Introduction There are various engineering disciplines such as mechanical, electrical and civil engineering. However, of these three engineering disciplines, civil engineering is broad. In fact, civil engineering comprises of many other smaller disciplines that can on be engineering disciplines by themselves.
The reason why civil engineering is dominant over other engineering disciplines is that it is broad and deals with many things such as design, building, and refurbishment of corporeal and ordinary built environment. Civil engineering works include the construction of houses, highways, and roads. Other major works that requires civil engineering background include the construction of canals, water reservoirs, and bridges.
Just like military engineering, civil engineering is old, and into divides into very many sub-disciplines such as geophysics, materials science, geotechnical engineering, transport engineering, surveying and many more. At least in all levels, both private and public, we see very many works of civil engineering. This paper discusses civil engineering as a professional career (Narayanan and Beeby 5-13).
History of Civil Engineering Profession Undoubtedly, since the existence of humanity, men have done things that make their lives easier and comfortable. For example, the world has always witnessed the development of technology. Through these developments, we now have modern houses and structures, state-of-art bridges and canals, and magnificent roads.
These are civil engineering works. Many historians believe that the first civil engineering practices originated from Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. During these times, people lived in shanty hoses due to their nomadic way of life. However, the need to abandon the nomadic life prompted the desire to have permanent shelter, which became their home. Additionally, transport was gradually becoming vital and with the development of wheels and sailings, for sure they needed roads.
Although the peculiarity between architecture and civil engineering become lucid in modern times, civil engineering practice was still evident in ancient days. For instance, the edifice of Egypt pyramids in 2700 BC, water management system in Qanat, the Appian Way, and other constructions prove that civil engineering is among the oldest engineering disciplines.
It is paramount to note that during the ancient times, military engineering, the oldest of all engineering disciplines, incorporated civil engineering too. However, at the beginning of the 18th century, those opposed to military engineering decided to form a society of civil engineers with their main offices in London.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They defined civil engineering as an art using natural resources and power for internationals and internal trade characterized by the construction of roads, canals, buildings, dams, drainage areas, and many more. Since then, various colleges in Britain followed by United States started teaching civil engineering. Today, many colleges and universities across the world offer civil engineering as a course and students enroll at certificate, diploma or degree levels (Narayanan and Beeby 74-76).
Civil engineering involves the use of scientific skills and principles drawn from mathematical and physics concepts. The work of Archimedes and by large extent, the Archimedes principle, which explains buoyancy is by no doubt the very first application of mathematical and physics concepts in the practice of civil engineering. This and many more concepts that are scientific opened the world of civil engineering.
For instance, in the ancient times, carpenters, artisans and stonemasons were the professionals behind civil engineering. However, as knowledge advanced, the incremental complexity of various structures required engineering background. This is the main reason behind the development of civil engineering as a profession. Civil engineering is an extensive profession that has a swathe of sub-disciplines.
As noted earlier, civil engineering involves, design, construction, and maintenance of structures. Therefore, some of the sub-disciples that inform the edifice of structures include the environment, geography, and materials science. Other sub-disciplines include geology, mechanics, surveying, geodesy, and many more (Griggs 30-33).
Areas of study in Civil Engineering Civil engineering is a broad discipline with no specific career path. Once a person graduates from the civil engineering school, the professional will start with junior roles that do not require much responsibility. They need time to gain experience and competence in their professional roles.
Civil engineering deals with the interface of construction projects. It is paramount that human fashioned preset projects requires various professionals such as surveyors and cite engineers to amalgamate all works in one project. For instance, in constructing a municipal market, the project needs professionals in different works such, sewer experts, electrical and communication fitters, designers, surveyors and environmental specialists. Areas of study in civil engineering include-
Materials Science and Engineering This is one of the major sub-disciplines of civil engineering, which involves materials such as aluminum, asphalt, cement, concrete, carbon pipes, and ceramics. Students study the properties and characteristics of materials and their applicability in the design and construction industry. This branch also involves the study of alloys, and recently, there is attention in nanotechnology.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Research about Civil Engineering specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Environmental Engineering
This area of study of civil engineering deals with environmental issues such as green engineering, chemical and biological substances, waste management, elimination of pollutants, and sanitization of water. Additionally, this area also gives more information regarding environmental assessments and impacts before the construction of projects.
It deals with the study of properties and variability of rocks, soils and soil sedimentation compositions. Soil testing is paramount before starting any project in order to have a glimpse of design foundations, the strength of the walls, and the place to dispose waste (Shroff and Shah 1-2).
This area of study of civil engineering deals with the precise measurement and depiction of properties of the earth such as polar and crustal motions, gravitational field, control system by using datums and coordinate networks.
This is an area of study of civil engineering, which coalesces on various earth measurements such as slope distances, theodolites levels, and angular variations. Information realized is paramount before beginning any construction work.
Transport engineering is an area of study of civil engineering that explains the movement of people and goods from one location to another. There is no doubt that movements require infrastructure such as roads, bridges, airports. Thus, students study transport planning, urban and traffic engineering, and the modalities of managing the developed infrastructures.
This is also one of the dominant areas of study of civil engineering, which deals with structural design and analysis of infrastructure such as roads, canals, sewer, bridges, buildings and many more. Here, engineers study the strength versus load such as wind, earthquake, and climate changes. This area also deals with other dynamics such as stability, constructability, stiffness, stiffness, cost, and sustainability of infrastructures.
Civil Engineering program objectives
The program objectives of this career are many and can lead one into successful professional practice. For instance, with a degree in civil engineering, one is already an expert in the specialized branch of civil engineering and will assume various roles in the construction industries. They will also become part of the active civic appointment, gain more experience in specialized schooling and earn certifications (Oakes, Leone and Gunn 13-26).
What to go through to get a BA in Civil Engineering Normally, a BA course in civil engineering takes five academic years to complete. Before enrolling for a BA in civil engineering, one has to have mathematical, physics and chemistry skills. Next is to find an accredited civil engineering program and enrolling. Depending on the area of specialization, one will start with the general theories and applications of the curse.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Research about Civil Engineering by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Progressively, the lecturers will introduce students to the common practices in civil engineering. Course units will range from hydrology, materials design and analysis, environmental assessment, mechanics and sustainable design. It will depend on one’s area of specialization. Upon finishing the course and graduating, the graduate will look for a professional body for licensing. Thereafter, one can offer professional services to the public (Griggs 34).
Works Cited Griggs, Francis.”Amos Eaton was Right!” Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice 123.1 (1997): 30–34. Print.
Narayanan, Raman, and Beeby Anderson. Introduction to Design for Civil Engineers. London: Spon, 2003. Print.
Oakes, William, Leone Les, and Gunn Craig. Engineering Your Future. Michigan: Great Lakes Press, 2001. Print.
Shroff, Arvind and Shah, Dhananjay. Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. London: Taylor
The Medical Practice of Helping Patients to Commit Suicide Term Paper essay help site:edu
Table of Contents The Current Legal Status of Assisted Suicide
Safeguarding Assisted Suicide
The Effects of Assisted Suicide
The patients’ desire to die by asking their physicians to prescribe lethal doses of substances that hasten death has been a controversial issue in different spheres of the American society. The medical practice of helping patients to commit suicide is commonly called physician-assisted suicide (PAS).
As opposed to another end-of-life practice called euthanasia in which the physician actively participates in killing the patient, PAS takes a more voluntary approach in which a competent patient must make a formal request to the physician by providing a written consent before the process can be carried out (Hudson et al., 2006; Munson, 2012).
The proponents of PAS have argued in favor of this practice by referring to the two major principles of medical ethics, which include the patients’ right to self-determination and patient autonomy.
The right to self-determination dictates that competent patients possess the right to make informed decisions as far as the amount, circumstances, and timing of their medical care is concerned. Moreover, this right extends to the patients’ choices on the timing of their death. The right to self-determination implies that competent patients have the right-to-die, which must be respected and upheld by members of the medical community.
On the other hand, patient autonomy implies that the patients reserve the right to choose medical practices and interventions that best represent their cultural, religious, and personal philosophies. Therefore, if the right to choose death reflects the patients’ cultural, religious, and personal principles, no one should prevent them from exercising this basic right, at least according to the principles of medical ethics (McCormick, 2011).
A perusal of recent literature demonstrates that the need to respect the patients’ right-to-die provided by the principles of medical ethics has won the hearts of many Americans. A survey conducted in 2006 with the aim of examining the level of support for the right-to-die movement shows that more than 84 percent of the 1,500 adult participants support the move to enact laws that protect the patients’ right-to-die if they are suffering from an advanced illness (McCormick, 2011).
On the other hand, a considerable number of Americans, notably Christians and some members of the medical community have strongly argued against a public policy that allows the killing of terminally-ill patients.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Their argument is based on the “social slippery-slope”, which holds that a public policy that legalizes PAS is vulnerable to undesirable consequences in that some unscrupulous physicians may take advantage of the lenient rules to kill their patients the moment they run out of ideas on how to treat their advanced medical conditions (Pereira, 2012).
Keeping the arguments from both sides in mind, this paper reviews the current legal status and the effects of legalizing assisted suicide in the states of Oregon, Washington, and Montana with the aim of supporting the move to legalize PAS in other parts of the United States.
The Current Legal Status of Assisted Suicide In the United States, physician-assisted assisted suicide and euthanasia are illegal in all U.S. states except Oregon, Washington, and Montana.
The three states have taken bold steps in terms of allowing physicians to help their patients to kill themselves by prescribing a lethal dose of substances that hasten death. This move has been seen as a step in the right direction by the proponents of PAS and euthanasia who have argued that there is no need to limit the basic rights of the American people, which are enshrined in the U.S. Constitution.
For instance, the right to privacy, individual liberty, and dignity has been increasingly cited in support of the need to legalize assisted suicide in the United States. Here, the proponents of PAS and euthanasia have argued that since the Constitution expressly guarantees the right to privacy, liberty, and dignity to the American people, there is no need to create rules and statutes that contradict these basic rights.
Therefore, in 1994, the citizens of Oregon saw the need to uphold their basic right to dignity by endorsing the “Death with Dignity Act” with more than 51% of the votes cast in the citizen’s ballot initiative.
The act gave all practicing physicians in the state of Oregon the opportunity to help persons with advanced illnesses in killing themselves by prescribing lethal doses of substances that hasten death while preserving their dignity. However, this act clearly states that a person seeking assisted suicide must be ailing from an illness that limits his or her life expectancy to a period of less than six months (Munson, 2012).
We will write a custom Term Paper on The Medical Practice of Helping Patients to Commit Suicide specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite the citizens’ majority endorsement of the act, its implementation was delayed due to legal challenges and court cases until 1997 when more than 60% of the voters turned down the move to repeal the act. As a result, the Death with Dignity Act was enacted later in 1997, and Oregon became the only U.S. state to legalize assisted suicide (Munson, 2012).
Despite failed attempts to legalize assisted suicide in different U.S. states, the state of Washington became the second state after Oregon to enact laws that legalize assisted suicide.
In the 2008 citizens’ Ballot Initiative 1000, voters in the state of Washington enacted laws legalizing assisted suicide by 58% of the votes cast. The laws passed in Washington were similar to those found in Oregon’s Death with Dignity Act except that the citizens of Washington preferred the terms, “hastened death” and “aid-in-dying” in the place of “physician-assisted suicide”.
Therefore, in the state of Washington, practicing physicians are permitted by law to prescribe lethal doses of medications that hasten death to their patients. However, for a patient to qualify for hastened death he or she must be an adult of 18 years and above suffering from a terminal illness that limits the life expectancy to less than six months (Munson, 2012).
Apart from Oregon and Washington, reports show that the Supreme Court in the state of Montana ruled that physician-assisted suicide is legal in a court decision issued in 2009. This makes Montana the third U.S. state to legalize PAS. In delivering the court decision for Baxter v. Montana, the justices argued that the patients’ decision to seek assisted suicide does not threaten public peace since it involves a private and compassionate agreement between the patient and the physician.
Moreover, the court’s majority noted that the physician and the patient must be actively involved in creating the necessary means through which the patient must make a private decision on his or her own mortality. This implies that the patient’s private decision is not in any way a threat to public peace and other innocent people.
However, the court’s decision did not decide on whether the people of Montana have a constitutional right to seek assisted suicide by claiming the constitutional provisions that guarantee the right to privacy and dignity. Nonetheless, it is not yet clear whether PAS is legal in Montana since recent reports show that the bill enacted by the state legislature in 2010 was rejected by Montana’s Senate Judiciary Committee (Pereira, 2012).
Safeguarding Assisted Suicide In the process of upholding the patients’ right to die as described in the laws enacted in the states of Oregon, Washington, and Montana, the framers did not overlook the possibility that some unscrupulous physicians can take advantage of the lenient laws to advance their undesirable practices. As a result, there are many effective safeguards protecting innocent people from various undesirable consequences of legalized assisted suicide.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Medical Practice of Helping Patients to Commit Suicide by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More First, the laws legalizing assisted suicide dictate that all requests for PAS must be voluntary in that the patient must provide a well-considered and informed consent to the physician before the process can be carried out. Precisely, the laws direct that the patients must provide at least three types of requests (two oral and one written) to the physician in the presence of at least two witnesses before the physician prescribes a lethal dose of a substance that hastens death.
Second, it is a legal requirement that the prescribing physicians can only carry out assisted suicide after seeking second opinion and lengthy consultations with another practicing physician. This enables the prescribing physician to confirm the patient’s claim on his or her terminal diagnosis and prognosis, the patient’s level of mental competence, and the patient’s ability to make informed decisions (Munson, 2012; Pereira, 2012).
Another important safeguard entails the requirement that the prescribing physician must inform all the patients requesting assisted suicide about the availability of alternative ways of managing their advanced illnesses including hospice and palliative care services. This information is very useful to the patients since it allows them to make informed decisions before undertaking assisted suicide.
Furthermore, the laws legalizing assisted suicide require that the persons permitted to prescribe the lethal doses of medications that hasten death must be practicing physicians. This eliminates the possibility that unauthorized people will be involved in carrying out such a delicate procedure. Finally, the laws dictate that all cases of assisted suicide must be reported to the relevant authorities for record-keeping and regulation.
The Effects of Assisted Suicide A perusal of data on assisted suicide since Oregon enacted its laws in 1998 to date shows that there is no significant increase in the rate of mortality in the states where PAS is legal. Studies indicate that 129 people died in 1997 to 2002 after ingesting a lethal dose of a substance that hastens death prescribed by physicians in the state of Oregon. Overall, the number of deaths as a result of assisted suicide has remained slightly below 0.1% of all the deaths that have occurred in the state of Oregon since 1997 to date.
On the other hand, statistics show that 36 people have died as a result of physician-assisted suicide in the state of Washington since the law was passed in 2008. Further, due to the on-going confusion about the legal status of assisted suicide in Montana, there are no reliable statistics showing the number of people who have died as a result of PAS (Munson, 2012).
Generally, the number of people dying as a result of assisted suicide does not reflect the general assumption that legalization of PAS leads to a “slippery slope” whereby physicians will begin to kill their patients indiscriminately.
But instead, the legalization of PAS in the states of Oregon and Washington has seen significant improvements in the way physicians offer end-of-life care to their patients. For example, in the state of Oregon, studies show that after the laws legalizing assisted suicide were passed, most physicians increased the use of morphine for pain management by 50% in 1997-2000.
Further, the number of hospital referrals increased by 30% while the use of pain medications in the end-of-life care increased by 76% at around the same period. Therefore, it is safe to conclude that the other U.S. states are wrong in believing that the legalization of PAS will cause many undesirable consequences such as the indiscriminate killing of terminally-ill patients.
References Hudson, P. L., et al. (2006). Desire for hastened death in patients with advanced disease and the evidence base of clinical guidelines: A systematic review. Palliative Medicine, 20, 693-701.
McCormick, A. J. (2011). Self-determination, right to die, and culture: A literature review. Social Work, 56(2), 119-128.
Munson, R. (2012). Intervention and reflection: Basic issues in medical ethics (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Pereira, J. (2012). Legalizing euthanasia or assisted suicide: The illusion of safeguards and controls. Curr Oncol., 18(2), 38-45.
Islam, Modernity, and Justice for Women Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Islam and modernity
Muslim Modernists’ views on modernity
Fundamentalists’ views on modernity
Islam and Justice for Women
Introduction Islam is a monotheistic religion, which was introduced by Prophet Mohammed. Muslims consider Mohammed as the last prophet of God (Allah). “Islam is a noun derived from the trilateral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, safeness, and peace. In religious context, Islam means voluntary submission to God or Allah (Kamrava, 2006, pp. 15-17).
The Islamic religion is based on five pillars, which are the major concepts and mandatory acts of worship. The Islamic religion highly regards every aspect of humanity.
It seeks to instill moral values such as peace, well being, and justice to its followers. Every Muslim should uphold these values. According to the Islamic religion, all human beings are equal before God or Allah. The Islamic religion also aims at producing whole-rounded Muslims with balanced personalities. This research paper examines the relationship between Islam, modernity, and justice for women.
Islam and modernity Modernity refers “to a set of very large and important structural and material changes affecting people throughout the world” (Hunter, 2008, pp. 89-90). Therefore, modernity is a way of life in the contemporary world. It involves embracing change and new ideas. The modern mindset encourages individuals to make choices and queries, as well as, to engage in discussions (Cooper, 2000, p. 33).
Various Muslim groups have reacted differently to the question of modernity. For instance, the Muslim modernists and fundamentalists differ in their views about modernity.
Muslim Modernists’ views on modernity The Muslim modernists are a group of devout and knowledgeable Muslims whose mission is threefold. The modernists seek to “define Islam by bringing out fundamentals in a rational and liberal manner; to emphasize the basic ideals of Islam; and to interpret the Islamic teachings in order to bring out its dynamism” (Cooper, 2000, pp. 77-78). The major aim of the Muslim modernists is to settle the differences that exist between secular rationalism and traditional beliefs, as well as, modernity and Islamic religion.
Jamal al-Din al-Afghani has been credited to be the founder of Islamic modernism. According to al-Afghani, Muslims have a duty to apply the teachings found in the Quran to solve daily problems. Jamal al-Din al-Afghani strongly opposed the views of other Muslim scholars who were against the emergence of new ideas, which they considered a threat to the Islamic religion. Al-Afghani proposed that the Islamic religion should be vibrant and dynamic as stipulated in the Quran.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, one of the verses in the Quran states, “God can only change what is in a people until they change what is in themselves” (Keddie, 2000, pp. 100-101). Al-Afghani urged his followers to integrate change with religion in order to become better Muslims and to strengthen the Islamic faith. However, al-Afghani further states that Muslims should find their own way of integrating the modern changes into the Islamic faith.
Jamal al-Afghani strongly believed that Muslims should embrace western knowledge, technology, as well as, western goods and services. However, al-Afghani cautioned Muslims to be selective in the process of embracing change from the west.
He urged Muslims to acquire only what is beneficial and will enable them to have better living standards. Al-Afghani also introduced Islamic reformation. This was a religious movement, which was comparable to the Christian reformation initiated by Martin Luther. Muhammad Abduh further spread Al-Afghani’s teachings.
Muhammad Abduh was Al-Afghani’s student and a fervent follower of Al-Afghani. Muhammad Abduh stressed the importance of studying the Quran and applying logic and rationality. According to Muhammad Abduh, Muslims have the right to differ with the Ulama (Muslim religious scholars) incase the Ulama was irrational. Abduh encouraged his fellow Muslims to make use of reason, logic, and analysis in solving problems.
Most Muslim modernists like Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, Muhammad Abdul, and Mahmud Muhammad Taha among others embraced modern western ideas and knowledge. Therefore, the Muslim modernists are not skeptical of western ideas. The Muslim modernists have embraced western ideas, which they consider beneficial to the Islamic religion and Muslim societies.
They imaginatively synthesize “Islamic and western ideas to produce a reasonable and relevant re-interpretation of Islamic thought with enlightened cosmopolitan, liberal, and realistic perspectives” (Keddie, 2000, pp. 137-138). According to the modernists, embracing modern changes not only makes individual Muslims to live better lives, but also leads to the advancement of Muslim societies.
The modernists’ views have led to the integration of modern ideas into various aspects of Muslims’ lifestyles. For instance, a number of cultural, technological, and scientific changes have been witnessed in several Muslim societies. This flexibility to modern ideas is part and parcel of Islamic legal traditions.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Islam, Modernity, and Justice for Women specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Islamic law also has room for new ideas and changes. For example, in the nineteenth century there was an attempt to build a modern state in Egypt. This move eventually led to the reformulation of the Islamic law. However, the reformulation of the Islamic law did not lead to the rewriting or abandonment of the elements of the Islamic laws.
Fundamentalists’ views on modernity Fundamentalism dates back to the early years of 1920’s. “It was first used in the United States of America following the battles of leading evangelical Protestants against liberal and progressive spirits of the age” (Husain, 2009, pp. 10-11). Fundamentalism currently exists in all religions.
Fundamentalism can hinder one from having a full understanding of a given religion because fundamentalists are rigid in the interpretation of religious texts. As a result, people may not get the deeper spiritual aspect of a religion. Therefore, due to the rapid change in the modern world, fundamentalist thinking may be rendered irrelevant. “The diverse nature and complexity of human problems require that religious texts to be interpreted by putting at the forefront the goal of the religion” (Hunter, 2008, pp. 65-66).
Fundamentalism has a number of characteristics. First, fundamentalists are opposed to marginalization of the Islamic religion. Second, the fundamentalists believe that the world is characterized by two aspects namely, the light and the darkness. Third, the fundamentalists are selective and absolutist.
Fundamentalists are also opposed to modernity since they consider it a threat to religion. However, failure to embrace modernity is likely to result into political crumble of any modern state. Fundamentalist thinking also tend to foster dictatorship and corruption in any given modern state.
In most Muslim countries, there have been unbalanced rate of modernization, which has hampered the process of development. Despite the rapid changes that have been experienced technologically, politically, socially and economically, many Muslim countries have not embraced the changes.
Modernity has more often been linked to westernization and secularization, which makes it unhealthy. “The unhappy predicament of nation building, modernizing and secularizing the Muslim world has given rise to a number of crises, afflicting the fragile nation states of developing world” (Cooper, 2000, p. 58). Therefore, the fundamentalist thinking to some extent have hindered the integration of change and new ideas into the Muslim societies.
Islam and Justice for Women Over the past three decades, a rapid growth in the Islamic faith has been witnessed. For example, a number of Islamic institutions such as Islamic banking, Islamic schools, and insurance companies have been established. Therefore, the Islamic religion is becoming more vibrant and active in Muslim societies and communities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Islam, Modernity, and Justice for Women by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This progress in the Islamic religion has had great impact on women. Despite the several changes that have been experienced in Islam, the Islamic legal system that handles issues affecting Muslim women have remained unchanged over the years (Hunter, 2008, p. 77). The legal system that has remained static since its formulation centuries ago continues to be used in matters pertaining to divorce, inheritance, and leadership roles. To a large extent, the Islamic legal system tends to favor men over women.
Islamic fundamentalism has further led to subjugation and control of Muslim women. According to the fundamentalists, women are supposed to perform primary roles such as housekeeping. They also prohibit social mixing of the different genders. In countries such as Saudi Arabia, Iran and other Middle East countries, a lot of restrictions are put on women. For instance, it is a requirement for every woman to put on veils. Women are also not allowed to leave their houses without a guard or to occupy public offices (Hunter, 2008, p. 81).
The challenges facing Muslim women have led to the emergence of Islamic feminism. However, scholars have differing opinions concerning the term Islamic feminism because of the nature of Muslim societies that emphasize patriarchy.
The Muslim feminists continue to practice Islamic teaching while promoting democratic moral values of Islam. Muslim feminists use verses from the Quran to fight for their rights. In Indonesia, the Muslim feminist movement is based on values and tradition. They aim at promoting justice for women as advocated by the Islamic faith.
Conclusion From the above discussion, the Islamic religion continues to progress and to spread in different parts of the world. The Islamic religion also continues to influence almost every aspect of Muslims’ lifestyles. However, some of its adherents have not adopted the new ideas and tremendous social changes that have been witnessed globally.
Most Muslims, especially, in Islamic states are still holding on to traditional religious beliefs that deny women of their rights. For instance, in countries like Afghanistan a woman is still treated as a weaker and an inferior being. As a result, most women in these countries have remained under the dominance of their husbands. Such practices in the Islamic faith violate women’s rights and deny them justice.
However, there are Muslims who appreciate the new developments that have been witnessed globally. These groups of Muslims, who are also known as the modernists, have integrated the new ideas of the west into their societies by interpreting the Muslim law in accordance to societal needs and aspirations. Therefore, it is through this kind of flexibility that solutions to the problems that affect humanity today can be dealt with effectively.
References Cooper, J. (2000). Islam and Modernity: Muslim Intellectuals Resond. New York: I.B. Tauris.
Hunter, S. (2008). Reformist Voices of Islam: Mediating Islam and Modernity. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Husain, E. (2009). The Islamist: Why I Became an Islamic Fundamentalist. Chicago: Penguin Group.
Kamrava, M. (2006). The New Voices of Islam: Reforming Politics and Modernity. New York: I.B.Tauris.
Keddie, N. (2000). A Political Biography. Carlifornia: Univrsity of Carlifornia Press.
Banning Texting while Driving Saves Lives Research Paper college essay help online
Table of Contents Prevalence and Risks caused by the Action
Effects of Texting while Driving
Reaction by States
Texting while driving involves communicating through written messages using mobile phones. This action increases the risk of fatal accidents.
To tackle this problem, many nations have endorsed laws that ban texting while driving. Such laws exist in Columbia, Guam, and 7 other states in America (Tison 1). This paper supports that banning texting while driving saves lives as it prevents most causes of accidents. The paper first discusses the rate of texting while driving and the existing death records. It then highlights the effects and reaction by states to texting while driving.
Prevalence and Risks caused by the Action Survey proves that two-thirds of people aged below 30 use phones when driving and over one-third agree to texting when driving (Gershowitz 584). Since these figures seem to increase, it is justifiable for states to ban the practice, particularly when tied with the risks of texting while driving.
Scholars at North Texas University found that texting while driving accounted for almost 20,000 fatalities between 2001 and 2007, after examining data on traffic casualty and texting reports (Gershowitz 583). Another study by the National Safety Council estimated that use of cell phone while driving accounted for about 1.6. Million accidents in every year, with texting while driving constituting 200,000 of those accidents (Wilson 2215).
Effects of Texting while Driving Behaviors like text messaging, which involve switching of tasks, and requires extensive durations before execution, affect driving severely. Texting when driving seems consistent with a changing mold of concentration, where attention shifts to either texting, or driving. Once drivers change their concentration to activity of text messaging, which involves both reading and composing messages, their response rates to braking actions are much high and this shows the cost of switching tasks.
Young et al. designed a study to investigate the effect of personal behaviors on driving (250). The study found that dialing numbers physically had a negative effect on driving. Another investigation on the effect of texting on driving performance showed that texting while driving used the driver’s cognitive capacity, and forced him to shift eyes from the highway to the phone, severally. The study approximated that texting made drivers shift their focus from the road more than 14 times in every half an hour.
Results of a related study among truck drivers in Virginia showed that texting while driving was 23.2 times riskier than non-distracted driving (Gershowitz 585). This study also revealed that drivers on text messages shifted their eyes more than 4 times in every 6 seconds. As a result, these drivers responded slowly and left their lanes often (Gershowitz 585). Therefore, it is rational to argue that texting while driving increases chances of having accidents since text messaging impacts driving performance negatively.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Reaction by States Following many accidents and research showing the risk of using cell phone while driving, legislatures have reacted with retribution. However, governments have reacted to the risky grouping of using cell phone and driving in different approaches. The most insistent approach has been to forbid using all hand-held phones when driving.
These nations allow drivers to use phones as long as they have hands-free specifications. The merit of this strategy is that it is an easy to enforce rule due to its simplicity since the driver could be either using the gadget, or not. Therefore, these legislatures ban texting while driving as use of hands by drivers gets banned.
Other nations have assumed strict regulations on use of phones while driving. For instance, some nations have banned all forms of texting while a vehicle is moving, in efforts to frame nuanced regulations. Other nations have banned drivers from reading, writing, or conveying any written or electronic communication while the vehicle is in motion (Wilson 2215).
Some nations have banned all use of hand-held phones and allowed use of hands-free. Other nations have limited use of phones, by teenagers, when driving, and a rising number of states and governments have prohibited the exact practice of texting while driving. Nations such as New Hampshire and Michigan disallow all forms of texting when driving (Gershowitz 584).
Iowa outlaws texting while driving, although their definition of a text message only includes electronic and direct messages (Gershowitz 584). Wisconsin allows reading text messages, but bans composing and sending of such messages through electronic means. Virginia bans drivers from reading any text message or email, as well as texting in any hand-held tool. Overall, many nations have laws that govern use of cell phone when driving.
In conclusion, the risks caused by texting while driving and the effects caused by this action explain why banning the practice saves lives. Texting while driving accounts for a large part of accidents that occur every year. Writing or reading text messages makes the driver shift focus from the road to the phone severally, and this increases the likelihood of accidents. Consequently, governments have put in place many laws that ban texting while driving in efforts to save people’s lives.
Works Cited Gershowitz, Adam. “Texting while Driving meets the Fourth Amendment: Deterring both Texting and Warrantless Cell Phone Searches.” Arizona Law Review 54.2 (2011): 577-620. Print.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Banning Texting while Driving Saves Lives specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Tison, Julie, Neil Chaudhary, and Linda Cosgrove. National Phone Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behavior, Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2011. Print.
Wilson, Fernando and Stimpson Jim. “Trends in Fatalities from Distracted Driving in the United States, 1999 to 2008.” Journal of Public Health 22.13 (2010): 2215–2216. Print.
Young, Kristie, Michael Regan and John Lee. Driver Distraction: Theory, Effects and Mitigation, Boca, Raton: CRC Press Group, 2009. Print.
Analysis of “An enquiry concerning Human Understanding” by David Hume Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
In his essay “An enquiry concerning Human Understanding”, David Hume expressed the most powerful arguments ever formulated against the rationality of belief in miracles. This paper seeks to summarize Hume’s various arguments against religion.
Summarize Hume’s argument about miracles.
While arguing against miracles, Hume starts by providing a brief definition of the miracle at the beginning of his essay. He defines miracle as a “violation of the laws of nature”. Hume argues that the occurrence of miracles lacks creditability because there is no evidence to support its occurrence.
While questioning the credibility of miracles, Hume states that it is only through evidence that rational human beings can judge between two pragmatic claims. He goes ahead to claim that the weight of a good evidence relies on a number of factors including consistency and comportment. Hume claims that miracles are incapable of being proved by any testimony or evidence whatsoever. He claims that there is a uniform experience against the existence of any miracle.
Therefore, since the evidence for the law of miracles is extremely limited and that the evidence against the occurrences of miracles can easily overshadow these evidences, then it is highly possible that miracles have no empirical backgrounds. Hume, therefore, suggests that as rational human beings we should not believe in miracles.
How does van Inwagen object to Hume’s argument about miracles?
Inwagen asserts that neither a miracle nor anything else can violate the law of nature. He asserts that Hume’s argument attack on religion depends on a false definition, and it does not exhibit any credibility. Inwagen, therefore, refutes claims by David Hume that the concept of miracles violates the law of nature.
What should we think about testimony about miracles?
As Hume states, testimony derives its authority exclusively from the human experience of conformity between testimony and facts. Therefore, one cannot verify the correspondence of testimony with reality without consulting other testimony; one must possess some other reasons for placing confidence in testimony than in experience of this correspondence.
Contrary to Hume, testimony does not derive its trustworthiness from experience, and one cannot disregard testimony’s evidence simply because it concern realities that one has not experienced. Therefore, we should accept testimony about miracles.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Summarize Hume’s objection to design arguments.
In the essay “An enquiry concerning Human Understanding”, Hume expresses his inner fillings about the rationality of design arguments. He argues that design argument does not provide a tangible proof to explain the existence of God. Design argument asserts that, as rational human beings, we can only explain the complexity of nature through aptitude and design.
Hume argues that the design arguments are faulty because it does not reflect the sort of argument it claims to reflect. Though he claims that the argument from design is in line with the argument by analogy, he still observes that there is a weak relationship between the two concepts. He, therefore, asserts that it is not justified to conclude that the order in nature owes its existence to intellectual design.
Summarize one contemporary teleological argument for the existence of God (either Swinburne or Collins).
While presenting his argumentations for the existence of God, Swinburne starts by constructing a concrete summary that disclose the accurate composition of the teleological point of view. Swinburne analyzes both types of the teleological argument embraces all under the light of incredulous evaluation and then present insight and justification that gives room for philosophical analysis. At the beginning of his essay, Swinburne reveals two types of teleological arguments.
The two types of the teleological argument he present includes ‘the regularity of co presence’ and ‘regularity of succession’. Swinburne uses these two arguments to provide evidence that there have been many private experiences purportedly of God and that, for this reason, it is highly probable that God exists. Swinburne employs the idea of an asymmetrical relation of dependence in relation to God and the world.
Does this argument escape Hume’s critique? Is this argument successful?
Richard Swinburne’s argument does not escape Hume’s critique. While Hume establishes that the probability of Gods existence is higher than some threshold value, David Hume, on the other hand, asserts that the complexity of nature may not be as a result of any intellectual design. While Swinburne provides a probabilistic approach on the existence of God, Hume does not seem to provide any room for the existence of Supernatural being.
While Swinburne holds that God does not depend upon anything but any world must depend totally upon God, Hume does not acknowledge that Human beings should depend upon God, as he does not see a strong evidence for the existence of God. Based on Hume’s argument, Richard Swinburne argument is not successful because it does not present matters at hand with facts but with probability.
How might we understand sec. X and XI as a two-pronged attack on religion? (That is, how can we understand X as an attack on revealed religion and section XI as an attack on natural religion?)
In section X and IX, Hume argues that the existence of every concept of the world can only be explained by repeated evidence. In section X, Hume asserts that revealed religion lacks credibility because there is not tangible evidence to support its existence. Though he acknowledges the existence of natural religion and that there is order in the world, he does not acknowledge the existence of supernatural being. Hume’s main intention is to make people under people understand that they should present their arguments with concrete evidence before making any conclusions.
We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of “An enquiry concerning Human Understanding” by David Hume specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Is Hume’s two-pronged attack on religion successful?
Hume’s two-prolonged attacks on religion are not successful. Hume’s attack fails on two accounts. First, His understanding of natural religion as dependent for its authority on experience leads to an infinite regress; one cannot verify religion with evidence, rather it is a matter of faith and belief.
Second, Hume’s definition of the existence of supernatural being and religion as a violation of the laws of nature distorts the authentic character of both religion and the law of nature. Religions do not conflict with, but rather presupposes the regular operation of nature’s law. An occurrence, which the laws of nature show to be naturally impossible, either falsifies one or more putative laws of nature or derives from supernatural casualty, in which case it is beyond the scope of these laws.
Conclusion Conclusively, though Hume argues that miracles violate the law of nature, it is necessary to note that law of nature does not rule out miracles as he suggests. His arguments, therefore, do not provide a precise answer to the existence of miracles and other philosophical concepts.
Drug Prevention/Recovery Program Review Report custom essay help: custom essay help
The Lebanese youths have been adversely affected by the abuse of tobacco, alcohol and other harmful drugs. As a result, preventive and rehabilitative measures based on peer education have been put in place in order to curb the menace. Hence, a training program involving thirty young activists was put in place courtesy of the funding secured from the Oxfam pharmaceutical company. This program aimed at increasing the awareness on the need to stop abusing alcohol and other related drugs.
One of the messages passed across in this collaborative training program was that there other stress relieving ways apart from abusing harmful drugs. The program also aimed at offering alternative ways of dealing with stress-related factors that proved to be troublesome to the young population aged below 30 years.
The key participating agent in this training program was the Armenian Relief Cross. In addition, other local stakeholders were also incorporated in the program with the aim of boosting the drugs awareness campaign.
The awareness and training program managed to reach out for 5,200 trainees. Majority of the audience were secondary school students. The latter accounted for 1,250 participants. Although the youth were the key target in this program, the stakeholders also found it necessary to include parents, security officers, and scouts from all age groups. According to Arevian (2010), the objectives of the training program were met as anticipated.
However, it may not be possible that the workshop objectives were fully met in a single training program and awareness campaign. It is without doubt that this drug awareness campaign was a step or initiative in the right direction. if all the set objectives are to be met, then additional resources such as time and monetary funding would be needed. Besides, the success of the program could only be feasible after a series of continuous awareness campaigns.
As a matter of fact, Arevian (2010) notes that lack of adequate resources could not permit the process of obtaining feedback from the youth who participated in the training program. Nonetheless, the capacity of all the stakeholders who took part in the training initiative was largely boosted by their high level of cooperation and goodwill towards the program. Hence, the objectives in terms of support from stakeholders were clearly attained.
The program had quite a number of strengths and weaknesses. For instance, one of the strengths of the training and drugs awareness campaigns was that it received holistic support and collaboration from various stakeholders. The lead agencies came out in large numbers to offer the technical and moral support.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the same breath, it was quite easy to recruit youthful participants who were to offer training during the program. Parents, policemen, scouts, working adolescents and other professionals also gave a major boost to the awareness campaign.
On the other hand, the funding obtained from Oxfam was not adequate in facilitating the entire training and feedback program. This monetary support served the most basic function of initiative the awareness campaign.
On the overall, this program could be deemed to be effective bearing in mind that it managed to reach out for over 5000 trainees. In addition, the collaborative support received from both local and international stakeholders strengthened the effectiveness of the project. Hence, I would not hesitate to implement this kind of project in my line of work especially when funding is available.
Reference Arevian, M. (2010). Training trainees, young activists, to conduct awareness campaigns about prevention of substance abuse among Lebanese/Armenian young people. Journal of Inter-professional Care 24(2): 173–182.
Death and Justice by Edward I. Koch: A Book Report essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
The Death Penalty is Barbaric
Thou shall not Kill
The Death Penalty Is State-Sanctioned Murder
Introduction This report is a review of the essay Death and justice by Edward I. Koch. This essay addresses the use of the death penalty as a way of deterring people from engaging in serious criminal offenses such as cold blood murder (Koch 1).
Koch uses statements of some of the condemned murderers to show that killing a person is wrong. It implies that even the murderers understand how painful killing another person is and they still proceed to do it. For instance, the author gives an example of Mr. Willie, a convicted murderer, who testifies that no person deserves to be killed (Koch 1).
Due to his vast experience in the criminal justice system, Koch is fit to write about issues of the death penalty and justice. He currently works in a popular TV courtroom show after serving as a mayor of New York for 12 years. Apart from Death and justice, Koch has also written other literary works such as Mayor (1984) and Politics (1985). Although the issue of the death penalty is quite controversial, it is the most effective deterrence and the fairest justice that can be done to the victims of the most serious offenses.
Synopsis This book has a total of seven chapters. Chapter 1, “The Death Penalty Is Barbaric,” reinforces the need to create an injustice-free society. Chapter 2, “No Other Major Democracy Uses the Death Penalty,” supports the states that apply the death penalty to enforce justice. Chapter 3, An Innocent Person May Be Executed By Mistake, addresses the risks involved in wrongful executions. Chapter 4, “Capital Punishment Cheapens the Value of Human Life,” asserts that the death penalty promotes the value of life.
Chapter 5, “The Death Penalty Is Applied in a Discriminatory Manner,” refutes possibilities of discrimination in the death penalty. Chapter 6, “Thou Shall Not Kill,” uses the Bible to support the death penalty. Lastly, chapter 7, “The Death Penalty Is State-Sanctioned Murder,” asserts that the death penalty helps to construct a civilized society.
The Death Penalty is Barbaric The way the law and the criminal justice system work is intricate; this complexity makes it hard to understand the differences that arise in the different crimes and cases. However, the main argument about punishment is that anyone who commits a criminal offense deserves to be penalized. Retribution and deterrence are the main arguments on which punishment is based. Retribution asserts that punishment should be given out in form of vengeance.
Criminals should be given a similar treatment such as the harm they cause their victims and the society. If someone kills another person, he too should be killed as an equal penalty. Unlike what the murderers do, the death penalty is “less inhumane as it is done painlessly” (Koch 5). Deterrence works hand in hand with retribution and it asserts that people who commit criminal offenses should be incapacitated to bar them from engaging in similar offenses.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Keeping someone behind bars does not completely prevent him from committing a crime. The death penalty is the best “punishment for cold-blooded murderers” (Koch 6). In addition, the death penalty and other capital punishments help to “create injustice-free societies” (Koch 6).
Thou shall not Kill The death penalty is developed from the principles and commandments outlined in the bible. The bible illustrates the rules that should be used to build a society that is free from injustices and other anti-social behaviors. The Bible clearly states that no one person should “terminate the life of another one” (Koch 12).
The holy book allows authorities to apply capital punishments such as “death in order to vindicate justice” (Koch 12). In any case, the criminal justice system of the United States criticizes inhuman punishments, which are different from the “capital punishment that it uses to uphold justice” (Koch 12). A good criminal justice system is one that ensures that criminals are punished according to the offenses they commit.
The Death Penalty Is State-Sanctioned Murder The death penalty seems to be the most effective deterrence because the dead criminals cannot get a chance to engage in criminal activities again. It is also the fairest justice that can be given to the victims of serious offenses such as cold-blood murders. Koch argues that the death penalty is the “foundation of a civilization” (13).
This is because criminals tend to grow bolder and become repeat offenders if they are subjected to less serious punishments such as incarceration. The death penalty helps to “instill fear in people to desist from serious offenses” (Koch 15). It is evident that societies that tend to “protect guilty lives lose innocent lives in return” (Koch 15).
Conclusion Although the death penalty is cruel and appears inhumane, it remains the most effective deterrence and the fairest justice that can be given to the victims of serious offenses such as murder. It is evident that the other punishments used by most criminal justice systems are ineffective at preventing criminals from engaging in similar crimes.
If these measures were effective enough, repeat offenders would be a thing of the past. The death penalty terminates the life of the most serious offenders and in that way barring them completely from engaging in unlawful activities.
We will write a custom Report on Death and Justice by Edward I. Koch: A Book specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Work Cited Koch, Edward I. Death and Justice. New York, NY: New Republic, 1985. Pdf.
History and Theory of New Media Essay essay help: essay help
The text by Michel Foucault provides an outline of the security measures taken in a certain town that was facing a plague. The design of the tower is in such a way that the guard can watch all the prisoners from a strategic point at the middle. The prisoners were not in a position to see neither the guard nor their colleagues. With such a confinement, all the prisoners had to maintain discipline. The design of the tower and the quarantine measures imposed on the citizens of the town is clear indication of the influence of power.
This introduces us to the various effects of power in the society and the change that power can bring in a societal setting. In the current world, it is evident to see that power has overtaken individual freedom and ability to address freewill among members of the society. With power, we have been reduced to mere citizens who have to submit to the laws and regulations without even questioning on the consequences of what we are being forced to oblige to.
Interrogation room is a perfect example of Panopticism in the modern world. In an interrogation room, the person being interrogated is seen by officers from the outside but does not see them. This reflects on how power should be seen as visible whose presence can never be verified. The mirror plays an important role of a sociological machine that influences the thinking of the person being interrogated and gives the officers a sense of power within the confinement.
Under such an environment, it is likely that the subject will temporarily lose their innate identity and oblige to accusations that might be false. Just as how Michael describes it, the interrogation room can be likened to a laboratory where the officers bring people to derive information and observe their behaviors during the interrogation. Depending on the behavior portrayed by the subject being interrogated, the officers in charge believe that they are in a position to gauge the validity of the information being given.
Looking the piece from a religious perspective, it is evident that the piece depicts the role of religion in the society. Biblically, God is all knowing than any other living creature. At a lesser scale, Michel depicts how God influences our behaviors. From religion, we know that God is in heaven and watches all our deeds on daily basis.
We all believe that God is always watching us, near us, and knows what we think. This makes us have a constant fear that God is always watching us and therefore we should be showing good deeds at all times despite the circumstances. However, none of the living creatures is sure about the criteria used by God in watching us. No human being has the evidence that God is always watching us but we always believe that he is always watching us.
With this fear in our minds, our behaviors are influenced and we will always want to impress God in our actions. This is due to the religious teaching that the people who disobey God and do actions against his will burn in eternal hell. With these issues in mind, I see Panopticism being good. It is an intellectual way of maintaining order where individuals rule themselves by the fear of dire consequences believed to befall the victims.
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The Importance of Stories in the Person’s Life according to Persepolis Essay a level english language essay help
The life of any individual consists of a lot of significant stories and details which shape the personality because these stories provide the discussion of the real experiences or real scenarios which are possible to be used or followed by the other people. In her graphic novel Persepolis, Marjane Satrapi presents the autobiographical story, which is based on the combination of the other persons’ life experiences, which became influential for Marjane’s life.
Creating her own story, Marjane was affected by many different and rather vivid stories heard and observed during her life. It is possible to refer to the relatives’ experiences, to the family’s story, or stories of the most influential and respected people as they were discussed by Marjane. Furthermore, it is also necessary to refer to the historic events as the important background for forming the personal vision of the reality.
Thus, all the stories which were heard or discussed by Marjane affected her life and personal experience significantly because the young woman not only acted in relation to her considerations influenced by the conclusions made from stories but also assessed the life situations with references to these events and the other persons’ experience.
The story of Marjane’s life is presented in the book from her childhood, when the first visions of the world are formed, to the adulthood, when the previous experience is rethought from the point of more deep analysis, and this experience acquires the new meaning for the person’s development.
That is why, Satrapi not only tells the specific autobiographical story but also comments on the importance of different stories in the personal life as the significant and influential background of the personal growth. The book is the collection of a lot of stories, and each of them symbolizes the important stage in Marji’s development.
The author effectively uses a number of situations to create the complex picture with the help of their chronological presentation. Marji’s first desire to reject the social repression is observed when she does not understand the necessity to wear the veil and to be separated from the boys at school. Thus, Marji can examine the role of the religious fundamentalists in the society. It is the beginning of the girl’s personal story, which develops on the background of the Islamic Revolution.
The Islamic Revolution changes the life of all people in Iran and divides the population into the opposite categories. From this point, any person’s story is usually influenced by the definite historic events. The life of Marji will be full of such events when the Islamic Revolution and the Iran-Iraq War change the traditional way of living and make people be repressed because of their visions and political beliefs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In her book, Satrapi provides the life story where the personal experience is closely connected with the historic events and political situations which acquire the personal features for Marji because her relatives and friends are actively involved in these events.
Marji’s opinion on the importance of politics and history in the people’s life is formed when she discovers the stories of her grandfather and uncle Anoosh, when she feels that nobody can be protected from the influence of the political oppressions. The story based on the national aspects becomes the part of her personal experience and her visions of the meaning of political repression are formed. It is important to note that there are no stories in the book which lack the political background.
It is possible to note that Marji’s visions of herself as the personality are shaped by the combination of the national and personal motives. The role of the national and religious identity along with the impact of the historic events on Marji’s life cannot be overestimated. It is rather difficult to state what makes Marji’s character so rebellious, the impact of the stories about her relatives and friends or the girl’s inner inclination to percept these stories as the examples of personal revolutions against the current orders.
There are too many people round Marji who have the prison experience because of their desire to be free in their actions and beliefs. Becoming older, Marji builds her life according to some principles studied from the stories experienced and heard.
These principles are the freedom and rebellion, and these concepts make the young woman go to Europe to avoid the possible results of being actively opposite to the current regime. The aspects of Marji’s life in Europe and her return back to Tehran, which are associated with the woman’s depression can be discussed as the result of the conscious attitude to the social and political situations in the country because this attitude is based on the personal experience and stories.
Satrapi’s Persepolis is the complex story of a person’s life which is significantly influenced by the political and national aspects. The country’s historical background, the personal religious background, and the story of the family matter in shaping the personality. Moreover, the person’s life depends on a variety of stories which were heard, observed or experienced during the life because these stories are the emotional and factual background of the personality.
The Summary of Harvest of Empire Essay cheap essay help
The problem of immigration can be discussed as one of the most problematic issues for the US society because the vision of the Latinos’ immigration is based on great prejudice and a lot of stereotypes developed within the society. In the movie Harvest of Empire (2012) directed by Peter Getzels and Eduardo Lopez, the discussion of the problem of the Latinos’ immigration to the USA depends on Juan Gonzalez’s idea which was earlier presented in his book Harvest of Empire (2001).
Juan Gonzalez is the professional journalist, working for the New York Daily News. Being born in Puerto Rico, Gonzalez pays much attention to the discussion of the problem of the Latinos’ immigration in the USA with references to the issues of economy, foreign and regional politics, and social stereotypes.
Thus, the active immigration processes and the ‘invasion’ of the Latinos in the USA are the logical consequences of the prolonged territorial expansion of the USA and its economic influence in the region that is why the immigration of the Latinos is the direct result of the US government’s actions.
The plot of the movie is based on the consequential presentation of the reasons and evidences for supporting the main idea. Therefore, the movie starts with accentuating the thought that the causes of the immigration of people from the Latin America are closely connected with the actions of the USA in the economic and political spheres, and another vision of the issue is based on stereotypes and prejudice, but not on the logical reasoning.
This opinion is clearly presented in Gonzalez’s statement, “the huge Latino presence here is a direct result of our own government’s actions in Mexico, the Caribbean and Central America over many decades – actions that forced millions from that region to leave their homeland and journey north” (Harvest of Empire, 2012).
To examine the issue in detail, the movie’s authors refer to the situation of the people’s emigrating from such countries as Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, and some other ones. Discovering the people’s causes for their immigration to the USA, the authors focus on the historical and social processes and provide the support for the movie’s main idea.
The discussion of the roots of the US ‘Latinization’ is closely associated with such aspects as the development of the majority’s stereotypes in relation to the Latinos and their real contribution to the US economic, social, and cultural progress.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The movie’s authors connect the history of the US expansion of the Latin America’s countries with presenting the stories of well-known Maria Guardado, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Luis Enrique, and other persons to emphasize the role of the personality in the process and break the stereotypes that the presence of the Latinos in the USA is illegal and dangerous for the economic processes.
Each individual’s story states the idea that the negative role of the demographic diversity accentuated by the majority is the prejudice, but not the fact. Moreover, this diversity is a result of the US intensive policy in the region when a lot of people were forced to find the better life in the USA.
As a result, the authors of the movie concentrate on the real situation in relation to the issue of the Latinos’ immigration to the USA and consequentially break the stereotypes with references to discussing the aspects and goals of the US foreign policy and the real contributions of the immigrants to the country’s development and growth.
Reference Harvest of Empire. (2012). Web.
The Syrian Protests and American Intervention Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
It is now over one year since the Syrian protests, which kicked off in Dara’a, a small agricultural town in the country, begun. The Syrian police met the small uprising, which brought together a handful of people, with ruthlessness and brutality beyond the expectations of many people, thereby inciting more people to join the course.
Today, barely all towns in the country have experienced violent protests against the long reigning president Bashar Assad and his family. According to the United Nation’s estimates, approximately 9000 people, most of them soldiers, have died in the violence that has continued to rock most parts of the country.
However, human rights groups and journalist put the estimates much higher at 30, 000 people by October 2012. They claim that government’s efforts at hiding the real happenings in the country have led to a serious clamp down on any forms of journalistic access, thereby denying the international community any chance of getting up-to-date information on deaths, property destruction, and atrocities against women and the minority.
As a result, the international community has treated Syrian case slightly to the disadvantage of the country’s innocent citizens, especially women and children who are subjected to heinous acts such as rape, torture, and forced labor.
Therefore, Mr. President, if your government is to make any decisions based on the recommendations provided in this letter, I will be glad if you considered the possibility of worse things happening in Syrian beyond the grainy streaming media footages who may have watched, as they do not capture even half of what is happening on the ground.
As a nation founded on sound democratic principles and respect for human life and dignity, we have been drawn into this mess by our desire to give to the people of Syria, a democratic government, and an environment free from abuse, violence, and intimidations. So far, our attempts to institute a democratic government in Syrian and to end the suffering of the people have been futile.
Worst still, the rebels who have been fighting the government are ill-equipped to make any significant process towards toppling the government. Their activities have remained limited to Damascus. This calls for drastic measures. Our ultimate goals in Syria are driven by both morals and concerns for the suffering civilians. We need to defend the civilians against military abuse.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More We need to assist in the creation of a democratically elected government that is representative of the people’s wishes. However, the process of instituting a democratic government can never be easy. In most cases, it involves war and sanctions against doctorial regimes. Nevertheless, the Syrian people have spoken boldly of their desire for change, which makes any options available, regardless of the costs involved, worth pursuing.
Additionally, we need to prevent Syria’s situation from dragging it into a failed and war-ridden state like Somalia. If this trend continues unchecked, then the nation could end up in a situation like that of Somalia. Finally yet importantly, we should strive to ensure that the country’s chemical weapons do not end up in the hands of extremist Islamic groups who are known for “terrorist activities” in the world today.
The United States of America suffered severely in the hands of terrorists and should not spare any efforts in fighting them. The 9/11 attack has and will remain in the minds of many people who lost their loved ones for many years to come. In that single attack, the U.S lost millions of dollars and thousands of lives.
Given the circumstances surrounding the Syrian case, American intervention is in complete interest of the nation and its citizens. The U.S government’s principal interest is to protect its citizens. However, protecting Americans, does not only involve securing the country’s borders, but also toppling all governments that are sympathetic to terrorists and regimes that promote the use of chemicals and illegal atomic weapons.
Bashar Assad’s government trades in these unfriendly territories and the U.S government should not sit back and watch from the sidelines as it furthers its monstrous activities. The people of Syria have a right to determine their own future since the country is a sovereign state.
However, its leadership has ignored the people’s plea for regime change, thereby necessitating external intervention. The U.S is perceived by many states as the international watchdog. Therefore, it should take a center stage in securing a solution for Syria’s problems.
However, our intervention in Syria should be wise and well calculated. Considering Bashar Assad’s close association with the Iran and Russian regimes, any form of military intervention could worsen the bad situation. The most viable option is the involvement of the UN Security Council to give a mandate on the issue. Our direct involvement should be through the provision of troops to secure civilian population from harm.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Syrian Protests and American Intervention specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even though most Arab Nations are reluctant to join the Syrian debate, the U.S should try to reach out to them to seek their support in rescuing innocent civilians. The rebels fighting Bashar Assad’s government share many common interests with the United States. As such, the U.S should provide them with logistics to enhance their chances of overthrowing the dictatorial regime. Currently, they are ill equipped and lack experience of fighting; hence, their chances of success are thin.
The decisions we make today define us as a nation. The freedom our citizens enjoy today was earned by both sweet and blood. Therefore, by assisting the people of Syria, we are showing them away to a better life.
By actively championing for a regime change in Syria, we will obviously be attracting more responsibilities to our great nation, but we cannot afford to sit back and watch innocent people die in the hands of merciless and selfish leaders. The minority and the weak always look up to us for help in such times, and we cannot afford to disappoint them.
Our failure to intervene will be viewed as a sign of weakness, which might encourage other regimes to cling onto power against public will. After the invasion of Iraq in March 2003, the U.S. relationship with the Muslim world has not been good. Therefore, many of the Muslim states cannot welcome any form of intervention in Syria. Even though military intervention can absolutely spark wide opposition, many, especially civilians, could view humanitarian aid and provision of logistics as pure and sincere assistance.
Our involvement in Syria should only end when the country has attained democratic leadership. Military personnel deployed to help civilians should however, stay behind for some time to assist in the transition process. Up to now, the atrocities committed against civilians in Syrian are intolerable, but the U.S must trade carefully.
However, if death toll from the uprisings continue to rise and other nations, especially Muslim nations, keep their distance, then, the U.S may be left no other choice but to intervene with a fully-fledge military battalion. This could be more involving and costly, but worth the lives of innocent Syrians used as punching bags by government soldiers and rebels.
Disregard for human lives by the Syrian government will leave us no options, but to pull together our resources, monetary, logistics, and personnel, to rescue the civilians. When it comes to such a level, the Security Council’s decisions will be of little effect to the U.S intervention in Syria. The cost of the war in Iraq has been expensive and we must avoid adding further expenses to our already burdened public. However, when it comes to saving lives, our options are limited.
Works Cited Bowen, Jeremy. “BBC News – Syria rebels gain foothold in Damascus.” BBC – Homepage. N.p., 28 Jan. 2012. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Syrian Protests and American Intervention by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Breakingnews.com. “Syrian Violence Kills 36; Arab Leaders Back Peace Plan.” VOA – Voice of America English News – VOA News. N.p., 28 Mar. 2012. Web.
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Quigley, John B.. The statehood of Palestine: international law in the Middle East conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.
Sidhu, Surinder Singh. 9/11: The Inside Story. Washington, DC: Strategic Book Publishing, 2012. Print.
Footnotes Breakingnews.com. “Syrian Violence Kills 36; Arab Leaders Back Peace Plan.” VOA – Voice of America English News – VOA News. N.p., 28 Mar. 2012. Web.
Bowen, Jeremy. “BBC News – Syria rebels gain foothold in Damascus.”BBC – Homepage. N.p., 28 Jan. 2012. Web.
Ifeanyi Madu, Islamic Extremism and the West: Expounding the Negative Implications of the Clash Between Islamic Extremists and Some Western Nations (London: ProQuest, 2008) 105.
Celmer, Marc, Terrorism, U.S. strategy, and Reagan policies. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987. P. 47 Print.
Surinder Singh Sidhu, 9/11: The Inside Story (Washington, DC: Strategic Book Publishing, 2012) 29.
John B. Quigley, The statehood of Palestine: international law in the Middle East conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010) 45.
Jubin M. Goodarzi, Syria and Iran: diplomatic alliance and power politics in the Middle East, (London: Tauris Academic Studies, 2006) 11.
Nicolas J.S. Davies, Blood on our hands: the American invasion and destruction of Iraq (Version 1.0. ed. Ann Arbor: Nimble Books, LLC, 2010) 32.
Asian and American education systems Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Specifics of American Education
Specific of Asian Education
Recent Tendencies in American and Asian Education in Comparison
Introduction Asian and American education systems are too different. Due to the cultural differences, USA and Asian education have specific structural, social, and economic varieties which make the educational systems of these two nations differ greatly. Starting the discussion with the structural peculiarities of each of the educational systems, the economic priorities along with the recent tendencies are going to be discussed.
Several years ago the US educational system was considered as the best one, however, starting with the beginning of the 21st century, the tendency has changed and Asian education, especially in such countries as Japan, Korea, China, etc. has become the leading one in quality and economical efficiency.
Specifics of American Education The US education has always been considered as the best one. However, the recent tendencies have changed and American education is not valued that much any more. It should be stated that according to the principle that the USA takes the first positions in the research and discovery rates, the US education seems the best one.
However, according to the statistics, 27% of doctorate holders in science and technology sphere in the USA in 1999 were foreign-born. In 2008 this rate has increased. US school with its K-12 system of education has been spoiled and more and more degrees are held by the international students whose level of knowledge is much higher (Guo 2).
One of the main problems which exists in the US system of education is that it needs many top qualified scientists in different spheres, but the educational system requires changes and, therefore, the country is unable to cover these needs. There is no demographic potential to meet the country’s needs, thus, the educational system appears in collapse, the demand on particular professions exists, but there are no people who would be able to meet the requirements.
The educational system is too complicated, the cost is too high and this creates a number of difficulties. The recent American changes in the system of education are connected with the signature of the law No Child Left Behind where the US government attempts to teach all American children (Guo 34)
Specific of Asian Education Asian education, vise versa, becomes stronger and more demanding. Marginson states that most of Asian countries follow Confucian model of education which pursues the following principles, “strong nation-state shaping of structures, funding and priorities”, “a tendency to universal tertiary participation, partly financed by growing levels of household funding of tuition, sustained by a private duty, grounded in Confucian values, to invest in education”, “’one chance’ national examinations that mediate social competition and university hierarchy and focus family commitments to education”, “accelerated public investment in research and ‘world-class’ universities” (Marginson 587).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Asian system of education development is based on training teachers as only via this method the level of education may be improved, according to Asian vision of the problem (Ferrari).
Recent Tendencies in American and Asian Education in Comparison One of the main differences between American and Asian education is the opportunity to choose. The USA is a democratic country and its students have an opportunity to choose subjects they want to learn. Asian education does not offer such an opportunity. Students are to study the subjects they are required to by the curriculum in Asia. In American educational system students are offered freedom in research.
Being asked questions, students have an opportunity to present their own answers and to search for arguments in outside sources. Asian education requires specific answers taken from particular sources. Another opinion is considered as a wrong one as there are questions and particular answers to them.
For example, students in Asia are given the particular facts about the history of the country with the specific vision of the events and their consequences. US students are given an opportunity to search for the material themselves and to draw personal conclusions about the read information. This is the main difference between US and Asian systems of education based on cultural varieties.
Being a democratic country, US system of education encourages students to choose subjects and to search for specific answers for questions which fit them exactly. When American students are given a task, they are said that there is no correct answer and it is necessary to conduct personal research, while Asian students have to read the required information and to search for exact answers a teacher waits for.
For example, one Chinese mother who received education in accordance with the Chinese scheme reacted on the American task to her 9-year-old child to write about the past and the future of China as follows, “I was stunned upon seeing his work. He separated the materials he gathered into sections and chapters, and attached a bibliography in the end. This was the writing style I learnt during grad school, and at that time, I was 30 years old” (Wang).
There are several points when Asian system of education is more advantageous in comparison with the American one. First, Asian teachers are more respected and valued than American ones. Second, Asian students are imposed with harder ethical rules than American ones.
We will write a custom Essay on Asian and American education systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Third, American students separate high achieving students from low achieving ones, however, there is no such distribution in Asian schools. US education is more specific that helps become more qualified in the field, while students from Asian colleges have wider scope of knowledge and may be specialized in different fields. However, this is not an advantage for Asian students whose quality of knowledge of the main subject is lower.
Speaking about the disadvantages of Asian education, there are some norms which are too high for some students to reach, therefore, they have to drop education. The disadvantages of American system of education lie in time students spend in classes, it is too little in comparison with Asian norms. Thus, American students have to study individually more (Haynes and Chalker 21)
Conclusion In conclusion, it should be stated that American and Asian systems of education are too different. Having absolutely different structures, forms and way of information delivery, professionals of both these systems of education are valued all over the world. Of course, different students get various level of knowledge, however, those who want to study will do it appropriately.
Having different cultural perspectives, American and Asian systems of education differ in the way information is presented. A democratic West is opposed to dependant East which has recently stood on the way to democratization of the society, therefore, most of the norms remained communistic. Having compared and contrasted two systems of education, it is impossible to say for sure which system is better, it depends on personal needs and study abilities.
Works Cited Ferrari, Justine. “Lessons from Asia Show Way Forward for Schools.” The Australian. Australian. 17 Feb. 2012. Web.
Guo, Yugui. Asia’s Educational Edge: Current Achievements in Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, and India. London: Lexington Books, 2005. Print.
Haynes, Richard M. and Donald M. Chalker. “World Class Schools.” The American School Board Journal 184.5 (1997): 20-26. Print.
Marginson, Simon. “Higher Education in East Asia and Singapore: Rise of the Confucian Model.” Higher Education 61.5 (2011): 587-611. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Asian and American education systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Wang, Angela. “The Difference between Chinese and American Education.” TheEpochTimes. TheEpochTimes Mag., 10 Jul. 2012. Web.
UAE Involvement in the Iran-Iraq War Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
Overview of the War
Reasons for UAE Involvement
Outcome of UAE Involvement
Introduction The Iran-Iraq War, which took place from 1980 to 1988, is the longest military confrontation between two countries in the 21st century. This war was sparked by border disputes between Iran and Iraq and the main aggressor was Iraq. Part of the reason why the war was able to last for so long was the monetary and material support that both countries received from countries in the international community. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is one of the states that offered support to the warring nations. This paper will argue that the UAE contributed to the lengthy duration of the war due to the monetary support offered to the Iraqis and the Iranians.
Overview of the War The Iraq-Iran war began on 17 September 1980 when the Iraqi president Saddam Hussein annulled the Algiers Accord with Iran and claimed the Shatt al-Arab waterway as Iraqi territory (Rajayi, 1997). The border clashes that followed this announcement escalated into full-scale war (Takeyh, 2010). While Iraq had hoped for a quick victory in her favor, the war dragged on for the better part of the decade. Involvement by the UAE contributed to the prolonging of the war efforts.
Reasons for UAE Involvement The UAE emerged as a state in 1971 after seven Emirates joined following their independence from Britain. The geographical proximity of the UAE and historical relationships between the two neighbors meant that the UAE was in a position to influence the war. However, the UAE did not hold a unified stand during the way with Dubai showing some support for Iran while the rest of the Emirates sided with Iraq.
Rationale for Iraqi Support
The relationship between Iran and the UAE had been marred by aggression as Iran sort to reclaim disputed Islands from the UAE. Ibrahim and Hellyer (2001) document that while trade relations between the two countries continued, the UAE remained wary of Iran’s plans for the disputed islands. The UAE also had a vested interest in the quick end of the war out of commercial considerations. The Iraq-Iran War affected the UAE’s ability to trade free. Specifically, the tanker war carried out by both sides impeded its maritime trade (Ibrahim
Tragic Hero: Achilles and Okonkwo Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
In the novel “Things Fall Apart”, Chinua Achebe portrays a futuristic community. Definitely, the main character Okonkwo’s consciousness and his endeavor to grasp and comprehend the necessity of change have driven the plot of the novel. He engages in self-gratification behavior and is interested in fulfilling his own needs. Okonkwo is a direct opposite of his lazy father Unoka. In the book “The Iliad” by Homer, Achilles is presented as a courageous warrior with supernatural power.
In addition, the gods love him. However, his weird character is an impediment towards integrity and nobility in his quest to protect a blotted pride. Thus, this reflective treatise attempts to explicitly review the similarities and differences in the characters of Okonkwo and Achilles. Specifically, the paper analyzes their personality and contribution towards their downfall as illustrated by Chunia Achebe and Homer.
Respect is illustrated as intense across the novel “Things Fall Apart” and as the contributory factor of Okonkwo’s fame. In the series of elder meetings, respect is accorded to those with blotted household and stores of yams such as Okonkwo’s household.
Moreover, “Things Fall Apart” presents an atmosphere that is socially declining in a comical gesture. For instance, introduction of Christianity, which offers an abode to the outcasts, is initially thought as a harmless home of the busybodies. In a comical twist, Okonkwo loses his first son Unoka to the mission centre.
In the end, the modernity system which the elders spent days and years ridiculing sweeps the entire village. Okonkwo loses everything he believed in and dies like an outcast. In a satiric twist of events, the sacrilege taboo of commit suicide on the rope overcomes Okonkwo. In the first paragraph, the author states that “fame rested on solid personal achievements. As a young man of 18, he had brought honor to his village” (Achebe 3).
Okonkwo is painted as a very strong man who “had a slight stammer
Pros and Cons of Paying for Organ Donation: Arguments for Prohibition Essay college essay help near me
Organ transplantation is considered the urgent issue nowadays since greater percentage of people is desperately trying to find new ways of treatment. However, the transplanted organs underscore a number of controversies. On the one hand, introducing payment for organ donations contradicts the societal values and diminishes human dignity.
On the other hand, desperate need in human organs can make people resort to unlawful actions and engage into illegal trade. The both sides of debates need closer consideration to define which one is more persuasive. Nevertheless, establishing legal prohibitions on paying for organ donation justifies moral and ethical underpinnings and underscores the existing systems of values.
Offering any financial compensation for organ donation does not correspond to currently shaped values of society. Living in a globalized community means exercising morally justified actions and, therefore, any attempt to establish price for parts of human body can dehumanize and depreciate human life as itself.
As a result, the World Health Organization has introduced the guiding principles that provide an ethical framework for controlling transplantation and acquisition of human organs for medical purpose (n. p). Removing any financial incentives that are heavily practiced in underground market can enhance the actual values and ethical foundations.
Introducing payment conditions to organ transplantation can discourage financially disadvantage people. In contrast, solvent buyers of organs can be exploited by private health care establishment, which also undermines the established guiding principles of organ donation.
Although the potential of people to purchase organs might bring in profits to health care and increase supply and demand of transplanted organs, the fact of increased supply rates is doubtful because recent surveys prove that most families refuse donating organs of their relatives for payment because it is not a persuasive price for a human life.
The survey results have also discovered that most Americans are reluctant to become donors because of their distrust to the U.S health care (Clouse 592). Therefore, introducing financial incentives is unlikely to change the situation; rather, it would contribute to people’s distrust.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 1984, the U.S. government issued the act that acknowledged altruism as the only motivation for people to donate organs. However, altruism has not contributed greatly to the supply of transplants, causing significant shifts in thinking. The ethical principle is premised on the developing new directions for procuring organs and applying to available organs.
According to estimates by Josefson over 78, 000 patients are expecting for their transplants, but about 15,000 people die annually because of failure to receive organs on time (446). The situation might change as soon as financial incentives are introduced to encourage the donation among the population. Accepting the financial benefits could also endow organ donors with preferred status, which would allow them to receive organs should they require transplantation in future.
Despite the potential benefits of considering payment for organ donation, the legal prohibition of financial benefits of transplantation for donors are more justified for several persuasive reasons. To begin with, people could better realize the value of a human life and enhance their moral and ethical principles.
Further, people’s awareness of financial incentives could contribute to discrimination of people in accordance to their solvency capabilities. Finally, removing economic benefits will promote a new ethical framework for the modern globalized community. All these guidelines are indispensible for assessing the needs of each member of society.
Works Cited Clouse, Barbara Fine. Patterns for a Purpose: A Rhetorical Reader. US: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Print.
Josefson, Debora. “United States Starts to Consider Paying Organ Donors”. BMJ. 324.7335 (2002): 446. Print.
The World Health Organization. Draft Guiding Principle on Human Organ Transplantation. 2012. Web. https://www.who.int/ethics/topics/transplantation_guiding_principles/en/index1.html
We will write a custom Essay on Pros and Cons of Paying for Organ Donation: Arguments for Prohibition specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Classical Music Concert Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
This is a response paper to a classical music concert I attended at the Disney Concert Hall in downtown Los Angeles on the 7th of December 2012. The title of the concert was ‘Toyota Symphonies for Youths’ created by Adam Reilly and Igor Stravinsky of the Musical Dramaturg and Production Consultant.
The music was conducted by Dietrich Paredes and directed by Abigail Deser. The main idea was to showcase a mix of classical music for the youth. The music was blended with fun and fantasy to entertain teenagers and young people, who are known to enjoy fun music. The first piece of art that I saw was written by Leon Martell and choreographed by Kitty McNamee.
In the main auditorium there was a nice synchronized melody of the blend of different musical instrument and a beautiful vocal performance from the performers. There were four performers; one lady and three gentlemen. The lady was mainly doing the vocals while one of the gentlemen was playing the piano, the other was playing an oboe and the last one was playing a bassoon. As usual the stage was well lit and the performers had confidence as they entertained the audience.
Since this was a classical music concert, it was obvious the kind of audience that would appreciate the performance. One interesting thing about this concert is the fact that classical music was incorporated with vocals. This is one of the modernizations that this genre of music has had to undergo. Before, it was very uncharacteristic for classical music to use vocals. The writings of the music had to be written down in musical notes and instruments used as the only means of output.
Apart from the performance of the first group there were other groups that also performed the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra. The Hollywood Bowl Orchestra is an early piece that was first performed in 1922, by the Eugene Goossens. Just like in the previous performance the orchestra bands also did an amazing performance reading the notations from a script and playing the music with their different instruments.
Some of the instruments that I saw being played by the two groups were piano, organ, and harpsichord. These instruments are played mainly solo. Unlike the traditional classical music, I noticed there were several electric equipments that were used; for instance, electric guitar and synthesizers.
The music played by the two orchestra bands, were accompanied with impressive ballroom performances whereby ballet dancers would join the music and entertain the audience. The instruments used in classical music have undergone changes from the time the genre began.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is a lot of modernization in which also includes the dress codes and the performers. In this concert each of the performers including the ballet dancer were dressed in suits. Considering the history of classical music and ballroom dancing, the kind of audience that enjoys these pieces of art are the elites of the society. It is usually a common thing to find the audience respecting the value of the music by observing decorum in the auditorium.
The music itself had balanced and harmonious phrases. The melodies were elegant that the audience was so impressed. Considering the nature of classical music from the traditional perspective, such pieces are only supposed to be performed in such a way. There is no need of oral presentations and recording. However, conventional classical music has tried to embrace certain things such as recording of the performances for commercialization purposes.
The US Presidential Debate Essay essay help free
The Third and last US presidential debate for the 2012 elections was held on Monday 22 October 2012. The debate was held at Lynn University, Boca Raton, Florida. Bob Schieffer of CBS moderated it. The debate was held two weeks prior to the elections. The media houses had given each candidate a single win in the previous debates with Romney taking the first and Obama the second.
Furthermore, shortly before the debate, the CBS News poll had given Obama a forty-eight percent lead on handling foreign policy matters compared to Romney’s forty-six percent. The debate focused on foreign policy that was subdivided into the following subtopics, the attacks in Benghazi, Iran’s nuclear program, and war on terrorism. The others included the Size of the US military, and focus on China. The politicians mixed the issues much as the moderator tried to control it.
Schieffer took everybody by surprise when he started with the attack on the American Consulate in Benghazi Libya. In his response, Obama accused Romney for pursuing what he called shoot then aim reaction. He lashed out at Romney for seeking political mileage with the lives of Americans.
He insisted that Romney did not have specific policies on foreign policy. In the President’s opinion, American allies and foes ought to know the American stand. This was a trend brought by American fathers (Thurber 2009) Romney accused the President of failing to act on the intelligence report that had been received. He however, insisted on empowering the people of Libya and the Arab world economically.
When the matter of Syria came up, the two leaders agreed that action was needed in Syria, they both talked about giving the anti-government groups weapons to help overthrow the government. In addition, Romney urged for caution to make sure that the terrorists do not take advantage to use weapons. He accused the President of leading from behind. The president maintained that the government of Syria had to be ousted. The US was keenly after the issue and the necessary support would be given.
When the issue of spending on the US military came up, Romney refused to comment but instead directed people to his website for details. Obama explained that technology had advanced and that for America to stay as the best military nation in the world, their soldiers had to be given the best resources (Thurber 2009).
Romney accused the President of treating Iran with hands of glove. That the president delayed in imposing sanctions on Iran, hence its impact had weakened. Obama however, insisted that the sanctions were already crippling Iran and that military intervention would be undertaken when necessary. He quoted Romney as having been unstable. He supported Iraq invasion, but refused the planned withdrawal from both Iraq and Afghanistan.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They agreed that Israel was America’s close ally and needed more attention and protection. The tour made by Obama that Romney called the apology tour never made a great impact because the President overshadowed it (Thurber 2009). In my opinion, The President won. A few reasons attributed to this.
During the debate, Romney gave into much of the President’s ideas. The President had a head start in the foreign policy due to incumbency. This limited Romney’s knowledge of execution of the foreign policy. Romney was not average in his policies. He put a lot of emphasis on the domestic policies such as employment and economy giving little attention to the foreign matters. The President was balanced hence; he could handle questions from any field.
Works Cited Thurber, James. Congress and Presidency. Washington: American University 2009.Print.
Trifles by Susan Glaspell Research Paper college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Susan Keating Glaspell’s background
The family setting
Allusion to Glaspell’s life
Introduction Trifles, a play written by Susan Glaspell, is one of the most famous works of literature published in the United States. It touches sensitive issues which are burning for the American society, particularly during her life time.
The play is a one-act piece, and seeks to illustrate woman’s sorrow when the main character is trapped in a relationship with her husband. Susan Glaspell also tries to present the nature of woman’s intelligence. On the other hand, the play, Trifles, depicts men as insensitive and judgmental. Prejudice prevents them from making the right decisions in their quest to resolve a case of the murder (Mael 21).
Eventually, the women determine the course of the investigation by concealing the evidence that can incriminate a fellow woman. They understand the suspect’s situation and circumstances under which she might have committed that crime and killed her husband. Through the drama, it is possible to see the attitude of the author to the issue as well as her views since her literature presents her feelings and her opinion on the sensitive social matters (Smith 36).
Susan Keating Glaspell’s background Susan Keating Glaspell was born on July 1, 1876, and died the same month 72 years later. By the time of her death, she became a well-known poet, a novelist, a playwright, and a screenplay director who won many prizes. It is evident that Susan Glaspell’s plays and novels have a deep meaning and sympathetic characters that many people thought to be a result of her personal life experiences (Makowsky 45).
Apart from Trifles, she also wrote A Jury of Her Peers, which is known to have some feminine inclination. During her early years as a writer, she wrote and published a fiction called For the Love of the Hills in a journal and received a critical acclaim from many media houses. Ladies Home Journal and Women’s Home Companion were among some of the magazines that praised her. (Makowsky, 321)
Susan Glaspell grew up with two brothers, and when she was younger, she accompanied her father who sold hay and animal feed for a living. At a tender age, she gained a significant experience in farms and the farming culture. (Ben-Zvi, 211). Later she explored farming in her fictional works as an adult.
Having grown up as the only girl in the family and having spent her childhood on the farm, Susan knew the many challenges women faced, either in their matrimonial homes or in the society. This explains why most of her works were deeply sympathetic to the feminine gender. In addition, her experience on the family farm as well as the farms she visited with her father is also reflected in her works.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As seen in the play Trifles, Susan was a devout feminist and always pointed out the problems women faced. According to the play, Mrs. Wright acted in anger, directed not just to her husband in particular, but to all the males in general. Her husband, Cook, stole her life away from her. It was also a man who killed her only companion when he had failed to be there for her. (Alkaley-Gut 612).
The family setting Glaspell used Trifles to express her view on women in an average family setting. She was a feminist who tried to present a radical view on women in her plays and books. While married, she was the major income earner, not her husband, Cook. She took this responsibility for all those years that she lived with Cook. However, the events in the play seem to illustrate the course of her life. In the play, after the crime has been committed, strange circumstances surround the case.
There is no apparent motive for the murder. However, due to Mrs. Wright’s reserved nature and her denial of knowing anything, she is arrested for the murder. On the other hand, Glaspell lost her husband in 1924 (Alkaley-Gut 25). However, he was not murdered. In addition, there were no severe differences between Glaspell and her husband since they were still together. On the other hand, Mrs. Wright, the main character in the play, has been leading a sad life with her husband until he has been eventually murdered.
Glaspell’s feminism Susan Glaspell contrasted men and women in her plays. Women are presented as sympathetic and emotional as compared to men. On the other hand, men are presented as objective and cold-blooded in their conduct. However, women are only sympathetic to one of their own. Mrs. Hale claims to have known Mrs. Wright since she was a girl.
She recalls her observation of the singing talent in Mrs. Wright. She also regrets that she has not visited Mrs. Wright for a long time. Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale are worried about Mrs. Wright’s preserves, despite the fact that she is already in jail and probably about to face murder charges.
Men’s insensitivity All men in the play are presented as unemotional and objective. When Mr. Hale is asked to give his account of the incident, he describes how he and Harry arrived at Mr. Wright’s house and got a cold reception by his wife. She reluctantly responded to his queries by telling him that Mr. Wright was dead. She was knitting a garment and apparently unperturbed by the death of her husband. After they confirmed that Mr. Wright was dead, they also noticed that he had been strangled.
Mrs. Wright denied o being aware of who was her husband’s murderer, and this implied that she could have killed him herself. Consequently, the men acted objectively by reporting the incident to the authorities. The sheriff and the county attorney portrayed men’s insensitivity when they were inspecting the house. They laughed at the fact that the women were more concerned with jars and clothing rather than the circumstances of the murder.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Trifles by Susan Glaspell specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Women have little sympathy for Mr. Wright, despite the fact that he was murdered. They describe him as an insensitive man. They do not want to accept the possibility that Mrs. Wright could be guilty of the murder. This seems to be an effort by Susan Glaspell to present the nature of women’s interpretation of situation. Women are more concerned with the plight of people that are alive at that moment.
This is why Mrs. Wright’s predicament appeals to their emotions. Susan Glaspell was a feminist, and her feminist stance is further exemplified in her portrayal of women’s intelligence in case when Mr. Peters, the sheriff, and Mr. Henderson, the county attorney, are investigating the murder. They move all over the house. They are convinced that Mrs. Peters is the murderer. The only remaining piece of evidence is the motive behind the murder.
The men do not consider the possibility that Mrs. Wright might have been in a psychological distress. Consequently, the sheriff and the county attorney miss all the important pieces of evidence.
On the other hand, the women do not move much. This is an effort by the author to express the docile nature of feminism. They uncover compelling evidence without having to score the house. Feminism is portrayed as a superior characteristic as compared to masculinity. Throughout her life, Glaspell remained true to her view regarding feminism
Allusion to Glaspell’s life The drama, Trifles, slightly alludes to Susan Glaspell’s life. She was born in a relatively rural setting. This is portrayed in the characters of the play as Mr. and Mrs. Wright’s neighbor, Mr. Hale, is a farmer. This means that the neighborhood is obviously located in a rural setting.
There are as well other instances that refer to her life albeit with a slight difference. Although her life was not as sad as that of Mrs. Wright, she drew a parallel between Mrs. Wright and herself. Just as Susan formed a drama group in her youth, Mrs. Wright sings in a choir in her youth too. However, her talent is not exploited due to the life led with her husband. It is apparent that her marriage has a significant influence on her talent.
Susan’s first husband, George Cook, was a farmer. He had a passion for literature, and did farming as a means of earning an income (Fetterley 74).
He adopted this lifestyle since he believed that creative writing should not have been done for financial gain. In several screenplays for Trifles, Susan would play the part of Mrs. Hale, the wife of the farmer. This shows that Susan Glaspell could relate her life to the plot of the play. She pictured herself as a part of the female gender suppressed by the males due to the women’s seemingly passive nature.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Trifles by Susan Glaspell by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The literature was Susan Glaspell’s way of expression, as seen in the play. All men in the play look down on women. They agree that Minnie Foster is not a good housekeeper (Bigsby 54). This is an assumption based on the dirty utensils found in the house, the dirty garments and a table that is halfway cleaned. County attorney and the sheriff do not consider the contribution of Mr. Wright to the situation in the house.
Apart from several instances in the play that have allusion to Susan’s experiences in her life, the whole play also alludes to a real life incident. When Susan became a reporter for a newspaper, she was required to report on a sensational murder case for the daily. She created the play in the perspective of the case she had reported. The part of the play where Harry confirmed that Mr. Wright was dead can be directly related to the murder case she had investigated.
The play, Trifles, revolves around the role of women in the society and oppression of females by men (Mael 12). The sheriff and the county attorney do not adequately engage the two women in their investigation. In addition, women are likened to imprisoned people who eventually end up in a bad situation.
Mrs. Wright led a sad life with her husband and was finally imprisoned on suspicion of murdering her husband. Like the bird she kept, she spent her life in a cage until she was eventually killed. Susan Glaspell had a similar experience where she had a troubled marriage and eventually lost he husband. This is all a part of the author’s feminist agenda (Mael 4). Her plays are aimed at sensitizing the female audience of their situation.
Furthermore, she encourages women to take action and fight for their rights and equality. This is why the women in the play control the course of the investigation and eventually decide to pardon Mrs. Wright on their own terms (Bigsby 38). During Susan’s time, women were not allowed to sit in the jury since they were considered unfit to give a sound judgment. For this reason, Glaspell decided to urge women to struggle for their involvement in such matters.
Conclusion Clearly, Glaspell was influenced by the course and experiences of her life to write her play, Trifles. Most of the characters in the play correspond to real life characters. For example, her husband, Cook, corresponds to Mr. Wright, an honest but unemotional person as Glaspell’s husband was also honest and cooperative.
He helped Susan to build her career and become a prominent writer and playwright. However, the couple had constant differences in their views on life, so Cook decided to start a new career away form Glaspell’s drama activities. Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Wright represent different phases and situations in Susan’s life. Her appearance is similar to that of Mrs. Wright regarding dressing and vigor. Such biographical aspects of the play Trifles are also evident in other works by Susan Glaspell.
Works Cited Alkaley-Gut, Karen. Jury of Her Peers: The Importance of Trifles. 2002. PDF File. Web.
Ben-Zvi, Linda. “‘Murder, She Wrote’: The Genesis of Susan Glaspell’s Trifles.” Theatre Journal 44.2(1992): 141-162. Print.
Bigsby, C. W. E. A Critical Introduction to Twentieth-Century American Drama. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1982. Print.
Fetterley, Judith. Provisions: A Reader from 19th–Century American Women Writers. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985. Print.
Mael, Phyllis. “”Trifles”: The Path to Sisterhood.” Literature/Film Quarterly 17.4 (1989): 281-84. Print.
Makowsky, Veronica A. Susan Glaspell’s Century of American Women: A Critical Interpretation of Her Work. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Print.
Smith, Beverly A. “Women’s Work – “Trifles”: The Skill and Insights of Playwright Susan Glaspell”. International Journal of Women’s Studies 5.2 (1982): 172-–84. Print.
Grendel’s Mother in Film “Beowulf” Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
One character in the film who is considered the most captivating of them is Grendel’s mother. She is a progeny of Cain who is remembered as the first killer. She is among the most intriguing characters in the entire motion picture, and she plays a significant role in the film. She does not have a name in the story although she is quite instrumental in molding the lives of other characters including Beowulf.
She is one of the main antagonists in the plot, and she is directly involved in the lives of the main characters. She played a crucial role in almost all parts of the movie, and without her, the film would have been less compelling. This piece aims at showing that even the worst opponent or villain can play a vital role in the lives of people around him or her.
The fact that humans cannot defeat her makes them think that she is immortal. However, Beowulf aims at changing this tale when he goes to kill her in her monster-filled lair, which is situated under the sea.
She is not as strong as her son Grendel. However, she still manages to show how powerful she is and how well she can fight her adversaries. Beowulf does not find it easy when he goes to kill her. He knows that he has to use extraordinary skill and strength to be able to subdue and get to kill her. At one point in the film, she knows her strength and even attacks the mead hall Heorot.
This happens just after she discovers who has killed her son and she starts searching for revenge. She has the rage of a mother who has been pushed to the brim by the threats accorded to her children. As everyone is aware, a mother can go to exceptional lengths to protect her children. Grendel’s mother is not different from other women, and she exposes this by her revengeful attack on the camp.
Grendel’s mother is one of the most devious characters. She uses her womanly charms to lure Beowulf when he goes to her lair to kill her. This is depicted when she seduces Beowulf while being disguised as a beautiful woman. She even manages to seduce him and appeal to the emotions of the great Beowulf.
Beowulf even goes to the extent of lying that he has managed to kill her, which is not true . With her seductive feminine form, she is able to convince Beowulf by offering him physical pleasures. She is quite astute, and she has used this method before with king Hrothgar.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He also fell for her manipulative tricks, and they ended up with a son named Grendel. Even the ardent king Hrothgar is aware of her powers and prowess. She has extra senses that she uses to find out when an intruder is approaching, and she senses when Beowulf gets the intention to kill her. These senses are more like super powers, which she uses to her advantage.
Grendel’s mother is not a weak character. She is obsessive with the idea to defeat Beowulf. He manages to get a sword that is near, and then uses it to slay the dragon that has been released by Grendel’s mother. He cuts the dragon up with the sword. It is fair to conclude that Grendel’s mother is a more sinister figure than the characters of traditional roles that are reserved for women in most of the depictions. Her role places her as one of the most fearsome, yet charming characters in the film. She even has feelings deep inside her heart.
This is shown when she kisses Beowulf during his burial at the sea. Grendel’s mother does not stop there. She continues to seduce the newest king Wiglaf who is Beowulf’s partner. Although the story ends before the audience gets to see whether Wiglaf falls for Grendel’s mother’s conniving mind when she seduces him by inviting him to go and seek pleasures with her, it is assumed that he succumbs to her whims. She has a knack for getting her way with all of the kings who have ruled the country.
In spite of the fact that Grendel’s mother is aware that she cannot always have her way, she knows how to appeal to the sexual side of the rulers of the land. There are some arguments that state that Grendel’s mother is not an evil character. They state that she has a subsidiary role in the film. However, it may be stated that Grendel’s mother is one of the most intriguing characters in the film, and her character is quite remarkable since she is the mother to all of the creatures that terrorize people in the region.
The fact that all of the kings are the fathers to the creatures that she has given birth to shows that they also have a demonic side within their hearts, which could have been overrun by their good nature but is exposed in their offspring. The ending is quite ambiguous because it leaves people wondering what will happen between her and Wiglaf.
Hinduism and the Issue of Mortality Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Mortality and Hinduism
Introduction Hinduism is regarded as the third largest religion in the world after Christianity and Islam. It has approximately 950 million believers in the world, representing about 14% of the entire population. It is India’s dominant religion, with following in Sri Lanka and Nepal. This paper focuses on the issue of mortality and how it is viewed by the Hindus. Additionally, the synthesis will explore the existence of a predominant ethic and believers’ view on the soul.
Mortality and Hinduism Like most religions, Hinduism has teachings and beliefs bout mortality and the life after death. For instance, Hindus believe in life after death through reincarnation of souls. This is based on the fact that souls are considered to be immortal and everlasting. Importantly, the soul is known to belong to a jiva, which is viewed by believers as the man who has limited powers, and can be contaminated by laws of karma and several impurities in the world (Fowler 59).
For this reason, death is not perceived as a major disaster, but an accepted stage through the life any being, during which one recovers lost energy. After this process of recovery, a jiva returns on earth in a better form to continue with the previous course successfully.
In discussing the concept of mortality in Hinduism, it is vital to appreciate the fact that liberation of the souls ensures that life remains permanent, before death and after the natural process of recuperation. Moreover, death on its own is temporal and allows the rebirth of the soul into an energized being, which is ready to face the next transition level. Besides being recycled into a stronger jiva, death allows an individual to master weaknesses in life and overcome its inability to remain inconsistent.
This cleansing process ensures that the soul remains sinless and complete, as it advances to the next stage in life (Fowler 59). Furthermore, one has to meet certain conditions before being liberated. Among others, believers are not supposed to have likes, prejudices, and connections to other things. This means that one’s desire to remain pure may become an obstacle towards the path of liberation.
It is therefore necessary for the soul to go through various stages of renewal in order to resist delusion and become whole in future. According to Hinduism, the soul usually leaves the body through the head, accompanied with some consciousness. This departure allows the soul to live in a different world before it returns. The processes through which the soul goes through before reincarnation has been studied and forms the basis of Hindus view on death and rebirth (Verma 234).
Some of the paths, which the soul assumes after death, are the Bhagavad-Gita. These are the sun and moon paths that describe the destiny of one’s soul after death. For instance, the sun denotes the bright life, which is also referred to as the path of gods, while the moon is perceived as the route of ancestors, which is characterized by darkness. In this context, it is believed that souls, which take the bright way never, return whereas those that use the dark path are usually guaranteed to come back to the body (Fowler 60).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The highest goal in the life of the body depends on an array of conditions, including how the body is taken care of when one is still alive. In addition, Lord Krishna affirms that all known worlds undergo the process of rebirth even though this does not occur once they reach him.
Upon Death As mentioned before, the destiny of a soul after death is linked to a number of factors, which may have affected the person while on earth. For example, one’s previous actions determine the fate of the soul. Those who commit sins and go against the teachings are expected to go to the lower worlds, where there is suffering as defined by the magnitude of the sins committed (Fowler 60).
On the hand, those who lead a pure life on earth are usually ushered to the brighter world, where there is celebration and enjoyment. As a result, Hinduism believers are required to be mindful of their actions and deeds while alive because they determine the future of the soul.
Another factor, which dictates the path taken by jiva is the person’s state of mind before death. In other words, predominant feelings and thoughts, which may haunt a person at the time of death, are a direct reflection of the soul’s future (Verma 234).
Besides this, the state of the mind also determines the manner in which the soul gets back to the body through rebirth. For instance, a person who is overwhelmed by feelings about his or her family before death is likely to join the world of ancestors for him to be reborn through future members of the family.
Those who are preoccupied with monetary feelings are normally directed to the world of Vishnu, where they undergo the process of rebirth to become traders or merchants (Fowler 60). Similarly, evil thoughts before death guarantee a person a ticket to the lower world, where there is extreme suffering and pain. As a result, one may sink into deeper suffering and sin or reform to lead a brighter lifestyle. Lastly, those who die thinking about God enter the bright worlds, where there is happiness and celebration.
Consequently, the soul may suffer or experience happiness depending on the cause of death. For instance, those who die in the battlefield have the highest chance of joining a heaven of warriors while those who die in festivals receive an automatic ticket to heaven regardless of their previous deeds on earth (Verma 234).
We will write a custom Essay on Hinduism and the Issue of Mortality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While most of the factors, which determine the path of the soul, are determined by a person’s previous life, it is equally important to note that the deeds of their children play a major role. In most cases, children are supposed to carry out funeral rites in a spiritual manner defined by the religion.
If these rites are wrongly performed, Hindus believe that souls take longer before they are directed to their respective worlds. Importantly, the grace of God may save a soul, since he has power over death. As a result, God can change the destiny of a soul depending of individuals’ deeds before death.
Ethics Besides one’s spiritual life, Hinduism emphasizes on the need for good moral principles. These ethics play a fundamental role in increasing a person’s chances of joining a brighter world after death. In fact, ethics form the pillar of spiritual life among Hinduism believers (Kinnard 1). Followers are therefore expected to carry themselves in accordance with the legalistic ethics defined by the religion.
Importantly, Hindu ethics widely vary when compared to scientific ethics, which are mainly based on biology and research. In general, Hindu ethics are aimed at defining the discipline that is necessary in strengthening a person’s spiritual life. On this basis, prescribed ethics have to be observed by human beings as long as they live. Another aspect of Hindu ethics is that they are subjective and are inclined towards individual responsibility.
In this regard, ethics are essential in disconnecting people from sins like greed, for the purpose of pleasing God and achieving the highest goal in life (Kinnard 1). Among others, a person’s role in the society is highly treasured under social welfare. In other words, objective ethics are considered as a means to an end, which propose individual help to members of the society, as a way of delivering them from sins. Moreover, universal ethics are applicable in the life of believers irrespective of their societal status.
Conclusion From the above analysis, Hindus believe in life after death, which is based on one’s action on earth. Believers argue that death is a temporal stage in life, which allows the recuperation of the soul in preparation for life in another world. Since there are various worlds, every believer has a responsibility to avoid sins in order to please God and earn his grace in defining the future.
Importantly, a person’s thoughts before death are a major factor in determining the future of the soul and the path taken. With regard to ethics, Hinduism advocates for subjective or personal morals. These ethics are essential in defining a believer’s spiritual life as they dictate deeds and responses in various situations.
Works Cited Fowler, Jeaneane. Hinduism: Beliefs
Welcome to The City of God: Rethinking the Movie Experience Essay essay help online: essay help online
Whenever there is a major feature film interpretation of a painfully topical issue, the audience takes the on-coming film with a grain of salt, which is quite understandable – there is practically no way in which the movie director can handle the complex issue; as a matter of fact, a movie adaptation is often not about how good the directors’ interpretation is, but how much the movie twists the original idea.
However, much to the audience’s surprise, The City of God turned out not as much palatable as the source material, i.e., the numerous criminal reports on the Rio de Janeiro suburbs, but also quite unique and different from the original in its own way. With the help of elaborate planning and the use of various technical approaches, as well as the casting choices and other essential elements that make a bulk of a good movie, The City of God manages to convey a number of messages concerning essential social issues in the Latin countries, as well as stet the existing problems within a typical Latin society.
The first and the foremost planning element to speak about are the actors. The cast defines the movie, shaping it and giving it additional shades. In the given case, the cast was truly brilliant. Taking into account that the movie was shot as a crime drama, it was crucial to pick the cast who would not overact yet add drama to the movie, and Alexandre Rodriguez handled this task perfectly well.
He obviously knows what to say and when to: “The sun is for everyone, the beach is for those who deserve it” (The City of God), yet he does not have the answer to every question, which makes him a believable character. The rest of the cast leaves rather vague impression, yet there is also nothing terrible about their performance.
Like any crime movie, this one is packed with all sorts of stunts and smooth movements. However, the tricks in The City of God concern not the artists, but the movie itself, or, to be more exact, the way in which different eras are switched. The transition between the epochs is rather smooth, which is achieved with the help of rather unusual means.
For instance, I one of the transitions, the gap between the two epochs is marked near a car passing by (The City of God). In addition, it is still questionable whether the level of the stunt performers matches the existing standards. The given edits make one think of the gaps between different social groups, which are as hard to cross as the time boundaries.
Speaking of the way in which the movie floats between two time periods, the visuals of the two worlds are quite stunning, too. Meirelles managed to capture the striking reality of both eras in a bottle. The Rio de Janeiro suburbs are your typical Rio de Janeiro suburbs, the way an average stranger would think of them, yet the stylization of the background does not stretch to the point where an average Rio de Janeiro dweller will consider it offensive.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In regard to the settings, the color cast of the movie is to be mentioned as well. It is rather peculiar that the color balance is shifted in the movie in such a way so that every single detail in it looks extremely sharp. The given shift is especially obvious in the scene where one of the kids during the conversation asks another one, “Shall I shoot you in the hand or in the foot?” (The City of God).
Adding much to the atmosphere in general, the sharpness of the colors allows to stress the tension within the society and the anger that has been brewing there for the last few decades.
The sound effects and the sounds in the background are not to be forgotten, either. It is essential that the movie uses the traditional Latin American music for the background in most of the scenes; adding the unforgettable genuine effect, it helps create the atmosphere and allows to plunge into the Latin world completely.
Finally, the story comes as the most important element of the movie planning. Helping to reveal even more ideas which the director and the author of the book wanted to convey, the plot must be on par with the visuals, i.e., the most important detail of the entire movie. It is quite impressive that the reference to the book by St. Augustine of Hippo is there in the movie, which makes the latter all the stronger.
On the other hand, the comparison of the modern movie about the gangs of Rio de Janeiro to the book written centuries ago with a completely different idea in mind and for completely different purposes might seem inappropriate, there is still a common thread in the two.
Both convey the idea of justice as it should be. The only difference is that Augustine’s work conveys the message of ideal state showing what the perfect order must look like (St. Augustine), while The City of God, the movie states its moral grounds by showing the audience the lowest of the low. Hence, the idea of what the City of God must not be, is shaped. Indeed, the negative imagery can be as impressive as the positive one; sometimes, the effect of the former can be even stronger, since it does not possess the loathsome taste of moralizing.
Moreover, when referring to Augustine’s work, it is necessary to keep in mind that Meirelles did not go with taking all the ideas from the book by Augustine – on the contrary, Meirelles created a modern story only slightly seasoned with the moral concerns which have been voiced in St. Augustine’s book. Hence, Meirelles managed to locate the movie in the present-day reality and add a couple of modern features to it, keeping the key characteristics of the genre intact.
We will write a custom Essay on Welcome to The City of God: Rethinking the Movie Experience specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hence, it is obvious that the specifics of the movie planning, especially the ones concerning the visual elements, contribute to the effect that the movie makes considerably. With the help of a careful, well-developed planning, the movie conveys such social issues as the reasons for high criminal rates in Rio de Janeiro, as well as explains the specifics of the city development, touching upon its history.
Therefore, the background for a number of current social issues which are extremely topical for the present-day Brazil is being set as the plot of the movie unwraps. Unmasking the social and political flaws of the existing system, the movie sets a number of moral dilemmas for the audience, leaving the latter to guess whether the leading characters have chosen the right track.
Works Cited The City of God. Ex. Prod. Fernando Meirelles. New York City, NY: Miramax Films. 2003. DVD.
St. Augustine. The City of God. Edinburgh: T
A Discussion of the Results of the Organizational Climate Questionnaire Essay college essay help: college essay help
An average score of 14 was achieved upon taking the organizational climate questionnaire, implying that the organization is supportive. The organization not only positively rewards employee effort and performance, but is well organized with clearly defined goals and responsibilities, and has clear channels of communication that ensure information is accurate and available to employees.
Additionally, the organization scores highly on innovation, teamwork and involvement. However, it performs just above average on critical variables of leadership, feedback and controls, as well as warmth and support.
To move up the ladder, the organization needs to provide effective transformational leadership that will be responsive to the demands and expectations of workers. Such a leadership approach, it is thought, will act to enhance warmth and support that employees receive from the organization. The second step, therefore, is to ensure leaders institute social support systems and other welfare networks to stimulate warmth and support, which are critical to employee performance and psychological wellbeing.
Third, the management needs to develop strategies and policies that will open the organization to more collaborative efforts and teamwork by employees. Fourth, the management needs to ensure that collaborative and teamwork efforts translate into high performing and innovative employees because collaboration and teamwork are intrinsically associated with performance and innovation.
Lastly, management needs to develop proper feedback procedures to ensure employees are guided effectively and efficiently so as to provide optimal performance. These changes, in my view, should drive the organization forward towards the realization of the enlightened status.
It is possible to effect the changes described above by simply preparing workshops that would address the managers and ensure they understand that it is for the benefit of the entire organization that these changes need to be adopted.
Senior management could also involve change agents to work through the complex aspects of the change process, especially with regard to changing the leadership style. Indeed, change agents could be used to create awareness among managers on the need to adopt a more responsive and transformational leadership style, as well as the need to develop strategies aimed at enhancing collaboration and teamwork.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The consequences of not adopting these changes should also be elaborated to the managers. Lastly, the employees need to be brought onboard in effecting these changes because they form critical component in achieving the organizational outcomes intended by these changes. Stakeholders, including senior management, departmental managers, supervisors and employees, must be made aware of the fact that organizations that are inept to change will definitely perish.
War and Humanism Essay essay help site:edu
Humanity knows what a war is. It is impossible to find a part in the world where people live and who have never been involved into war relationships. War has always been considered as the final stage of solving conflicts when nothing used in negotiations helped. People understand that wars have never led to anything good, however, weapon conflicts are still used for making sure that people have done absolutely everything.
A weapon conflict which leads to the war is usually used for achieving humanistic goals. One of the main ideas of the war is to maintain justice when one country acts inappropriately. Therefore, the humanistic goals in war conflicts cannot be rejected. However, World War II was traumatizing for mankind with having an idea to break humanity into pieces rather than achieve humanistic goals.
Speaking about humanism as a theory, it should be stated that it was invented by Carl Roger and Abraham Maslow. According to the humanistic theory the have developed “all people have the potential for creativity, positive outlook, and the pursuit of higher values” (Comer and Gould 19).
Applying this theory to the war, it is essential to speak about the better future for those who were involved into the war conflict. Therefore, it is necessary to speak about the reasons of the World War II. Which were much complicated that those of the First World War.
Different countries entered the World War II to satisfy their own needs. Therefore, it is difficult to speak about humanism as humanistic goals are similar for all countries and when it goes about various purposes there is no place for humanism. What is meant? For example, the reason of Japan to attack China or USA, and the reasons of Great Britain to declare war to Germany do not coincide. Each of these countries pursued their personal goals (Ross 8).
Is not it a desire to break humanity into pieces? Following personal goals and trying to pursue individual needs government of the countries as well as the leaders of the wars never think about people, their families, etc. It is important to remember the partisan war when the family members appeared on different sides. Is this humanism? Is it possible to call the actions where people are killed a humanism? Such problem formulation is considered as the covert reason for the war in general and the World War II in particular.
However, there are still some reasons which were similar for all counties. Many scholars divide the reasons of the World War II on three major groups, social, economic and political. Each of these groups has several particular causes which lead to the beginning of the war.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, social reasons are absence of the enforcement of the international community of the demands of the treaty after the World War I, Germany appeared as the main responsible party for the World War I. Considering these social reasons from the humanistic point of view, it is possible to say that they shaped society and created the particular aspects which could make the gaps in humanistic reasons of the wars.
Germany was blamed for everything, it was considered as the worst in its actions which is not what may be appreciated by others. German citizens wanted to assure that they are not worse than others, therefore, the war was inevitable. The political problems were centered on Hitler and German aggression. The problems after the World War II were not decided, therefore, there was no place for the humanistic considerations.
Finally, economical problems were the largest, as the society was divided into the successfully developing reasons and those whose economy was shaken by the World War I (Harrison 28). Considering these causes of the World War II as the most effective and reasonable, the logical considerations do not allow to call them humanistic. Returning to the discussion of humanism as the main possible reason of the war, it should be stated that humanism “in the general sense entails the replacement of despotic capitalism with democratic socialism” (Parsons 79).
However, it is impossible to agree with this statement, as fighting for general good, it is impossible to be that firm and categorical about “despotic capitalism” and “democratic socialism” (Parsons 79). Hitler wanted to be the headmaster of the whole world, therefore, he needed to divide it into pieces to be able to ruin it and impose his empire.
Therefore, refusing the humanistic theory as the central reason for the war, many scholars agree that the World War II “shaped the world in which we live now” (Ross 9). Considering the problem of the effects of the World War II in the long term period it is also possible to find the remnants of the humanistic effect, if it was, or to come across the signs of the social breaking into pieces.
Hormats and Ratner speak about the following long-term effects of the war, the emergence of women, the emergence of the global economic and financial system, the re-emergence of state-owned and state-supported enterprises, the internet and the free flow of information, the diffusion of opportunity and innovation, and globalization (Hormats and Ratner 144).
However, speaking about these reasons as a result of the humanistic war, it is impossible to refer to all of them as to the equal consequences of the war. There are a lot of countries which were involved in the World War II, but which economic situation is not that good as in other countries.
We will write a custom Essay on War and Humanism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There are also many particular countries where the relation to women cannot be called as equal. Globalization has also affected various countries differently. Therefore, looking at the world after the World War II in the long term period, it is possible to say that it did not follow humanistic goals but is was rather directed at shaping and break humanity into pieces.
Many movies have been shot and many books have been written as the supportive ones for the ruining nature of wars. Reading Kurt Vonnegut’s Slaughterhouse-Five or watching the movie based on the book, it is possible to see how war can be traumatizing and ruining to a person. Thanks to the particular presentation of the events which flow in unstable order without time frames, a reader has an opportunity to see how specific events of the war affect a person.
Comparing and contrasting the beginning of the trip of the main character in time and its end, the shade of meaning in the text may be compared and contrasted. “Billy is spastic in time, has no control over where he is going next, and the trips aren’t necessarily fun. He is in a constant state of stage fright, he says, because he never knows what part of his life he is going to have to act in next” (Vonnegut 23), this is how the trips of the main character begin. “Billy and the rest wandered out onto the shady street.
The trees were leafing out. There was nothing going on out there, no traffic of any kind. There was only one vehicle, an abandoned wagon drawn by two horses. The wagon was green and coffin shaped. Birds were talking. One bird said to Billy Pilgrim. ‘Poo-tee-weet’?” (Vonnegut 215). This is the end of the trip. In the first sentence the curiosity may be seen, while the last phrase shows indifference to the surrounding world which is anyway empty.
Considering the life of those who came through the war, it is important to state about their mental problems. Dementia is considered one of the main problems of the post war period.
Additionally, many scholars point to the fact that veterans required help when they were 20, but not when more than 60 years has passed. Although research has not been carried out on Second World War veterans it is fair to assume that a lot of the dementia we have here in that age group is a result of the war” says Rosemary Black, a correspondent of Daily News.
The problem of dementia and other types of traumatic stress disorders have been considered by different scientists. Erica Weir says that “It is normal to want to avoid painful memories, but if the avoidance is accompanied by hyper arousal, flashbacks, nightmares and a restricted range of emotions, the syndrome of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be present” (Weir 1187).
Dwelling upon the traumatism of the war, it is logical to conclude that the World War II had nothing in common with humanism. Langer said that the intention to kill and the intention to destroy ruin human understanding of morality. Morality is the “foundation of all other values” (Langer 56), therefore, being destroyed at war people cannot get used to new principles when they are at home.
Not sure if you can write a paper on War and Humanism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Before the war people usually lead their normal lives, they experience the desire of intimacy and love, they value beauty and pleasure. However, after the “humanizing” war as many scholars try to assure us, these people return absolutely different with ruined understanding of previous moral and ethical norms.
Therefore, where the World War II was humanistic and directed at common good? Looking at the reasons of the war and its consequences, not even a word about humanistic nature of the war should be said. The World War II was traumatizing for people, it broke humanity into pieces and even after some many years passed after the end of the World War II people still unable to gather these pieces.
In conclusion, it should be stated that having tried to consider the main aspects of the World War II from the point of view of humanism, the reasons and consequences are to be considered. Neither causes nor the effect of the war have humanistic nature, therefore, the World War II may be considered as purely traumatizing with the purpose to break humanity into pieces. People are too lucky as their natural tension to beauty and good leaves its imprint and the World War II ended with the victory of the good.
Works Cited Black, Rosemary. “Traumatic experiences during World War II may be source of dementia for veterans: study.” Daily News 16 Sept. 2009. Web.
Comer, Ronald and Elizabeth Gould. Psychology around Us, New York: John Wiley
The Devil Wears Prada Report college essay help online: college essay help online
The Devil Wears Prada is a film based on Laurens Weinberger’s novel by the same name. The film came out in 2006 and it falls in the genre of comedy-drama. The film takes us inside the fashion industry. A young fresh graduate Andrea Sachs ‘Andy’ finds work as a personal assistant for a female dominating boss Miranda Priestly the editor of Runway magazine.
The fashion industry proves very challenging for Andy who has no experience in the fashion world. Her boss does not make it easy for her and soon she has to change to fit into the fashion world. There are many conflicts that arise in the workplace and some arise as work intersects with the characters’ personal lives because everyone wants to get to the top.
Andy joins the fashion world and her boss is very domineering. Her boss is very demanding and says that all her personal assistants have been a big disappointment. Andy has to cater for every whim of her boss who shows little consideration to her juniors.
She spends a lot of time at work and lacks an opportunity to be with her boyfriend Nate and her friend Lily. She even fails to attend his birthday as she had to attend to her boss. She bows down to her boss because she wants to get ahead in her career and is at her service day and night. She has no one to talk to about the mistreatment she is receiving from her boss because everyone is used to the boss’ cruelty.
Her friends who support her eventually run out of patience because she puts them at the back and her job takes all her time. Furthermore, they tell her she got herself in her present predicament. She has no one to rescue her from the conflict she finds herself in her workplace because everyone is intimidated by Miranda (The Devil Wears Prada).
Her work situation affects her personal life. Nate tells her she has become just like the people she once loathed in the job place. Moreover, Miranda’s tyrannical ways lead to a conflict between Andy and Emily. Emily planned to embarrass Miranda, but Andy prevented her from going through with the plan.
Consequently, Miranda awards her with a trip to Paris at the expense of Emily. Andy does not want to take Emily’s place in Paris, but she faces a threat of losing her job if she declines. Therefore, she accepts to go because she fears Miranda may actually dismiss her.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More She informs Emily she will take her place in Paris. A conflict arises between Emily and Andy. Emily, the senior personal assistant mistreats Andy. Emily had also endured abuses from Miranda because she wanted to go to Paris. Therefore, the conflict between Miranda and Andy spreads to other employees in the organization. Each employee is forced to act selfishly at the expense of a colleague to keep their job secure.
The conflict in the Runway organisation spreads from the top to the bottom. Miranda the boss abuses Andy. She is plainly disrespectful by calling her fat. She intimidates her employees because she wants to maintain her position at the top. She causes conflict because she believes it is either her way or the highway.
Andy has to change her dressing mode as hers was considered bland. After she changes and starts dressing well, she also becomes very aggressive. Her work improves and Emily feels threatened. Consequently, the employees below Miranda have to do what she says if they want to make it to the top. They do not care who they step on as long as they feel their position is threatened and therefore conflicts arise in the organization as mistrust grows among them.
The success of the employees is determined by the things they can do for the boss and not necessarily by their competence in their line of work. For example, Miranda demands Andy to do some difficult tasks for her such as booking a flight during a hurricane yet with the bad weather no planes fly. On the other hand, the employees allow the boss to undermine and humiliate them on their way up their careers ladder. They are willing to take any kind of treatment even if it conflicts with their beliefs.
There is a conflict between job seekers expectations and the reality at the workplace. Andy joined the Runway magazine expecting to eventually become and reporter or a writer. She finds the job difficult at first with the unreasonable demands of her boss and her gossipy co-workers.
Luckily for her, Nigel the art director comes to her rescue and helps her adapt to her new work. Eventually she gets a grip and finds her way around her new job. She also embraces a new dressing style, seeing that her old dressing does not suit the Runway and she is taunted by her boss and even the doorman does not spare her the taunts. The reality is that it is hard to scale up the career ladder in an organization for newcomers as people inside try to protect their positions.
Besides, Andy does not get any form of training, yet Miranda expects her to perform her work perfectly. Without proper training new employees cannot function well and will find themselves in conflicts in the workplace. For example, at the beginning Andy does not fit with the image of Runway and until she makes a decision to change her stint is as a personal assistant is difficult. Hence, a fresh job entrant is disappointed if they think the way up is going to be easy.
We will write a custom Report on The Devil Wears Prada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The conflicts in the Runway affects even employees who are not involved. For instance, after Miranda learns that her editor position is at risk she does not hesitate to through Nigel in the line.
Andy had warned her in advance about the impending coup, but Miranda tells her she already knew, unfortunately it is Nigel who would be sacrificed. Andy accuses her boss of backstabbing Nigel, but Miranda tells her she had already done it to Emily when she accepted to go to Paris. Andy is enraged, and when Miranda tells her she sees traces of her personality in her.
Moreover, she tells Andy she had acted exactly as she would have to keep her job. Later on Andy realized that she had changed into a person she did not like, walks out of the Runway to pursue her interests away from the conflicts and the fashion world. Therefore, in an organization many conflicts may arise and it is up to the employees to know how to cope so that they can have an easy time at the workplace and avoid disappointments that are often a part of office politics.
Work Cited The Devil Wears Prada. Dir. Frankel, David. Perf . Meryl Streep, Anna Hathaway, Emily Blunt , Simon Baker, Adrian Grenier, Stanley Tucci. 20th Century Fox, 2006. DVD.
Marketing Strategies-Emirates Airline Research Paper best essay help
The Emirates airline has experienced a lot of challenges in its operations, which has resulted in company’s poor financial performance. Several issues in the aviation industry have had a negative impact on the company’s financial results. The difficult economic environment in global aviation market has reduced the amount of revenues earned by airlines.
The global aviation industry has experienced a slump in performance, and many airlines are currently struggling to stay afloat. This paper will discuss the macro- environmental economic trends which affect the demand for airline services in the global market (Bundhun, 2011).
High fuel costs have had a severe impact on the performance of Emirates Airline. These increased costs resulted in the losses in the company’s profitability in 2011 which made its revenues reduce. The company spent more than 1 billion dollars on fuel expenses; the amount is higher as compared to that spent on the same in the same period of the previous year. The global aviation industry has become more vulnerable to instability in fuel prices than it was before.
This situation has made many airlines around the world experience significant financial losses in their operations. (Bundhun, 2012). The International Air Travel Association has projected the global aviation industry profitability levels to reduce because of high fuel costs. The IATA has stated that profits in the industry would dip from 16 billion dollars in 2011 to 6.9 billion dollars in 2012.
Emirates has had to contend with reduced traveller numbers as a result of the recession in Europe and other parts of the globe. The occupancy rates of passengers in the carrier have reduced, and this has had an effect on the airline’s revenues in the short term. The airline has managed to become elastic to the changes in the market in a difficult period (Black, 2012).
However, despite all these challenges, the company has managed to register good financial results in 2012. The group’s fiscal results for the financial year ending September 30, 2012, were 575 million dollars. This performance is positive as compared to the revenue of 343 million dollars the group gained during the same period in 2011.
The Middle East has seen an increase in the number of airlines. These airlines seek to benefit from the increase in the number of travellers in the region. Airlines in the area registered profits amounting to 900 million dollars in 2011, which shows the region’s aviation industry has experienced rapid growth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Emirates’ financial performance is beyond expectations because there are several airlines in the Middle East with good financial results. Etihad and Qatar airlines are Emirates’ main competitors. These airlines have made their operations more efficient in order to take advantage of high passenger traffic in the gulf (Black, 2012). The Emirates Group has changed its market strategy to meet the existing market realities.
Emirates airline has acquired new fleet which is in line with the carrier’s ambitions to stay ahead in the global market. The new aircraft will be used for long haul destinations with high passenger numbers to help the firm take advantage of new market opportunities. The airline has acquired Airbus A380 aircraft to enable it to transport more passengers on long distance routes.
This shift in market strategy is intended to connect the airlines’ passengers with other major global hubs (Black, 2012). However, its competitors have also placed orders for new airbus and Boeing aircraft. They are competing with Emirates to dominate the global aviation industry. Qatar and Etihad airlines are giving Emirates a run for its money. Emirates will continue to experience more competition in the aviation industry from the two airlines.
Emirates Airline has acquired fuel efficient Boeing 777-300ER aircraft. This is a long term strategy which is meant to reduce the challenges the company has experienced as a result of unstable oil prices. Middle Eastern airlines have become more active in global air transport. Thus the airline companies are targeting to expand their global reach to take advantages of new opportunities.
The global air industry has experienced a slump in the number of passengers, yet Middle Eastern airlines continue to expand their operations (Baker, 2012). The market trends in the region show that in the past year, passenger traffic has not reduced by a large margin as compared to that of Europe, North America and the Far East.
The Emirates airline is well placed to take advantage of various opportunities in the market. The airline’s Dubai hub’s location is strategic which makes it benefit from high passenger traffic. The city is also popular with shoppers and tourists who are attracted to it. Many travellers have to transit through Dubai to other destinations in the Far East, Europe, Africa and the Middle East.
This gives the Emirates Airline an opportunity to structure its operations to meet the needs of such travellers (Baker, 2012). The acquisition of new aircraft by the company is intended to give it a stronger foothold in lucrative passenger markets.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Marketing Strategies-Emirates Airline specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In conclusion, the Emirates airline has experienced various challenges which have had an impact on its performance. Its new market strategy which focuses on long haul operations and fuel efficiency is likely to improve its performance. This will make it keep its dominant position in the global aviation industry.
References Baker, L. (2012). Emirates flagship A380 network expands east and west. UK Zambians. Web.
Black, D. (2012). Aircraft demand to soar in Middle East as orders expected to hit $470bn. The National. Web.
Bundhun, R. (2011). Emirates airline sees profits hit by rising fuel costs. The National. Web.
Sports in America Essay college application essay help
In his essay Sports in America, James Michener argues that the role of sports in contemporary society has often been misconstrued by mass media and that there is very little understanding of the goals that sports should attain. This is the main thesis that the writer advances.
In particular, he believes that reporters often overestimate the importance of athletic activities for the formation of a person’s character. Moreover, they should not assume that they can always help a person escape the dangers of a ghetto life. These are some of the main points that he makes. The main purpose of this essay is to make policy-makers, teachers, and parents to re-evaluate their views on sports.
In order to elaborate his opinions, the author creates a very elaborate structure of the essay. First of all, he identifies the main objective of sports such as the promotion of healthy lifestyles and entertainment of individuals and the public. Secondly, the author identifies a set of stereotypes about sports and attempts to debunk them. For example, the writer focuses on the idea that athletic activities can develop the leadership skills of an individual.
In the author’s opinion, good leadership of these people can be explained primarily by their self-discipline and intelligence (Michener 1031). Additionally, James Michener discusses various books that can give readers a better idea about the role of sports. Finally, the writer identifies the main problems that are associated with sports nowadays (Michener 1033). Overall, this structure helps the author to elaborate his ideas.
It should be taken into consideration that James Michener does not directly identify the main readers of his essay. As it has been said before, this work is primarily intended for policy-makers, parents, educators and administrators of colleges or universities who may consider the ideas of the author.
First of all, the writer uses a balanced and tentative tone that can appeal to these people. Moreover, the issues discussed by James Michener are related to the investment in sports and recreational infrastructure such as stadiums, the education of students, and the policies of the state. Thus, this essay is supposed to change the opinions of people take important decisions regarding the education of children or adolescents.
It is also important to speak about the style and tone of this paper. One can say that the writer avoids the use of categorical statements. Instead, he attempts to create well-constructed arguments that are based on certain evidence or at least logical reasoning. Secondly, James Michener uses bullet points in order to better identify the main points of his essay (Michener 1033).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author uses different types of sentences that include approximately fifteen or seventeen words. On the whole, one can say that his style, tone and word choice are quite clear. This is the main strength of his essay.
Overall, this essay can be viewed as a great example of formal writing when the author has to put a well-developed argument. Moreover, this work shows how the writer can make a claim that may not necessarily appeal to the readers. To some extent, the author’s reasoning appears to be quite convincing. However, one should take into account that James Michener does not refer to any empirical studies that confirm his arguments. This is the main limitation of this essay. Nevertheless, it should be considered by policy-makers and educators.
Works Cited Michener, James. “Sports in America.” Literature for Composition: Essays, Stories, Poems, and Plays. Ed. Sylvan Barnet. New York: Pearson Education, 2010. 1028-1034. Print.
Corporal punishment Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Internationally, corporal punishment is considered to be one of the most ignored topics. Hot debates and discussions on the issues have been launched within vast communities globally. In simple language, corporal punishment can be defined as any use of physical force on someone with the intentions of correcting behavior (Prue and Alister par. 1).
In this paper, the entire discussion focuses on the cultural view upon corporal punishment and how it progressed with time. The paper also explains as to why through generations people preferred corporal punishment as discipline measure in child rearing despite of the consequences in has.
Overview Corporal punishment has been known for long to be the best way of inflicting discipline on children. The punishment basically involves hitting a child with the hand, smacking, belting and even spanking (David par. 5). Moreover, there are other ways in which corporal punishment can also be administered. They include; kicking, biting, shaking and even forcing the child to stay in a discomfort environment for a period of time. Historically, corporal punishment was introduced back in the 10th century.
In most communities, the cultural rules expect children to fully comply with their parents or teachers directives. Failure to comply with the directives given calls for severe corporal punishment administered to the child. Many people confuse corporal punishment with physical abuse.
It is clear that corporal punishment involve inflicting mild pain on the body. On the other hand, physical abuse involves subjection to painful experience leading to injury development (David par. 8). Notable to mention is that, in the current world, the degree of punishment administration is regulated by the law.
How is corporal punishment viewed cross-culturally? Internationally, there are very many communities practicing different cultures. It is because of this that multicultural jurisprudence has been developed. This offer wider range of substantive solution to matter arising as a result of communities clashes. Most of these cultural clashes arise due to children issues. Therefore, it is important to mention that different communities have developed different mechanism used in child rearing practices.
It can be noted that, such practices are widely divergent internationally. On the same note, the main divergent practice in child rearing is disciplinary measures employed (Alison p. 256). Many communities have different definition to the word child discipline. It is clear that majority of communities globally, embrace the use of physical force in correcting behavior. This is known as corporal punishment. It is meant to ensure that the child socialize well with everyone in the society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Corporal punishment according to most community is a cultural practice that is mandatory. In anthropology, there is the theory of cultural relativism that deeply explains different cultural interpretation on corporal punishment. Based on the theory, it is evident that most communities treasure the fact that morality in the society must be strongly constructed (Alison p. 256).
This means that most communities do practice corporal punishment to maintain high standard of morality despite having different cultural beliefs. In this case, most traditional cultures have set a standard of tolerance as a way of achieving community expectation.
There are different forms of administering physical punishment according to culture. This means that, different communities have their own form of punishing children. Such punishment must be implemented even if it violates both national and international punishment standard. Additionally, the American cultural practice has been ranked to be one of the worst and the cruelest form of physical punishment internationally. This is according to societies with traditional cultures that are treated under the same collection (Alison p. 257).
On the other hand, cultural punishment practices should not be viewed as abusive as far as child rearing is concerned. This is because the practices are purely in accordance with the entire community standard. This means that all community members are in agreement with the cultural practice. It is important for each community to maintain high disciplinary standard on their children in whatsoever way. However, it is wrong for anyone to criticize a particular community for their customary practices.
Outsiders must learn to comply with every strategy employed to promote morality within a community. As long as the main objective of corporal punishment is to boost good socialization among people, then communities must be encouraged to go on. This is because discipline is an important aspect that must not be ignored in child rearing practice (Alison p. 258).
What are the different motivations for engaging in corporal punishment in child-rearing? Corporal punishment is a disciplinary measure employed on children breaking either parents or teachers directives. This can be at any level. Violation of rules can occur either at home or even at school. There are different motivating factors contributing to the administration of corporal punishment. However, these factors widely vary depending on the environment and location of the child.
Research studies have revealed that in America, majority of parents employ corporal punishment on their children (Elizabeth p. 10). This means that most parents use physical force in administering discipline to their children. Statistically, almost two thirds of parents with children under 2 years punish their children physically (Elizabeth p. 10).
We will write a custom Essay on Corporal punishment specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, 80% and 85% of parents in America physically punished their children at 5th grade and adolescent respectively. This is a clear evidence of how corporal punishment was highly treasured in America culturally.
The most contributing factor to physical punishment is lack of clear legislative policies that govern the consistency in which corporal punishment should be implemented. Therefore, whenever the child commits any mistake, the parents are always ready to administer painful physical punishment.
There are children who are generally disadvantaged as far as corporal punishment is concerned. In America, according to gender, the male child is more exposed than the female (Prue and Alister par. 13). Most American parents would prefer light punishment for the girl child. Contrary, the boy child is always exposed to tough physical punishment.
There are other family motivating factors. Family population is another key motivating factor (Prue and Alister par. 13). In most cases, parents in large family go through hard time especially when trying to maintain high morality standard among their children.
Factors like economic disadvantage also contribute and increase the likelihood of parents resorting to physical punishment (Prue and Alister par. 13). Parents are most likely to employ corporal punishment depending on their ethnic background and religious beliefs.
In some communities, religion form very strong foundation on people lives. People are bound to live and operate following the religious teaching. Therefore, if the use of physical punishment on children is fully approved, then parents are bound to implement it according to the religion.
Furthermore, there are parent who administer severe physical punishment to their children simply because they passed through the same when they were children. According to such parent experience, corporal punishment is the only way to make a child obedient and successful (Elizabeth p. 12).
Low level of education among parents is another factor that can contribute to employment of corporal punishment in child rearing process (Elizabeth p.12). This is because such parents do not understand or approve civilized strategies of disciplining children. Therefore, children are subjected to the traditional system of punishment administration their parent know (Elizabeth p.12).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Corporal punishment by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The other contributing factor includes the weigh of the misbehavior committed by the child. There are misbehaviors children engage in that could easily force their parent to use physical punishment. For example; if the child seriously hurt someone else or does something that could endanger life. In such scenario, most parents due to anger are likely to employ severe physical punishment (Elizabeth p.12).
What are the different motivations for rejecting corporal punishment in child-rearing? In child rearing, parents must ensure that their children have access to full protection. Protection in this case refers to subjection to minimal pain and suffering.
Internationally, there are countries that have come up with new legislative laws on corporal punishment (Prue and Alister par. 3). The law control and guide parents on how to administer punishment on their children. This is because there are children who sustain serious injuries due to corporal punishment.
This is against the international principles of proper child care. One of the motivating factors contributing to rejection of corporal punishment is the strict legislative law on parents who cause injuries on their children that can last for over 24 hours (Prue and Alister par. 4).
Such cases are considered to be physical child abuse and they are illegal. Parents are also encouraged to avoid hitting private and delicate parts of the body when administering corporal punishment. Therefore, parents who ignore such rules are liable to face prosecution.
The other factor is the knowledge on the negative effects corporal punishment creates on the child. This has also contributed to the decline of physical punishment. Research has proven that children who are frequently subjected to severe corporal punishment may develop an impaired mental status. This might force the child to grow up associated with psychological maladjustments in adulthood. Therefore, most parents have dropped corporal punishment because of the negative side effect it has on children.
It is known that one of the main objectives of corporal punishment is to correct behavior. However, most parents have realized that the more they punish their children the more they become rude. This means that the more corporal punishment is administered to a child, the more aggressive and disobedient the child becomes.
Therefore, many parents have sought for other civilized punishment methods rather than corporal punishment (Prue and Alister par. 4). In the end, this has contributed to the decline of corporal punishment administration.
How do motivation factors make sense within the cultural context? It is important to mention there is no guarantee that all the mention motivation factors would bear 100% positive results. Within the cultural context, it is vital to explain the reason as to why corporal punishment does not make sense. To begin with, corporal punishment in real life situation does not teach children as to why the behavior committed was wrong (Elizabeth p. 12).
This is purely against the cultural punishment practices. According to the culture, criminals must be told of the crime they committed before judgment. But corporal punishment does not offer this option.
Different cultural groups globally have varying ways of endorsing physical punishment as a strategy of inflicting discipline on children. It is clear that most parents would support physical punishment once it is a cultural practice that has been embraced for years. In this context, no parent would ever agree to the fact that corporal punishment is harmful to children and should be abandoned.
Contrary, in the community, there are people with different opinion. Not all parents would believe that physical punishment is the only alternative method of punishing the child. These are the people who reject corporal punishment even if it is a cultural practice (Elizabeth p. 19).
Has corporal punishment practices changed over time? In America, the use of corporal punishment as a disciplinary measure in child rearing has been strongly used throughout generations. Since the 17th century, corporal punishment has been the only solution for parents who wanted to correct their children characters. Nevertheless, this practice is currently fading away slowly. The beginning of 21st century opened new hope for children in America. Back in the 1960s, about 94% of American parents approved and supported the use of corporal punishment (Elizabeth p. 11).
Research conducted at that time revealed that over 80% of American parent agreed to the fact that hitting a child helps in correcting behavior (Elizabeth p. 11). Nevertheless, as time went by, this cultural belief faded away slowly. In the year 2004, the same researchers concluded that the number of people supporting corporal punishment had reduced.
Moreover, the percentage of parents agreeing with corporal punishment also dropped to about 71.3% (Elizabeth p. 11). In this case, it was clear that despite some parents do support corporal punishment; the number of supporting parents was gradually dropping.
Furthermore, a survey conducted in the year 2005 revealed that only 23% of American parents approve corporal punishment to be used in schools (Elizabeth p. 11). This means that over 70% of American parents strongly rejected the use of physical punishment in schools. This was a clear indication that the use of corporal punishment was declining at a very steady state.
The other evidence to the fact that corporal punishment was fading away in America was the establishment of corporal punishment task force in the year 1992 (Michael and Murray par. 15). The task force was introduced by the American department of children affairs.
The work of the task force was to campaign against the implementation of physical punishment on children. Similarly, another task force was also introduced by the American academy of pediatrics (Michael and Murray par. 15). In addition, the American national advocacy organization was also introduced in the year 1992.
All this was devoted solely in the struggle to completely eliminate implementation of corporal punishment in child rearing. In 1992, a stimulating motto saying; end physical punishment of children (EPOCH) was also formed (Michael and Murray par. 15).
The introduction of EPOCH further steered forward the fight against corporal punishment in America. EPOCH grew to be an international slogan and extended widely the fight against corporal punishment in other countries like United Kingdom. Ironically, it is important to mention that, corporal punishment has been widely neglected for long across the globe (Michael and Murray par. 17).
This has been the main reason for the slowness in eradicating the practice. It is evident that even books meant to campaign against corporal punishment are very scarce globally (Michael and Murray par. 17).
Most ironical is that, the few books available only contain information on corporal punishment not more than half a page. This neglect is one of the key contributing factors as to why corporal punishment is still being implemented internationally (Michael and Murray par. 17).
In America, the use of physical punishment has greatly reduced in school today. Most schools have reduced the employment of physical punishment on their students. In some states like Iowa and New Jersey, physical punishment has completely been banned in all schools (Michael and Murray par. 17).
Internationally, about 23 countries have successfully prohibited the use of physical punishment as a corrective measure in child rearing (Prue and Alister par. 10). However, the entire process slowly began in schools through legislative mechanism (Prue and Alister par. 10). Furthermore, this was followed by the removal of lawful correction defense most parents used to promote corporal punishment (Prue and Alister par. 10).
This means that there was no more defense excuse in court by parents and that corporal punishment on children was considered to be serious crime. It is also evident that in most countries, corporal punishment on children precisely in specific setting like schools has also been abolished.
This achievement was also promoted widely after the formation of global initiative to end corporal punishment on children 2008 (Prue and Alister par. 10). In summary, however, it is important to point out that corporal punishment has greatly declined with time. The cultural perspective people had on physical punishment is now fading away slowly.
The advancement of civilization and modern education has enabled most parents to employ other ways of effectively disciplining their children. This has killed the ancient cultural physical punishment methods people used before. The law is also not friendly on people who injure children in the name of correcting a behavior. This has scared most parents to keep off from such brutal punishment imposed on children (Prue and Alister par. 10).
Impacts of corporal punishment practice Various research studies conducted have revealed that corporal punishment is not a sure and effective form of discipline. This is because of the fact that children could easily develop fear on their parents. Such fear can easily weaken the child social participation. Additionally, it is also easy to erode the child to parent relationship due to fear (Elizabeth p. 18). In this case, the child would prefer staying away from the parents and be safe from punishment.
Corporal punishment may also teach the child to be more violent. This is seen when the child grow up knowing that violence must be linked with any loving relationship (Elizabeth p. 18). Such children end up being more violent than their parents. The child could also develop the notion that aggression is the only way to achieve a goal.
The other important reason is the fact that physical punishment can fully interfere with the parent message. This is because since the child is subjected to painful experience, the perception on the parent directives could disappear automatically (Elizabeth p. 18).
Conclusion In summary, it is very clear from the discussion that the issue on corporal punishment is greatly contentious. The emergence of modern education is the key contributing factor to the decline of corporal punishment (Adam and Megan par. 1). Most learned parents have opted to use other alternative ways of disciplining children other than corporal punishment. This has contributed to the decline of corporal punishment today (Adam and Megan par. 1).
Works Cited Adam, Zolotor and Megan E. Puzia. Bans Against Corporal Punishment: A Systematic Review of the Laws, Changes in Attitudes and Behaviors. 2010. Web.
Alison D. Renteln 2010, Corporal Punishment and The Cultural Defense. 2012. Web.
David, Benatar. Corporal Punishment. 2001. Web.
Elizabeth T. Gershoff 2008, Report on Physical Punishment in The United States: What Research Tells Us About Its Effects on Children. 2012. Web.
Michael, Donnelly and Murray A. Straus. “Corporal Punishment of Children in Theoretical Perspective.” Yale University Press. (2005): 3-7. New Haven. London. Web.
Prue, Holzer and Alister Lamount. “Corporal Punishment Key Issues.” National Child Protection Clearinghouse. 978.1 (2010). Australian Institute of Family Studies. Web.
Jim Carroll’s Drug Addiction in the Movie “The Basketball Diaries” by Leonardo Dicaprio Essay online essay help
The movie “The Basketball Diaries” by Leonardo Dicaprio has a close basis on the same name. It is a transposition of the adolescents of the late 60s brought up in a time, when the author Jim Caroll grew up to a period of about 15 years. It later infuses a period of rock music as experienced by the author.
The catholic school basketball team of, which Jim is a member is the best team in New York. However, one of their friends has leukemia and languishes in hospital for most of the time. On certain occasions, Jim engrosses himself on note taking for his journal and participates sexual activities as well as beginning to use drugs. This movie is an effective exploration of drug addiction with the performance of Leonardo DiCaprio granting it the position of the greatest proof of heroin addiction with a message for the negative impacts of drugs.
The use of drugs in the film is easily misinterpreted for the first sessions of the movies, if one does not take keen interest in understanding the context. It is easy to think that the movie appreciates teenage use of drugs. However, towards the end of the movie, the message becomes clear and the message against drugs shows clearly and adequately placed.
The performance of Leo in “The Basketball Diaries”, effectiveness of its message and its excellent cinematography gives it an edge in presentation of teachings through entertainment. After the bursting of Jim and apprehending of his friends, using drugs red handed by the couch, disintegration starts taking place in the group and most of the boys lose their essence for being thrown out of the team. Out on the streets, Jim takes advantage of the time without the guidance of his schooling.
He becomes a betrayer, trickster and robs stores. All these are for the fulfillment of his heroin addiction that is slowly overtaking his life and he must find a way of sustaining. Nothing seems to work for him and even Emmie Hudson (Reggie) who is a former addict is incapable of helping Jim in curing his addiction. His great basketball friend and drug friend is Mark Wahlberg and in such influence, he becomes an addict cameo to an extent that he ritualizes heroin shooting in a catholic mannerism.
Given the background of the film, there is a missing aspect pertaining to the psychological constructs and denominational beliefs of Jim. The boy suffers from some inner conflict and that leaves him emotionally derailed given that his upbringing demands a different opinion towards drugs. This was a good catholic boy indulging into drugs and there is definitely emotional and psychological aspect leading him into trouble just like many kids of his age. At first, he is part of the hottest basketball team. Before any match, the team inhales heroin.
They demoralize opponent teams by beating them up and on some occasions even steal from them. However, the obsession Jim has with his journal entries sets him apart from his group. This is a point occasionally addressed through a voice over, though his indulgence in heroin taking before matches comes out pronounced leading to their expulsion from school and even leads to his mothers sending him away from home.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This process takes Jim through several episodes of development stages. He soon realizes that his drugs addiction is overwhelmingly out of control and finds himself moving in with his mother once again. The movie brings out discussions over drugs abuse in a manner that journey with the struggles of Jim in his addiction.
For example, when the boys talk about Wilt Chamberlain as the best basketball player, and later refer to him as “skinhead”, there is a divide between their attitudes regarding the best player around. The must be seeing him as a threat and that is why they look for a means of negating his capabilities through demeaning comments and references.
The movies also takes a shot on the skimpy relationships Jim has with his friends while at the same time, it goes off his personal circles of daily dwellings. The presence of his mother only ensues into their arguing and the priest only presents questioning of the upbringing of Jim.
There is definitely something missing about his parenting religion and schooling and these three aspects led to his acquired character in a manner that leaves questions regarding their specific contribution into shaping the boys life since he ends up as a drug addict and a delinquent in the society.
This was a talented boy but his challenges presents him differently even through film. There ere occasions when he looks older and at times, he is a young teen in need of guidance. This contrasts his characterization depending on the situations. He becomes anguished in time when he despairs and this descent produces an obligatory feel regarding his realization of his drugs situation.
Through psychosocial development, the advancement of age leads to development of resolutions resulting from interactions of environmental challenges where there is the battle between ego and integrity. This is evident in Jim and his team mates and as his ego takes control he lets down his integral guard by going contrary to initial beliefs (Whitbourne, Zuschlag, Elliot
The Causes of Poverty Concentration in the Modern World Essay online essay help: online essay help
Introduction In wealthy nations, concentrations of poverty always exist and persist. The major reason for poverty concentration is income inequality. The causes can best be understood using three theoretical perspectives: labor market dynamics, institutional view, and socioeconomic environment view.
This paper therefore explores the causes of such concentrations and localities of poverty using the three theoretical perspectives. It then provides remedies for the inequality witnessed and gives an analysis of why the causes and remedies to income inequality in rich nations may differ from those of poor economies.
Poverty is a deprivation of basic needs and well being in people. In simple terms, poverty is best understood as the lack of money or commodities in general and the inability to access opportunities to functions within a society [Handbook: pp1]. The use of income paradigm helps to monetize the concept of poverty.
Even though the average income of people living in developed countries is above the poverty line, the nations still experience concentrations of poverty especially when it comes to income inequality. The gap between high income earners and low income earners is widening despite the fact that there a reduced gap between the rich and the poor.
Reasons for concentrations of poverty
There are three main perspectives that help understand the causes of income inequality in developed countries. The three include socioeconomic environment view, institutional view, and labor market dynamics.
Labor dynamics Two approaches can be used to explain how labor dynamics increases concentrations of poverty in developed economies. The first one is skill-biased technical change. According to this approach, there is creation of a technological shift that favors a portion of the labor market and leaving the other portion trying to cope with the situation. For instance, advances in technology will favor highly skilled workforce over the low skilled workforce.
Essentially, demand for high skill labor has been on the rise within developed countries thereby creating biasness in the labor market. As the demand for high skilled labor increases, the wages also increases leading to a wage inequality in the labor market. This may be illustrated using a supply-demand model. When new technologies are introduced, supply of skilled labor expands at a slower rate than demand does. There is competition between innovation and education.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As for low-skilled labor, both supply of and demand for it decreases over time, resulting in no upward pressure on wages. At the same time, skill-biased technical change leads to increasing labor market premium to skill and thus increasing wage in high-skilled labor market. Therefore, distributional problems arise. In addition, changes in international trade patterns and off-shoring also have impact on demand for skills, especially for people at the bottom of skill-income distribution.
Additionally, the effects of the labor market dynamics on the poverty concentration can be explained using the traditional models. The Kuznet hypothesis and Lewis model predict that income inequality should follow an inverse U-curve along the process of development [Understanding poverty pp63].
Empirically observed curves over a long term do not provide strong supports to this hypothesis. Kuznets stressed development as a process of economy moving from rural (labor-intensive) sector to urban (IT-intensive or labor saving) sector. His argument seems to be supported by the 1913-1948 inequality declines in many developed countries. But they seem “to be due to specific economic shocks and circumstances” that do not have much to do with labor migration. [Understanding poverty p64]
Institutional view Both formal and informal institutions play important roles in disparities of incomes. In formal institution, expansion of educational infrastructure cannot match up with the expansion of innovation and technology.
There is unequal distribution of resources through redistribution and welfare transfer. Redistribution of resources occurs through mechanisms such as divorce charity, welfare, monetary policies, and taxation. The currently existing policies and government interventions on redistribution of incomes do not favor income equality.
The regulation in labor market lack control over executive compensation. In as much as high income earners are taxed, the policies on taxation do not favor the low and middle income earners. In regards to the informal institution and social norms, executive compensation has been noted to have a phenomenal increase in the US between 1970 and 2000. This rise is disproportionate to the rise in executives’ productivity and efficiency. In Europe during the same period, no such observation was made.
The social economic environment view This perspective is best understood under the view of informal institutions [Groups 146-147]. At individual levels, parental income on offspring education has been identified to have an impact on income disparity witnessed in developed countries. Most young people opt for high education in order to attain high income.
We will write a custom Essay on The Causes of Poverty Concentration in the Modern World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Those with low levels of education cannot attract certain kinds of jobs with high income levels. At the social levels, there is clustering of poverty which affects individual’s social economic outcomes. Poverty level in urban centers within developed countries is framed on the living conditions of dwellers. There are neighborhoods for the wealthy, the upper middle class, and the lower middle class.
There are also neighborhoods that enclave on ethnicity and racial backgrounds. This clustering creates an effect on the individual and social economic outcomes. The behavior of individuals within these groups and neighborhoods is influenced by the characteristics and earlier behaviors of elder members of the group. Peer group effect has also been identified to play a role in the economic outcomes of the individuals in the groups [Groups 147].
Remedies Reducing income disparity witnessed in developed countries can be achieved through various mechanisms. The two major ways may include redistribution through benefits and taxation, and ensuring smaller income differences before taxation. However, the redistribution methods should ensure a progressive tax system and estate tax.
Both approaches cab be used collectively or combined to address the situation of income inequality within developed countries. The nature of government activities relating to the economy of a nation makes it impossible to have equal income distribution, especially in a free market economy or a mixed market economy. Income distribution will always be unequal. However, government interventions and regulations can help reduce the disparity.
The idea of wage compression and minimum wage encourages investment in non skilled labor thereby reducing the biasness witnessed whenever there is technical change [Understanding poverty p68]. Regulations in the labor market need to be structured in way that encourages parity in income levels. For instance, there are no regulations to review the compensation for the c-level management.
Why different Institutional and geographical factors have been described to be at the center of differences in prosperity. The nations located in the tropics are not as rich as those located in the temperate areas. This does not necessarily imply that climatic conditions have a major role in economic outcomes, but it is a determinant of prosperity. Additionally, the institutions within these areas greatly differ. The main reason for this difference is because of the shaping that transpired during the colonial era.
As the Europeans settled in different areas, they set institutions based on the need of each location. For instance, the whites created institutions that attracted economic progress and investment in geographical areas associated with temperate climate. At the tropics, the kinds of institutions set up in these areas were extractive in nature making these areas to be less prosperous.
Geography becomes an important factor to explain the difference because of the historical role it plays in economic outcomes. Some of the nations that are rich today have been rich since history and this can be attributed to their geographical location. The tropic areas were also once richer than the temperate areas, but the impact of colonial activities turned the tables for these areas .
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Causes of Poverty Concentration in the Modern World by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Institutions vary over time and across countries. They affect both the economic prosperity and the distribution of income. Good and effective institutions have the implication of enforcement of the rule of law and property rights. They give rise to well-functioning markets, development of infrastructure, and innovation. They also increase social welfare. But the change from dysfunctional institutions to good ones may be blocked by powerful groups whose interests may get hurt if the change takes place [p20-21].
Conclusion Based on the discussion developed in the paper, it is apparent that even though the average income of people living in developed countries is above the poverty line, the nations still experience income inequality. In order to understand the causes of inequality in rich nations, three theoretical points of view have been used: labor market dynamics, institutional view, and socioeconomic environment view.
Recommendations on solutions to the problem have also been provided. The remedies focus on two major areas: redistribution of income and ensuring smaller income differences before taxation. Lastly, institutional and geographical factors have been used to explain the differences in remedies and cause of poverty between developing nations and developed economies.
“The Walking Dead” and the “Bridegroom to the Goddess” in Works by John Millington Synge and Seamus Heaney Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
The Irish literature is characterized by discussing a lot of social and psychological issues and depicting many mythical images. The Irish writers’ approach to presenting the common theme can be extremely different with references to using irony and satire or mild and pessimistic tone. The play The Playboy of the Western World by John Millington Synge and the poem “The Tollund Man” by Seamus Heaney have few similar features, but the authors discuss the theme of death, accentuating the violent death, in their works.
Although Synge and Heaney use rather opposite approaches to presenting the controversial theme of death in their works where Synge concentrates on satire to depict the social and psychological issues and Heaney pays attention to the spiritual context of the question, the authors provide their vision of the violent death from the social perspective and with references to the persons’ inner world.
In his play The Playboy of the Western World, Synge emphasizes the fact of murdering as the starting point to develop the play’s plot. Thus, the idea of murder is used to represent the problems and conflicts typical for the Irish society of the 1900s along with accentuating the personal attitude to the question as the reflection of the society’s sickness.
Christy Mahon, the main character of the play, is inclined to attract the public’s attention in the tavern with stating that he has murdered his father. Thus, Mahon depicts his action saying, “I just riz the loy and let fall the edge of it on the ridge of his skull, and he went down at my feet like an empty sack, and never let a grunt or groan from him at all” (Synge 113).
The irony of Mahon’s actions is presented with references to the specific language used by the author (Brazeau 160). The unemotional language based on the simple enumeration of the stages of murdering a person helps present the character’s experience and emphasize the irony of the audience’s interpreting the fact of killing.
Synge stresses the satiric inappropriateness of interpreting Mahon’s actions as heroic with the help of remarks. For instance, Michael reacts to Mahon’s words about murdering with the great respect and states, “That was a hanging crime, mister honey.
You should have had good reason for doing the like of that”, and Mahon answers in a reasonable tone, “He was a dirty man, God forgive him, and he getting old and crusty, the way I couldn’t put up with him at all” (Synge 106-107). From this point, the fact of murdering a person makes Mahon be a hero in this small community of a tavern. The reasons to explain the phenomenon can be found with references to analyzing the figures of the listeners.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The community of County Mayo needs sensations to discuss, and the personality of Mahon becomes the most interesting theme for talking about. Thus, Synge focuses on the double moral standards typical for the society (Levitt 19). On the one hand, Mahon breaks the moral taboos, and he is discussed as a hero after committing a patricide. On the other hand, Mahon should be hanged after attempting to kill his father for the second time.
The fact of the violent death is presented in Synge’s play as a chance to make the monotonous life more diverse and vivid. The author exaggerates the public’s indifference to the moral and ethical aspects of murdering a person and provides the satirical descriptions of people’s interpreting the problems of death and murder (Levitas; Regan). The villagers are inclined to discuss the person of Mahon as the hero and “the walking Playboy of the Western World” (Synge 190).
It seems that the situation of murdering a father is typical and ordinary. Mahon uses it to create the reputation, and he tries to preserve his heroic reputation while killing the father for the second time. It is rather difficult to state why the villagers want to hang Mahon after the second attempt to murder the father. They can avoid becoming accessories as well as reveal their morality.
The general representation of the topic of death in the play is characterized by depicting some satirical stories. Thus, Mahon is afraid of “the walking dead”, and Pegeen tells the frightening story about the dead man putting “in a narrow grave” (Synge 85, 185).
The situation of Mahon’s mentioning “the walking dead” is rather ironic because his father becomes the real “walking dead” who frightens Mahon and makes him act. Thus, in spite of the villagers’ indifferent attitude to the fact of murder from the perspective of morality, they are inclined to feel fear associated with the theme of death.
Although the theme of death is also vividly discussed in Heaney’s poem “The Tollund Man”, the author’s approach to presenting the topic differs much from Synge’s accentuating the satire of tragic moments in his play. Heaney represents the concept of death from many perspectives in his poem, emphasizing the religious, spiritual, and mythical aspects along with stressing the social problems associated with the theme of the violent death.
In the first stanza, the author depicts his sacred devotion to the Tollund Man who could be sacrificed in order to please the goddess, “Bridegroom to the goddess, / She tightened her torc on him / And opened her fen, / Those dark juices working / Him to a saint’s kept body” (Heaney 12-16).
We will write a custom Essay on “The Walking Dead” and the “Bridegroom to the Goddess” in Works by John Millington Synge and Seamus Heaney specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The death of the Tollund Man is violent, but it is sacred as well as the author’s interpretation of the man’s death as the act connected with the problem of spirituality (Liu). Moreover, the Tollund Man is preserved that is why it is possible to speak about the Tollund Man as similar to the Christian saints. Thus, the Tollund Man can be discussed as an idol for the character as well as the reflection of the Christian traditions.
Moreover, the character states, “I could risk blasphemy, / Consecrate the cauldron bog / Our holy ground and pray / Him to make germinate” (Heaney 21-24). The fact of worshipping the deity should not be discussed with references to the character, but it can be analyzed with accentuating his attitude to the death as the sacred act.
The author provides the analogies and parallels in relation to the violent death of the Tollund Man and the problematic social situations in Ireland and Denmark. The ritual of sacrifice in Denmark is associated with the deaths of many people in the Northern Ireland, and the territory is not significant in this case.
The symbols of death are presented in the author’s pessimistic descriptions of the actual facts of murders based on the religious background, “The scattered, ambushed / Flesh of labourers, / Stockinged corpses / Laid out in the farmyards” (Heaney 25-28). The death is presented not only as the sacred notion but also as the real situation which is familiar for many unfortunate people who are the victims of the social orders and conflicts.
The large social context provided by the author makes the problem actual for many people. The death of the Tollund Man as the part of a sacrifice accentuates the unjust character of many deaths of those people who became the victims of “sad freedom” (Heaney 33).
The character stresses that having explored the Tollund Man, he feels lost “unhappy and at home” (Heaney 44). The author observes many features which support the idea that the sacrifice in the Ancient Denmark can be correlated with a lot of murders in the Northern Ireland, his “home”. Therefore, the theme of death is presented through the significant religious and social context.
To conclude, it is important to pay attention to the fact that although John Millington Synge and Seamus Heaney discuss the topic of the violent death in their works, the authors’ approaches to presenting and explaining the aspects of the problem are different.
Synge is inclined to accentuate the people’s attitude to the question with the help of irony and satirical interpretations, and Heaney’s tone is rather pessimistic. Synge refers to the understatement of the role of death in the person’s life, especially the violent death. Heaney is inclined to exaggerating the problem of the violent death and its victims with the help of stressing the religious symbolism.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “The Walking Dead” and the “Bridegroom to the Goddess” in Works by John Millington Synge and Seamus Heaney by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Brazeau, Robert. “But We’re Only Talking, Maybe: Language, Desire, and the Arrival of the Present in Synge’s Playboy of the Western World”. Irish Studies Review 17.2 (2009): 153-166. Print.
Heaney, Seamus. “The Tollund Man”. Opened Ground: Selected Poems, 1966-1996. Ed. Seamus Heaney. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1998. 124-125. Print.
Levitas, Ben. “The Playboy of the Western World”. Modern and Contemporary Irish Drama. Ed. John Harrington. New York: W.W. Norton, 2009. 468-472. Print.
Levitt, Paul Michael. “Fathers and Sons in Synge’s The Playboy of the Western World”. Explicator 66.1 (2007): 18-21. Print.
Liu, Jiong. “Catholic Predilections in the Poetics of Gerard Manley Hopkins and Seamus Heaney”. Religion and the Arts 14.3 (2010): 267-296. Print.
Regan, Stephen. Irish Writing: An Anthology of Irish Literature in English 1789-1939. London: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.
Synge, John Millington. “Playboy of the Western World”. Modern and Contemporary Irish Drama. Ed. John Harrington. New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2009. 68-112. Print.
Lessons from Plato’s book ‘The Apology’ Essay college application essay help
In his book ‘The Apology’, the Greek philosopher Plato provides a version of Socrates speech during his trail a courtroom in Athens. Plato, being Socrates’ wrote the Apologetics to show how the great philosopher defended himself against the charges brought to the court by his accusers around 399 BC.
Socrates was accused of several accounts of corrupting the youth and heresy. Plato’s account of the speech remains a modern inspiration and source of philosophical lessons to philosophers and scholars in the contemporary world. Though called ‘apology’ by Plato, the speech is not actually an apology- Socrates was attempting use his wisdom to justify his teachings and beliefs, and not to apologize for his actions.
First, his concise and clear explanation of his beliefs and the facts that led to his accusation are an indication of Socrates’ ability to defend himself against his accusers basing his arguments on the wisdom he had rather then attempting to discredit his thoughts. In this way, Socrates portrays his reputation he had developed from his great philosophical wisdom by discrediting the pre-Socratics and sophists. He argues that his wisdom originates from an oracle given to Chaerephon by Delphi that he (Socrates) would be the wisest man on earth.
Secondly, philosophers learn that a perfect understanding of human knowledge does not exist. Consequently, a perfect understanding of some terms such as virtue, justice and piety does not exist. In Plato’s ‘The Apology’, Socrates claims that although he possessed super wisdom that was not comparable to that of the Athenian wise men, poets and teachers, he humbly accepted his wisdom and knew that it could not be the most perfect.
Unlike the politicians, poets and craftsmen, Socrates’ arguments provide the modern philosophers with a model of a true and just philosophy. For instance, he accepts the antipathy and resentment, and goes to an extent of risking death rather then diverting from his own wisdom and discourage the students who had believed in him.
The ‘Apology’ shows that Socrates was willing to face death rather than deny his wisdom. It is evident that Socrates’ love for wisdom outweighs human fear of death. He argues that he does not fear what he does not know (death), but fears human lack of knowledge and ignorance as portrayed by his accusers, the jury and the Athenian wise men.
In addition, Socrates speech is a motivation to modern philosophers in that his wisdom consists of ultimate, clear and precise thinking and presentation of ideas. This uniqueness portrayed by Socrates aims at teaching modern philosophers that questioning and clarification of human knowledge is a vital thing than affirming to the knowledge.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the speech shows that the role of the philosopher is not to be a critic; rather a philosopher must present the ideas in a concise and precise manner. The important thing is to present the ideas in a manner that describes the cause, process and effect of a given social, scientific and cultural problem.
In what appears to be the most inspiring argument in the field of philosophy, Socrates argues that if he was corrupting the youths in Athens and destroying the society, then the whole society would be corrupt and in the process he would destroy himself. He argues that he was not so foolish to an extent of using his knowledge to hurt his own society. This is an indication that philosophers should be responsible of their knowledge and arguments since the society can easily act according to philosophers’ arguments.
Bibliography West, Thomas. Plato’s Apology of Socrates. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1979.
Footnotes Thomas West, Plato’s Apology of Socrates, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1979), 54
The Job Cuts in the U.S. Postal Service Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Chapter One
Chapter One The article written by Lisa Rein discusses the expected job cuts in the U.S. Postal Service; in particular, the author reports that approximately 7,500 jobs are going to be eliminated in the near future (Rein unpaged).
To a great extent, this policy is aimed at reducing the administrative costs of the government; nevertheless, the representatives of the Postal Regulatory Commission (PRC) argue that these reductions will result in numerous delays in mail delivery (Rein unpaged).
Moreover, according to the finding of PRC, the government will not be able to achieve the expected savings (Rein unpaged). On the whole, this initiative can pose a significant threat to the infrastructure of the country (Rein unpaged).
This article is closely related to the several the concepts discussed in Chapter One of the textbook; in this case, special attention should be paid to government corporations and regulatory commissions that perform different functions and interact with one another; for example, the Postal Service can be a government corporation that serves the needs of the population.
In turn, regulatory commissions like the PRC are supposed to control and monitor different economic relations within the country. The situation described by Lisa Rein illustrates the conflict between these agencies of the government.
Chapter Two Another important event that should be discussed is the intention of the U.S. Supreme Court to review the federal policies regarding same-sex marriage; this issue is closely examined in the article by Adam Liptak. According to the author, the U.S. Supreme Court may review and even reject the legal definition of marriage as a union of a man and a woman; the judges may exclude the notion of gender from this definition (Liptak unpaged).
Adam Liptak emphasizes the idea that nowadays the decisions regarding the status of same-sex marriages are taken by the governments of separate states of the country; in contrast, a new definition of marriage can legitimize the wedlock of same-sex couples and the consent of state governments may not be required. These are the main implication of this case, but at this point it is too early to speak the changes in the legislation of the United States, but this legal debate indicates at a dramatic shift in the public opinion.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This event is linked to one of the concepts mentioned in the Chapter Two of the textbook, namely the division of the government into three branches. They have to perform different tasks such as the development of laws, the enforcement of these legal acts and their interpretation. The actions of the Supreme Court indicate that judicial and legislative branches of the government can interact with one another in effort to change the laws of the country.
Chapter Three The recent presidential campaign and the struggle between Barack Obama and Mitt Romney have attracted much attention of the press; in his article, Sean Sullivan examines the disagreement between these politicians regarding such an issue as the redistribution of wealth (Sullivan unpaged). In particular, Sean Sullivan refers to the words of Barack Obama who said that the government should ensure every citizen of the United States should have equal opportunities (Sullivan unpaged).
In part, this goal can be achieved through the redistribution of wealth (Sullivan unpaged). Mitt Romney responded to this argument by saying that such an approach could undermine the core values of the country, for example, the right to property and income (Sullivan unpaged). The events described by the author are closely tied to the ideas explored in our readings, for example, the classic and modern dilemmas of the government discussed in the Chapter Three.
The redistribution of wealth is related to the modern dilemma, namely the need to promote equality in the society and the need to ensure the individual freedom of citizens. Barack Obama and Mitt Romney represent two different to the solution of this dilemma; Obama places emphasis on equality while, Romney stresses the individual freedom of citizen and their right to property (Sullivan unpaged). Therefore, the concepts discussed in the readings have significant implications for modern-day politics.
Chapter Four The article written by Phillip Rucker describes the attempts of the Republican Party to reduce the role of the trade unions in Michigan (Rucker unpaged). In particular, the author focuses on the so-called right-to-work laws according to which employees are not obliged to join the union and pay any fees to these organizations (Rucker unpaged).
One can say that this legislation can almost entirely exclude trade unions from the negotiations between workers and private businesses; overall, this change is more likely to benefit the employers who can dictate their terms to employees (Rucker unpaged). The critics of right-to-work laws believe that these legal changes can undermine the rights of workers; more importantly, this policy can deprive the Republican Party of its influence in Michigan for a very long time (Rucker unpaged).
This article is closely related to the issues covered in the textbook; in this case, special attention should be paid to the role of interest groups that can attract the attention of policy-makers to certain problems or issues and promote legal specific changes. The situation described in the article illustrates the conflict between several interests groups, namely the employers and trade unions; in this case, they have very different goals and priorities that do not coincide with one another.
We will write a custom Essay on The Job Cuts in the U.S. Postal Service specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Chapter Five In his article, Sean Sullivan discusses the recent disagreement between Democrats and Republicans; in particular, the politicians debate such issues as spending cuts and tax increases (Entitlement debate, unpaged). According to the author, the Republicans oppose to the increased taxes for the wealthiest citizens of the United States; in contrast, Democrats believe that this policy is necessary to fund governmental programs such as Medicare (Entitlement debate, unpaged).
In the opinion of the Republican politicians, such strategies are more likely to harm middle-class people, rather than benefit them (Entitlement debate, unpaged). In turn, Democrats believe that this strategy is not likely to reduce the income of many residents. On the whole, this debate is closely tied to the questions discussed in Chapter 5, for example, such concepts as pluralism and majoritarianism. This disagreement illustrates the principles of pluralism that stresses the needs of different groups.
It seems that pluralism ensures that the needs of particular groups are not disregarded by policy-makers who should remember that their decisions can have far-reaching implications for a great number of people. In contrast, majoritarianism in the Congress can result in the situation when there is no debate or discussion among legislators. This is one the main dangers that politician should avoid when discussing legal or social problems.
Works Cited Liptak, A. “Justices to Hear Two Challenges on Gay Marriage.” The New York Times, 2012. Web.
Rein, L. “U. S. Postal Service announces sweeping job cuts, district office closures.” The Washington Post, 2011. Web.
Rucker, P. “In Michigan, heart of organized labor, Republicans push to limit union power.” The Washington Post, 2012. Web.
Sullivan, S. ‘Romney draws attention to Obama ‘redistribution’ remark from 1998.’ The Washington Post, 2012. Web.
—-. ‘Entitlement debate sparks disagreement along party lines.’ The Washington Post. Web.
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The Constitution of the US : Issues and Amendments Essay essay help
The constitution of the US is the absolute law of the nation, which acts as a guide to the political culture of the Americans and the law. They are many issues that have been addressed in the constitution of the US, some have been amended a number of times to fit the needs of the society.
Abortion is a good example of an issue that has been addressed in the constitution; it has also been amended a number of times. Under the constitution, the president has a number of privileges, which will be discussed in this paper. The constitution plays a significant role of creating a balance on most pressing issues and making sure that America remains a democratic state.
President’s enumerated powers. In the US, the president has special powers, which have been formalized. The authorities of any president of the US are carefully limited and have been well outlined in the constitution of the US. The president has the power to appoint executives, federal juries, and American ambassadors among other officers of the government.
This power is also referred as the enumerated power of a president. Using the enumerated powers, the president of the US can negotiate treaties with other governments and can even recognize ambassadors from other countries. He or she can also veto bills that are passed in the assembly. As such, the enumerated powers are special authorities, which are exercised by a sitting president and are well-outlined in the constitution.
Special powers available to the president: The American president has several powers: these powers include those that are granted by the constitution, by the Acts of Congress, and other soft powers given to the President as the leader of the nation.
Emergency powers. Emergency powers are categorized into two groups. The two groups of powers are (a) a special power to act during the time of crisis, which is fully based on the president’s decision and (b) the special power to act according to the constitution or formal laws when an emergency has been announced in the nation.
Executive powers. In the executive branch, the president has been allowed by the constitution to manage a wide range of national affairs. Therefore, the president issues rules and instructions, which have a certain force although they never require approval by the congress. An excellent example of executive powers of a president in the US is using the veto on a certain bill that the he (president) does not approve.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Inherent powers. In the constitution, there are certain statements that can allow the president to have power. A statement like ….the executive power shall be vested in a president…. allows a national leader to practice some form of authority. Regulating immigration, acquiring a territory, and ordering deportation of some individuals are examples of inherent powers by the US president.
Is exercise of these powers a positive or negative influence? The president of the US exercises enumerated powers for the good of the citizens and the nation at large. During an emergency, for instance, there is a need to make quick decisions in order to address the situation. However, the congress can take long to make, and implement such decisions and it is, therefore, a positive aspect that the president should make decisions during such critical moments.
Does the president have too much power? In the recent times, the citizens of the US (some of them) feel that the president has become too powerful. Some people argue that the president has so much power that the democratic system is under threat. However, this is not entirely true.
The powers of any American president are set by the constitution and, therefore, the president cannot exercise his powers outside what has been allowed by the constitution. The constitution also prevents the president from using his privileges wrongly. This means that the president cannot breach the rights of the constitution and those of the American citizens. The president does not have too much power.
Differences between judicial activism and judicial restraint: The judicial activism and judicial restraints are antagonistic; the two terms are quite different from each other (. They are both relevant in the US as they relate to the American judicial system. These two are very significant in checking and controlling the powers of the government; they help check fraudulence.
The term judicial activism refers to how the constitution is interpreted in order to campaign for certain values and conditions in a nation. On the other hand, the term judicial restraint refers to the act of limiting the powers of federal judges so that they cannot strike down certain laws in national affairs. In issues of judicial activism, the federal juries are supposed to utilize their powers to correct injustices in the social system only when the other constitutional bodies are in-active.
Therefore, the judicial activism plays a significant role in creating and developing social policies on matters of political injustice, civil liberties and public morality. On the other hand, in the judicial restraint, the court allows the congress and state legislatures to continue with their duties, but can hold them back if they are violating the laws and constitution of the US.
We will write a custom Essay on The Constitution of the US : Issues and Amendments specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The judicial restraint and judicial activism are also different in that they have different objectives. The judicial restraint creates a balance in the judicial, executive, and legislative issues while the judicial activism give powers to all arms of the government to overrule certain acts in the constitution.
Weakness and strengths of judicial activism. Some of the key benefits of judicial activism are: (a) to promote democracy by following what is only outlined in the constitution, (b) the judicial activism allows judges to stand firm on certain decisions because the constitution obligates them to do so, and lastly, (c) the judicial activism allows courts to supervise and implement laws, which is part of the democracy. The weakness of the activism is that its reliability is questionable and, therefore, it should be analyzed.
Weakness and strengths of judicial restraints. One of the benefits of judicial restraints is that it allows judges to exercise their authority; this is a form of democracy. This particular right allows the juries to defend the constitution as much as possible. It also allows federal judges to decline to make a ruling on some of the controversial matters. This, however, is usually considered a violation of the constitution, which is a major weakness of the judicial restraint.
The preferred method. The preferred method is judicial activism because it promotes democracy and allows the judges to make and implement decisions as well as standing firm on their rulings.
History of abortion law and its current status in America. Abortion is very common in the society, and it is estimated that almost half the population of American women have at one time terminated a pregnancy voluntarily. History about abortion reveals that during the 1800s, abortion was legal in the US, but towards the end of the 19th century, the abortion act was amended and abortion was criminalized by the constitution.
The constitution banned all forms abortions after the fourth month of pregnancy. Regardless, the number of illegal abortions was relatively high but when the Comstock law was implemented, the number of illegal abortions declined at an alarming rate. During this period, some feminists (including Susan Antony) were strongly against abortion and their work helped in the war against abortion.
In the year 1965, the US banned all forms of abortion but this ban varied from one to state to another. Even though, abortion was only allowed under specific conditions which include (a) to save the mother’s life, (b) in case the pregnancy was as a result of rape, (c) if the fetus had some complications or abnormalities like deformity.
In the year 1973, the Supreme Court said that all the laws on abortion were unconstitutional and it, therefore, allowed abortion within the first three months. Some celebrated this ruling while others including the Catholic Church opposed it. This led to wars and bombing of clinics that exercised abortion. Today, the conflict about abortion revolves around over termination of fetus at the late stages of pregnancy. Supporters argue that such an abortion is good because it saves the mother’s life.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Constitution of the US : Issues and Amendments by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, opponents argue that in a majority of the abortions, the fetus can be saved and people only abort as an excuse that the health of the mother is at risk. Presently, abortion is legal in more than fifty states in the US. The issue of mother’s health, which allows the mother to abort even at the late stages of a pregnancy, is a broad one, and it does not have a single answer. As a result, there is no particular reason why a mother cannot abort.
Do you agree with the present status of abortion law? The issue of abortion has brought controversy in the US today. Abortion has become a critical issue in the society with many abortions been done every day. I feel that some people abort voluntarily although they argue that the health of the mother is at risk. This continues to victimize innocent and vulnerable fetus, and the law does not protect them. Therefore, there is a need define and to develop new laws regarding abortion. I do not agree with the current law on abortion.
Conclusion The president of the US has some form of special powers, which allow him to make important decisions during critical moments. The special powers of a president are granted by the constitution, by the Acts of Congress, and other soft powers. Such decisions are applicable during times of emergency.
The term judicial activism refers to how the constitution is interpreted in order to advocate for certain values and conditions (in the US) while judicial restraint refers to the act of limiting the power of federal judges so that they cannot strike down certain laws, which are outlined by the constitution. The major benefit of these two is that they promote democracy in the US.
The issue of abortion has been (and still is) a burning issue in the society today. Presently, in more than fifty states abortion is allowed by the constitution. There is a need to develop laws regarding abortion to avoid the controversy surrounding this topic.
The collapse of the twin towers Essay best essay help
The debate concerning the collapse of the twin towers (The World Trade Center) in the United States of America, has raged on from the advent of the attacks by terrorists. There has been a lot of speculation concerning the collapse, and several experts have carried out, and are continuing with investigations on the actual cause of the collapse of the towers.
This is because they need to understand what happened in a bid to counter any future attacks on gargantuan buildings. Most reports have so far indicated that the main cause of the collapse of the buildings, were the fires that erupted following the explosion, upon impact of the airplanes.
This seems to be the consensus among most of the experts as they strive to offer a logical explanation as to why the buildings collapsed. The reports indicated that it took quite some time for the buildings to crumble (Griffin 113). According to expert opinion, the jet fuel that was on board the aircrafts fueled the fires that started upon the collision. It is common knowledge that jet fuel burns at extreme temperatures.
It is highly flammable and this, together with office furniture and other bits and pieces like carpets and stationery in the building, lit up flames that were estimated to reach temperatures of 2000° Fahrenheit. These temperatures were so high that they able to soften the metal frames that had been used to set up the columns that held the building together.
The trusses were also a main part of the core of the building, in that they held the columns together. Upon impact, the flames erupted weakening the entire structure although the building actually withstood the initial impact. Another aspect that was also brought forth was the fact that the steel that had been used had been fireproofed with fire resistant foam of the highest quality.
Upon impact, the debris and shock loosened and blew away the protective fireproof foam from the steel columns. This left the steel exposed to the flames, which weakened them to the point where they could no longer sustain the weight of the building. The subsequent result was the collapse of the building after the trusses together with the columns gave in to the weight due to the weakening of the steel columns.
The fact that the buildings stood for almost one hour in an upright position enabling many people make a clean get away ought to be considered when making observations regarding the fall of the twin towers. This is because there have been some arguments from various quarters that have stated that the quality of the workmanship was wanting and quite questionable. There has been speculation that there was plenty of cutting corners in a bid to make great savings at the expense of people’s lives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These arguments hold no water since the design of the building was hardly compromised, and it was only an act such as the one that took place, which could have caused such damage. Conversely, there are also indications that such an impact had been put into consideration at the time of construction. However, it is prudent to note that the biggest plane at the time the building was being constructed was the Boeing 707, while the ones used to crash into the buildings were the much larger Boeing 767 models.
Works Cited Griffin, David. Mysterious Collapse of World Trade Center 7: Why the Final Official Report about 9/11 Is Unscientific and False, Northampton, Massachusetts: Interlink Books, 2009. Print.
Expanding Holy Refinery Research Paper essay help: essay help
Introduction The proposed new power plant by Holy refinery within the City of Bountiful has elicited opposition from the locals and the city council. Reflectively, the Utah medical fraternity has estimated that the proposed plant will cause more than 20 deaths annually. Besides, the local have issues with environmental pollution from air, water, visibility to noise. Since the proposed refinery will use dirty petroleum fuel to propel its pumps, the local are uncomfortable with the proposal due to fear of air pollution.
Despite the fact that Petroleum fluids have become the backbone of modern economics and industrial development in Utah, the above issues have created real concerns. Crude oil and natural gases are environmentally friendly in their natural state. However, they are rarely used in their natural state. This makes it mandatory for the natural gas and crude oil to go through a refining and gas processing.
Emissions from the refining process contain products from the natural petroleum that are contaminated with synthetic chemicals making the total emissions harmful to the environment. Thus, this analytical treatise attempts to explicitly discuss the environmental and health consequences of locating the proposed oil refinery near the human settlement of Utah. Besides, the treatise identifies solutions to the identified issues and presents a comprehensive plan to revise them.
Problems of refining oil near Utah City Effects on the environment
The sanitization of crude oil and processing of natural gas involves use of artificial chemicals and catalysts such as lead, chromium, glycol, amines among others. These synthetic chemicals contaminate the end products and are burnt along with the fuels to produce numerous lethal by-products in gaseous, liquid or solid forms.
The emission of such air pollutant that did not exist in nature causes environmental effects than can permanently dent the global ecosystem (Islam, Chhetri
Rise and Development of Nationalism in East Asia Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Rise and Development of Nationalism in China and Japan
Introduction Nationalism means the identities that people have, which they view as distinguishing them uniquely as belonging to a particular nation. Thus, it covers one of the forms of patriotism. Several theories can be employed to provide an explanation of the origin of nationalism. The main ones are modernism and primordialist views.
Modernism theory considers nationalism as a recent societal process, which demands societal structuring for it to develop. On the other hand, the primordialist “describes nationalism as a reflection of the ancient and perceived evolutionary behavior of humans to organize themselves into distinct groupings based on the affinity of birth” (Tamir 13).
The paper uses the primordialist view. Based on the theory, nationalism may develop based on cultural artifacts defining people living within a given nation and political-related experiences in a nation among other things. From this point of view, this paper discuses the rise and development of nationalism in East Asia based on historic political related experiences and cultural elements including religion and clothing. Japan and china are used as the main examples in this quest.
Rise and Development of Nationalism in China and Japan Cultural elements may act as mechanisms that can help to instill the perception of nationalism among people living within a common geographical area. Theses artifacts may be depicted through clothing, language, and religion.
With the onset of westernization, Chinese people encountered a dilemma whether to abandon their own clothing styles that defined their heritage and hence a sense of belonging as Chinese nationals or to adopt the rising western styles of dressing. This dilemma motivates Finnane to wonder what Chinese women deserve to wear for them to retain the symbol of nationalism (99).
Given the history of China that is rich in customs, the question is significant since resistance to the degradation of nationalism depicted by dressing style was evident as from 1949 when Mao Zedong declined from wearing black leather shoes and a suit. According to Finnane, the head of state argued, “we Chinese have our own customs…why should we follow others” (99).
This resistance was a replication of over half decade debates questioning the capacity of the western influences to impair the dressing codes of the Chinese people. Over that period, alterations of style were incredibly controversial. They attracted hefty public debates particularly when they involved the question of the women dress. The main interrogatives were whether the women dresses need to be long or short, tight or loose, or cover the arms for them to depict Chinese national women.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the reign of Mao, the question on what Chinese people wore attracted superficial analysis. However, dressing styles and the type of clothes that were won by Chinese people acted as wonderful mechanisms of differentiating between China and the rest of the nations in the world.
In this line of thought, Finnane reinforces, “For politically correct Chinese people, clothing at that time differentiated the socialist elect from the rest…for outsiders, it was the single most obvious feature about contemporary Chinese culture” (100). Clothes were depictive of Chinese culture and hence a symbol of Chinese people.
Even though much of the concerns about the alteration of the dressing to have the capacity to erode the culture of the Chinese people concerned what women wore in the ninetieth century, the link between nationalism and the clothing was not only a problem of women: men were also equally worried. This argument is strengthened by the Mao Zedong’s rejection to wear a suit associated with the western culture.
Outside the Chinese context, clothing remains an important symbol of nationalism in other nations in the East Asia. For instance, in India, cladding in ‘sari’ represents a sovereign Indian woman because “the fertile ground for production of future generations both past and future-were embodied in her,” (Finnane 102).
On the other hand, in Japan, a woman dressed in ‘kimono’ profiles an ideal sovereign Japanese woman. From these examples, it sounds essential to infer that the perception of nationalism among people cannot be segregated from the cladding codes acceptable as representing the true national of a given nation because cultural artifacts are depictive of cultural differences among people who are often confined within different national boundaries.
Apart from the rise and development of nationalism from the context of dressing style, religion is yet another crucial cultural artifact that may help to build the perception of nationalism among different people living in different nations. For instance, in Japan, subscription to Shinto is perhaps an essential way of portraying ones strongly grounded spirit of nationalism.
Shinto assumed its shape upon the arrival of Buddhism. This was vital in helping to differentiate the new religion to the indigenous religion in Japan that was the representation of the ‘Japanese’.
We will write a custom Essay on Rise and Development of Nationalism in East Asia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Okuyama strengthens this point by further asserting, “Some 100,000 shrines of jinja served by Shinto priests attest to its physical presence nationwide” (94). Shinto defines the religious practices of the indigenous native Japanese to mean ‘the ways of ‘kami’ as opposed to ‘the ways of Buddha’.
Therefore, since the introduction of Buddhism in the 16th century, Shinto practices became definitive of the true Japanese nationalism. However, it is also crucial to note that Japanese people consider traditional customs as defining nationalism in spite of “whether they are Shinto or not” (Okuyama 97). The question that emerges is- to what extent do Japanese people perceive Shinto as a true representation of nationalism?
The response to the above question is perhaps well answered by considering the significance of Shinto shrines among all citizens of Japan including the nobles. In this regard, Okuyama reckons, “since he became the prime minister, Koizumi Jun’ichiro visited Yasukuni Shrine four times: 13 August 2001, 21 April 2002, 14 January 2003, and 1 January 2004” (106).
Nevertheless, even though this may be anticipated to be acceptable within the understanding of the traditional customs of Japanese people, the visits attracted opposition. Consequently, about seven lawsuits ensued as a result.
Nevertheless, Koizumi remained confident that the visits were necessary for a number of reasons. In the first place, the shrines served to portray his nationalism since they formed the places where he renewed vows never to take part in wars. Secondly, “he visited Yasukuni shrines to express relevance and gratitude to all the war dead despite the fact that these include class A war criminal” (Okuyama 106).
Arguably, from this cited reason of why Koizumi visited the shrine, it is questionable whether the shines are the best places to show ones patriotism. However, it is evident that Japanese people have a strong prescription to traditional religious beliefs as the main ways of portraying sincerity in ones commitments to the Japanese people and the nation as a whole.
The analysis of Shintoism as one of the theories of development of nationalism in Japan cannot be accomplished without considering the philosophers’ attempts to ensure the national beliefs were revived and purified.
The idea was to enhance the removal of all foreign ideas that were imported from various nations including China and India. The Shintoism restoration movement began in the 18th century with Motoori Noringa playing proactive roles. This campaign gave rise to the state Shinto with the emperor of Japan then claiming to be of Amaterasu decently.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Rise and Development of Nationalism in East Asia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A certain representation that tends to link people together creates the spirit of nationalism. According to Wang, the identification may include “China’s neo-neo-tribe and “Japanese shin shin jinrei” (547).
To Wang, such a representation can be used to secure a market for a particular product because it has high likelihoods of securing an immense success when a product is marketed based on its capacity to create a sense of nationalism. For instance, Wang argues that the term bobo has the impact of bringing Chinese people together by creating messages of premium value (535). What this argument means is that the spirit of nationalism can also be build by the products produced by nations.
Therefore, consumption of such products helps to depict that one is truly a patriot of a given nation. Using the Wang’s analogy, the term bobo is related to being a Chinese and belonging to a bobo class. Subsequently, when a product is sold bearing the tag that it is principally made for the bobos, it means that buying this product will not only mean fitting into the bobo class. Besides, it will also depict one as a sovereign citizen of the nation where the bobos live!
From a different dimension, nationalism may be built based on the experiences that people go through as a nation. Recollection of such experiences helps to remind one of the history encountered, which is definitive of why one is a nationalist of a given nation. This kind of nationalism is perhaps well exemplified by Japan through her Hiroshima trauma.
Painful experiences are crucial reflections of what it takes to be a nationalist since they provide links between different cultures (Caruth 3). Therefore, while Japan may be segregated based on different cultural affiliations, the Hiroshima experiences make Japanese people develop a sense of nationalism, which is critical in helping the nation to employ all strategies possible to ensure that such an experience would never reoccur.
Therefore, the Hiroshima experience is one unifying experience that ensures all Japanese are united together amid their demographic differences (Wood 191). Arguably, this is crucial since nationalism is hard to thrive in an environment that is ruled by segregations.
Conclusion Therefore, based on the expositions made in the paper, it is enough to declare nationalism a representation of people’s identities. The identities help in building the spirit of patriotism. Cultural elements show people’s identities and political experiences especially the ones that culminated into painful experiences.
In this paper, nationalism has been explored through consideration of clothing as one of the ways of presentation of people’s cultural artifacts in the Chinese and Japanese contexts. The Hiroshima experience has also been considered as an example of painful experiences that has helped to shape the Japanese view of nationalism.
Works Cited Caruth, Cathy. Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative and History, Baltimore: Johnhopkins University press, 1996. Print.
Finnane, Antonia. “What Should Chinese Women Wear?” Modern China 22.2(1996): 99-131. Print.
Okuyama, Michiaki. Historicizing Modern Shinto: A New Tradition of Yasukuni Shrine. Harvard: Harvard University Press, 2005. Print.
Tamir, Yael. Liberal Nationalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. Print.
Wang, Jing. “Bourgeois Bohemians in China? Neo-Tribes and the Urban Imaginary.” The China Quarterly 183.3(2005): 532-548. Print.
Wood, Nancy. Vectors of Memory: Legacies of Trauma in Postwar Europe. New Jersey, NJ: Berg Publishers, 1999. Print.
Multiculturalism in the USA Essay essay help: essay help
Multiculturalism in the USA is one of the main issues for the country as being inhabited by people from different ethnical groups it faces a number of difficulties. One of the main problem the USA faces is cultural assimilation. The USA seems not to have personal culture as the number of immigrants who have come to the country has affected the cultural destinations of the Native Americans and now it seems that the whole culture of the USA is a combination of different cultures which exist in the society.
There are many immigrants who have come to the USA and who have almost become native inhabitants of the country. Still, there are Americans who are considered as Native ones, and there are other ethnical groups who inhabit the country, Hispanic Americans, Mexican Americans, African American, Asian Americans and several groups which appeared recently as one more ethnical group in the USA. Hispanic Americans group is the most varied one as it comprises a number of ethnic groups.
Speaking about Hispanic Americans, it should be stated that this ethnic groups stands between Euro-Americans and African Americans, however, the social status of them is not too high than African Americans’ one. Being socially and economically unprotected in the USA, Hispanic Americans do not strive for better lives. Having escaped for a number of countries, from hunger and violence, many Hispanic Americans lead poor lives in the USA, however, they are sure that such life is much better than the life in their countries.
Hispanic American population is divided into the groups, Mexican Americans (67%), Puerto Rican Americans (9%), Cuban Americans (4%), Dominican Americans (2%), Central American Hispanics (7%), South American Hispanics (5%) and other Hispanic groups in the USA (8%). Depending on the specific belonging, Hispanic Americans live in different regions of the USA. Of course, it is possible to meet Mexican Americans all over the USA, however, their greatest concentration is in Los Angeles.
Considering the reasons why these people came to the USA, the first and the greatest wave of legal and illegal immigration of Hispanic Americans was because of the war regime in the countries of their origin. Various revolutions and civil wars made people run away from their countries.
Search for better education and job were other reasons for coming to a strange country. However, the life of Hispanic Americans in the USA is not that easy as it may seem. Even though the USA successfully fights with the remnants of discrimination, there are many prejudices in relation to Hispanic population. Unfortunately, those Hispanic Americans who have darker skin experience more ethnic discrimination than those whose skin in whiter. Poor Hispanic Americans are unable to achieve high success due to their social status.
As for me, all people are born equal and no one can treat them in accordance to their origin. However, I can understand Americans who live in the country and who consider it their homes that the more immigrants come of the USA and become its citizens, the less cultural peculiarities America has.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Looking at the USA it is impossible to state which nation predominates as according to its history and the waves of immigration, many foreigners have come to the place and they consider the country their native home. Thus, the cultures have mixed that created additional reasons to worry for Native Americans who begin to lose their country.
Machiavelli and Aristotle’s idea of virtue Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction Machiavelli and Aristotle’s perceptions towards virtue endure until today. The differences in their perceptions towards politics allowed the two to come up with diverse dimensions of ethics and virtues as well as their role in politics. Aristotle comes up with a clear distinction between personal virtue and civic virtue and has the conviction that the two are autonomous. Hence, “it is evident that the good citizen need not of necessity possess the virtue which makes a good man” (Aristotle “Politics” 54).
According to Aristotle, civic virtue is critical to politics and it facilitates in promoting national harmony. On the other hand, Machiavelli takes a different position with respect to ethics and virtue. Unlike Aristotle, Machiavelli does not find virtue to be of great significance. Machiavelli posits, “Therefore, if a prince wants to maintain his rule, he must be prepared not to be virtuous and to make use of this or not according to need” (65).
Machiavelli vs. Aristotle According to Machiavelli, “if one considers everything well, one will find something appears to be virtue, which if pursued would be one’s ruin, and something else appears to be vice, which if pursued results in one’s security and well-being” (62). Machiavelli uses an empirical approach to explain what entails virtue. He posits that an individual might have limited cognitive abilities and thus can fail to fathom why something is erroneous.
On the other hand, things that were once considered virtuous can turn out to be erroneous. In a way, Machiavelli is referring to both authority and self-examination. At times, people fail to acknowledge virtue not due to flaws in their perception, but because they may have been wrongly instructed. Consequently, Machiavelli believes that when deciding on what is virtuous, people should not consider only what is ethically right or abide by custom authorities.
Machiavelli comes up with a utilitarian understanding of virtue. He claims, “For something to be a virtue in the moral sense, it cannot seriously compromise our worldly well-being” (Machiavelli 69). In this way, he restricts the scope that moral virtue can cover. One wonders if he accords any significance to moral virtue.
Machiavelli considers those leaders that are capable of transforming the world to meet their needs to be virtuous. In addition, he perceives outstanding political skills as virtuous. One of the limitations of Machiavelli’s idea about virtue is that he does not show what virtue really comprises and how one can cultivate it.
Both Aristotle and Machiavelli believed that no virtue could come out of ignorance. Machiavelli posits that when one reflects on everything well, s/he can identify what is virtuous (Machiavelli 62). Hence, one engages in virtuous acts after a thorough deliberation and no one partakes in the acts unconsciously.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, Aristotle claims that virtues are temperaments for choice. He holds the conviction that for one to act from virtue, he or she has to determine if his or her undertakings are ethically correct. For one’s intentions to reflect virtue, s/he must proceed with complete awareness of the state of affairs. One cannot proceed out of ignorance. Aristotle asserts that only the premeditated or deliberate actions can be accorded praise.
According to Aristotle, virtue trait is neither defective nor excessive (Aristotle “The Nicomachean Ethics” 41). He claims that virtue trait does not yield either defective or excessive feelings or actions. Hence, individuals ought to feel and act in line with the mean. Nevertheless, Aristotle posits that it is hard to come up with a definite formula for determining the mean.
In its place, virtuous people should depend on morally sensitive views to understand where virtue lies (Aristotle “The Nicomachean Ethics” 51). The virtuous people identify and react to the morally significant elements available in varied contexts and modify their intentions and actions accordingly. John McDowell buys to this Aristotelian idea of virtue when he claims that virtue comprises perceptual sensitivity to the ethically pertinent qualities of one’s plight, which is a form of perceptual skill.
Aristotle refutes the claim that virtue depends on nature (Aristotle “The Nicomachean Ethics” 56). He is against the claim that a person may be born with virtue.
For Aristotle, nature subjects people to embrace virtue. Even though habit facilitates in the establishment of virtues, Aristotle holds that a virtue does not comprise a habit. He states that for an individual to nurture a certain virtue, one ought to partake in activities that resemble the virtue (Aristotle “The Nicomachean Ethics” 59). Aristotle claims that for a person to develop a sense of justice, s/he should engage in just actions.
The habit of engaging in just actions makes one just. Nevertheless, the habit itself does not make one just. By participating in virtuous actions, an individual is acquainted with what right deeds are like. Once he develops the virtue, he can employ the empirical wisdom to work rightly (Aristotle “The Nicomachean Ethics” 63). Hence, according to this argument, Aristotle believes that one can acquire virtue, and hence it is not an inherent quality or something given by nature.
Political philosophy Due to their divergent ideas regarding virtue, Aristotle and Machiavelli hold different political philosophies. Machiavelli believes that virtue entails doing what one feels is of great benefit to him or her even though others might suffer from it. He believes in a political system where the leader has absolute powers (Machiavelli 52).
We will write a custom Essay on Machiavelli and Aristotle’s idea of virtue specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to him, a bad state is one whereby the leader depends on advices from his juniors. Machiavelli believes that for a political system to be stable, one ought to depend on his or her principles and not borrow ideas from other people. He claims that virtues acquired from other people might plunge one to problems when it comes to a point of defending his or her actions (Machiavelli 68).
He claims that it is hard for a leader to maintain power if s/he has not acquired it out of his or her virtue. Machiavelli believes that depending on another person’s fortune or will is disastrous to leaders since such will or fortune is unstable. It becomes hard for a leader to take full control of his or her subjects given that the leader does not develop the art of commanding (Machiavelli 72).
Aristotle holds the belief that political leaders should serve their subjects and not enrich themselves at the subjects’ expense. Based on his perception of virtue, he puts forwards six forms of government.
They include tyranny, oligarchy, monarchy, aristocracy, polity, and democracy (Aristotle “Politics” 58). He compares all the systems of government and castigates the systems that seek to enrich the leader. While democracy bestows power to the public, Aristotle believes that such a government system had adverse effects on the less fortunate in the society.
It promotes insecurity, especially if the poor opt to take to the streets seeking to enrich themselves at the expense of the rich (Aristotle “Politics” 60). Aristotle believes in a political system that promotes sharing of power between the various classes in society. A system of government like polity ensures an even distribution of power among the poor, middle class, and the rich. Hence, the system fosters a peaceful coexistence in the entire society.
Conclusion After analyzing both Aristotle’s and Machiavelli’s ideas, I agree that the two are influential, but in different dimensions. In a bid to identify the correct theorist, I approach the two men from a perspective of an individual that is seeking to determine the most appropriate form of governance suitable for the contemporary world. Aristotle’s views on the objectives of politics, forms of governments, and duties of the public are convincing and they fit well to the contemporary global politics.
On the other side, Machiavelli’s views on the role of ethics and virtue in politics appear to be in line with what is actually happening in the contemporary political environment. Nonetheless, this aspect does not imply that according to me, Machiavelli is the correct theorist. Aristotle is the correct theorist here. Unlike Machiavelli, Aristotle backs all his arguments with real life situations.
Besides, he approaches his arguments from different dimensions and manages to show how one can nurture and practice virtue. On the other hand, Machiavelli fails to back a majority of his arguments with real life situations. Besides, he approaches the idea of virtue from a self-centered approach. Moreover, Machiavelli does not give an account of how one can nurture virtue, thus affecting the credibility of his argument.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Machiavelli and Aristotle’s idea of virtue by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Concept of Individual Freedom Introduction Rousseau and Mill were political philosophers with interest in understanding what entailed individual freedom. Nevertheless, the two do not share common views regarding individual liberty. Mill perceives individual liberty as freedom of self-control in a mutual context (Mill 11).
He focuses on the development of man’s ethical character through psychological, social, and political liberty. Mill believes that everyone in the society is bound by an equal measure of personal freedom. Hence, the main reason why people come together in the society is to ensure that they do not infringe into others’ liberty.
In addition, Mill has the conviction that the society works to maintain its advancement and prevent its extermination, by giving room for an open personal expression. On the other hand, Rousseau views individual freedom as comprising of a collective body bound by a general will (Rousseau 3). This paper compares Rousseau’s idea of individual freedom with Mill’s idea.
Rousseau vs. Mill According to Mill, a belief is insignificant if it is only approved as a fact without being comprehended by those who embrace it. He elucidates, “There is only too great a tendency in the best beliefs and practices to degenerate into the mechanical…” (Mill13). Mill claims that to curb this issue, a belief should be discussed fearlessly, regularly, and completely.
Otherwise, people will consider it a dead doctrine. Mill claims that for any truth to apply to an individual, one has to use his or her views and judgment in ascertaining the truth. He believes that the veracity of any opinion makes part of its usefulness and no opinion that is against the truth can be of any use. Consequently, Mill believes that for individuals to trust in any opinion, it has to be of significance to them. Moreover, people are different, and thus truth ought to vary from one person to another (Mill13).
Based in these postulations, Mill holds that limiting individual freedom means rendering the entire society inert and inhibiting its progress. Progress comes from allowing individual liberties like personal expression. Allowing individual freedom gives a society a wider range of opinions and ideas to choose from, thus encouraging growth.
Conforming to traditions without understanding their values does not facilitate personal development. Consequently, individual freedom is identical to individual growth. Mill claims that when a person values him or herself, s/he is in a better position to be of significance to others (Mill15). He asserts that through personal development, an individual develops the entire society.
Mill claims that to understand how individual freedom facilitates in social bonding, one ought to understand the interaction between individuals and the state. Mill posits, “The individual is not accountable to society for its actions in so far as these concern the interests of no person but himself” (21). Besides, individual freedom, just like other freedoms, surpasses all other authorities.
Therefore, individuals are allowed an open exercise over them in Mill’s principle. Mill is categorical that the law should not enforce itself, for example on a person acting in a manner criticized by others, since s/he has the ideal liberty to act and bear the cost of his or her actions as long as the actions do not infringe into the freedom of others. The society only takes control of individual freedom if an individual’s actions tend to violate the society’s freedom.
Rousseau views the general will as the foundation of freedom, justice, and order in the society (Rousseau 3). He believes that the general will is superior in the manner that it differentiates the will of individuals. The general will cannot wish or injure itself since it comprises people it affects, and thus all its interests are in congruence with the interests of the people. For Rousseau, general will always comes up with decisions that are beneficial to all (Rousseau 4).
In addition, it derives its generality from the mutual interests that unite people and not from the number of voices. Hence, popular vote can facilitate in making effective determinations. Rousseau claims that in spite of the general will, every person remains independent. Although the “general will” determines what is right, individuals have voluntarily opted to embrace it, thus remaining their own masters.
More particularly, the common dedication amongst all people is such that, “… in fulfilling it … a man cannot work for others without at the same time working for himself” (Rousseau 5). However, it is hard for an individual to detach himself or herself from the general will. This aspect inhibits individualism, as one has to obey the rules of the general will.
The better regime Evaluating the two regimes, one may claim that they both have their benefits and limitations. Although Rousseau’s regime would promote social cohesion as people come together to address common interests, the system would be prone to resistance from its members. In spite of people sharing some common will, they might also have private will that differs with the general will.
In such a case, the regime would encounter stiff opposition as people seek to have space to attend to their private will, which in a way might violate the established general will. Moreover, the dedications that bring people together in Rousseau’s regime are mandatory only since they are communal. It would be hard for one to leave the social body should he or she cease to share mutual interests with others. In such a case, the affected person would not enjoy his or her freedom since s/he would remain in the group unwillingly.
Mill’s regime is better as compared to Rousseau’s regime. The regime not only gives room for personal rights, but also provides the mechanism to safeguard these rights.
Such a regime encourages commitment from the society. In a situation where one is not constrained by anything apart from the effects of his actions on others, it is possible for an individual to pursue his or her personal goals without interference. A regime that calls for people to observe mutual interests not only frustrates individual’s effort to pursue personal goals, but also inhibits innovation.
Every person works towards improving his or her living standards. Consequently, individuals would be willing to go a step further to come up with innovations to help them to pursue their goals. Nevertheless, if people were required to ensure that their innovations are in line with the needs of everyone in the society or a set of regulations agreed upon by the entire society, they would be discouraged from pursuing their goals in fear of violating the established regulations.
Without individuality, it is hard to accomplish individual liberty in society. I would rather be a citizen in Mill’s regime. The fact that this regime promotes individuality makes it possible for individuals in the society to uphold social order. In a bid to pursue personal goals, one has to enjoy personal liberty as well as peace.
In Mill’s regime, people would work hard to preserve their freedom and avoid infringing into the freedom of others. Hence, such a society would coexist in harmony. Mill’s regime would promote individual freedom, order, and justice. In such an environment, it is possible for an individual to make significant steps towards development.
Conclusion Rousseau and Mill present two opposing views about individual liberty. They put forward two regimes that perceive individual liberty in different dimensions. Rousseau’s regime perceives liberty in the form of the general will that brings individuals together to work towards achieving mutual interests.
On the other hand, Mill’s regime perceives individual liberty as independent with every person having a set of personal interests and goals. Mill believes that individual freedom brings people together as they seek to come up with measures to make sure that they do not infringe into the freedom of others. The main limitation of Rousseau’s regime is that it is susceptible to opposition from the members due to conflict of interests.
Moreover, the regime discourages innovation and individual growth as mutual interests bind all members. On the other hand, Mill’s regime has numerous benefits. The regime allows individuals to pursue personal interests as long as the interests do not interfere with the freedom of others. Hence, Mill offers a better regime that can foster not only personal growth, but also societal growth.
Works Cited Aristotle. The Nicomachean Ethics, London: Penguin Classics, 2004. Print.
Aristotle. The Politics, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. Print.
Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince, New York: Hackett Pub Co., 1995. Print.
Mill, John. ‘On Liberty’ and Other Writings: Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. Print.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. The Social Contract, London: Penguin Books, 1968.Print.
Analysis of Marxist Theory Essay best college essay help
According to Marx, primitive accumulation plays an important role in triggering the capitalist relations because it constitutes the starting point of the production mechanism. The point of departure has a historical nature because capitalism is the product of pre-historic development and economic revolutions.
Specific attention should be given to the moment when the production process was separated from the means of production. Hence, when the leading actors, including the high social classes and lower layers offering labor force, entered the free market, even the slight inequalities existing among those groups could be significantly amplified.
As a result, the manufactures depend on the workforce to produce consumer goods whereas laborers were free in choosing the producers to whom they are ready to sell their labor power. The exchange is unfair because the workers make this choice to earn money for living. The service offered by them has become a commodity for the leading employers to offer their specific price.
The historic foundation of the emerging primitive accumulation is explained by the pre-historic existence of the classes that accumulated wealth and the groups who agreed to sell their services for manufacturing goods. Therefore, the workers did not have other choice than propose their own workforce as the commodity which they could sell.
Such a decision points to the emergence of capitalists relations. Such a system of commodity exchange has become the starting pointing in divorcing the manufacturer from the means of producing goods and services. The emerged distribution is also premised on the transformation of social means of production and subsistence into capitalist system.
As Marx states, the main principle of primitive accumulation lies in absence of equality. In particular, the economist elaborates on violent dispossession of the entire social class from taking control over the production means through illegal acts. Such a process, therefore, can be regarded as the victimization of the population that is initiated by the governmental apparatus.
The role of the state in shaping the primitive accumulation is emphasized, although violence was the leading means of controlling the population. In order to explain the nature of the necessary evil practiced by the state, Marx refers to the origins of primitive accumulation taking roots in sixteenth century to examine how this phenomenon was established. In the course of this exploration, the economist finds out that the capitalist structure has developed from the feudalism by dissolution of the constituents of production.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The gradual displacement of feudal system occurred by means of mutual engagement into developing a new system of commodity exchange. Presenting the human labor as a product that can be purchased has become the trigger of reconsideration of feudalist power, as well as the enslavement of the labor workers. Such a change can also be interpreted as a transition to a new type of servitude. The proposed interpretation differs much from the one introduced by Marx because it ignores the economic strategies of development.
In fact, the labor relations could be accepted as the mutual agreement between two classes entering the free market. Humans possessing labor as the only commodity should be more concerned with selling it to elite class whose wealth is enough to purchase means of production. Therefore, Marx’s explanation of the primitive accumulation seems to be more reasonable because it emphasizes the essence of capitalist system.
Assimilation in American Life Essay essay help: essay help
Assimilation is defined as the process through which different things come together and adapt to each other’s habits, creating completely new habits. (Salins 97). In the human society, it happens when a family or an individual moves to a different location either voluntarily or through unavoidable circumstances and over time they adapt the cultural and social habits of the hosts. Some of the causes of voluntary migration includes education, work, the need to relocate to a different environment among others.
The circumstances which force an individual to relocate on the other hand include war, natural calamities, cultural issue and so on. Assimilation is important to both the hosts and the immigrants since both parties are able to learn a lot from the others in all spheres of life (Chorlton 24). Every culture has something that sets it apart and so the coming together of two or more cultures creates a blend that is neutral and one which is easy to adopt.
James is a citizen of the United States by birth since his parents migrated from Africa before he was born. They came from Kenya specifically which is in the eastern part of Africa. James’ parents migrated to the United States two years before he was born and this was brought about by the scholarship attained by the father in Massachusetts State University.
Since he had already married but without children, relocating with his wife was not such a hustle and it would save his young family from the statistics of families which have broken up due to long distance. James’ father had the option of studying at home but he decided against it since he considered it wise to travel the world and learn other people’s cultures and traditions.
This family arrived in the United States in the year 2005 and settled in Massachusetts where the university is located. From this therefore, it is clear that their choice of state was for convenience since they were not conversant with the country and having to move from one state to another would be hectic and expensive since again they still didn’t have jobs. They arrived as a family of two, husband and wife but later on they bore three children, James being the first born.
For successful assimilation to take place hence ensuring that both parties are comfortable with each other, every member of the family has to play a role (Gordon 64). According to an interview with James, assimilation begins at the point where both the hosts and the immigrants accept and appreciate each other’s presence. This means that the hosts do not develop negative attitudes towards the new presence in the neighborhood and the immigrants do not develop the feeling that they are unwanted.
In most cases, the first reception the immigrants get on arrival determines every other feeling and actions that might occur later on. In his case for the example, the parents were warmly welcomed in the neighborhood they moved into since there were other people from Africa who had already settled there. They were given the best orientation and this made them comfortable in the state from the onset. As a result, both the wife and the husband were able to express themselves with no reservations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This enabled them to pick the culture of the state easily. They were also able to pass over part of their culture to their closest neighbors and to them the time they spent with the neighbors comparing their different cultures was golden. They were also able to understand the rules and regulations of the state within a short time hence were never caught up on the wrong side of the law, a common mishap with most immigrants.
The assimilation strategies that were used by this family were mostly primary and secondary strategies. Primary strategies involved hanging out with the hosts in social places hence being able to develop personal relationships (Early 99).
From these personal relationships, they were able to develop trust with the neighbors and this ensured that they were always given any relevant information especially with regards to matters of security. As a result of this trust, they were not considered as a threat and so people were free to interact with them.
The other strategy that they used was the secondary strategy which is concerned with the relationships created in the workplace and schools as well. On arrival to the United States, James’ parents secured part time jobs so that they could be able to provide for their basic needs. The workplace relationships played a major role in their assimilation process since they were able to interact with people from different professions.
This helped them specifically in choosing their career paths since they were able to know the kind of professions that were on demand in the country. This assimilation can also be attributed to the fact that they were still young and hence more flexible. It is a universal belief that age plays a major role in adaptation to different environments. Elderly people are less likely to pick up new trends as compared to the young age as was the case with James’ parents.
In this family assimilation took place with less effort since each person played their role in accepting the changes. They were however careful not to lose it completely in terms of their culture and beliefs.
They did not fully embrace the American culture but only took what they needed to fit into the community. As for the cultural assimilation, they maintained more of their culture and adopted less of the foreign culture especially in their private lives. In cases such as education where it was inevitable, they were able to embrace it fully (Barth 46).
We will write a custom Essay on Assimilation in American Life specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In social assimilation, they had to take up the social behavior of the hosts in order to fit into the community. They adopted the living standards of the country which were completely different from what they were used to at home and this forced them to work extra hard so as to catch up.
On marital assimilation, this did not affect them much since they were already married before they migrated, hence not having the need to look for partners in the new country. Both of them were however keen on preserving part of their culture especially where the family order is concerned. Most African families believe that women are supposed to cook and take care of their husbands, a norm that is long forgotten in the western countries.
They therefore decided unanimously to conserve this part of their culture to avoid negative issues in their marriage. The experience this family had in the host country was as a result of the changes that have taken place in the recent past in favor of assimilation. Earlier on, immigrants especially from the less developed countries were not welcomed in most states hence they had a hard time assimilating with the hosts if they ever did.
Works Cited Barth, Kelly. Assimilation. Detroit, Michigan: Greenhaven Press, 2010. Print.
Chorlton, David. Assimilation. Charlotte, NC: Main Street Rag, 2000. Print.
Early, Gerald L. Lure and Loathing: Essays on Race, Identity, and the Ambivalence of Assimilation. New York, NY: Penguin Press, 1993. Print.
Gordon, Milton M. Assimilation in American Life: The Role of Race, Religion, and National Origins. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1964. Print.
Salins, Peter D. Assimilation, American Style. New York, NY: BasicBooks, 1997. Print.
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Belief without Prior Evidence Essay custom essay help
William Clifford’s famous essay The Ethics of Belief is aimed at showing that it is immoral to believe something without sufficient evidence because unjustified opinions can pose a significant threat to others.
In his work, the author demonstrates that in some cases, a person’s conviction can imperil the lives of many people; therefore, one has to ensure his/her decisions are based on facts or reliable observations, rather than wishful thinking (Clifford unpaged). Overall, it is possible to develop an objection to William Clifford’s argument. In particular, there are circumstances when people can derive evidence only when they act on some preliminary and often unsupported beliefs about something.
For example, researchers often try to substantiate a certain theory or conjecture, but their efforts are guided by the assumption that this conjecture can be true. Very often, people’s convictions and opinions lead to the discovery of data that can eventually establish the truth or falsity of these convictions. This paper is aimed at examining this objection to Clifford’s essay in more detail. To a great extent, this critique relies on the ideas of William James who discusses the nature of faith in his lecture The Will to Believe.
First, it should be noted William Clifford formulates his argument in a very concise way; in particular, he says, “it is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence” (Clifford unpaged). This is the main claim that he makes in his work.
In order to explain this viewpoint, Clifford describes a situation when a person can convince oneself that something is true without even trying to obtain any evidence (Clifford unpaged). One can remember the famous example of a ship-owner who convinces himself that his ship is safe and takes no effort to determine whether this assumption is true. As a result, he endangers the lives of the sailors (Clifford unpaged).
Certainly, it is possible to accept this example, because it shows that very often an individual can choose to believe that some proposition is true; moreover, he/she does not search for the facts that can verify this proposition. Clifford believes that this behavior is unethical because it can pose a threat to the wellbeing of other people. It seems that this idea should be kept in mind by every person who has to take important decisions.
Nevertheless, the central argument of Clifford’s essay cannot be fully accepted. In some cases, people have act on a certain belief, and only in this way, they can gather empirical evidence substantiating this belief. For instance, in his lecture, William James mentions a chemist who conducts a series of experiments in order to demonstrate that a certain hypothesis is true (James unpaged). Additionally, medical workers have to test a drug on human subjects, even though that they cannot ensure that it is completely safe.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One can also refer to the empirical studies carried out by physicist who try to demonstrate the validity of their theories or models. In other words, the actions and decisions of these people are based on preliminary and unsupported beliefs. Nevertheless, there is nothing unethical in such behavior; moreover, in some cases, it can lead to scientific discovery. On the whole, such situations are familiar to people who study natural or social sciences.
In his lecture William James argues that researchers often have to act on insufficient evidence and only in this way they can make meaningful discoveries (James unpaged). This is one of the main issues one should bear in mind. William Clifford’s implies that evidence should precede the beliefs or conviction of a person. However, the example provided by William James indicates that this process can be reversed. Therefore, the validity of Clifford’s views can be questioned even by people who conduct empirical studies.
It should be noted that William Clifford might have responded to this objection in order to defend his arguments. In particular, he could have pointed out that many researchers can easily twist facts so that they could fit their theories. Moreover, they may deliberately disregard the evidence that contradicts their hypothesis.
In other words, their studies can become biased, and the validity of their discoveries can be easily undermined. Such a possibility does exist and it creates significant problems for researchers; however, modern scientists take various safeguards to make sure that their research methods are objective and unbiased.
As it has been said before, unsubstantiated conjectures can guide the research efforts of many scientists. This is better for them to have at least unsupported beliefs, than no conjectures at all. Without them researchers may not be able to achieve any progress in their work. This is how one can justify the existence of opinions that are not sufficiently supported by empirical observations. It should be pointed out that very often one cannot gain sufficient evidence.
For example, in mathematics, a statement cannot be called true, even when it is supported by thousands of observations or empirical tests. Therefore, the main task is to find a proof showing that a theorem or conjecture is true in every possible case. This is why mathematician may spend many years in order to prove theorems or conjectures. So, William Clifford’s emphasis on sufficient evidence may not always be justified because it may be difficult to determine when the evidence is sufficient or not.
Secondly, people’s relations with one another are often based on beliefs without sufficient evidence. These beliefs become substantiated only in the course of their day-to-day interactions and experiences. In this case special attention should be paid to the concept of trust or reliance on someone else’s good intentions, expertise, friendship, or loyalty. It implies that people may have confidence in something without having substantial evidence.
We will write a custom Essay on Belief without Prior Evidence specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, people can put trust in the competence of medical workers, even knowing that sometimes they can commit errors. Similarly, a person has to rely on the loyalty and integrity of his/her friends, colleagues, or relatives. It is difficult to find something unethical in these actions, in part because they are often inevitable. Very often, these decisions can be based on intuition or impressions produced by other people.
These intuitive opinions may turn to be true or false in the future, but very often people can determine it only through action. So, William Clifford’s approach to beliefs may not be applicable to daily lives of many people whose decisions are based on intuition, rather than empirical data.
Admittedly, one can argue that such behavior can lead to very adverse effects, especially in those cases, when their trust is abused by others. Nevertheless, one cannot say that people always act unethically when they rely on their intuition. Overall, these examples indicate that people can act on unsubstantiated belief and sometimes they can find evidence that support or refute their convictions only in this way. So, this examples show the limitations of Clifford’s ideas.
Certainly, one cannot entirely overlook his argument because he warns people about the dangers of unsupported beliefs and their effects on people. Moreover, his essay clearly highlights the need to search for empirical evidence or at least some confirmation of a person’s opinions.
Nevertheless, he does not take into the possibility that evidence cannot be obtained unless a person acts on certain beliefs or assumptions. In some cases, an individual may have no other options. This is the problem that William Clifford does not address in his essay.
Overall, the nature of belief continues to attract the attention of many philosophers, scientists, and epistemologists who want to. One of the main issues is the need to prove ones convictions by providing logical or empirical evidence.
In his work, William Clifford attempts to demonstrate that it is unethical to have beliefs that rely on insufficient evidence. However, this argument extends only to those situations when people refuse to search for data that can support their conviction and prefer wishful thinking. Such conduct can indeed be criticized from an ethical perspective.
However, very often people have to act on the beliefs that are not fully supported by empirical observations, and only in this way, they can discover the necessary evidence. This is one of the main points that one can make in response to William Clifford’s essay The Ethics of Belief. Still, despite these limitations, the work of this philosopher should be considered by modern scholars.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Belief without Prior Evidence by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Clifford, William. The Ethics of Belief. 1 Aug. 2008. Web.
James, William. The Will to Believe. 2 Dec. 2001. Web.
God is responsible for the continuation of evil Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Francisco Suarez: Gods involvement in sinful acts
God’s and Human’s responsibility
Introduction The essay on the problem of evil has been a focus of argument since the sixteenth and the eighteenth century. The argument about the theodicy problem in the early modern philosophy was as a result of the new scientist’s dream. The dream was about a perfect science that could explain everything on the surface of the earth. Philosophers have treated theodicy philosophically by use of ideas to explain the challenge of sin in the present world and theologically to identify, understand and justify sin.
These intriguing questions about God are: Is God able to prevent sin? Is He willing to prevent sin? Is God powerful and good? If God is not able to prevent or unwilling to prevent sin, then He is impotent and malevolent, thus consistent with the existence of sin. If God is all powerful and benevolent, then there should not be a problem with sin (Kremer, 17). In this paper, the focus will be on Hick’s idea that God is responsible for the continuation of sin.
The attributes of God as good and powerful may not be fully understood by human beings. In addition, atheists argue that God’s attributes should be defined based on genuine theodicy showing the consistency in relating God with evil, and not just hypothetical (Kremer, 21).
Francisco Suarez: Gods involvement in sinful acts Suarez argued that God is the cause and answerable to every effect produced by human beings. However, the immorality of sin cannot be traced to God as a source. Suarez classified moral sins into two categories: a sinful act that has a rational good will, but has defects in due perfection with regards to a free action and evil of punishment as lacking due good inflicted as a result of sin. He also implied that some of the sins human suffer are not in any way related to their faith. In faith, all the sins that befall humans are as a result of sin (Kremer, 34).
This is especially the original sin as God’s initial intention when he created man was to keep him free from sin, suffering, and death. Natural sin is traced from the imperfect power that cause them resulting in imperfect effects. These evils are indirectly traceable to God who is the origin. Therefore, evil is not intended by God, but He permits it. On the other hand, other causes of sins can be willed by God as He cannot just be the cause of evil, but also the cause of other kinds of evil (Kremer, 65).
For something to occur, there should be a first cause that is received by a secondary cause resulting in the final completion of the secondary cause by producing certain effects. The occurrence is a manner of principles because the action of the secondary power result in a complete power. Suarez, in his conclusion, stated that God concurs with human actions since He freely offers occurrences.
He emphasized that, for human beings not to sin, they must have the ability to be self determiners with God’s concurrence, which is not the case. In addition, he agreed with the Catholic doctrine that God is the provider of the world. Therefore, every action affected in the world is either knowingly intended by God or knowingly permitted by God (Kremer, 79).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many writers deny the the perfectness of God in moral goodness, but Christian writers have not denied good as omnipotent. An early religion that was rival to Christianity believed that God did not have the power that could stop bad from occurring.
In fact, they considered both good and bad powers equally strong. Many theologians in the past have talked vaguely concerning the weakness of God in relation to the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. Nonetheless, it is not clear if they thought God could not prevent Christ’s crucifixion (Kremer, 81).
Some Christian theologians have claimed that God allows evil to occur for the purpose of good. The followers of Christian traditions are worried about moral sin than natural evil. In the Christian history, natural evil was seen to be inevitable. In this case, humans were seen as immoral and embodied as many things could harm them. Augustine pointed out that natural suffering could be intended for the good purpose if the choices were made for the good purposes (Kremer, 92).
God’s and Human’s responsibility God did not ignore human responsibility for having the sovereign responsibility over his creation. Christ freed sinners from captivity even though believers still battle with the devil and the struggle against own sinful desires. Human beings do not have the power to overcome the sinful desires without the help of the holy spirit. It is a mystery that sin continues in the lives of humans after the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, and can only be taken out by daily repentance.
Christian considers moral evil in relation to human freedom and responsibility that involves right or wrong. Some philosophers argue that God should have created human beings who do not sin. In the same breath, He would have created people who are genuinely free and guaranteed to act rightly. This argument has caused contradiction that God made humans as genuinely independent in relation to Him (Cheetham 72).
Another contradicting argument is that God gave human freedom in relation to Him. Hick explained that this is not a genuine freedom: that a person is shaped by God and the same applies to the nature of his or her actions. Hick also argued that humans have no ability to explain a free act.
Therefore, the mystery of human freedom would always relate in understanding the origin of evil. Suffering as a result of sin draws a connection between freedom and moral evil (Cheetham 91). In this case, the moral incompetence of humans causes them a great deal of suffering.
We will write a custom Essay on God is responsible for the continuation of evil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some pain and suffering that man undergoes through as a result of sin. In some cases, the suffering is not necessarily as a result of sin or rather due to the structure of the earth. In such cases, the theodicy follows a negative path hence does not support the argument that human suffering is for the divine good purpose. God had an intention to create a perfect world for a perfect and a completely created human being.
The world is full of hardship that Hick considered not to have been made by a perfectly benevolent and powerful God. According to Christians, the world was intended to be a comfortable place for the inhabitants without pain and suffering. However, it is seen as a “soul making” place of suffering to enable human become heirs of internal life (Cheetham 93).
The nature of sin, as advocated for by Hick, makes it necessary for human beings have a reason for committing sin. This seems to conflict with the nature of sin because it makes it hard to explain. For instance, when a person makes a wrong deed, the individual usually has a choice not to do so.
The fact that a person might go ahead and do it means that there is some motivation involved. Whatever action one takes, it always serves to satisfy a certain desire. Those opposing the claims of the soul-making project make the nature of sin seem inexplicable and irrational. In response to this, Hick questioned why God created creatures acting in an unreasonable and inexplicable way. If one tries to answer this question, one can end up attributing the origin of sin to God (Cheetham 97).
Conclusion Some Christian atheists considered the death of Jesus as one of the worst thing that had ever happened out of the bad. The initial intention of God for sending his beloved son to the earth was to save the human race. The question is about why did the blood of Jesus fail to restore the relationship between man and God back to where it was before man sinned.
This could have meant that the salvation through the blood of Jesus was perfect. Some of these questions may not be understood by man. In a way, I agree that the continuation of sin is God’s will as He has power over every creation. Thus, only God can stop the occurrence of sin. God is good and powerful. Thus, whether He allows sin to continue or not, His intentions are always good as it was in the beginning of creation.
Works Cited Cheetham, David. John Hick: A Critical Introduction and Reflection. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003. Print.
Kremer, Elmar J. The Problem of Evil in Early Modern Philosophy. Toronto [u.a.: Univ. of Toronto Press, 2001. Print.
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Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of commerce Report college essay help online: college essay help online
Company profile Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of Business and industry is known to provide services aimed at economic development. This is done through promotion of new ventures such as Luzerne county area which harbors Pepperjam.com. The organization forms members of community’s economic development service capable of serving community with business opportunities based on partnerships.
The company assists in improving community’s quality of life through strategic planning, programs as well as investments. Greater-Wilkes-Barre works on range of projects starting from business and job creation programs. They also indulge in downtown revitalization, entrepreneurial as well as employee empowerment programs (Camardella 103-107).
Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of Business believes that the key to success is based on balancing stakeholders’ interests through empowerment of community and employees. The company is focused on delivery of quality services capable of sustaining community in the long-run.
This also encourages as well as acts as reminder to employees on their roles of providing satisfactory services to stakeholders. Such focus has since made Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber to become world leader in supply and delivery of business oriented services. The basis is not only in satisfying customers but in meeting their expectations by providing professional services.
Benefits of the internship The company is involved in Social entrepreneurship which caters for business activities characterized by numerous charitable activities. This kind of business is tied to primarily social objectives and not profits. In the event that the business makes surplus profits, the excess in reinvested in the business or better still in the community as opposed to profits benefiting the shareholders.
The company indulges in addressing poor people’s needs based on access to better services. This is done through appropriate information and communication channels. Such social enterprises are anchored on key assumption that effective management of information and communication technology leads towards enriched society.
Frameworks and models that support integration of economic development programs best analyzes business model which allows the poor to receive affordable services from various sectors such as healthcare and education offered within their localities. However, the rich members of the society are on the other and charged highly for these services (Camardella 103-107).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More All the company’s plan focuses on the targeted customers, services offered and appropriate means of delivery. The vision of Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber is provision of social services capable of providing quality and affordable services to intended population. Their mission is based on timely delivery and profound economic development through business initiation and offering care services with best efficiency and reliability possible.
In addition their strategy is focused on targeting low income earners within the City’s vicinity and at the same time including developing countries. Such services are at times delivered through internet websites and mobile phones, those in remote places are assisted through appropriate channels as prescribed by the company’s board (Magretta 86-92).
Importance of the Internship Within the first days after commencement of internship, there was meeting with the Vice president of the company and other management team members. There was orientation on the kind of work done within the company. This included familiarizing with main points of company’s services provided to customers on a daily basis. The organization deals with large population segment. The process involved a lot of desk work including data entry.
Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of commerce is involved in variety community programs which demands prior preparation. This requires thorough checking since there are possibilities of confusion caused by large group of customers invited for specific meetings. Such meetings include those of Women Businesses which deals with detailed management of schedules since most venues are within learning institutions.
There’s constant upgrading done within the systems for the purposes of updating current available customers the company is dealing with. To avoid cases on ghost members, the organization uses electronic systems during process on membership renewal. Analysis of results requires application of statistical programs.
The work involved updating some files of memberships as well as adding new files within database. Moreover, organization requires reorganized communications file within system databases. This is accompanied by drawing up-dates from articles and newspaper concerning chamber operations. Such information is considered important when it comes to making decisions from public point of view. All information follows organization protocol and structure since it has to reach the top management organ.
After dealing with membership up-grade, customers are constantly up-dated on company’s service provisions. Most of the work involves internet searching which assists in reinforcing proficiency in computer networking processes. Out of various searches fact sheets were obtained on annual basis concerning company operations. The fact sheets indicate trends within the labor market such as employment and employment rates per annum.
We will write a custom Report on Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of commerce specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rates on resource consumption per country per annum are calculated for accountability purposes. Included are rate of taxes levied on consumer basic needs as well as salaries. Fast Facts 2012 of Greater Wilkes-Barre, PA and it’s publication of the Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of business and industry are availed in the company’s website. Moreover, a reorganized communications file is done by data entry employees. Organization of the database also involves bio-data of various company top officials who are mainly used as referrals.
Part of the work involved sending letters to chamber customers and at the same time doing necessary up-grade. Moreover, there is making of invitation letters to Annual Dinner and sending specified loyal customers of Chamber. Besides sending letters, the company up-dates are sent to customers including successive events.
During event organization, guests are given thorough check and at the same time their names printed on labels for identification purposes. Such process is in line with criminology cause which basically involves dealing with criminal minds and those trying to breach rules of law.
Updating membership files assists in identifying unwanted and wanted customers from chamber’s database. Such process should be monitored closely based on reorganized communications file basically done within the databases. As discussed earlier meetings such as Chamber Women in business lunch takes place often.
This grants opportunity on familiarizing with gender issues which is of profound help when dealing with criminal cases. Free interaction involved during these meetings enables an individual to benefit much from expansive knowledge brought by individuals from different regional backgrounds. Such up-dates form crucial part of communication channels (Daley 201-214).
Evaluation Processes The programs undertaken by the Chamber involves investing resources in form of time, information technology for data collection and analysis, funding, work force and partnership as well as operation premises. There is always an expectation producing results in form of data and information.
This presents vital tool used for critical decision making within various institutions. Such information further influences changes in operational procedures within business institutions. The data generated from company’s database is used in supporting development of initiatives within required areas of operation (Chan and Lynn 57-87).
Evaluation Design Description This section intends to describe the flow of activities during evaluation process and determination of relationship existing between relevant entities. This model enables the program to focus on SMART objectives. This implies the objectives must be Specific (S), Measurable (M), Attainable (A), Realistic (R) and Time-bound (T). The model appears in form of tabulated information as follows.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of commerce by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Table 1: Activity Structure for the internship
Inputs Tasks Outputs (measures resulting from various tasks) Effects Evaluation For Example Funds, Work-force, Equipment and Information Technology Resources For example Data Collection, Analysis, Interpretation and Presentation Information from the respondents to questionnaires and interviews Detailed Analysis of data after collection The standard implications, which assist in conclusion, recommendation and critical decisions Organization Chart Greater Wilkes-Barre Chamber of Business and industry operates in a three tier framework as indicate in the chart below. The first tier reveals organization at international level which included customer orders, Customer support and care, as well as Personnel management. These positions are managed according to categories based on international markets. Such level of categorization assists the organization in commanding larger economies of scale.
Second tier has regional management offices dealing with customer orders and site customer care and support. Third tiers incorporate site specific customers dealing with specified line of business operations. Site managers are endowed with responsibility of providing prompt solutions to remote customers. In case of mismanagement and making decisions, responsibility is given to personnel managers at each tier.
Figure 1: Account Management Chart for Chamber
Works Cited Camardella, Mathew. “Effective Management of the Performance Appraisal Process”. Employment Relations Today, 30(2003): 103-107.
Adolf Hitler Biography Essay college essay help online
The birthplace of Hitler was Braunau. This was an insignificant town found in Austria. He was born to Alois Hitler, his father and Klara Hitler, his mother who was a third wife to Alois Hitler. Adolf Hitler was a very bright student. He did very well at primary school and seemed to have secured a strong foundation for a bright academic future as he grew.
At school, he had fame and pupils envied the qualities of leadership that they saw in him. Adolf was also religious to the extent that he thought and considered the possibility of him becoming a monk (Toland, 16).
In the secondary school, academic competition was tough for him. When he discovered that he could not excel in classwork, he stopped trying. Adolf Hitler became stubborn. He never listened to the counsel of his seniors who encouraged him to continue with education. His father, Alois was disturbed and disappointed by his son. He had thought that Hitler would emulate him and become a member of the Austrian military once he finished school (Nicholls, 23).
Everything about Hitler started changing. His fame with other students started to fade away as they started dismissing him as one of their leaders. He became bossy because he gave orders and spent most time with small pupils. He was into games that involved fighting, bullying, and harassing.
He only liked Leopold Potsch among other teachers. Potsch was Hitler’s history master. His teacher liked many people who lived in Upper Austria because he was a German nationalist. The teacher taught his students about the wars won by German in early 1870s. The chancellor of the German Empire, Otto von Bismarck, was one of Adolf Hitler’s early historical heroes. The other main interest he had in school was art. His father was shocked when Hitler told him that he wanted to pursue a course in art (Waters, 135).
At the age of fifteen, he was incompetent in academics, and his performance in exams was pathetic. He did not like the idea when he was told to repeat. He successfully persuaded his mother to drop out of school without a secondary education certificate. He had no vision because instead of feeling bad, he celebrated by drinking. Nonetheless, this experience was not satisfying, and he swore to refrain from drinking (Waters, 136).
On receiving the inheritance from his father’s will, he relocated to Vienna. He had dreams of studying art, but the dreams were shuttered down when the Vienna Academy of Art rejected his application for not having a school leaving certificate. He regretted the fact that he was unfocused (Jones, 24).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Adolf Hitler was unwilling to serve Austria. He instead volunteered for the German Army during the outbreak of the First World War. He regarded the German Army as the most superior to other European countries. Adolf Hitler could offer himself in dire situations and lead from the front. This character of Adolf captivated his seniors in the military ranks. During the First World War, he won five medals. However, despite the fact that he was decorated in the war, he only reached the rank of corporal (Weber, 323).
The war ended, and Hitler was posted in Munich, the capital of Bavaria. He opposed the leader of the Independent Socialist Party when he declared Bavaria a Socialist Republic. The German soldiers entered Munich and overthrew the BSR. Hitler was promoted to become a political officer after convincing the soldiers that he was against the party. He made political speeches and taught soldiers on matters concerning politics. This was a great start for Adolf Hitler to venture into politics (Weber, 325).
After a long involvement in politics, Hitler realized that he had skills as an orator, and this gave him confidence to challenge Anton Drexler, a leader of the Nazi Party. He swiftly managed to become the new leader. Hitler was capable of instigating hatred and anger amongst his followers.
In this case, he was could influence them to engage in violence. He was imprisoned for beating a rival politician. Hitler was selfish and greedy. This is portrayed when he promised to occupy Russian land if he won. In his mission to overthrow the government, he took three top commandants into a separate room and forcefully made them to collaborate with him. This happened because he was to be the next new leader of Germany. He used force to get what he wanted without caring for others (Weber, 325).
He was arrested for another year, and upon his release, he pretended not to be committed to politics. He took most of his time travelling and touring different places in Germany. His party Nazi gradually grew through the efforts he put into a campaign for power. He looked determined to take over the leadership of Germany. Hitler avoided being asked to explain how he would improve the German economy (Nicholls, 80).
After being elected as the chancellor of Germany, Hitler developed a dictatorial character. He also ordered all media that supported the other parties to be closed during the general elections in 1933. In spite of all those means to shutter the other parties, his party still did not win (Nicholls, 80).
When Hitler took control of power in Germany, he used a divide and rule method due to the fear of being overthrown. He knew he was a dictator. He did so much for German, but this did not outdo the damage he had caused. He was a racist and did not mince his words of hatred towards other races. For instance, in Mein Kampf, he made it clear that he hated the Jewish race. Being an opportunist, Hitler tried to fight the nations that surrounded it.
We will write a custom Essay on Adolf Hitler Biography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He expanded the size of Germany and tried to take control of Europe. There is a time when he felt ill, but this could not stop his army. He was so inhuman that he used to laugh whenever he was told about the deaths of his soldiers at war. His reign came to an end when the U.S., the Soviet Union, and Britain combined forces to fight back leading to his overthrow. When he heard that the Soviet troops had entered Germany, he decided to commit suicide to prevent them from humiliating him (Nicholls, 82).
Adolf Hitler could have overcome this humiliation if he had good qualities of leadership. A good leader should know how to communicate. Despite the fact that Hitler was a good orator, he was not a good listener. He never listened to any advice especially when his army was at war. Even when things were hard for them, he commanded them to fight to the death. This shows that he never recognized the value of others. Being an opportunist, he used them as a bridge to his success (Iorg, 28).
A good leader should also be truthful and honest. Adolf lied to his mother that he had joined an art school. At one time while at war, Hitler was shot and ran into hiding. However, he lied that he had rushed a shot boy to the hospital. If he had a focused mind, Adolf would not have dropped from school.
This made him appear as an incompetent leader. Hitler escaped from responsibilities. For example, he avoided explaining how he would raise the economy of Germany. A good leader should have a vision. With a positive attitude towards his nation, he would have realized the harm he had caused the people he led (Iorg, 30).
If Hitler was a respectable leader, he would not have had an affair with his niece. Being a family man would have helped him from possessing bad characters such as dictatorship and being disrespectful. By being approachable, accessible and accountable to all, he would not have hate given speech against the Jews.
The Jews were of great importance to Germany. An intelligent leader always makes wise decisions and thinks deeply before judging or acting. Adolf killed one of his allies after being fed with false propaganda by other “supportive friends” who were against the victim. He should have used tactics to know whether they were lying. Adolf Hitler failed because he did not possess the qualities of a good leader (Iorg, 32). A leader of the people by the people and with the people should have strong and good characteristics.
Works Cited Iorg, Jeff. The Character of Leadership: Nine Qualities That Define Great Leaders. Nashville, Tenn: B
The Ethnic Issues of the Hispanic American People Essay college essay help: college essay help
The article ‘Hispanic Americans’ covers the ethnic issues of the Hispanic American people. In the article, it is evident that the population of people from the Hispanic American origin has risen over the years, and currently, they contribute to approximately fourteen percent of the entire population of the United States. There are several sub-groups of people from the Hispanic American origin, and for that reason, the author concentrated on attributes of three principal groups, which include Mexican Americans, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans.
Over the years, the United States census has used different names to describe people from Hispanic American origin. However, for the last two decades, the term Hispanic has been used to refer to the ethnic community. Recently, the term Latino has been applied in reference to various groups within the group of the Hispanic Americans. Some studies have revealed that the Hispanic Americans appreciate identifying themselves by their original community.
The article clearly reveals the wider ethnic group of Hispanic Americans by indicating the various groups that make up the community. It also highlights the manner in which the group migrated to American, and their racial status in the American society. At the same time, the article points out how Mexican Americans, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans developed as minority groups in the United States.
Based on the article, it is possible to access information concerning demographic trends of the Hispanic Americans in the United States between 1990 and 2000. The information provided specify regions where the Latinos inhabit in the United States. At the same time, an analysis of the status of the Latinos within the entire class system of society is reflected.
The analysis involved a study of the Latino socioeconomic status in the regions where they mostly occupy using income, wealth, and poverty as the main parameters. To create a clear picture, the author chose to compare their status with that of other ethnic groups such as the whites and African Americans. In the analysis, the article points out factors that contribute to the socioeconomic status of the Latinos in the American society.
The author posits that some of the factors that contribute to the level of socioeconomic status of the Hispanic Americans in the society include discrimination, and education. In addition, it is clear that the Cubans occupy a better socioeconomic position compared to the other Hispanic ethnic groups. From the time of their migration, the Cubans, unlike other Latino groups, came with a class background that was markedly different from the rest of the sub-groups.
They were also equipped with occupational skills that enabled them to adapt easily to the society’s mainstream economy. Unlike the Puerto Ricans and the Mexicans, the Cubans immigrated into the United States when they were already occupationally successful and well educated. Their educations levels and occupational skills were instrumental in helping them gain a rapid upward mobility in the society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The article also illuminates on the position occupied by the Latinos in the corporate world and the political sphere. Additionally, it undertakes to reveal the prejudice and discrimination associated with the minority group in the United States. However, the level of prejudice and racial discrimination is less than the one experienced by African Americans.
From the article, it is clear that the Latinos faced the problem mainly because of their ‘in-between’ minority status. Unlike the African Americans, the Latinos within the United States have maintained their ethnic traits, particularly the Spanish language. Lastly, one notable factor that has contributed to retention of their original ethnic traits is the proximity to their country of origin.
Allegory of the Cave Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Plato’s cave represents human knowledge “showing the intellectual journey to truth as a gradual and arduous process”.He likens people with prisoners in a cave whose only perception of realism is a play of shadows spread on a wall that faces them. Everyone has a role to play in bringing change to his/her life.
One has to make a decision of leaving the thoughts that prevent them from perceiving the world from a broad perspective. Only then can they get an understanding of the real world. Plato sums this in four stages. The first stage includes forming an attitude that is based on the reality’s outward appearance constituted by sights and sounds of experience though it takes a while before the human mind distinguishes reality.
The second stage is the ability to recognize the distinction between a deceptive entity of knowledge and the real ones. In this case, the shadows of the carving walls and the true carvings. The use of puppeteers by Plato inside the cave and things outside indicate that empirical discoveries never penetrate the ideal realm of truth thus calling for the need to move outside the cave. The third stage is where people get outside the cave into the sun that tends to cause their blindness.
This sun indicates the light of truth thus causing reality to be foreign to the familiar. This makes it hard to understand the nature of reality that happens to be ideal and not material as Plato later realized. Accordingly, practice and learning are key ingredients for realization of the true form of reality. The fourth stage is where one acknowledges the intellectual light source. Plato realized that the Good does elucidate concepts that help us to understand truth.
The prisoner knew that holding his head high and standing on his dignity would signify victory as far as addressing the masses was concerned. Plato maintains this concept by saying that it is only those that can pull off enlightenment that ought to be leaders of the rest. The prisoner is a leader because he has achieved enlightenment over time and he is well able to lead the rest. He did not resist enlightenment as others did but rather embraced it with open arms.
The allegory of the cave can be compared with Breyten’s ‘You Screws’ which holds that people will always drag you to the pit immediately they realize that the light has finally shone upon you. Breyten having been a prisoner for while who never let his form of imprisonment deter him from advancing in knowledge, is addressing the screws who turned up in large numbers to listen to him as a way of gaining knowledge.
He says that he does not regret much of having been shattered from the world but “I normally resent all attempts at dragging me back particularly when they come from the sentimentally deprived or the vicarious heart-eaters and self shitters who wallow in victimization and heroism by proxy”.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ordinary folks that have not been enlightened will always misunderstand them that have the intellectual insight. The individual in the Plato at last understands his environment and tenaciously overcomes the challenges experienced in the cave, in this case being its mental incapacitation, through a long and tortuous intellectual journey.
In conclusion, everyone needs to change their thoughts and attitudes to be able to live a worthy life. There is nothing for the free or the slaves since all have opportunities even if they are bloated. Mental imprisonment is definitely the worst situation in life as far as enlightenment is concerned.
References Breyten, Breytenbach. “You Screws.” Harper’s Magazine, Feb. 2007.
Plato, Allan. ‘The Allegory of the Cave’, The Republic of Plato. New York: Basic Books, 1968.
Ralkowski, Mark. Heidegger’s Platonism. London, GBR: Continuum International Publishing, 2009.
Footnotes Alan Plato, ‘The Allegory of the Cave’, The Republic of Plato, ed. (New York: Basic Books, 1968), 134.
Mark Ralkowski, Heidegger’s Platonism, (London, GBR: Continuum International Publishing, 2009), 102.
Mark Ralkowski, Heidegger’s Platonism, (London, GBR: Continuum International Publishing, 2009), 113.
Breytenbach Breyten, “You Screws,” Harper’s Magazine February, 2007, 15.
Naming Middle East: Outline Research Paper online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Preservation of the Middle East Identity
Relationship with the Rest of Asia
Effect of Name Change on the Economy
Introduction Geographically, Middle East is in West Asia. People have traditionally used the term ‘West Asia’ to differentiate the region with the Eastern part of Asia. However, ethnically, the Middle East is different from other parts of Asia because of its high Arab population.
From this notable difference, the Middle East has defined its identity from the rest of the Asian continent. Nonetheless, there are calls to rename Middle East as West Asia because of its significance in the Asian continent, and its geographic position in the same region (Telhami, 2002).
This paper opposes this view by proposing three reasons for the preservation of the Middle East name. First, the extension of Middle East into Asia and Africa shows that Middle East is not exclusively part of the Asian peninsular. Secondly, this paper suggests that Middle East has its unique identity, which differentiates the region from other parts of Asia, like China or India. Therefore, if Middle East is renamed West Asia, the region may lose its identity.
Lastly, this paper acknowledges that the social and economic relation between Middle East and the rest of Asia is strong, but this relationship is insufficient to warrant the renaming of Middle East as West Asia. Comprehensively, there are significant geographic, social, political, and economic differences between Middle East and the rest of Asia, which suggest the preservation of the Middle East name.
Geographic Limitation Traditionally, the Middle East comprises of many countries that stretch across several parts of North Africa and West Asia. Therefore, besides the common Middle East countries such as Jordan, Kuwait, and Lebanon (located in West Asia), there are other traditional Middle East countries such as Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya, which are located in Northern Africa.
Therefore, the distributions of Middle East countries stretch across two continents. It would therefore be incorrect to rename Middle East as West Asia because North Africa is also part of the Middle East. Moreover, Africa is an independent continent that has its geographic boundaries, which is independent of Asia. The conception of the ‘West Asia’ name is therefore narrow because it fails to capture the full scope of the Middle East region.
Preservation of the Middle East Identity Middle East has a special identity that differentiates the region from other parts of the world. Its identity not only cuts across its social and political spheres, but also its geographic and economic makeup. For example, Middle Eastern people dress differently from other countries around the world (not only in Asia).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, women wear the Niqab as a respectable formal wear in the region (Omair, 2009, p. 412). Other parts of Asia (such as India) adopt a different style of clothing. Middle East architecture is also different from other parts of Asia. For example, Middle East architecture greatly differs from Chinese architecture.
These differences show the varied identities of Middle Eastern people and the rest of the Asian continent. These differences are deeper while analyzing religion, lifestyle, and politics. Therefore, after considering the significant differences between these two regions, it is crucial to preserve the Middle East identity. It is also incorrect to change the name of Middle East to west Asia.
Relationship with the Rest of Asia Molavi (2011) says that the trade between the Arab world (GCC countries) and the rest of Asia supersedes the level of trade in the Middle East region. Molavi (2011) estimates the trade between Asia and the rest of the Middle East to peak during 2017 (observers estimate that Asia will be Middle East’s biggest trading partner).
To this extent, some people have voiced their suggestions to rename Middle East as West Asia. However, the strong trade relation between Middle East and the rest of Asia does not provide sufficient grounds to warrant a name change. Comparatively, many other regions around the world have strong trade relations, but they do not consider a name change because of their strong trade ties.
For example, there is an increased volume of trade between China and America. In fact, billions of dollars in trade revolve between the two countries alone (Morris, 2001). The strong trade relation between China and America has however not warranted a name change from either of the two trading partners. Therefore, it is incorrect to claim a name change for Middle East, just because it shares a cordial trade relationship with the rest of Asia.
Effect of Name Change on the Economy From the growth of globalization, regional economic dynamics spread fast among different countries. Therefore, if Middle East changes its name to West Asia, it may suffer the same economic fortunes as the rest of the continent. For example, developed countries allocate aid to regions and continents around the globe. A name change would therefore mean that Middle East has to share the same aid as Asia. This would undermine its economic prospects.
Conclusion The effect of a name change on the Middle East would be profound. Traditionally, the world has understood Middle East as a region with unique economic, social, and political dynamics. This paper identifies that these unique attributes of the region may disappear with a name change.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Naming Middle East: Outline specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, Middle East is slowly making a name for itself as a global economic powerhouse. This trend has seen Middle East develop close ties with the rest of Asia. However, if the region loses its identity, it may lose its economic dominance in regional trade. Lastly, it makes no sense renaming Middle East as West Asia, while a large portion of the region is not even in Asia. Comprehensively, these dynamics show that Middle East should preserve its identity.
References Molavi, A. (2011). ‘Middle East’ Is Pulled Towards Asia By Economics And Affinity. Retrieved from https://www.thenational.ae/middle-east-is-pulled-towards-asia-by-economics-and-affinity-1.404925
Morris, D. (2001). China: The Bitter Roots Of Foreign Trade Through The Eyes Of Asian Culture. Journal of Global Competitiveness, 11(2), 25 – 38.
Omair, K. (2009). Arab women managers and identity formation through clothing. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 24(6), 412 – 431.
Telhami, S. (2002). Identity and Foreign Policy in the Middle East. New York: Cornell University Press.
Role of Each Mode of Transport Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
According to Anderson (1999), transport is the movement of people, goods, and services from one location to another. Effective transport systems play a critical role in achieving the economic and social needs of a given society. Air, land, and water are the most common modes of transportation in the United States of America and many other nations in the world. Air transport is usually facilitated by aircrafts. Land transport on the other hand is facilitated by rail and road.
Water transport occurs on seas, lakes, rivers/canals and so on. Transport in general plays a significant role in developing and sustaining economic, demographic, and political factors of a given community and the world at large (Frankel, 2011). Effective modes of transport facilitate the expansion of town and cities by enhancing the movement of people as well as goods and services. Transport mechanisms also assist in the spread of individuals resulting in growth and development.
In the United States of America, roads are the most common modes of transportation accounting for approximately 68% of the national demographics (Frankel, 2011). Interstate highway systems have been built to facilitate the movement of people within a given locality or from one state to another.
In most parts of the country, people own personal vehicles. However, in urban centers where there is massive traffic congestion, transport is facilitated by mass transit and railways transport. Unlike in the 1940s, railway transport system in the USA mainly consists of freight train shipment (Frankel, 2011).
The use of passage trains has greatly reduced as a result of changes in economic needs as well as the introduction o faster and more reliable transportation systems such as bus shuttles, personal vehicles and airplanes. However, railway transport in USA accounts for 32% of the national demographics (Frankel, 2011).
As of 2004, the USA has been ranked 17th in the world as the nation with the busiest airports. Over the years, there has been a significant increase in air transport in USA especially between states. Water transport in the United States is regarded as the cheapest mode of transport. However, due to lack of efficient water ways, it is the least common mode of transport.
Development of Transport Modes In the USA, rail transport developed as a result of the presence of a wide spread railroad network that covered most parts of the USA. Transforming from early passenger cars that were common during the 19th century to high speed commuter trains, the efficiency of rail transport highly increased due to technological advancements (Garrison
Critical Evaluation of Synchrony and Diachrony Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu
The article covers language aspects that reveal how multilingual experts have progressively become acquainted with the intricate interdependency between synchrony and diachrony. It revisits the ideas of De Saussure and those of his critics. The writer attempts to expose divergent view of the experts with the aim of unveiling the meaning of synchrony and diachrony.
The writer portrays De Saussure’s critics as ignorant on the topic. He/she reveals Jakobsons’ argument that langue cannot be identical with statistics and that langue is immutable. The writer also reports the opinion of Theses and Jakobsons that langue cannot be changed unconsciously. The article, however, fails to provide evidence to support these ideas. This helps the writer to achieve his/her objective.
The article also covers Trnka’s argument that the distinction between synchrony and diachronic is insignificant. It provides facts that disapprove Trnka’s idea. The author asserts that it is almost impossible to trace and identify anyone else from the school of Prague.
Another critical school of thought is of the view that diachrony has a system and a structure. Theses says that De Saussure was wrong to claim that there is insurmountable barrier between langue and parole. This, according to Theses, is because there are mixed elements in the langue.
On the other hand, the article reveals the strong elements in De Saussure’s argument. It cites page 108 of De Saussure’s work that says langue is a heritage of the preceding time. He says that time guarantees the continuity of the langue. It is evident that De Saussure suggested that several conditions influence langue balance.
Moreover, he records that the effects of transformation are counter-balanced by analogy. In addition, acco0rding to the article, De Saussure says that there are phenomena phonetically connected with distinctive conditions. The writer therefore succeeds in dismissing the opinion of the critics.
Additionally, it records that De Saussure said langue change might occur subject to certain conditions. He does not refer to accidental or blind changes, as reported by critics. The article provides that De Saussure believes synchrony and diachrony are independent of each other, due to a different point of view.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Regarding consciousness of change, it is apparent that De Saussure stressed that literary language does not develop naturally. This points out at Jakobson’s lack of information.
The idea of state of langue according to De Saussure is that synchrony and diachrony has a state of langue and a phase of evolution. However, minimum changes may occur after some duration. The writer records some human weaknesses of De Saussure. For example, he records De Saussure’s admission that he did not know the causes of change in langue. The admission makes the article real and trustable. It depicts practical human weakness.
Evidently, the critics have no evidence to back their arguments up. This makes the article appropriate for supporting the ideas of de Saussure. The article is even more helpful because it provides the accurate position of De Saussure making comparison of the varied ideas easy.
Despite the writer’s success in supporting De Saussure, his/her article has weaknesses. First, the article says that De Saussure’s critics are completely ignorant. In deed, since, he/she agrees that further researcher is necessary, dismissing unconfirmed ideas is wrong. Next, the writer concludes by supporting De Saussure. The conclusion may make critics say that he /she is partisan.
Nevertheless, after reading the article, it is comprehensible that misconception is the leading cause of criticism of De Saussure’s work. The writer successfully portrays the critics as unable to identify traces and elements of the past that are found in language. He/she communicates that language is always developing, unraveled, fickle, and unbalanced in detail at the edges. In addition, the writer rightly advocates for further research to solve the differences in opinion.
Functions of Management Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Fayol’s Four Functions of Management
Introduction Management is the process in which a person or a group of people run or control things or people. Management is accomplished using the set guidelines and the limited resources that are availed to achieve the established goals and objectives. Management can be applied in organizations, homes, or other social settings. Management in an organization focuses on human resource, capital, and other resources towards the attainment of a set goal (Wren, Bedeian and Breeze, 2002, p. 907).
There are different levels of management including the top level management, middle level management, and first level or low level management. There have been various people from ancient times who have attempted to study management. Their focus has been on how the aspect of management should be employed, its functions, the impacts on the overall performance of an organization, and how it can be improved for better results and effectiveness (Pryor and Taneja, 2010, p. 590).
One of the first scholars to study management and advance its functions and principles was the Frenchman Henri Fayol. Fayol was born in 1841, and he was a director at a coal mine in France. He initially identified five functions of management. He described functions of management as those things that proper management helps to attain (McLean, 2011, p. 32).
The five initial functions were planning, controlling, leading, organizing, and staffing. However, authors of management books have combined them into four functions, which are planning, organizing, leading and controlling (Pryor and Taneja, 2010, p. 589).
In this essay, the focus is on the Commonwealth Bank of Australia, and how it employs the functions of management and the impact to the organization. The Commonwealth Bank of Australia was founded in 1911 under an Act of parliament. The bank started its business in 1912.
Its main functions are to carry out general banking services and savings for the Australian people. Currently, the bank has over 800,000 shareholders and has employed about 52,000 employees. It was owned by the Australian government until 1991 when it was listed publicly. This paper looks at each function of management, and how they have been used in the bank and the implications.
Fayol’s Four Functions of Management Planning is the act of setting goals and objectives and coming up with ways of achieving them given the limited resources of time, human resource, and capital among others in order to meet the goals effectively. It is a futuristic act done to try and foresee how a combination of different activities instigates certain results.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is the process that determines who does what, what resources to employ, and when to do what (Norman and Media, 2012). Planning at the Commonwealth Bank of Australia is done at the beginning of every financial year. This plan is a long term plan that sets to meet objectives of profit maximization, increase of customer base, market share, and capital base.
However, there are other short term plans that are set quarterly in order to meet the long term goals. The planning is also done at the branch level in each of the over 1000 branches of the bank (Cassidy, 2006, p. 69). All these plans are set to support the main plan of the bank. What differs is the approach and strategies that each branch employs. Different managers at different managerial levels also plan based on the people they manage. This is in regard to how they can meet the goals and objectives (McNamara, 2009, p. 65).
The unique thing about planning at the Commonwealth Bank of Australia is that this function of management involves the people that are being managed. Some of the strategies that the bank sets out in the planning stage are training of staff and other personnel. The training equips the staff to carry out tasks effectively as they try to meet goals. Another strategy used by the bank is the establishment of a follow up system. In this case, when they meet the quarterly target, they are able to plan the next target.
Organization comes after planning. It is the process by which available resources are combined and synchronized in order to meet goals and objectives. The resources combined include human resources, finance, raw materials and physical resources. Planning includes determining the proportions of each resource to be used in meeting goals. With the organization function, roles and responsibilities are clearly defined (Cassidy and Kreitner, 2009, p. 126).
At the Commonwealth Bank, organization entails identifying the activities that have to be performed with regard to certain goals such as ensuring sales are made, quality control, accounts preparation, and accounts opening among others. All these activities are then grouped into different units. The bank also combines related activities into departments. This is to ensure easy flow of information between these related units and coordination.
The bank also assigns an authority to each department so that there is a hierarchy. The top level management deals with policy formulation. They include the chief executive officer and managing director Ian Narev, the different group executives of financial services, corporate affairs, and human resource among others.
The middle level deals with the supervision of their respective departments includes branch managers while the lower level management deals with the supervision of foremen. Finally, the bank ensures a clear outline between any level of authority and the responsibility that comes with it. The management also conducts weekly meetings at different levels as part of organizing (Cassidy, 2006, p. 71).
We will write a custom Essay on Functions of Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third function is leading, which some authors also refer to as commanding. Leadership/commanding is the process of providing guidance to the people in an organization. It involves motivating members of staff, inspiring them, and providing guidance for them. It involves influencing and providing direction for the behaviour of personnel towards achievement of goals and objectives (Mirescu and Dragomir. 2008, p. 3030).
Leadership also involves providing future visions for a group of people. Management should have goals that are clear, commitment, and relevant skills in order to implement the leadership function effectively. Effective communication is also a quality of good leadership (Breeze, 1995, p. 40). At the Commonwealth Bank leadership is key in its operations. The members of the executive council are the first group of leaders. Others include the branch managers and group leaders of the sales teams (Cassidy, 2006, p. 68).
Leadership qualities are enhanced through regular leadership workshops. The bank’s leadership emphasizes on the need to solve conflicts as soon as they arise. The bank also comes up with different incentives for different employees as it recognizes people respond differently to different motivators. Where the conduct of an employee is in question, the employee is informed of the consequences on performance. Leadership at the bank emphasizes on teamwork (Cassidy and Kreitner, 2009, p. 132).
The last of Fayol’s functions is controlling. Controlling involves ensuring all efforts of the organization and resources are directed solely at the set goals and objectives. It entails measuring actual performs to the set standards at the planning stage. At this stage, the management identifies errors or setbacks and takes appropriate action (Norman and Media, 2012). The Commonwealth Bank targets are set on a daily basis and compared all through the day.
At the end of each working day, tracking sheets are taken, and weekly statistics are evaluated. In case of any problems or delays in meeting the objectives, plans such as coaching and some role play for employees who are not performing as expected are implemented. In the case where improvement is still not seen, then a three month performance improvement plan is enforced. This is meant to improve performance of employees (Cassidy and Kreitner, 2009, p. 148). This exhibits a wholesome evaluation process by the bank.
Conclusion The Commonwealth Bank applies the traditional Fayol’s functions of management. In this way, the bank enjoys the benefits of planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Through planning, the bank reduces uncertainties and risks that come with the banking industry. Planning also boosts employee morale. The bank is one of the most established banks in Australia. It has low employee turnover as the employees continue to increase each year due to good leadership and management.
Fayol’s functions of management are an important aspect of management today. His functions and principles are relevant due to their effectiveness and the results they provide. Over the years, other authors, theorists and scholars have adapted and enhanced these principles. The principles provide a detailed system of running an organization successfully.
Bibliography Breeze, John D. 1995. “Henri Fayol’s centre for administrative studies.” Journal of Management History 1 (3): 37-62.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Functions of Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Cassidy, Carlene, and Robert Kreitner. 2009. Supervision: setting people up for success. Mason, OH: South-Western, Cengage Learning.
Cassidy, Julie. 2006. Concise corporations law. Annandale, N.S.W.: Federation Press.
McLean, Jacqueline. 2011. “Fayol – standing the test of time.” Manager: British Journal of Administrative Management. 74: 32-33.
McNamara, Daniel E. 2009. “From Fayol’s Mechanistic To Today’s Organic Functions Of Management.” American Journal of Business Education 2 (1): 63-78.
Mirescu, Cristina and Gheorghe Dragomir. 2008. “Particularities of the Managerial Functions in the Small and Middle Enterprises.” Annals of the University of Craiova, Economic Sciences Series 6 (36): 3029-3035.
Norman, Leyla and Demand Media. 2012. What Are the Four Basic Functions That Make Up the Management Process? https://smallbusiness.chron.com/four-basic-functions-make-up-management-process-23852.html
Pryor, Mildred Golden and Sonia Taneja. 2010. “Henri Fayol, practitioner and theoretician – revered and reviled”. Journal of Management History 16 (4): 489 – 503.
Wren, Daniel A., Arthur G. Bedeian and John D. Breeze. 2002. “The foundations of Henri Fayol’s administrative theory.” Management Decision 40 (9): 906-918.
Venture Capital in JTB Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Executive Summary
The Advisory Team
Exit Analysis and Deal history
Executive Summary Venture Capital is a type of financial capital given to early stages of growth for start-up companies. It is always a high-risk fund with a high-risk potential. The fund owns equity in the company with a business model. The stages of the fund are normally six. Seed money is the first stage and entails low-level financing required for proving new ideas. Crowd funding was developed as an alternative to seed money.
Start-up funding is another stage of funding and goes to marketing and product development needed by early stage firms. Growth funds are for early sales and manufacturing. In the next stage, funds are given to companies that are already making sales but have not experienced the returns on profits. This is the working capital. The last stage is the exit venture. This fund goes to the firm that wants to go public.
Jade’s Toy Box (JTB) is the company of interest in this investment. This is a New York City based company.It specializes in the manufacture and sell of educational theme based children toys and books that are Eco-friendly.
They design their products to assure parents of the safety of their children. JTB aims to offer parents with the tools and resources they need to spark a lifetime love of learning in their children. In an effort to align the company goals with the market dynamics, the company relies heavily on the experience and ability of the faces behind it.
Angela Ledoux for instance worked as a picture editor for TIME, a kid’s magazine before starting this company. Her knowledge ranges from having a master degree in art along other children related careers. Robby Ledoux has however, learned child entertainment, worked for the creative talented idea company, and is involved in picture animation apart from being a music composer.
Market opportunity Jade’s ToyBox is based in New York City. However, it has spread its wings and now works in major cities. The cities include Boston, and Chicago. The company has expanded its marketing capacity by introducing free shipping to customer destinations irrespective of where the customer lives.
JTB uses the US postal services to ship its products. This idea has helped the company to increase its customer base broadly. With increased technology, the company engages in online marketing and sales. Clients from across the world can get access to a range of products available. The company understands that some parents are very busy. Following on the same, working mums can give their needs and the firm delivers the right products to them. Toys of high quality for parents in class are availed to them at the right prices.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The response from the customers over a long period has been overwhelming. This has been the key behind JTB’s expansion. Customers whose responses have been received are positive with all of them indicating satisfaction. Working mums now agree that JTB is the link they were missing. The management has really perfected delivery of goods. Customer satisfaction tops the priority list among the company’s employees. Whereas the delivery is fast, customers do have sixty days to respond and return the goods that do not satisfy them.
This system builds a customer base that is very important to an investor. The strategy put forward by the management and outlined above serve to proof to an investor that such a company is worth putting money. There is an increase in competition over products in the manufacturing industry.
The competition also comes from the media industry. Televisions now come with programs that compete for the interest of the children. The performance of the toy industry as whole in the United States has increased. Major improvement has been in the export department. Competition is likely to grow as we head into the future.
Marketing Strategy With the increase in competition, JTB has revolutionized its sales strategy. The policy on marketing is now customer centered. The company targets children. Six gift boxes are designed for children. However, it creates boxes specific to the desires of the children. Parents are allowed to ask for specific designs for their children and they are delivered.
The boxes in this category have dolls, books and other products that represent different cultural heritage. In this case, customers create the gift boxes with individual items for their children. For instance, the company offers this package at $ 120 for five boxes.
All the company products are available online. This gives the customer ample time to sample the goods from anywhere, whether in the office, at home or even when traveling. This saves customers the burden of traveling to shops and stores to go and window shop. Working mums do not have this time. Customers make payments from anywhere, as delivery is free of charge. Delivery is within seventy-two hours.
This has been positive to the company as it has a strong customer base. Such is a type of company worth investing in their equities. The customer base assures potential investors of the continuity of the business.
We will write a custom Essay on Venture Capital in JTB specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The products Jade’s ToyBox Company offers a variety of products, which target the children. Jade’s concept box has funny, educational, and Eco-friendly books. Green Bambino is one such product. It has a starter library for parents and the baby with wood ABC blocks that can be replenished, rubber duck, letterpress baby update, and a fair trade Yoyo animal. The boxes also have games for teaching important themes and concepts.
The areas that are covered include art, health, music, and sustainable architecture among others. The products are safe to the children and devoid of phthalates, lead, and BPA, which are harmful to children. Other services offered include the green safe children parties. These parties are outdoor services. This diversification of products suits all the people of different religions, economic status, and social backgrounds.
The Advisory Team Jade’s ToyBox Company has the advisory team led by Angelique Ledoux. Her experience, expert knowledge, and style of management leave no loopholes in the company’s delivery of services. With two master degrees in art and bachelors’ degree in the same field, Angelique understands what the children need. She leads the homework assignment for the other staff members in coming up with the eco-friendly products.
Having edited a kid’s magazine before, her ability is relevant in the designs. Robby Ledoux is another member of the advisory board. He has a lot of knowledge in child entertainment, he worked for a company that specializes in creative children products, and he is a music composer. A company with this type of leadership steers the business in the right direction and is ideal for an investor.
Exit Analysis and Deal history Jade’s ToyBox is a private company with a broad capital base. With such a wide market that covers major cities in the US, its financial stability is assured. The company plans to increase its export capacity to cover North America, United Kingdom, Asia, and Africa. This will widen its customer base and add to the sustainability of the business.
The second Hypothesis: The presence of immigrant workers is a positive force and benefits the U.S. economy Research Paper essay help online free
Source of data – United States Census Bureau 2012
The economy of the United States grew over the last ten decades due to the impact of the immigrants in the labor industry. As a group providing cheap labor and specialized skills, immigrants’ contribution to the economy of the United States has doubled in the last ten years.
In fact, as indicated in the above graph, the number of immigrants within the civil labor force reached 23.1 million. Reflectively, this number represents 16.4 percent of the total labor force as of the year 2010. Despite constituting 13% of the total population, immigrants’ contribution in the growth of the United States economy has been seen in the agricultural, construction, housing, health care, real estate, education services, and mining and food services industries. Reflectively, these industries are the backbone of the American economy.
As a matter of fact, at present, the immigrants in agricultural and mining industries have surpassed the 30% mark as provider of labor in these labor intensive spheres of production. Besides, the census results indicate that immigrants have become a driving force in the labor market for high-skilled workers in the field of information technology. Within this technical field, immigrants constitute 23% of the civilians employed.
Moreover, immigrants also supply labor in large proportions in industries that require mass low-skilled employees. From 1970 to 2010, it is apparent that the contribution of the immigrants in the labor force, thus the economy of the United States has grown steadily. As the values indicated in the graph show a steady rise in the percentage of immigrant workers in the United States economy from 4.9% in 1970 to 16.4% in 2010. Despite being only 12.9 percent of the total population, they represent 16% of the total labor force.
Thus, as indicated in the above statistic graph, the presence of immigrant workers is a positive force and benefits the U.S. economy since immigrants possess skills that could enhance the U.S. labor market. Specifically, their contribution is noted in the agricultural, mining, IT, construction, and manufacturing industries which require special skills that these immigrants posses.
Relationship between median income and foreign birth The graph below shows the relationship between median income and foreign birth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Explanation The graph above shows a cluster diagram of median income and foreign birth. A straight line can be drawn from the cluster diagrams. The straight line (upward sloping) in the diagram implies a positive relationship between median income and the rate of increase of foreign birth that is, an increase in foreign birth leads to an increase in median income. Further, from the graph we can deduce that immigration has significantly increased the presence of foreign born workers in the United States as shown by the increase from 0.0% to 45.0%.
Various studies have been carried out to show the effect of immigrants on the U.S economy. Most of the studies focus on the effects of immigrants on employment, wage rate, total productivity and overall impact on the US economy. These studies give varying results. Some indicate that immigrants cause a negative impact while others shows that immigration has a positive impact on the US economy.
For instance, some stories indicate that immigrants compete for job opportunities with the native. Various economists who have analyzed the labor market in the US reveal that immigrants have no large effects on the US employment and wages of the US natives.
A recent study conducted by the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco revealed that “immigrants expand the economy’s productive capacity by stimulating investment and promoting specialization thus producing efficiency gains and boosts income per worker” (Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco 1).
In addition, the study showed that there is no significant effect of immigration on net job growth for US born to work in the long run and the short run. The study further revealed the economy has taken in the immigrants and the foreign born by growing job opportunities rather than putting out of place employees in the US. Further, presence of immigrants increases availability of cheap labor in the country.
This encourages business to expand their capital expenditure. The net effect is an increase in output per worker. This effect of increase productivity and thus increase in income is felt in the long run because the firms have ample time to adjust their scale of production (Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco 1)
It is evident that increase in immigrant and foreign born results to increase in productivity in the economy. Increased productivity implies an increase in household median income. It also implies increased gross domestic product of the country and increased per capita income. This relates to the second hypothesis of the study which states that the presence of immigrant workers is a positive force and benefits the U.S. economy. Immigrants possess skills that could enhance the U.S. labor market.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The second Hypothesis: The presence of immigrant workers is a positive force and benefits the U.S. economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco 2010, The Effect of Immigrants on U.S. Employment and Productivity. Web.
United States Census Bureau 2012, Graphs. Web.
The Unknown Citizen Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
The foremost reason why I think W.H. Auden’s poem The Unknown Citizen represents a particularly high literary value is that themes and motifs, explored in it, reflect the discursive realities of a modern living. At their turn, these realities are being concerned with the process of people growing increasingly disfranchised from their sense of self-identity.
This, however, causes them to experience the emotionally disturbing sensation of an existentialist ‘anonymousness’. In my paper, I will aim to explore the validity of this suggestion at length.
When readers get to be exposed to The Unknown Citizen for the first time, many of them end up experiencing the sensation of a cognitive dissonance. This is because, even though the name of this poem implies the lack of a factual information about the citizen in question, the poem’s actual body contains a detailed description of what kind of a man the concerned individual was:
“He worked in a factory and never got fired,
But satisfied his employers, Fudge Motors Inc…
And had everything necessary to the Modern Man,
A phonograph, a radio, a car and a frigidaire…
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He was married and added five children to the population” (Auden par. 1).
Nevertheless, after having read the poem, they begin to realize the actual rationale that prompted Auden to name his poetic masterpiece, in the way he did. Apparently, the author wanted to advance the idea that our possession of the statistical data about a particular deceased individual, does not provide us with an insight as to what were the qualitative aspects of his or her stance in life.
This is the reason why, even after having found out about the ‘unknown citizen’ just about everything they could, readers usually do not get closer to understanding what accounted for his actual individuality:
“Was he free? Was he happy? The question is absurd: Had anything been wrong, we should certainly have heard” (par. 1).
Hence, the philosophical implication of Auden’s poem – despite the fact that in today’s world people can well enjoy a number of life-comforts (due to their ability to afford buying technological gadgets), they nevertheless remain ‘anonymous, in the existentialist sense of this word. This simply could not be otherwise, because nowadays, it is specifically people’s willingness to suppress their individuality, while leading thoroughly conventional lifestyles, which defines their chances of securing well-paid jobs and attaining a social prominence.
However, the same willingness, on these people’s part, makes them less likely to leave a mark in history, while increasing their likelihood to be turned into a nameless ‘cannon meat’, during the time of war – just as it happened to Auden’s ‘unknown citizen’. Therefore, there can be few doubts, as to the thoroughly humanistic sounding of The Unknown Citizen. This is because this poem subtly promotes the idea that the cost of one’s eagerness to lead a conventional lifestyle is his or her ahistoricity (anonymousness).
This is exactly the reason why, I believe this particular Auden’s novel should be recommended for reading – it resonates perfectly well with the discourse of post-modernity, which defines the specifics of a contemporary living in the West. Moreover, it also contains insights as to why, despite their conventional happiness, many of our contemporaries nevertheless continue to experience a number of deep-seated anxieties, in regards to what they really are, as individuals.
We will write a custom Essay on The Unknown Citizen specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I believe that the provided line of argumentation, as to what I consider contributing to Auden poem’s actual value, is being fully consistent with the initial thesis.
Works Cited Auden, Wystan Hugh. The Unknown Citizen. 13 Dec. 2012. Web.
Agriculture and Genetics Disciplines Relationship Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
The Agriculture discipline is very diverse because it incorporates crop and animal farming. Agriculture was the center of early civilization because the human race depended on agricultural products for survival (Eaton, 1998). Modern agriculture is very different from ancient agriculture due to the mergence of new technologies.
The need for sustainable agriculture has made many farmers to shift from subsistence farming to commercial farming. Agricultural experts have come up with new technologies such as irrigation and selective breeding that have contributed a lot in increasing agricultural yields. Research and development in the field of agriculture plays a very critical role in coming up with new pesticides, fertilizers, high yielding crop varieties and most importantly modern management techniques (Andrews, 1994).
Biotechnology and genetic engineering are important aspects of the agriculture discipline that have taken it to a higher level. The incorporation of science in agriculture makes it to be a very wide discipline with many branches such as agricultural engineering, animal husbandry, agronomy, crop biotechnology and industrial agriculture (Clark, 2012).
Genetics is a biological discipline that deals with the study of heredity and the analysis of variations in organisms caused by heredity (Clark, 2012). The concept of genetics is very useful in biotechnology and genetic engineering. Genetics and heredity are much related because they are all concerned with generational passage of hereditary traits (Gelehrter, 1998).
Genetics is a field of biological study that has led to many scientific breakthroughs that have been useful in coming up with a variety of cures for various diseases. The genetics discipline has been evolving over time especially with the emergence of genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is a branch of genetics that deals with a direct intervention in genetic processes in order to alter genetic materials (Clark, 2012).
Genetic engineering has been very useful in developing new treatments for certain diseases. The Human Genome Project has redefined the genetics discipline by introducing the study of the functioning of different genes in human cells (Khoury, 2000). The genetics discipline has a lot of application in environmental studies, clinical medicine and public health (Khoury, 2000).
The central dogma of the genetics discipline is based on Crick’s theory that came into place in 1963 (Khoury, 2000). Crick discovered the DNA double helix that formed the foundation of genetic science. According to Crick, the DNA double helix is a molecular structure that acts as an agent of inheritance in both plants and animals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The central dogma of genetics assumes that the genome of an organism accounts for all of its inherited traits (McKusick, 1997). This theory by Crick failed after it was tested in the Human Genome Project. The scientific rationale of the Human Genome Project proved that Crick’s theory was wrong because there are very few human genes responsible for inherited traits.
The collapse of Crick’s theory was a setback to the genetics discipline because the foundations of genetic engineering are based on the central dogma premise. Biomedical research depends on the central dogma that has been around for over forty years (Tropp, 2011). The central dogma emphasizes that DNA is the exclusive agent of inheritance.
The DNA gene is composed of four distinct nucleotides strung together in a linear sequence (Tropp, 2012). According to Cricks’ theory, the genes in DNA segments give rise to inherited traits by undergoing a series of molecular processes. An inherited trait is a product of molecular processes in a single DNA gene. According to the central dogma in genetics, the totality of inheritance in living things is controlled by the DNA genes (Andrews, 1994).
The synthesis of proteins that are the main catalyst in the production of inherited traits is governed by genes (Eaton, 2012). According to Crick’s theory, the structural similarity between genes and proteins makes protein synthesis to be possible under the control of DNA genes. The DNA in a particular gene consists of subunits of molecules with a linear arrangement.
The sequence hypothesis compares the nucleotides in a gene and the sequence of amino acids in a protein. The formation of proteins takes place when the DNA nucleotides are transcribed to RNA molecules that are responsible for trait formation in living things (Vogel, 1997). A gene code from the DNA nucleotide is incorporated in protein formation to influence the inherited traits.
The RNA plays the role of a messenger because it facilitates the delivery of gene codes to the site of protein formation. The sequential order of amino acids is determined by the gene code during the process of protein formation (Vogel, 1997). According to the central dogma in genetics, each particular gene in a living thing has a correspondent protein.
The inherited traits of a person are represented by their genome (Rothstein, 1997). The genetic code in DNA is universal and can influence the formation of a particular trait in any kind of species. Every living thing has a DNA with four nucleotides that facilitate the formation of a specific protein. Any sequential information that goes into protein can not in any way come out (Task Force on Genetic Testing, 1998).
We will write a custom Essay on Agriculture and Genetics Disciplines Relationship specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is the second doctrine of Crick’s theory that explains the source and the destination of genetic information. The DNA nucleotide sequence is the source and the protein amino acid sequences the final destination according to Crick’s theory. The central dogma gives the gene total power and influence on protein identify and the resultant inherited trait created by the protein (Clark, 2012).
The central dogma in the agriculture discipline is from Ralph’s theory (Clark, 2012). This theory led to the introduction of genetic engineering in agriculture. According to Ralph’s theory, the formation of takes place in corporate-like sequence.
The formation of inherited traits follows a sequence of directives from the DNA that acts as the top management. The RNA molecules act as middle management molecules that give directives to proteins that act as worker molecules (Tropp, 2012). This version of the central dogma is widely used in agricultural research.
According to Ralph’s theory; a particular gene can be transferred from one species to another without any problem. The central dogma of agriculture is the foundation upon which genetically modified seeds are produced (Tropp, 2012). Researchers incorporate alien genes with superior qualities in the host plant to come up with crops with superior qualities. Researchers manipulate genetic processes by introducing an alien gene in protein formation (Gelehrter, 1998).
The alien gene influences the inherited traits in a particular crop. Ralph’s theory is very essential in the production of transgenic plants. The presence of an alien gene does not in any way interfere with the natural complement of the plant’s DNA (Vogel, 1997). The protein mediated systems and the gene systems must be compatible for the modification process to be successful.
The bacterial gene is very essential in the production of transgenic plants through the genetic engineering process (Clark, 2012). Ralph’s theory often comes under pressure when the experiments to produce transgenic plants and other organisms fail due to the disruption of the host’s protein mediated systems. Ralph’s theory takes several years of testing for the desired results to be achieved (McKusick, 1997). Genetic engineering can lead to the production of harmful proteins due to the unexpected alteration of the plant’s genome.
Ralph’s theory of genetic engineering has experienced numerous failures as a result of the unpredictable disruption of the protein systems of the host pant (Eaton, 1998). DNA miscoding is one of the reasons why there are many experimental failures when it comes to production of transgenic plants. Genetic engineers have come up with modified seeds from corn, cotton and soya beans because the mentioned plants possess some proteins with the ability to repair all kinds of DNA miscoding (Vogel, 1997).
The Human Genome project demonstrated that the genetics central dogma by Crick was not convincing (Clark, 2012). The emergence of new facts that refute the one-to-one matching of genes and proteins is a great challenge to Crick’s theory. Some biologists argue that proteins lead to the formation of molecules like DNA but the central dogma emphasizes the opposite (Khoury, 2000).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Agriculture and Genetics Disciplines Relationship by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The central dogma for genetics has generated a lot of interest in the study of molecular genetics in an attempt to find the secrete of life. The central dogma for the agriculture discipline needs to be re-examined because there is no guarantee that an alien gene can only transfer positive traits to the host plant (Andrews, 1994). Many genetic engineering experiments have failed due to the disruption of the genetic composition of the host plant.
References Andrews, L. (1994). Assessing genetic risks. Implications for health and social policy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Clark, D. (2012). Molecular Biology: Understanding the genetic revolution. London: Elsevier.
Eaton, D. (1998). “Genetic susceptibility” in environmental and occupational medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven.
Gelehrter, T. (1998). Principles of medical genetics. Baltimore, MD: Williams
SWOT Analysis: Al Capone’s Essay essay help
Introduction Al-Capone’s restaurant came into existence in 1927 under the initiative of Gladys Meyers. The restaurant is located along the shores of Fox River and operates in a big and spacious house. In the course of its operation, Al Capone’s mission is to achieve sustainable growth by providing its customers with an untouchable dining experience (Al Capone’s, 2012).
The firm’s operations are guided by one major objective, which entails offering its customers great and diverse wines, spirits, micro-brews, and foods. Al Capone’s focuses at maintaining the real taste of food and alcohol beverages that it offered during the 1920’s. In addition to positioning itself as a unique drinking point, Al Capone’s also focuses at offering its customers unique entertainment.
One of the ways through which the firm attains this goal is by entering into contracts with renowned music bands such as Dixieland stars and saxophonists such as Johnny Waters, Franz Jackson, and Glenn Koch. These elements are some of the main areas that have contributed towards the firm’s survival (Al Capone’s, 2012).
SWOT analysis Strengths
Strong brand – Branding is one of the avenues through which organizations can derive their competitive advantage. According to Healey (2008), branding entails a continuous commitment to deliver product meaning and promise to customers.
The restaurant has managed to maintain the quality of products it offered during the 1920s. As a result, it has developed a strong identity within the society in which it operates. People travel for long miles in order to enjoy the tasty spirits, great food, and lively entertainment within the restaurant (Al-Capone’s, 2012).
Customers who patronize the hotel experience the roaring characteristic of the hotel that persisted during the 1920s and 30s. This element has played a critical role in enhancing a strong attachment with the society. Consequently, the firm has been in a position to nurture a strong level of customer loyalty. According to Healey (2008), customer loyalty is a key ingredient in the survival and success of firms considering the high rate at which the business environment is transforming.
Product diversification- Since its inception, Al Capone’s has been able to diversify its product offering. The firm has achieved this by adopting a multiproduct strategy. The strategy enables firms to become more diversified hence improving their performance. Effective integration of multiproduct strategy is realizable by integrating the concept of focusing. Consequently, firms’ management teams have to focus on the most profitable product to integrate in their product offering (McDaniel, Hair,
“The Revenger’s Tragedy” a Play by Brain Gibbons Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Literary work is a reflection of what is happening in the society. Authors normally voice their opinions about issues affecting the society through various themes. These themes are closely linked together through analysis of a character’s actions.
In the contemporary society, introduction of literature research has extensively increased the volume of literature in every topic of interest researchers may be interested in especially in use of expression tools such as metaphors to present a symbolic view that a character display in a play or a book. As a matter of fact, irrespective of the level of knowledge and understanding of research facets, literature versions are inclusive of literature tools such as metaphors.
Literature comparison is about enjoying the phrases, feeling the narrator’s words in action, imagining, and placing oneself in the writer’s shoes. Writings with consistent assumptions and symbolic insinuation add comprehensiveness to sentence structures or phrases with hidden meaning. The play, “The Revenger’s Tragedy” by Brain Gibbons presents a violent and vivid portrait of ambition and unending lust in an Italian community.
Specifically, this play typifies artistic cynicism and satire to present a picture of a revenge quest that culminates into unfounded tragedy for both parties. Thus, this analytical treatise attempts to explicitly prove that revenge is dehumanizing in the play. Specifically, the paper concentrates on the death of the King and his attitude and treatment of his mother. Across the paper, the analysis draws critical reflection on the events that culminate into revenge and their eventual results.
Gibbons was successful in addressing hypocrisy that was dominant in the early century in the theme of revenge desires. This theme forms the foundations upon which the society of this play was built.
It resonates across generations since its influence is inherent. Revenge desires as a thematic touch on identity crisis, tradition, manipulation, and marriage. The play “The Revenger’s Tragedy” portrays deep decay in political and moral parameters of the society. Irrespective of social class, religious inclination, size of accumulated wealth, epoch inclination, and beauty, death kisses people equality every time it knocks on the door of its victim. The tragedy delves on love, life, and tyranny.
As a matter of fact, the key antagonists and protagonists demise eventually. Interestingly, death is presented as a redeemer of what each character stands for. Specifically, Vindice forms the image of an avenger who links economic disparities and female chastity to plot a dehumanizing plot on the old irresponsible king. Thus, “the smallest advantage fattens wronged men” (Gibbons 1.2.98).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The king is morally bankrupt and very corrupt in dispensing his authority on the subjects. Irrespective of the position of a person, revenge is presented as a poisonous object that sweeps away both the antagonist and the ‘revenger’. Despite having been an ideal person at the beginning of his quest, Vindice incessant activity resorts to the very ideals he protested against in the process of fulfilling “that bald Madam Opportunity” (Gibbons 1.1.55).
Reflectively, Vindice becomes the victim of moral decadence and follows the ill practices concocted by the nobility in the society. In the process of revenge, the dehumanizing acts of aimless killings, habitual lying, and irresponsibility replaces gentlemanly attributes that were associated with him. Revenge is a continuing inspiration to overturn the wrongs that were committed by a third party.
When internalized, though may appear fulfilling, the art of revenge inspires hatred and unreasonable response to stimuli. For instance, in the process of plotting a revenge on the King, Vindice climbs overboard and convinces his parent to resort to prostituting his only sister Castiza to complete the revenge plot.
Reflectively, the journey towards revealing truth makes him adopt a ‘Machiavellian cynicism’ that undermines his quest. He states, “Thou hast no conscience; are we not revenged? Is there one enemy left alive amongst those” (Gibbons 108).
In the end, Vindice loses his outstanding personality and replaces it with self righteousness that is characterized by distributing blames and hanger on innocent third parties. He claims “And therefore I’ll put on that knave for once…for to be hones is not be in the world” (Gibbons 1.1.93). Vindice can be described as an agent of his own downfall. In the end, just like the slain King, Vindice ends up dead while fulfilling the burning desire to avenge.
Across the play, the same fate crowns Hippolito, Ambitioso, Lussurioso, and Supervacuo. Death is a natural thing, and despite the fact that it is a sad affair, it might be less hurting if someone dies a natural death. However, Vindice, Ambitioso and Spurio fail to redeem themselves from the consequences of revenge and ends up in an unending holocaust.
Specifically, the moral weakness of Vindice is seen when his personal indignation on the manners of the court and corrupt system of the judiciary metamorphoses into a radical immorality of a crime he later commit. As a result, Vindice states “the foul practice hath turn’d itself on me” (Gibbons 5.2. 299-300). Death is a tragedy that is unexpected, and it is not pleasant at all. The ground as to why inhabitants do not appreciate death is because it causes emotional damage and pain.
We will write a custom Essay on “The Revenger’s Tragedy” a Play by Brain Gibbons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The bitterness and resentment of Vindice make his vows that “in the midst of all their joys they shall sigh blood” (Gibbons 5.2.22). In a twist of events, these words culminate into the tragic destiny of Vindice. Thus, revenge is dehumanizing since those plotting it resort opt for the murders as political expedients of convenience and stimulates cosmic disorders in the society.
The play ends in the purges that horrify other characters. Vengeance becomes the only Pyrrhic victory to these characters obsessed with the tasks of fulfilling tasks that are pre-ordained. For instance, Vindice states, “I do repent but heaven hath pleas’d it so…that I must be their scourge and minister” (Gibbons 3.4.173).
This arouses inhuman acts of indiscriminate revenge actions with ill motives. For instance, Middleton’s my inspiration towards revenge was to institute a revulsion arousing dramatic tool. Besides, Vindice idolized revenge and painted it with words like “sweet, delectable, rare, happy, and ravishing” (Gibbons 3.5.1).
This arouses suspicion into the underlying motives which sends Vindice into a medieval vice. Thus, revenge cripples these characters with hatred that culminates into premeditated murder. As a result, revenge “throwne luck upon the forehead of our state (Gibbons 1.2.4). Moreover, the remedy of the court was an alternative resort that was exercised only when disputes happened.
The judicial proceeding was intended to provide solutions to existing disputes. The court was responsible to handle injustice cases that had already happened in the society and reassure the mass of fairness and accountability. However, the King’s revenge motives completely defaced the functions of this court. In his bid for revenge and center power, the King neglected justice in the court.
Revenge games compromises integrity of the parties involved. Reflectively, this happens due to the fact that some of the players are naïve, while others are indifferent. For instance, Vindice is unhappy at his parent’s inability to resist bribery. The mother states, “I blush to think what for your sake I’ll do” (Gibbons 2.1.24). In this aspect, revenge is dehumanizing in its characteristic of making parasites out of people, internalizing corruption, and being the engine that drives greed and unending lust for advancements in the social endeavors.
All the characters in the revenge matrix have selfish and debased ambitions that inspire their urge to maintain the status quo irrespective of any collateral damage in the process. Interestingly, the Duke who should symbolize justice and moral authority asserts that “I’ll try them both upon their love and hate” (Gibbons 2.3.86).
In fact, Vindice’s reaction reveals an unfounded hatred, ignorance and blindness of high magnitude as they climaxed. In an ironic tone, Vindice retorts, “Pray heaven their blood may wash away all treason” (Gibbons 2.3. 98). The other revenging characters destroy Vindice as a survival tactic on realizing that he plans to destroy them.
Not sure if you can write a paper on “The Revenger’s Tragedy” a Play by Brain Gibbons by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Justice was a notion that concerned duties and rights of people in this society. Justice was an interpersonal concept that sought to resolve conflict among people. Nevertheless, this was not to claim that inferior interests were suppressed. Justice aimed to sustain and build right behaviors while judicial court was responsible to deliver judgment among peoples. However, the rejection of justice by the King resulted in series of revenge plots that swept the morals and ethics of this society.
Works Cited Gibbons, Brian. The Revenger’s Tragedy, New York: Norton, 1967. Print.
Treating Race and Ethnicity in History Essay college essay help online
The fact that American history is strongly associated with racial and ethnic issues in undeniable. Over the centuries, the migrated ethnic groups faced rigid discrimination on the part of dominating population. The indigenous population of America also confronted significant social and cultural pressure on the part of white people coming from Europe.
The point is that differences in races are not premised on biological characteristics, but on social ones. Indeed, social perceptions are strongly linked to cultural beliefs of various ethnic groups. Diverse ideological systems have become the corner stone for various groups to become a united community with common values and belief systems.
There is no unanimous opinion concerning the nature of racial confrontation. Nevertheless, the history testifies to the dominance of white race over the others. Therefore, racism often served as a tool for colonizing, enslaving, and conquering new territories. Similar to racial distinctions, ethnic groups are also divided in accordance to different cultural and racial backgrounds.
In case the population of one ethnic group prevails, the other ones are considered as minorities whose beliefs, culture, and traditions are often under the pressure. Prejudice, bias, and stereotypes have been formed as a result of these confrontations. In this respect, the African people migrating to the United States were not accepted by the dominating society and, therefore, they were deprived of the human rights, including freedom and equality.
Despite the fact that racial discrimination has been exterminated in the course of time, some stereotypes and prejudices have been left. Ethnic stereotypes have been shaped as predominant images that are applied to discriminate the members of various communities. The existence of negative prejudices, however, distorts the overall information about specific community.
Discrimination is another effect of unequal distribution of ethnic groups on one territory. To be more exact, there is always a prevailing group that shapes and influences the attitude of the rest of the population. Inequality stands at the core of relation between racial and ethnic groups due to the unequal treatment of each other. Such a perspective can still be applied nowadays since many stereotypic images exist and have a potent impact on social organization.
The history of U.S. immigration proves that stereotypic images and discrimination have not contributed positively to the development of a socially and culturally healthy environment. Enslavement and pressure imposed on migrated African Americans, as well as overall treatment of immigrants, prove that people are unable to reconcile with biological differences.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ethnic minorities tend to undergo racial discrimination due to their differences from the majority of social groups. These differences, nevertheless, have now become more respected by prevailing communities due to the globalization trends and tolerance of cultural diversity. Such a treatment creates a politically correct environment within which people should have enough space for self-expression and development.
In conclusion, all the communities have dominating norms and values, as well as those that are rarely used. Therefore, it is logical some of the cultural norms are not accepted by the majority groups.
Such a situation creates contradictions in terms of treating various ethnic groups whose traditions and customs are not respected in the community. In the course of time, the conditions have changed and closer attention is given to understanding cultural diversity in a globalized world. The tendency is a necessary solution for all the ethnic groups and races to be treated equally.