Instructors teaching in classrooms where collaborative learning is used are interested in accessing their works effectiveness. As a research process, assessment enables instructors to confirm the idea that students working collaboratively learn easily and efficiently.
For example, biology instructors from Yakima Valley Community College used grade distributions and retention rates to compare student’s performance in Biology before and after introduction of a collaborative learning method.
They compared the two variables in the previous twelve lessons taught in lecture mode to those taught using the collaborative approach. The results indicate that retention rates of the students improved remarkably.
Students rarely dropped out before the completion of the course. The Collaborative method of learning is more demanding and leads to improvement of grades.
Students are responsible for learning from each other and solving problems together, individual effort is directly reflected in their grades.
Although students in classrooms using collaborative learning as a method of teaching showed improved performance, it leads to a drop in reading tests.
Instructors ask students to assess their work to ascertain their development over a given period of time. It enables students to review what they did, learned and the effects of learning on his or her capacity to perform in future.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Self-assessment enables students to reveal things relevant to learning which the teacher cannot know unless students speak out.
For example, the students are in a good position to report the difficulties they encounter when starting to write an essay and if watching news triggers thought about other things.
Pleasure, constant interest, and continuous elucidation of personal experiences by new ideas influence the resultant quality of a student’s academic output. Self-assessment enables students to review their objectives and readjust their targets as well as reminding other stakeholders of the importance of their achievements.
It also enables them to reflect on their mental habits that enhance development of capacities (intelligence and thinking) that support good performance.
The challenge in the use of this method is that students exaggerated and misinterpret what they have achieved. This gives the instructor the wrong implication.
Teachers can support students’ development of capacities to assess through giving cheap assignments and progress to demanding ones as students adjust.
Journal for Chronic City by Jonathan Lethem Essay essay help: essay help
New York City because of his unique atmosphere often becomes one of the main characters in the famous novels and movies. Jonathan Lethem also followed the tradition of depicting the city, but his image of New York is rather extraordinary and mysterious.
Chronic City was written by the author in 2009, and this novel became the real sensation in the literary world. It draws the readers’ attention with a variety of supernatural details depicted in it and with the author’s unique satirical tone.
In spite of the fact the author concentrates on describing the events which occur at the territories of the real island of Manhattan, the presentation of these events can be discussed as the mysterious alternative to the reality, and this idea is also emphasized by the symbolic usage of the strange names and metaphorical references to birds.
The figure of the novel’s narrator Chase Insteadman is significant because the readers have the opportunity to focus on the chaotic events depicted in the novel from his viewpoint.
However, can Chase be considered as a reliable narrator? The situations which are given from Chase’s perspective seem to be too unusual, extreme, and without any references to the reality.
Thus, the author of the novel can disorient the readers with Chase’s reaction to the environment, and it is rather difficult to find the elements of the real world among Chase’s perceptions and metaphorical reflections.
That is why it is possible to say that Chase Insteadman is a rather unreliable narrator whose position is too subjective and even provocative.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The atmosphere of unreality which is characteristic for the book is also accentuated by the author’s choice of names. These names are quite strange, and it is possible to concentrate on their satirical meaning.
Thus, the name of Chase Insteadman is too difficult to remember and understand that is why he is even called ‘Chase Unperson’ (Lethem 182). This error is not occasional, and it can emphasize the character’s position as the former star.
Chase’s friend Pincus Tooth is referred to as ‘Pincus Truth’ with indicating some features of his behavior (Lethem 418). Moreover, Chase meets the artist whose name is Laird Noteless, and it is used to attract the readers’ attention to the person’s affairs and status.
That is why these names can metaphorically characterize their owners. The novel is also full of such strange names as Oona Laszlo, Anne Sprillthmar, and Georgina Hawkmanaji. These names are not just presented in the text, but they are also actively discussed by the characters, becoming the significant point in the narrative.
Thus, discussing the name of Stanley Toothbrush, the characters state, “His name is Stanley Toothbrush”. “See, now you’re definitely making fun of me, because that’s idiotic” (Lethem 251).
The names help to the readers to become involved in the unreal atmosphere of the novel with references to the author’s satirical tone.
The next important peculiarity of the novel is a great number of references to birds. These references can be considered as rather symbolical, and their aim is to accentuate the character’s vision of the situation through a new perspective and reflect the characters’ inner feelings and thoughts.
We will write a custom Essay on Journal for Chronic City by Jonathan Lethem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The characters can see a flock of birds through the window and discuss the changes in the world according to the birds’ behavior. These observations are the specific way to reflect the strange and chaotic reality.
The nest draws attention and evokes a lot of considerations about the changes in New York with concentrating on the birds, “Why that number? Why not eight, or fifteen? Do they live together all day and night, or gather only for these missions?” (Lethem 68).
Moreover, the author chooses the images of birds in order to present the figures of the characters with their help. Thus, Oona Laszlo can be discussed as “pale, not so much dressed in black as feathered in it like a wounded bird” (Lethem 114).
And then, “if Oona was a raven, then her armor of irony was all feathers, as delicate, as crucial. Nobody wanted to imagine a bird without feathers” (Lethem 252).
Birds as images are interesting for presenting the characters with references to their feathers as the symbol of the people’s appearance.
Jonathan Lethem’s Chronic City is an interesting example of the novel in which reality is so close combined with fantasy that this combination is useful for making the metaphorical accents on the most important points for the author.
Jonathan Lethem’s references to symbolism and satire are represented with the help of using the image of birds and presenting meaningful and strange names.
Work Cited Lethem, Jonathan. Chronic City. USA: Vintage, 2010. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Journal for Chronic City by Jonathan Lethem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Pedophilia and the Mind Essay essay help
Table of Contents Evidences
Research methods to be used
Studies have shown that pedophilia is a mental disorder that compels victims to become sexually aroused by children who are below the age of puberty (Cantor et al., 2004).
Apparently, the disorder drives victims to become sexually abusive to children below 13 years. Studies have shown that this sexual deviation is as a result of abnormalities in the brain’s morphology (Schiffer
Hazard Adjustments in Alaska Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
The likelihood of an earthquake in Alaska can be termed as being moderate. However when it occurs, its impacts can be devastating. This is the main reason why preparing for such a disaster is essential.
Like any other mitigations, earthquake mitigation must take place before any real disaster (FEMA, 2010). Because the effect of such a disaster can be devastating and far reaching, preventive strategies must include both structural and non structural mitigations.
The structural mitigations require the use of engineered safety features that would provide protection from disaster impacts (FEMA, 2010).
Particularly for earthquake mitigations, engineers are advised to have special building designs and construction materials that would increases the capability of the individual structural foundation and load bearing frameworks to resist the seismic waves and aftershocks (Perry, Prater
Types of Tress in Alaska Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Alaska remains as one of the most ecologically diverse regions in the globe with key ecosystems that are highly sensitive to both natural and human interference.
A closer look at Alaskan forests further reveals a region that holds diverse vegetation with highly varied geologic history and evolutionary progression. The main habitats in Alaska that harbor trees include the Boreal forest which sustains trees that can survive in temperatures that are as low as negative 30 degrees Celsius.
Trees in this habitat are largely coniferous and evergreen during both winter and summer. Temperate conifers are further characterized by tall trees that grow to over 60 meters in height and last for over 500 years. This paper explores the key characteristics of different trees found in Alaska.
White Spruce White Spruce which is botanically known as Picea glauca is an evergreen tree that belongs in the coniferous group. According to Tarpening and Tarpening (2010), this tree is generally medium-sized and reaches about 55 meters in height and generally asymmetrical with a conical crown.
This shape has been cited as a critical survival strategy that reduces snow sticking tendencies on its leaves during winter. The plant further branches in a pattern that extends to the ground held by a bark that is smooth dark and scary.
Legasy, Labelle-beadman and Chambers (1995) indicate that this tree is shallow-rooted with the tap root which only reaches a maximum of 300 meters depending on the type of soil.
It is important to mention that the roots are associated with Mycorrhizae which are mainly used in fixation of nitrogen.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Birch Birch’s botanical name is Betula pendula and grows in the Northern temperate zones at latitudes of between 50 and 70 degrees. This tree is medium-sized and adapted to most cold regions.
Leaves are simple in shape, petiolated and alternate in arrangement (Tarpening
Population and Sustainability Essay writing essay help
The growing population of the world is cause for concern since the food and energy resources are not expanding fast enough to keep up with population growth. Strategies that reduce population growth are therefore welcome by the international community.
The United Nations has established a link between population and development with modest and sustainable population growths being favorable to the development of a nation. With these undertones, the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) came up with a strategy for reducing population growth.
This strategy which was endorsed by delegations from 179 States proposed the empowering of women and giving them more opportunities in society (ICPD, 1994).
The rationale behind this proposal was that educated women were empowered and exhibited reduced birth rate than uneducated women. In the UN 1994 strategy, the role of women in developing nations was to be changed.
Women would no longer be seen as home makers and many of them would be provided with more choices to build careers by developing skills to gain employment.
It was projected that literate women would not only have fewer children; they would also be actively engaged in the socio-economic affair of the country therefore increasing the overall well being of their communities while at the same time curtailing population growth.
Focus was to be given to women who lived in rural areas where illiteracy rates were astronomical. The UN proposed to offer funds to developing nations so as to facilitate the increase in literacy levels by women in the respective countries.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Donor countries were supposed to offer complementary resources to deal with the increased expense that this strategy would incur (ICPD, 1994).
In my opinion, this strategy will help in population reduction efforts today. The 1994 UN strategy demonstrated a growing awareness that population, poverty, and consumption levels are interlinked and therefore, slowing population growth would have a reduce poverty and consumption.
Sapru (2010) reveals that while poverty rates in developing countries have decreased, the number of poor people has increased due to the population growth experienced in these countries.
If the current rate of population growth in developing nations continues uninterrupted, the food produced will not be enough to satisfy the whole population.
The 1994 strategy achieved success and the population growth rate reduced as female literacy rose. According to this strategy, the UN hoped to achieve a population of 7.2 billion in 2015 and have a stable population of 7.8 billion in 2050.
It is possible that this goal will be reached since the population currently stands at 7 billion. Even so, the number of illiterate women today is still high. The illiteracy level among women today is still markedly high.
The UN News Center (2010) reports that women make up two thirds of adults who cannot read or write. By increasing funding to literacy programs, this number can be reduced significantly.
We will write a custom Essay on Population and Sustainability specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such a reduction will make the positive impacts of the population policy endorsed by the UN in 1994 even greater.
Almost 20 years after the 1994 conference, population growth remains a significant issue for the international community. A strategy for reducing population growth is still required today since the population is growing at an unsustainable rate.
By continuing with the 1994 UN strategy for reducing population growth, the world’s population can be stabilized therefore ensuring our future as the world’s resources are used in a sustainable manner.
References International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). (1994). Summary of the Programme of Action. Web.
Sapru, R.K. (2010). Public Policy: Art and Craft of Policy Analysis. Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
UN News Center (2010). Literacy has empowering effect on women, UN officials say. Retrieved from: https://news.un.org/en/story/2010/09/350122-literacy-has-empowering-effect-women-un-officials-say
Human Experiments and Radiation Exposure Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Effect of Nuclear Radiation on Soldiers
Use of Radioactive Iodine
Vanderbilt University Experiment
The United States experienced tremendous industrial development in the twentieth century. It is in the twentieth century that technology was developed to a modern scale, with inventions and innovations being the order of the day.
These new scientific creations and findings needed verification as viable innovations. Since this century was plagued by the most destructive wars in the history of humankind, inventions for military applications were many, and were often tested using human beings as specimen.
Some non-military tests of inventions and processes involved human specimen. Since the United States of America was one of the leading powers in the scientific developments, some of the experiments involving humans were conducted within the United States (Moreno, 2000).
Effect of Nuclear Radiation on Soldiers Immediately after the Second World War, the United States was in fear of being attacked by communist powers. The tension between the two ideological blocs called for development of some of the most potent nuclear weapons.
Some tests were carried out in Nevada to investigate the effect of a nuclear radiation on military personnel. Military officers were exposed to nuclear fallouts after detonation of a nuclear bomb to orient them to the logistics used to fight in a battlefield with a high level of nuclear radiation.
The psychological effects of the sight of an exploding nuclear weapon on soldiers were investigated in preparation of the troops for engagement in an anticipated nuclear war. However, the use of human subjects for such potentially dangerous tests faced criticism.
Ethical issues arose due to lack of consideration of the fatal disorders and the permanent damage that the radiation may would cause (Moreno, 2000).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Use of Radioactive Iodine Scientists at the University of Iowa conducted an experiment using pregnant women to investigate the effect of the iodine on the expectant women.
The experiment was intended to investigate the amount of the lethal substance that would cross the placental barrier, which is known to have highly selective membranes. Experimentation with radioactive iodine continued with use of human subjects.
Humans were exposed to radioactive iodine in an effort to determine the effect of the iodine on mature and premature fetuses. Critical ethical issues arose due to the inability of the participating individuals to give a well informed consent to the scientists conducting the experiment.
Some of the experiments involved direct injection of the potentially dangerous substance into infants (Cantwell, 2001).
Vanderbilt University Experiment Scientists at the Vanderbilt University gave a substance the medics claimed would improve the health of unborn infants to more than eight hundred pregnant women. The officials lied to the women that the substance that they were being fed with was a vitamin supplement.
The truth was that the substance the women were ingesting as a supplement contained dangerous levels of radioactive iron meant to investigate the amount of the radioactive substance that would reach the unborn babies (McCally
The Company a Cross-Cultural Marketing Essay essay help
Introduction The Company A that produces engine components for heavy-duty trucks can try to enter Japanese market because this country has a great industrial capacity.
Moreover, various companies may be interesting in purchasing the spare parts that improve the work of truck engines. By establishing its reputation in this country, the Company A can significantly increase its revenues.
However, the marketing strategies of this organization should take into account the values, perceptions, and behavior of Japanese customers in order to succeed.
To a great extent, they are determined the culture of this country. This American company should be aware of possible differences in order to gain trust and loyalty of the local clients.
Cross-cultural issues and their impact on the marketing approach There are several cross-cultural issues that may affect the Company A’s marketing strategies. One of them is the attitude toward quality and price. The thing is that for many Japanese buyers, the perceived value of a product is the main determinant of its success or failure (Herbig, 1998, p. 206).
Advertisements should demonstrate what kind of benefits a product can create for clients. Such an aspect as the price should not be emphasized. More importantly the reduction of the price can be associated with poor quality of the product (Herbig, 1998, p. 206).
Such an interpretation can ruin the reputation of any business, especially if it is a company that manufactures components for truck engines.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, the marketing strategy of the Company A should focus on the features of the product such as reliability or safety, rather than the price.
Furthermore, they can mention that their products can save much money for their clients, but they should say that their engine components are cheaper than those ones manufactured by their competitors.
Certainly, one cannot say that Japanese customers complete neglect such a factor as price. They can compare prices when choosing among similar products.
Yet, they can become suspicious when a company places too much emphasis on price in order to differentiate their products or services among others.
In this way, a company may easily lose competitive advantage to other firms. Hence, this is one of the dangers that the management of the Company A should be aware of.
Another issue that can influence the marketing approach is the attitude toward buyers and sellers. In Japanese culture selling is not perceived as a highly respected activity (Herbig, 1998, p. 161).
To some degree, this opinion can be explained by the ideology of Confucius who believed that merchants represented the lowest classes of society (Herbig, 1998, p. 161). Surely, one can disagree with this argument but it still affects the relationship between buyers and sellers.
We will write a custom Essay on The Company a Cross-Cultural Marketing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sales people are supposed the serve customers without trying to dictate their terms. So, in Japan, buyers occupy a higher position in the social hierarchy. From a practical point of view, it means that the Company A will have to pay much more attention to the needs of the clients.
For example, they will have to offer customers better after-sale services and ensure that the engine components that they produce perform well. For example, they may even call buyers and ask if their products function properly and if there are any concerns that customers may raise.
Surely, some American companies also act in such a way when they operate in the United States, but such behavior is a common standard in Japan, because it is essential for the sustainability of sellers and manufacturers.
Additionally, this organization should know that their marketing strategy should be based on individualized approach. Their Japanese clients can be either corporate or individual, but in each case, they will want to learn more about their suppliers and establish more close relations with them.
For instance, the management of the Company A should know that Japanese clients attach more importance to face-to-face communication. Admittedly, in Japan business partners can use phones or email, but the most important decisions are usually discussed in person.
Overall, they should bear in mind that selling can take much more time in Japan, especially in comparison with the United States or Europe. Perhaps, the most dangerous error is to ask Japanese customers to sign a contract during the first round of negotiations.
The most likely outcome is that buyers will refuse to have any relations with a foreign company. Therefore, the Company A should avoid this pitfall, if they want to gain the trust of Japanese clients.
It is quite possible to argue that patience will be essential during negotiations with customers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Company a Cross-Cultural Marketing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the whole, one should remember that Japanese customers value personalized services, and this is the reason why many foreign firms cannot win their loyalty only by offering them lower prices (Lamb, 2011, p. 125).
The clients of the Company A can be either individuals or organizations that own heavy-duty tracks. In each case, this organization must make sure that clients always have the opportunity to talk with the representatives of the company.
This is why this organization will have to open its offices in different parts of Japan so that they could contact customers as quickly as possible. Thus, this company will have to consider such aspect of marketing as distribution of products.
They should also adopt a direct selling model. This means that there should not be any mediators between them and their clients. This issue is particular important for businesses like the Company A.
They manufacture engine components, and they will have to explain the advantages of their products.
This task can be better done when a customer can communicate with the representatives of the company, rather than external distributers who may not know much about the product and its strengths.
Cross-cultural communication and its effect on marketing strategies The second issue that the management of the Company A should consider is communication in Japanese culture. As it has been said before, sellers have a lower status than buyers in Japanese culture.
Thus, companies should use a more formal language when communicating with customers. This issue is particularly important when we are speaking about promotion and advertising.
For instance, it is not polite to urge customers to buy products. One can mention that in their advertisements many American or European companies claim their products are of superior quality and that they will certainly appeal to the buyers.
On the whole, the Company A should not use such a method of persuasion because it will produce the opposite results. It is quite probably that customers will completely disregard their products.
Secondly, the management of this organization should remember that Japanese customers expect sellers to communicate with them in person.
For instance, if a certain business is not able to deliver the products on time, the representatives of this company should pay a personal visit to the client and explain everything. It is not sufficient to give a phone call or send an email (Herbig, 1998, p. 163).
Such behavior can be interpreted as lack of politeness. These examples show that Japanese customers may determine the value of a product in a slightly different way. They pay attention not only to its quality, price, or functionality; they are also concerned with the services that a seller can offer.
Provided that they are absent, even the most generous offer can be declined. Thus, the company should not separate products from services; instead they should be regarded as a single entity.
Only in this way, they can achieve success in this market. Thus, the quality of pre-sales and after-sales services can be of the crucial importance for the Company A.
Ethics differences and marketing Another aspect that one should not overlook is the ethical differences in marketing. Certainly, one cannot speak about the difference in moral standards. In this case, the values of individuals play a more important role.
One should keep in mind that Japanese culture is characterized by a higher degree of uncertainty and risk avoidance. This means that people are less likely to take the decisions that can potentially do harm to the group, for instance, a company (Hein, 2011, p. 16).
In contrast, American culture is more tolerant risk. This is why American and Japanese business partners may fail to reach an agreement. Even, if this risk is extremely low, American companies should not expect that their Japanese partners will easily take important decisions.
Such behavior is viewed as unethical in Japan. This idea has several important implications for the Company A. First, the management of this business should know they may have to hold many negotiations with the same customer.
At the beginning Japanese clients can be skeptical about the products of the Company A, and they should be ready for such an attitude.
Secondly, one can assume that the components manufactured by the Company A will be purchased mostly by other organizations that own heavy-duty trucks.
It is quite possible that the decision to buy or not to buy the components for engine can be discussed with many managers of the company. The thing is that in Japanese organizations the power distance between employees is longer than in the United States (Hein, 2011, p. 17).
Sometimes, taking initiatives or independent decisions can be regarded as disrespect for authority, and this form of behavior is not ethically acceptable in Japan (Hein, 2011, p. 17). In other words, employees can be unwilling to take decisions without the permission of top management.
Thus, American businesses such as the Company A should be patient when conducting negotiations. Overall, it will be necessary to convince the customers the use of these engine components will not do any harm.
Only then, they should speak about the advantages of their products. Risk aversion of Japanese clients can be the main challenge that they will have to overcome.
Furthermore, Japanese culture emphasizes loyalty to the group (Hein, 2011, p. 17). Its interests have to be the main priority for an individual. This premise may be the most important element of Japanese culture.
In turn, American and European cultures attach more importance to individualism. This ethical norm affects business culture of this country. In Japan, the actions that are driven only by personal interests and needs can be condemned from an ethical point of view.
This is why the Company A should stress the idea that their products can create benefits for the groups, for instance, the company, its employees, and other stakeholders such as community. This approach can make their products more appealing to the clients.
Additionally, Japanese culture attaches more importance to long-term development. The pursuit of quick results and short-term profits can be condemned from an ethical point of view. This issue can be also relevant to the Company A.
While advertising their products, they should stress the idea their products and service can contribute to the long-term development of their Japanese partners.
For example, they can say that their components for engines can save time, effort, and money for their customers in the long term. More importantly, they should not overemphasize the price of their products, because the low price can be associated with poor quality.
Conclusion Overall, this discussion shows that every organization that attempts to enter a foreign market should consider the cultural environment in which it will operate. Failure to do can ruin the most sophisticated marketing strategy.
The hypothetical company that has been discussed should pay attention to such issues as personalized services and emphasis on the quality of the products, rather than its price.
Secondly, they company should focus on pre-sales and after-sales services since many Japanese clients value those companies that show concern about the well-being of their clients.
Finally, they should be ready that selling can become more time-consuming because of the ethical norms and value system adopted in Japan.
Thus, cultural differences can have significant implications for the marketing strategies of this hypothetical company.
Reference List Hein, N. (2011). Japanese Cultural Concepts and Business Practices as a Basis for Management and Commerce Recommendations. Munich: GRIN Verlag.
Herbig, P. (1998). Handbook of Cross-Cultural Marketing. New York: International Business Press.
Lamb, C. (2011). Marketing. London: Cengage Learning.
Advergaming and Mobile Advertising Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Computer games can provide a platform for virtual world interaction with brands. Advertisement through computer games can either be Advergaming or In Game advertisement (Sever 2). The Polo Cup in Turkey was used by some brand sponsors as a medium for advertizing (Sever 1).
Volkswagen brand used this platform for advergaming. Race paths and cars were branded (Sever 1). In specific, Volkswagen used the indicative game advertisement to achieve the advergaming marketing.
This form of brand integration allows production to occur within the game area. An internet 3D game Polo Cup virtual game was also provided on the www.ntvmsnbc.com website and participants competed for awards (Sever 4).
Consequently, participants in the game area were able to interact with the brand. Needs were addressed particularly when the brand advertisement information was made visible to players in the form of the brand logo and messages. The experience with the brand increased exposure in due course.
The marketer gained advantage over other traditional approaches since brands drew attention of the participants in a playful way in real time and over-the-time (unlimited exposure).
Volkswagen brand was behind organizing for the game under the tag of the Polo Cup and the gamers contested on branded cars in order to win a prize. Permission for brand inclusion by marketers entailed paying the game publishers to integrate the brand during production (Sever 2).
Consumer experience in the virtual advergaming provided them with an opportunity to participate in Polo Cup as much it’s not in the real car and track. This is regardless of prior real driving experience or competing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Participants appreciate the Volkswagen contribution towards the competition and may convince them to opt for the brand over others during their shopping. Alternatively, consumers (as competitors or spectators) are enticed to attend the real track-event Polo Cup competition.
A credit retailer that is Mr Price used mobile advertizing to deliver financial information (Mobile Marketing Association 10). The marketing strategy was developed and executed by Lenco Mobile.
The need and impact were personalized communication of the delivered financial information to target customers. Permission-based mobile advertizing increased efficacy by reducing waste in spending by focusing on the specific target market who are more interested in the marketer’s services and products (Mobile Marketing Association 10).
Marketers addressed issues on permission by reducing irritation for consumers not targeted. The wireless technology allows the marketer to identify consumers at the individual level. Often, targeted consumers have no issue with the advertisement since they can ignore it and avoid being interrupted by the advertisement.
The consumer experience was a personalized access to latest financial information about Mr Price, which was readily availed to them. In this regard, the consumer had control of whether to act immediately or later.
Though, cautionary negative experiences such as the intrusion of privacy may occur, especially for consumers who are not popular with this form of advertizing. Such consumers may over-the-time learn to ignore messages immediately or do away with them.
However, permission-based mobile advertizing minimizes the spam and unwanted messages, thus the consumer is unlikely to doubt the information delivered regarding the specific company.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Advergaming and Mobile Advertising specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Arguably, formulation and implementation of policy pieces that entrench best practices prohibit bad timing for messaging and unlimited number of messages sent to consumers (Mobile Marketing Association 23).
A diagrammatic illustration of conceptualizing (permission-based) mobile advertizing
Source from Tsang et al. (69)
Works Cited Mobile Marketing Association 2011, An introduction to Permission Based Mobile Marketing. Web.
Sever, N. Serdar. n.d. Advergaming: A Case Study On Polo Cup. Web.
Tsang, Melody M., Shu-Chun Ho, and Ting-Peng Liang. “Consumer Attitudes Toward Mobile Advertising: An Empirical Study.” International Journal of Electronic Commerce. 8.3 (2004): 65–78. M.E. Sharpe. Web.
Managing and Developing a Small Business: What do Leaders really do? Report best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Leaders and managers of an organization play incredible roles in the endeavour to ensure that organizations succeed in attaining their aims and objectives, as stipulated in their strategic plans. A dominant argument among scholars is that, leaders can also serve the roles of the managers.
On the other hand, other scholars argue that, leaders cannot act as managers of an organization. Consequently, there is unresolved debate whether managers can be leaders and the vice versa. For instance, Kotter posits, “leadership and management are two distinctive and complementary systems of action” (1990, p.103).
This argument implies that, leadership and management have two differing traits and functions within an organization. The main question remains: which of the two is more appropriate for being given more consideration to enhance better success of an organization?
Increasing body of literature places a strong argument that, the two are significant towards this end, especially when the volatilities and complexities of the modern day organizations’ operation environment are considered.
From this position, this paper seeks to address the two aspects, which may immensely enhance the performance and hence the success of an organization.
This goal is achieved through conducting a summary of Kotter’s article appearing on the journal of Harvard Business Review in 1990 titled: “what leaders really do”, and then articulating it with the existing body of literature on the position of leadership and management in enhancing success of an organization.
Difference between management and leadership Management entails dealing ardently with organizational complexity. According to Brungardt (1996), “management controls or directs people or resources in a group according to principles or values that have already been established” (p.83).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the absence of cute organizational management strategies, complex business establishments may get chaotic in numerous ways hence creating the risks to the existence of the business establishment in question.
In this context, Kotter (1990) laments that, “good management brings a degree of order and consistency to key dimensions like the quality and profitability of products” (p.104).
On the other hand, leadership entails putting forth new visions and or directions for people working within an organization. In the journey towards achievement of this vision and direction, the leader work principally as the spearhead.
This implies that leadership is all about deploying appropriate measures to deal cutely with organizational change. Leadership is the tool that can be deployed, within an organization, to help it deal proactively with various factors that make conducting business a challenge.
Such factors includes technological sophistication, volatility of the markets, increased international competitions, rapidly varying demographic characteristics, changing capital markets characteristics coupled with deregulation of capital markets among other factors.
Consequently, as management scholars would suggest, doing what was effective yesterday and/or at ten percent better, can help in improvement of organizational performance. In case of leadership, this scenario is no longer a formula for realizing organizational success.
Amid the cited functions of management in enhancing organizational success, it is necessary to point out that when the two are employed independently in an organization, differing results are produced.
We will write a custom Report on Managing and Developing a Small Business: What do Leaders really do? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When management is applied without leadership, incredible results are obtained in control of resources in a manner that ensures that, the status quo is maintained and/or facilitates achievement of aims, goals, and objectives in accordance to an initially re-established plan.
On the other hand, when leadership is applied alone, it “sets a direction or vision that others follow, without considering too much how the new direction is going to be achieved” (Rost
The Role of Audience in Media Meaning Making Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Role of Audience in Media Meaning Making
Stuart Hall’s Encoding/Decoding Model
The Idea of Polysemic Texts
Introduction Mass media plays important role in the life of people. It forms human opinion, media entertains and informs, it creates the image of people and ruins it, advertising, promotion, and other specific purposes are important for the life of people.
However, audience also plays important role in mass media. The exchange of influence is occurred. Therefore, it may be said the audience forms the meaning for media. What does it mean?
Mass media is the source of information which is directed at people, therefore, audience is the source of inspiration for mass media. When creating different programs, releasing some information, etc., mass media bases its data on human beings who live in the society.
Therefore, the role of audience in media meaning making is essential. To support this point of view we are going to present several examples, refer to Stuart Hall’s (1981) encoding/decoding model and the idea of polysemic texts as the way to show that public meaning forms the directions of mass media and creates varied programs and sources of information.
Role of Audience in Media Meaning Making Looking at modern mass media and TV broadcasting in particular, the opinion is created that people are unable to affect the data presented there. Too much violence is presented, however, if such programs are performed, if this information is delivered, therefore, there is a demand on it.
Watching this or that TV program people express their opinion. Mass media considers and analyzes this point of view and on the basis of this data forms the range of themes which are to be highlighted. Mass media creates the themes which are interesting for the audience.
The role of audience in mass media is great as in case the audience is not interested in the theme presented either on TV or in newspapers the material is a failure.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, if a TV program is interesting, if the theme highlighted there is actual and deserves attention, people will watch it, the newspapers will write about it and the critics will talk about it. Therefore, other programs will be directed in the same way.
Another program will be created on the basis of the same topic or it will be devoted to the relevant idea. Audience creates the image for the programs, it makes programs and news editors deal with it.
When audience expresses its opinion either in favor or against some theme, the mass media reacts on it. It should be mentioned that reaction directed at the information may be either negative or positive. Each type of information causes media meaning.
For example, when the data presented on TV or in newspapers does not suit the audience in its meaning, it does not mean that the audience does not want to consider it, the audience is just dissatisfied with the meaning. The same is with the positive information people consider, if the data is positive and does not have any negative issues, it does not mean that the audience wants to get it.
Information in the modern world is an available source, therefore, when people consider media, they are interested in the data which strikes them. Media has several specific measures which help them consider the point of view of the audience.
The opinion of the audience is important for those who create news as whether the news is interesting or not depends the rating of the show. If people are not interested in watching this specific show, it means that the team failed to cope with the task, to search for the data which may be interesting for people.
The meaning of media is the programs and data presented for people. Audience is the target for media. Creating the programs and releasing newspapers media should refer to the opinion of the audience as they create the rate.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of Audience in Media Meaning Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, the main point which makes audience and media interconnected is information. Media wants to present the data interesting for the audience, and the audience wants to see the information which entertains or informs them. If mass media performs its function, the audience is satisfied.
Stuart Hall’s Encoding/Decoding Model Considering Stuart Hall’s encoding/decoding model, it should be mentioned that its main idea is in the message delivered to the audience. If the audience is interested in the message, considered in the information, the data will be released successfully, otherwise, the information is going to be out of demand.
Having the purpose to connect media production, distribution and consumption of the final product, Hall tried to show that these three aspects follow the same logics, but different directions. Considering this model, it is possible to get two aspects, producers and audience.
The data required by each of these sides depends on the research, on investigation and other specific methods which are directed at information search. Hall points at three basic ideas, which point at preferred, negotiated and oppositional data. Here is the example.
A person watches the program where people are accused with violent behavior during the public demonstration. Still, it is impossible to make sure that all people are going to blame the performers. Some people will believe that the data is presented incorrectly, others will think that police performed prevocational acts.
Therefore, it is possible to see that depending on the points audience considers, the code of the data is differently read. The same is devoted to all information audience considers. The data may be read absolutely different from what it is initially believed to be.
Trying to consider the Stuart Hall’s encoding/decoding model, the understanding and misunderstanding aspects are to be considered. Presenting the information media tries to make it clear for the audience. Therefore, in case the data is improperly understood, it means that the media failed to deliver it correctly.
Audience is never accused in the fact that the information is improperly understood. The whole fault is laid on media who failed to deliver the message for the audience. Therefore, we return to the problem of the data which is in demand and which is not interesting for the audience.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role of Audience in Media Meaning Making by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Interesting information is usually properly considered, while the data which is not interesting for the audience may be deformed. Hal’s model is based in four stages which are misconnected, communication, circulation, use and reproduction.
Therefore, the audience usually comes through these four stages to make use of the data they considered. Communication is devoted to the problems considered by the audience. When people talk about some aspects, they express their desires in relation to the data they want to see.
Circulation is the basic information which is presented by one person and delivered to another, and so on and so forth. The circulation of the information makes it possible to for the media workers to understand which data in interesting and which one is not.
Use of the data may be considered from different perspectives, the data may be used either by he audience or by the media. At any case, the information is useful and may be applied in action. Finally, the reproduction of the data by media is the delivery of the information which may be interesting to the audience.
Therefore, these four stages considered by Hall may exist separately as the first sand the last stages should not be obligatory followed in this strict order. Moreover, the difference in opinion and perception is also important.
The Idea of Polysemic Texts One and the same message may be considered differently by two people. When two people watch one and the same information, it is possible for them to get the data differently. For example, returning to the violence while the public demonstration.
One person will believe that there was a group of people who intentionally came to create chaos. Others will believe that there was just one person who encouraged others. There are going to be people who will believe that the whole situation as created unintentionally and there are going to be people who will believe that it was the fault of the police.
The only message about the violence during demonstration makes it possible for different opinion. The same is about other data. Trying to consider this problem from different perspectives, it is possible to presuppose that media creates such situation intentionally.
It is important for the media to create the news in such a way that people could talk about it. It is important for the media to see the reaction of the media. Polysemic texts cause people to think differently on the same problem.
Media understand that people have different points of view, media is sure that various cultural and social views, political preferences and other specific issues influence the opinion of people.
Creating polysemic texts, media intentionally creates the situation when the problem is differently perceived. In this case, the attention is caught and the audience is interested in this specific fact. Thus, the media controls the attention of the audience.
When the information is improperly understood, people call it personal opinion. Therefore, there is no correct meaning in media. The information is perceived based on the human vision of the surrounding world. If the data is understood in the same way by all people, there would not be any debate which is not correct.
The media creates its pieces of information on the bases of human opinion. Therefore, we have returned to the discussion conducted at the beginning of this paper. Media depends on human opinion.
No matter whether it is positive or negative in relation to the information, it is the feedback and media works basing on the feedback of the audience. The difference in perceiving the information creates debates.
There are a lot of programs based on this particular issue. People get the same information, however, due to many aspects this information is understood in different ways that causes its popularity. Therefore, media intentionally created data which may be debated.
It is important to make sure that the information does not have the same direction, it is important to make sure that the data may cause different people react absolutely strange to cause debate.
Conclusion In conclusion, it should be stated that opinion that media forms human opinion is correct, however, audience also creates the meaning of the media. Many scholars tried to consider this point of view and Stuart Hall managed to create four stages which are not interconnected with each other.
Hall’s idea is that the message delivered by the media is created on the basis of the opinion of the audience. Trying to consider this opinion, it is important to check the idea of polysemic texts. The information is presented for debate.
Depending on many factors, data may be either supported or not. It does not mean that the data is uninteresting, it means that having different opinions media tries to attract the audience for discussion.
Audience influences media, it creates the themes which are going to be discussed, it makes sure that the information they want to consider is going to be presented for the general consideration.
All people are different, they want to view various data and the main purpose of mass media is to deliver the information in such a way that all people could be satisfied thinking that the data is created specially for them, while the data is for all, it is just for people to make sure that they understand it properly.
Film Review: “Silenced” by Hwang Dong-hyuk Essay essay help: essay help
Silenced is a movie based on the events happened in one of the Korean schools in 2005. This film released in 2011 presents the problems which may exist in any society where corruption, influence of particular people, ill vision of the life and absence of the strong and legal regulatory bodies create terrible conditions that lead to the more terrifying outcomes.
The problems raised in the movie are social and should bother the whole society as being based on the realistic events, it means that there may be many places where disabled children are treated in the same cruel way. Silenced is a movie that dwells upon the physical and sexual abuse of children who attend special school for disabled children.
The problem is really important and impressive as children are not protected due to their social status and disabled children who are unable to tell about their problems, who are afraid of telling adults about abuse as they fear physical or sexual punishment.
Trauma as one of the particular aspects of the movie should also be considered as those children who are abused in childhood are unable to perceive this world adequately.
Their vision of the reality is changed and there are no guarantees that such children will grow up deserving members of the society as the traumas they get influence their perception of the modern world, people and events (Levine and Kline “Trauma’s scope – sources ranging from the ordinary to the extraordinary” 18).
Children abuse is considered as a great problem, however, trauma based on the physical and sexual abuse is rarely treated, however, this is one of the most important aspects doctors should pay attention to while treating children (Levine and Kline “What is trauma?” 3).
Silenced is about sexual and physical abuse of disabled children who are not protected at all, about trauma they get and the attempts of one person to solve the problem, but illegal society, corruption and careless attitude of others do not give him an opportunity to complete the task effectively and at once.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The movie starts with the period when Gang In-ho is on his way to a school for hearing-impaired children in Gwangju. At his first day, he faces the problem, as to take a position he is to pay. Then, he sees more terrible things.
Children at school are abused, he observes how a teacher severely beats a student, then he hears cries but others say to him that this is a norm for disabled children.
Finally, he gets to know the truth, but the problem is that no one wants to deal with this case as the main abuser is a school director who is a respected person in a city and who has much influence in the place.
Therefore, Gang In-ho appears in a terrible situation, on the one hand, he cannot look at violence and illegal abuse which takes place at school, on the other hand, he needs money to pay for the operation of his daughter.
The situation is complicated by the fact that to pay for the position Gang In-ho had to mortgage a house. In-ho teams up with human rights activist Seo Yu-jin, but their attempts seem to be wasted in vain.
The play of the actors does not impress, frankly speaking. Most of the emotions and reactions are based on the human mercy in relation to abused children.
Gang In-ho seems to be the most emotionless person in the whole movie, the director of the school and the vise director also do not express any emotions on their faces, just the attitude to children, the actions these people do and the words they say to children make the audience understand their feelings and emotions.
We will write a custom Essay on Film Review: “Silenced” by Hwang Dong-hyuk specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, the film is in grey color that adds to the perception of the reality. It is impossible to say that it is either an advantage or disadvantage, it just supports the movie tone and makes the perception of the film deeper.
Sochi’s review is mostly based on the movie plot not on the personal perception that makes the film view procedure more subjective without influence of objective opinion from the side.
The movie does not carry any entertaining features. Being initially a social creation, it makes people think about the problems which exist in this world. In most cases people do not notice what happens in the surrounding world, or do not want to notice, but Silenced is the movie which must be seen.
People should see how those who have the power to influence the city authorities have an opportunity to do whatever they like as they are sure that the whole city including police and church community try to cover the truth. I was really impressed with the movie.
There were the places which I could not watch due to the cruelty. Even though the play of the actors is rather primitive in some cases, I suppose that it adds to the realistic tone which must be present in this movie to make others think about global social problems.
Works Cited Levine, Peter A. and Maggie Kline. “Trauma’s scope – sources ranging from the ordinary to the extraordinary.” Trauma through a Child’s Eyes. Beckley: North Atlantic Books, 2007. Print.
Levine, Peter A. and Maggie Kline. “What is trauma? A working definition.” Trauma through a Child’s Eyes. North Atlantic: Bodes Beckley, 2007. Print.
Silenced. Dir. Dong Hyeuk Hwang. South Korea, 2011. DVD.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Film Review: “Silenced” by Hwang Dong-hyuk by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sochi, Stanislav S. “Do-ga-ni.” IMDb. 2011. Web. https://www.imdb.com/title/tt2070649/plotsummary
Reflective Entry: “The stranger” by Albert Camus Essay college essay help online
“For the first time, in that night alive with signs and stars, I opened myself to the gentle indifference of the world…… For everything to be consummated, for me to feel less alone, I had only to wish that there be a large crowd of spectators the day of my execution and that they greet me with cries of hate” (Camus, 1989, p.109).
“I opened myself to the gentle indifference of the world”
Does life actually have a meaning? This is the question that most philosophers, theologists, scientists as well as other academic scholars ponder to answer. Meursault is trying to bring out the philosophy of absurdity of life in this episode.
The assertion of this philosophy is that life has no redeemed or rational meaning. That is there is no purpose or discernible meaning of the human existence.
The reason is that what happened in the past has no meaning and the only thing that matters in our lives is what is presently happening since we do not know what will be happening in the future.
Given the fact that there is no real meaning of life does not necessarily mean that people should lead a life of despair, rather people should live there moral and humanist life.
This is clearly illustrated with Meursault acceptance of the gentle indifference with things around him. After realizing that there is no difference between being executed and waiting to die at old age, Meursault find piece with him and the society that persecuted him.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Critically looking at the Meursault life processes, the implication of this is that moral orders have no natural or rational basis. However, we should not approach life with a moral indifference.
In as much as the universe may present itself as cold and indifferent, we should always uphold the human dignity and moral values. This is what the final episode of Meursault life portrays.
“…. For everything to be consummated, for me to feel less alone” (Camus, 1989, p.109)
What matters to Meursault is the escape to freedom from the machineries of justice that condemned him to death. He came to the reality that when life has ended so too is existence. This also brings him to the realization that the hope of salvation from God is pointless rather an obscurity of the realities of death.
In fact, the way of life in the world is substantial and the meaning of life is exposed through events that are being experienced at that particular time. For this reason, Meursault find it difficult to connect to those who show concern to the social conventions that are found in the world around them.
Quite absurd, Meursault feel deprived of the physical pleasure when for instance; he was put in prison for emotionless behavior. This does not mean that people do not follow the conventional societal beliefs neither do they believe in God nor salvation but rather the absurdity of existence.
If we can all share in this belief then we should enjoy life. It is the enjoyment that is derived from the day to day existence neither looking forward nor backward. That is the love for life that is based on doing what I feel I want to do and not what the society, religion or others would deem correct or common.
We will write a custom Essay on Reflective Entry: “The stranger” by Albert Camus specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also true that life remains constant and it is only physical things that are really changing. The implication is that life is equal among human beings. There is no life that is greater or better than the other. The equality in life can only be manifested in death.
Whether you are rich, poor small or Nobel, death is a reality that faces not only human kind but also all living creatures. Death is the force that is conscientious for the unvarying and consistent character of human life. In fact, experience offers a deeper understanding of human life conditions.
“…. for me to feel less alone, I had only to wish that there be a large crowd of spectators the day of my execution and that they greet me with cries of hate” (Camus, 1989, p.109).
This is what I find intriguing in this passage. In fact, the quotes are found in the very last lines of the book. Upon meeting with the chaplain, Meursault completely acknowledged the absurdist thought that the world is unsympathetic to individual interactions and that existence is deficient of coherent order and importance.
All through the course of the narrative, Meursault was approaching this disclosure devoid of noting until he came to terms with the hopelessness of evading his demise.
He understood the fact that the unresponsiveness the world is to human relationships is a pure manifestation of its own personal lack of concern to human interactions and correspondence, bring to mind, a feeling of friendship that leads him to brand the world brother.
In contrast to the earlier episodes when Meursault was satisfied at best, in this occasion, Meursault discovers active happiness when he finally became open to the actuality of human existence. Despite her position in society, Meursault still find happiness.
Meursault did not mind being called a criminal. Meursault really wanted companionship, which ironically, is an angry mob baying for his blood on his execution day. Meursault recognized his awaiting capital punishment as the consummation of his novel perception.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Reflective Entry: “The stranger” by Albert Camus by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference Camus, A. (1989). The stranger. Trans Matthew Ward, New York: Vintage International.
Philosophy of the Human Person Essay custom essay help
The reason why Plato’s Phaedrus even today continues to be referred to as the one of world’s most prominent philosophical dialogues is that, besides being rhetorically refined, this dialogue also contains a number of logically substantiated insights into the very essence of cognition, as the process that comfortably combines the seemingly incompatible elements of desire and inquiry.
In my paper, I will aim to substantiate the validity of this idea in regards to how Socrates theorized the nature of an interrelationship between one’s irrational desires, on the one hand, and his or her varying ability to turn these desires into the tool of attaining an intellectual enlightenment, on the other.
The foremost thesis, which serves Socrates’ Second Speech as its theoretical foundation, is the assumption of soul’s immortality. Socrates substantiates the validity of this assumption by pointing out to the fact that it is only a qualitatively superior force, which is being capable of setting into the motion a derivative (and therefore inferior) force.
Since the motions of one’s body can be well conceptualized as the physical emanations of the affiliated soul’s strive towards self-actualization, and since human bodies are mortal, then people’s souls must be necessarily immortal, “All soul is immortal, for that which is ever in motion is immortal” (Hamilton
Environmentally Sustainable Work Practices in Swimburne University Report essay help: essay help
Swimburne University of technology is a public institution founded by George Swimburne with a passion and vision of seeing Eastern suburbs have technical college (Watson 2010, p.24).
The university is under industry based learning located in Melbourne, Australia. The technical college was established on 8th July 1908 with eighty young boys and men who enrolled for their technical classes in 1909.
The subjects that were offered then included, gas fitting, plumbing, and carpentry(Choi 2011, p.112). The institution was established to offer vocational, postgraduate, research qualifications, and undergraduate courses.
Swimburne is a global university that delivers vocational training to around 16,000 students most of which complete their training in job market and for those who take their studies in the campus, real work projects are integrated with work based learning or practical placement (Watson 2010, p.25).
Environmental management practices It is important that all relevant stakeholders are included in environmental management practices, anyone that has to change their behavior as a result of this strategy and people that may be affected by environmentally management strategies.
Environmental management strategies are also developed for water catchment areas like minor water courses and urban storm water drains that flow to system of streams.
Keeping electricity reliable, affordable, and sustainable in highly competitive and deregulated national market, when pressure is also building to make for new sources of green electricity that are not yet economic
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Resource Efficiency Areas Through research qualifications, Swimburne University aims at transforming the way people utilize land, mineral, water, and energy resources by promoting better understanding of environmental and human systems and new technology use (Choi 2011, p.113).
The main area of resource efficiency is climate change and variability whereby through research the university focuses at increasing people understanding of the negative effects of climate variability and changes at the regional level.
The climate patterns in Australia are highly variable and further changes can have adverse effects on the environment.
The university aims at creating awareness about the benefits of adapting to different climatic changes and understanding the effects of climate change.
The institution also aims at transforming existing industries by improving resources for technology based industry that helps in reducing environmental impacts on sea and land and therefore increase the national income (Swift 2011, p.26).
For example, the mineral industry remains the most competitive industry in Australia and therefore Swimburne University aims at improving the methods of extracting minerals without environmental interference (Mitchell 2012, p.57).
Through research, the university is trying to identify causes and possible solutions to dreadful land condition by using several disciplinary approaches to control land surfaces.
We will write a custom Report on Environmentally Sustainable Work Practices in Swimburne University specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The landscape in Australia is fragile, soil acidity is high, and nutrients levels are very low, an issue that continues to pose a great challenge for environment and agriculture.
Another priority was to improve water productivity and provide sustainable ways of consuming water in agricultural farms and the surrounding by providing means of increasing ground water and rivers protection and the recycling of industrial and urban waste waters.
This is because Australia is among the driest continents in the world and depends upon freshwater supply for social and economic development (Zhang, Shen, Tam
The GDP of Japan – emerging economy Report best essay help
Introduction Gross Domestic Product, commonly abbreviated as GDP, is used as the measure of economic growth and development for national economies. It is also called the Gross National Income (GNI). The GDP measures the national income of a given country.
In essence, Japan is a manufacturing economy and is considered as one of the most competitive economies in the world today. Japan competes with the United States economy and other developed economies in Europe such as the United Kingdom1.
Japan is one of the largest economies in the world in terms of production of goods. It comes third after the United States and China respectively. However, for the purpose of this report, Japan will be considered as an emerging economy because of the recent flops in its economy.
It is not considered as an economy that is coming from scratch, but rather, from an economic downturn. This view is taken from the assessment of the Japanese economy in the year 2011 by the Bank of Japan.
According to the World Bank Group, the economy of Japan has been showing positive economic outlook and coming out of the economic witnessed two years earlier.
This view is based on a number of economic indicators that were noted in the year 2011 by the Bank of Japan. These indicators include the recorded rise in the overall production, as well as increased exports. These two indicators are the major signs of a performing economy2.
With an increase in production and exports, the country is often on the positive side of balance of trade and balance of payments. Prior to the recent positive developments in the Japanese economy, the economy suffered due to a strong currency – the yen. The strong yen has been causing a shrink in exports by Japan.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Though slightly recovered, the economy of Japan is still being affected by deflationary forces. However, strong monetary policies are aiding in cushioning the economy thereby putting it back on track3.
Gross Domestic Product of Japan in 2011 The GDP is calculated through the addition of the total sum of consumption expenditure, added to the total investment expenditure, plus the government expenditure, minus the net exports. This can be represented as [GDP = C I G (X-M)].
The net export is the difference between exports and imports and is a very important segment of the GDP formula. It determines the real worth of the economy relative to the international economy. The GDP is calculated on an annual basis.
This is done after a cycle of 365 days, and it marks that total expenditures for both the final products and services produced and consumed by the country.
The GDP of Japan in 2011 In the year 2011, the Gross Domestic Product of Japan totaled to 5867.2 billion United States Dollars. This is according to the figures availed by the World Bank.
The GDP of the country was at 8.87 % of the GDP of the entire world economy. This according to the World Bank group 2012 denotes one of the highest preforming economies in the world.
Private consumption expenditure
The private consumption expenditure of Japan stood at 282.7263 trillion Japanese yens. This was boosted by the growth in the income of households due to a strong economy and positive prospects of growth4.
We will write a custom Report on The GDP of Japan – emerging economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Investment expenditure
The total public investment expenditure of Japan stood at 0.2 trillion Japanese yens5. The government of Japan leads in the investment initiative within the country. The government spends a lot while investing in research and development within the country.
Government expenditure 2011
The total government expenditure in Japan in 2011 was 96.7 trillion Japanese yens. The expenditure of the government is high because the government focuses on two major dimensions of investment.
These include investment in research and development, as well as real projects6.
Total exports for Japan in 2011 were 800.8 billion US dollars. There was a growth in from the previous year due to increased trade relations between Japan and major trading giants in the world like China.
The total imports into by Japan in 2011 were 794.7 billion US dollars. A high percentage of its imports came from China, which is one of its biggest trading partners.
Graph of GDP of Japan in a decade The figure below is a graph of the GDP of Japan from the year 2000 to 2012. From the Graph, it is notable that the economy of Japan has been experiencing an increasing trend in economic growth.
This is denoted by the increase in GDP each year from the year 2009 to the year 2012.
Source: The World Bank, 2012.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The GDP of Japan – emerging economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Business cycle and economic development of Japan in 200s The characteristics of an emerging economy are usually denoted in the measures of GDP within that economy. These include the investment expenditure, consumption expenditure, government expenditure, and the net exports of that country. Increase in the production and exports are major milestones in economic development.
As for Japan, there has been a notable increase in production as the economy picks up from the stagnated growth experienced due to economic shocks.
Also, the country has worked on maintaining and even increasing the export of its manufactured goods mostly electronics and automobiles. This has helped to maintain a strong balance in the balance of trade records of Japan.
Trade is the main basis on which economic development is always pegged. Therefore, a country that shows prospects of having a strong economy must be very active in international trade.
Japan is indeed an icon not only in manufacturing, but also in the real global trade. Japan has been keeping a strong presence in the international market. Japan has maintained the production of standard goods that meet the demands of the market.
This helps in sustaining and maintaining the country within the competitive markets. Japan has managed to penetrate the world’s strongest markets like the United States, Europeans Union and the ASEAN market.
Japan is also penetrating the new and promising regional markets of developing economies like Africa, South America and Asia. As of today, Japan has established strong and sustainable trade relations with many countries in the entire continents of the world.
With more prospects of raising its production potential, Japan will undoubtedly become of the strongest economies in the world in respect to GDP.
Japan can fall in the top group of countries in the word that are heavily investing in technological development. The high investment in technology is the reason why the company is innovative enough to produce varied and high quality products.
Technology has sustained the manufacturing sector of the Japanese economy helping it match with such sectors belonging to the most economically competitive countries.
Trends in Japanese government expenditure in the recent years The public expenditure is a very important aspect in economic development of a state. The public spending is dictated by various factors including the economic targets and challenges facing the country. In general, Japan has been witnessing a high rate of government expenditure in the economy.
This is in order to keep the economy at par with the other developed economies. The expenditure by the Japanese has accelerated from the year 2008. This is partly because of several economic situations and conditions that have been hounding the nation.
The first reason for the increased expenditure by the Japanese government in the recent times is the worldwide economic recession. The government had to cushion itself for the shocks of the recession.
One way of doing that was to make the economy considerably proactive. This would enable it to develop strengths to mitigate the economic shocks arising from the international financial market.
The other factor, which has led to the rise in government expenditure, is the natural disaster that rocked the country in early 2011.
The government had to release a lot of money in the economy to help in mitigating the effects of the disaster to the economy of Japan7.
Conclusion Japan has one of the emerging strong economies in the world despite the numerous challenges to the economy. The GDP of Japan is projected to attain more growth in the coming years basing on the trends that have been witnessed over the past five years.
Bibliography BBC News, Japan’s economy emerging from lull, says Bank of Japan, 2011, retrieved
Mourdoukoutas, P, The new emerging Japanese economy: Opportunities and strategies for world business, Thomson/South-Western, Mason, Ohio, 2005.
Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (a), Government Final Consumption Expenditure in Japan (JPNGFCEADSMEI): Main Economic Indicators, 2012, retrieved
Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (b), Private Final Consumption Expenditure in Japan (JPNPFCEQDSNAQ): Main Economic Indicators, 2012, retrieved
Sexton, RL, Exploring Macroeconomics, Cengage learning, Mason, Ohio, 2012.
Footnotes 1 P, Mourdoukoutas, The new emerging Japanese economy: Opportunities and strategies for world business, Thomson/South-Western, Mason, Ohio, 2005, p 25
2 P Mourdoukoutas, The new emerging Japanese economy: Opportunities and strategies for world business, Thomson/South-Western, Mason, Ohio, 2005, p 28
3 BBC News, Japan’s economy emerging from lull, says Bank of Japan, 2011.
4 Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (a), Private Final Consumption Expenditure in Japan (JPNPFCEQDSNAQ): Main Economic Indicators, 2012.
5 Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (b), Government Final Consumption Expenditure in Japan (JPNGFCEADSMEI): Main Economic Indicators, 2012.
7 RL Sexton, Exploring Macroeconomics, Cengage learning, Mason, Ohio, 2012, p 34
Hologram’s Definition and Characteristics Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
How to make a hologram
Uses of holograms
Disadvantages of holograms
Introduction A hologram can simply be defined as a 3D (three-dimensional) image. It is usually produced in a 2D (two-dimensional) surface but it gives a 3D image of a certain real object. Therefore, users of the hologram do not need to have special equipment in order to view the image in 3D.
Most of the holograms produce very precise images that look exactly as the real object because the image is in 3D just like the object is. To expound on this, if one views a hologram from different angles, the image will appear differently, unlike a 2D image.
The hologram therefore tends to behave like a real image because a real object viewed from different angles will appear different to the viewer at each of the angles. Some even appear to be in motion as the viewer changes the viewing angle or walks past them.
Some of the holograms give views of different objects if the viewer changes the viewing angle. They may even change their color as the viewer changes the viewing angle (Wilson 1).
Holograms have other traits that may be quite interesting. If one cuts the hologram into a half. Each of the two halves has the entire image that was initially in the whole hologram.
The same will also be the case if the hologram is split into four pieces; even a very small piece of the hologram will have the image of the original hologram. This, together with the fact that a hologram can contain various different images on the same surface has puzzled many people who do not know how holograms work.
In addition to the aforementioned surprising characteristics of holograms, a holographic image of a magnifying glass will be able to act as a magnifier itself, just like the real object (Wilson 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Given the details that a hologram carries, it is obviously much harder to make one than it is to produce a 2D image. However, despite this difficulty in making holograms, they are almost everywhere; in some credit cards, identity cards, and even in some driver’s licenses (ACEPTGroup 1).
The main reason why holograms are popular is because it is very difficult to copy a hologram and thus they are used to secure cards, documents and other products. Thus if a credit card has a hologram on it, it is difficult for it to be forged.
How to make a hologram To make a hologram the following items are required:
A laser – this is used to magnify the light that is used to produce the image. Depending on the laser that one chooses to use, he/she may need to have a shutter for controlling the exposure of the object to the laser light.
Lenses – these are used to spread light in order to shed it on the whole image while regulating its intensity.
Mirrors – these are used for directing light to the right locations on the object.
Holographic film – this is used to record the light. Its use is mainly based on the fact that it has a very high resolution that helps in creating high-quality holographic images (Wilson 2).
There are a number of ways in which one can arrange the above listed items to make a hologram. The following is the set-up for the basic hologram.
The laser is directed to the beam splitter that separates the light into two beams.
Mirrors are used to direct the beams from the beam splitter to their intended targets.
One beam is reflected from the object to the holographic film
The other beam is directed to the holographic film after reflecting off the mirror only (ACEPTGroup 1).
While the image is being produced, it is advisable to have the set up in a poorly lit room because the image will be of higher quality in a dark room than a lighted one. The surface of the set-up is supposed to be level enough to keep the equipment still.
This is because any vibrations due to passing vehicles or even the movements of the person making the hologram may affect the quality of the image (Wilson 3).
Uses of holograms Holographic images and products have been widely used in the commercial world to give products authenticity and make them acceptable to customers. Due to the fact that it is almost impossible to produce a counterfeit of a product that carries a holographic product, holograms have been used widely in applications for security (ACEPTGroup 1).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Hologram’s Definition and Characteristics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition to these, holograms provide a means of attractive packaging of products, and thus they can be used in when one needs to give fancy gifts. They have also been applied in art by helping artists to produce 3D pieces of art.
Another area where holography has been applied is in quality control as well as component testing in industries. This is due to the fact that it is possible to make holographic images of an object on the same surface before and after subjection to stress. Thus the quality of the change in the object due to the stress can be easily observed.
They can also be used to display valuable artifacts. In this, an image of the artifact is made and displayed instead of the actual object due to security reasons. This is especially necessary if the people viewing the artifacts cannot be trusted.
E.g. when a certain artifact is moved from the museum to various destinations to be viewed, it may be necessary to make a hologram of the artifact instead of using the artifact itself (Wilson).
Some of the most remarkable areas where holograms have been applied include credit cards (ACEPTGroup 1), ID badges, currencies, passports, registration of automobiles, driver’s license, stock certificate, government documents, branded products, liquor etc. In these products, holograms give the customer the assurance of authenticity and/or security.
Disadvantages of holograms Although the use of holograms for commercial purposes is certainly a good idea, the use of holograms has several disadvantages. First of all, players in the field of holography are very few. This means that the people who use holographic images are few, and similarly, companies specializing in holography are also few.
This is the case due to the high cost that is involved in the production and use of holographic images. The high cost is also a disadvantage on its own.
Holography is however expected to gain popularity with time as people increasingly need to secure their products and as better technology brings the cost of producing holograms down.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Hologram’s Definition and Characteristics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another disadvantage is that holograms that are meant to prevent documents and products from being forged are normally unimpressive. They change their shapes and colors as the viewer moves back and forth. To the viewer, they appear as smears of color or sparkly pictures (Wilson 1).
Conclusion From the discussion above, it is clear that holograms are relatively common. This is because virtually every adult has a product carrying a hologram in his wallet or her purse. Holograms have particularly been useful to players in the financial sector due to their ability to secure credit cards.
This is because financial products and transactions need to be as secure as possible. They have also been useful in other areas that require tamper-proof documents like the ID cards, driver’s license and government documents.
This is due to their effectiveness in securing documents which can be explained by the fact that it is difficult to forge a holographic image.
The process of making a hologram depends on the quality of the holographic image required.
If an image of great quality is required, the equipment for making the hologram must be carefully set up in a stable surface, and in a room whose air has been closely monitored in order to ensure that there will be minimal vibration as the production of the hologram goes on.
Holography specialists may even choose to use more sophisticated equipment or use basic equipments of high quality in order to achieve better results.
Holography has some shortcomings that stem out of the fact that it is expensive, time consuming, and it is not very popular. Holographic images produced for the purpose of security may not be very appealing to their viewer or user.
Despite these disadvantages, holograms have been useful in a number of ways, which have been listed in the discussion above.
Works Cited ACEPT Group. Holograms. 2000. Web.
Wilson, Tracy. How Holograms Work. 2007. Web.
Academic Analysis and Comparison of Films “The Story of Qiu Ju” and “Ermo” Essay (Movie Review) cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Social life in each country is considered to be one of the most rapidly changing aspects in environment. Living in the world where globalization has occupied all the spheres of countries’ life, society has to subject to the changes which occur.
Western world is more open for changes. Rapid economical growth and political stability have created supportive conditions for democratization of the society.
Eastern countries due to low development and other specific problems in economical and political life failed to create supportive environment, therefore, the social development in these countries seem to be slower.
China was a developing country in 90s with low social and economical development. People in villages were too poor and did not have many rights. Men ruled and women had to subject. However, remembering the history and the political events which occurred in 90’s in China, it is possible to point at the changes in the political situation.
The time Mao was over and China appeared in the period of changes, social, political and economical. The Story of Qiu Ju (1992) and Ermo (1994) are two Chinese movies which present these changes.
The focus of the movies may be covered by the following themes, the life in a village, complicated situation women are put into and the changes which created opportunities for females to come of the shade of men, the place of poor people and modernization of life in the post Mao period.
The influence of the Western tendencies on the Chinese culture is also presented as one of the themes of the movie.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Having chosen The Story of Qiu Ju (1992) and Ermo (1994) as two movies which are going to be criticized, it is important to mention that the themes in the movies have slight differences, however, the focus on the changed s which occurred in the Chinese society in 90’s in perfectly followed.
Comparing the spry-lines, it is possible to follow the change of the female characters from the beginning of the film up to the end. The changes in the characters occurred slightly, like the changes in the Chinese society. Moreover, there were many complications and barriers on the way to changes which were successfully overcome.
The significant role of the movies under consideration is in direct and fair presentation of the situation which was in the society, the changing conditions and other barriers which were created, such as failure to understand that the changes are possible, refusal of relatives to understand those who have decided to change and the social inequality which created many problems on the way for gaining just.
The plot of each movie is rather primitive, but the meaning of the movies and their role in the social life of China is great. The Story of Qiu Ju (1992) dwells upon Qiu Ju and her husband Qinglai, peasants who live in a small village.
Qiu Ju is at her third trimester of pregnancy. Her husband Qinglai is severely beaten by the head of the village and Qinglai cannot work. Qiu Ju dgoes to the head of the village and demands him to pay, but he refuses. Searching for just, Qiu Ju goes to the court.
Court’s decision is to pay the family 200 yuan. The headman refuses and Qiu Ju goes to the big city to suit there. The city’s verdict is almost the same, but a headman has to pay 250 yuan. Qiu Ju is dissatisfied with the verdict believing that her husband who is unable to work deserves more.
Suiting for the higher police investigation and her husband is X-rayed in the city hospital. The whole procedure takes much time and one winter night Qiu Ju feels complications and seem to give birth, The headman is waken up at night. He takes several men and they carry Qiu Ju to the hospital where she gives birth for a boy.
We will write a custom Essay on Academic Analysis and Comparison of Films “The Story of Qiu Ju” and “Ermo” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the X-ray showed that Qiu Ju’s husband had a broken rib and the headmaster is jailed for fifteen days. Qiu Ju does not have an opportunity to stop the police (Zhang, 1992).
Ermo (1994) is a movie about a village women who is not really popular in her place. People make jokes of her, and when she sees that her neighbors have bough a TV set, she tries to make all possible to buy it as well.
However, her desire to become popular and respected in the village makes her obsessive with the purchase of the largest screen to make all people envy her. Contradicting the will of her husband, who remains in the village, Ermo goes to the city to work there and earn money for a new TV.
Being obsessed with this idea, she eventually earns enough money and returns to the village. People are impressed as they have never seen a TV with such big screen. The whole village comes to Ermo to watch TV (Kunming, Tan,
Sustainable Development of Toronto Essay a level english language essay help
The rate of resource depletion and pollution of the environment in many countries in the world is alarming. This deterioration of the natural resource’s base is a threat to the existence of people on the Earth. Many cities are, therefore, looking for solutions to these problems.
Sustainable development is meant to solve these and many other issues. The U.N conference of 1987 on Sustainable Development defined sustainability as involving developments that meet the needs of the present time but do not hinder future generations from being able to meet their needs (Davison, 2001).
Sustainability has so many benefits to any city that embraces it. This essay examines the meaning of sustainability and its benefits for Oslo City in Norway as well as its possible advantages if it were adopted in the city of Toronto. Sustainability has many benefits and should, therefore, be adopted in Toronto.
Benefits of sustainability in Oslo, Norway Sustainable development is the way to go if the problems facing Toronto at the moment are to be solved. Sustainable development helps to avoid and deal with the problems facing cities in the present times (Strange
Learning and development HR Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
There are various training methods used in training the members of staff in the training department. One of the training methods is the use of lectures which is commonly used when the number of trainees or participants is within the range of 30 to 40 or more.
It is used when the knowledge of the trainee is to be passed to the trainee by an expert hence cannot be used by inexperienced trainers. It can only be done by senior trainers.
Again, it is a training method that is required when training short courses are being trained, and that information to be given on a certain course is only available with the trainers. For the trainer to be able to give the right information, the language used should be very clear.
The information should also be delivered to ensure that the trainees get everything that is involved in the training. The clarity and effectiveness of the information delivered given depends on whether the trainer pauses when required.
It is also determined by whether the training emphasizes on important points as well as use of illustrations where necessary (Beardwell
Human Response to Physical Structures Essay scholarship essay help
Human beings are known to react differently to the existing conditions in their lives. These reactions are put together to make up human behavior. Environmental psychology deals primarily with how human beings behave in response to the environment surrounding them.
In our everyday life, physical structures are inevitable; they include both residential and commercial buildings. Every organization requires physical structures in the form of offices as a key resource.
In fact, according to Bottom, McGreal,
Social Stratification Essay essay help site:edu
In the case of the United States, economic, gender and social stratification has changed over the centuries (Tischler, 2010). The significant changes in economic, gender and social stratification are brought about by changes in the political, economic, and social landscape of this nation. There is one major transition point that played a critical roles in the said transformation.
This is the transitions from an economy dependent on manual labor to an economy based on mechanization and other forms of technology that resulted in the industrialization of the nation. These transitions on the other hand were aided by the effective expansion and development of the education system in this country.
Before the United States became a geopolitical nation, it was a colony controlled by the British Empire. In that period of time before America was a sovereign state, the British introduced slave labor. Therefore, the social stratification during this period was simplified into farmers, plantation owners and slaves.
The farmers will be considered poor by today’s standards but they are better off if compared to the Negro slaves. The economy was based on agriculture. It was also a male dominated society. Women played minor roles in nation building and focused on domestic work.
The industrialization of the United States coincided with the emancipation of the Negro slaves. Beginning in the latter part of the 19th century the issue of race became a major bone of contention in different social spheres. Former Negro slaves were no longer forced to work under a slave master or a plantation owner. However, they were treated second-class citizens.
More importantly the former slaves did not own any property; have very little money; and mostly illiterate. The Southern states can be characterized by extreme poverty especially if one considers the plight of the former slaves. In the Northern states, the social, gender and economic stratification was affected by industrialization.
Farmers who used to work in the farms migrated to the cities. Industrialization created new social classes because the workers are paid on an hourly basis. They have no share of the profits and those who had the capital to establish factories raked in the majority of the income of the said enterprise.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Industrialization was not only limited to the Northern states, factories began to sprout all over America. Industrialization proved to be an efficient way to harness resources and it did not take long before the economic benefits trickled down to the masses. A new social class was created in the 20th century and these are:
Middle and working class;
Those who are poor (Andersen
Architectural Forms based on the Arch Expository Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Roman
Roman The most remarkable achievement of Roman architecture depends on the development of three architectural forms; the Arch, the vault and the dome. Even though, nothing of outstanding architectural traditions made in the dome, it remains a familiar concept to the current architectural world. Compared to lintel the arch has unique features; simply because it is able to unite many tiny units of bricks. A Roman brick arch can measure up to 50 yards.
The vault is only an outstanding deep arch where several numbers of arches make a dome, with all sharing the same center. The arches are held together by gravity if there is an outward thrust. An example of the arch in Roman includes the Arch of Constantine:
The Senate in honor of the Emperor Constantine constructed the arch, a liberator and who brought peace across the city. He won over Maxentius in A.D. 312 at the battle of the Milvian Bridge. The arch is the largest measuring 21m high, 25.7m wide, 7.4m deep, and is the best maintained triumphal arch among of Roman triumphal arches, the Arch of Constantine represent the best-known example of ancient Roman architecture and art.
The function of the arch was to serve as public propaganda to communicate information about military victories (Bunson 194-205). An example of the vault in Roman includes Baths of Caracalla
Made up of the red brick ruins the Baths of Caracalla are located southeast of ancient Rome’s center. The baths buildings and rooms were large, with painted vaults enclosing the rooms. Until the 6th century, the baths were still in use, Ostrogoths took them during the Goliath war. Various countries use the design of the baths as inspiration for a number of modern structures such as St Georges Hall in Liverpool. An example of the dome in Roman includes Roman Pantheon:
The Pantheon at first was built as a temple for seven gods who represented the seven planets in the Roman religion of all Roman buildings it is the best-preserved building in the world having its original roof still undamaged, built in 27-25 BC. The Pantheon has stood for centuries despite the since concrete has extremely low tensile strength, but it has remained strong.
Byzantine Massive domes with square bases and rounded arches and spires and much use of glass mosaics characterized architecture developed in the Byzantine Empire. From the fifth century, Roman Empire domes were built, without using temporary support such as using giant flat bricks which were readily available at that time and served the desired purpose (Dietsch 123-156).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More An example of the Arch in Byzantine architecture includes Hagia Sophia
Historical sources indicate that the Emperor Constantius built Hagia Sophia, and opened for services in 360 AD. Built in a basilica-type structure with a floor plan of a rectangular shape, circular apse and a roof made up, of timberHagia Sophia is a magnificent Byzantine architectural beauty a historical monument both to the Byzantine and for Ottoman Empires.
Currently it is a museum in Turkey and over the years it has served as a mosque and a church thus it is highly valued. Hagia Sophia is a perfect combining element enabling people to perceive both Ottoman and Byzantium outcomes under one notable dome. An example of the Vault in Byzantine architecture includes the rooftop of Basilique du Sacre Coeur.
An architect called Abadie submitted the church design. Abadie a veteran architect was well known for his model of the, St. Front Cathedral, in Perigueux. The Basilique du Sacre Coeur new basilica applied the Roman-Byzantine style; the first stone for the construction was laid in1875, in 1884 Abadie died in the church still at the foundation. The Basilique du Sacre Coeur construction was completed in 1914, it was declared sacred after the end of World War I.
The interior contains one of the world’s biggest patterns, which portrays Jesus Christ with stretched out arms. Sacre Coeur is one of the best places in France. Apart from being built to honor those who perished during the Persian war and the French revolution. It was also, constructed to inspire faith in the people of France (Bunson 186-201). An example of the domes in Byzantine includes Cathedral of the Annunciation:
Cathedral of the Annunciation built in 1158 – 1479; it combined Russian, traditional Orthodox, building techniques with ideas from the Roman-Byzantine. According to tradition, it was built by, Andrey Alexandrovich the Prince of Vladimir, in the village of Kutchkovo, which is the current Moscow.
Islamic Secular and religious styles are synonymous with the ancient Islamic architecture borrowed from the Islam foundation. The ancient style, design and construction of buildings and structures still, practiced in the current world. An example of the Arch in Islamic architecture includes the Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque in Muscat:
We will write a custom Essay on Architectural Forms based on the Arch specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Charminar was a large arch built by Mohammed Quli Qutab Shah, in 1591 to remember the end of the plague in the city. The arch is enlighten spiritual in the evening every day. The monument is a splendid square building of granite, built upon four key arches in the direction of North, South, East and West.
These arches support a number of archways and two floors of rooms. The Charminar is the most famous conspicuous building of the city. An example of the Vault in Islamic architecture includes the Family vault in the east verandah of Islam Khan’s Tom.
The Mughal Emperor Akbar (r.1556-1605) built the palace-city complex at Fate hpur Sikri; the Jami Masjid completed in 1572. The City was built near Saint Sheikh Salim Christi’s refuge, after the successful prediction of the birth of the Emperor’s son who was to be his heir, Prince Salim.
The white marble tomb lies beside the Islam Khan’s tomb in the Jami Masjid. The tomb of Islam Khan is a red sandstone building containing thirty-six small domed kiosks on top. An example of the Vault in Islam architecture includes The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
The dome of the rock built on a sacred rock, which locals considered holy before Islam came into existence. The Hebrew descendants believed, and even now believe, that the rock is positioned in a same place where Abraham wanted to sacrifice his only son Isaac. It sits exactly in the same position where the Solomon and Herod’s place of worship were situated. In 688-691 Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik constructed ‘The dome of the Rock’
It was built to be a shrine for pilgrims and not a mosque and its main idea was to act as a permanent reminder of how Muhammad went to heaven after leaving Jerusalem. Richly decorated, with colored pieces of stones and glasses, during the Ottoman era, the outside decoration nearly was completely replaced by sumptuous Turkish tiles, however there are some remaining on the inner side. Marble covers the wall and the piers.
Gothic Gothic first came into existence in northern France around 1140. It developed during the erection of impressive churches in France and around Paris. As time progressed, this architecture became more popular and could be found in palaces, castles as well as city walls. Gothic main distinctive characteristics include the pointed arch, a projected support built at the walls, the curved vault and window decorative pattern. It developed into family styles of developing palaces (Stokstad 800).
An example of the Arch in Gothic architecture includes St. Stephen’s Cathedral:
Not sure if you can write a paper on Architectural Forms based on the Arch by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More St. Stephens Cathedral has the oldest remain of Romanesque parts. The Giant Gate and the Heathens towers, dating from the 13th century, it dates from the Gothic. Habsburg Duke Rudolph IV laid the cornerstone of the Gothic nave in 1359 with its two aisles. In 1433, The South Tower was completed. The construction of the Gothic came to an end in 1511and the unfinished North Tower had to be capped for some time. The cathedral was decorated in the 18th century, with Baroque altarpieces.
An example of the Vault in Gothic architecture includes Cathedral of Beauvais vault.
Construction of Cathedral of Beauvais began in 1225 under the supervision of Bishop Miles de Nanteuil. The choir completed in 1272. In the interior of the choir, there is a vault of about 48metres in height. The falling down of some vaulting of the lately finishedd choir disrupted the construction process in 1284.
Nevertheless, Gothic designs continued to take place, the choir reconstructed had the same measurement, though it had more pillars in the chevet. The transept built from 1500 to 1548. 153metres central fortress felled disrupting the construction process again.
This could have made the Cathedral of Beauvais the second tallest structure in the world those times. The collapse of the choir vault as well as the flying buttresses took place in 1284 and this served as a huge blow to the architects who had given it their all. Architects believed that echoing vibrations motivated by high winds could have led to the sudden collapse of the cathedral.
The, the inventive design, which was never constructed, is displayed in the plan for the floor construction.. Thus, lack of the conforming support of the central part of the church contributed to the structural weak point of the church.
San Marco The St. Paul’s Cathedral current position had five different churches on the site. The first church dedicated to the apostle Paul, back in 604 AD, King of Kent Ethelbert built on the edge of London’s hills a wooden church for Mellitus, who was the Bishop of the East Saxons. Erkenwald built the church; in stone, a London based bishop with a special interest in such structures.
The cathedral then became Europe’s largest cathedral after its reconstruction which was as a result of a fire that gutted it down in 962 and 1087. The cathedral further expanded through renovations. The dome is approximately 100 meters in height and over 65,000 tons in weight. Eight arches were built to support the dome to ensure its stability. It is the best site for tourist attraction in London for decades now (Stokstad 958-1028).
Works Cited Bunson, Matthew. Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire, New York: Infobase Publishing, 2002. Print.
Dietsch, Deborah K. Architecture For Dummies, Washington DC: John Wiley
SOSE/HPE Principle and Critical Review Essay a level english language essay help
Introduction Studies of Society and Environment (SOSE) can easily be understood from children learning behaviour and approach towards utilisation of available materials. In their early learning, children are normally influenced by their environment and the society surrounding them. At the same time, they tend to make good use of their learning experiences both for their own interest and the society at large.
Concerns over the environment and other factors affecting people in the society have been studied to be an in-built in many people. While children hardly understand their actions, they are being driven by what normally takes place in the society. This paper is a review of a journal based on development of technology based on children’s understanding.
The children were first taken on tricycles riding in rough environment full of obstacles in a rural community setting. After this, they were engaged in creation of a better technological application environment, which they chose to be a town setting.
During the town creation process, several SOSE elements were identified among the children in different phases (McKay, 2006). Most of these were as a result of their daily observation and influences from their society. The children generally showed a lot of interest in the project as well as sustainable creativity in their work (Sanders, 2002).
From their experience in tricycle riding, the children seemed to have known the best place for technological system to a town setting. When asked what they do with the boxes given, Hayden and Chloe simply answered: “We could make a town” (Queensland Studies Authority, 2006, p. 2). After the idea surfaced, the children were able to give more information involving social and geographical setting of the town.
They came up with structures like post office, town clock, bank, supermarket, restaurant and service station. Consequently, it should be noted that they did not merely mention these landmarks but added the importance of each in the town. Serayah was concerned with the safety and availability of money for their uses hence she suggested a bank. Nevertheless, this was an ideas of societal wellness based on security of property and people safety.
She added that a service station for petrol is essential for their rides in the town. Georgia was concerned with how they will acquire groceries and suggested building of a supermarket (Queensland Studies Authority, 2006). It was obvious that the children knew their environment and society enough. This made them able to come up with these necessary structures to facilitate their project (Zadja, 2000).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Steaven was creative enough to think of a town clock. His thoughts were based on the observation of his environment. He had even known that more information can be sought in advanced technological systems like the internet.
The child had the knowledge and meaning of numbers in the clock and he systematically arranged them to make the clock. On the other hand, they had the knowledge of such things as height in raising the clock. The clock building period was carried under communal commitment. They knew who could be more helpful for raising the clock based on the knowledge of different heights.
Children understand and analyse flow of activities in their environment, this can be seen when Samantha proposed for a post office through his past reflections. She gave out a clear design of the post office to ensure its maximum usefulness to their society. The children could easily relate their structure and develop a carriage limit to ensure efficiency in its functioning a well (Queensland Studies Authority, 2006).
On the third day, the children showed a lot of knowledge in technological advancement. They knew the importance of conservation over such resources as petrol. Through their storage, they could aid those who needed the resource and keep the rest. The ideas of scarcity in resources are also developed when the petrol runs low and they seek an alternative methods.
To make maximum use of their petrol, they came up with a hose for bowser to fill the vessels. Advanced in communication system is also seen when Steaven suggested a phone call to other petrol stations. At the same time, they showed amazing innovation when they develop air pressure for their rides (Queensland Studies Authority, 2006).
From their experience, the children showed a lot of understanding over housing. They knew that certain spacing was required, windows and door need to be installed and that each of the material they had could only fit perfectly to a given use without wastage (Tasker, 2004).
The children as well knew that the health of the community rely on security from law enforcers hence they opted for a police surveillance by David (Queensland Studies Authority, 2006). This was a clear show of different roles of people in the society.
We will write a custom Essay on SOSE/HPE Principle and Critical Review specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The children understood the meaning of safety while using their rides. Due to this, they came up with traffic system to ensure safety on their road. It is clear that the children understood the meaning of the colours and signs on their roads.
On their sixth day, the children showed their ability to corporate while carrying out researches on their transportation means. Application of different research strategies could be noted while they sought transport system that would serve different purpose. They could identify vehicles, aeroplanes and trains for their transportation (Queensland Studies Authority, 2006).
In the seventh day, the children showed application of legal system in management of traffic. They also developed creative measure to ensure that all the vehicles operated within the traffic rules (Queensland Studies Authority, 2006). Week seven work was based on increasing safety on the roads for all the road uses. The children seemed to have knowledge of road accidents to the society that they ensured that everything was under control (Tylee, 2011).
The children as well seemed to have known the importance of work maps. It was from the group of Samantha that they identified that several gaps were missing out of their project that could render their road usage ineffective (Queensland Studies Authority, 2006).
As a result, they added more signs and traffic measures to reduce cases of accident. They were familiar with town setting and came up with more housing system and lighting programs. Environmental pollution seemed to have struck their minds that they came up with bins to manage wastes in the town (Australian Lutheran World Services 2012).
Conclusion Week ten found the children engrossed in their own interest through the remains of their construction. They found themselves making tents and camping site. This was clear show that the children have developed interest based on their town construction.
This study shows how children have integrated SOSE in their technological learning. The end session reveals the children’s interest through their use of remnants in building tents. From the study, it can be seen that measures of environmental concerns and the general societal wellbeing have been given a lot of attention by the children.
References Australian Lutheran World Services. (2012). Lower Primary Teaching Ideas and Resources. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on SOSE/HPE Principle and Critical Review by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More McKay, P. (2006).Planning and teaching creatively within a required curriculum for school-age learners. University of Michigan: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL).
Sanders, S. 2002. Active for life: Developmental Appropriate Movement Programs for Young Children. NAEYC, Washington DC.
Tasker, S. (2004). World Explorers: Library Activity Pack Greenwood, WA: Ready-Ed Publications.
Tylee, J. (2011). What Should a Society and Environment Curriculum do? Web.
Queensland Studies Authority. (2006). Early Years Curriculum Materials. Developing Technology Understanding. Web.
Zadja, J. (2000). Society and the Environment: Teaching Sose. Melbourne. Australia: James Nicholas Publishers.
The Global Petrochemical Feedstock Developments: The Implications for GCC Players by Booz college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Shale Gas in North America
Conversion of coal to olefin in China
Gulf Cooperation Council SWOT Analysis
Introduction The petroleum industry is one of the most volatile industries in the world. It dictates other industries in economies around the world. As Rouhollah (56) noted, any little change in prices of oil in the world market will result in direct effect on other industries because they directly depend on the oil industry. As such, governments around the world have been very keen on energy sector.
The recent reduction of the amount of natural gas has had negative impact on various sectors of the economy in different countries. Natural gas is one of the most important products of petroleum gas. It is used in various industries as a direct source of energy, or converted to other useful products.
Gulf Cooperation Council brings together several countries which include Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman and Bahrain. Gulf Cooperation Council has been concerned of the increasing decline of the natural gas in the member countries. Middle East is known for large production of natural gas, among other petroleum products.
The Gulf Cooperation Council has been keen to ensure that they benefit maximally from these products and the current trend causes a lot of worries to the council because it would soon bring down its revenue if nothing is done to avert it. A report by Booz
“The King of Masks” by Wu Tianming Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction The King of Masks and its fundamentals
While discussing the major theme of a Chinese film The King of Masks directed by Wu Tianming, it is necessary to consider some basic issues concerning the plot of the production. First of all, it must be pointed out that The King of Masks can be regarded as a kind of mythic film, which highlights the subordinate position of women to men. However, the relationship between two genders seems to be the secondary theme Wu Tianming wanted his viewers to become familiar with.
The most important point, which cannot be neglected, is that the film gives viewers an opportunity to trace back some important aspects of China’s history. Thus, one is to keep in mind that the major themes the director wanted to depict in his production are considered to be the Confucian value of filiality and the underpopulation of women. As far as both issues are closely interdependent, there is a need to consider them in detail.
Body The importance of Confucianism
When speaking about Confucian values, one is to keep in mind that there are three essential elements, Confucian teaching is based in. These include filial piety, humaneness and ritual. Generally, it should be noted that Confucianism is mostly associated with an important system of ethics.
Taking into account the fact that Confucianism appeared in China, one can probably make a conclusion that the director of The King of Masks wanted to depict one of the most important aspect of one of the most Confucianized society in the world. In other words, it seems to be obvious that the film reflects important aspects of the history of China.
Too complicated relations between Wang and the girl show us that acting in a Confucian manner is extremely important in social interactions. It is evident that one of the main characters Wang deeply respects various traditions of his nation as well as ethical norms of Confucianism.
Of course, he does not want people accept him as uncivilized man without any principles and self-perfection. Kevin Dodd is of the opinion that “Confucianism has always had a strongly hierarchical vision of society, but it has protected this from authoritarian ossification by stressing, inter alia, reciprocity and self cultivation” (8-9).
For this reason, one can probably conclude that the film director highlights the internal conflict the main character experiences: on the one hand, Wang wants to observe the norms Confucianism states; on the other hand, there are many contradictions concerning Wang’s desire to be an obedient person and his desire to accept the girl and to give her an opportunity to study his art.
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Of course, one can probably state that the conflict between a person’s moral obligations in relation to society and his or her feelings cannot be regarded as a new theme; however, one is to keep in mind that Tianming’s depiction is based not on imaginary values, but ancient authentic ones. Moreover, nobody will deny the fact that Confucian morality is considered to be one of the most important aspects of philosophy.
As far as philosophical questions are difficult to disclose, one can suppose that the philosophical points of The King of Masks are difficult to analyze. Taking into consideration the fact that Tianming’s production combines history, a person’s moral obligations concerning society and personal attitudes, it becomes obvious that the film causes ambiguous viewpoints. To my mind, it is wrong to state that film is good or bad.
For instance, I still cannot understand whether I like the film or no. Thus, on the one hand, I cannot ignore the contributions of Confucianism in history development; on the other hand, some norms of Confucian teaching are too strict, especially while speaking about the role of genders.
The problem of gender inequality
I suppose that the problem of gender inequality is extremely important; moreover, when discussing Chinese attitude towards women, most of people who live in the modern world will be really shocked. Thus, “Chun-Fang Yu describes the condition of women in China in light of this story’s development as intrinsically linked through their bodies with the “uncleanness” and “pollution” of menstruation, sexual intercourse, childbirth, and death” (Dodd 3).
However, males have been always respected. I can probably make a conclusion that for some people who belong to Chinese society the attitude towards women can be regarded as a norm; however, I can also state that in China the problem of gender inequality exists, because film directors show us the complexity of some historical aspects through their productions, because people speak about the problem. On the other hand, the film can be also regarded as the so-called introductory course concerning China’s history, but I think that The King of Masks must be analyzed deeper.
A systematic ideology, which is related to the position of women, is recognized to be one of the key themes of the film. When analyzing the interdependence between Confucianism and gender roles, one can conclude that traditional Confucian values can be criticized.
In other words, Confucian values must be revalued. In my opinion, a modernized evaluation of traditional Confucian norms seems to be one of the most appropriate ways, which is to be used, in order to avoid a conflict between a person’s moral obligations and his or her internal feelings.
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Dodd states that “The screenwriter Wei Minglun and director Wu Tianming are resetting or contemporizing the Buddhist Miao-shan myth in order to highlight therein the Confucian value of filial piety, which is central to the original story anyway” (12). It is obvious that the director of the film wanted to draw viewers’ attention to some other Confucian values, but not those ones, which seem to form the structure of the kind of teaching.
As far as people are mostly familiar with the basic principles of Confucian teaching, Wu Tianming provided viewers with an opportunity to notice other values Confucianism includes. These involve sympathy and responsibility. While analyzing the conflict the main character experiences, one can notice that the basic principles of Confucianism are at variance with its secondary values. For this reason, traditional Confucianism cannot be regarded as an appropriate ethical and philosophical system. In other words, it should be modernized.
Conclusion A Chinese film The King of Masks directed by Wu Tianming reflects complex philosophical questions. Certain contradictions concerning Confucianism and its principles form the major theme of the film. Generally, it is necessary to point out that the director highlights the problem of gender inequality in the light of a well-known ethical-sociopolitical teaching.
The King of Masks gives viewers an opportunity not only to analyze pros and cons of Confucianism, but also to consider the aspects of the kind of teaching through a modernized system of values perception.
Works Cited Dodd, Kevin. King of Masks: The Myth of Miao-shan and the Empowerment of Women, 2012. Web.
Global Climate Change Expository Essay writing essay help
Introduction According to Burroughs (2), Climate change is defined the alteration of the weather patterns of a particular place over a long period of time. This alteration can be traced by measuring the weather phenomenon under parameters such as temperature, precipitation and wind patterns.
This climate change can only be proven by comparing the climatic conditions of a particular place in two or more different times. These changes are as a result of the changes in the factors which determine the amount of sunlight that gets to the earth surface. Additionally, they also result from changes in factors which determine the amount of sun energy which is given up by the earth surface.
Another aspect which is considered as climatic change is the wide variability in the weather conditions of a particular place, notwithstanding the fact that the average weather conditions remains constant. To qualify as an aspect of climatic change, the variations in weather condition must be studied over a period of time. This is because climatic change is understood as a pattern of weather change over a long period of time.
The main facts of how the climate is changing The climate change has been a continuous trend on earth for many years. According to Beniston (128), it has been documented that the global sea level has risen by about 170mm over a period of 100 years. It is estimated that this rate is likely to double with time if the current trend remains.
Additionally, the temperature on earth has risen in recent times by higher rates than was previously experienced. This increase has been witnessed since 1970s and this trend projected to continue for the next 20 years. Research has established that, the global temperature is expected to increase with time and this might have serious catastrophic effects.
In addition, this increase in temperature has been responsible for the warming of the oceans. It has been said that, the oceans have absorbed the sun energy causing an increase in temperature of the oceans waters for up to 700 meters. The sunrays, when they come across a surface, produce heat as they reflect back. This is why the sun is believed to heat the atmosphere from the ground. That is why the ocean water temperatures tend to raise when struck by sun energy.
Another evidence of climatic change is the decline in the mass of ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctic. Between 2002 and 2006, Greenland lost about 150 cubic kilometers of ice sheet every year. During the same period, Antarctic lost about the same amount of ice sheet. Research has also established that there has been a decline in the amount of sea ice in the arctic over time due to the increase in the temperature over the earth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The glaciers are also declining in such places as the Alps, the Himalayas, Rockies and Andes. Another compelling evidence of climatic change is the wide variation in temperature in the United States over the last few decades. This has been coupled with unexpected intensity in the amount of rainfall over the same period. It has been documented that, the carbon dioxide which is emitted in the atmosphere ends up contaminating the oceans since it cause an increase in the acidity of the ocean waters.
The history of climate changes over various timescales It is estimated that, 4 billion years ago, the sun emitted less amount of sun energy implying that the earth’s temperature at that time was very low. The implication for this is that water could not have existed in the liquid state in most parts of the world as it is today.
However, water existed in liquid state partly due to the presence of green house gases which could have increased the temperatures of the earth to level similar to what we have today. Another possible contributor of the high temperatures is the lower reflectivity of the earth due to smaller continents which existed at that time.
About 3 to 5 million years ago, during the Pliocene age, the temperature of the world was as warm as it is now. The concentration of carbon dioxide as at that time was about 30% higher compared to today’s level. It is also estimated that the sea levels were about 15 meters higher than today’s level and the temperatures were way hotter than they are today.
It is believed that during this age, the earth must have been a perpetual state of El Niño. This El Niño state, usually result to very high temperatures or very high precipitation levels across the surface of the earth. In this permanent El Nino state, the temperature across the pacific remained constant.
However, a subject that generates a lot of speculation is the emergence of glaciations during the end of the Pliocene age. This phenomenon is attributable to the reduction in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which lowered the temperature on the earth’s surface. Additionally, glaciations are attributed to the closing of the Panama Isthmus, which caused a much freer circulation of ocean waters. This circulation is believed to have led to the formation of ice sheet.
Causes of climate change Natural causes
According to Ahrens (388), some of the natural causes of climatic changes include ocean currents, volcanic eruptions, earth orbital changes and solar variations. Volcanic eruptions are believed to release gases such as sulphur dioxide, ash, dust and water vapor. These emissions have the potential to cause alteration in climatic conditions of the earth by increasing the reflectivity of the sun energy in the atmosphere. This causes the cooling of the earth’s surface due to the reflected sun energy.
We will write a custom Essay on Global Climate Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, the ocean currents contribute to climatic change by transferring a large amount of sun energy over long distances. The winds contribute to this transfer of energy by blowing across ocean currents and thereby causing variation in the climatic conditions in a place. The ocean current also determines the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
It is also known that the earth is tilted at an angle of 23.5o to the perpendicular plane of its orbit. This movement has the effect of accentuating the tilt or even of reducing it considerably. A more pronounced tilt is responsible for warmer summers and colder winters. In contrast, less tilting is responsible for cooler summers and warmer winters.
In as much as the sun is perceived to give out a constant amount of sun energy, the amount of sun energy output increases over time though gradually. These changes in the output of sun energy may cause climatic changes on the earth. It worth noting that, the reason why the temperatures across the surface of the earth has been rising is due to these changes in the output of the sun energy.
However, it cannot be concluded that the variation in sun energy has played a major role in the global climatic changes. Mostly, these climatic changes have been caused, to a great extent, by the global warming.
During the industrial revolution, most industries resorted to using fossils fuels for their energy requirements. These fossil fuels release carbon dioxide during combustion which is one of the green house gases. Those industries are also major contributors of methane and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere.
Other activities which have contributed to the increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere include deforestation, clearing of land and agriculture due to the usage of machines which consume fossil fuels.
The rearing of animals is a major contributor of methane gas in the atmosphere. Methane is also released during the process of coal mining, leakages of gas pipes and the process of landfills.
Green house effects
The emission of green house gases, mainly due to human activities, destroys the ozone layer which acts as a shield against the harmful rays of the sun. This ozone layer regulates the amount of sun energy which gets to the surface of the earth. This unregulated sun energy increases the general temperature of the earth thus causing climatic changes.
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The trend of change in the global climate has been observed as a continuous process. The global climate change, especially with the current human activities, is expected to change to worse if the current trend goes uninterrupted. There has been increased emission of harmful gases into the atmosphere from the human activities. The amount of green house gases is projected to increase in future due to the increase in industries as well as vehicles which consumes fossil fuels.
This increase might have adverse effects in the atmosphere. For instance, it might lead to increase in the temperature of the earth in the long run. The other possible effect is the variation in the amount and patterns of precipitation which is experienced on earth.
Additionally, there will be a reduction in the amount of ice and snow cover, as well as a reduction in the amount of permafrost. Another possibility of global warming will be the rise in the sea levels with time. The green house gases are likely to increase the acidity of ocean water that affecting the life of organisms living in the oceans.
However, the changes in climatic conditions will depend on a number of factors like, the rate at which the green house gases will continue to be emitted, the magnitude of the natural causes which are likely to have a profound effect on the climatic conditions and the responsiveness of weather patterns to the effects of the green house gases (Eileen Claussen, Vicki Cochran,Debra Davis 1).
The implication of the preceding arguments is that, there is need to look into those activities which emit green house gases with a view of curbing them. This is informed by the fact that the contribution of the human activities in causing climatic changes is higher than the contribution of the natural causes.
Works Cited Ahrens, Donald. Essentials of Meteorology: An Invitation to the Atmosphere. Belmont: Cengage Learning , 2012. Print.
Beniston, Martin. Climatic Change and Its Impacts: An Overview Focusing on Switzerland. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. Print.
Burroughs, William. Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Print.
Eileen Claussen, Vicki Cochran,Debra Davis. Climate change: science, strategies,
Groupthink and Foreign Policy Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free
Such a phenomenon as groupthink occurs in organizations because people are unwilling to express the opinions that may contradict the views held by leaders or the majority. One can mitigate its effects only by creating an environment in which individuals are not restricted by the fear of disapproval or punishment from those officials who occupy higher positions in the hierarchy of an organization. It is particularly important for people who develop foreign policies of the state.
Many scholars and researchers believe that to a great extent groupthink originates from peer pressure and people’s willingness to conform and avoid conflict (Sims 651; Hook 411). This is why leaders should remember that disagreement does not necessarily lead to poor results. In fact, very often it helps people find the most optimal solution. One of the solutions is to introduce a position which is often called the devil’s advocate (Sims 658).
This person will have to question the decisions taken the majority and find possible flaws in the plans and decisions. This role should be played by someone who is respected by group members and who is not afraid of criticizing leaders when they act in a biased way (Kassing 190). This requirement is very important because very often many people only pretend to dissent, but they give no real critique of group decisions.
By adopting this strategy, groups can minimize the risk of overconfidence. Certainly, this solution has a limitation; the thing is that decision-making process may take much longer. Moreover, foreign policy planners often have to act under time pressure and there may be no time for long debates. However, this limitation can be accepted given the dangers of groupthink, especially the belief that a leader is always right and that his or her decisions should not be criticized by the subordinates.
For instance, one can mention that in 1938 the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Neville Chamberlain tried to appease Hitler by yielding to his demands; at that time, many people criticized this policy, but no member in Chamberlain’s cabinet openly questioned his decisions (Sims 652).This is why a devil’s advocate is necessary in the organizations where decisions regarding foreign policy are made. Such a person will help decision-takers be more aware of their limitations and biases.
Secondly, scholars suggest that leaders can divide the group into several small subgroups (Whyman, Wynne, and Ginnett 14). The thing is that people tend to be more outspoken when they are working in smaller groups in which the majority opinion does not play a dominant role. In this setting they can put forward original ideas. This strategy will enable leaders to see dissenting opinions and evaluate the options that are available to them. Certainly, there are potential disadvantages.
The problem is that group members may become too competitive, suspicious, or even hostile to one another. This is why group leaders should explain why people have to work in different teams. For instance, a leader may ask one team to provide evidence in support of a policy, while others will need to focus on its drawbacks. Additionally, a leader may ask subgroups to evaluate both advantages and disadvantages of plans and decisions. This approach will bring greater diversity into discussion.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Certainly, group brainstorming is an important part of decision-making; however, it can be fully effective only if some precautions are taken. For example, the leader may ask each member of the group to assess the advantages and disadvantages of specific plan, decision, and policy. Such evaluations should be made individually and submitted to the leader.
When a person is not influenced by peer pressure, he or she is more likely to be objective and unbiased. Later, it will be easier for the group to discuss a certain issue or problem. Main decision-takers will be able to attract the attention of the group to various aspects of foreign policies. This is the main benefit of this approach.
There is another issue that should not be overlooked. People, who work on the development of foreign policies, think that they will be blamed for their suggestions and recommendations. Therefore, they tend to favor the views of the majority. A leader should assure that people they will not be accused if a specific policy or plan does not succeed (Renshon and Renshon 521). In fact, such an approached was taken by George Bush when he and his cabinet discussed the foreign policies of the United States after 9/11 attacks (Renshon and Renshon 521).
Thus, the main decision-takers should ensure that their advisors are confident enough to express their opinions. Thus, it is important that foreign policy planners are not driven by fear since it hinders every form of debate or discussion. Leaders should encourage their subordinates to be open and objective. Unfortunately, it is possible only a person has already showed that he/she can take responsibility for the decisions of the group.
The solutions that have been described reduced the risk of conformity, self-censorship, and fear in the groups. They will make decision-making more open and diverse. It should be taken in account that many leaders are not accustomed to dissent and conflicting opinions. They feel more comfortable when the group members are unanimous in their views.
These people should remember that in any case they will bear the burden of responsibility for the foreign polices of the country. However, without groupthink they will better evaluate different alternatives. In other words, they will make fully informed decisions that are based on objective assessment of the situation.
Moreover, many of decision-makers are very authoritarian and reluctant to accept criticism in any form. However, they people have to understand that the so-called unanimity can be explained by fear of sharp criticism, rather than respect for their authority and competence. Autocratic leadership contradicts the very purpose of group work and people, who are in power, should establish more egalitarian relations within the group.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Groupthink and Foreign Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As it has been said before, disagreement should not be confused with conflict or hostility. It may simply mean that colleagues look at the same problem from different perspectives. So, the mane task is to make sure that different voices are not silenced by peer pressure or authoritative leadership.
Thus, the strategies that have been described are aimed at creating an atmosphere in which people are restrained by peer pressure, conformity, or over-confidence in the leader’s competence. Although, they may lead to some disadvantages such as slower decision-making and risk of conflicts within the group, they are likely to benefit the organizations that develop foreign policies of the country. Yet, these solutions can bring success only leaders are able to accept dissenting opinions and sometimes even criticism.
Works Cited Hook, Stephen. U.S. Foreign Policy: The Paradox of World Power. Washington: CQ Press, 2010. Print.
Kassing, Jeffrey. Dissent in Organizations. New York: Polity, 2011. Print.
Renshon, Jonathan, and Stanley A. Renshon. “The Theory And Practice Of Foreign Policy Decision Making.” Political Psychology 29.4 (2008): 509-536. Print.
Sims, Ronald R. “Linking Groupthink To Unethical Behavior In Organizations.” Journal Of Business Ethics 11.9 (1992): 651-662. Print.
Whyman, Wynne, and Robert Ginnett. “A Question Of Leadership: What Can Leaders Do To Avoid Groupthink?.” Leadership In Action 25.2 (2005): 13-14. Print.
History of Vodafone Broadband Report cheap essay help
Introduction Vodafone is the largest wireless company in the United Kingdom. The company became the largest wireless company after merging with Mannesmann AG. Apart from being the largest mobile phone in the United Kingdom, it is also considered as the leading mobile company worldwide in the market share as well as in the production of cellular phones. Vodafone started in 1980s as a joint enterprise between Racal Electronics Ltd that was a modest successful electronic firm based in the United Kingdom and the U.S. communication firm.
In 1985, Vodafone was given a license for producing mobile phones in the United Kingdom. The company performed extemporary well as a result of the great adoption of mobile telecommunication within the United Kingdom as well as in other parts of the world. Vodafone was the second company in the United Kingdom engaged in the production and sale of cellular networks in unregulated market.
The company was only competing with Cellnet Company in this new industry until the 1990s. The company created most of its technology as well as dominated in the sale of cellular networks in the 1980s. Its duopoly in this new venture enabled the company to enjoy most of the profits generated from the sale of wireless phones as it continued to expand its operations within as well as outside the United Kingdom.
In 1991, Racal Company which was a partner of the joint venture separated from the merger and the mother company adopted the name Vodafone since then. Despite the separation, Vodafone remained the leading company in the sale of mobile phones in the United Kingdom. The launching of Mercury’s Personal Communications Network in the 1990s resulted in a stiff competition in the cellular networks within the United Kingdom.
The new company competed on its rivals on prices. Though Cellnet and Vodafone Companies were well established in the cellular market, they faced a stiff competition from Mercury’s Personal Communications Network that focused its advertisements on lower costs. The company offered lower costs for its customers as well as free-off peak calls to its clients. This forced Vodafone to lower its costs and mainly for business clients who used their phones more often.
In 1994, Vodafone had the largest cellular network with over one million subscribers. The company had also a high international profile that enabled it potentially powerful of extending its local as well as international market. By 1997, Vodafone had greatly expanded its operations and acquired various companies, such as Talkland, Vodacom, VODAC, Astec, Vodacall, as well as People’s Phone. Vodafone merged with Mannesmann AG in February 2000.
Vodafone shareholders owned 50.5 percent of the new company while Mannesmann AG shareholders controlled 49.5% of the company (Vodafone Group PLC. 2001). The merger enabled Vodafone to become the leading telecommunication company with over 42 million mobile subscribers operating in over 25 countries (Vodafone Group, 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Vodafone provides various services and products for personal as well as business use. Vodafone offers integrated communications that support both fixed as well as mobile communications for both data and voice as a single simple solution. In addition, the company provides mobile solutions, such as mobile e-mails that are highly effective in ensuring efficiency of communications.
It also provides productivity services, such as video conferencing, as well as instant messaging and customized mobile application meant for business. Finally, Vodafone supports roaming option as well as machine to machine solutions, such as M2M solutions that help in monitoring of vehicles via the support of real-time secure payments. Therefore, the target audience of Vodafone ranges from the young to the oldest as the company has designed its products and services to reflect the needs of businesses, families and friends as well as children.
Vodafone has developed and launched various business solutions, such as instant messages as well as mobile e-mails that enhance effective communications that is paramount for efficiency and effective business transactions. These facilities are as highly employed as main forms of communications, especially in service industries, such as outsourcing. They are highly adopted because they are regarded as economical to use as well as user friendly and reliable.
Moreover, Vodafone has developed and launched software that supports online marketing as well as e-commerce. It is estimated that over 4 billion people use mobile phone. Thus, Vodafone has realized the importance of designing their products and services to ensure they cater for the use of mobile phones in marketing as well as in the e-commerce. The internet has greatly transformed communication, commerce as well as entertainment and communication distribution.
For example, nowadays, people are paying and accessing newspapers over the internet; similarly, companies are designing and launching websites for marketing as well as selling their products and services. Thus, Vodafone has realized the great adoption of the internet in business and tailored their products accordingly. The Vodafone services, such as instant messaging as well as mobile e-mails, have greatly enhanced business communications, and mainly, as customers inquire about certain products as well as services they aspire to buy online.
Most of e-commerce communications have greatly relied on instant messaging communications. In addition, Vodafone has designed their mobile e-mails in a manner to support sending of e-mails to many people which is very effective in marketing and promotion of the new products and services. E-commerce employs electronic payments for the payment of services as well as products purchased.
Despite the great concerns associated with electronic payments, Vodafone has succeeded in developing very effective mobile phone payments, such as MPESA, efficiently used in countries like Kenya, to make electronic payments available, especially to those people who do not have personal bank accounts. The Vodafone mobile payment facilities provided have been greatly adopted in the payment of business transactions as a result of their efficiency as well as security associated with them.
We will write a custom Report on History of Vodafone Broadband specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The great adoption of smartphones among the younger generation has enhanced Vodafone to develop their products in such a manner to attract the youths to adopt their facilities. The smartphones developed by Vodafone are designed to support GPS, Wi-Fi as well as Internet in order to keep them updated on everything that is happening.
In addition, the ability of these mobile phones to support Internet connectivity is important as it helps the youths connect with their friends as well as business colleagues and family members via the social media, such as Twitter and Facebook. Vodafone offers broadband connectivity to its mobile users. It is estimated that about 5 million people in 12 nations use Vodafone broadband.
The opportunity of Vodafone to provide broadband that is compatible in mobile phones enables the young people to highly embrace it in order to share files, such as photos and music. In addition, it helps the young people be able to download music online using their mobile phone for listening to as well as sending to their friends. Vodafone, in addition, offers TV services to its customers.
Vodafone broadband delivers more than TV 100 channels. The TV is accompanied with video-on-demand as well as a high-definition set-top-box plus a TV recorder that one is able to control from one’s mobile phone. These features have made Vodafone highly embraced by the young people who are very receptive of new technologies. Vodafone has a variety of mobile phones it has developed depending on the needs of various people.
For example, Vodafone Smart Tab is an example a Vodafone mobile phone that is slim and stylish and designed mainly for the young people. It has a dual-core processor of 1.2 GHz and operates with the Android operating system. Vodafone has also designed its products to be highly appealing to children.
The company has ensured that the mobile phones it produces are very attractive like the aforementioned Vodafone Smart Tab as well as making sure they have interesting games that are user-friendly, especially to the children.
In order for Vodafone not to conflict with the social norms as well as religious customs of the United Arab Emirates, Vodafone ensures that it filters the content that the broadband supports. For example, Vodafone does not support those sites that transmit pornography or anything that is not considered as moral in the United Arab Emirates.
In addition, the Vodafone broadband that is offered in the United Arab Emirates does not allow those TVs as well as Vodafone Mobile phones able to access pornographic contents. This has been very important in ensuring that Vodafone products as well as services embraced in the United Arab Emirates conform to the social norms and religious values of the resident of the country.
Not sure if you can write a paper on History of Vodafone Broadband by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This has been of great importance in ensuring high adoption of Vodafone within the United Arab Emirate despite the presence of other competing telecommunication firms. For example, the Vodafone broadband has been greatly adopted by many companies as well as in many restaurants. The use of Vodafone broadband in the United Arab Emirates is common.
This country is major a tourist destination, and many of the people who visit the region are rich business people or tourists who visit the area for recreation purposes. These people mainly use Vodafone products as well as services in their communications and for entertainment. Those business people who visit the area for business purposes use the Vodafone broadband to visit the websites of the companies they aspire to buy from.
Because of the great adoption of the Internet in the United Arab Emirates, almost all companies in the region have designed and launched their websites to be used in marketing as well as sale of products and services via e-commerce. These companies mainly depend on international clients as their main clients. Therefore, many of these companies have adopted Vodafone broadband because of its efficiency and effectiveness in terms of speed, reliability as well as security purposes.
The use of Vodafone broadband enables the companies to ensure that their websites are always on line in order to facilitate their customers to access them as they make their inquiries about the products or services they anticipate to buy. On the other hand, the presence of Vodafone broadband in the Unite Arab Emirates makes it possible for those visitors who tour the region for business as well as recreation purposes to use their mobiles phones to access websites of the companies or restaurants they aspire to visit in their mission.
Vodafone broadband enables these customers to make their reservations in advance of the restaurants where they are going to visit during their tour. As a result of the reliability and security elements associated with Vodafone broadband as well as its electronic payment methods, the customers are able to pay for their reservations electronically without any worry that their master cards’ codes may be hacked.
In addition, the availability of the Vodafone broadband in the region makes it possible for the visitors to make a search for possible business contacts as well as restaurants they can use during their visit in the United Arab Emirate. The presence of Vodafone broadband in the United Arab Emirate makes it possible for the visitors as well as local companies to stay connected with over 200 destinations worldwide.
Therefore, roaming allows the visitors of the region to stay connected to their people back at home. In addition, they can easily be able to track their business or family status back at home by calling the concerned individuals using their mobile phones or through instant messaging as well as mobile e-mails that are supported by broadband. In addition, the presence of the broadband enables the business visitors to request their friends back at home to send them some music that they long to listen to which is only available from their home.
Therefore, the friends can save the songs in their mobile phones and send it to their friends in the United Arab Emirates. With their Vodafone mobile phones, such as Vodafone Smart Tabs, that are very powerful coupled with the presence of Vodafone broadband in the United Arab Emirates, they are in a position to easily download the music sent and listen to it using their phones or any other convenient device (Laurence, 2012).
The Vodafone Issar which is the Indian largest telecom operator with over 91 mobile subscribers placed an advert in the United Arab Emirates to promote the use of their services in the region. The advert entailed a figure with a symbol of a human being making a call. The human figure is dressed in a manner to reflect the dressing code that is recommended in the region.
The use of the dressing code that is in line with the customs as well as religion of resident of the United Arab Emirate is a captivating factor that can greatly result in the adoption of the Vodafone broadband in the region. This is because the advertisement is designed in a manner to promote and focus on not only the services of the Vodafone but at the same time the culture of the United Arab Emirates by using a human figure dressed in like a Muslim. Communication is very essential in business.
Use of effective communication skills enables the receiver to get the intended message more conveniently and give an appropriate feedback. In a cross-cultural environment, it is vital to note that different cultures respond different to the same stimuli depending on one’s background. Therefore, one should make sure that he/she understands the background of targeted people in order to identify the best approach to use to achieve the desired objective.
In this advertisement, Vodafone had realized the importance of Muslim religion as well as their culture, particularly, regarding their unique dressing code. Therefore, Vodafone advertisement team opted to use this factor positively by associating themselves with the Muslims dressing code in order to win more people to use their services.
The use of the human figure dressed like a Muslim woman showed that Vodafone was identifying itself with Muslim culture which was likely to attract more people in the United Arab Emirates to adopt their services as well as products.
In an attempt to find out the proliferation of Vodafone in UAE as well as the perception of Vodafone broadband, I asked a young man who I saw using his mobile phone to download some music into a conversation. The person was a Muslim business man who had lived in the United Arab Emirates for 10 years. He relocated from Bangladesh to come and do business in the country.
When I asked him the broadband he preferred using, when surfing the internet, he told me that since he had learned about the Vodafone broadband, he always made sure to use it in all his surfing. When I asked him whether he had used any other broadband, he confirmed that before starting using Vodafone broadband, he had used other broadband, but he had been often disappointed because of their occasional downtime. However, Vodafone broadband is very stable and rarely experiences downtown.
When I asked him which broadband his friend used, he confirmed that all his friends and even many of his business colleagues used Vodafone broadband. From this conversation, I was able to learn that Vodafone broadband was able to greatly penetrate the United Arab market. One of the reasons cited for its great penetration and adoption is its good performance as well as the effectiveness of the marketing team to manage the cross-cultural barriers present in the region (Kotler, 2005).
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory argues that people are motivated by the pursuit to satisfy needs that are grouped into five categories and occur in varied hierarchy. Maslow (1986) argued that lower needs have to be met before pursuing the satisfaction of those of higher order. Physiological needs are the basic needs and include hunger and thirst. Safety needs entail physical safety as well as job security.
Social needs entail social acceptance, friendship, love and support, while the egotistic needs comprise an individual’s desire for respect. Self-actualization occurs at the apex of the hierarchy and indicates the aspiration towards full development of one’s potential that is never fully attained. According to Maslow, people always pursue what they have not yet achieved, and once they get it, it stops being a motivation for action (Pinder1998)
The Vodafone broadband can be regarded as a social need. This is because broadband is mainly used for establishing social relationships through enhancing communications to establish tight family ties as well as close friendships.
People make decision as a result of pear influence or depending on the information that one has regarding a particular matter. There is a lot of information about Vodafone broadband, and thus, customers should consider investing their time and research about Vodafone broadband before deciding to use it, instead of making a decision to adopt it out of pear influence (Hull, 1943).
Conclusion Vodafone has succeeded in its venture, particularly in the provision of effective and efficient broadband. It has been successful in penetrating into the United Arab Emirates’ market as a result of the work of its strategic marketing team ensuring appropriate management of cross-cultural barriers in its branding process.
Reference List Hull, C. (1943). Principles of Behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Kotler, P. (2005). Principles of Marketing. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
Laurence, G. (2012). The Internet Economy in United Kingdom. Web.
Maslow, A. (1968). Toward a Psychology of Being. New York: Prentice Hall.
Pinder, C. (1998). Work Motivation in Organizational Behavior. New York: Prentice-Hall, Vodafone Group PLC. (2001). Web.
Vodafone Group. (2012). What we Do. Web.
Appendix 1. Advert
Show Boat: Encouraging Tolerance Rhetorical Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Oscar Hammerstein’s Musical Play Show Boat
Introduction Show Boat refers to the 1927 musical with basically two acts. There is music with Jerome Kern, book as well as lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein.1 Indeed, Oscar Hammerstein’s satirical applications within the musical play Show Boat remains a historical landmark in the entertainment industry. It equally depicts and promotes the aspects of tolerance. Drawn from Edna Ferber’s legend novel with a similar name, this musical piece follows the lives of performers as well as stagehands.
Moreover, it also follows the lives of the dock workers of the Cotton Blossom. Cotton Blossom refers to the Mississippi River show boat that existed for approximately a period of five decades. This was roughly from 1880 to 1927. A critical analysis of the musical play reveals very important prevailing themes such as racial discrimination as well as tragic, enduring love.
It is generally evident that the arrival of this musical play stirred the American musical community and has since remained remarkably recognized for its theatrical and satirical meanings with respect to tolerance.
Even presently, there still remains a great interest in the analysis of this Oscar’s great master piece and its general relation to the normal life situation. This essay thus discusses how Oscar Hammerstein idealized and encouraged tolerance through the application of satire theatrically with his musical play, Show Boat.
The Oscar Hammerstein’s Musical Play Show Boat From the analysis of the major themes of the musical play, it can be noted that Oscar Hammerstein satirically conveyed critical information regarding racial discrimination and tragic enduring love.2 Throughout the musical play, one realizes that Oscar tries to convey a message of survivorship and toil throughout one’s life. This, despite the racial prejudice issues amongst the population, is working aboard the Show Boat.
Indeed, the arrival of this musical play shed more light and became a watershed moment for most artistes within the same industry. Relative to other seemingly trivial and impracticable artistic works and presentations at that time, the Show Boat remained a drastic departure within musical story-telling, combining spectacle with seriousness. Perhaps, its satirical presentation provided the chance for analysts to note its uniqueness from other previously existing musical plays during that moment.
The full integration of song, humor as well production numbers to a solitary and inextricable artistic piece provided a hidden message of tolerance and motivation to the normal man. Particularly to the dock workers, this musical play provided a source of inspiration and encouragement making them strives to accomplish their tasks despite the hardships they were undergoing. Some notable discrimination included those based on racial prejudice.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ability of the musical play to motivate persons heartbroken and enhance their tolerance in daily life situations was also critical. Ideally, there is an observation that Hammerstein crafted this musical piece following a long time of observation and experience with the Show Boat. The quality of this musical play remained clear and outstanding even to the eyes of the potential critics. This vibrantly communicated the un ending message of striving to success and tolerance to success for the larlgey deprived and undermined within the society.
The quality of the musical play vibrantly relayed a strong message of inspiration to the listeners. Unlike most musical plays, Show Boat seemed sentimental as well as tragic. Through this, the musical play managed to manipulate and touch people’s hearts with a sense of passion for tolerance even amidst hard times or moments.
Its most unique feature as the first real American musical play was the ability to satirically convey messages against racial prejudice. This is a striking characteristic of the musical play that reached several hearts, particularly those who were racially discriminated during those periods. The general message here was to tolerate one another despite people’s differences.
There is perhaps a lot to learn from the analysis of the plot synopsis of the musical play itself. It is seen that this story starts 47 years earlier, starting aboard a show boat, Cotton Blossom as it purposes to arrive as the river dock of the Mississippi.3 The period indicated here itself depicts a long time that can only be achieved by tolerant and patient people. It is clear how the boat is set to take a long period with people aboard.
Indeed, through presented satirically, it is notable that the 47 years on board requires a potentially tolerable person. Oscar Hammerstein’s selection of the Show Boat and the Mississippi river satirically represents the hard working environment that the dockers usually underwent during their voyages. It represents the tough environment that must be overtaken and empowered by all the workers aboard.
The musical notes themselves provide a sentimental and soothing feeling to the listeners or audience. They become encouraged by the prevailing mood and are gradually overtaken by a sensation and desire of attaining success even in hard times. Basically, this imparted tolerance and a sense of survivorship.
The introduction of the play to the highly excited crowd is a clear indication of the love that the earlier audience had for the musical play. In the beginning of the musical play, the fight between the characters and the disagreements that seize by the end illustrates a sense of acceptance as well as tolerance amongst the different groups by all the partakers. Although it doesn’t emerge automatically, one keenly notices a sense of tolerance as well as the ability to reconcile amongst the key characters of the play.
We will write a custom Essay on Show Boat: Encouraging Tolerance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Apparently, another element of tolerance is demonstrated by the varied racial composition of the actors who frequently engage in fierce exchange and at times even fight over their differences.4 This is despite the fact that they are a singular community with an aim to achieve a definite goal t hat in the end is attained. The background songs remain critical in the inspiration of the audiences as w ell as characters during different hard situations as they interact with their mates.
The musical play then begins, presenting a love tight and socially sensitive demonstration of a community unified by only one goal. Characters love and get loved with others heartbroken but still are adamant to create a difference within the boat society and ensure they become more appreciated and valued by others.5
This aspect presents a literal message to the audience to try fitting into the society’s mainstream even in times of neglect and lost love. The presentation of the fight between the actors and branding of each with names based on shear discrimination such as “mulatto” satirically depicts the normal society and the intrigues involved in the daily lives.
The segregation of a female actor, Julie at based on her race the beginning of the play during the fight represents the pain that one was likely to face during this time in America. However, the playwright comically presents another character, Steve, who has to swallow Julie’s blood.
This act is a satirical move that shows tolerance of different groups since Steve comically admits that he is also a mulatto since he took at least “one drop of black blood” in him. The events that follow this comic presentation depict a critical theme upon a comprehensive analysis. To begin with, it is important to note the mood that prevails within the entire troupe just when Steve acknowledges the presence of black blood in him.
It is observable that the whole troupe remains sympathetic and echoes his sentiments. This is a satirical presentation of tolerance with one another despite their inadequacies or circumstances. Every action purely drives home a pure presentation of critical message of tolerance and motivation to the audience. Seemingly, it is notable that there exist few literary sources elucidating the manner in which the audience received and articulated the satirical messages presented within the musical play.
It is also observable that as the play continues, the formerly rather outrageous sheriff is forced to drop his arrest interests on Julie and Steve. This act presents a sense of tolerance with “deviants” as would be termed in that society then.
The sheriff’s ability to sympathize with Steve’s situation along with other troupe members compromises his ability to enforce law by arresting the two..the tolerance and acceptance of Steve to Julie is further demonstrated when he agrees to leave the town with Julie. Perhaps, this is with the realization that their further stay within the town or with the troupe is bound to cause more harm.6
Not sure if you can write a paper on Show Boat: Encouraging Tolerance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The consequent hiring of Gaylord Ravenal who unfortunately loses his ticket worth in gambling demonstrates a great deal of empathy as well as tolerance. Andy, upon firing Pete, seems amused and sympathizes with Gaylord Ravenal and therefore offers him a job as the new leading man for the troupe. It is amazing how the demonstration of tolerance remains depicted in this noble action from Andy.
That despite Gaylord Ravenal’s weird gambling behavior; he is still accommodated and given a new job in the troupe as the leading man. As if this is not enough, this follows after Steve and Julie are exempted of arrest by the sheriff. The following events enable Gaylord Ravenal and Magnolia to fall deeply in love as they finally tolerate one another and propose for marriage.
Parthy’s objections towards this union can no longer work as the two seriously fall in love and proceed to marriage in Parthy’s absence. It is notable that Parthy became tolerable with their situation and could never do anything to stop the marriage. It is stated that she could not do anything despite her disapproval of Gaylord Ravenal.
The musical play continues to demonstrate various instances of tolerance as the time passes over the years even in Gaylord Ravenal and Magnolia’s marriage. Magnolia is depicted as a persistent wife of Gaylord Ravenal. This is despite the fact that Gaylord Ravenal suffers financial crisis and is no longer capable of maintaining their daughter Kim as well as the wife.
Obviously, one critically notices the tolerant nature of Magnolia through her persistence in the marriage. It is obvious that Oscar Hammerstein throughout the musical play and within critical incidences satirically brings out the theme of tolerance with each other. This is evidently indicated in every conflict and union within the play.
Magnolia herself is given a singing job in a New York club by her very friends so she can help herself financially after the husband shamefully abandons her and the daughter. In this move, the ability to accept one another and tolerate one’s situation is evidently illustrated again in the musical play. It is in this club where when Magnolia does her audition with the childhood song “Can’t Help Lovin Dat Man” that Julie’s memories are aroused.7
Julie, upon leaning the presence of Magnolia in the club and her situation, tactfully resigns from her position so that her childhood friend Magnolia can acquire the new position or job. It is however shocking that Magnolia though never realizes the sacrificial action and tolerance done to her by her childhood friend Julie. This obviously demonstrates a great sense of sacrifice as well as tolerance with one another.
Conclusion Every character is able to sympathize with their friends and old acquaintances in difficult moments (Magee, 311). Later on during a new year’s eve, Andy rallies the crowd to Julie’s defense when she is overwhelmed by emotions and cannot effectively perform on stage. It is evident that such sacrifices make Magnolia a great musical star for two decades. Andy’s sacrificial nature and initiative for the reunion of broken marriages depicts a real sense of tolerance and devotion to the welfare of friends.8
Magnolia accepts Ravenal back despite his misdeed and individual guilt of disowning her with the child. Generally, the musical play ends in a joyous mood with unity and peace. Everyone is happy and sings to the same song and tune as they return to the show boat. Conclusively, Oscar Hammerstein’s musical play remains one of the most socially educative and sensitive ancient American plays, with a great satirical encouragement of tolerance to the audience.
Bibliography Bradley, Edwin. The first Hollywood musicals: a critical filmography of 171 features, 1927 through 1932. New York: McFarland
Citizenship Based On Transnational Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Citizenship in the 21st Century
Introduction After the cold war era, it was assumed that the issue of war was no longer of concern to the world. Therefore, nations were expected to experience peace and harmony. Huntington (2003) disagrees with this notion based on the fact that there followed a lot of ethnic clashes, and the expected universal organization was never founded. He states that the global politics experienced before and after the cold world war were different.
According to his analysis, there were differences in the way nations defined civilization. After the cold war era, nations cooperated and allied themselves according to the similarities in culture. Conflicts were experienced between states with different cultures. The issue of belonging was based on nationality, in terms of similar territories, culture, and ethnicity.
These events, which happened after the cold war, could have been predicted even before the war as explained by the civilizational paradigm that Huntington introduced (Huntington, 2003). According to his predictions, which were based on the past events, there would be a clash of civilization. Nations were expected to define belonging based on territories, ethnicity, and culture. This implies that citizenship would be restricted to the nationality of an individual (Huntington, 2003).
This paper compares the issue of citizenship in the past and modern view whereby globalization has become the force towards pluralism. The paper shall discuss citizenship and the issues that transform the concept from the past view into modern practice. According to this paper, the clash of civilization will not affect citizenship. This is because nations have adopted a transnational approach towards nationality and citizenship.
Citizenship in the 21st Century Citizenship requires that individuals have the rights, duties, responsibilities, and identity that link them to the state in which they belong. When the aspect of migration and the minority of some tribes are considered, the issue of national citizenship is out-dated. This has resulted to modern citizenship, in which identity is not based on nationality, but rather the rights that one has in a certain nation (Bosniak, 2000).
With the current trend in globalization, post-nationalism should be adopted. This is because people are migrating from one nation to another, and reside there for a long period. Living in a different state for a considerable period gives a person the right to be involved in collective decision within that state.
The involvement of an individual in the responsibilities of the citizens in that country is also expected. An example is the case of guest workers who were invited to Western Europe when they had a shortage of labour. These workers were initially employed on temporal terms, but they later became permanent residents along with their descendants. Most of them were not given the opportunity of becoming the citizens to the nations that they resided (Koopmans
Motion Picture Industry Managerial Report college essay help online
The difference between the Total-Gross-Sales and the Opening-Weekend-Gross sales calculated to form the net-sale-difference for each motion picture. The frequency of the motion pictures that had a net-sale of zero was the highest. Considering that all motion pictures had a chance to feature at the Theater and appeared in Week-Top-60; then these two factors were not a guarantee that a motion-picture would have a net-sale difference.
Half the number of the motion pictures had a net-sale-difference of US$ 5 million and below. Approximately 49% of the motion pictures had net-sales ranging between US$ 5 million and 175.32 million. At least most motion pictures had a chance to appear in the Week-Top-60 than any other frequency. About two-thirds of the motion pictures appeared in the Week-Top-60 ten times or less.
Only five motion pictures appeared in the Week-Top-60 twenty-one times or more. Thus, there is a negative skew in the number of times a motion picture appears in the Week-Top-60 and most probably is because of the competition factor. This explains why the median of the motion pictures ranges the 6th and 10th week of appearance in the Week-Top-60.
At least all motion pictures featured more-than five times among the theaters. More (Just above a third) motion pictures featured 100 or lesser times in the Theaters. Approximately a third of the motion pictures featured more-than 2000 times in the theaters.
If the motion pictures were classified in the 1000s of appearance then ranges will display a negative skew that infers chances of influence of competition when featuring in the theaters. In the overall, net-sales-difference (at 4.69) was more skewed, followed by Number-of-Theaters at 1.62 and finally Week-Top-60 at 1.55.
Assuming that appearance in the Week-Top-60 had no influence on the Net-sales-difference, then on average each feature in a theatre was worth US$ 1.8042 million, ceteris-paribus. Similarly, assuming that featuring in the theatres had no influence on the net-sales, then on average every appearance in the Week-Top-60 was worth US$ 0.0141 million, ceteris-paribus.
Assuming on average that the motion pictures had not featured in any theatre and appeared in Week-Top-60, then the net-sales will be US$ 0.00161million (probably due to other-factors ). The lack of influence of a theatre feature and a Week-Top-60 was worth US$ 0.00161million, ceteris-paribus.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If the number of appearances were influenced by theatre features, then each appearance was worth 142 week features. This infers that on average an appearance in the Week-Top-60 is more worth than a feature in the Theatre.
In other words, the appearance in the Week-Top-60 will be more influential on theatre features than Theatre features will do to Week-Top-60, ceteris-paribus. If this is true, then on average those motion pictures appearing only frequently in the Week-Top-60 will gain competitive-edge (that is, higher net-sales) than those who only feature in the Theatres, ceteris-paribus.
Based on the calculated average estimates Week-Top-60; Number-of-theatres and other-factors contribute to the net-sale-difference at 98.52%; 0.99% and 0.49%, respectively. Assuming on average the number-of-theatre features had no influence on the net-sales then Magnificent-Desolation had the highest performance at US$ 0.0830 million due to Week-Top-60 and other-factors.
Assuming that on average the number of appearances on the Week-Top-60 had no influence net-sales then Star-Wars: Episode-III had the highest net-sales performance at US$ 14.3021 million due to features in the Theatre and other-factors. On average, Alone-in-the-Dark had the highest number-of-theatre features per Week-Top-60 at 708.
Magnificent-Desolation at US$ 0.2317 million had the highest sales due to more Week-Top-60 appearance per Number-of-theatre features. Star-Wars: Episode-III had the highest net-sales due to Number-of-theatre features per Week-Top-60 appearance US$ 271.74 million.
The-Wild-Parrots-of-Telegraph-Hill had the highest number of Week-Top-60; while Star-Wars: Episode-III had the highest net-sales at US$ 271.74 million. These two showed a higher outlier performance. Based on the statistics, Week-Top-60 had a higher influence on sales than Number-of-theatre features; however, it is not obvious since there are other-factors that come to play (Hennig-Thurau et al. 2006, p.559). Other-factors include creativity (Peterson and Berger, 1975, p.159).
References Hennig-Thurau, T., Houston, M. B. and Walsh, G. (2006). The Differing Roles of Success Drivers Across Sequential Channels: An Application to the Motion Picture Industry. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(4), 559-575.
We will write a custom Report on Motion Picture Industry Managerial specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Peterson, R. A. and Berger, D. G. (1975). Cycles in Symol Production: The Case of Popular Music. American Sociological Review 40(2), 158-173.
Compare and Contrast: American Cultures and Scandinavian Culture Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Contrasts and Comparisons
Introduction The influence of American cultures on other countries is notable globally. The Scandinavian culture remains one of the observable traditions that have harbored significant manipulations from prevalent global cultures. Renowned academicians as well as writers have noted these influences and presented them within their literary works. Mikael Niemi and Erlend Loe are such authors that present the notable ways through which young Americans have influenced the Scandinavian culture.
Generally, these two novels appear to be a presentation of fictional imaginations about the lives of two young Americans and how they relate with the society as well as people around them. They are both fictions that tend to give a comic and humorous depiction of the lifestyles of two young personalities. This paper thus compares and contrasts the diverse ways through which the young Americans have influenced the Scandinavian culture.
Contrasts and Comparisons Foremost, a critical analysis of the two novels presents the atmosphere of humor as well as comic relief. The authors appear humorous in their artistic work. The description of the Scandinavian culture assumes a comic presentation with both young main characters taking the enter focus. It is observable that the “popular music from Vittula” gives a presentation of a typical village as well as native Swedish cultural practices.
On the other hand, Erlen Loe’s Naïve Super, presents a modern metropolitan atmosphere of New York that includes a multicultural state of affairs. In particular, the cultural interactions within the two settings presented in the two novels are multi-dimensional. In Vittula specifically, the young Americans there indicate their lives as that predominantly observed in Alaska, Arkansaa, or Idaho.
These are places known to be very far off the beaten track. While the young Americans popular music from Vittula tries to transform the Swedish life to fit that of the typical American countryside, the Erlen Loe’s novel presents a high class urban life that tries to globalize all cultures and mainstream them into a singular international one.
It is evident that the main characters are reluctant to apply the Scandinavian culture in their daily lifestyle as well as interactions. The latter is set on a globally cultural sensitive environment that rather influences the surrounding to a more globally accepted practices, culture as well as lifestyle. Evidently, both the major characters in the Erlen Loe’s novel as well as the Mikael Niemi’s popular music from Vittula are depicted at first to be culturally insensitive and unaware of the happenings around them.
In the ‘Naïve, Super’ for instance, the character admits that he was “troubled by the inability to find any meaning in life” (Loe, 2011). Their ability to categorically influence the younger generation critical and can be observed by their younger ages. For instance, the main character in the Erlen Loe’s novel of Naïve, Super is only a 25 year old narrator.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Likely, the major character in the Mikael Niemi’s popular music from Vittula is a younger teenager still dependant on his parents’ insight and knowledge. This is particularly seen when he asks his dad a question about the extent of the world. For instance, in Chapter one of the novel, the character asks the dad a simple question: that “how big is the world?” Consequently, the dad answers that, “It’s enormous” (Niemi 2004, p.14).
The young Americans in Vittula embrace mechanization at a higher rate relative to their Scandinavian counterparts. It is stated in Mikael Niemi’s popular music from Vittula that there was not much work outside the timber industry (Niemi, 2004). There is evidence that with the advent and influence of the young Americans in Vittula, even the native practices and professions such as the lumberjacks had to suffer or transform to the more mechanized approaches of doing things.
Admittedly, the place was regarded as a small swamp for young people who wanted changes, who wanted something different. American and British pop cultures were that different thing young people were striving for. The Beatles and Elvis Presley were icons and the protagonist was inspired by these figures. A record was seen as a treasure which was hidden under the shirt “next to his skin” by one of the characters (Niemi, 2004, p. 64).
A broadcasted concert of Elvis was one of the greatest events in Vittula. This event made girls “bit” their “nails down to the quick” and weep into their pillows “all night long” (Niemi, 2004, p. 79). The protagonist “wanted a guitar” (Niemi, 2004, p. 79).
The protagonist wanted to plunge into the different world, the world of music, the world of pop culture which was bright. Of course, the whiteness (or rather colorlessness) of the protagonist’s existence made him chase for the color of “Roskn roll musis” (Niemi, 2004, p.64).
Young boys became enchanted by pop culture which was quite new for Scandinavians. The bright colors and great tunes were simply from another reality. These tunes were beautifully strange and irresistibly fascinating.
Scandinavian boys wanted to bring brighter colors to their regular lives. While listening to American and British pop idols, Scandinavian boys somehow felt a part of the brand new world which was exiting and marvelous. The youth of Vittula wanted to recreate the fascinating world of Rock ’n Roll.
We will write a custom Essay on Compare and Contrast: American Cultures and Scandinavian Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Everything connected with this music or this way of life was regarded as something different, i.e. something attractive and popular. People of Vittula sometimes felt somewhat “marginal”. Elvis and the Beatles could help them feel in the center of something bigger.
Of course, many people in the area wanted to become a part of the great changes. Of course, such great personalities as Elvis or any of the Beatles were regarded as models. Girls loved these performers. Of course, they inevitably loved those who performed their songs. Thus, boys who tried to play the same music were seen as really tough guys who deserved being loved.
Interestingly, the effect of the pop culture was multifaceted. On the one hand, boys wanted to play the great music to become a part of the great world. On the other hand, girls fell in love with those brave boys who tried to explore the new world. Pop culture penetrated into the regular life of the inhabitants of Vittula in many different ways.
Thus, some boys simply could not do without playing guitar. Others wanted to play the popular music to win the hearts of the girls they loved. Sometimes it was difficult to say which motive prevailed. Only one thing could be said for sure: American and British pop idols did change the world of those who lived in Vittula. It is possible to state that the protagonist wanted to be a part of the bigger world of pop culture rather than he was motivated by a particular feeling to a particular person.
The first attempts to play were far from being successful as the protagonist felt “nerve-wracking but wonderful” (Niemi, 2004, p. 152). However, for the protagonist noted it “was big time” (Niemi, 2004, p. 152). It goes without saying that the music did change his life as his life became more colorful.
The cultural influence of young Americans as depicted in the Erlen Loe’s novel of Naïve, Super is however based on the demands and practices of native or countryside American culture. Instead, it is based on the global perspectives of life itself. To begin with, it is notable that the main character quits the university and eventually arrives at his brother’s New York apartment. The character then depicts the nature and behavior of a person never satisfied with the state of his present life.
Consequently, he decides to “write a list of things that will assist him discover what life is all about” (Loe, 2011). In doing this, the youthful character looks down upon the beliefs of his contemporary age mates who are actually the Scandinavian. It is thus observable that their beliefs and cultural practices become gradually transformed into a more city and globally dictated pattern or form.
Unlike the gradual acceptance of reality and life’s consequences of the character in the Mikael Niemi’s popular music from Vittula, the Erlen Loe’s novel of Naïve, Super depicts a rather culturally impatient character with an urge to adopt the most recent lifestyles and cultural practices.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Compare and Contrast: American Cultures and Scandinavian Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There is demonstration that such a character looks down upon other characters and cultures. This can be evidenced by the fact that he does not particularly embrace his culture given by the fact that he himself decides to quit his university education in search of a better life and culture. The appreciation of art in both cultural influences that can be drawn from both cultures is critical.
Conclusion It is notable that whilst the Vittula novel setting appreciates the Native American musical accompaniments and taste, the New York set the Erlen Loe’s novel of Naïve, Super demonstrates a more refined musical taste. This is because the occurrences and cultural influences are devoid of the appreciation of the Native American culture and music.
Conclusively, it is notable that the two novels indicate a significant influence that young Americans have on the Scandinavian culture. It is also notable that upon a critical analysis, several instances can be drawn from the novels.
References Loe, E. (2011). Naïve super. Edinburgh: Canongate Books.
Niemi, M. (2004). Popular music from Vittula: A novel. New York, NY: Seven Stories Press.
Job Analysis and Job Design Issues are Extremely Serious within the Topic of Human Resource Management Report (Assessment) college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Job analysis and job design are generally crucial to any organizations because they determine qualifications required when employing people. Various elements of a job are studied and analyzed hence enabling human resource personnel to get right individuals for the job. In addition, the job design should be analyzed to make sure that people are allocated right jobs depending on areas of their specialization.
For instance, human resource personnel should be able to identify skills required for certain jobs hence getting correct information to include in their job descriptions. Job design helps human resource personnel to develop a proper job description that can lead to recruitment of competent people (Daft 2009, p, 76). For instance if a job requires highly skilled personnel, the job design should be categorical about such factors.
Therefore, organization should make sure that they understand job design and analysis exceedingly well in order to recruit fully competent individuals. As a result, the organization enjoys improved productivity since competent people are employed hence helping it to achieve organizational goals. This is achieved easily because if jobs are done in the right manner, the result will undoubtedly be appealing to managers and organizations in general.
Job analysis This can be defined as the process of evaluating and determining what exactly a given job entails. For instance, job analysis for a teaching job should give details concerning the role of teachers in the job. This includes the number of hours that teachers are expected to be in classes instructing students. In addition, it gives details concerning what teachers should achieve in their jobs.
This is vital since it prepares applicants of such jobs on what they should expect when given the job. Job analysis concentrates on the job as opposed to workers. This means that any study that may be carried out on job analysis should gather information about the job and not employees.
Job analysis is carried out to relate other aspects of the job to what is supposed to be done by employees. For instance, through job analysis one can be able to identify associated challenges hence guiding on compensation. This is extremely serious because it makes sure that people are neither underpaid nor overpaid. This means that people are paid just what is worth their efforts at the work place.
For instance, some organizations end up in conflicts with workers’ unions because of overworking their employees. Job analysis can help managers in such organizations to understand the amount of work done by their employees. In return, they should ensure that they give reasonable compensations to their employees. Compensation should be guided by aspects such as skills required and work environments (Mathis and Jackson 2011, p. 45).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If the environment exposes workers to risks, the organization should be ready to part with extra funds. These funds should be used to pay risk allowances to employees. Responsibilities of employees on the job should also be among key determiners of the amount to be paid to workers.
Training needs are determined by carrying out job analysis within organizations. This includes training contents required to make sure that employees get necessary information. After recruitment of new personnel, training is hugely beneficial to familiarize them with what the job entails. Unless a job analysis is conducted, human resource personnel cannot be able to know the kind of information required by new employees for the job.
In addition, job analysis provides human resource personnel with adequate information regarding equipment needed for training. For instance, if an organization deals with assembly of electronics and electrical gadgets, several electronic pieces may be required to demonstrate to new workers what the job requires. The human resource department may decide to invest in dummies for training employees.
Therefore, job analysis is beneficial because it highlights all these aspect hence making the whole process a success. Depending on the complexity of the job under analysis, the human resource department develops appropriate assessments aimed at testing the effectiveness of employee training. This is tremendously valuable because the human resource department gets to understand exactly what is expected of employees in certain jobs.
After job analysis, human resource departments are able to identify appropriate methods of training employees. Depending on sensitivity of involved activities, training may be done in small groups to ensure that perfection is achieved. This is done as opposed to large groups where trainees end up not being attended properly by instructors. Other methods such as use of videos or computer based training can be applied.
Furthermore, job analysis helps human resource personnel to come up with selection procedures aimed at recruiting best candidates for the job (Daft 2009, p, 76). This is guided by experience of candidates in handling specific responsibilities entailed in the job. Interview questions are guided by job analysis hence ensuring that they are relevant to the job.
Job design Job design involves putting various elements together to form a job. In fact, this is the actual layout of a job which includes requirements of not only workers but also organizations. Job design includes all aspects that are entailed in the job at various levels. For instance, job designers should put in mind safety factors alongside other factors.
We will write a custom Assessment on Job Analysis and Job Design Issues are Extremely Serious within the Topic of Human Resource Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This means that the design should consider risks that employees may be exposed to hence trying to reduce them as much as possible. Job design should be able to identify and outline the number of tasks to be carried out and the sequence to be followed. This means that job designs are particularly significant because they give a clear outline of all activities involved in a given job.
Job designs should be developed in a way such that they will be in line with organizational goals. This is tremendously valuable because tasks in any organization should be aimed at achieving organizational goals. In addition, employees should be able to understand all values and goals associated with the job.
This means that job designs give a lot of information regarding how employees should relate with the job leading to achievement of set goals. Organization of tasks and contents of a given job is defined in the job design.
Job designs should involve several factors, which include allowing inputs from workers. This means that job designs should not be restricted to thoughts of designers. They should instead allow workers to make proposals aimed at making them better. This happens due to changes in the environment which affect terms set for the job. For instance, a job design may expect various tasks to be conducted every day (Brannick, Levine and Morgeson 2007, p. 98).
The dynamic nature of the environment may change making it impossible for those tasks to be accomplished. Therefore, the design should allow workers to adjust it to accommodate conditions in the environment. In addition, these changes may be influenced by personal needs of workers. This means that workers’ personal needs have to be honored to ensure that they remain productive in their jobs. Jobs should be designed in a way such that they give employees a sense of accomplishment.
This is essential since they have to handle their jobs with the aim of accomplishing them perfectly. Furthermore, job designs should provide proper work and rest schedules to make sure that employees do not strain while on duties (Mathis and Jackson 2011, p. 45). This means that there should be provision for resting times between working schedules. For instance, the design may allow adequate time during lunch hours and tea breaks for employees to relax.
Job designs should be made in a way such that they provide feedback to employees regarding their performance. This is extremely powerful as employees get to evaluate their progress hence improving on overall productivity. Employees work hard when they know that they will be evaluated from time to time. This evaluation should be accompanied by rewards which motivate employees to work harder.
Conclusion Human resource departments in organizations should ensure that they understand job designs and job analysis exceptionally well. Job perfection is achieved due to proper job analysis and job design. This is because if employees are in constant conflicts with their job expectations, chances are high that job perfection will not be achieved.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Job Analysis and Job Design Issues are Extremely Serious within the Topic of Human Resource Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, a well-designed job tends to achieve all its goals because workers understand job expectations and work along with them uncommonly well. Human resource departments should take time in analyzing jobs in order to come up with their descriptions. The right job description results to recruitment of right people for the job leading to achievement of its goals.
References Brannick, M T. Levine, E L.
Diminishing marginal returns Essay college essay help online
The law of diminishing marginal returns states that when a firm mixes variable and fixed inputs, the marginal productivity of the variable input decreases with increases in use. It is the point where marginal physical product curve starts sloping downwards towards x- axis and beyond it.
This is due to the fact that if more of the input is added to the production process, a maximum point is reached where any additional value of inputs will result in a decrease in total output. For example, in the farm activities, when more of a variable input, like fertilizer, is added holding other factor inputs constant, the output level is increased up to a point where any additional fertilizer application will result into a negative output levels (Answers to end of chapter questions 2010).
Decreasing economies of scale Economies of scale refer to cost benefits accruing to a firm when increasing its scale of operations over a long run period. Diseconomies of scale occur when increasing the level of output results into a higher average cost. Therefore, a firm with high level of fixed cost should increase its output in order to lower its long run average cost curve.
Diseconomies may be caused by lack of cooperation, control and coordination due to the large number of employees in an organization which causes communication breakdown, thus lowering productivity and quality of output from employees. Example is that the size of an organization increases due to increase in the number of employees.
References “Answers to end of chapter questions,” Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly, 2010. Web.
Jeff B 2001, Microeconomic reform in Australia – An introduction. Web.
Market supply in the long run. Web.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Productivity Commission 1999, Microeconomic Reform and Australian Productivity: Exploring the Links, Commission research paper, Canberra. Web.
The basics of monopolies. Web.
What is corporate governance? Essay college essay help: college essay help
Corporate governance refers to a system that enables us to control and direct organisations. The IUFC defines corporate governance as “the relationships among the management, Board of Directors, controlling shareholders, minority shareholders, and other shareholders” (IFC 1).
While the traditional definition of corporate governance recognizes the existence and significance of the terms “other stakeholders”, however, there is still a lot of debate on the kind of relationship between on the one hand, self-serving managers and on the other hand, disconnected owners (Applied Corporate Governance para. 2). Corporate governance consists of two key components:
The long-term relationship between the management and owners of a firm and the incentives for managers, checks and balances, as well as communication between investors and the management;
Transactional relationships that include issues of authority and disclosure.
What the above two elements appears to suggest is that business owners are suspicious of the activities of their managers, as explained by the need for checks and balances. In addition, both the management and investors share an adversarial relationship. Corporate governance consists of five components that are worth of consideration by both investors and the management.
They include the long-term strategic goals of an organisation, customers, the environment, employees, and regulatory/legal compliance (Applied Corporate Governance para. 5). As such, corporate governance can be thought of as a culture that is founded on strong business ethics.
Corporate governance enables managers of a firm to fulfill the long-term strategic goals of the shareholders. In the process of fulfilling such goals, there is need to also consider that the expectations of the various stakeholders of the organisation (Kirkpatrick 6).
Therefore, the past, present and future interests of employees at the firm need to be addressed. In addition, the management should endevour to enhance excellent relationships with both suppliers and customers. At the same time, the needs and interests of the local community should also be fulfilled.
Importance of corporate governance Globalisation has seen organisations becoming more complex as most of them have increased in terms of size and scale of trade. As a result, most organisations have ended up with a very bureaucratic structure as they try to manage the emerging complexity (Applied Corporate Governance para. 5). This has led to an augmentation of the importance of internal regulation and corporate governance owing to the increased difficulty of regulating organisations externally.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many organisations view corporate governance as an important undertaking when it comes to the issue of integrity. Shareholders and the general public would want to be associated with an organisation that is led by leaders with integrity (Kirkpatrick 9). In this respect, corporate governance acts as a vital tool for measuring, encouraging, and projecting integrity within the organisation.
Corporate governance in an organisation is also important in as far as the bonus culture is concerned. The recent financial crisis helped to reveal the system of remuneration and bonuses operated by many financial institutions. There is a widely held argument that this system of remuneration and bonuses encouraged irresponsible lending and excessive risk taking by financial institutions, thereby triggering the global financial crisis (Applied Corporate Governance para. 6).
Ideally, the existence of a better checks and balances system would have sounded warning bells before it was too late. A number of financial experts outside the financial systems who were privy to the dangerous levels of lending practiced by many financial institutions had tried to raise an alarm but in the absence of a sound system of corporate governance, it was hard to ascertain these allegations.
In this case, sound corporate governance practices would have helped to contain the situation. Indeed, weaknesses and failures in corporate governance arrangements played a key role in the financial crisis experienced by financial institutions. Good corporate governance offers the right incentives for both the management and the Board of Directors to pursue the goals that are in the best interest of shareholders and the organisations at large (Tricker and Tricker 27).
In addition, good corporate governance also facilitates effective monitoring, thereby making it easy to detect deviations from the accepted norm and practices. Consequently, remedial measures can be taken before it is too late.
Corporate governance results in better regulatory framework within the organisation. What this means is that corporate governance leads to sound management of the organisation (Applied Corporate Governance para. 7). In the same way, when governance within a corporation fails, the management is deemed to have failed as well. In the recent global financial crisis, many financial institutions were rewarding their CEOs with hefty pension and bonus packages, even as the government struggled to bail out failing firms.
This is a reflection of poor management because it does not make financial sense to award a CEO a hefty package to leave office while the organisation is in financial limbo. In the financial markets, good corporate governance requires the right balance between on the one hand, customer choice and innovation and on the other hand, implementing basic standards. This may require organisations to change their corporate culture but in the end, the ensuing rewards are worth the sacrifice.
We will write a custom Essay on What is corporate governance? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Corporate governance is also important to an organisation when it comes to the issue of training the directors. Following the collapse of such organisations as WorldCom and Enron in the past decade, questions have been raised on the need to re-assess the qualifications of directors. In the past, there has never been any formal yardstick with which to assess the qualifications of the senior people who run an organisation (Applied Corporate Governance para. 8).
From a practical point of view, majority of the large and well run corporations seek for the most fitting qualifications from among their senior staff; however, an increasingly larger number of organisations are now offering selection services and training to non-executive directors.
The collapse of the above mentioned firms and a dozen others has seen more professionals reassessing the role of direction as a discipline or professionals that demands specific forms of training and development. In this case, corporate governance has played a crucial role in efforts to re-evaluate the qualifications of directors charged with the responsibility of overseeing the operations of organisations (Tricker and Tricker 33).
Some MBA courses now include corporate governance as part of their course content. Such a trend should be encouraged so that the true importance of corporate governance can get the recognition it deserves.
Conclusion In summary, corporate governance refers to the system that ensures the control and management of organisations. It enshrines the components of the long-term relationship between the owners of an organisation and the management. A sound corporate governance system should take into account the interests of the firms, the shareholders, the employees, suppliers, and the local community as well.
Corporate governance is important to an organisation with regard to the issue of integrity because shareholders and the general public would want to be associated with an organisation that has integrity. Also, corporate governance helps to contain the bonus culture within organizations. It also leads to better regulatory framework, as well as in the training of directors.
Works Cited Applied Corporate Governance. The importance of corporate governance. 2009. Web.
IFC. Corporate Governance. 2005. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on What is corporate governance? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Kirkpatrick, Grant. The Corporate Governance Lessons from the Financial Crisis. 2009. Web.
Tricker, Robert and Tricker, Bob. Corporate Governance: Principles, Policies and Practices. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Current Event- The Samsung Galaxy S III: One Huge Display and a Whole Lot of Software Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Facts about the Article
Connecting the information to class work
Personal thoughts on the article and the provided technology
Facts about the Article Samsung has launched another fabulous Smartphone namely Samsung Galaxy S III. The phone surpasses its predecessor (Samsung’s Galaxy S II) with bountiful features in the realms of technology and applicability. The advancements noticeable in this gadget will grant it considerable competitive advantages. According to the article, Samsung Galaxy S III is the largest smartphone ever designed by Samsung.
It has a 4.8-inch and 720p Super AMOLED resolution, which renders its innovation and introduction quite fabulous. Additionally, the phone has an advanced screen resolution. It shares some features with its originator in the realms of camera functionality, RAM, 16GB memory, and MicroSD card slot; however, the new model contains additional advanced features (Newman 1). The company has beefed up software provisions in the new model evident in the core Android 4.0’s functionality.
Additionally, the phone has a “S Voice” software with Siri-like voice command provisions only present in the iPhone 4s. “S Voice” will grant users opportunity to set voice commands and upgrade functionality of their phones. This indicates the advancements occurring in the field of information technology. The phone equally possesses some features like Smart Stay and Smart Alerts, which enhances the camera functionality and automates vibration alerts respectively.
Besides the Android 4.0 software, the phone operates on Samsung’s TouchWiz interface provision meant t enhance its functionality (GSMArena 1). This is a new smartphone introduced in the market; hence, prior public awareness of its features and benefits is important. According to the article, the phone will be launched in Europe by the end of May 2012.
Connecting the information to class work The information given on the yet to be introduced smartphone (Samsung Galaxy S III) is critical and compatible with the class work as well as other relevant learning provisions with respect to information technology. The advancements noticed in the article reflect how the field of information technology is rapidly growing with new innovations emerging quite often.
Since the course endeavors to equip students with relevant expertise on IT, the aspects of innovation and continuous advancements in the field of IT are important (GSMArena 1). They help in revolutionizing the world in the realms of communication and relay of information using modern methods. It is from this context that the entire course provisions lie.
The course nurtures the aspects of creativity and innovation, facts that are evident in the article with respect to the Samsung’s Galaxy S III’s case. Students are expected to be creative and use the provided information (from class work) to transform the world in the realms of information technology. The article relates perfectly to most topics studied in the course by demonstrating the relevancy and applicability of some theories.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Personal thoughts on the article and the provided technology It is evident that the article is informative having provided relevant information regarding Samsung Galaxy S III smartphone. The way it elaborates on the matter is commendable. It is crucial to consider such aspects in the technological realms (Newman 1). Investigation, compilation, and release of emerging technological information to targeted clients form lucrative provisions in this context.
Technologically, Samsung Galaxy S III provides more than what a conventional smartphone is expected to contain. It is notable that the article provides the exact information needed concerning the emergence of this new technology. Concurrently, there are continuous advancements within the IT industry.
Works Cited GSMArena. Samsung I9300 Galaxy S III. 2012. Web.
Newman, Jared. The Samsung Galaxy S III: One Huge Display and a Whole Lot of Software. 2012. Web.
Asian Management Essay online essay help
Introduction Various cultural factors in Asia have been noted to impact greatly on leadership in the region. Some of these cultural factors include harmony, collectivism, and frugality/saving, social relationships, trust, and face1.
By and large, Asian leadership tends to be holistic, with a lot of focus in harmony, trust, as well as interrelationships among individuals2. On the other hand, western leadership models are largely task-oriented. The modern day Asian leadership paradigms are a sign of the Confucian thought to which they base their philosophical components3.
In Asia, leadership is normally characterized by a high level of diversity and in this case, it differs markedly in comparison with the leadership models that have been developed by countries in the west. In the same way, different countries within Asia differ in their approach to leadership4.
The current essay is an attempt to explore leadership styles in three Asian countries namely Japan, Korea, and China.
Leadership Styles in Japan In Japan, liberal leadership is common. This is why Japanese leaders always aspire to be fair in making decisions5. For example, in making vital business decision, a lot of focus is based on meritocracy.
In addition, Japanese are very particular about punctuality and as a leader, one is expected to ensure that he/she does not only work on schedule, but also finish your job on time6.
The issue of trust is also very important in Japanese leadership6. For example, a leader is expected to fulfill that which he says he will do, and has to have the proven ability to do so. Another category of leadership in Japan that is worth of exploration is supportive leadership7.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this case, leaders tend to be kind, friendly, and supportive7. In addition, directive leadership is also common in Japan whereby leaders give clear orders. This means that they are very explicit in their directives.
On the other hand, participative leaders are expected to communicate, listen, and request for suggestions as well8.
As such, they are not just leaders in the sense that they are expected to give direction and issue orders to their subordinates; rather, they are participants in the decision making process and so they see it as their duty to take part in the decision making process, not just issuing orders8.
Network leadership is also very common in many Japanese firms. Such leaders are always desirable because besides being friendly, they are also important to the future careers of subordinates as they assist in building them8.
Some leaders in Japan also tend to be achievement-oriented and in this case, they are more inclined to challenge their subordinates by allocating challenging projects to them.
In recent years however, leadership style in Japan has undergone through a number of changes. For example, an increasingly higher number of Japanese firms are embracing gender equality and as such, they have since abandoned the hitherto popular male chauvinism system9. In addition, the idea of collectivism is slowly giving way to the individualism concept.
There has also been a shift from seniority whereby the most senior employees of a firm would be consulted before a business decision is made, in favor of meritocracy10. This means that those employees who have the highest merit are now getting the priority.
We will write a custom Essay on Asian Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Leadership styles in Korea Successful firms in Korea have demonstrated one or more of the following leadership characteristics:
Respect for employees
Most Korean firms have a lot of respect for their employees because they are not only directly involved with the clients, but are also the driving force for the success of their firm. As such, they are a vital asset to the firm and in their absence the firm cannot achieve its set objectives10.
These firms are therefore aware that it pays to treat employees in a humane way. On the other hand, those Korean firms that have been shown to treat employees in an inhumane manner struggle to be successful, and this is indicative of the vital role of employees in a firm.
Many Korean firms are intent on trying new concepts first, before other firms think of it. Consequently, many firms in Korea have now invested heavily in R
Applying a sociological theory to the movie ‘The Truman Show’ Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Movie Summary The Truman Show is a drama film that captures the basic principles of the social structure at the beginning of life besides helping us to uncover the origin of the prevailing social interactions or socialization mechanisms in the contemporary world. The movie revolves around the life of Truman Burbank who has been in front of live cameras since before he was born without noticing.
Through hidden cameras that capture Truman’s day-to-day activities around the clock, Christof who is the executive producer intends to show the world the real emotions and behavior of Truman when exposed to various unique situations.
Here, Christof controls Truman’s life through setting up an artificial hometown in which Truman’s neighbors include the show’s crew members. Moreover, Truman’s sense of reality is obscured by the false reality created by Christof through news reports and advertisements aimed at making Truman stay at home.
Despite that Christof has succeeded to some extent in controlling some aspects of Truman’s life, there is evidence to show that Truman is capable of exploring certain truths in his social life such as falling in love outside the intended circle. Here, Truman falls in love with Sylvia despite that the producer wanted him to marry Meryl.
To break this unintended love, the producer removes Sylvia from the set but Truman continues to love her even when married to Meryl. Therefore, Sylvia forms the out-group that is set to free Truman from his false world. Subsequently, at age 30, Truman demonstrates the importance of self-consciousness in an individual’s life.
Here, Truman discovers some aspects of his life such as spotlights appearing at night (artificial darkness) and the discussions of other crew members regarding The Truman Show, which might have led him to uncover certain truths about his life. However, the producer achieves to conceal the truth by advertising that an airplane had one of its landing lights dislodged.
On the other hand, the growing skepticism in Truman leads to his marriage to Meryl breaking up since she was under intense pressure to convince him that his false life was real. Furthermore, his plans to leave Seahaven (the artificial hometown) were frustrated by different incidents such as bus breakdowns, massive traffic jams, absence of flight tickets, a nuclear meltdown, and finally a forest fire. All these events are meant to instill fear in Truman in order for the show to continue.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, Christof’s attempts to bring back Truman’s father who was supposedly dead in a fishing trip (in order to make Truman fear the water) do not bear any fruits in terms of stopping Truman from leaving the town. Instead, Truman decides to isolate himself from the crew, and one day he manages to escape using a boat. An artificial storm meant to scare him from leaving does not do much since Truman overcomes his fear of water to reach the EXIT, which marks the end of false life and the beginning of a new reality with Sylvia’s camp.
Movie Analysis In their quest to explain the nature and attributes of the social structure, many sociologists attempt to look at the permanent association between things, which is thought to originate in the life before the evolution of any life form (Hinkle 130). Here, the sociologists note that the primordial theory attempts to explain the origin of society, which is a form of social organization with a definite structure.
As a result, since the primordial theory relates to the origin of permanent association in the society, then it follows that the primordial social structure was present before the appearance of humankind. Accordingly, the movie ‘The Truman Show’ captures the nature and characteristics of the social structure relative to the Primordial theory.
Here, just like at the beginning of the show where we meet Truman unaware of his false world, many early theorists construed the social structure from the perspective of physical and biological sciences. Thus, the social structure was treated just like any other physical structure, which resembles a machine or device used to equilibrate different forces.
Here, an organism (viewed as a structural model) is regarded to as a system of activities, which achieve interdependence through influencing one another, and thus they can adjust, adapt, and work together relative to the prevailing conditions (Hinkle 132).
This form of primordial structure and permanent association can be likened to the show’s actors and crew whose activities were aimed at controlling Truman’s life by following the producer’s instructions, and thus they did achieve to manipulate different aspects of Truman’s life.
However, the structure provided by the ancient sociologists reflects a mechanical equilibrium, which cannot exist in the contemporary social environment whereby conditions are bound to change relative to different internal and external factors (Kimmel and Aronson 33). Thus, contemporary sociology looks at the social structure as comprising of an organic equilibrium, which is characterized by openness, external factors, internal factors, accessibility, and change.
We will write a custom Essay on Applying a sociological theory to the movie ‘The Truman Show’ specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Subsequently, the modern day sociology has it that the creation of the society relies on the ability of institutions (units of the social structure) to exhibit an organic or moving equilibrium, which enables them to adjust, adapt, and change relative to both internal and external forces. This is thus the equilibrium exhibited by Truman during the 30th year of the show whereby he begins to adjust the way he used to view his life, and as a result manages to uncover certain truths in his artificial life.
Conversely, other sociologists view the contemporary social structure as consisting of variable systems (that is, organisms and societies) whose internal mechanisms allow them to attain a partial equilibrium, which cannot be perfected due to the presence of external factors (Kimmel and Aronson 34).
Here, it is worth noting that despite Truman uncovering certain truths in his false life using his own internal mechanisms, he fails to discover the whole truth since the existence of the radio and television advertisements serves to conceal the truth.
To this end, it is certain that the organic equilibrium forms the basic model through which the primordial social structure illustrated in ‘The Truman Show’ is generated. Thus, the change process associated with such moving equilibriums can only be construed as arising from the ability of the systems (individual persons) involved to make conscious choices, and exhibit some degree of intentionality.
As a result, the basic contemporary social structure should be characterized by social identity; social desires, ends, interests, objectives, and purposes; social organization or structuring; social rules and values that underlie social welfare and norms; social solidarity, integration, and cohesion; and finally, processes that enable the members of the society to adjust to various unique situations (Hinkle 135).
Relative to these features and characteristics of the society, many theorists note that the primordial social structure originates from the earliest human species, which were grouped into self-sufficient units meant to give rise to later generations exhibiting common modes of life that change with time and conditions just like Truman’s life in the show.
Thus, the primordial theory is based on the assumption that the society has an adaptive mechanism, which presents the human organisms with various opportunities and hindrances relative to the ability to satisfy their needs and wants in different situations (Hinkle 139). Thus, through persistent association with the hindrances and opportunities in the social set-up, human organisms achieve social identity.
This is true to the fact that Truman was able to construe certain things in his life that were not adding up after taking a closer look at the behaviors of other residents of Seahaven, and comparing them to the contents of the show, which was entirely about his life. Accordingly, it is a fact that social and public awareness are centered on the ability of an individual becoming aware of other people’s ideas or thoughts and vice versa.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Applying a sociological theory to the movie ‘The Truman Show’ by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, through coordinated interaction and understanding the needs and desires of other members of the society, an individual’s personal needs, desires, and purposes in life can be satisfied (Kimmel and Aronson 45).
This is the case when Truman defies the pre-determined external factors in the show by falling in love with an extra. Moreover, the act of removing Sylvia from the picture marks the beginning of Truman’s quest to satisfy his desires through exploring different aspects of his false life, which will eventually lead him to the point of uncovering the truth about his life.
Overall, the foregoing discussions show that a certain degree of social organization and structuring is required in order for the human members of the society to satisfy their desires, needs, and purposes through coordinated interactions and association with one another.
However, sometimes a natural conflict of interest may exist between the internal mechanisms of an individual and the external forces that comprise different opportunities and hindrances brought forth by the social surroundings. And thus, it is up to each and every member of the society to develop adaptive behaviors that fit into the pre-existing conditions, which determine whether or not one will satisfy his or her needs, desires, and purposes in life.
Works Cited Hinkle, Roscoe C. Founding theory of American sociology, 1881-1915. USA: Routledge
Are Australian Children More Independent than the Chinese Report cheap essay help
Abstract Child independence is important to his/her development because many communities face various problems irrespective of the social strata, a situation that affects the child’s independence, development and growth. Notably, there is high level of liberalization in Australia than in China.
If the community is not able to meet the prevention measures to the future problem to their children that can be very drastic and may lead to dangerous occurrence during their growth, the parents better reduce the children’s independence at early ages and inculcate virtues among the young generation.
Introduction Child independence is critical to his/her development because different communities face various problems irrespective of the social strata of a particular locality, a situation that affect the child’s independence and growth. Variations in child independence are as a result of the lifestyle that the community normally leads (Needlman, 2002).
This paper will closely compare and contrast the extent of freedom of the Australian children, in relation to those from China, through analysis of the problems of juvenile delinquencies in our community (Sanders, 2004). To be specific, it gives a general outlook of the assessment between the freedom that the children have in Australia that is not enjoyed by the ones from China.
This research will also extend to discover the problem from family level to the national level that the children from the two regions undergo during their growth and the consequences of such issues on their freedom (Brown, 1998).
Research Question In this study, the researcher wanted to compare and contrast, then determines the independence of children in Australia and China. Thus, the question that the reach is, are Australian Children more independent than the Chinese?
Research Significant The research could be seen as imperative because it tries to unveil the truth about children’s independence. However, it does not matter whether the children in Australia enjoy greater freedom compared to those from China. The research is also important because it compares and relates the family orientation towards their children, in the process of growth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is significant since the orientation of the child affects his growth and development. For instance, a child who grows in a financially stable background and those who grow up under stable family bond are able to enjoy uninterrupted personal development than those who come from poor and/or families. This is practical since the anomalies affect the physical, psychological social and spiritual growth of the child.
Interview Scholars prefer interviews in conducting their studies. Therefore, the researcher conducted an interview of 40 people to collect their views about the research questions. For this research, 20 participants of children whose background are from Australia and a similar number from China were interviewed to determine the level of independence and the following results were obtained.
Discussion of the Interview Results A number of the participants interviewed acknowledged that the level of independence or juvenile freedom in Australia significantly and has existed for along time among the Australian families since time immemorial. The other discovery was that in Australia, the parents gave their children total independence.
This indicated that the level of child’s freedom depends on the different social strata of each family, and it is in agreement with the fact that juvenile freedom since the parents differ (Aldort, 2006). Indeed, the child freedom is on the rise in Australia because the parents have greatly accorded their children adequate liberty to express their opinion. So, the children in this country are free, but with responsibility.
In other opinion that was gathered, the acceptance of child independence in Australia is because of the perception that one needs freedom as they grow. As well, the decrease of influence that the children are subjected to, in the country necessitates child freedom. The view was subjective since a large number of those interviewed about the Australian case, noted the various ideological perspectives (Lab, 2010).
Therefore, I believe that the independence mainly result out of the family breakdown, where the children remain alone without adequate care and guidance from the parents. In addition, the others thought that since the children in Australia are guaranteed a lot of freedom, cases of child impatience is on the increase. Perhaps, they attributed this to the reality that the youth are allowed to enjoy independence as long as they do not misuse the freedom (Correll, 1996).
There are others participants who believed that in Australia, there is child independence in Australia because the parents understand that freedom at juvenile levels is one way of making sure that the children discover lifetime challenges at this early time. However, other noted that the freedom could not be allowed without limitation, thus accepted the fact that the children in Australia have limited independence due to some minimal parental control (Neifert, 2008).
We will write a custom Report on Are Australian Children More Independent than the Chinese specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In another development, there were other participants who reiterated that the country experiences some tensions for keeping the children without according them freedom, thus has workend hard in reconciling the issues distressing their young people and the affected community as a whole.
From the information gathered about the Australian case, the communal knowledge about the children’s independence has withstood the historically test as most prominent social problems, wich culminates to deviant behavior. Nonetheless, not all the participants interviewed agreed that child independence in Australia was absolute (Collings, 2012).
The general opinion was that the degree of child independence differs according to household. Since this opinion was greatly shared, one hardly refutes the truth that there is child independence in Australia.
In the case of China, there was the common perception that the children in this country operate within certain limitation. Generally, it is believable that the children in the country are subjected to strict conditions so that they understand that excess freedom is problematic to the youth (Yun, 2012). Here, it is caused by communal influences arising from broken or non-focused societal values.
In this case, some interviewees believed that the limited freedom in China brings out the issue that guaranteeing the youth’s independence is like encouraging them to engage in vices, thus the parents do not allow their children to have excessive freedom in the country. This was due to the shared notion that juvenile independence has been curtailed in China due to the misunderstanding of the extent to which freedom among the youth results to vices that are reported (Leung, 2012).
In the opinion of others, the limitation of child independence was necessary to reduce its negative affects such as poor character formation among the young population, especially when operating under freedom, thus it is the same youths who do suffer from the outcome of broken values. However, the problem of juvenile independence results to the formation of negative behaviors such as violence, when they are left to stay alone, and this affects communal prosperity because of the negative perceptions.
In my opinion, this justifies the limitation of such freedom on the children from China. In this regard, it is believable that the general behavior changes create some aspects of failure in the systems and policy issues affecting the young generation, thus some parents especially from China do not feel like guaranteeing freedom to their children.
There are other interviewees who claimed that in China, the parents find it very difficult to identify at an early age those children who are likely to be criminals, thus not willing to guarantee the young ones total independence. As well, the children have to act within the limitations as spelt out by their parents, while still under them. Additionally, in China, the parents curtail the children’s independence through adopting measures, which are drastic in nature because if there is no early control of the same regardless of the child’s gender (Yue, Farrow
Native Americans and the Federal Government Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction The relationship between Native American communities and the Federal Government has been strenuous ever since the control of the American government fell into the hands of European colonialists. There are numerous factors that sustain the strain between Native Americans and the Federal Government.
These include overt racial abuse, limited employment opportunities for Native Americans, provision of inadequate education and health services, denial of land ownership rights among others. However, the influence of some of the issues has diminished over time. Nevertheless, denial of land ownership rights, provision of inadequate education and health services has continued to exacerbate the relationship between the Federal Government and Native Americans.
Native Americans are a group of indigenous tribes that originally occupied the Americas before the coming of the Europeans. Currently it is estimated that there are about 2,786,652 Native Americans living in America. A majority of them are to be found in California, Oklahoma and Arizona, and are categorized into ten major ethnographic groups (Hann 2003, p 34).
America is said to be one of the cradles of agriculture. The origin of More than 60 % of the modern crops and domestic animals reared worldwide can be traced back to the Americas, thanks to the Native Americans’ obsession with agriculture (Hann 2003, p 35). This implies that much of the current land in America was originally owned by Native Americans.
The worsening of ties between Native Americans and the Federal Government: a review of related literature
The worsening of the ties between the federal government and Native Americans can be traced back to the colonization of the Americas by European settlers. According to Bolt (1999, p 45) the relationship between the Federal Government and Native Americans has been riddled with controversies and broken promises for hundred of years.
Currently there are many unresolved issues that exacerbate the relationship between the Federal Government and Native Americans, and which can be traced back to expansionary activities of the European colonialists in the 15th century. Eggers (1998, p 23) assert that Native Americans have been victims of judicial, social, political and economic injustices for hundred of years.
For instance, Native Americans, like the African Americans, have been subjected to overt racial abuse since the Europeans took control of the Americas. This is besides having access to fewer employment opportunities. Additionally, Native Americans have been misrepresented within the American judicial system, stalling their social economic as well as political progress.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Bolt (1999, p 47) further asserts that due to the dynamism of the issues and the passages of time, the influence of some of them has diminished. Such issues include overt racial abuse and poor judicial representation.
The United States Commission on Civil Rights examines the history of healthcare issues affecting Native Americans. In its report the United States Commission on Civil Rights adopts the term ‘Native American Healthcare’ to imply that there are overt differences between the quality and type of healthcare services offered to Native Americans and those offered to the rest of the American population.
The Commission notes that even after years of concerted efforts in search of Federal Government protection, Native Americans still lag behind in terms of access to quality healthcare, as compared to other Americans.
According to Steeler (2001, p 34), provision of healthcare services has contributed to the gradual worsening of the ties between Federal Government and Native Americans. Steeler (2001) acknowledges assertions made by the United States Commission on Civil Rights, and adds that efforts by the Federal Government to address this sensitive issue only acts to accelerate “overt discrimination” against Native Americans (35).
The Federal Government formed the Indian Health Services, IHS after years of pressurization. IHS operates numerous clinics and hospitals that offer healthcare services to Native Americans. Steeler (2001, p38) adds that IHS offers poor quality healthcare and that this amounts to government supported racial discrimination.
Kidwell and Velie (2005, p 71) make damning revelations regarding land as a tool through which the Federal Government has historically used to gain control over Native Americans. Kidwell and Velie (2005, p 71) assert that the Federal Government controls Native Americans through its discriminatory land control policies. In the 19th century, the Federal Government managed to convince Native Americans to relinquish much of their ancestral land, in exchange of Federal Government’s protection of their rights to occupy reserved land (Anderson 1996, p189).
However, since then, the Federal Government has reneged on its promise to protect reserve land meant for Native Americans. Kidwell and Velie (2005, p 70) explain that the Federal Government has complicated the process through which Native Americans can reclaim their land.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Native Americans and the Federal Government specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Johansen and Pritzker (2007) allude to assertions made by Kidwell and Velie (2005, p 71) and United States Commission on Civil Rights (2004, p 27) and assert that the Federal Government has deliberately denied justice to Native Americans to oppress them (40). Johansen and Pritzker (2007, p 45) note that the Federal Government has historically denied social justice to the Native Americans by offering them poor quality healthcare and justice services, denial of rights to own land and most importantly limiting their access to quality education.
In a report published by National Conference of State Legislators, it is found out that Native American children lag behind in terms of educational achievement as compared to other American children. For many years, there seems to be deliberate efforts to discriminate educational services offered to Native Americans. The Federal Government has failed to meet its promises of providing equal opportunities in education for marginalized communities, including Native Americans (National American State Legislators 2008, p 2).
The United States Commission on Civil Rights (2004) agrees with this and adds that the federal government has for years provided insufficient funds for vital services such as health, justice and education (33). This has had negative effects on Native Americans’ social economic development.
Findings There are numerous factors that contribute to the worsening of the ties between the Federal Government and Native Americans. However, three of them are found to have significant influence. It is imperative to note that these factors are not isolated from each other but indicate overlapping influence.
Native Americans healthcare: glaring disparities
300 years ago, Native Americans exchanged land with the Federal Government for protection and provision of basic services including healthcare. For 300 years, Native Americans have tirelessly sought end to discrimination with regard to provision of quality healthcare. This has seen the enactment of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act of 1976, which led to the creation of healthcare system for Native Americans, backed by the Federal Government (National Library of Medicine 2003, p4).
The Indian HealthCare Services, IHS offers healthcare exclusively to Native Americans. It also ensures that there are appropriate funds available to fund adequate healthcare for Native Americans. Despite increased funding to Indian HealthCare Services, a study conducted by The United States Commission on Civil Rights (2004) notes that there are “real and highly visible” disparities with regards to the health status of Native Americans and the rest of the American population (26).
The risk of exposure to health related problems is very high. Native Americans are 300 % more likely to suffer from a myriad of health related problem such as TB, Flu, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, poor mental health, among others. This increases the mortality rates for Native Americans while lowering life expectancy by five years (Steeler 2001, p45).
A study conducted by The United States Commission on Civil Rights, describes a number of causes that sustain such disparities. These include inadequate federal funding for IHS, inaccessibility to healthcare services outside the IHS, very poor quality healthcare provided by IHS and limited access to medical insurance.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Native Americans and the Federal Government by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The United States Commission on Civil Rights (2004, p 23) adds that this is manifestation of overt racial discrimination. For many years, Native Americans have received inappropriate healthcare services outside IHS. For instance, Native Americans receive inadequate treatment and diagnostic care in government hospitals. This continues unabated despite many years of protests to the Federal Government.
The dispute over land
Hann (2003, p52) explains that traditionally, Native Americans are farmers. As such land ownership gives them a sense of belonging. In the 19th century, the Federal Government convinced Native Americans to surrender much of their land in exchange of protection and provision of vital services. Kidwell and Velie (2005, p71) explain that the Federal Government has continuously reneged on its promise to protect and provide sufficient services to Native Americans.
According to the United States Commission on Civil Rights (2004, p 23), the removal of Native Americans from their land by the Federal Government has had negative impacts on the Native Americans’ social economic welfare. Removal from matrimonial land denies Native Americans their sovereignty, thus relegating them to second class citizens (Kidwell and Velie 2005, p74). In addition to this, since Native Americans are farmers, removal from their matrimonial land denies them means of improving their social economic welfare.
Besides the attempts to buy back their land, Native Americans have for many years protested taking away of their land. On the other hand, the Federal Government has complicated the process through which Native Americans can reclaim their land by progressively altering land holding policies. This implies that Native Americans can only own land through inheritance. Additionally the Federal Government has fragmented reserve land thus reducing its agricultural productivity. This has aggravated disaffection with the federal government.
Poor education services
Other than denying Native Americans adequate means of earning basic livelihood, lack of land ownership rights has had severe effects on Native Americans. As stated earlier, this is not only a manifestation of overt racial discrimination but has also relegated Native Americans to second class citizens. As such, Native Americans have for years experienced limited access to basic services including education.
A study conducted by the Native American State Legislators indicates that there is a link between racial discrimination and poor educational outcomes (National American State Legislators 2008, p2). In the study, it is found out that Native American children perform below their capability, especially in the 3Rs. This can be attributed to their dislike for education, which emanates from challenges associated with their poor economic status (Johansen and Pritzker 2007, p23).
According to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights (2004), Native Americans have “struggled for survival since they relinquished their land to the Federal Government” (25). This has not only denied Native Americans of the sovereignty but also worsened their socioeconomic conditions. Numerous policy measures, such as alteration of the curriculum, aimed at accommodating unique educational needs of the Native Americans have been instituted.
Despite this, poor social economic conditions coupled with provision of poor education services have continued to precipitate the widening of the educational achievement gap between Native American students and students from non-native communities (National American State Legislators 2008, p3).
Conclusion The relationship between the Federal Government and the Native Americans has remained strained for more than 300 years. There are numerous factors which have over time exacerbated ties between the Native American communities and the Federal Government. Three of these are found to have withstood the test of time and are as important today as they were 300 years ago. The removal of Native American communities from their land by the Federal Government is perceived as an act of good faith.
However, it is evident that the Federal Government intended to use land as a tool to gain control over Native Americans. Over the years the Federal Government has tightened the grip over land previously held by Native Americans, thus relegating them to second class citizens. Denial of land ownership rights took away their sovereign status and with it a significant bargaining tool. As a result, Native Americans have over time received poor services from the Federal Government.
For instance, healthcare services offered to Native Americans varies in quality with what is offered to other Americans. This creates “real and highly visible” disparities with regards to the health status of Native Americans and the rest of the American population. Other than poor healthcare services, Native Americans portray an aversion to education.
This can be associated with poor economic status which emanates from denial of rights to land ownership. Combined, the three factors seem to increase disaffection with the Federal Government, and continue to strain the ties between Native American communities and the Federal Government.
Bibliography Anderson, Kat. “Native American Land-Use Practices and Ecological Impacts.” University of California Center for Water and Wildland Resources, Last modified April 8, 1996. https://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-43/VOL_II/VII_C09.PDF
Bolt, Christine. American Indian Policy and American Reform. London: Allen and Unwin Press, 1999.
Eggers, Paul. “Racial and Ethnic Differences in Hospitalization Rates Among Aged Medicare Beneficiaries.” Health Care Financing Review , Last modified May 8, 1998. Web.
Hann, John. Indians of Central and South Florida: 1513-1763. Florida: University Press of Florida, 2003.
Johansen, Elliott, and Barry Pritzker. Encyclopedia of American Indian History: Volume 1. London: ABC CLIO, 2007.
Kidwell, Sue and Alan Velie. Native American studies. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005.
National American State Legislators. “Helping Native American Students Succeed.” National Caucus of State Legislatures Review. Last modified December 8, 2008. http://www.ncsl.org/print/statetribe/strivingtoachieve.pdf
National Library of Medicine. “Reservation and Hospital Health Care under the Office of Indian Affairs”. National Library of Medicine, Last modified June 5, 2003. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/
Steeler, William. Improving American Indian Health Care: The Western Cherokee Experience. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001.
United States Commission on Civil Rights. “Native American Health Care Disparities Briefing”. Commission On Civil Rights, Last modified August 8, 2004. https://www.law.umaryland.edu/
Capital Budgeting Process Expository Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Steps of issuing bonds
Types of the lease
Short-term borrowing and long-term financing
Equity sources for nonprofit organizations
Discounted cash flow methods
Introduction Capital budgeting is the process undertaken by the business in order to identify and establish projects that are viable and worthy to pursue. Mostly; it involves acquiring and investing in new assets that can earn a return in a long run. Other companies prefer to issue bonds as a way of financing their operations and to maintain a proper operation cash flow.
Steps of issuing bonds There are steps that a company follows when issuing bonds. First and the foremost, the registered company must evaluate its financial position to determine if issuing bonds is right. Based on the financial position of the company, it will resolve if obtaining outside financial sources is necessary.
If the company has evaluated its financial position and decided to issue bonds, it goes ahead and identifies an underwriter.
Led by the counsel, the underwriter and the company thereafter begin to review the specifics of the bond that includes, when it shall mature and the interest rates it shall attract (Cleverley, Cleverley, Song 2011). Thereafter, the underwriter shall create an underwriting syndicate by inviting another underwriter firm that will be involved in the deal.
This pack of agreement shall consider the task started, giving the company an opportunity to present a registration report to the security commission in the U.S. Registration report normally provide details of the price of the bonds and the purpose for which the money is applied (Cleverley et al., 2011).
Here all the parties who include the company, the underwriter and other invited underwriters that formed the underwriting syndicates, work together. They work and agree on the language and the presentation format in which the registration statement shall be submitted.
The price of the bonds must be set and be submitted to the Trade Report and Compliance Engine (TRACE) ,that work closely as part of the National Association of Securities Dealers (Banner 1998).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The bonds must now be marketed by the underwriter by duly filling the form from the Depository Trust and Clearing Corporations (DTCC).After the approval of the bond issue, the company shall therefore be eligible to start taking orders for the bonds. Finally, the bonds are deposited and distributed to the issuer by the underwriter
Sometimes the company may decide to lease its property to other people to use, who will in return pay back some money to the company. The lesser uses the money from the lessee to finance its debts. The main purpose of the lease is to maintain the capital and the cash flow of the company.
Types of the lease There exist two major types of leases that include financial lease, also known as capital and finally operating lease. Under the financial lease, the financing company leases the asset to the user for a specific period of time, after which the client can purchase the asset at a lower value. In other hand, under the operating lease, the client has only limited rights over the asset.
Short-term borrowing and long-term financing This is a small loan that is usually payable within a year. It is easy to apply with only small payment rates. Long-term financing is a big loan that is payable in more than one year and some examples are mortgages and equity. This kind of loan normally takes a long process to apply and needs many formalities.
Equity sources for nonprofit organizations Retain earning, government grants and charitable contributions are the most primary equity sources of the nonprofit organization. This is because they cannot sell market stocks to raise capital they need.
Discounted cash flow methods These include the weighted average cost of capital (WACC), cost of equity (COE) and cost of debt (COD). WACC is calculated by weighting the sources of the capital according to the company’s financial structure and multiply them with their costs (Maddox 1999).
COE in the other hand is derived by the help of capital asset pricing model, that shows the return the investor require for bearing the risk of holding company’s shares. In conclusion, COD is generally the rate that the company is required to pay for its outstanding debts.
We will write a custom Essay on Capital Budgeting Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Banner, S. (1998). Anglo-American Securities Regulation: Cultural and Political Roots. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Cleverley, J.O., Song, P.H.,
Strategic Human Resource Management Concept and HR Manager Role Expository Essay a level english language essay help
Introduction Strategic human resource management mainly focuses on managing people in such a way as to ensure the maintenance of the employer-employee relationship (Lovell, 2009). At the same time, it also ensures that the strategic goals of an organization are achieved.
Therefore, SHRM entails the use of human resource in such a way that the organisation is able to attain its strategic business objectives and also to meet individual employee needs (Schuler, Jackson
Creative Décor’s Design Contest in Brasilia Report best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction This report is a compilation of the aforementioned event’s strategy and plan for the Creative Décor (hereafter referred to as the company). The event involves a design contest that will be held in Brasilia. Creative Décor is a limited company that was started in 2003 in Port Arthur, United States.
It is noted that the company started its operations in the printing and design industry but later diversified its products and services portfolio.
Moreover, it has globalised its operations and it is currently doing business in more than 15 countries in South America, Europe and Asia. During the event mentioned above, the company will market its new products such as E- paper cards, urban cloths- line, sportswear, and consumer electronics among others.
The contest is meant to draw artists, painters, designers, fine art professionals and the general public from all over the world. It is scheduled to take place on December 15th 2012.
All participants will be awarded with new products that the company is currently marketing. On the other hand, all attendees will receive branded ribbons and T- shirts for free and an opportunity to purchase other products from the company at half price.
In the report, the author will address the strategic aims of the organisation as far as the event is concerned, the objectives, opportunities and risks associated with the international event. The report will also identify the evaluation methods that will be utilised before and after the event.
Recommendations for future events will also be provided. Other areas that will be addressed in the report include the importance of the event to the organisation, the benefits of the event, the marketing and publicity support that are needed for the project, the value of celebrity of endorsement and strategies to attract sponsorships for the event.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Report Strategic Aims
The following are some of the strategic aims that will be addressed in the course of planning for this event:
The introduction of the company’s products and services into the Brazilian market.
The aim to increase the company’s revenue and profitability from the South American region.
To enhance consumer experience in the South American region.
To locate more investment opportunities in Brazil and other South American markets.
The Event’s Objectives and Actions
The planning for this event has to address various objectives. Some of the objectives are listed below with their accompanying actions:
Objective 1 and Action 1
Objective 1: To gain competitive advantage over players in the Brazilian and other South American markets. The exhibition event will give the company an opportunity to understand the market dynamics in Brasilia.
As the company’s representatives interact with the participants in the event, they will gather information concerning the needs that exist in the market and which other companies in the industry have not been able to fully address. This will be in line with the company’s strategic aim of introducing its most recent products and services into the country and into the region.
Action1: The representatives of Creative Décor will provide all the participants in the event with structured questionnaires and stamped envelopes which they will fill from their homes and mail to the company later.
This will be used to collect information on the status of the market in the region. The issues addressed in the questionnaire will include the needs of the customers, their level of satisfaction and their future expectations.
Objective 2 and Action 2
Action 2: During the design contest, company representatives will interact with the participants and gather one-on-one information regarding the status of the market. The information will include the client’s level of satisfaction, future expectations and such others.
We will write a custom Report on Creative Décor’s Design Contest in Brasilia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Objective 2: The objective of the process mentioned above is to promote the company’s image and initiate brand awareness among the potential consumers. Hardy
Greek Bank Transformation Case Study best essay help
Table of Contents Limitations
Founded over 100 years ago, the bank has over 370 branches located in central, western and south of Europe (Vakola et al 263). The bank has offered employment to over 6,800 people making it a huge enterprise. It provides a variety of services to its customers ranging from retail and corporate banking.
In addition, it offers other activities such as insurance, leasing, asset management, factories and many other miscellaneous services. The bank operates in a competitive and a challenging environment; thus, the need to adopt changes is paramount.
One major challenge that the bank is facing is competition from many banks that have merged and other public banks that have been privatized making them more competitive in customer services deliverance.
Despite its good name in terms of competence, the bank is facing inefficiencies in its entire operation. The bank is suffering from lack of adequate customer focus, bureaucracy and resistance to change. In response to these inadequacies, the bank has launched a restructuring program which is aimed at improving its entire operation (Vakola et al 264).
Pegasus, the name given to the restructuring program, is an innovative program whose objective is to meet the needs of the customers while at the same time meeting the employee’s expectations. Improved operations, better human resource system, service orientation and, a new corporate identity are some of the tools that the bank uses to achieve its goal.
According to Torrington (202), though difficult, it is important for all businesses to break their cultures if their performances do not meet the needs of the most important person in business; the customer. This bank has realized that; the reason why it decided to reconstruct the customer services management so as to improve its productivity and efficiency.
The restructuring of the program started with redefining the human resource management system (Vakola et al 267). This entails that individual employee focus facilitation was a key concept. To enhance that, the behavior of the employees, their knowledge and skills coupled with effective communication were analyzed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Similarly, employees’ involvement plays a significant role in reengineering of programs accordingly. Following an in depth analysis of the situation, the bank representatives thoroughly reviewed the situation and came up with a conclusion based on some strategic principles.
The first principle was based on job descriptions and adoption of current practices so as to guarantee competence and survival of the program. Secondly, the framework contained a set of competency areas which allowed rapid adaptation of the model.
The third principle emphasized that every position in all the branches, depending on required competencies, would develop their profile of competency.
Each competency is required to indicate a detailed job related characteristics that are specific to that position. Finally, individual implementation of an individual profile based on job competency, behavioral and functional characteristics was considered.
All these principles led to a competency framework with three distinct processes paramount in identification of the competences. These competencies are based on; banking core capabilities, the banks competitive strategy and, the banking industry trends.
According to Kotter (196), banking core capabilities is a comprehensive analysis that is used to differentiate between the best banks and low performing ones. The bank used a team composed of experts to identify individual job related competencies.
In the banking industry trends, the relevant research papers, annual reports, and, industry reports were reviewed to identify current and expected future trends in the banking sector both at local and international levels. On the other hand, in order to understand the bank’s own strategy, an in depth analysis was done.
We will write a custom Case Study on Greek Bank Transformation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The analysis involved extensive interviewing of the high rank employees in the bank including the CEO, the president, the vice presidents, the directors and, the top managers (Vakola, et al p.270). After the generation of these competencies, they grouped them into:
Competencies that are generated from the core competencies within the leading banks
Competencies generated from the current and the trends in the sector of banking
Groups’ creation of competencies from synthetic list
These competencies were further explained in the following areas: interpersonal excellence, project operation management, business decision making, sales management and, people management. After elaboration of the competence model, a research was done to validate from job holders.
This was done through interviewing 60 employees who represented various branches (Vakola et al 272). A functional competency is based on development of good public relations, banks responsibility in promotion of local market and, proper communication channel.
On the other hand, behavioral is based on creating a climate of trust, coping with unexpected situations and, conflict resolution. The model was later introduced and communicated to all the branches of the bank accordingly. This bank has realized that; the reason why it decided to reconstruct the customer services management so as to improve its productivity and efficiency.
Various areas of focus were used to implement and support change effectively. As Todd (210) points out, communication is one of the most effective ways to enhance successful implementation of change. In the bank case, the central human resource system had a great responsibility in communicating the strategic changes as well as their implications in operation.
The process was equally facilitated through workshops where the employees were made aware of the changes. This was done with a purpose of making the employees understand how to reach the set goals of the structured program.
Another major tool that was used to enhance change was the improved feedback from the bank’s branches to the headquarters (Vakola et al 272). Several assessment centers were run so as to prepare the employees for their new duties implemented in the program.
This was important as the senior management was able to note the inherent gaps in competences that could hinder the program. Through trainings, the obstacles that hinder the whole transformation process were solved.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Greek Bank Transformation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The success of any business transformation is seen depending on how new behaviors are incorporated into daily routines (Todd 89). To ensure the new behavior and practices are incorporated in work places, assessment and trainings where necessary are implemented. Similarly, employee participation and involvement in the program serves to enhance a successful program.
Limitations Although the program was successful, there were quite a number of limitations that the whole program faced. There was a great challenge in measuring some of the key performance results. Despite the inception of the project interviews and observations done, there was delay in the release of outcomes.
Similarly, employees’ involvement in the program was limited thereby making change a tedious and slow exercise as many people were not aware of what was expected. Inadequate trainings equally affect the quality of the expected program. Employees need to be thoroughly trained or else there would be a delay in performance of the whole program.
Recommendations Employees are very important in every business set up; therefore, they should be actively involved in the whole program from inception to its completion. Employee involvement prepares the employees on what to expect and how to adapt to the changes.
In addition, trainings should be held from the first time when the changes are implemented. This means that no one should be left behind in the transformation process. Equally, employees’ active participation motivates them as they feel important and recognized by their employers.
Institutionalization of new technologies and modern innovations can also help greatly in measuring the performance of the employees. Since the changes are implemented to increase the performance of the employees, a technology to measure the performance plays a great role to determine the success of the program.
Conclusion Despite the need for transformation required by many firms including banks that wish to improve their services and brands, the major challenge they face is reluctance to undertake change. The bank is no exemption. All the strategies that it used to enhance the transformation program are ideal for the good of its operations.
In the recent times, competition is increasing and the companies that do not want to adopt changes are left behind. Innovations keep the enterprises moving as they help in attaining a competitive advantage.
The transformation of the bank has increased its performance which helps greatly in maintenance of customers as well as winning new ones (Kotter 77). This applies to all other enterprises which are reluctant to adopt changes.
Works Cited Kotter, John. Leading Change. New York: Boston, Harvard Business School Press, 1996. Print.
Todd, Klein. Built for Change: Essential Traits of Transformative Companies. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger, 2010. Print.
Torrington, Derek, Hall, Laura and Taylor, sStephen. Human Resource Management. London: Prentice Hall, 2002. Print.
Vakola, Maria, Eric, Soderquist, Gregory, Prastacos. “Competency management in support of organizational change.” International Journal of Manpower 28.3 (2007): 260 – 275
Strategic Human Resource Management and Its Main Factors Essay college admissions essay help
Introduction Strategic human resource management is an attempt to integrate different functions of human resources in order to achieve a common goal. All human resources functions should be geared towards achieving the goals of an organization.
Strategic human resource management has various advantages which include improving business performance, developing a company’s organizational culture, enhancing creativity and innovation in the business, and puts an organization at a competitive advantage (Boxall, 1992).
Strategic human resource management process involves incorporation of various human resource functions in the development and implementation of a company’s strategic goals and objectives. The various human resource functions that can be incorporated in the formulation of strategic goals include rewarding personnel, recruiting, staffing and training (Fombrun et al, 1984).
This essay is going to evaluate the various major factors a human resource manager should consider while undertaking strategic human resource management.
Discusion Background information
There are various pertinent and important issues that arise during the entire process of strategic human resource management. Such issues, if well handled, can be of great importance to a business. On the contrary, if such issues are not well handled, the business is likely to face a threat of collapse due to waste of resources and low competitive advantage status (Truss
The protection of consumer welfare Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction The protection of consumer welfare is a critical government initiative. There are notable economic challenges associated with low income families. Therefore, policymakers must consider the implementation of workable economic strategies. This is vital in creating price and demand equilibriums (Arnold 2010, pp. 10).
In a typical economy, various consumers depict diverse preferences for various goods. It is vital to comprehend how policies have implications on the prevalent market trends. It is necessary to analyze the consumer behavior and preferences within specific economies.
This paper presents a practical approach to policy implication on the purchasing trend within the market. The paper applies a hypothetical approach, with the analysis of the preference trend of goods X and Z.
The Household Preferences over the Two Goods with Similar Policy Implications on the Household Items In Terms Of the Utility and Level of Consumption of the Two Goods
Convex indifference curves are extensively used in the analysis of economic policies. In this scenario, the assumptions on the hypothetical goods are indicated. Good X is measured along the horizontal axis. On the other hand, good Z is measured along the vertical axis of the convex curve.
The two policy options can be analyzed from the convex curve. The concept of “diminishing marginal utility” dictates the nature of the convex curve to be applied in the analysis (Fakhrul Islam
Procter cheap essay help
The modern society is in a constant progress. The growth of new tendencies involves all the aspects of the people’s life, especially those ones which are connected with the technological development. Today, people have the great opportunities to interact with each other and get the necessary information with the help of a lot of mobile devices.
That is why, the world of mobile devices and smartphones of the new generation is attractive for marketers as the field for expanding the information about the brands, organizations, and products with using the special advertisements. Mobile advertising is important for promoting different products with the focus on attracting the target audience.
From this point, advergaming as the possibility to use the information about the brands and products in games is more interesting and rather progressive type of advertising than mobile advertising which became extremely popular during the recent decade.
To meet the requirements of the developed market and draw the potential consumers, many companies use mobile advertising as well as advergaming, and Procter
Service Failure and Customer Satisfaction Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
When customers exhibit signs of dissatisfaction regarding the services of a particular organization, it is crucial for the organization to take corrective measures. Always, customers expect to get value for their money.
The failure to address service failure may drive away customers and adversely affect an organization’s reputation as dissatisfied customers tell potential customers about the organizations poor service delivery (Anderson et al., 2009). This factor considerably affects an organization’s earnings and may eventually lead to closure when the aspect of service failure occurs on a large scale.
The services offered to customers considerably contribute in the marketing aspect of an organization as consumers play the role of personal marketing. Personal marketing is crucial in promoting an organization’s name and its services.
A customer is satisfied when the offered services meet his or her expectations (CENGİZ et al., 2007). Exceeding a customer’s initial expectations increases the customer’s possibility of seeking the services of the same provider in future.
To recover from service failure and restore customer satisfaction, an organization has to embark on vigorous improvement procedures that portray its commitment to customers. An appropriate service delivery approach should ensure satisfactory service delivery and increase profits.
Despite its negative effects, service failure can considerably boost an organization’s marketing and enhance customer loyalty (Komunda
Environmental Issue raised in the “Weather Extremes Leave Parts of U.S. Grid Buckling” Essay (Article) essay help: essay help
In the article, “Weather Extremes Leave Parts of U.S. Grid Buckling”, weather change was the major environmental issue affecting the United States. This change comes in different forms such as vicious storms, famine and high temperature, which have adverse effects on the nation’s infrastructure (Wald and Schwartz par. 1).
Notably, the environment is susceptible to human and natural activities; for instance, the heavy construction of highways in the country affects the natural ecosystem. In addition, the article indicated that the nuclear power plant in Illinois affects the natural attributes of the environment due to the consequences of reacting components.
There are considerable environmental effects arising from complicated engineering, steel and concrete works in the US, which have altered of natural ecosystem (New York Times 1).
The article further outlines the affects of asphalts on the landscape. For example, the condition interferes with the flight operations because jets sometimes stick in the asphalts, thus threatening the human life (Wald and Schwartz par. 2).
Similarly, train operations are also affected by the stretching of the track. This means that the environmental disasters could pose danger to the human life and interfere with the natural aspects of the ecosystem.
Another observation in the article was its revelation that the excess heat interferes with the behavior of clay soil, especially those found beneath the highways. This condition makes the soil shrink (Wald and Schwartz par. 2).
Consequently, it affects the roads since they crack to adjust to the weather conditions, thus becoming risky to the users. As outlined in the article, the other effect of heat on the environment was that it could lead to unprecedented expansion of certain sections of the highway.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This expansion sometimes goes beyond the planned limits and the force excreted from each end could lead to jarring and other dangerous speed bumps, which alter the traffic flow in the affected areas.
The article also pointed out that the intense heat affects the grid, a situation that increases changes in the environment.
For instance, the temperature of a water pond in Chicago that was used to cool the units in a nuclear plant increased to a high of 102 degrees, which has serious consequences on the aquatic life (Wald and Schwartz par. 3). Since the temperature of the pond should only reach 100 degrees, an increase beyond this limit is environmentally disastrous.
The other aspect of the environmental issue that was presented in the article was the devastating storms, flood and forest in some areas of the United States. For example, the article highlighted the flooding in New Orleans, which brought several damages to the environment and the inhabitants of the area, such as washing away bridges, roads, plants and loss of human life (Wald and Schwartz par. 8).
On the other hand, the forest fires and storms were attributed to prolonged drought and intense heat respectively. They create environmental disasters in the areas affected, thus must be controlled.
Solutions to the Environmental Issues According to the article, the author proposed that since extreme weather patterns effect environment and the country’s infrastructure, the construction of highways and nuclear plants should be done while considering such extreme episodes (Wald and Schwartz par. 4).
For example, the designs for roads and railway tracks should consider the seasonal changes in rainfall and temperature because this could help minimize their affects on the environment. It could also reduce the amount of money wasted on the construction of highways on disaster prone areas.
We will write a custom Article on Environmental Issue raised in the “Weather Extremes Leave Parts of U.S. Grid Buckling” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited New York Times, Environment. 7 Aug. 2012. Web.
Wald, Mathew and J. Schwartz. Weather Extremes Leave Parts of U.S. Grid Buckling, 25 Jul. 2012. Web. <https://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/26/us/rise-in-weather-extremes-threatens-infrastructure.html?_r=1
Electronic Payment Systems for E-commerce Expository Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Electronic Payment Systems
Issues with Electronic Payment Methods
Addressing the Issues
Introduction E-commerce has emerged as a distinct and important phenomenon in the business world and its influence in the business world is daily increasing. E-commerce promises to have a significant and positive impact on businesses everywhere. Policymakers and researchers are of the opinion that e-commerce is the future of business as its benefits become more evident.
Zwass (2003) defines e-commerce as “the sharing of business information, maintaining of business relationships, and conducting of business transactions by means of telecommunications networks” (p.8). It offers many opportunities for businesses, as they are able to exploit the power of the computer and the internet in their everyday operations.
The global potential of e-commerce has made it attractive for many companies that hope to achieve considerable gains from e-commerce activities. For e-commerce to take place, a payment system has to be implemented.
Electronic payment systems are the preferred method in e-commerce since they are cheaper and more efficient. These systems make it possible for complete business transactions to take place solely through the internet. However, electronic payment systems bring about a number of issues for both the customer and the business.
This paper will set out to review electronic payment systems for e-commerce and discuss some of the issues that are inherent in these systems. Solutions that are applicable to address the issues will also be highlighted.
Electronic Payment Systems Since e-commerce relates to selling goods and/or services over the internet, the issue of on-line payment system is intricately linked to the e-commerce phenomenon. Zheng (2008) articulates this need by noting that all commercial activities need some form of payment system in order for transactions to be carried out and e-commerce is not exempt from this.
While offline payment methods can be employed in e-commerce, they would negate the advantages of efficiency and convenience that e-commerce promises to give. It is therefore important to employ payment methods that can be utilized in an online environment.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Electronic Payment (E-payment) technology is one of the most important aspects in the development of ecommerce and its development greatly influences the fate of ecommerce (Zheng, 2008). Bushry (2005) documents that electronic payment systems are already proliferating in banking, retail, and on-line markets.
This underscores the fact that electronic payment systems are increasingly popular in many developed nations and electronic payments are becoming preferable to the use of cash in many scenarios.
E-payment exhibits a number of characteristics that are different from traditional means of payment. To begin with, it introduces digital circulation which means that all payments are digitized (Zheng, 2008). The working environment of e-payment is also based on the internet, which is a relatively open system platform.
E-payment also makes use of advance communication means and it has a very high requirement for hardware and software facilities. These facilities are mandatory for supporting e-payments and without them; the payment system is rendered useless (Zheng, 2008).
Electronic payments are very convenient for both the customer and the company. They are efficient since the processing takes place in real time and the company does not have to incur overheads that would be used on mailing out paper invoices and then processing the payment received from the customer later.
There are a number of electronic payment systems utilized in e-commerce. The first is electronic cash, which is used in a manner similar to physical cash. Digital cash makes use of a sequence of binary numbers to represent an intrinsic value in a chosen currency.
Digital cash provides the means to transfer money between transacting parties over the internet. Once a transaction is made, it is settled immediately with the exchange of electronic currency between the transacting parties (Zwass, 2003).
We will write a custom Essay on Electronic Payment Systems for E-commerce specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Electronic cash offers security for both the merchant and the customer since it is impossible to counterfeit the bank’s digital signature. The merchant is also able to verify the validity of the payment made since he has the bank’s public key.
The second type of payment is the prepaid system, which requires the user to pay in advance and then buy products or services. Debit mechanisms utilized in e-commerce include smart cards, which are virtual wallets that store electronic money.
The fact that consumers are required to make the provision of funds before they engage in any commercial transaction guarantees availability of funds for online activities (Zheng, 2008).
The e-wallet is the most commonly used e-payment system today and it allows small purchases to be made. E-wallets are typically linked to the user’s bank account, which provides the money that can be used for online transactions.
The third form of payment is the credit or post paid system, which allows a user to buy products and then pay for them later. Credit cards are the most common post-paid mechanism for a number of reasons. Credit cards help the e-commerce system to overcome the complexities associated with digital cash and electronic cheques (Bushry, 2005).
Issues with Electronic Payment Methods E-payment systems are the driving force that stimulates more merchants to engage in e-commerce and more customers to make online purchases.
The e-payment issue has risen to prominence as more and more traders bring their businesses into e-commerce. These issues have mainly been focused on the security and stability since a key requirement for e-commerce transactions is the presence of a secure, stable and efficient payment system.
Electronic cash brings about a number of issues due to its digital nature. The first issue is with regard to counterfeiting. Zwass (2003) documents that fraud has always been an issue of commerce when dealing with hard currency.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Electronic Payment Systems for E-commerce by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is also an issue with digital cash and security remains a paramount concern in this e-payment system. Unlike minted money that is hard to replicate, digital money is represented in bits and bytes and this makes it easy to copy.
In addition to fraud, electronic cash is also susceptible to double spending where a person spends the same digital cash twice since electronic coins can be copied by the user. The user can then proceed to use the money as payment for two different transactions.
Another issue is that the monetary value of electronic cash is not always stable. Currency fluctuations in the international market therefore poses significant problems for electronic money since sudden devaluation of currency will lead to great losses.
Bushry (2005) demonstrates that the issue is over who will take liability when such events occur. Electronic money also suffers from relatively short life span. Most hard currency has a long life span and the holder of the money is assured that they can use their money for extended periods.
Electronic money might have time limits imposed on it and after this time has expired, the money is worthless to the user. Clients also carry a big risk in having e-cash stored in their local drives.
This is because if their physical storage devices are damaged, the e-cash stored on it is lost forever and it cannot be recovered. Zheng (2008) notes that this risk of loss is one that many consumers are unwilling to bear.
Prepaid systems are preferred by many businesses since the receipt of payment is assured. However, there are risks involved when dealing with pre-paid systems such as virtual wallets. Bushry (2005) warns that this electronic payment mechanism may suddenly become worthless. If this were to happen, the customer will be left with virtual currency that is of no value since nobody is willing to accept it.
Hashim (2009) reveals that many SME managers are wary of using virtual currency because of these stability concerns. This concern is informed by the common perception that online trading is a high-risk affair that might jeopardize their businesses.
Privacy in prepaid systems has been identified as one of the immediate dilemmas by the accounting information systems. Companies use e-commerce sites to reach potential customers and in some cases, transactions take place in this environment and electronic payment is used.
Madieha (2002) observes that the usage of technical means to track down user’s surfing and purchasing tendencies has raised significant privacy issues. Changing market trends have made personal data very important since it enables consumer tastes and preferences to be identified.
For this reason, personal information has become a very valuable commodity and many players in the e-commerce industry are collecting, holding, processing, and using personal data at increasing rates. Boritz and Gyun (2011) demonstrate that personal information is gathered during the registration and ordering process as the customer is required to provide information such as name, address, and credit card number.
Many customers are concerned that their personal information might be obtained by an illegal third party who might use it for malicious activities such as identity theft. For this reason, some people are opting our of e-commerce activities partially by browsing for products but paying offline.
Since pre-paid accounts are linked to a user’s real bank account, intrusion on the pre-paid account by an attacker over the internet might compromise the bank account with dire consequences for the user.
Madieha (2002) asserts that because of these factors, consumer confidence in e-commerce is significantly reduced. The user is unlikely to engage in online transactions when they have worries that their bank account can be compromised from this.
Post paid system
A major issue with post-paid systems is that the overhead costs may be unjustifiable for the customer. As it is, charges are imposed on the individual whenever they use their credit cards to engage in e-commerce.
When purchases are of low value, the transaction fees incurred make this e-payment method inefficient. Zheng (2008) notes that for micro payments (which are transactions involving very low payment values) even a small overhead or a minimum overhead may become unbearable.
With post-paid systems, the client is issued with a physical card. This card is vulnerable to compromise since the information contained on the magnetic strip card can be copied, forged or altered. There is also real concern that hackers will steal and misuse credit card numbers given by the customer.
Payment by credit card requires faith in the system security and as such, mutual trust is needed between seller and buyer. Without this trust, the buyer will not be willing to expose himself to risks by making payments using his credit card to a merchant that he does not trust.
E-commerce businesses also stand the risk of suffering from internal fraud. In normal businesses, fraud is deterred by safeguards that have been developed over the years for traditional accounting. The same scenario does not apply in e-commerce where standards are still immature.
This issue has made many small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) generally stay away from e-commerce (Hashim, 2009). This is an important factor in the expansion of e-commerce since SMEs are considered to be the lifeblood of modern economies.
Addressing the Issues Since the issues discussed above hinder the growth of e-commerce, measures have been taken to address them. Companies have taken steps to protect personal information provided by users. Personal data is important for e-commerce since it makes it possible for targeted advertisements to take place.
Such kinds of advertisements are more efficient than mass advertisement and for this reason; many companies prefer to use this form of advertisement. However, customers may be wary of having their buying habits available online. Companies that engage in e-commerce can take up a number of measures to alleviate fears by customers.
Implementing privacy protection protocols such as information privacy controls will limit the extent to which the customers’ personal information can be accessed. This combined with privacy-enhancing technologies such as encryption and the Anonymizer will reduce customer vulnerability while on the network.
Boritz and Gyun (2011) assert that customers need to be confident of the privacy-enhancing technologies provided by the companies or else they will decline to engage in e-commerce transactions. This is because as long as customers are concerned about theft by criminals, they will not be comfortable using e-commerce.
Various factors are considered by consumers when they are deciding on the payment system to employ. A key concern is the approach to security taken by the business.
Consumers are wary of the dangers that exist in online transactions and Bushry (2005) reveals that the assurance of confidentiality of the transaction is an important factor for many consumers.
The issue of defaulting on payments by the credit card user can be resolved by ensuring credit worthiness of a cardholder. Companies that issue credit cards verify the credit worthiness of the customer in order to avoid customers using more than they can pay for.
Electronic cash can be used to ensure anonymity of the consumer. This is accomplished by using e-cash software at the customers end in order to blind the original number of the digital coin (Bushry, 2005). This creates anonymity which allows freedom of usage by the customer in the same way that physical cash can be used.
No one can monitor the spending pattern of a single user since intractability makes it impossible for different payments to be linked to a single buyer. Having untraceable currency is important for e-commerce since customers may be concerned about all their purchasing activities being traced back to them.
To address the problem of double spending, the issuer of digital currency must check the digital coins passed to it for redemption against a database; a process which increases the overhead costs for e-cash (Bushry, 2005).
The problem of losing e-cash through the destruction of local drives can be overcome by having a back up in another system. Many banks which issue e-cash advise users to back up their currency in order to avoid loss. Backing up is a fairly straightforward activity and the user does not incur any additional cost to do this.
Conclusion E-commerce is expected to dramatically change the manner in which conventional business is conducted. However, as more people become involved in e-commerce, some issues inherent in e-commerce are beginning to emerge. This paper reviewed electronic payment systems for e-commerce so as to articulate issues currently facing this aspect of e-commerce.
It began by underlining the manner in which e-commerce differs from conducting commerce in the physical environment. The paper has confirmed the importance of e-payment to ecommerce and also discussed the various methods of e-payment that are available. The digital nature of e-payments makes them open to some issues including fraud and privacy violation.
Most of the issues associated with electronic payment systems are a result of the fact that this systems are not well mature and they are still evolving. However, progress has been made and most of the issues facing e-payment systems have been addressed through technological advances such as better encryption technology.
It can therefore be anticipated that as e-commerce becomes more expansive and e-payment methods mature, most of the issues will be addressed sufficiently. This will bring about customer confidence in e-payment and the future growth of e-commerce will be guaranteed.
Works Cited Boritz, E.
“Forty Fortunes” Fairy Tale Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
The fairy tale ‘Forty Fortunes’ has its origin in Iran and revolves around Ahmed, a poor man who follows the advice of his wife. The wife advises him to get into different professions for him to earn more money.
Although Ahmed understands that his wife’s advice is full of risks, he hesitantly agrees to follow it and becomes a fortune teller in a bid to increase his income and prevent her from leaving him.
Soon after he decides to become a fortune teller, a king’s treasure is stolen. Incidentally, the king gets information about his unique talent and bestows the responsibility of recovering the lost treasure on him within a period of forty days. He is supposed to employ his powers to trace it within that stipulated period of time.
Jamell, Ahmed’s wife is very delighted after discovering that her husband will be awarded many riches if he recovers the missing treasure.
However, if he fails to recover it, he will spend the rest of his life in jail. In an eavesdropping incident, the thieves get convinced that Ahmed knows of their whereabouts and that they will not escape the wrath of the king. Instead of being taken to the king once they are caught, they decide to negotiate with Ahmed to save them.
The story is very significant in the Iranian culture since it highlights some of the most important aspects of the Iranian people and their character. For instance, it points out the changes that have taken place regarding the role of women in the society in the Middle East.
Today, it is a common occurrence for women to be involved in formal jobs just like men. However, this was not the scenario in the past since women were supposed to stay at home and take care of their husbands and children.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This story has continued to be told from generation to generation because it explains some aspects of Iranian culture and the Islamic world in general that are highly valued and that should be passed on from generation to generation.
For instance, it focuses on divining or foretelling. This refers to the use of mystic means to find out hidden knowledge. Throughout history, this has taken place in almost all cultures.
As an individual, the story has a lot of meaning and significance. One of the most important lessons that I learn from it is that people should not be afraid of trying new things in their lives for fear of failure. Ahmed only worked for survival and feared trying a different thing but when he did, he eventually became rich.
Retelling the Forty Fortunes Forty Fortunes is a story about Ahmed, a poor man. He is married to Jamell and they live in the Royal City of Isfahan. He has no trade and is not determined to learn any. All he owns is a shovel and a pick which he uses to dig holes for little money. He is clearly unambitious and tells his wife that all they need is only to survive.
Jamell is not satisfied with what her husband does and the situation becomes worse when she is turned away at the public baths, simply because the wife of the king’s Royal Diviner is using them. This leads her into thinking that her life and that of her husband can only change if the husband became a diviner.
Ahmed is taken by surprise when his wife advises him to become a fortune teller and at first takes her for an insane person. This is because he knows nothing about fortune telling. However, Jamell seems to be wise and creative since she tells him that diviners only apply wisdom to earn their living.
She tells him that all he needs to do is only get a dice and mumble some wise things failure to which she will leave him. To keep his wife, Ahmed is left with no option other than selling his shovel and pick to get a dice and the robes worn by fortune tellers. After he lands into the market place, he encounters the wife of one of the king’s masters who has lost her precious ring while at the public baths.
We will write a custom Essay on “Forty Fortunes” Fairy Tale specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He doesn’t know what to tell her but as he looks at her, he notices a hole on his cloak. He mentions it thus assisting the wife remember where he had hidden her ring. This earns him a gold coin.
When Ahmed takes the gold coin to his wife, she congratulates him but he keeps on saying that it was the grace of God implying that the thing was not going to work for long. On the same night, the royal treasury of the king is robbed of forty chests. The king’s Royal Diviner and his assistants fail to unravel the mystery forcing the king to call Ahmed since he had heard about him after recovering the lost ring.
When he enquires from him about the robbery, Ahmed has no idea on what to say but uses his own wisdom which turns out to be impressive to the king. Since there were forty chests, he tells the king that the thieves must have been forty, something that the king’s diviners could not find out.
He also promises the king that he will find the thieves after forty days failure to which he will end up in prison. Later, he expresses his worry to his wife because he knows that it is likely for him to end up in prison if he does not reveal the thieves.
In order for Ahmed to know when the forty days are over, he puts forty dates in a jar and eats one every evening. Surprisingly, one of the thieves is the king’s servant who overhears the conversation between the king and Ahmed. He goes back and explains this to their chief who then sends him to Ahmed’s house to listen for any information.
As the thief sits on the roof of the house, ahmed takes one of the dates and tells his wife ‘that’s one.’ The thief gets very scared and returns to the chief to tell him that Ahmed has unbelievable powers because he could know there was somebody on the roof.
The chief repeats the same procedure with an additional thief and everytime the number of the thieves on the roof coincides with the number of dates Ahmed has eaten. This convinces them that Ahmed knows about them and that he will take them to the king.
To avoid being taken to the king, the forty thieves reveal themselves and plead with Ahmed to save them. He agrees to save them on condition that they return all the treasures they had stolen. Before the end of the night, they return all the treasures to the treasury.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “Forty Fortunes” Fairy Tale by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ahmed returns to the king and tells him that his magic arts can only get him either the thieves or the treasures but not both, so he has to make a choice. He does this since he has agreed to save the thieves if they returned the treasures. Since the king values the treasures, his choice is to get them back.
He is extremely happy to find them back and decides to make Ahmed his Royal Diviner. However, Ahmed knows that he does not have the powers to be a diviner for the king so he regrets the fact that he used all his powers that he cannot be a diviner anymore. In appreciation, the king rewards him two chests which make him a rich man.
Discussion of Re-telling the Story The re-telling of this story brings out the role of hard work and the need for individuals to believe in themselves. For instance, Ahmed lived in poverty using his pick and shovel to earn a living but he was not working hard enough. He was satisfied with the little he got as long as there food for his wife and himself.
It was not until his wife pressured him to change profession that he considered following her advice. The story is re-told in a manner that portrays the challenging and risky situations that Ahmed found himself in but applied wisdom in all of them to emerge the winner.
The main intention of re-telling this story is to convince individuals that they should not understimate what they can do. For instance, Ahmed never knew that he could apply a lot of wisdom to win the confidence of great people including the king and eventually become rich.
The intended audience of this story is adult people who find themselves under pressure to provide for their families. Some of them waste a lot of time doing unrewarding jobs without knowing that they have the potential to do greater things. All that is required is for them to believe in themselves and listen to the advice they get from people who are close to them.
Intel and Advanced Micro Devices Essay writing essay help
The chipset manufacturing industry has been under constant transformation due to the rivalry between Intel and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). These two chipmakers are the dominant players in the manufacture of CPUs. The fierce competition between Intel and AMD has caused considerable changes in chipset technologies as each firm tries to gain market control.
These two companies undertake frequent refinements of their chipsets to achieve optimal performance in terms of speed, graphics and power consumption to achieve greater customer appeal. A chipset’s performance depends on factors such as cache memory, clock speed, host-bus speed.
Of the two companies, AMD was the first to introduce a 64-bit chipset with a clocking capability measurable in gigahertz. In response, Intel introduced its EMT64 chipset possessing 64-bit functionalities. Intel and AMD employ different chipset production techniques. AMD focuses on the issue of compatibility and manufactures chips based on pre-existing sockets.
The company produces a range of chips based on a particular socket until there is need to upgrade to a new socket due to technological constrictions. In this regard, consumers face few difficulties when there is need to upgrade or replace a chipset.
In addition, AMD processors support backward-compatibility and thus provide users with a lot of flexibility. AMD’s focus on compatibility extends to its processors’ bridge components, which are easy to mix and match unlike Intel chips whose design considers certain processor families.
To counter AMD’s strategy, Intel ensures frequent release of chipsets and system boards. This cushions consumers against difficulties associated with replacement or upgrading as socket sizes vary with new chipset releases.
AMD places emphasis on the issue of energy consumption by designing processors that operate at low energy levels. This has helped to boost the company’s customer appeal as it considers the minimization of consumers’ energy expenses. An Intel processor with similar functionalities will operate at higher energy consumption levels.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A processor clocking speed and its extendibility are key considerations in high-end operations. The architecture of AMD chips support faster clocking and over-clocking while maintaining stability. AMD chips’ design ensures the location of the L3 cache memory outside the CPU core to support over-clocking.
One can vary the BIOS settings and increase the speed of a processor accordingly. An Intel chip constitutes of a L2 cache memory located in its core. Although Intel chips resist over-clocking, the location of the L2 cache memory facilitates faster memory access and thus enable higher performance when compared to the AMD L3 cache memory.
The correlation between performance and cache memory speed becomes significant during small data applications. Intel chipsets exhibit effectiveness in extracting and analyzing data during a single program operation.
The architecture of Intel CPUs ensures minimal heat generation during execution of tasks. In this regard, Intel chipsets are likely to last longer than AMD chipsets with equivalent functions as they normally exhibit higher heat generation. This is a major setback for AMD equipped machines when dealing with heavy applications.
Although both companies have exhibited high levels of innovativeness regarding chipset technology, Intel controls a considerably large portion of the chipset market. Intel’s dominance over AMD in terms of customer appeal emanates from extensive campaigns and licensing of the brand’s name to several PC manufacturers.
However, AMD continues to penetrate market segments previously dominated by Intel and has proven to be the greatest threat to Intel in the whole chipset industry.
Human Resource Development Portfolio for a Marketing Manager Report argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Competencies acquired in class
How to increase those competencies
Introduction The following is a report on human resource development portfolio for a marketing manager. The paper looks into the job description of a marketing manager in terms of the key competencies needed for one to perform the task appropriately. The other aspect of this report looks in the competencies learned in the classroom.
The report also checks whether the competencies match the role of a marketing manager. It will also discuss aspects learned outside classroom through job training.
Job description The main responsibility of a marketing manager is to maintain the market in terms of developing competitive strategies for the company. It also involves ensuring that the company has first hand information on the market trends. The marketing manager has the responsibility of branding the company in order to promote the products in the market.
In addition, the marketing manager is responsible for coordination of the marketing staff to ensure that there is teamwork. Teamwork is very important because when the staffs work together they exchange ideas, which results to success due to high quality work. This is because among the staff are those who are experienced and hence can share their skills with newly employed members.
The marketing manager leads these teams to ensure that each member participate actively (Drucker, 1974). The marketing manager must conduct market and consumer research activities, analyse the research and make recommendation based on the findings of the research to instigate activities and decisions that are informed especially in product and brand development.
As part of the job, the marketing manager will have to create marketing activities that will fall within the stipulated budget. The marketing manager is responsible for the development of the pricing strategy of the company to ensure that the prices of the product are competitive in the market (Bradley, 2010).
The following key competencies ensure that the marketing manager performs the responsibilities appropriately. The first competency is that the marketing manager must have leadership competency, as the marketing manager must lead the marketing team by example.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The manager must lead promotion teams, consumer research team and branding team to ensure that they are effective. He or she must therefore have good interpersonal and leadership skills to lead the team (Bond, 2006).
The other key competency will involve carrying out market research. The marketing manager must be competent in gathering data from the market, analysing the data and using it to make decisions that will influence the pricing of the products as well as the marketing strategy that the company has to adopt (Csíkszentmihalyi, 2000).
The other competency that the marketing manager must have is good financial accounting skills to prepare the marketing budget and ensure that it falls within the budget of the company. The marketing manager must be capable of accounting for the department’s expenditure when needed. This may involve preparing the departments books of account and financial statements (Hilgard, 1966).
The marketing manager must have good media liaison skills where he or she has media contacts such that if there is any promotion or advertising media contacts may be used. This media contacts ensure that the organisation creates a positive campaign that is well publicised in the media (Marder, 2007).
The manager must have branding knowledge especially on how to create advertising copies that will place the company in the mind of consumers. The marketing manager must be creative in order to come up with new strategies that will help the company develop competitive products for the company to remain ahead in its sales (Marder, 2007).
The marketing manager must also have knowledge of the industry especially concerning the new marketing platforms. The managers must be informed about the new developments in marketing both locally and globally. This helps the manager to make informed decisions. Information on the trends enables the manager to make the company ahead of competition regarding strategy such as pricing, advertising, and promotion activities (Mayo, 2001).
The manager must also be knowledgeable in technology matters about software that simplify their work (McDonald, 2007). The manager needs to be well versed with social media, email marketing and other forms of new media marketing. The manager must have knowledge in the use of enterprise resource planning software that helps managers in the execution of their responsibilities.
We will write a custom Report on Human Resource Development Portfolio for a Marketing Manager specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This software enables the manager to communicate with the advertisers, make and analyse advertising designs presented for approval. The manager must know how to create advertising copy and branding strategies (McDonald, 2007).
The marketing manager must be a good organiser and planner of effective strategies on how to keep the company’s product at the top in the competition. The manager must plan on the budget to determine who will play different roles in the achievement of the set goals. The marketing manager must review the marketing plans of the company especially in creating appropriate strategies (Thorndike, 2002).
Competencies acquired in class The following are some of the competencies learned in class. The first one is financial accounting, which relates to the creation of marketing budget. The marketing budget ensures that there are adequate resources to maintain and sustain the marketing and promotion activities.
The promotional activities may involve use of flyers, logos, and T- shirts. This budget must take into consideration advertising and market research activities. The classroom provides a platform for acquiring these skills (Schein, 1992).
The other skill acquired from the classroom in creating the marketing campaign is the development of market research tools. The class project exercises enable the student to conduct market research project. One learns to create and design a market research program (Mayo, 2001).
One also learns to gather information from the market using different market research techniques such as market intelligence, market surveillance and consumer behaviour research. From the class, one also learns how to analyse the market research results as well as ensure that the findings of the research are of help to the target company (Mayo, 2001).
The market research skills that are acquired in class make a key competency. However, to harness such a skill it is imperative to have experience in such a department by having a firsthand experience in real company market survey and consumer insight research (Thorndike, 2002).
The other key competency learned in the classroom involves the creation of the advertising copy, for a marketing manager to be competent and deliver advertising messages that achieve the intended results he or she must have knowledge on how to design effective advertising that will brand the company positively as well as increase the sales volume of the company.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Resource Development Portfolio for a Marketing Manager by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More From class one the manager learns to develop advertising by creating adverting copies. One also learns how to use various graphical software, how to design images for posters and other promotional materials.
There is learning on how to make an advertising campaign achieve the intended purpose by mixing the advertising messages together with the promotional messages that help the company have a positive response in the market.
The other key competency learned in class involves the creation of advertising and promotional messages that keep the company busy and ensures that the company has the needed resources that keep it on the winning edge.
Excellent written and verbal communication skills are another key skill learned in class through the essays and presentations done in classroom as part of the training. This skill is imperative as it prepares one to write persuasive messages for the consumers and ensures retention of the old consumers thus creating goodwill for the company.
The marketing manager must also persuade the management to allocate enough resources for marketing. The marketing manager must have presentation skills acquired from the classroom setting where one learns how to make persuasive presentations and answer questions as well as defend the point of argument (Csíkszentmihalyi, 2000).
Problem analysis and problem solving through the essays and the company marketing strategy analysis help to be critical of the competitor and be a good analyser of different skills (Fuchs, 2003).
By having group work exercises, one learns how to develop team-leadership as well as become a team leader. This skill is imperative for marketing manager, as the manager has to deal with the teams. The manager has to coordinate and motivate the team.
From the group work, one learns to be a part of team and work with other people. One must learn to work with people who have different personalities and make them work for a common objective (Fuchs, 2003).
Through the classroom presentation, one learns how to make presentation skills. The marketing manager must present the budget to the management or the board members for approval. This means that the manager must make a persuasive presentation to the board. The presentation exercises conducted in the classroom prepare one before hand on how to make such presentations (Csíkszentmihalyi, 2000).
The other exercises such as creation of marketing strategies and advertising copies prepare one to be innovative. The role of marketing manager involves a lot of creativity, as one must continually invent new products, new brands, and pricing strategy. The exercises done in the classroom prepare one to be innovative and think outside the box (Fuchs, 2003).
The presentation exercise and the critique of various strategies presented in class by fellow students and lecturers prepare one to have good judgment skills on what will succeed, and what will not.
The presentation skills ensure development of good decision making as one is analytical enough to see the potential failures of a given strategy and therefore develop a fall back plan in case the plan does not go as excepted (Thorndike, 2002).
The other key attribute involves the creation in the development, which is well intended to have the resources in developing the attributes that will be of help to the company. The other skill learned from class is using the enterprise software designed for marketing managers (Mayo, 2001).
This software enables the market managers to hold everything with different stakeholders who help the company create a positive way in developing the resources in the company (Fuchs, 2003).
How to increase those competencies Increasing ones career competencies as a marketing manager is achieved by receiving feedback from the colleagues and bosses and other stakeholders on the areas that one needs to improve. Such competencies may involve skills as communication skills (McDonald, 2007).
Leadership styles as well as teamwork are important and one may continually attend courses and seminars that relate to the career to be up to date with the developments in ones field. One must work towards improving capabilities through online assessment tests and courses to identify areas where one is weak as a manager as well as upgrade one’s competencies (Honey, 2007).
One should also join professional networks, which bring together practitioners in a particular field. The aim of these networks is to provide the members with information on the changing trends in the health care industry as well as provide training opportunities for the members at an affordable cost (McDonald, 2007).
The networking opportunities inform the members on career and job opportunities. They validate and act as a proof that one is competent in their field of operation. They also act as a guide in matters of legal and ethical issues that govern the field marketing and management (Honey, 2007).
Other than networking and informing the members of new opportunities in their field, the professional bodies provide continuing education for their members. These are important to the members to ensure that they are up to date with the dynamic field.
Opportunities of continuing education keep the members abreast with new trends and education requirements of their career. At a time when downsizing due to integration of technology in work places is common, the professional networks provide training opportunities for their members such that they are at par with the technological changes (Fuchs, 2003).
The other way of improving ones competency is by training in the job market. The training will involve working in the marketing department where one learns key competencies to have firsthand experience in the development of marketing strategies, promotional strategies, and development of advertising copies.
It is from the training that one acquires media contacts, which are critical as a marketing manager. From the training, one learns how to collaborate with others and work as part of a team (Fuchs, 2003).
Conclusion The human resource development plan assists one to develop a good plan that shows where to improve. The career development plan ensures that one is well positioned to take the responsibilities that pertain to a given career. They identify the skills that one has to develop to be suitable for a particular position. They also help one to appreciate the exercises learned in class that will be of help to the students in future.
Having the understanding of the importance, the students feel motivated to perform various tasks and roles given within the classroom setting. The human resource development plan also assists the students to participate in extracurricular activities that will give them the required experience and leadership skills.
The extracurricular activities help the students to discern their personal attributes such as being a team player as well as result-oriented person that are key personal attribute of a marketing manager.
References Bradley, N. (2010). Marketing research: Tools and techniques. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bond J. (2006). Sociology and health care. London: Churchill Livingstone.
Csíkszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper Perennial.
Drucker, P. (1974). Management: Tasks, responsibilities, practices. New York, NY: Harper
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Introduction Consumer behaviour is the general function of a customer’s preference and taste as well as the resultant utility. Consumers have variant perceptions of the satisfaction they expect to derive from a certain good or service which comprises their taste. On the other hand, a consumer has a certain degree of bias towards a given product given a choice between two which comprises their presence.
These two aspects influence the level of utility the consumer derives from utilization and consumption of the product in question (Frank and Bernanke 2001, p12).
However, a consumer’s preference and taste is constrained by variety of factors such as operating income, government restriction as to the allowed purchase quantity as well as the type of products. In effect, a consumer will spend their money on a bundle of goods that offer the maximum amount of satisfaction. Their choice of such bundles is therefore influenced by their tastes and preferences.
1. According to the neoclassical utility model as proposed by Mahoney (2001) in the case of two income goods x and z the consumer given a choice between the two products that are not substitutes the consumer has a certain preference for good x over good z presenting three options as follows :
x as preferred to z
z as preferred to x
z and x equally preferred or indifferent
These options can be represented as follows
Curve x represents a consumers preference for good x over z. Curve z represents a consumers preference for good z over x. P1 represents policy 1 which presents the consumer with a voucher that can be exchanged for a fixed amount of good x.
Line P2 represents a policy that presents the consumer with an income supplement sufficient to buy the same amount of good x assuming that every supermarket has the same price for good x (Witt 2001a, p. 1-5).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At point O Under these two policies households’ preferences over the two goods will always have exactly the same impacts on the household in terms of its utility level and consumption levels of the two goods as illustrated by the diagram above.
At point O a consumer who has a higher preference for good x over good z under policy 1 as illustrated by curve (x,x) would ordinarily consume a bundle of quantity (x1,z1) having exchanged the voucher offered by the first policy however they can now consume for (x2) amount of good x after trading in the voucher for a fixed amount of good x which is the difference between (x1) and (x2).
A household which on the other hand has a higher preference for good (z) as opposed to (x) will consume (x2) amount of good (x) which is the equivalent of the (z2) amount of good z that they ordinarily are willing to consume as offered by the second policy.
In effect as long as the voucher offered by policy one is equal in quantity terms to the difference between the two curves representing the household differences in preferences the two policies will give similar results (Witt 2001b, p. 23-36).
2. Under certain house hold preferences the two households will have potentially different impacts on the households in terms of its utility and level of consumption. These circumstances are as follows.
If the goods are perfect substitutes
The preference curve for perfect substitutes is as follows
The households will willingly exchange one good for the other despite their preference therefore there will be a rather rigid manner in which they utilize the commodity in regards to quantity and utility. Therefore an implementation of either of the policies will always result to different results.
We will write a custom Essay on Consumer behaviour specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If the goods are perfect complements
Aconsumer may have their own preference for either good however perfect complements vary and restrict such preferences to ensure that each quantity of one good acquired is acquired with an equal or similar quantity for proper enjoyment of either of the goods. Therefore, implementation of one both or either of the policies will lead to entirely different results. The utility preference and consumption curve will be as follows :
If the household acquires a unit of good x the household it ensures that it derives as much utility from it as one unit of good z and does the same for two units of good x this ensures a consistent difference in the overall utilisation and use of the goods. In effect implementation of either policy will always lead to different modes of consumption therefore different levels of utility (Nevo 2003).
In case the products are imperfect substitutes
If a consumer perceives a product to be an imperfect substitute of the other they have different levels of preference and utility for either product. It would not be possible therefore to equate the two goods in regards to consumption and preference. Therefore each product will have a different indifference curve. Application of either policy will lead to different results arising from the lack of similarity.
3. The two policies cannot be substituted because the first policy does not vary with the earnings and preference of the household but rather offers a rigid biased offer for a fixed quantity of good x while the second policy is a flexible policy that varies with the needs and capacities of households.
The approach taken by policy one limits the consumer’s choice in the amount of good x they consume. The consumer will always take advantage of a subsidy and they will therefore have little choice in the minimum amount of good x they will acquire.
The second policy on the other hand increases the maximum amount of good x the consumer is willing and able to consume. It increases the upper limit buy matching the subsidy with the consumers actual spending. This therefore maintains their choice but influences their capacity.
4. Utility as a function of preferences defines how much pleasure the consumer derives from a certain good or product. The rate at which a household consumes a certain good depends to a great extent on the satisfaction they anticipate from the good. This further has a bearing on the amount of a given product they are willing to consume.
On the other hand the consumers wilingliness to consume a product will however be curtailed their cost budget therefore limiting the amount they actually purchase of a given product (Bianchi 2002).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Consumer behaviour by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, the amount of a certain product that a household consumes is a function of their budget constrains as well as their tastes and preference or rather the utility they receive from the good. The utility function represents the relationship between utility measures and the possible combination of goods as shown by the diagram below.
As such the utility derived from a given bundle of goods by a household increases at a decreasing rate. Therefore the more of a certain commodity the household consumes the lesser utility they derive from it. The two policies aim at increasing the amount of a certain good that the consumer purchases.
They will however not always achieve utility since the more the household consumes the lesser utility they derive. The total utility derived from consumption of the specific bundle of goods reduces as the consumer gets used to large amounts of the goods therefore reducing the satisfaction.
There are however alternative ways of increasing the utility as well as the consumption of these goods. This can be achieved through a product subsidy to reduce the price of the commodity. According to Nicholson (2002) a characteristic of preference is that more is always good.
A household is ready to settle for more of the cheaper product as opposed to lesser of another product for the same amount of money. A reduction in the price of product x changes the slope of the budget constraint holding the income constant as represented by the diagrams below
If the price of good x is 10 dollars, a unit the consumer who has a constrained budget of 400 dollars can only buy 40 units of good x. The household looks for the bundle that gives the best utility within the budget line. The consumers’ willingness to consume is limited by their anticipation of spending and their limits in budget. This however can be changed by the reduction in the prices of the product.
With a product subsidy that reduces the price, the budget line slope changes to adjust to the new price. If for instance the price for good x reduces to 8 dollars a unit the budget line changes and the consumer thanks to the price subsidy of 2 dollars per unit can acquire more units of good x he can now consume up to 50 units of the good with the same budget constraints as follows.
A consumer will be more willing to purchase additional units of good x at the same level of preference due to the reduction in price. This also has an implication on the utility derived from the consumption of the goods.
The firm will minimise its costs by reducing its labour usage where the average product of labour is increasing. Since the marginal product is greater than the average product of labour in the short run the firm will minimise its costs when the marginal cost of labour and capital are equal to the average product.
In the long run however the marginal product diminishes and the input combination that supports the least cost is where the marginal product for labour and capital is zero or where the average product of labour and capital are greater than the marginal product of labour and capital (Perloff 2012).
The firm will reap benefits in the long run since the marginal cost of production which is the additional cost of producing an extra unit of a given product is lower than the average product hence attracting the economies of scale (Perloff 2012). The firm will incur lesser cost per unit in manufacturing additional units of the good due to the benefits of scale.
References Bianchi, M 2002, Novelty, Preferences, and Fashion: When Goods Are Unsettling’, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Vol 47 no 1, pp. 1-18.
Frank, R., and Bernanke, B 2001, Principles of Economics. McGraw-Hill Irwin, Boston
Mahoney, D 2001, On the Representation Theorems of Neoclassical Utility Theory: A Comment, Web.
Nevo, A 2003, ‘New Products, Quality Changes, and Welfare Measures Computed from Estimated Demand Systems’, Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol 85 no 2, pp. 266-75
Nicholson, W 2002, Microeconomic Theory: Basic Principles and Extensions, South Western College Publishing, Ohio
Perloff, J 2012, Microeconomics global economics global edition (6th edn), Pearson education, New York
Witt, U 2001a, ‘Economic Growth- What Happens on the Demand Side?’ Journal of Evolutionary Economics, vol 2 no. 2, pp. 11: 1-5.
Witt, U 2001b, ‘Learning to Consume—A Theory of Wants and the Growth of Demand’, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Vol 11 no. 1, pp. 23-36.
Karyotype argumentative essay help
You will evaluate 3 patients’ case histories, complete their karyotypes, and diagnose any missing or extra chromosomes and the condition associated to those chromosomal states.
Check the grade rubric to understand how to obtain 10 points for this assignment.
This exercise is a simulation of human karyotyping using digital images of chromosomes from actual human genetic studies. It is designed as an introduction to genetic studies on humans.
Karyotyping is one of many techniques that allow us to look for several thousand possible genetic diseases in humans.
You will be arranging chromosomes into a completed karyotype, and interpreting your findings just as if you were working in a genetic analysis program at a hospital or clinic.
Karyotype analyses are performed over 400,000 times per year in the U.S. and Canada.
Imagine that you were performing these analyses for real people, and that your conclusions would drastically affect their lives.
The analysis involves comparing chromosomes for their length, the placement of centromeres (areas where the two chromatids are joined), and the location and sizes of G-bands. You will electronically complete the karyotype for three individuals and look for abnormalities that could explain the phenotype
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Table of Contents Introduction
Geographical setting of Monaco
Introduction Monaco is a country located in the Western Europe. It is a small, independent state located between the French Alps and the Mediterranean Sea. The country has an advanced economy, which has global acknowledgement as a world’s luxury destination. It enjoys strong constitutional framework (Stoll-Davey, 2007).
The backbone of the Monaco economy is based on the stable financial institutions. In addition, the country relies on tourism and good climate to support its economy. The presence of cultural events and high class hotels is the major sources of attraction to tourists.
The infrastructure include: Good health care services, excellent education system and tax exemption for residence. These are the major strength factors for the Monaco economy (Temperman, 2010).
Monaco’s History Monaco has been rated as one of the smallest independent state in the world. The country lies in the South-Eastern France, with many mountains on one side and the Mediterranean Sea on the other side. The climate of Monaco is favourable with sea breezes and frosts.
Monaco is considered to be at proximity from Italy and France. However, the Monaco’s small geographical size makes it lack natural resources especially land for commercial and agricultural purposes (Mobile Reference, 2011).
Geographical setting of Monaco The country located between France and Italy. The geographical setting of Monaco indicates that Monaco is not only densely populated but also stands as a country with the smallest size. The lowest point of the country is on the border with the Mediterranean Sea.
The highest point is the slopes of Mount Agel, which is considered to be above sea level. Monaco has reclaimed some land from the Mediterranean Sea, hence increasing its size tremendously. The border to Mediterranean sea has made it easy to venture in the fishing industry.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The country enjoys warm Mediterranean climate with a humid of subtropical climate. It experiences warm, dry summers and rainy winters. It has cool and warm interludes (Hyde, 2010).
Institutions The country has enjoyed stability long in 13th Century. The country is stabile with a clear constitution which defines the powers of the Prince. The Prince manages the powers of the executive and the government running policies. The Monaco government is composed of five ministers, also known as “Conseiller du Gourvernerment”.
The ministers have a representation of different ministries. This includes the youth, education culture and sports. The religious matters are also influential in the country because there is a minister for religious functions. There is a minister responsible for budget and the economy of Monaco. Monaco has its own legislative body which makes laws, and amends the laws to fit the circumstances of the day.
The legislative power rests on the national assembly. The assembly consists of 24 members elected to represent the citizens of Monaco. The judicial power is one of the most powerful wings of the Monaco government (Temperman, 2010).
The existence of any institution in Monaco has to take note of the fact that the country is a hereditary and constitutional monarchy. The principality of Monaco is that it is a city whereby the institutions available must be according to the guidelines spelt out in the constitution. The running of institutions is greatly influenced by His Serene Highness Prince Albert II.
The Prince has the powers to grant citizenship and Amnesty. The Prince is advised by the Council. The crown Council and the State Council are the main bodies that the King makes his consultations before he makes any decision. The consultations are mainly on issues of signing treaties and dissolving the National council. The council is also responsible for matters related to law and maintenance of order (Stoll-Davey, 2007).
The legislative power rests in the hands of the Prince and the National Council. It is only the two bodies who have the mandate to exercise the legislative powers. The country also ensures a clear separation of powers whereby the judiciary, the National Council and the prince powers are tamed. The courts are to exercise their powers while observing impartiality and fairness.
We will write a custom Report on Monaco Cultural Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The department of Finance has an administrative unit which has the duty of overseeing all the financial transactions. The institution was established in 1994, and it is the sole administrative institution in Monaco. The main responsibility of the institution is to investigate any suspicious financial transactions.
The institution also investigates the observance of the law which governs institutions in Monaco. Its powers are extensive, and it can access a number of public databases. The institution is attached to the control of the Minister of the State (Mobile Reference, 2011).
The financial intuitions in Monaco are subjected to a scrutiny by the designated authorities so as to detect offences related to money laundering and other offences. The public prosecution has a wide discretion to prefer criminal charges upon completion of investigations. The institution is made up of two judges.
The judges have the powers to make direct investigation or use the police intermediary in the process of gathering enough evidence. These guidelines of investigation have taken sometime, and there is a recent consideration to review it. The risk of money laundering to the Monaco banks has been a major influence towards a need to have a strong institution for investigating different conduct.
The system, which allows the officers to rotate to different posts in the same institution, has been highly criticized, and there is a spirited campaign for the guidelines to be reviewed (Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 2010).
On the other hand, the country has established a Customs Union which was signed on 18 May 1963 under the Customs Conventions in Monaco. The institution has a leading role in identifying cross border transportation. The currency and negotiable instruments on the cross border dealings are closely monitored by the customs body.
The institution has maintained collaboration with the French government whereby necessary information is shared across the borders of the two countries. Bold steps to implement the law governing the cross border transactions have been taken (Kirk, 2002).
The banking sector in Monaco has borrowed a lot from the French government. The banks in Monaco are answerable to the political institutions. Many financial institutions in Monaco have had prudential aspects and the regulation of sound banking aspects in the country. The anti-money laundering arrangements in the Monaco are manned by efficiently.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Monaco Cultural Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Monaco government has provided laws to cover different types of employees. There are obligations spelt out under the law whereby chances of money laundering and terrorism funding have been greatly minimized.
The issue of keeping anonymous accounts is not entertained in the running of financial institutions in Monaco. Institutions in Monaco are obligated to observe due diligence in all customers and to maintain high standards of verification of identity (Hyde, 2010).
Monaco’s social indicators have largely placed it at a level of world competitiveness. The country has free education program whereby children between the ages of six to sixteen are supposed to get compulsory education. The quality of primary, secondary and vocational education is enhanced.
The country has three private schools and ten government funded schools. The school curricula and the school programs highly resemble the French education systems. The country enjoys, high expectancy level and the population is rated among the oldest in the world (Haggett, 2002).
Monaco is also a member of different organizations under the United Nations Charter. This includes the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations organization for Education. In acknowledging the role of protecting intellectual property, Monaco is a member of the World Organization for intellectual property. In addition, Monaco is a member of many intergovernmental organizations.
It has the cultural and technical cooperation organization. The mentioned agency was established with the sole aim of dealing with culturally related function within and outside Monaco.
Under the move to protect the plants and animals considered extinct, Monaco is a member of the Convention on International Commerce in Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. This is an international organization that protects and safeguards the extinction of endangered species (Haggett, 2002).
The Non-governmental Organizations are also part of the institutions in Monaco. They include International Diplomatic Academy that deals with diplomatic training in Monaco. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature has the leading role in facilitating the conservation of nature.
This is in order to prevent the abuse of the natural environment. The promotion of culture in Monaco has been through the Oceanographic Museum and Monte Carlo Masters. In this case, Monaco citizens gather for Opera, theatres, and jazz festivals. The main summer festivals are also held in the Oceanographic Museum. For the citizens who take part in gambling, the country has five Monte Carlo Casinos (Bourgne, 1997).
Religion Monaco has a population of approximately 32,543. In the estimated population, 90% of the population is followers of the Catholic faith. Catholicism is the state religion. Although the country enjoys freedom of religion, the majority of the populations in the country are Catholics.
This has been through the influence of France and Italy neighbours. Christianity has greatly influenced the people’s living styles and the festivals that are observed. The religion has greatly been characterized by the absence of missionaries. The state strictly discourages any form of conversion.
Therefore, the country enjoys stable religious following without forced conversions. Therefore, majority of the Monaco population are staunch Christians. The culture of the Monaco People cannot be divorced from their religion. (Chon,
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In the competitive world, communication is conveyed in several ways. The response of the target audience to a given message will depend on how best the message has been displayed to be analyzed by the said audience. The most common means of communication is through signs and images.
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Introduction Globalization and advancement in information technologies have enabled business enterprises to compete across national borders. The physical distances have been drastically reduced and communication expenses have become relatively low. Business organizations and individuals no longer stick in one geographical region.
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Clinical psychology intends to cater for the positive features of human functioning as well as behavior. It further takes the human maladaptive deeds into consideration. These interventions can be used instead of the traditional ones which were employed to relieve pain and suffering.
Therefore, it is commendable as it positively improves the health of human beings as well as boosts their living standards. Research carried out by scientists shows that this type of psychology brings about character strength, happiness and good moral behaviors.
These aspects are devoted to this field as they play a great role in defining the progress of an individual (Plante, 2010).
These features, happiness, character strength and moral behavior are mostly utilized in a social and scientific way to come up with conclusions that are long lasting and effective. They mainly target constructive emotion, character as well as positive institutions.
Drawing on techniques that are effectively utilized to progress the science of mental disarray, the studying of mental health and its well-being has proven to be very essential. Rather than dealing with a particular intervention that targets a given condition, social psychology is significant in matters that concern the mindset, purpose, and consciousness of the therapeutic practitioner.
No matter how much technique an individual possesses, if he/she is not aware of judgment and feelings, or an unconscious intolerance is present, the therapist will not be efficient as a therapeutic force for the customer. The nature of how influential an objective as a force on the body as well as the mind is very essential (Plante, 2010).
Human consciousness is exploited to stimulate the body to memorize its coherence and bring back health. In addition, focused feelings can manipulate the thoughts of others and lend a hand in taking care of psychological grievances.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research investigating the influence of the mind examined the consequences of mindful and unconscious thoughts. It was discovered that protuberances of the mind could effect objects of communication, be they inorganic or organic matters.
Behavioral psychoanalysis for social fear and free speaking panic refers to a range of systems that can be supplied individually or in amalgamation. The essential principle underlying the psychoanalysis approach is that feelings, manner and behaviors are inter-related. As a result, changing one of these can assist to alleviate predicaments in another.
For instance, by altering thoughts with regard to fears of unconstructive valuations may lead to a lesser amount of anxiety. From a cognitive standpoint, the extreme panic in social and presentation state is contemplated to be preserved by unenthusiastic attitudes about the possibility and appalling nature of discomforting oneself and performing ineffectually. Furthermore, the prospect and seriousness of pessimistic analysis by others also add to this.
The therapy procedure, thus, centers on modifying the terrible thinking models and values that social breakdown and negative response are likely to present. This process is referred to as restructuring (Plante, 2010).
From a behavioral point of view, social nervousness is preserved by steering clear of anxiety-provoking circumstances in order for the individual not to have the prospect to discover that they can put up with the anxiety. In this way, the nervousness will reduce on its own and the individual’s feared conclusions would often not materialize or would not be as dreadful as the individual imagined.
Prevention can take place either by not being part of the situation at all or by taking part in the situation but not fully. Contact therapies are, therefore, premeditated to slowly but surely encourage the individual to go into panic social situations and attempt to stay in that state of affairs.
The rationale for selecting an intervention depends on an individually-tailored panic hierarchy that begins with circumstances that are merely gently anxiety-provoking and build to become to the main dreaded encounters.
We will write a custom Essay on Application of Clinical Psychology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference Plante, T. (2010). Contemporary Clinical Psychology. New York, NY: Wiley Press
Film Critique: The Shawshank Redemption Term Paper best college essay help
The Shawshank Redemption written by Stephen King is a movie that entertains and teaches. Superb directing and acting make the movie an outstanding success. This study aims at analyzing the various features that make the movie one of the most watched movies on cable.
The salient factors that make this movie outstanding are discussed in detail in this study, and they include storytelling, acting, themes and directing among others.
Story telling in the Shawshank redemption The movie is excellent in the way the story of self development and hope is crafted to give an array of hope to all watchers and critics. The Story revolves around Andy Dufresne a man convicted of murdering his wife and lover and condemned to two consecutive life sentences at Shawshank Penitentiary.
Prison life dominates the early scenes of the story with prisoners and their gangs who will do whatever they can in their power to be dominant. These include use of beatings and rape to break their opponents will to survive.
Despite all these, Andy has a hope and a future to live for hence he schemes and plots his way out in an interesting twist. This gets him favors and acknowledgement from prison staff and prisoners (Spignesi, 2001).
The prison library is improved by him and adds dignity and meaning to the prisoner’s lives including the crafty Red (Morgan Freeman). It is through these struggles, tension and a hope for a future that Andy finds true peace and self reliance.
After twenty eight years, Andy escapes prison, exposes money laundering activities and clears himself from the killing of his wife and lover. Red who helped Andy is also freed at the end and the two friends reunite at the Mexico beach and together get their wish, freedom.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Acting Two of the most exceptional actors in the Shawshank Redemption are Tim Robbins and Morgan Freeman. They are able to tell the story of hope and redemption in the gentlest way.
Tim Robbins plays the part of Andy Dufresne in a journey that takes him to prison for nothing other than what he never did, killing his wife and lover. Robbins marvelously acts the part of calm, collected and controlled man throughout the scenes even in the direst circumstance (Spignesi, 2001).
Morgan Freeman acting as Red is a spectacular choice in the movie and makes the movie a superb watch. He comes out as a righteous man entangled by a wrong deed in the past.
He brings about sincerity and cynicism at the same time through the narrations he makes mainly about Andy. This act in Shawshank Redemption caps up another superb performance in the life of Morgan Freeman.
The cast of supporting characters, each with a story to tell in a way that blends to the main story is fantastic. Bob Gunton acting as Warden Norton is pious and devout at the start but is merciless, corrupt and callous as the story unfolds.
Bob acts out the part superbly and manages to bring out the villain in Norton in a masterly way and helps give continuity to the story. James Whitmore acts brilliantly in his part as the librarian trustee and long-serving convict.
William Saddler acting as prisoner, Clancy Brown as a vicious guard and Gil Bellows as Tommy Williams give superior supporting performances to the main characters (Spignesi, 2001).
We will write a custom Term Paper on Film Critique: The Shawshank Redemption specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The conclusion is superb, acting with minor characters aiding the major to develop and bring out the salient facts in a story of hope and redemption.
Impact of society on the film and vice versa The society has an impact on the film because the film aims at exposing evils in the society. The main evils the film manages to expose are brutality and corruption in prisons. In addition, the society impacts on the film through the penal system which is portrayed to be inefficient and unjust. The injustices of the penal system in 1930’s had on the movie are vast.
The movie has an enormous impact on the society through the inspiring story of Andy. People get inspired through watching the movie because it has the potential of touching people’s lives, challenging them and redeeming their will to survive.
The main themes in the movie; hope, redemption, and friendship have an impact on improving the society. This is a depiction of a fantastic movie that has the ability to give someone, a new beginning and a hope for the better hence has a vast and positive impact on society.
Cinematography Shooting of the Shaw shank redemption is done in the realistic view which is clearly demonstrated by various scenes and their photography. Part of formalism is also visible in the shooting of the movie hence the movie can be described as classical.
A combination of formalism and realism in the shooting makes the characters have more intimacy with the audience. Formalism in the film is a prominent feature to show different stages and power of different characters in the film. The use of low angles in shooting scenes on prison staff, having them invisible and portraying togetherness helps demonstrate their powerfulness.
Use of high angles and loneliness depict powerlessness in prisoners. Close up shots for Andy and Red are used to distinguish them from other prisoners. The main reason is because of their hope for a future and the ability to hold on their friendship (Spignesi, 2001).
Lighting in the film is also used to demonstrate the different degrees of freedom in the movie. Dark lighting in prison cells represent a lack of freedom by prisoners and improves when they are outside to represent improved freedom.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Film Critique: The Shawshank Redemption by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This particularly is the freedom to move around, but the ultimate freedom is seen when Andy crawls out of prison to the real world and the lighting is very bright. To summarize, cinematography and lighting plays a vital part in ensuring closeness between audience and characters and serve to depict the main themes in the movie.
Overall textual themes The main theme in the movie is hope for a future that is worth living for in the most of hopeless situations. Andy portrays this theme at the beginning of the movie when he holds on to remaining shreds of hope after he is convicted of double murder and sentenced to life in prison.
He is rewarded at the end of the movie, but it is through patience and a great deal of sacrifice. The hope all in prison dream of is freedom, which the two main characters Andy and Red achieve in the end.
Their hope is apparent throughout the movie despite having to spend 28 and 40 years in prison respectively, hence hugely inspiring theme all. Andy within the prison system, through inner resolve and strength, aids in development of the theme of hope (Spignesi, 2001).
Another theme brought out exceptionally well in the movie is friendship mainly between Andy and Red. The two characters are willing to take any risks and sacrifices for each other for a friendship that spans almost two decades.
This is depicted in the narration by Red of his association with Andy and their life together. It is also evident where Red narrates Andy’s escape from prison. Despite the fact that he rejoices that his friend is free, he confides on the emptiness and loneliness he feels from losing a friend.
The other main theme in Shawshank Redemption is liberation, which is the hope of all the characters. Andy and Red get liberated at the end of the film from the severance of a prison wall. Brutality, corruption, hopelessness and despair in the prison that all the prisoners hope to be liberated from are evident throughout the Shawshank Redemption.
In the end, Andy, Red and Hatlen manage to achieve this at the expense of the conniving warden Samuel Norton. Brutality, corruption, despair and abuse are the other themes the Shawshank redemption manages to reveal (Spignesi, 2001).
Analysis Shawshank Redemption has a classical narrative structure, which is dominant in the movie. Frank Darabont wrote and directed the shawshank redemption in a manner to depict the three part format classical structure of setup, development and resolution.
The setup of the Shawshank redemption is the introduction of the characters, their aspirations, fates and challenges facing them. The main focus is Andy, wrongly convicted for double murders have the audience pitying him hence his innocence is not lost on the audience.
His moral character and ambition radiate to the other characters in his circle and the story develops from that innocence. It also aids in the creation of Andy’s character and aim to clear his name and recoup his freedom.
Meeting the warden, Samuel Norton one would believe in his Christianity and Virtue from his speeches and quotes from the bible. As the story unfolds, Norton turns out as the villain in the Shawshank Redemption and is depicted as corrupt, brutal and merciless. He destroys the only other chance of Andy proving his innocence apart from escaping, through killing Tommy and revealing his character.
Hadley in one scene is compassionate but in others is a merciless and brutal guard. Hardley and Norton aid in development of the story and act as impediments to Andy’s aim to prove his innocence leaving him with only one option, escape.
At Shawshank, we are introduced to Red and Brook, where Red is an inmate who has lost hope of a future but Red regains it with Andy’s help. Brooks is a long-serving inmate who has been institutionalized and serves to develop the theme of hope.
The resolution of the movie is when the two protagonists in the movie Red and Andy are reunited at the Mexico beach with a hope of a better life after prison.
This reinstates the fact that the film has a classical structure where the protagonist manages to overcome all obstacles, challenges and all conflicts are resolved. The audience is left chanting, and he lived happily ever after at the happy ending always common in classical movies.
Style and Directing The movie mostly makes use of flashback which turns out to be a powerful tool to keep the audience glued. The flashback also creates suspense and makes the viewers want to know what actually happens. At the beginning of the movie, Andy’s innocence is suspended for the audience to decide.
It is revealed at the end and shows how valuable suspense is used in the development of the main theme and the whole story. The use of tension and slow pacing shoots in some parts of the movie are also styles to note.
Another style that features incredibly in the movie is character development. The plot revolves around the development of the main characters Andy and Red and the directing marvelous. He succeeds in developing characters loved by the audience and with the ability to drive the storyline.
This makes the movie an exciting watch and the director brings out the humanity compassion and care in the characters. He is able to move even the hardest cynics through the humanly portrayal of the movie Shawshank Redemption. It is this lovely human touch that adds brilliance to the movie.
Editing and Sound The Editing style employed by the movie is continuity which involves a smooth transition from one scene to the next. The use of objective shots by the editor serves to give others a chance to give their views. L-cut editing technique is also employed in coordination with a sound that is synchronous to action on screen.
L-cut technique of editing allows the movie to have continuity and merge the sound of music and action on screen. Camera movement in the film fits the tempo of music in the movie. The eye line match technique is also evident in the movie and serves to develop the plot and make the audience part of the storyline in the movie. Generally editing and sound in the Shawshank redemption are used to create continuity of the movie.
Genre The Shawshank Redemption falls into the genre of thriller and has two subgenres crime and drama thriller. It is a crime thriller because most scenes are set in a prison and entail the various crimes committed in or outside the prison. It details the crimes claimed to have been committed by the protagonists in its development of the story and its main focus is on the actions in these scenes hence a crime thriller.
The movie falls in the subgenre of a drama thriller through the focus on narration and on each character’s environment. Emphasis on character development is another characteristic that makes the Shawshank Redemption fit the subgenre drama thriller.
Conclusion In conclusion, the various parts and characteristics were brilliantly combined to produce one of the best movies. Character development, editing, sound and music and the best directing aided in making Shawshank Redemption a must watch for movie lovers.
The brilliancy of storytelling, superb acting, matching of different styles and themes covered by the movie are some of the factors that make the watching of the film exciting, thoughtful and provoking. I would always recommend this movie due to the high caliber it put itself in the movie industry.
Reference Spignesi, J. (2001). The Essential Stephen King: A Ranking of the Greatest Novels, Short Stories, Movies, and Other Creations of the World’s Most Popular Writer. New York: Career Press.
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Proposal argumentative essay help
Implications and limitations The sample in the research was a proposed study in the National Football players’ league. The players interviewed suffered from head injuries, causing the Chromic Traumatic Encephalopathy. The sample for the research is the players with head injuries. In a research, the proposed sample should reflect coverage of the represented population.
There are implications posed by the sample used and the instruments available in measuring the sample. First, the research deals with an investigation of the case and control groups.
The empirical measurement of the research entails the exclusion and inclusion methods, which may not be helpful in ascertaining the exact number of players who have suffered from Chronic Traumatic Enephalopathy (Boston University, 2009).
The proposed sample used in the research is not only small but highly restrictive. The sample is highly constricted because the research is retrospective, and hence has numerous implications. It means that few players will be selected, and hence they may not fully represent the entire population.
In the course of the research, follow-ups on the participants is required, which is exceedingly costly hence the sample is reduced. The reduction of the players means that the research is restrictive and cannot be relied to give valid results.
The proposed results will have certain implications to the players. The researcher may dispel with different requirements, hence requiring different variables to complete the research study (Nelson, 2012).
The comparison of the interviews taken will include many assumptions and the decisions made may be marred by assumptions. The statistical distribution of tables to analyze the correlation factors and the interviews has an error margin and has a low level of accurate data processing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The limiting factors present a possibility of errors in the research. The greatest limitation is the fact the sample of retired football players with head injuries is extremely limited. The implication is that fewer players in the National Football League have suffered from head injuries.
The disease is said to occur after the retirement of the players, which means that a lot of time may be taken in establishing the right sample. In addition, most of the players who have retired have not tested for the disease (Holbrook, 2009).
The measuring methods in the research are likely to be interfered with by other factors and may be highly affected. The testing of their reliability will occur after the research is finished. Therefore, the internal and external consistency may be lost in the time of making the measurements.
Though the use of inter-observer tests will be applied in measuring the validity, there are many errors which may not be detectable. Hence, the research may rely on assumptions only (Boston University, 2009).
Appendices and References The research will take approximately two years to be concluded. The period proposed will be enough to select the sample to be used in the research. The first three months of the two years will be spent in preparing the required documents, such as the consent and authority to conduct research.
Five months will be used in selecting the sample using the purpose method, and three months will be used in preparing the questionnaires and formulating the questions to be asked in the interviews. It is within the three months that participant permission will be sought.
The research assistants to assist in the research will be recruited and trained within two months. Rehearsal on how to approach the respondents and the collection of data will take one month. Once the training is completed, the research assistants will take four months collecting data from the respondents.
We will write a custom Proposal on Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Data will be collected using questionnaires and interview sessions. The interview sessions will be recorded by the research assistants. The questionnaires may be answered by the respondents or the research assistants may assist the respondents (Nelson, 2012).
One month will be used in submitting the data by the research assistants for analysis. The same month will be used to analyze the data and make conclusions. Compilation of the research and the conclusions reached will also take one month.
At the end of the data collection, if it is established that the time framework has not enhanced gathering of enough data, then time extension may be sought (Health Day News, 2009).
The researchers will require two personal computers and six laptops. The two computers will be left at the center and they will be operated by two research assistants. A data collection center will be created. The computers will have stable internet connection to monitor the communication between the assistants in the center and those taking part in data collection.
Consistent feedback and monitoring of the data collection process in the field will be highly encouraged. It means that the two assistants at the center must be present up to the time the people collecting data return from the field. The computers at the center will be installed with the SPSS to analyze the data (Holbrook, 2009).
The printed copies of the questionnaires and interviews will be done at the center. Therefore, a printer will be needed. Having a printer controlled at the center will save time and will facilitate proper coordination. The research assistants collecting data will require pens to give to the respondents so as to enter answers on the questionnaires.
A consistent internet and power supply will be a key resource if the research is to be a success. The monitoring of the entire research and data collection will require internet connection (Schwartz, 2009).
All the personnel required in the research must be fluent in English and should be computer literate. They should also demonstrate high standards of interpersonal communication skills. Two of the assistants must have knowledge in statistics so as to assist in measuring the data, drawing the graphs and checking the validity of the data using SPSS software.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More High observance of research ethics will also be a substantial requirement, which must be maintained by the research assistant at all material times. The professionals will need to be paid well since well paid professionals will be motivated. The research assistants will be divided two at the center and others will be collecting data (Holbrook, 2009).
The budget of the entire research will include the money spent on the hiring of the research assistants to the amount used in buying the computers and their installation. The assistances will be hired on a contractual basis and hence they will be paid at the completion of the research.
High salaries of 2,000 US $ will be for each research assistant. There will be allowances totaling to 1,000 US$. The high salary concept will be aimed to motivate the assistants hence delivering quality results. The computers, laptops, pens, power, internet, printers and the installation will cost 7,000 US $.
In addition, 1,000 US $ will be used by the research assistants to commute to where the response are. Extra 1,000 US $ will be set aside to cater for miscellaneous expenditures incurred in the period of the research. The total budget will be 12,000 US $ (Schwartz, 2009).
References Boston University. (2009). Nfl players association to support brain trauma research at boston university. State news service. Web.
Holbrook, E. (2009). Brain trust: a medical study confirms what too many have feared–the sport of football can cause brain trauma. what can the nfl do? Risk management, 10. Web.
Health Day News (2009). 3 NFL stars to donate brain tissue for trauma research; program studies affects of repeated blows to the head. Last consumer health News (English). Web.
Nelson, R. (2012). Evaluating football. EE – evaluation engineering. Web.
Schwartz, A. (2009). Case suggests safety risk goes beyond the nfl. The New York Times, B14 (L). Web.
Structural and Non-Structural Mitigation Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Background
Background The practice of elimination and reduction of loss of property and life due to catastrophes have become common in areas prone to natural disasters. Many organizations have embarked on emergency management programs by boosting and creating awareness on mitigation.
Risk analysis on physical constructions should be carried out to reduce physical threats. Besides, participatory mechanism, public commitment, knowledge development, policy formulation and awareness among other non-structural mitigation methods are necessary to reduce the impact of disasters.
Structural mitigation Physical constructions have been used as elements of mitigation and have been helpful in reducting and protection against potential impacts of hazards. Perry, Prater and Lindell (2006) indicate that structural mitigation through construction of protective infrastructure and hazard resistant structures has been relied upon by many nations and communities for defensive and shielding purposes.
These nations have set up legislations which are geared towards ensuring the effectiveness of both structural and non-structural mitigation activities. The legislations have basically been observed in seismic areas where building codes and land use regulations have been set in place.
In addition, Perry, Prater and Lindell (2006) argue that the collapsing of buildings and subsequent damage on infrastructure and structures commonly occur in the event of landslides, floods, earthquakes and other disasters.
These are some of the factors that call for the effecting of structural mitigation practices purposely to save lives and property by reducing damages. Countries in seismic areas have embarked on construction, maintenance and designing of their structures to ensure safety of their citizens.
Through their civil engineers, they have retrofitted and strengthened old structures. In addition, they have designed canals, roads and new buildings.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, the model of mitigation and adaptation highlights that there are diverse ways through which disasters can be alleviated. This is largely due to the presence of technology, detectors and experts on climate change and environmental management.
Predictions on possible threats due to climate changes and other related catastrophes based on scientific investigation are critical for setting up strong and protective infrastructures. The enormous arrays of resources within governments set up to warn and protect are critical in developing structural mitigation capabilities.
Figure 1: A diagram illustrating a mitigation and adaptation model
Non-structural mitigation Perry, Prater and Lindell (2006) indicate that non- structural mitigation practices aimed at minimizing the consequence of disaster are cost effective. They include provision of information on reduction of risk, participatory mechanisms, public commitment on ensuring safety, creation of awareness and better policies.
Many nations have set up regulations that control the activities which individuals, groups and industries undertake. Besides, the use of temporary restriction methods such as avalanche warning signs and flood barriers to limit risks to admissible levels has been common.
Planning, land use regulation, determining locations of human activities and settlement as ell as trainings on hazard have been set up as non-structural mitigation methods to reduce risks.
In seismic zones, non-structural mitigation has been a practice that involves anchoring and bracing household, industry and office items to prevent falling, injuries and damages. Items that are normally used include support systems, brackets, anchors and tie-downs.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Structural and Non-Structural Mitigation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Perry, Prater and Lindell (2006) highlight that activities related to non-structural mitigation are generally inexpensive, easy to apply and effective in saving lives.
Figure 2: A diagram illustrating non-structural mitigation
To sum up, it is imperative to highlight that both structural and non-structural mitigation activities are necessary in minimizing risks, safeguarding lives and property from damages. However, non-structural mitigation has been a common practice due to its simplicity and cost effectiveness.
Most structures constructed in disaster prone areas use non-mitigation strategies to effect safety. Even so, there is still need for governments to set up effective policies on environmental management to curb the rise of disasters due to climate change.
Reference Perry, R.W., Prater, C.S
Church best college essay help
30 External Factors of Economy Affecting Businesses There are numerous external factors of economy that affect businesses in various countries. They influence different business aspects. In this context, the first one is GDP. The total value of commodities a country produces in a given period (GDP) indicates the income rates of the concerned citizens and their buying trends.
Consequently, this economic factor is able to influence the establishment, ratification, and propulsion of any business in the concerned country as indicated earlier. Church
The Role of Technology in Linking the HRM with Organization Goals and Vision Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Strategic HRM
Role of Technology in Serving HRM
Human Resource Information System
Strategic HRM The integration of information technology into the HR development leads to newer capacities for an organization. This includes a definition of the information interface among staffs, an exchange of their contributions and their participation in virtual enterprises (Wang 2005).
Rapid organizational restructuring needs are calling for new ways of HRM to stimulate administrative change. Technology enables HRM to focus more on value addition in its activities for full realization of the business’s strategy (Wang 2005).
Gong and Chow (2010) show that for technology-intensive industries, knowledge and skills embodied in human capital directly raise productivity. Their research supports the need to integrate technological innovation and HRM to achieve directorial performance.
Organizations existing in performance-oriented cultures prefer formal procedures within the HR department. These include standardized selection methods, systematic performance appraisals, official job evaluations and formal recruitment channels (Panayotopoulou, Galanaki
E-Marketing Plan Recommendations Report cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Functional Team Framework Great Cup of Coffee Company
E-marketing involves building friendly partnership and working relationship with a market segment without necessarily having physical contact with it. In fact, the main source of exchanging information and advertising products is through written words in a social media such as company website.
Reflectively, success of e-marketing is deeply entrenched in the principle of keeping reliable and professional reputation in exchanging ideas and convincing customers in online selling.
Thus, the key conceptual idea of this reflective treatise is an in-depth and explicit analysis of recommendations for an e-Marketing plan on the periphery of functional team orientation for Great Cup of Coffee Company.
Besides, the paper is specific on values surrounding e-marketing and checkpoints that translate into sustainable, profitable, and relevant business engagement.
In the contemporary society, over fifty percent of companies use internet in research and promoting their services and products. Besides, the same percentage of people has access to internet and other social media.
Therefore, e-marketing is the ‘next big thing’. In order to have a successful e-Marketing plan in Great Cup of Coffee Company, structural planning is essential especially in locating target market and actualizing through execution of preset plans.
With proper planning, messaging, and market objectivity, comprehensive implementation is achievable at optimal level.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to achieve structural planning, the same should labor to build a visible campaign for brand awareness which dictates the magnitude of acceptance and time frame for the same. Besides, the campaign should include strategies meant to expand and gain audience in the target market.
Another key recommendation in e-Marketing plan for Great Cup of Coffee Company envisions creation of a simultaneous but independently functioning cost balancing matrix that keep the firm in the competitive edge.
However, before implementing this recommendation, market research should expand into the territory of acquiring knowledge on prevailing market price especially when dealing with a product that is already in the market. Price research creates conducive environment for functionality and sustainability despite market swings (Kalb, 2002).
Essentially, success of e-Marketing plan depends on proper alignment of a functional team who is responsible for creation of flexible but quantifiable measurement tracking tools for reviewing results periodically. Reflectively, this team should have essential knowledge in social media and tools used in marketing via the internet.
Besides quality in service delivery and customer satisfaction depend on the support team. Therefore, customer retention is achievable through creation of reliable, informed, and passionate support team.
In addition, the plan should include a monitoring matrix that maps out potential competitors and identify online weaknesses and strength of clients. Moreover, the reporting criteria should reflect success of marketing calendar and set target periodically generated (Kalb, 2002).
The above recommendations depend on creations customized search engine and page which supply referrals to clients in order to affiliate sales. Therefore, it is necessary to develop simple and self explanatory market expedition since e-Marketing rely on exchange of information between parties.
We will write a custom Report on E-Marketing Plan Recommendations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Also, the marketing site should give room for recommendations from clients on level of satisfaction (Kalb, 2002). Data from these recommendations are vital in reviewing future progress tracking devises and determining the magnitude of success within a period of time.
Conclusively, success of e-Marketing depends on execution of the above recommendations and transforming them into reality. Successful execution solely functions on inclusiveness, creation of quantifiable tracking devises for results, and recreating an informed support team.
Generally, these recommendations should be practiced flexibly since online marketing environment is characterized by constant dynamics that may make previous designs irrelevant.
E-Marketing Recommendations for Great Cup of Coffee Company
Reference Kalb, S. (2002). E-Marketing: What Went Wrong and How to Do It Right. Los Angeles: K
Vodafone Company in the United Kingdom Research Paper best college essay help
Introductions An organization strategic position is very important in determining how the organization is going to deal with changes in the local and global market. An organization that has well defined and specified strategies is likely to succeed in maximizing profits and in promoting innovation.
Competition among organizations in an industry can be quite detrimental to an organization’s success. In order to overcome the various challenges in the business sector, a business should have well defined strategies and objectives in order to fit in the dynamic business world (Sherif, 2006).
Business strategies are wide and encompass a wider scope. The main scope of a business strategy will encompass areas which include but not limited to the following: legal position of the business, social and economic environments, management structure, and the financial position of the organization (Sherif, 2006).
The following research paper is going to evaluate and find out the various strategies taken by Vodafone Company in the United Kingdom in order to realize its goals.
The various environments include the legal environment, management structure, operational and financial issues, social and economic environments and the impact of potential change factors.
Vodafone is a leading multinational telecommunication company in the United Kingdom. The company has its headquarters in London, UK. Vodafone is the world’s largest telecommunication company in terms of revenues.
The company is the world’s second largest company in terms of subscribers, coming second after China Mobiles (Books Llc, 2010).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company has its operations in over 30 countries and has partners with over 38 networks in other countries worldwide. Vodafone has operations in various regions around the world. These regions include Africa and the Middle East, The American region, the Europe region and the Asia- Pacific region.
The company deals in a variety of products and services. The main product and services being offered by Vodafone include mobile money transfer services, mHealth solutions, voice calls, data calls, internet services and sell of mobile and related accessories (lbbot, 2007).
Discussion The legal environmental
The legal environment will always dictate the limits of operations of a business. Various countries have various legal policies, restrictions and guidelines that dictate how an organization should conduct its activities. Any non compliance to these legal policies and guidelines is considered a breach of law which is punishable in courts (Ibbot 2007).
Also, various countries have various legal requirements for registering a business organization. These requirements ensure that a business conducts the legal business activities it was registered for. For any business to be legally recognized, it must meet the set requirements in the region of its operation.
In the United Kingdom where Vodafone has its headquarters, there are various legal requirements and policies a business must observe and adhere to. Some legal requirements of a business in the United Kingdom include compliance with paying taxes, conducting the legal business a business was registered to do, protecting the customers from product and services fraud (lbbot, 2007).
Like any other company in the United Kingdom, Vodafone UK adheres to the various legal requirements in the United Kingdom. The company has been able to fulfill all the needed legal requirements for registration. The company has also, on several occasions, been named the best tax payer and tax compliance company in the United Kingdom (Books Llc, 2010).
All the above scenarios indicate the company has a good legal structure and system. It also indicates that the company follows and adheres to various legal policies, requirements, regulations and guidelines. The company has various ways and measures that ensure customers are not exploited and that they get the best services and products.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Vodafone Company in the United Kingdom specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Through advertisements and forums, the company is able to enlighten the consumers about their products and services. Also, the company has a well structured complaint system where customers are able to login air their complaints.
The complaint systems enable the company to have continuous improvement in their products and services. This eventually leads to the creation of products which adhere to the legal quality standards.
The company has also received some ISO: 9001 certificates and recognitions. These recognitions indicate that the company is adhering and is at the forefront in promoting quality products and services to consumers.
The company has a faster feedback response system when a customer reports a malfunctioning in a particular product. In some cases, the customer is refunded their money or the product replaced. This is done by the company in a bid to adhere to consumer protection legal policies (Books Llc, 2010).
The management structure may be defined as the arrangement of hierarchy of power in an organization. This structure will largely determine how organizational activities are going to be managed.
Managers are the people who are mandated with the task of managing various functional areas within an organization. Managers perform various duties which include planning, controlling and directing among others (LexixNexis, 25).
The extent to which these activities are managed will depend on the competence of the managers. If these activities are well managed, then the company is going to perform well in terms of efficiency and effectiveness.
Vodafone UK success in terms of revenues and clientele base has been attributed to its well qualified management team. The managerial team is made up of highly qualified and specialized individuals.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Vodafone Company in the United Kingdom by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company management structure is in such a way that it fosters and promotes interaction between the various functional areas. This interaction increases mobility as well as dependence among various functional areas (Flood, 1997).
The organization structure is also structured in a way that information flow is two way. The structure fosters information flow upwards and downward the organization chart.
The bi-direction flow of information ensures that the managers are furnished with the operational information which they can use to make decisions. The bi-directional flow also ensures that the operations staff is furnished with information about the business policies and decisions (Slaa
Review on Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Childhood is the period which is meaningful for every person because it is the start of a life-long journey. In his Moll Flanders, Daniel Defoe concentrates on many controversial social issues. Moreover, the childhood theme is also masterfully described in the novel as the key point for understanding the persons’ actions and the peculiarities of their further lives.
Thus, Daniel Defoe reveals all the worst features of the world’s reality and discovers all the hidden details of the persons’ souls in the work. He also accentuates the seriousness of the harmful surrounding which a child can undergo in his life and its influence.
The effects of childhood follow persons during their whole lives. Furthermore, people have the opportunity to observe the peculiarities of children’s everyday life as the part of the society anywhere.
To discuss the peculiarities of describing the concept of childhood in the novel, it is necessary to focus on the actual substance of childhood as it is and on the impacts of childhood on the life of the main heroine of the novel. Thus, in his novel the author presents the notion of childhood as a stand point to watch the heroine’s destiny and present her further development into a young lady with her own hidden psychological troubles.
Defoe opens his novel as a really strict narration that derives conclusion right away saying that Moll is going to continue her mother’s destiny, as well. This is what life did to her: born in dreadful conditions, not having an opportunity to meet mother ever, and raised by gypsies, Moll is not as bad as she could have become.
The peculiarities of Moll’s situation make her act as a grown-up. This situation can be considered as typical for that period. It was the eighteenth century – the time of nobilities, good manners, and dismissal of poor from any worthy life sphere.
Moreover, women could not have any rights except being a seamstress, if she wanted to work. Therefore, a girl who could possibly get to that atmosphere was doomed to lead a very modest life when she is a grown-up. A boy, however, had slightly more chances to achieve success and work.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Those children who were growing without their parents’ treatment in streets began to act and behave as grown-ups in order to survive in dangerous surroundings. They did not know that childhood as it could be with the parents’ care and without the needs to work since the age of eight as Moll worked.
However, those children who were born in rich families had the opportunity to enjoy all the pleasures of living with parents, even in spite of the fact that they were brought up by nurses. Thus, the memories about her childhood followed Moll during her life. That is why she tried to do all possible to pay much attention to her own child.
In some of the situations Moll states, “I was greatly perplexed about my little boy. It was death to me to part with the child” (Defoe 77). And furthermore, “If I was but sure my little baby would be carefully looked to, and have justice done it” (Defoe 107).
It is important that those people who bring up children have an extreme influence on their lives. Thus, the nurse Moll lived with was a very good example to follow. And, maybe, due to such a nondurable experience Moll turned out to have her own children ultimately.
The nurse is described as the following, “…she bred up the children she took with a great deal of art, as well as with a great deal of care… [she provided her children with] a plain diet, coarse lodging, and mean clothes…we were brought up as mannerly and as genteelly as if we had been at the dancing-school” (Defoe 8).
It is necessary to mention that although Moll is presented to very harsh conditions throughout her childhood, Defoe still brings in an element of an invisible helping hand as if supporting the idea that there is an angel that every child has.
Nevertheless, the theme of abandoned children can be observed on many pages of the novel. In Defoe’s novel childhood is depicted as the period for the fight for better conditions for life. Thus, Moll often meets beggars on her way.
We will write a custom Essay on Review on Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They are described as dark shadows of London’s streets. There are charity programs for such children in society; the authorities try to influence their lives. However, who would like to be a subject of charity? A child raised in conditions of condescension is likely to grow up having no respect for him. Is it possible to avoid the life of purposeless people, miserable drunkards, thieves, criminals, or murderers?
Daniel Defoe depicts childhood in the darkest colors that could ever be. He accentuates that Moll Flanders tried to escape her destiny, but she could not. Moll, being the central figure, makes the reader sympathize with her troubles, though at the same time wonder how in the world she could make it to a relatively good future.
Yet, she had a chance. And there are a number of such children who became unhappy and sad adults because they did not have a chance to change their life.
In his novel Defoe also reveals the theme of children’s aloneness. It is rather difficult to survive in the world where people have no support and understanding of their relatives and friends. What is the destiny for an orphan?
A child cannot possibly grow up as a rich and self-conscious personality. No one is ever able to have a rich inner world without friends or anyone to rely on. Streets and bands create the conditions for growing up as a severe and rough personality. This is, unfortunately, a side effect of self-sufficiency.
Being independent takes effort. A person faces challenges and life makes him bend down to earth, whereas some stand up back straight and some break. When speaking about simple survival, it is hard to consider decent childhood conditions for fostering main virtues.
And so, Moll was presented to the following being: “…even before I was capable either of understanding my case or how to amend… [she was] brought into a course of life which was not only scandalous in itself, but which in its ordinary course tended to the swift destruction both of soul and body” (Defoe 1).
Childhood can be thought of as the most essential part for fostering ideals and habits in a child. Moll in Moll Flanders is the splendid representation what poor childhood conditions may lead to. Completely disoriented and lost in her life, Moll is an example of what can possibly happen to a child who finds him in the same milieu.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Review on Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Defoe, Daniel. Moll Flanders. USA: Signet Classics, 1996. Print.
Hurricane Andrew Case Study custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Brief overview of the Hurricane Andrew
Results of the Disaster
Introduction Disasters are a reality in human life and while some are avertable, others have to be faced. In the event of a disaster, preparedness, response, and recovery to the incident determine the extent of damage. Waugh (2000, p.34) points out that disasters invariably create unstable work environments for both the victims and the relief workers which makes it hard for emergency efforts to be implemented without prearranged plans.
As such, disaster planning and management play a major role in recovery from a disaster. To underline the role that planning plays in disaster response and recovery, this paper will review Hurricane Andrew which is one of the more significant natural disasters ever to occur on the US mainland.
A review of the response to Hurricane Andrew in 1992 will demonstrate that a lack of elaborate recovery planning for a disaster leads to inefficiencies and additional damages.
Brief overview of the Hurricane Andrew Hurricane Andrew occurred on August 24, 1992 in the Floridian coast resulting in huge human displacement and a colossal damage of property. As of that time, Hurricane Andrew was the third most powerful storm to every strike the United States mainland (Sirkin, 1995, p.1).
The increasing coastal population was responsible for the significant property costs associated with the Hurricane. While the Floridian coast is subject to hurricanes, it is a favorable location and people still want to live there.
Sirkin (1995, p.4) estimates that the property damages resulting from the hurricane were in the range of $20billion making it the most expensive and devastating storm as of then.
Before the Hurricane hit the US coast, Satellite pictures had tracked it crossing from the west coast of Africa and into the Atlantic as early as August 14. With the use of radar and reconnaissance, the Hurricane Center was able to issue a 12 hours in advance warning to the inhabitants of Florida giving them time to evacuate the coastal areas.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Following the warning, massive evacuations were carried out along the Florida coast with about 1.2 million coastal residents being evacuated. The evacuation efforts before Hurricane Andrew are deemed as one of the finest coordinated in the US history and they enabled over 1 million residents to move to safer grounds.
Sirkin (1995) confirms that the evacuation efforts saved many lives which would have been lost if an evacuation had not been ordered.
Results of the Disaster Hurricane Andrew had been preceded by Hurricane Hugo which had occurred in 1989 and resulted in some changes in the Federal government’s responses to natural disasters. While there was a Federal Response Plan (FRP) in place, the level of Federal-State coordination and planning in Florida was still at an infancy stage (FEMA, 1993, p.33).
Most of the concepts advanced by the FRP were not understood by local government elements in Florida. The emergency preparedness plan of the Dade County ensured that over 84,000 people were offered emergency shelter by Red Cross as well as the numerous public buildings and schools that were allocated. However, this plan proved to be insufficient considering the fact that 250,000 people were in need of shelter and food.
There was lack of disaster recovery planning and this fact became evident within hours of the storm’s passing. After the storm had passed, no federal or state plan was in place to provide relief to the disaster victims.
FEMA (1993, p.33) notes that the Federal government waited for requests from the State for assistance instead of availing it beforehand. This proved to be ineffective as aid was not delivered in a timely fashion and people continued to suffer unnecessarily and more property was damaged.
The plan therefore failed to fulfill the core objectives of disaster management which are to save lives, alleviate suffering, and prevent further loses after a disaster.
We will write a custom Case Study on Hurricane Andrew specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There was a huge communication breakdown following the Hurricane which destroyed most of the communication infrastructure. Effective communication has to occur so as to coordinate the disaster management efforts.
Due to the heightened levels of psychological pressure and a break down of infrastructure such as telephone lines and mobile base stations, the normal forms communication proved inadequate in the case of Hurricane Andrew.
Haddow, Bullock, and Coppola (2008) note that in the first few days following Hurricane Andrew, FEMA (which is the Federal agency responsible for coordinating responses to huge disaster in the US) was unable to disseminate the needed information to communities and coordination of efforts among volunteer organization was poor.
Lessons Learned A number of valuable lessons can be learnt from the disaster management and recovery efforts during Hurricane Andrew. Hurricane Andrew brought it to the attention of the government that better proactive planning is necessary for relief and recovery afterwards.
The planning and preparation activities that had been undertaken before the disaster were crucial since they led to the saving of lives. The importance of accurate damage and needs assessments was also highlighted by this incidence since the initial estimates by local officials proved to be grossly understated.
FEMA (1993, p.35) states that well trained personnel should perform damage and needs assessment within 24 hours of the event and develop a response plan which identifies the needed resources.
The Hurricane revealed the need for more proactive measures to tackle disasters. Sirkin (1995, p.4) states that there was lack of an aggressive Federal support for the disaster victims with government agencies making promises of support without providing any meaningful resources.
It took 10 days for adequate supplies and manpower to be availed to the disaster victims. The delay led to more damages to property and unnecessary suffering by the victims of the Hurricane. The high cost in damages from the Hurricane could have been mitigated if prompt action had been taken.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Hurricane Andrew by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Hurricane also highlighted the importance of better coordinated recovery efforts after a disaster. From the Hurricane, it was clear that for most disasters of a major magnitude, relief efforts have to be undertaken through the joint efforts of various organizations.
Hurricane Andrew overwhelmed the local and state resources and it was apparent that outside help were needed to contain the situation. During the occurrence of Hurricane Andrew, there were various plans put in place by the government for effective coordination of Federal government’s response to natural disaster.
The most notable of this was the FRP which was to act as a comprehensive framework through which various disaster response agencies and organizations are able to coordinate their efforts and therefore provide a unified response to disasters. FEMA (1993) notes that the FRP was based on the premise that a significant disaster would require the collaboration of Federal, State, and local emergency response and recovery operations.
Hurricane Andrew demonstrated that the plan needed to be fine-tuned since despite its presence, the local government personnel in the affected areas were overwhelmed and unable to communicate specific needs.
Hurricane Andrew demonstrated how poor communication and coordination could be a major hindrance to response and recovery efforts. From the Hurricane, it became apparent that a well established Federal presence in the disaster area both before and/or immediately following the disaster (FEMA, 1993, p.32). Haddow et al (2008) state that after Hurricane Andrew, FEMA moved on to become the lead agency in emergency and disaster management in the US.
The Hurricane also brought to attention the inadequacy of existing communication systems in the event of a disaster. Waugh (2000, p.32) reveals that during disasters, communication lines can be damaged or become overwhelmed due to a spike in communication volumes as huge numbers of people try to communicate simultaneously (Federal Emergency Management Agency 1993).
Alternative channels of communications are therefore necessary to ensure that disaster management personnel can communicate unhindered during the disaster.
Conclusion This paper set out to review the destructive Hurricane Andrew which struck the Floridian coast in 1992 with devastating effects. Special attention has been paid on the lessons that can be drawn from the disaster recovery efforts in the aftermath of Hurricane Andrew.
This paper has revealed that despite the advanced warning of the impeding disaster, the federal emergency response team did not come up with an effective recovery plan.
This resulted in greater damages and disruption of the lives of the people’s whose homes had been damaged by the hurricane. From the analysis of Hurricane Andrew, it is evident that better proactive planning and rapid response is necessary for relief and recovery following a disaster.
References Federal Emergency Management Agency. (1993). FEMA Evaluation of Federal Response and Recovery Efforts. NY: FEMA.
Haddow, G.D., Bullock, J.A.,