that scope.

Within this process on examining the effects of the Eurozone crisis on international business, the report will illustrate the potential risk areas and provide relevant recommendations. An assessment of the local impact the crisis has on businesses will be conducted alongside the global impact. Short and medium term political impacts on businesses will also be dissected in this paper.

Definition of terms Eurozone – European countries that have adopted the Euro as national currency in a process aimed at monetary and economic unification.

Contagion-Transmit ion through contact.

Gold standard– the system of monetary organization under which the value of a country’s money is legally defined as a fixed quantity of gold and domestic currency of that country.

We will write a custom Report on Eurozone Economic Stability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Discussion Origins of the financial problems

The international financial crisis that was witnessed in 2007 to 2008 impacted hard on 16 members of the Eurozone. The impacts of the financial crisis on most countries have had significant shift in their economic set ups, their public deficit have reached record figures with and considerable increase in their public debt (Kaiser 2007).

The economic turmoil in Greece remains an avid example that cannot be blamed on the international financial crisis that rocked the world and continues to be felt. The economic woos of Greece draw their origins from wrong judgments on the part of political leaders.

Effects of the Eurozone crisis

The effects of the financial crisis in the Eurozone have not been limited to the member countries. The US president asserts that the problems of the economies of the world will continue to demonstrate weakness as long as the issues of Greece and the larger Eurozone are not addressed promptly (Peston, 2011).

Indeed, the Eurozone’s economic situation is a significant concern to the United States, which is embroiled in its domestic economic problems experienced in the last half a decade. It remains a fact that Greece’s debt problem will continue not only get complicated if effective remedies are not put in place, the United states will continue to express grave concern over Greece’s inability to service its debts.

Such economic circumstances may in turn precipitate panic in the US economy and global economy and create far-reaching implications for the US and rest of the world (Ramonde 2011). In mitigating the effects, the USA is examining effective strategies to dilute the far-reaching impacts.

Economic stimuli programs such as increasing the levels of exports to cover the gaps of recession have been proposed as viable options in addressing the challenge. However, the persistence of the Greece’s situation is likely to witness weakening of the Euro and the strengthening of the dollar. Such a set up in economic shape that makes imports to the Eurozone expensive would remain disastrous in these hard economic times.

As the situation prevails, the debt continues to accumulate; the value of the Euro will eventually decline. This will raise interest rates that will consequently make life unbearable for the common population.

Despite the fact that the European Central Bank has injected bonds from the struggling governments in an effort to try to reduce the financial pressure, a reduction of deficit levels is proving to be a tall order. Interest rates are skyrocketing and the chances of defaulting are real and banks around the world are feeling the heat under the collar (Sinclair, 2011)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Eurozone Economic Stability by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Efforts to avert the crisis

Indeed, the effects of the Eurozone crisis are of concern to all governments due to the interdependence nature of the world economies. Stock and bond markets in the Eurozone are continuing to slide down sharply amid the fears that governments’ efforts in those areas are not strongly reassuring. As this happens in the Eurozone, economic sentiments outside the zone are continuously dwindling.

The UK is burning its fingers to ensure that Greece is stabilized because the opposite would be disastrous. In the event that Greece defaults on payments, UK banks that have heavily invested in Greece would definitely incur huge losses. This brings a new and complex dimension to an already grave situation.

It suffices to say that Britain is not in the Eurozone, however, as it has been shown, the problems of the zone are not limited to member states alone. The EU accounts for 40% of the exports of Britain (Laidi, 2011).

The UK has been on the forefront in lending money members of the Eurozone. Britain must be on the forefront to ensure that the advanced loans are not lost in the economic meltdown. Defaulting on the part of the countries of the Eurozone would worsen Britain’s austerity problems.

Impact of the Eurozone Crisis on Cost of Capital for Firms How firms select their capital structures is a question that has been severally asked and analyzed without a definite answer being arrived at, given the economic realities of the specified times. The case of Eurozone economic crisis presents challenges in accessing capital for small and large firms and economic short and long terms are severe.

This will essentially bring forth the issue of capital structures of companies that are operating under credit constraints. It has been ascertained that “credit crunches” as in the case of Eurozone crisis affects the corporate capital structure decisions for both small and long-term firms. The frictions in the credit creation process result in fluctuations in the supply of bank loans.

These imperfections could result from monetary shocks, bank assets devaluations, and regulatory changes, a congregation of factors that severely affect growth of businesses. This is a direct consequence of spiking interest rates on loans.

Ex-post real interest rates in different European Countries Source: European Central Bank (2011)

Basically, changes in supply frictions in the case of credit has impacts on the leverage ratio, issuance choice and the mix of debt sources of small bank dependent firms as contrasted with firms that have public market access, following positive or negative supply chokes (Leary, 2005).

For example, Leary (2005) has demonstrated that the use of public debt by firms that have access to public markets increases relative to that of small firms. This would cement the underlying believe that bank loan supply movements are important determinants of variations in firms placement of their debt and by extension, capital structures.

What is important to note is that small firms may experience more difficulties in gaining access to credit during economic crisis, given their less intense asset bases, that is required as collateral in the issuance of loans. As a result, smaller firms may actually not be highly dependent on bank loans, largely because they fail to meet loaning requirements from the financial institutions.

As opposed to large firms, small firms experience worse economic impacts in such hard economic situations. This is because their scale of operations is low, which means that they do not benefit from the economies of scale which limits their operations and generally inhibits their growth and ability to develop and dominate the markets.

The impact of Eurozone crisis on shareholder and wealth of most affected companies have been severe. According to European Central Bank (2011), the value of stock market declined sharply from 2007 to 2011 while real house prices shot up by almost a similar margin. This is because of high inflation rates in Eurozone as comparison to other regions as indicated by the graph below.

Break-even inflation rates. Source: European Central Bank (2011)

Conclusion The crisis in the public finances of Greece and other members of the Eurozone provoked a new episode in the financial crisis in the first quarter of 2010, in what was initially called sovereign debt crisis, affecting Greece and later other peripheral countries of the Eurozone such as (Laidi , 2011).

This crisis began with the massive sale of public debt of the countries involved in the financial markets, which are caused by several motives. On one hand, the fear of investors of a default in the payment of the debt (interests and repayment) on the maturity date, given the financial difficulties of the countries precipitated the problem.

Furthermore, reasonable reaction in defense of the financial assets, some illustrious financial institutions (not only the denigrated hedge funds) involved themselves speculative operations that were intended to earn huge benefits in the short term. This kind of selfish ideologies was benchmarked on the idea that the price of bonds would collapse.

Both reasons caused a massive sale of public debt bonds, which in turn led to an increase in the risk premium. This can be explained that the financial markets indicate (with or without reason) that public indebtedness is excessive, that it has overcome admissible levels (Ramonde, 2011).

The consequence is that financing the countries affected becomes far too expensive, especially the case of Greece. Other peripheral countries of the Eurozone, derogatorily called PIGS by the English media, are increasing the difference between the interest rates.

Therefore, the countries affected (who need financing not only to address the actual public deficit, but also to repay the old debt on time), have to issue the new public debt bonds at a much higher interest rate. The financial burden that results from the crisis, especially on the interest rate of the Eurozone countries has resulted in the direct increase of the public debt.

Consequently, these countries face the risk of trapping themselves in the deficit-indebtedness vicious cycle (Peston, 2011). It comes to one’s knowledge that even though these countries are compelled to issue new public debt bonds at higher interest rates, the inevitably risk that there may be default on part of struggling countries can only be compared to putting the cat among the pigeons.

This is the case of continuing to invest in a ship that shows no signs whatsoever of recovering. If indeed this is the case, then it is obvious what is given to you is not seen by others.

In April 2010 following all economic and political forecasts, it was obvious that the deficit-indebtedness was headed for a complete cycle. Countries such as Greece had already initiated the process of formally requesting for financial aid from other member states in the Eurozone. After many doubts and delay, the Eurozone finally responded with a bailout plan for Greek public finances.

However, in spite of the Greek rescue plan, and the fact that there are significant differences in organization of public finances among member countries, there was no clear and straightforward solution to the problem. Other nations, particularly the peripheral states had their own concepts on how to deal with the situation. This led to mistrust among the financial markets, ideally worsening the sovereign debt crisis (Sinclair, 2011).

On the understanding of the large debts on properties such as homes, businesses and banks, and given the fact that there were weak perspectives of economic growth of the Eurozone countries; the situation was bound to get worse. The mistrust would later extend to the privately held bonds, the stock market, and other important cornerstones of economy.

This was particularly severe in May and June 2010. Hence, serious financial turbulences took place in the private fixed and variable interest rate markets, which lead to capital movements of financial assets in Euros to financial assets issued in other currencies, causing the depreciation of the Euro in relation to the Dollar, the Swiss Franc, gold and other reserve assets (Ramonde, 2011).

As investors began to realize that the financial markets in the Eurozone are not providing solutions to this problem, they considered taking off and thus creating a panic that resulted in the weakening of the Euro in relation to other global currencies. This weakness could have been considered a plus to the dollar, but in a subtle way, it was not necessarily the case.

The weak Euro definitely opened the way for the dollar to assert itself. The problem is that this assertion does little good to America, especially because it was working on ways to increase its exports to the Eurozone countries. Confronted with these precarious events, that worsened the crisis and threatened the overall recovery of European economies.

One particular interest was the response by Ecofin (Economic and Financial Affairs Council), which was so much delayed due to the doubts raised by countries such as Germany and other central countries as to the real benefit of helping countries with serious financial unbalances (Peston, 2011).

In order to create the European Mechanism of Financial Stabilization, a temporary institution aimed at favoring countries that could be going through serious financial problems, and the commitment of these countries, namely Portugal and Spain, to take stronger measures to overcome public deficit than those taken until then (Ramonde, 2011).

This is apart from the on-going plans to create communitarian institutions that supervise the operations of stock markets and financial institutions, to try to avoid financial imbalances in the private sector, as well as reforming the Growth and Stability Pact (the rules to ensure the balance of the countries’ public finances). This is also aimed at adopting harsher control measures and more severe sanctions to those countries that fail to comply with the rules.

In brief, the problems in Greece have affected the whole region adversely and the survival of Greece hinges on issuing bonds at higher interest rates. This translates to plunging her deeper into economic debt. The debt accumulated may be impossible to repay given the current economic realities. The question is how to handles tensions and suspicions that begin to mount in these countries.

Proposals to separate Eurozone into south and north zones may not translate to better economic situation as the problems are far entrenched into the entre global economy. Such a framework would be too expensive and would mean that those who opt out of the currency revert to their former currencies (Piris, 2010).

Recommendation The financial institutions in the Eurozone ought to be supervised closely by the relevant authorities. In addition, the remunerations of top-executives need to be revised to be consistent with the prevailing economic conditions. When there is a clear indicator as to what ought to be done and what ought not to be done, it is simple to keep track of best approaches even in instances when not all would support the initiatives.

As demonstrated above, run away expenditure and indebtedness are only proof of lack of commitment on the part of governments within the Eurozone. This lack of monetary discipline put individuals as well as governments in awkward situations whereby the expenditure surpasses the revenue.

This obviously leads to deficits and accumulation of debt. National and international monitory organs should come in to mediate this situation. Potential investors also ought to keep a keen eye on areas where the economies run solely on credit it is not necessarily an indicator of wealth, but a desperate move for the lack of austerity in monitory issues.

The experience of this crisis informs one that anti-cyclical government policies (of stimulus facing the crisis and social protection) has limitations determined by the financial markets, limitations which they are overcome, deter public finances into entering an unsustainable vicious circle, after which comes the need to carry out unnecessary adjustment plans.

The countries of the Eurozone have to review the contents of the Stability and Growth Pact, establishing commitments that prevent excessive imbalances in national public finances (Sinclair, 2011).

The discussions presented in this paper have shown that Eurozone’s economic woos will have an impact on the cost of debts as assessed by the capital structure theories. It is has been established that the impact, largely will be moderated by the regional frameworks in handling the challenges.

As already determined above, the economies that do not exercise restraint and where the foundations of accountability are still not firm, will continue to flop, continuing to source for support from other countries.

Reference list European Central Bank (2011). Eurozone, European crisis


How feature writers convey people’s affection by topical or news events Essay college application essay help

Introduction Feature writing in journalism involves coming up with an article that focuses on a specific person, an aspect of a major event and unlike news, it is normally written in an individual style. In addition, many feature writers normally rely on facts in their stories and work hard to ensure that facts presented in their work have a clear basis (Hennessy, 2006).

The origin of feature writing can be traced back to the time when news reporting on contemporary issues that are within the public domain was initiated by many media houses. This indicates that the art of feature writing can be traced back to the time when print media was initiated.

The main focus of this essay is to outline what feature writing is all about and how it affects how people are affected by topical or news events that are conveyed to them through news reporting.

In specific terms, this essay seeks to explain how feature writers go about their task of conveying how people are affected by topical or news events and how this is different from news reporting. As Ricketson (2004, p2.) puts it, feature writing can is the result of everything in newspaper that is not news.

Scope of the essay This essay will discuss the following areas of feature writing

Feature writing techniques

Interviewing techniques

Difference between feature writing and news writing

Feature writing techniques

When it comes to writing news features that are to appear in any given newspaper, there are several skills that the writer needs to be equipped with. First of all, the writer needs to be well versed with all the basic writing techniques that include a good command of the language being used to write the article and the ability to present ideas in a systematic and accurate manner.

The writer also needs to be armed with skills that can go far in ensuring that the story being written for readers is interesting to follow and inclusive of strong quotations that will serve to attract and convince the reader to follow every line of the story.

The writer needs to be equipped with skills that can help in narrowing down the feature to focus on one specific aspect of a person or event. Mencher (2003) on his part argues that feature writing looks like a movie camera in that at the beginning, it focuses on the small side but gradually becomes wider.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lastly, the writer of any feature needs to have a ability to deeply criticize what is being written about and all these factors are important in ensuring that the writing turns out to be interesting.


To effectively write a feature for an aspect on an event or a person, an early choice of method of interviewing and prior preparation of questions is quite helps so much when it comes to saving time (Wheeler, 2006).

This is because understanding the method that will be applied in interviewing and having questions that will be used in the interview adequately prepares the writer for the interview and eliminates cases whereby questions are formulated during the interview which normally results into time wastage.

For example, if a writer is out to formulate a news feature that touches on a recent bill that affects gender balance, a proper and sensitive interview plan coupled with right questions ensures that accurate and relevant material is gathered within a short period of time. A proper selection of interviewing method and questions to be asked ensures that the writer has all that is required to make the feature interesting.

Difference between Feature writing and News Writing

It is important to note that there exists a difference between feature writing and news writing when it comes to the format, language and content that is delivered in the two kinds of writing (Garrison, 2004). Whereas news writing involves delivering factual information that is intended mainly to inform the reader of what is currently going on, feature writing involves extrapolation of the aspect that is being written about.

This is normally meant to ensure that the writing is appealing to the emotions of the reader and to some extend to ensure that it is both interesting and entertaining. News writing involves presentation of facts that are thought to be informative to the reader while what is thought not to be important is normally left out.

On the other hand, feature writing involves detailed explanation of the aspect of the event or person who the feature is being written about (Aamidor


Library Descriptions and Challenges Report best essay help: best essay help

The name of the library, which we are concerned with, is Clayton and it is a county library system. The library began in January 1941 by Jonesboro women’s club and at that time, it had 200 books only (McCook, 2011). A certain women’s club rented a room along the old Jones Brothers Department store on south Main Street. The club’s first librarian was Mary Barnette.

Around 1960, Jonesboro library was built near Flint River Regional Library System that had its headquarters in Griffin. The alliance gave permission to citizens of Clayton to be using the books and staff at large. Later in 1964, Jonesboro library was started and around 1966, it opened another branch; the present Jonesboro branch.

Around 1967, the Forest Park Branch was opened at Main Street in Forest Park. The next branch was Riverdale, opened around GA highway 85 near upper Riverdale Road.

Morrow branch followed later in 1975 and it was located on the old Rex Road on a store front. By 1981, the Clayton county libraries had become so successful with the Flint River Regional System and since then, the fame of Clayton County Library System began to increase (McCook, 2011).

The headquarters of the library were built in 1988 on Battle Creek and was followed closely by the Morrow branch in 1991, built on Maddox road. Riverdale branch was next and it was built on Valley Hill Road by 1998. The Lovejoy Branch was the 6th and last since then and it was constructed in 2005 on McDonough Road (Bill


Employment Relations Issues: GASCO Limited Report a level english language essay help

Introduction The relationship between an employer and the employee needs to be harmonised so as to ensure productivity in the workplace (Bray and Waring 2011). Certain issues are likely to arise in the course of their interaction hence leading to negative consequences in the organisation (Rose 2008).

Employment relations ensure that employment procedures and policies governing the workplace are regulated to meet both the employers and employees’ expectations. This is achieved through the appropriate operational mechanisms being adopted in the workplace (Lewis, Thornhill and Sauders 2003).

Rapid changes in the workplace such as managerial changes, government policies affecting the organisation or even new information technology adaptations can alter the employee’s expectations and policies (Palmer 1997). Through a case study, this paper will identify and discuss the issues in employment relations within an organisation and propose strategy frameworks to solve the problems.

Case Study GASCO Limited is a private company in Australia that engages in natural gas extractions. The company has a clientele of 100,000 households who use the company’s gas at an average expenditure of $400 per year in each household. Currently, the employees operate under a collective agreement certified by the Australian Industrial Relations Commissions.

The agreement is a result of negotiation between the management of GASCO, the union and the employees which was entered into in 2009. A provision in the agreement requires the company to pay redundant workers with 8 weeks pay per annual employment. It should be noted that 85% of the workers fall under these category. However, the company seems to be experiencing major financial problems amidst other issues.

This is attributed to the recent move by the government to regulate prices, new managerial changes in the past 6 months and ensuing conflicts between the management and workers leading to several worker’s strikes over the last year.

On the other hand, the company sales seem to be declining with most of their clientele preferring electricity rather than gas. The changes are affecting the daily operations of the company as indicated in the recent balance sheet. The company has recorded a net loss of $1 million characterised by the employment relations issues.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Employment Relations Issues At GASCO The case study presents three pressing employment relations. The first issue identified is the industrial relations legislations put in place to govern the relationship between the management and the employees. The terms and conditions policies in the company have been put down in a collective bargaining agreement between the management, the employees and the Australian trade union.

The trade union, which serves as a third party become an issue in the employment relations in the company as it fails to put into consideration the organisation’s main operating policies (Frazer and McCallum 1997). This issue can be managed by introducing individual contracts (Sewerynski 2003). Individual contract is an agreement between the employer and the employee and does not include a third party.

The Australian Workplace Relations Act allows the key players in an organisation to enter into either collective or individual agreements (Australia Limited 2000). Though the Act places more reliance on collective bargaining agreements, individual contracts are also enforceable in law after the expiration of a collective agreement. GASCO may wish to enter into individual contracts because of various reasons.

The financial mishaps being experienced as a result of declined sales in their product and also the government’s move to regulate prices. The management needs to negotiate the varying terms and conditions of the contract as regards pay rates, working hours and managerial relationships to suit the current company’s policies.

The negotiation should be between the management, the employees and the union. The other alternative is to withdraw the collective agreement from covering new individual employees. Further, the company may wish not to renew the collective agreement upon its expiry in 2012 as stipulated by the law.

The other issue is the managerial changes that have occurred in the past few months within the organisation. The step by the management to bring in a new CEO may have had a huge impact on the employees. Change of management can affect the theoretical perspective of the company. This is due to the conflict by the two managements in understanding and analysing the relations in the workplace.

The management can either adopt the unitary or pluralist perspective to run the company. The previous management in GASCO seems to have operated under the pluralist framework. A company under this framework runs under powerful and divergent models, each with their own set of objectives. The two predominant models in this kind of framework are the management and the trade unions.

We will write a custom Report on Employment Relations Issues: GASCO Limited specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Trade unions, in such a mechanism, are highly regarded as the legitimate representatives of employees. Collective bargaining is used by the unions to deal with conflicts between the employer and the employees.

It should be noted that in such a key scenario, the management has a very minimal role towards enforcing and controlling policies. Therefore, the introduction of a new CEO with a quest to implement a unitary framework becomes an employment issue. Unitarism emphasizes a harmonious workplace and ensures that both the employers and the employees share a common purpose.

It also adopts a paternalistic approach by demanding the employees’ loyalty to the company’s policies. Such kind of company disregards the role played by the trade unions and is bound by the loyalty between the employees and the management itself. Previously based on a pluralist framework, the CEO is bound to affect the normal operations of GASCO by implementing the new framework.

This will not only trigger the employment relations between the management and the workers, but is itself a pressing issue (Gennard and Judge 2005). The different departments in the organisation are bound to be affected by the changes. The alternative of managing this particular issue is by the new CEO incorporating the interests of the workers in his new policies (Moore 1977).

The last notable issue is the conflict over management decisions and OHS issues. This is evidenced by the management’s ignorance to pressing issues by the employees hence resulted to five strikes in a span of one year. Collective agreements give the union mandate to act on behalf of the workers.

The federal jurisdiction in Australia allows the workers to engage in peaceful strikes to protest over managerial issues (Australian Limited and OHS Industry 2007). However, the same can lead to the operations of the company going to a standstill further leading to decline in sales. The alternative can be achieved through issuing written and documented OHS policies and procedures.

Strategies To Be Adopted By The CEO To Streamline The Employment Relations Issues The issues act as a hindrance to achieve the set target and goals of the company hence leading to a decline in sales.

One of the strategies is to get the entire organisation involved. This can be achieved through the interconnection of all the departments in the organisation and securing their commitment through effective communication. Communication can be achieved through consultation which is important to foster a warm relationship.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Employment Relations Issues: GASCO Limited by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The management should involve the employees and the trade union in the consultation. Participation in all levels of the departments encourages accountability in all aspects (Colling and Terry 2010). The CEO needs to engage all the employees in the change process to lead to healthy working relations. This is achieved through maintaining a balance between the management and the employee empowerment.

This strategy is commonly known as the top-down and bottom-up integration. This ensures a success factor through a meaningful involvement, both at the managerial and employee level. The CEO should also adopt the ‘demand-control’ model designed to reduce the stress of change at the workplace. This results to high performance workplace relations through the improved psychological working environment.

The other strategy is through the introduction of new workplace reforms. One of the elements in the Workplace Relations Act, included in the Workplace agreements, allows the employers to enter into an individual contract with their employees. Recent studies indicate that most employers are resulting to individual contracts rather than trade unions agreements.

This has led to increased levels of productivity and performance in the workplace. This strategy requires the CEO to implement a sophisticated approach in the human resource. The approach ensures that the issues by the employees are taken into consideration by excluding the unions. This will lead to fewer strikes in the future hence ensuring high quality outcomes.

Secondly, the changes need to encompass the quest to reduce unnecessary operational costs in the company. GASCO’s balance sheet indicates that the company has an overhead of $ 20.5 million.

This is due to the company’s expenses such as bonuses to management in addition to their salary, house allowances, associated running costs and other operating expenses. The CEO can reduce some operating expenses such as bonuses to the management, house allowance and superannuation. This will drastically improve the profitability of the company.

The other strategy is applying a risk management approach to handle OHS issues. The risk management is important to identify problems in the organisation, assess the potential risks and control the risk. This strategy is essential to handle the issues likely to come up in the organisation effectively.

It further analyses the potential competition that hinders the company to perform and assesses the strategy to be applied in order to increase the sales (Hunt and Provis 1995). This strategy is also important for measuring progress. The company’s model of monitoring and evaluating the working progress is weak and should therefore adopt good measures to enhance the human capital and improve their performance.

This kind of change lays a platform for both the employer and the workers to adopt certain measures that give them an opportunity to perform better. The performance is therefore measured using an internal data hence decreasing levels of conflicts in the organisation.

Conclusion Employment relations issues affect the daily operations of a company. Failure to handle them on time can lead to decreased performance. It is therefore necessary for the management to identify the issues within the company and apply appropriate strategies to solve them. This will help the company to manage its financial mishaps and adapt to any changes likely to be effected in the company.

Reference List Australia Limited (2000) Australian Workplace Relations Act 1996 with regulations and rules: includes excerpts from the Trade Practices Act consolidated to 18 August 2000. North Ryde, CCH Australia Limited.

Australian Limited and OHS Industry (2007) Australian Master OHS and Environment Guide. North Ryde, CCH Australia Limited.

Bray, M and Waring, P (2011) Employment Relations. Sydney, McGraw-Hill Australia.

Colling, T and Terry, M (2010) Industrial Relations: Theory and Practice. New York, Wiley and Sons Publishers.

Frazer, A and McCallum, R (1997) Individual contracts and workplace relations. Sydney, Australian Centre for Industrial Relations Research and Training.

Gennard, J and Judge, G (2005) Employee relations. London, The Broadway Publishers.

Hunt, I and Provis, C (1995) The new industrial relations in Australia. Sydney, The Federation Press.

Lewis, P., Thornhill, A and Sauders, M (2003) Employee Relations: understanding the employment relationship. New Jersey, Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Moore, W (1977) Industrial relations and the social order. New York, Arno Press Inc.

Palmer, G (1997) Employment Relations. Sydney, Macmillan Education Australia.

Rose, E (2008) Employment Relations. New Jersey, Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Sewerynski, M (2003) Collective agreements and individual contracts of employment. Netherlands, Kluwer Law International.


Effects of food advertising in Australian Television on Children aged 5-12 years. Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Abstract This research is an in exploratory examination of the possible correlation between TV food adverts targeted at children aged between 5-12 years and their parents being persuaded to purchase the advertised products.

It uses a content analysis of a sample of ads aired on TV during children’s programming and interviews with 50 parents to examine how food advertising may influence children’s eating habits and their parents’ attitudes on the subject.

Introduction Food advertisements are common in many developed countries. These advertisements are mainly used to entice consumers especially children. According to the Young Media Australia (1997 p.1), Australia is one of the nations with the highest number of food advertisements aired during children programming.

Many studies indicate that a large number of the food products advertised in the Australian TV channels contain high levels of fats and sugar which are associated with a myriad of health problems including obesity. Interestingly, these advertisements are mainly aired during children programming.

However, the main problem does not lay on the timing but the contents of the advertisements. Because of these advertisements, children are bound to show preference for these high fat and sugar containing foods at the expense of other food products that are healthy and highly nutritious(Gantz, Schwartz, Angelini


Privatizing the Electricity Sector Essay (Critical Writing) custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature review

Critique of the work

The strength and the weakness of the past scholars


Reference list

Introduction In the recent past, a number of countries have embarked on an ambitious program of privatizing the electricity sector. While some governments have sold part of their shares to the private sector, there are others who have sold all the shares to the private sector, leaving such governments with no power to control the actions taken by the new electricity company owners.

There are some people who perceive this as a bold move while others have a different opinion. Those who view this as a positive move argue that, most of the government owned organizations lack proper ways of carrying out their work because of the bureaucracy involved. Furthermore, most of these institutions have been perceived as havens of corruption, since most of the governments lacked the capacity to fight corruption.

Literature review A remarkable number of scholars have had their input on this field, where a number of them seem to concur with each other while a substantial of them differ in a big way from their counterparts. This has therefore led to lack of consensus between the two camps since each perceive their arguments as the one holding water.

It is important to recall that the ideas of privatizing the government utilities was a condition set out by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank in the late 1980s, for any country that wished to have its loan application considered by the two bodies.

These reforms were referred to as the Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) and were aimed at minimizing the government expenditure on non performing utilities. The critics of this program claims that it was structured in a way that poor countries in Africa, South America, and Asia would continue depending on the developed countries for assistance.

Izaguirre (2000) claims that electricity privatization has helped eradicate the corruption involved while seeking for electricity connection. According to Cook (2007), in the developing countries for example, it used to take months for a person to have his house connected to electricity because the corrupt officials in the main office wanted kick backs for the whole process to start.

He observes that the public demanded accountability from their government and as a result measures were taken to privatize most of the government’s non performing utilities that included the electricity sector.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The above sentiments were echoed by Vivien (2008) who asserted that privatization has enhanced service delivery to the members of the public. According to her, the private sector is geared towards making profits. As a result of this, Paul (2002) has argued that the people owning this sector have to put in measures that ensure that the people, who are the main customers, have their needs addressed as fast as possible.

He observed that prior to privatization, other sectors owned by the governments regardless of the country suffered similar problems of slow service delivery and corruption riddled offices.

Furthermore, David (2003) has observed that privatization of electricity sector has helped eradicate matters of favoritism. According to him, some governments, especially in Africa and other developing countries in the world, had the tendency of allocating national resources, including electricity, to areas they perceived as having the support from the people.

According to Fereidoon (2006), such a move led to an imbalance in development because others who were seen to oppose the government were neglected and made to suffer for supporting the opposition.

Therefore, according to Gerard (2008), privatization has helped the distribution of electricity in all areas of a country regardless of the peoples’ support to the government. According to Mark (2006), private companies are capitalist in nature and therefore they would do all within their disposal to make sure that they make an extra coin from their investment.

In addition, Paredes (2007) has argued that privatization of the electricity sector is likely to reduce the cases of illegal connections that have been witnessed in the past, when the government was the only shareholder in the sector. According to Mert (2010), the government lacked adequate personnel to monitor how electricity was being distributed to the people and industries.

He says that since the private sector is wholly owned by individuals whose motive is making profit, they will make sure that there are no illegal connections that deny them revenue by employing a good number of people to patrol certain areas such as the ghetto, where these acts are common.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Privatizing the Electricity Sector specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Europe and other developed countries like Japan and United States of America, Czamanski (1999) points out that the number of companies offering electricity is more than one, hence eradicating the idea of monotony in the business.

Newbery (2001) has asserted that this has created a battle between such companies, a situation that has led to a decrease in the amount charged per kilowatt used by the people and the industries. He says that, just as is the case with mobile phone companies, the consumers are migrating to the service provider with high quality services and cheap rates as well.

According to Stiglitz (2000), the idea of privatizing the public sector has increased the government revenue through the taxes levied on these companies. He points out that, due to the inefficiencies of the former officials in charge the electricity distribution, companies in many countries used to record losses year in year out. He claims that since the new owners are profit minded, the government collection will be on the rise.

On the other hand, there other scholars as earlier stated who perceive privatization as a negative move that is by no means going to help the consumers. One of such scholars is Knight (2002), who claims that most of these private firms lack sufficient capital to boost their business.

The same ideas are shared by Paredes (2003)


The period of absolutism Essay argumentative essay help

The period of absolutism refers to the exercise of monarchial power which was never questioned by other social institutions like the legislature and the church. The monarchs mainly reigned from the early period of the seventeenth century up to the end of the nineteenth century.

Absolutism entailed ending the feudal partitioning, emergence of state power, harmonization of state laws, and there was also a decline in the power of the nobility. Many scholars contend that the French Revolution marked the end of the monarch in Europe or the early modern European period.

This paper seeks to analyze the monarchy with specific reference to France and Mughal Empires respectively. The paper will explore the development of absolutism in each case after which there will be a conclusion to contrast the practice of absolutism in both cases.

The exercise of absolute monarchy in the French territory began in the16th century, and it was preceded by the era of renaissance monarchy that was exercised on the basis of political consensus among the social classes and the monarch. France during the sixteenth century experienced numerous conflicts that occurred due to the establishment of Calvinism.

During this period, French kings struggled to increase their power and this culminated to the rise of royal absolutism. In 1661 Louis XIV took over the French monarchy. He was in power from 1643 till 1715. During his reign, France became the most influential nation in the whole of Europe after supplanting Spain. The long reign of Louis XIV marked the pinnacle of royal absolutism, and he encouraged other monarchs to embrace his way of leadership.

The beginning of French absolutism is associated with Henry IV’s reign. He ruled from 1589 to 1610. Before 1589, France had been plagued by a series of religious conflicts especially between the Catholics and their Protestant counterparts. Other political factions also engaged in these wars. These wars greatly affected the stability of France.

Therefore, when Henry started exercising his authority, he was determined to end the chaos and restore stability in France. In this regard, Henry IV formulated new plans that would foster social economic prosperity. He also made arrangements on how to secure France from external aggression. Nonetheless, he was assassinated in 1610 when he was planning to attack his rivals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Marie de Medicos’, who was Henry IV’s wife reigned for several years as a regent for Louis XIII who was then their young son. Marie was able to challenge her opponents, but she did very little to strengthen the monarchy.

In 1624, Cardinal Richelieu was appointed chief minister and he soon begun wielding his authority behind the throne. He had a twofold plan for developing a supreme royal power and also to make France occupy a dominant position in Europe. With his full control of the royal army, he destroyed all the king’s opponents.

In order to destabilize local units of political authority, Richelieu came up with thirty administrative districts and each was ruled by an authoritative intend ant that was answerable to the throne. Finally, he subjected France to thirty years of conflict with Germany.

In this case, he aimed at weakening Habsburg. Richelieu managed to have a firm grip on the royal power by 1642 when he died. Besides this, he managed to fulfill his dream of elevating France to a dominant position in Europe. Cardinal Jules Mazarin succeeded Richelieu.

In order to elevate his status, Louis XIV introduced several construction projects that led to the popularity of his government. His new palace was one of his greatest architectural projects. In 1682, he relocated to Versailles. Initially, it was not easy to exercise absolutism monarchy in France due to the following reasons. First, the nobles had the chance to build private armies and fortifications.

Secondly, lesser kings who were literate had the chance to become agents of the king. They dispensed justice and collected taxes on behalf of the king, and this gave them some authority. In order to consolidate his power, Louis XIV employed the following strategies in his administration.

He limited the authority of the nobles by ensuring that they at least stayed in Versailles for a period of time annually. He used this as a strategy to closely monitor the nobles so that they could not conspire to topple him. In addition to this, he also abolished Protestantism.

We will write a custom Essay on The period of absolutism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This led to the migration of Protestants to other places which still allowed the practice of Protestantism. As they migrated, they spread their civilization in other territories. Louis XIV was also determined to expand his frontiers in Europe. Absolutism became very strong during the reign of Louis XIV.

The Mughal Empire occupied a dominant position in India from the second phase of the 16th century until the first half of the 18th century. It was established from 1526 and it survived up to 1858, when the British Raj supplanted it.

“While many monarchs strived to centralize their powers, authoritative rulers emerged in Asian territories”. With time, the emperors became stable enough to challenge western powers. Even though the Mughals never focused much on international trade, they however allowed business revenue into their treasuries.

Mughal Empire reached its height during Aurangzeb’s leadership. Following his death in 1707, his regime was weakened by a series of several military campaigns, corruption, and killing of the Hindus.

“As the Mughal Empire disintegrated his rivals quickly took over power and by mid 18th century, the land controlled by Aurangzeb’s successors had dwindled to Delhi”. The Mughal Empire had remarkable contributions in art and architecture.

From the above discussion on the Empire of France and Mughal, it can be concluded that that they were both ruled by authoritative kings who were mainly concerned with consolidating their power and influence over their subjects. These two societies were both stratified with the nobles occupying the administrative positions.

Most of the kings in France were keen on expanding their territories, and this always subjected them into a series of military campaigns with their neighboring countries. However, the Mughal Empire under the governance of Aurangzeb was not keen on territorial expansion as compared to France under the rule of Louis XIV.

Even though absolute monarchy existed in France and Mughal Empires, it was more entrenched in the former than in the latter. “The end of the early modern is usually also associated with the industrial revolution which began in Britain in the mid 18th century”. The history of the early modern period as a whole therefore enables us to have a better understanding of the social and political developments of various European societies.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The period of absolutism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Cameron, Euan. Early Modern Europe: An Oxford History. London: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Sherman, Dennis and Joyce Salisbury. The West in the World, Volume II: From 1600. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2010.


Public Relations Campaign Strategy: Newlandia Education Foundation Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Executive Summary This proposal identifies NEF public relations needs and recommend that a four-month communication campaign strategy will enhance awareness opportunities for NEF. NEF enjoys poor public recognition and awareness and without proper public relations corrective measures, NEF funding and donations activities may remain poor and inadequate.

Therefore, this communication campaign strategy aims at enabling NEF increase its profile awareness among the Newlandia publics: population, industry and business sector, and private business sector. Situation analysis identifies issues NEF face, strengths and opportunities NEF possess. Recommendations are made that are perceived to be measurable, specific, and achievable for NEF.

The proposed communication strategy identifies different publics that include Newlandia population, industry and business sector, and private business sector. The publics are further categorized based on aspects of; geography, socio-economic, cultural and language. This is done to ensure each designing and implementation of campaign messages fits well in each public.

Communication strategy and tactics to be employed in this campaign are varied according to the publics identified, where also communication theories are extensively used in designing communication messages, choosing the communication strategy, and recommending the particular communication tactic.

Evaluation of the entire campaign strategy incorporates both qualitative and quantitative techniques through field surveys undertaken in the third month. Therefore, it can be noted that NEF campaign strategy is premised on persuasive strategies, which are seen to be appropriate to NEF at the moment.

Public relations campaign strategy: Newlandia Education Foundation Situation Analysis

Educational and literacy priorities are two key elements that have been identified for socio-economic advancement of Newlandia people. One NGO in Newlandia remain pivotal to this goal and its name is Newlandia Education Foundation (NEF). NEF was established in early 1900s originally by the Newlandia Trust Hope.

Missionaries were pioneer of this organization and throughout its activities; NEF does not discriminate against race, sex, religion, and economic positions of the citizens.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As its activities become pronounced in Newlandia, NEF has had to address the persistent issues of lack of enough schools in regions of Rajan, Calina and Shalel, together with compounding issues of under-resources such as inadequate books, less furniture, inadequate teaching and stationary materials.

NEF resources greatly emanate from World Help agency, partly government funding through community grants and donations from well-wishers. Realizing NEF goals of education and literacy for Newlandia population is not easy as numerous obstacles stand in the way.

However, one source of strength for the organization is exhibited in having strong vision and mission, which function to give the organization clear direction of conducting its activities. Despite numerous hurdles, NEF today prides itself in having successfully seen one of its student beneficiary join university. It can be said that NEF’s future success of its operations rests on setting clear and achievable goals.

By carrying out evaluation of its current activities and the overall operation environment, it can be said that NEF’s future success lies in having enough resources, possessing powerful image and brand, and successfully integrating key stakeholders into its activities.

NEF activities can also be explained in the wider social, political, and economical aspects of Newlandia. Newlandia remain one of socially divided regions manifested in the quality of life and living standards of its people. For example, the northern part of Newlandia boosts vast industries that act as economic heartbeat of the region (Newlandia Government n.d).

Western region is largely occupied by wealth people who live affluent lives, while the southern region is inhabited by majority of poor people. Population of Newlandia also varies with some areas experiencing overpopulation while others remaining under-populated. The north region has estimated population of 250, 000 people, boost numerous industries and the capital city is Velen.

The western area has 250,000 people, majority are wealthy and influential families, while main city is the Lopeto. On its part, Batak and its environs have an estimated population of 1.5 million, shipping industry is thriving, employment is high, and English is the widely spoken language.

We will write a custom Essay on Public Relations Campaign Strategy: Newlandia Education Foundation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The southern area boost a population of about 750,000 people, fishing is the main activity, majority are unemployed, uneducated, speak different dialects and have passion for education. Newlandia economy can be described to be young and emerging and it is largely boosted by international funding in terms of aids (Newlandia Government n.d).

The region has tourism as the main economic activity, which also boosts GDP of Newlandia. Economic activities in Newlandia are based on free market economic preference where government plans for infrastructure have been neglected and prefer private sector to carry out these activities.

Carrying out environmental scanning in which NEF operates certain elements are identified: NEF overall public awareness rate is low and many people do not know about activities of the organization (only 10% know about NEF and 1% know NEF’s vision and mission). This scenario has led the organization to receive little donations and support which in turn limit the overall operations of the organization.

At the same time, government support for the organization is not enough, and further, NEF face stiff competition from NCF, which enjoys wide public awareness, support, and attention. Nevertheless, research carried out in Newlandia indicates that many Newlandians perceive education to be important and they prefer their children to have education.

On overall, Newlandia boost in having numerous primary schools but secondary education remain inadequate, as resources to support secondary education are limited and inadequate. Lastly, government extensively uses English language as the official language but it is rarely spoken outside major cities.

In the larger Newlandia area, fifteen languages are used and it is this aspect that campaign messages should be delivered in appropriate languages to the targeted publics. Combine all these and link them to NEF, as an organization that depends on goodwill and the final picture is NEF need to improve its profile awareness among the different publics in order to enhance its donation and contribution opportunities.

SWOT Analysis for NEF

Strength -People of Newlandia have shown spirit of philanthropy and are likely to support NEF activities. -Newlandians possess great hope and desire for their children to acquire education. -Government has granted NEF land rights in the South for construction of Schools. -NEF receives relative sizeable support in terms of financial and resource support from government and WorldHelp. -At the moment NCF enjoys wide public awareness and support and it is perceived that with increased public awareness activities NEF possess potential to receive such support. Weaknesses -Powerful people in Newlandia such as businessmen and politicians lack interest in community activities and support. Further, the process of requesting such people to become NEF partners may be tedious and fruitless. -NEF for a long time has to contend with limited financial resources that generally affects its activities. -Schools in Newlandia lack primary key resources like furniture, books, and teachers, which on many occasions become impossible for NEF to fulfill. -NEF enjoys little public awareness and as an organization that depends on well-wishers donations this aspect does not resonate very well. Opportunities -Newlandia as a society prides in having some of the best opinion leaders who can support NEF awareness and support bid. These leaders include; Van On, Lakshmi Shankaran, Jacinta Greenwood, and Henry Abalone. Threats -Newlandia lacks vital infrastructures such as roads, secondary education, and water. Further, the aspect of government privatizing infrastructure development is likely to affect activities of many organizations and companies in Newlandia. Goals and objectives of the program Goals

Looking at the wider reasons why organizations seek public relations programs, Reddi (2009) observes that organization need to build its reputation, increase awareness among people, and create influence opportunities among different publics (p.157).

Further, public relations programs are premised on the goal to create a powerful image for the organization as the best among the rest (Haywood and Chartered Institute of Marketing 2005, p.13). With this understanding, goals of this public relations program will be to increase and enhance NEF public awareness among key and different publics.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Public Relations Campaign Strategy: Newlandia Education Foundation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Second, to ensure NEF activities are publicly and widely known among many people and organizations for increased funding and general support. Third, ensure education needs of people of Newlandia are highlighted on wide-scale for appropriate action and support.


The public relations campaign program will achieve the following objectives under the specified time.

To create public awareness about NEF activities in different regions of Newlandia. The target is to reach about 1,600,000 people in Newlandia in three months. Public awareness regarding NEF will include its activities of supporting disadvantaged children achieve education, and how Newlandians can support and donate to NEF activities. After three months, results will be measured through quantitative techniques of field survey.

To inform in three month- period, approximately 175,000 people in Northern region of Newlandia and another 175,000 people in the Western Newlandia about: hardship faced by Southern Newlandians and their inability to access education appropriately and also NEF activities in helping needy children in the region realize their education needs and how they can support NEF activities. After three months, impact of this objective will be measured using quantitative techniques in field surveys.

To inform 1,000,000 people in Batak region and its environs about activities of NEF, hardships faced by Southerners, and how their can support NEF provide help to educational needs of Southerners. This is to be achieved in three months and results to be measured through quantitative techniques in field visits.

To reach out to about 60% of Newlandians’ industry and business sector through message about activities of NEF in providing education opportunities to needy children and how they can help. This objective is to be achieved in three months and outcomes to be measured through surveys using telephones and field visits.

To reach out to about 60% of private industry and business people, informing them about NEF activities and its role in helping needy children attain their educational dreams and how they can support the organization’s activities. This is to be achieved in three months and outcomes measured through quantitative techniques and telephone surveys.

Research Research undertaken and available findings

In order to create a purpose-based public relations campaign strategy, there was prior research among key stakeholders in Newlandia. Prior research was conducted on selected representative samples among business people, politicians, opinion leaders, media people and the general population of Newlandia. Findings from the research show that:

10% of the population posses some information and knowledge about NEF.

1% has knowledge about NEF’s mission, vision and what it does in the society.

85% indicated they had at one point donated to charity work in the recent times.

95% indicated willingness and support for child-education charity organizations.

95% of those sampled indicated that education is important for children in Newlandia, specifically for future benefits.

Recommendations for future research

Research pertaining to success of public relations campaign strategies remains wide and incomplete. This fact therefore suggests that additional and relevant future research work will have to be undertaken. Key recommended areas for future research include:

Carry out research on what particular public relations campaign strategies successful organizations and companies adopted within Newlandia environment and how well NEF can restructure its future campaign strategies and plans.

There is need to conduct research on the specific media channels temporary visitors to Newlandia such as tourists and other business people utilize in order to enable NEF re-package and restructure its campaign strategies.

Target Publics Budget and time constraints have been identified by NEF director Meryn Doogood to be the drawbacks of NEF. As a result, choosing the right publics to communicate to using the available limited budget will be important. Two categories of publics are identified: the general population of Newlandia, public and private corporate sector, and its players.

Further, the general population of Newlandia is sub-divided geographically putting in consideration factors such as language, socio-economic and culture.

The aim will be to create effective and sustainable campaign communication strategy that exhibit right content campaign messages to the identified groups of people in different parts of Newlandia. Three different publics are identified in this communication campaign that will be targeted. They include Newlandia population; industry and business sector; and private and business sector.

Newlandia population to be targeted includes people in Northern, Western, and Batak and its environment and subsequent Southern regions of Newlandia. The aim of communication campaign among people in these regions will be to enhance public awareness of NEF activities, increase public participation in activities of NEF, outline the various ways donations and support for NEF can be realized.

Moreover, in areas like Northern, Western and Batak, the aim of targeting these populations is to ignite philanthropic spirit in the regions, increase future funding opportunities and increate their awareness of Southern plight.

Key media channels in these regions include; Newlandia TV, Newlandia newspaper, Newlandia Radio International, Newlandia Times, Newlandia Broadcasting Corporation, Radio South, and Mouth of South Newspaper.

The second public to be targeted is the industry and business community in Newlandia. The target is to create increased and sustained awareness in this group to ignite their desire to participate in community work, contribute to charities, and develop philanthropic spirit. This group possesses potential for future financial security of NEF, hence needs to create their awareness of plight of needy students in South is important.

The increased knowledge and technological savvy among this group makes it possible for campaigns messages to be received fast and positively. Major information sources accessed by this group include Newlandia Times and Newlandia Broadcasting Corporation.

The third public is the private business and corporate sector who represent future hope and potential source of financial support, sponsorship, and philanthropic activities in Newlandia and specifically for NEF.

Information exchange among this group is high, they are technology savvy individuals, and their influence in terms of corporate sponsorship is necessary for NEF. Information sources for this group include Newlandia Times and Newlandia Broadcasting Corporation.

Communication Campaign Strategy Plessis (2000) observes that public relations campaign communication differs according to the various publics concerned, the money available for the campaign and the applicability of the media to the different publics (pp. 27-31).

As noted earlier, NEF profile in the population is poor, funding in terms of donations is not adequate due to lack of awareness about the organization, and the overall educational disadvantages in Newlandia perform poorly as public agenda.

As a result, communication campaign strategy is needed to enhance the profile of the organization to target publics, increase public awareness about the activities of NEF to increasing funding opportunities and clearly articulate educational challenges in Newlandia.

Therefore, the communication strategy to be adopted will be persuasive in nature with aim to persuade different publics into getting in NEF activities and providing necessary support.

Design of persuasive messages will largely be carried out through application of communication theories such as social learning theory, agenda setting theory, semiotics theory, four model communication theory, and hierarchy of needs theory. These theories will be critical and widely used in developing specific messages that are addressed to particular publics.

Moreover, the campaign will adopt a strategy of using identified key community opinion leaders who will deliver persuasive messages about plight of Newlandia children education needs, the activities carried out by NEF and how support can be facilitated.

At the same time, success story of Rangi will be adopted and the student will be incorporated to talk to various publics about the problems of needy children in South, the role NEF plays in helping South people realize education for their children, and why NEF should be supported in its activities.

Key Messages to be delivered to publics Messages will be designed in a way that its acceptance among different publics is possible and easy. Messages to be designed will be persuasive in nature addressing different categories of publics.

Language to be used in developing messages will resonate with popular and widely spoken language in each region and messages will be simple and clear. Use of symbols and slogans will also be incorporated. Therefore, key messages to be delivered to different publics include:

Majority of children in South region of Newlandia come from poor families with inability to access secondary education.

Support is required to help South Newlandia children access education for their future.

NEF is an organization enhancing education opportunities for children in South with passion to see brighter future for these children.

NEF depend on donations and support of well-wishers hence it need support of many people in Newlandia.

Donations can be in any form as long as they are directed to helping Southerners achieve educational goals.

Tactics Different communication techniques and strategies will be used to reach the identified publics. At the same time, media agenda involving NEF will have to be managed professionally and this will take place in a positive information environment. Tactics to be employed will be premised on use of visual, printed, and oral tactics to reach to different publics.

Adverts related to NEF will be put in leading media sources in Newlandia such as Newlandia Times and Mouth of South. Selected TV releases and adverts will also be sent to popular channels highlighting South situation and activities and plight of NEF.

Newlandia Broadcasting Corporation and Newlandia TV will be utilized. Radio coverage will also be utilized to create awareness among people about situation of South, NEF activities, and why and how donations and support are required.

Channel to be used include Newlandia Radio International and Radio South. Other communication tactics to be employed include use of billboards in target locations in Newlandia, distribution and sticking of posters on appropriate selected sites, conduct awareness open days and forums will NEF officials presenting themselves.

Timeline Public relation campaign strategy operates on a timeframe which generally general constitute a system for keeping track of tasks that need to be done and those that have been completed (Heath, 2005, p.361). A Gantt chart will be adopted in this strategic proposal and as a result, it will be able to identify and apportion tasks, time and their sequence in a graphical manner (Bowen, Rowlins and Martin, 2010, pp.98-99). Timeline can be viewed in the Appendix section.

Proposed timeline for the campaign

Budget Budgets constraints have been identified to impede activities of NEF hence budget will be minimized to realistic levels in this communication campaign (Smith, 2005, pp. 222-223). NEF budget is sustained by funding from World Help and government funding.

Further, well-wishers especially in the media will be approached for further support. Budgeting for the communication campaign strategy will involve every aspect that will contribute to success of the program. This will be in term of both direct and indirect costs and expenses. Budget summaries found in Appendix section.

Estimated budget outline


Bowen, Rowlins, and Martin (2010), note that four concerns have to be addressed when evaluating the effectiveness of public relations campaign. The four concerns are definition of benchmark, selection of measurement tool, analysis of data, drawing of actionable conclusions and recommending, and making changes and further measuring (Bowen, Rowlins, and Martin, 2010, p.99).

Evaluation of the entire campaign program will largely base on the outcomes of the set objectives. In this way, surveys will be incorporated to find out whether the public profile of NEF has increased and to achieve this, feedback reports will be analyzed (Plooy 2004, p.312).

Quantitative and qualitative measurement techniques will be adopted to estimate and measure percentage increase in awareness of NEF activities, percentage increase in awareness of plight and problems faced by Southern people, percentage in awareness of need for charity and philanthropy, percentage increase in the number of people information is relayed to, and lastly, percentage increase in the level of donations and support received after the campaign.

This will take place after three months of the campaign.

Reference List Bowen, S., Rowlins, B. and Martin, T., 2010. An overview to the public relations function. NY: Business Expert Press. Web.

Haywood, R. and Chartered Institute of Marketing. 2005. Corporate reputation, the brand


Competitive positioning Report best essay help

Table of Contents Generic strategy

Rationale for the selected generic strategies

Vision and mission

Business level strategies

Marketing approach


It is fundamental for an organization comprehend the nature of its resources, which include the company’s labor, competencies and ability, aspects that form an organization’s environment (microenvironment). One can understand resources as the belongings of a company, which facilitate the production process. Competencies, equipments, capital, and skilled labor are some of the resources at the disposal for the company.

It is necessary for the resources to be free from any possibility of imitation. However, looking at the fitness industry, resources such as skilled personnel will play a significant role in providing quality services. Consequently, this will significantly ensure a continuous maximum customer satisfaction.

Such satisfaction, if known to other willing consumers, the number of customers would increase significantly. This translates to tremendous success to the new business or firm.

Generic strategy An organization can compete using various possible ways. However, the option chosen on the business level strategy is what determines the intended competition in the market. This is because business level strategy acts as the connection between the organization’s strategies and its desired long-term goals.

The company’s vision and its desired position in the market are often determined by the chosen strategies. However, a thorough assessment of various aspects such as differentiation, focused cost leadership, cost leadership must be done, in order to come up with excellent business level strategies.

Rationale for the selected generic strategies In the fitness industry, the focus is on a wide-range of clients. Tremendous efforts should be dedicated in providing services to a variety of customers having dissimilar demographics and from diverse groups. The excellent implementation of differentiation enhances market competition thus promoting the company services with prosperity as the final product.

Such a strategy signifies the distinctiveness of the Mini active. The features of Mini brand are not far from the ones of the Lexus brand, a Toyota brand (Hanson et al 2008). Despite the risks associated with cost leadership, current competencies and technologies help in avoiding imitations, which improves the competitive edge of the organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Vision and mission The developed resource based model flow chart act connects certain elements that define an industry. After an extensive assessment of fitness and other environmental aspects, the company has spotted a significant industry capable of having significant returns.

Therefore, by excellently understanding the various aspects regarding the company’s internal environment significantly assists in establishing a strong foundation for conquering the market. This places an organization in a perfect position to carry out a value chain analysis, which singles out competencies capable of building a desirable value of products or services.

The creation of competencies should be a continuous process, since they add value to the products or services without incurring any additional expenses. Eventually, this would promote the services of the club as well as assist in maintain lesser charges for services offered.

The organization can enter fitness market in dissimilar forms, either by making an acquisition or by internally developing the organization (Lee et al 2010). Making acquisition can be by purchasing an already established facility. However, this is not the approach taken by BMW; instead, it has employed the internal development approach (Lee et al 2010). The organization is extending its services and brand in the form of a “mini active.”

Business level strategies In order for an organization to a stronger competitive edge or advantage, it must employ several actions that are geared towards their intended goal. These sets of actions referred to as business level strategies. These designed actions or strategies consist of a number of aspects such as differentiation, cost leadership, and focused differentiation.

The excellent employment of any of these aspects assures a stronger barrier for other competitors who may pose significant threats to the company. Moreover, it helps in preventing any form of replication or imitation of the company’s products or services (Hanson et al 2008).

Marketing approach It is undeniable that an organization with established segments in the market, often promote their brands in terms of quality. This reminds us the fact that clients are the individual behind the success of any business strategy. The clients’ continuous use of the products or services acts as the primary basis in determining the effectiveness of the employed competencies or strategies.

We will write a custom Report on Competitive positioning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Hanson, D, Dowling, P, Hitt, M, Ireland, R,