Representation Of Women In Higher Education Research Paper College Essay Help Online

Introduction The modern woman is no longer the person who was traditionally meant to be mainly involved in domestic activities exclusively. Today’s women have ventured into the professional world and are no longer regarded as people whose work is mainly the domestic chores.

To achieve this, women have developed careers and do all that is required to develop their careers. Moreover, many women have ventured into the world of academia and competed with the men for different positions. To this end, women can now be found in spheres, which were traditionally meant for men eg medicine and engineering.

Women form a large number of students in the undergraduate colleges. They also form a large proportion of students found in tertiary and even postgraduate colleges. Therefore it would seem natural that since the women are the majority of the students enrolling in graduate and postgraduate degrees they should therefore be the one who form a sizeable proportion of the leadership in all the professional fields.

In some fields women form the majority of the leaders in those fields. However, this is not true in the case of higher education. Moreover, despite forming a sizeable population of the members of different institutions of higher learning, few women are usually in position of leadership.

Leadership positions of institutions of higher learning are usually divided into hierarchies whereby, in the lower hierarchies, women are very well represented. However, as one goes to the higher hierarchies, the representation of the women diminishes.

These hierarchies are mainly represented by men. Women are also subjected to biase in their employment selection and consideration for promotion.

However, even when women hold similar positions with the men the women are usually paid less salaries compare to their male compatriots who do the same kind of jobs as the women. Women are also subjected to limited chances to career and professional advancement (Dean, Bracken and Allen, 2008, p 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, despite the fact that women are still underrepresented in the leadership of higher education, there has a great improvement in the number of women on various positions of leadership. Their number continues to increase and it is expected that in the future their number will almost be equal to that of men in leadership positions (Alemán and Renn, 2002, p 3).

Therefore, due to the above situations women need to come up with strategies to help increase their representation and enhance their chances of being elevated to leadership positions. They need to correctly position themselves to benefit from any available opportunities that may crop up.

This will ensure that the women representation in higher education improves and the women can achieve their academic and professional goals (Dean, Bracken and Allen 2008, p2).

The women in the black community are the ones who are most underrepresented in the higher education. They face double discrimination, the fact that they are black and being women. The black women are viewed by the white men as having little or no worth. These women usually immigrate to the countries in order to obtain the higher education.

Therefore, the women find it hard to get assimilated to the society of academia and are usually faced with many barriers to their academic success. They must be culturally assimilated to the society before achieving any meaningful progress.

Even for women who are native assimilation into the world of academia is difficult. Hence these women are faced with much more difficulties in attaining leadership opportunities in the higher education. (Jones, 2005, p 1)

Purpose of this study This paper attempts to show the different in the number of leadership positions of women who are higher levels of education. In so doing we will mainly be focused on the women’s point of view regarding the subject.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Representation of Women in Higher Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However leadership in institutions of higher learning is just one of the issues on gender equality which need to be addressed. This paper will not deal with the other issues as its main focus is on representation of women in higher education. However this paper does not deal with the other issues of gender equality

The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that may be making the representation of women in higher education to be lower compared to that of men.

This paper will also focus on the reasons for the under representation of women in mostly the prestigious institutions of higher learning. By studying the reasons for the under representation this paper will attempt to come up with different strategies to ensure that the pattern is avoided.

Background of the problem A brief background of the conditions in America will help understand the reasons for the current under representation. During the beginning of civilization, two factors were mainly considered to bring about change; democratic and political revolution and economic development. In all these changes women were not actively involved, men were the ones who were mostly involved (attached material p 5).

Thus, women were generally considered mainly concerned with the performance activities in the domestic spheres of life, whereas the men were actively involved in the activities, which were of public interests (Alemán and Renn, 2002 p 5).

In those days, the women who chose to follow their academic paths were perceived by the men to be awkward and going against the norms of society, which required that they be relegated to the roles bestowed upon them, by the men.

However, today’s women choose to pursue their career objectives. These women have enrolled in university programs to achieve their desired career objectives so as to effectively compete with the men. There are now more women who are enrolled in higher education than the men (Alemán, and Renn, 2002 p xx).

However, despite the fact there are more women enrolling in university education, the number of women who are in the leadership positions in higher education is still comparatively low. The leadership positions have been mainly the domain of men.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Representation of Women in Higher Education by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Theoretical framework There are many methods that can be used to gauge the increase of leadership of women in various positions. The political reforms, which allow the women to become the heads of states, are just one of the methods used to gauge the emergence of women leadership. However, this does not truly reflect the equality of men and women in distribution of leadership position in the spheres of society (Hartman, n.d).

In recent times, there have been so many advocacies for equity of women in all the spheres of society. These initiatives are mostly led by women and seek to empower women economically, politically, academically and health wise. This initiatives help to create equity in all the sectors of society and enable women to reach their leadership potential more easily.

However, even after the creation of equity women still do not occupy leadership in visible spheres of the society. This has made different people to point out that women do not have leadership qualities. This is mot true since have exercised their leadership abilities even before the beginning of civilization.

The leadership of women was mostly concerned with the community and households leadership; hence her leadership was not seen since it was not a leadership position which is highlighted in the public domain. Leadership of women mainly concerned things which relate to domestic issues.

However, modernization has reduced the tendency of women to be relegated to the domestic realms. Women are now having fewer children, marrying late, concentrating more on attaining quality education and moving out of the homes to seek paid jobs. This has made women to lead lifestyles which resemble those of men and hence seek leadership opportunities considered to belong to men.

However, by so doing, the women have sacrificed their roles which were traditionally female such as the tender care which the women give to children and society. However women do not have to sacrifice all that at the expense of being leaders. They can still be leaders and maintain their roles which would be of great benefit not only to the society but also to themselves.

Hence, gender equality should not just be viewed as the ability of women doing things, which were conventionally meant, for men, but their ability to influence the society in their specific way.

Literature Review Women current form a majority of the undergraduates of colleges in America (57 %), and also form a large percentage of the doctorate degrees awarded in America. However despite these statistics men still continue to dominate the most desirable positions of leadership in the education system.

As one move up the administration ladder, which demands for more responsibility, the number of women in those positions decreases markedly (Gupton 2009 p 3). In these institutions, 58% of the instructors are women, 54% of the lecturers are women, 51% of the women are in the unranked areas and only 23% of the full professors are women.

The data shows that there is a majority representation of women in the lower ranks of the institutions. It also clearly illustrates the misrepresentation of women in the higher positions of leadership in the institutions (Gupton, 2009, p 3).

In the US, the bulk of the full professors, tenured faculty members and high level administrators in the institutions of higher learning are formed by men. However, more and more women are employed in these institutions but for positions, which have lower salaries (Gupton, 2009, p 3).

However, the situation is far much worse for the leadership positions of institutions of higher learning. Only 16% of the university presidents are women. Women form 25 % of the chief academic officers of institutions of higher learning. This situation is also grave in the other professional fields. Among the chief business officers, only 13 % of them are women.

This seems to be ironical since women form a large percentage of the population in both the undergraduate and post graduate schools of higher learning (Chliwniak, 1997 para 1). This is despite the fact that more women are likely to obtain a doctorate degree than men.

However, this proportion is further worsened by the fact that either most of these women presidents are heads of two-year colleges, which are not as prestigious as four-year colleges, or they are the presidents of women colleges (Gupton, 2009, p 4)

The men also occupy a large percentage of the district school superintendents (85%). The superintendents are usually promoted from the rank of principals of high schools. However, the number of women principles has recently equaled the number of men principles, therefore the expected to improve further.

Even though this may seem a good advancement, it is negligible compared to the number of women who are involved in the profession of teaching. The teaching profession is made up of 72% women and is sometimes referred to as the profession of the female. This profession despite being largely populated by women it is still mainly dominated by men who are the majority of the district superintendents in the US.

Comparison of the female and male forms of leadership The question of the comparison between the leadership of men and women usually attracts mixed reactions. There are people who see that the leadership abilities of women are usually measured using the male-gender standards which are somehow biased. However men and women generally lead in totally different ways.

It has been shown that women leaders tend to be more power sharing than that of the men. In exercising their leadership, the women generally create relationships with the people who they are leading and other relevant people to succeed in their leadership.

Women generally tend to be reconciliatory and ready to share power with the people who they are leading it the implications of these actions will lead to better results (Ramsay, 2000, p 3).

However, this is not the case for men leaders who generally do not form relationships. The men usually impose leadership through the rewarding of exemplary work and punishing people who they perceive to have done wrong. However if has been showed that women leaders tend to be reconciliatory than the men leaders (Dean, Bracken and Allen 2008 p 11).

When women are education administrators, their main emphasis is usually on the solution to the personal differences of the students, knowledge of curriculum teaching methods and the objectives of teaching (Growe, n.d, p 3).

Barriers to women advancement in higher education leadership Women generally face different hurdles in their quest to obtain promotion to higher levels of leadership in institutions of higher learning. The women usually occupy large numbers of leadership positions the midlevel administrative positions and in lower levels of leadership. The midlevel administrative positions include the deans and directors of various faculties in institutions of higher learning.

The lower levels are mainly librarians and dealing with student issues. The women in the lower levels f administration are usually considered for promotional faster than in the other levels.

However when the women reach this level they start getting the promotions at a slower rate. Hence, they are said to experience a glass ceiling, which hinders their promotion to the higher levels of administration (Alemán and Renn, 2002, p 484).

Recommendation To increase the number of women in management of institutions of higher learning, the government should not just offer lower qualifications for the women. The most important thing for governments to do is to increase the participation of women in leadership of institutions higher learning, is to take measures that will lead to an increase the quantity and quality of women in institutions of higher learning.

The increase in the number of women who enroll in both the undergraduate and post graduate courses of institutions of higher learning will enable women to effectively compete with men for the available post which require educational qualifications. Increasing the quality of education offered to the women enables the women to obtain the necessary qualifications required to get leadership jobs in higher education institutions.

This would greatly help in reducing the underrepresentation of women in institutions of higher learning as sometimes the institutions are willing to hire women but lack women with the necessary qualifications (Singh 2002 p 54).

This can be achieved through the setting up of scholarship funds for women and improving the conditions of postgraduate studies to cater for the needs of women (Singh 2002 p 55). Already some universities have started implementing this and offer a variety of programs meant for women (Bethman, p 1)

The institutions of higher learning should also come up with training programs and courses that target women to help improve their knowledge and leadership skills. These courses should focus on helping the women to improve their knowledge on a variety of issues on management which are applicable to higher education.

They should also train women on developing plans which will enable them to effectively cope with their personal and professional lives which are both very demanding on the women (Singh 2002 58).

These courses may just be short courses given to the female staff of various institutions or they may be integrated into degree programs to help the women. These courses help the women to effectively cope with management of higher educations institutions thus enabling them to effectively compete with the men.

Summary and conclusion As outlined in the above paper women face a diverse of issues concerning their representation in institutions of higher learning. The men have dominated all the aspects of leadership in higher learning. Therefore the women need to be extra vigilant to ensure that they are effectively represented in all the education spheres.

The women should not just expect favour from the government in order for them to get representation in these institutions. The women should arm themselves with the necessary knowledge which will lead to their elevation to leadership positions in institutions of higher learning.

However, one important aspect, which one should note, is that the representation of women in all spheres of society is slowly increasing and in the future, it is expected that the number of women in various leadership positions will be equal to that of the men.

Having more women in leadership positions will ensure that they are equally represented and the few do not lead the many as it continues to happen in the institutions of higher learning in the US.

Due to the economic crisis facing the US, the problem of women being under represented is likely to be reduced as history has proven that drastic measures are usually taken during times that are considered hard.

References Alemán, M., Renn, K. A. (2002). Women in higher education: an encyclopedia. CA: ABC-CLIO.

Bethman, B. L. College and university women leadership programs. Web.

Chliwniak, L. (1997). Higher Education Leadership: Analyzing the Gender Gap Washington DC ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education. Web.

Dean, D. R., Bracken, S. J. and Allen, J. K. (2008). Women in academic leadership: professional strategies, personal choices. Virginia Stylus Publishing, LLC. Web.

Growe, R. Women and the leadership paradigm: bridging the gender gap. Web.

Gupton, S. L. (2009). Women leadership in the US: reflections of a 50 year veteran. Forum for public policy. Web.

Hartman, M. Women in power: A theoretical framework. (Attached material).

Jones S. D. (2005). Leadership in higher education: influences on perception of black women. Web.

Ramsay, E. (2000). Women and leadership in higher education: facing international challenges and maximizing opportunities. Web.

Singh, J. K. S. (2002). Women and management in higher education a good practice handbook. United Nations educational scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO). Web.

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Why did Certain Groups Revolt Against Peter the Great’s Policies? Analytical Essay essay help: essay help

Throughout the course of known history, it has always been the case that the implementation of various innovations in particular country’s socio-political, cultural and scientific life, would initially be met with a fierce resistance, on the part of self-proclaimed ‘guardians of tradition’.

Nevertheless, it had always proven to be only the matter of very short time, before such resistance would be subdued. In this paper, we will aim to substantiate the validity of an earlier statement, by reflecting upon the specifics of how Peter the Great went about modernizing Russia through 1689-1725.

Within the matter of few years, after having ascended to Russia’s throne in 1689, Peter had made it clear to Russian boyars (nobles) and to Orthodox Church’s clergymen that struggling with Russia’s social and cultural backwardness represented his life’s foremost priority.

And, Peter’s activities throughout his early tsardom, leave few doubts as to the fact that it was namely the undisputed dominance of Orthodox Church in country’s socio-political life, which he perceived as the actual root of Russia’s backwardness.

For example, in 1692, Peter parodied the functioning of Orthodox Church by establishing a so-called ‘Vseshuteishyi, Vsepyaneishyi I Sumasbrodneishyi Sobor’ (Most Drunken Council of Fools and Jesters) – a carnivalesque mockery of Church’s High Council, which was perceived by Peter’s contemporaries as the clear proof of his sinful-mindedness.

Yet, as many historical studies on the subject matter indicate, there was nothing new about drunken orgies that occurred in times of Peter Sobor’s gatherings – these orgies used to be an essential part of Orthodox clergymen’s lives, just as it was the case with their Catholic counterparts.1

By establishing his Synod of Fools and Jesters, Peter simply exposed Church’s dirty laundry – hence, contributing to the establishment of initial preconditions for Russia’s rapid transformation from essentially a barbaric little principality, to one of the world’s greatest empires.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apparently, Peter was perfectly aware of a simple fact that the concepts of ‘tradition’ and ‘spirituality’ are innately counter-productive, for as long as the process of facilitating cultural progress is being concerned. Being at the time one of Russia’s only few intellectuals, Peter knew well that only science provides people with practically valid answers to life’s dilemmas.

This why, upon having decided to set Russia upon the course of progress, Peter realized that he had no choice but to travel to Europe, in order to study a variety of different sciences, such as shipbuilding, mathematics, philosophy, ethics, etc.

In its turn, this explains why Peter’s ‘Grand Embassy’ to Europe lasted for an year – during the course of this time, Peter and his closest associates never ceased studying and even indulging in physical labor on full-time basis.

It is not by a pure accident that Peter’s contemporaries used to refer to young Russian Tsar as ‘carpenter on the throne’ – so strong was his desire to turn Russia into civilized country that he did not mind working himself to exhaustion at Zaandam and Deptford’s shipbuilding yards as a commoner.2

Nevertheless, whatever the ironically it might sound – it was exactly to due to Peter being endowed with rationale-driven intellect and due to his willingness to work hard, in order to be able to benefit Russia, that the number of Russians began to perceive him as ‘evildoer’.

Given the fact that Orthodox Church have traditionally strived to discourage people from taking an active stance in life, it comes as no surprise that in 17th-18th century’s many Russians seriously believed that material riches should just fall out of sky, for as long as one prays hard enough. This explains why these people considered Peter’s hardworking qualities as the proof of his ‘ungodliness’.

After having returned to Russia in 1698, in order to take care of streltsys’ rebellion, instigated by overly-traditional princess Sophia, Peter had dealt with rebellions rather decisively – eight hundred of them were executed in the center of Moscow, within the a matter of days. The rumors about Peter’s cruelty began to spread throughout the Russia.

We will write a custom Essay on Why did Certain Groups Revolt Against Peter the Great’s Policies? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, it is not the fact that Peter was a cruel individual with rather short temper, which had won him a strong disfavor with the great number of Russians, while he was on the throne.

The real reason why, throughout Peter’s reign, people continued to revolt against implementation of his progressive innovations, in the fields of national defense, industry, trade, tax system, state administration and education, was their mental primitiveness.

Russian boyars and high-ranking members of Orthodox Church’s clergy were aware of the fact that, if Peter was allowed to proceed with modernizing Russia unopposed, it will only be the matter of short time, before their parasitic mode of existence would end.

It goes without saying, of course, that while articulating their grievances against Peter, these people did not act in intellectually honest matter – instead of admitting that Peter’s reforms simply threatened their bellyful idleness, they wanted to represent these reforms as such that undermined Russia’s ‘spiritual foundations’.

According to Slavophiles, Peter’s reforms caused a great deal of damage to Russia’s natural path of development, as in their eyes, this path was inconsistent with the ways of the West.3

In other words, there was absolutely no rationale behind some traditionally-minded Russians’ unwillingness to accept Peter’s reforms, just as today there is no rationale behind some Muslim immigrants’ refusal to live by Western secular laws, after having relocated to Western countries.

What gives Peter a huge credit is that, even as far back as at the end of 17th century, he had shown the whole world of what represents the best way to deal with intellectually inflexible people’s ‘traditionalist’ prejudices – if they want to proceed with denying the light of civilization, let them be taxed.

There is a famous story of how Peter the Great addressed the issue of Russian boyars refusing to take baths, to wear Western costumes and to shave off their flea-ridden beards. Peter simply issued a decree, according to which, those who wanted to stick to ‘traditional values’ had to pay taxes.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Why did Certain Groups Revolt Against Peter the Great’s Policies? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bearded Russians were given a few weeks of time to whether find necessary sum of hundred rubles, in order to be able to retain their beards for a lifetime, or to dispose of their beards altogether. Those who could not afford paying that much but still wanted to maintain their barbaric appearance, had a option to pay for keeping their beards on annual and monthly basis.4

As practice showed, Russians’ willingness to pay taxes, in order to be able to retain their beards, did not last for too long, even though initially, ‘traditionalists’ used to threaten Peter with ‘God’s vengeance’ for his ‘unholy’ intention of popularize the notion of personal hygiene among them.

The ‘God’s vengeance’ also did not fall upon Peter, on account of his other ‘unholy’ deeds, such as collecting Church’s bells, and making cannons out of them, adopting Julian calendar, subjecting Church’s authority to the secular authority of the state, creating Russia’s Navy out of nothing, introducing the principle of draft for sustaining Russian Army of 210.000.000 strong at all times, establishing Russia’s first newspaper Vedomosti (News), building the great city of Petersburg as Russia’s new capital, etc.5

Nowadays, some historians suggest that, in order for just about anyone to be able to even partially grasp the extent of Peter’s contribution to the process of building and civilizing Russian Empire, he or she would have to take a stroll along this city’s streets.6

Just as any political figure of a great historical significance, Peter used to be focused on fulfilling long-term objectives, which is why it comes as not a particular surprise that many of his simple-minded contemporaries did not fully appreciate the role he was playing in the history of Russia. Just as Napoleon, Peter the Great believed in secularization and modernization as the only pathways towards building a better society.

Just as Napoleon, he had no choice but simply to crash those who resisted him, due to their intellectual backwardness. And, just as it was the case with Napoleon, who never ceased being perceived as an ideal ruler by famous intellectuals of the era, such as Ludwig van Beethoven and Thomas Jefferson, the legacy of Peter the Great’s never ceased inspiring Russian intellectuals, well after his death.7

For example, Peter’s vision of Russia as a modern European state was shared by such Russia’s renowned scientists as Lomonosov and Tatischev. In their turn, they strived to communicate this vision to Peter’s successors on the throne.8

Thus, just as we have stated earlier, the only reason why certain groups in Russia did revolt against Peter the Great’s policies, is that the representatives of these groups could never appreciate the sheer significance of Peter, as a historical figure. They wanted to continue living in patriarchic society, unaffected by the rapid pace of cultural and scientific progress that was taking place in Europe.

They wanted to continue professing ‘traditional values’ (read – prejudices), as if outside world did not even exist. The closer analysis of these people’s stance, in regards to Peter’s reforms, reveals an undeniable fact that it was namely their religious fanaticism, which added to the strength of their resolution to defy Peter the Great.

For example, after the functioning of Russian Orthodox Church was reformed by Peter’s adoption of Julian calendar, it resulted in creation of so-called Movement of Raskolniks, the affiliates of which would go as far as referring to their Tsar as the ‘Son of Satan’.

Just as today’s Jehovah Witnesses, Raskolnics used to indulge into social withdrawal, in full sense of this word. They refused to pay taxes, to serve in the army, to take part in administering country and to obey even the basic secular laws.9 There used to be whole villages of these fanatics, who would rather burn themselves, then criss-crossing their foreheads with three fingers instead of two, as they were accustomed to.

Thanks to Peter the Great though, these people did not succeed with their agenda of keeping Russia in the state of primeval savagery. Despite the fact that there were very many controversial aspects to Peter’s reforms, the laws of history dialectically predetermined his triumph over the enemies.

References Anemone, Anthony “The Monsters of Peter the Great: The Culture of the St. Petersburg Kunstkamera in the Eighteenth Century.” The Slavic and East European Journal 44.4 (2000): 583-602.

Burbank, Jane

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Eye Tracking in Web Usability Studies Essay essay help

Introduction Web usability studies aim to represent how individuals can use websites and determine their effectiveness. In this case, eye tracking is often used as an appropriate research tool to support the usability testing in studies (Lew 2009). The focus on eye tracking is significant to understand the nature of users’ reactions in such forms and dimensions as behaviour, attitude, and attention, as it is noted by Lew (2009):

Behaviour. The researcher’s emphasis is on users’ eye movements and actions.

Attitude. The investigator’s emphasis is on users’ words or opinions regarding the website.

Attention. The researcher’s emphasis is on actual aspects of the site that are interesting for a user because he or she focuses on them.

According to Lew (2009), eye tracking is the most effective tool to study all three mentioned aspects, with the particular focus upon the user’s attention important for investigating by researchers. However, Nielsen and Pernice (2009) state that eye tracking for determining and measuring usability of websites is often an expensive procedure, and researchers try to conduct studies using cheaper means.

Nevertheless, only eye tracking can be most appropriate to analyse all usability problems and errors identified during tests because of focusing on users’ actual attention (Lew 2009).

Eye Tracking Measures Researchers concentrate on two main types of eye tracking measures such as (1) measurements of attraction, and (2) measurements of performance. For the purpose of this research, measurements of attraction need to be discussed in detail.

Measurements of Attraction The data received from using eye tracking is in a form of a heat map that is necessary to understand aspects of users’ fixations on particular features of the web page. Still, to provide effective study results, this heat map should be analysed with the focus on concrete quantitative measures to allow researchers to use study findings actively (Bojko 2012; Bojko 2013; Duchowski 2007).

As a result, Bojko (2012) proposes to refer to such measurements of attraction as Noticeability and Interest and use associated metrics to receive the clear picture.

Noticeability Area Measures

Noticeability means that particular elements of the website can be quickly noticed by the user because of their size, design, and placement (Nielsen

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Brecht’s views on Drama Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

In Aristotelian drama, the public left theaters having gone through catharsis. They would relate at personal levels with characters and looked at drama as life. Brecht was so much against this mentality. According to him, drama is a representation of life and not life itself.

The public, therefore, has to only take lessons from plays, but not be involved emotionally. He used drama as a platform to hit at political and social ills in society.

In his play, In the Jungle Cities, he uses characters whose actions are not realistic. Most of their actions cannot be done by people of sound mind.

Shlink, for example, gives up his lumber enterprise as compensation for harassing George Garga. Garga, on his part, is ready to give the same enterprise to a Salvation Army officer on condition that he permits them spit on his face.

Bretcht’s audience, therefore, sees the folly of people through the actions of these idiotic characters and, hence, corrects their own behaviors.

In setting up a stage for Brecht’s play; In the Jungle Cities, It is befitting to set up the stage with sets and props that appropriately emphasize messages of all the characters. At the library, for example, there should be books thrown all over the floor and on shelves. There should also be reading tables and seats for readers.

The books and seats should not necessarily be real but improvised to show the separationist principle supported by Brecht. In scenes 10 and 11, the set to be used should be one that depicts a tent where desperate people live.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the background, the city should be seen from a distance. This setting will help the audience see the consequences of making wrong decisions.

The beginning of every scene should be read out loudly for everyone to hear. This action will help remind the audience that the play is only a representation of life and not life.

In solidarity with Brecht, characters need to be ordinary people. They do not necessarily have to be from noble family backgrounds as in the case of Aristotelian tragedies.

They do not have to act out events with the purpose of eliciting emotions from the public. George Garga, for instance, does not have to seek sympathy from the audience when he volunteers to go to jail for three years, neither does Shlink when he voluntarily chooses to be poor.

George Garga and Shlink will best communicate to the audience if they are dressed in a manner that portrays them as being careless. They should be made to wear ordinary casual costumes.

Throughout the play, they do not care much about themselves. Such dressing will, therefore, best bring out this element. They should then perform their roles in an equally careless manner.

Traditional drama tries to be as true to life as possible. If this play is, therefore, performed in accordance to the dictates of traditional drama, most of the things used and events that happen will have to be coined to match real life as much as possible.

We will write a custom Essay on Brecht’s views on Drama specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The props and sets used will be real ones, characters will faithfully stick to norms of real life and the audience will expect a cathartic effect at the end of the play. According to Brecht, it defeats the essence of drama to watch a play with the purpose of emotional association with characters.

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Analysis of the Film “The Iron Lady 2011” Critical Essay cheap essay help

The purpose of this paper is to examine the historical accuracy and academic worthiness of the 2011 film “The Iron Lady”, a British-American movie that attempts to portray the life and political career of Margaret Thatcher, the longest serving and only female prime minister of the United Kingdom.

First, the paper develops a brief but comprehensive summary of the film. Secondly, it provides a detailed critical analysis of the film from a historical perspective. It examines the historical accuracy of the film, including period (era), personality, events and social political aspects.

Finally, a detailed conclusion is made to show that the film is not only historically accurate, but also an important tool for teaching history in modern classes.

Released in 2011, the film “The Iron Lady” revolves around the life and political career of Margaret Thatcher. The title “Iron Lady” is an adaptation of the nickname given to the former prime minister of Britain owing to her strong character, braveness and ability to trounce male political opponents1.

The film was directed by Phyllida Lloyd, produced by Damian Jones and set in the UK and France.

Much of the events are shown in a flashback style because the film is set in 2008 and attempts to show Thatcher’s life before, during and after her rule.

The film begins by depicting the elderly Margaret Thatcher (Meryl Streep) buying milk from a local shop, with a number of other shoppers who seem not to recognize the former prime minister. She is shown walking back to her house alone, much like any other citizen.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The film then concentrates on the life of Thatcher years after the end of her tenure. It provides evidence of her aging self, the effect of dementia and relationship with other people.

She is depicted the woman who denies the death of her husband Dennis Thatcher. The film makes the audience realize that Thatcher’s memory is fast fading away due to age and dementia.

It is evident that her personality is affected by her former role as a politician and the nation’s leader. For instance, she is unable to differentiate between the present and the past, which indicates that her memory is failing fast2.

Yet, she seems to be neglected by her family, especially her son and daughter. The son, Mark Thatcher, lives away in South Africa, with little contact existing between him and the mother. In addition, her relationship with Carol Thatcher, her daughter, is sometimes strained, making her stay alone most of the times.

The film then uses a flashback style to depict the previous life and career of the former Prime minister. The flashback begins with Lady Thatcher (Alexandra Roach) as a young girl in Grantham, where she is working in the family’s grocery store.

The young woman seems interested in politics, especially her father’s political speeches. It is also evident that the relationship between the young Margaret and her mother is quite poor. The mother is a housewife, a lifestyle that seems less important to the young Thatcher.

In addition, the film shows Margaret’s quest for education as it announces her successful application for Oxford University, one of the most prestigious institutions of higher education at the time.

We will write a custom Essay on Analysis of the Film “The Iron Lady 2011” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After her education, Margaret has to fight hard to break into the Tory Party and win a seat in the British House of Commons, especially because males dominate the party as well as other political fields3. Among other things, Margaret is surprised by the proposal for marriage that Dennis Thatcher makes.

In addition, she has to fight hard to fit as a “woman” MP and later as a secretary for education following her appointment by Edward Heath, the British Prime Minister between 1970 and 19744. In addition, her close relationship with Airey Neave and campaigns for conservative party leadership is depicted.

Historically, the film ‘The Iron Lady’ revolves around the major events that happened during Thatcher’s time in office. Soon after taking the position, Thatcher has to deal with a number of challenges.

For instance, the rising rate of unemployment in Britain challenges her to take tight measures, including strict monetary policies and a tight budget, which was made in 19815. The film also shows her role in calming rioters in the Brixton protests of 1981 and the miners’ strike of the mid 1980s.

In the subsequent years, her economic policies became effective, with the country enjoying a decade of economic boom. It also shows her attempted assassination in the 1984 bombings at the Grand Hotel.

The film also depicts Thatcher as a strong and determined character during Britain’s conflict with Argentina over the Falklands, which resulted in a war between the two countries. Her leadership led to Britain’s victory and eventual occupation of the disputed Islands.

However, towards the end of the 1980s, the film reveals a number of problems affecting her leadership. Her approach to a number of issues, relationship with her cabinet and response to criticism have changed significantly. She has changed her attitudes towards the public and her officers.

For instance, she rants at the members of her cabinet and refuses to acknowledge that the Community Charge is not good, despite the citizens’ fury reactions. Eventually, Geoffrey Howe, her deputy prime minister, resigns after humiliations in office.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Analysis of the Film “The Iron Lady 2011” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Towards the end of the story, she agrees to resign and assumes a low profile. Twenty years later, the film shows the aging Thatcher struggling with her dementia. She seems to have paid a heavy price for her role as a politician and the hard decisions she had made.

It is evident that a big part of the storyline in the film is in line with the actual historical events that took place in Britain, especially during Thatcher’s tenure in the House as well as 10 Downing Street. First, the film shows the young Thatcher developing interest in politics and signs of public life.

The film intended to show that Thatcher, then known as Margaret Roberts, took much from her father. Alfred Roberts, the father, was a grocery owner, preacher and politician.

He was a good public speaker and made several political speeches when Margaret and her sister Muriel were young. Roberts vied for the Granham mayor seat and won in 1945 but lost his alderman position in 19526.

The film also follows the actual story by portraying the young Margaret as an outstanding student. Margaret Roberts achieved excellent grades in history at Huntingtower Road Primary School, eventually wining a scholarship at Kesteven and Grantham High Schools.

Her grades improved in high school, which saw her acquire a scholarship to study chemistry at the Oxford University, where she specialized in X-Ray Crystallography.

Secondly, the film depicts Thatcher’s political and public life. For example, it follows the social events of 1940s and 1950s, when only few women would dare challenge males in almost all political positions.

Margaret was not a dynamic public speaker, yet she gave straight and fearless answers when challenged in the media and political rallies.

In fact, she also attracted the media as the youngest person to vie for the Dartford Member of Parliament in 1951. Although she did not win, she was able to reduce the political might of the labor party by a large margin.

Furthermore, the film highlights the actual economic situation in Britain in 1960s and 1970s, when the ruling Labor Party had been losing its popularity. She was of the opinion that reduced taxation was an important incentive to increase human efforts and commitment to work.

Moreover, she supported the idea of legalizing abortion, criminalization of hare coursing and decriminalization of male homosexuality. However, she supported capital punishment and strict laws on divorce7.

In fact, most of the political meetings, rallies and other debates outside and inside the House of Commons are depicted to be male-dominated, a fact that was supported by the 20th century history of Britain.

When Edward Heath took power in early 1970s, Thatcher’s political career was enhanced because she was successively promoted from one position to another. For instance, she was promoted from a shadow cabinet minister to a full secretary of state for education and science.

After Heath’s term in office ended in 1975, Thatcher became the leader of opposition in parliament. She expressed a fierce critique of the Government’s approach to foreign affairs.

In particular, she was vocal in criticizing the Soviet Union for its policies that were only aimed at challenging Britain, the US and their allies throughout the world. For instance, she gained the title “Iron Lady” when Krasnaya Zvezda (Red Star) newspaper criticized her comments on the USSR.

This was reaction to her speech in Kensington Town Hall, where she had accused the Russians for “putting guns ahead of butter” while Britain and her allies were “putting everything before guns”. This scathing attack is also depicted in the film, providing evidence of its reliability as a historical and teaching material.

Perhaps one of the strongest evidence that the film was set on the actual historical events in Britain is the depiction of economic situation of Britain in 1970s, which led to a decreasing popularity of Labor Party and its regime. The economic situation was bad, the country’s economy was lagging and facing possible crisis.

James Callaghan, the Labor Prime Minister, announced that there was no need for a general election, which only increased public fury and popularity of Conservative party. By 1978, the national economy had declined, with inflation rising significantly. The rate of employment was declining and prices were increasing.

These events contributed to the popularity of Thatcher, who was then seen as the most probable candidate for the top seat. In addition, she was seen as the most promising person to provide an alternative leadership, following the long dominance of male prime ministers8.

Britons were looking for a new blood in power. They wanted a government that would provide alternative leadership by addressing social and economic problems. People were willing to see a different person, perhaps even a different gender in power.

Thus, it was not a surprise that Thatcher won the 1979 general elections. The film concentrates on these events, which increases its credit as a material for education and source of historical information.

Nevertheless, the film made some few exaggerations and omissions, which amount to historical inaccuracies. For instance, the film depicts Thatcher saying goodbye to Airey Neave a few minutes before he was assassinated. In fact, it suggests that security officers held her back.

This is not historically correct because Thatcher was not present in Westminster when the event took place. In addition, the film exaggerates the nature of gender imbalance in the House of Commons in 1950s and 1960s. For example, it fails to show that a few other female MPs were present.

Again, this amounts to historical inaccuracy because there were about 19 female MPs during Thatcher’s time as a Conservative MP.

Moreover, it is worth noting that the film erroneously shows Michael Foot, the Labor leader, criticizing Thatcher for authorizing invasion of the Argentinean forces in the Falklands in 1982. In history, Foot was one of the labor MPs who supported the military action against the Argentinean military Junta.

In conclusion, it is evident that most of the storyline in the film “The Iron Lady” attempts to follow the actual life of Margaret Thatcher.

Despite the few exaggerations and omissions developed to increase the entertainment aspect of the story, the film is recommended as a teaching material for history, political science and international relation studies.

Bibliography Campbell, John, Margaret Thatcher: The Iron Lady (London: Vintage Books, 2013), 304-369.

Morgan, Kenneth O, Britain since 1945: The People’s Peace (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 423-488.

The Iron Lady, DVD, Directed by Phyllida Lloyd. 2011. London, UK: 20th Century Fox, 2011.

Footnotes 1 The Iron Lady, DVD, directed by Phyllida Lloyd (2011; London, UK: 20th Century Fox, 2011).

2 The Iron Lady, DVD, directed by Phyllida Lloyd (2011; London, UK: 20th Century Fox, 2011).

3 John Campbell, Margaret Thatcher: The Iron Lady (Jonathan Cape, 2013), 324.

4 Campbell, 327

5 Kenneth Morgan, Britain since 1945: The People’s Peace (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 436.

6 Campbell, 336

7 Campbell, 388

8 Campbell, 873

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Is Virtue Ethics Dead in Modern Organizations? Problem Solution Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Problem

Background

Virtue Ethics

Solutions

Outcomes (Benefits)

References

Problem Taking part in a multi-dimensional dialog, which working in the global economy presupposes, invites the need to reconsider the ethical principles, which the corporate decision-making processes are based on (Belak

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Implementation of a Change Programme in a Multinational Company Evaluation Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

The global business environment is constantly developing and making organisations adapt to these processes while managing change. In this context, the organisational change is a process of changing the company’s direction in the work, strategies, and behaviours in order to address new goals corresponding with the progress of the business environment (Cameron

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The EV Products in China Quantitative Research Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

Research Rationale

Research Aim

Research Objectives

Research Structure

Reference List

Abstract Purpose. The study is aimed at determining the factors, which Chinese customers are guided by when choosing electric cars, as well as defining an efficient branding strategy for the BMWi product.

Design. The research was carried out as a quantitative study, as the nature of the relations between the key variables required quantification of the research results.

Methodology. The research was conducted as a quantitative analysis of the data acquired in the course of questionnaire answers analysis.

Findings. According to the key outcomes of the study, the main reason for the green policy of BMW in general and the introduction of the BMWi vehicle in particular have been inefficient so far due to the lack of connection built by BMW between the customers and the brand.

Research Limitation. The study was limited in terms of the number of participants, which could be engaged in the survey. Since it was practically impossible to embrace every single social tier, the outcomes of the research turned out to be rather approximate. Herein the key limitation of the study lies.

Practical Implications. The practical significance of the study is defined by the effects, which the information in question will have on the BMW Company. By understanding the motives of the customers, the firm will be able to create a new branding approach for promoting its product successfully.

Keywords. Electric vehicle, environmentalism, BMWi.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Introduction The increased competition rates that can be witnessed in the environment of the global economy in the current age of informational technology define the branding approaches used by companies to a considerable degree. Learning about the brand strategies, which companies resort to in order to cater to the needs of the target denizens of the population allows understanding how customer behaviour can be analyzed and used for promoting the product successfully.

The introduction of BMWi has clearly altered the existing vehicle market. Targeting at a specific tier of the Chinese society, the company had to use a very elaborate branding strategy, which could affect the behaviour of the Chinese customers and alter it, convincing them that electric vehicles (EV) were a better bargain than diesel cars (Steinhilber, Wells,

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Yoga for Stress Management Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background to yoga

Stress and its associated health and organizational challenges

Yoga lifestyle and stress management

Conclusion

References

Introduction Different people have differing levels to which they can effectively withstand stressing environmental conditions. Factors such as personality types, the emotional stability attributes of different people, and personal temperaments may determine this ability (Kumar

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Person-centered Approach vs. Cognitive-Behavioral Approach Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

Literature Review

Methods Used in the Studies

The Researchers’ Conclusions

Conclusion

References

Abstract The person-centered and cognitive-behavioral theories are common models in counseling and psychotherapy. The two approaches have different theoretical underpinnings and thus, have distinct uses in therapy.

Moreover, a number of factors, such as the client’s age and the setting of the therapy, determine their efficacy and application. However, both theories lead an individual through a journey of self-discovery and self-actualization.

This essay compares and contrasts these two models in the context of counseling. It also reviews five articles that evaluate the efficacy and application of these counseling theories in practice.

Introduction Both cognitive-behavioral and person or client-based approaches are useful in counseling and psychotherapy. The cognitive-behavioral theory involves a combination of behavioral and cognitive therapy approaches.

The behavioral theory is founded on Ivan Pavlov’s behavior modification concepts of operant and classical conditioning (Lin, 2001). Behavioral therapists urge their clients to be self-conscious and assertive in order to improve their cognitive abilities, such as critical thinking and decision-making.

The cognitive-behavioral theory, as put forward by Beck (1976), explains how thought processes affect a client’s behavior and emotions.

On the other hand, the person-centered therapy (PCA), as formulated by Carl Rodgers in the 1940s, is an approach that is centered on the needs and values of the client. The approach revolves around the belief that self-actualization is the ultimate goal of a therapeutic relationship.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To achieve this, the client has to internalize individual experiences in an honest manner in order to develop a realistic personal image that is devoid of distortions. In this way, the client is able to avoid denial and develop a positive self-concept.

A person-centered counselor knows that a self-actualized individual is better placed to deal with his or her life situation.

The therapist provides a neutral and empathic therapeutic environment that allows the client to share his or her story. The person-centered therapeutic relationship is comparable to a journey of self-discovery for the client.

In contrast, in cognitive-behavioral counseling, the therapist emphasizes on the client’s behavior and mood. This approach revolves around the idea that cognitive processes influence one’s mood and behavior (Lin, 2001).

In this regard, the therapist, unlike in a client-centered setting, challenges some actions of the client, which he or she believes are self-destructive or irrational.

The two theories are effective in different situations. Both models have gained applications in contemporary situations that require individual and group therapy. However, the application and efficacy of either model depends on the age and needs of the client.

This essay will compare and contrast the cognitive-behavioral and the person-centered approaches in the context of counseling. It will analyze the theories underlying the two models through a review of literature.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Person-centered Approach vs. Cognitive-Behavioral Approach specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Literature Review The person-centered model provides an empathic and non-judgmental environment to the client to facilitate reflective evaluation of the emotions emerging from his or her life situation.

In a counseling setting, the counselor employs active listening to allow the client to reveal his emotional and personal problems and devise ways of handling them. Its efficacy and application depend on the age and life situation of the client.

A study by Gibbard and Hanley (2008), evaluated the effectiveness of the person-centered model in the counseling of patients with mild mental illnesses. In this study, a therapist offered client-based counseling sessions to participants who were suffering from mood and anxiety disorders.

They were allowed to tell their stories and experiences in a non-judgmental setting free of questioning or criticism. The results indicated that the person-centered approach is quite effective in helping people with mild mental disorders to understand their life experiences and learn to manage their conditions.

It is evident that, by helping a client through a journey of self-discovery and self-actualization, he or she understands his or her current situation and learns to manage personal issues emanating from his or her life experiences.

Thus, the aim in person-centered therapy is to enable the client to ‘unravel’ and internalize personal experiences in order to overcome dysfunctional views or actions.

A comparable study by Tursi and Cochran (2006) evaluated the counseling relationship in a person-centered setting. Essentially, person-centered counseling aims at improving an individual’s self-concept.

A person-centered counselor understands that the client’s feelings and behavior emerge out of the need for self-preservation when under distress.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Person-centered Approach vs. Cognitive-Behavioral Approach by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Tursi and Cochran (2006) observe the counseling relationship is enhanced when the counselor provides a “warm and empathic therapeutic setting” that allows the client to control the information related to his or her life. They draw similarities between the person-centered and the cognitive-behavioral counseling.

One of the similarities identified in this study is that both approaches guide clients through a journey of self-actualization. Moreover, both enable clients to improve their thought patterns (cognitions) and self-concept in order to deal with dysfunctional actions or views in their lives.

The authors note that both models recognize the fact that the need to change one’s behaviors or actions emerges from individual insights, not the therapist’s views, or suggestions.

Thus, since the change process involves psychological adjustment to eliminate the perceptual difference between the ‘self’ and ‘life experience’, the person-centered approach draws heavily from the cognitive-behavioral model.

However, the person-centered approach may not be effective in addressing all problems. Some clients, especially children, may find it difficult to talk to a therapist, which can hamper the self-actualization process.

On the other hand, the structured nature of the cognitive-behavioral approach may not be appropriate in some situations, especially where the client’s ‘irrational’ beliefs have no emotional manifestation (feelings).

Unlike the person-centered approach, the cognitive-behavioral model aims at changing the irrational beliefs in a client that cause misbehaviors or disorders to realistic ones. The model challenges some of the client’s actions or views that underlie his or her self-concept issues.

Individual views are largely dependent on cultural and societal factors. In his study, Lin (2001) evaluated the foundations underlying the cognitive-behavioral theory to determine its effectiveness in the counseling of Chinese clients.

The researcher identified the Chinese philosophy (Confucianism), value system (collectivism), self-concept, interpersonal interactions, and socialization as incompatible with the theory’s underpinnings, which are based on Western values (Lin, 2001).

This implies that culture shapes individual behavior, values, and cognitive processes. Since, the cognitive-behavioral approach aims at empowering clients to become more self-assertive and develop a positive self-concept (individualistic), it contradicts the Chinese values of collectivism and Confucianism.

In the Chinese culture, self-assertiveness and public expression of emotions are considered dishonorable (Lin, 20001). Thus, the efficacy and application of the cognitive-behavioral theory in counseling depends on culture.

This means that counselors must identify which elements of the theory may elicit negative emotions from the client and avoid them or use a different model.

The cognitive-behavioral therapy is comparable to the humanistic counseling approach. A study by Shechtman and Pastor (2005) compared the effectiveness of the two models in the counseling of children.

The authors assessed the children’s academic performance and behavior over a specified period using standardized evaluation tools (the client behavior system and the therapist helping skills). They found that the humanistic approach was better than the cognitive-behavioral model in counseling.

They concluded that the structured nature of the cognitive-behavioral model hampers group therapy. Thus, this approach has certain limitations that make it inappropriate in particular settings. Psychotherapy is another common counseling approach that is based on psychoanalysis of the client.

Cognitive-behavioral methods replaced psychoanalytic models that evaluated a client’s emotional and interpersonal attributes as manifestations of their life experiences.

Zamanian and Adams (1997) applied psychotherapy in counseling sexual abuse victims (young children). The results indicated that psychotherapy could help clients develop coping and adaptive skills.

Methods Used in the Studies The five studies reviewed above use different methods to examine specific measures. Three of the studies use an experimental approach to analyze relevant measures (Gibbard

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How Biodiversity is Threatened by Human Activity Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Habitat loss: On land

Habitat loss: In the oceans

Habitat loss: Fresh water

Overexploitation on land

Bush meat

Overharvesting in the oceans

Introduced species

Works Cited:

The human species have gone extinct since the beginning of life, but human fingerprint is a useful marker that differentiates current and past extinctions. Environmental factors have been shown to cause human threats with regard to biodiversity (Duffy 440).

Human species are threatened when they come under pressure from different factors in the environment. It has also been shown that some factors act in a synergistic manner to cause combined threats. For example, research was conducted in Ontario to investigate the impact of climate change and acid rain on lakes.

The study found that the two environmental factors acted in a combined way to make water more penetrable by UV. The observation was that the climate change and acid rain removed materials that acted as barriers to UV.

The materials that acted as barriers to UV were identified as organic carbon and other natural products from soils and plants, which protect biological activities of aquatic organisms from the harmful effects of UV (Bradshaw, Sodhi, and Brook 80; Chivian and Bernstein 30).

Habitat loss: On land Human beings have caused varying degrees of changes on the earth’s surface due to their activities. It is expected that the level of habitat destruction will increase by about 70% in the next few decades (Chivian and Bernstein 34). This causes an alarm because habitat for many organisms will be destroyed in the near future.

Human activities have resulted in varying degrees of deforestation, which has resulted in the loss of habitat for many big and small animals. This has also contributed to disturbances of ecosystems.

Some of the human activities that cause deforestation include tree cutting, selective logging, wood harvesting, and forest fires, among others. Most of the deforested areas do not grow back and are left as land with limited capacity to support diversity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the recent past, an increasing number of natural endemics have contributed to significant losses of forest cover on the surface of the earth. It has been asserted that a good understanding of localization of natural endemics will be essential in deciphering recent and future extinctions due to deforestation (Chivian and Bernstein 35).

Habitat loss: In the oceans Although the level of marine biodiversity has not yet been established, it is widely acknowledged that human beings cause significant impacts on the oceans (Duffy 440). It is evident that about 50% of the total world populations live within a distance of about 60 kilometers from the oceans.

Thus, human activities have caused high levels of water pollution and large scale losses of wetland habitat. Most of the marine biodiversity is found in the tropics, especially coral reefs that support the growth of organisms (Bradshaw et al 83).

In fact, coral reefs support the growth of about 100,000 species of organisms in the oceans. Twenty percent of the world’s coral reefs have already been destroyed by humans. Also, 50% of the remaining coral reefs are at risk of collapse due to increasing human activities around the oceans (Chivian and Bernstein 38).

Habitat loss: Fresh water Although rivers and lakes cover about 1% of the earth’s surface, they support a considerable amount of biodiversity. For example, freshwater fishes comprise about a quarter of vertebrates found on the earth. Other organisms found in freshwater are crocodiles, turtles, otters, river dolphins and water shrews, among others.

Most of the freshwater species are found mostly in tropical regions, but this is not a universal observation. The extent to which freshwater biodiversity is being destroyed by humans is greater than that of terrestrial and marine systems.

This could be best explained by the Living Planet Index, which estimated the trends of vertebrates from 1970 to 2000. Among the three categories of indices that were studied, freshwater index fell by 50%.

We will write a custom Essay on How Biodiversity is Threatened by Human Activity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One reason that has contributed to the destruction of freshwater habitat is that the freshwater is an important resource for human activities. For example, it supports human health, production of food, generation of hydropower, economic growth and development.

It is also essential for many cultures and religions across the world. Overfishing, extraction of water for irrigation, construction of massive engineering systems for water storage and alteration of water flows are some of the activities that have caused destruction of freshwater biodiversity (Chivian and Bernstein 39).

Another important threat to freshwater biodiversity is coal mining. After mining, coal is washed in freshwater systems to remove various forms of impurities so that it could fetch better prices in the market. The process of washing leaves a lot of waste in freshwater systems.

Some of the impurities that cause threat to organisms in freshwater systems are mercury, lead and arsenic, which are all heavy metals characterized by high levels of toxicity.

In order to protect freshwater systems from biodiversity destruction, it would be important to control upstream network, the surrounding land and downstream regions (Chivian and Bernstein 40).

Overexploitation on land Overexploitation occurs when organisms are harvested at a rate that they cannot maintain their population numbers. Some of the examples of organisms that have become extinct due to overexploitation are the Great Auk and the Passenger Pigeon.

Some of the plant species that have become extinct as a result of overharvesting are Vinca rosea and Prunus africana. Trade in live animals is another form of overexploitation that resulted in the extinction of some animal species.

In fact, income from the world trade in endangered animal species and plants is over $10 billion on an annual basis (Chivian and Bernstein 43; Duffy 440).

Not sure if you can write a paper on How Biodiversity is Threatened by Human Activity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bush meat The number of nonhuman primates has been on the decrease due to hunting practices that aim at obtaining meat for food from wild animals. Expanding global populations have resulted in high demand for bush meat.

The proliferation of wildlife restaurants across the world will further endanger animal species across the world.

Overharvesting in the oceans Overexploitation in the oceans is caused by overfishing and fishing practices that cause destruction of biodiversity. The threats are caused by activities such as the use of chemicals that poison organisms in the oceans.

The destruction of coral reefs results in the oceans that have limited capacities of supporting life. Thus, biodiversity and ecosystems in oceans are at risk due to human activities. Some of species of fish that have become extinct due to overfishing are Dugongs, Steller’s Sea Cows, Gray Whales and Atlantic Sturgeon (Chivian and Bernstein 44).

Introduced species Some human activities have resulted in the introduction of species into new environments. However, some species could be introduced into new environments by other events that are not related to human activities. The species that are moved into new environments could be a threat to the existing organisms.

Some of the species that have caused destruction of biodiversity in new environments are Soybean Rust, P. pachyrhizi, Aspergillus sydowii, Sturnnus vulgaris, Euglandina rosea, Achitina fulica, and Partula turgid (Chivian and Bernstein 50). In the recent past, invasive alien species have received attention by organizations across the world because they cause more harm to biodiversity than non-invasive species.

Works Cited: Bradshaw, Corey JA, Navjot S. Sodhi, and Barry W. Brook. “Tropical turmoil: a biodiversity tragedy in progress.” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7.2 (2008): 79-87. Print.

Chivian, Eric, and Aaron Bernstein, eds. Sustaining life: how human health depends on biodiversity. Oxford University Press, United Kingdom, 2008. Print.

Duffy, J. Emmett. “Why biodiversity is important to the functioning of real-world ecosystems.” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7.8 (2008): 437-444. Print.

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Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: Male and Female Perspectives Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Introduction Sexual harassment is one of the problems that bother populations around the whole world. People cannot control their needs and demands and cannot predict the wishes of other people around, which is why a number of unpredicted and undesirable misunderstandings may take place.

The workplace is the place, where certain rules, obligations, and expectations are considered. People use their degrees to find a good job and start earning money for living. However, the cases of sexual harassment in the workplace can happen, and they have to be analyzed, the majority of them has to be prevented, and some solutions need to be offered.

The current paper aims at discussing, defining, and evaluating the concept of sexual harassment in the workplace from male and female perspectives during different periods of time to comprehend how changeable a human opinion can be.

Definition of sexual harassment in the workplace Sexual harassment in the workplace is usually defined as an unlawful pressure on an employee or “unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical harassment of a sexual nature” (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, n.d., para. 1).

In fact, the law does not forbid such gestures like teasing or some inappropriate comments, this is why many employers and workers are provided with an opportunity to avoid possible punishment and explain their strange behavior within the frames of law and ethics. Ivancevich (2013) explains sexual harassment in the workplace as a promise of rewards at the expense of some sexual services that have to be offered.

In the USA, there are many cases, when the employers are able to use their power and influence in the way a harassed person is not a victim but a provocative.

Controversy surrounding sexual harassment in the workplace Such inabilities to provide a clear definition of the concept of sexual harassment in the workplace create a number of controversies. People cannot understand when they have to take care of their personality, when a case of sexual harassment can take place, and how they can protect themselves against the powerful employer hard by.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some employees admit that they are eager to use their opportunities to get the desired promotion, some employers say about the weaknesses of their workers, and some workers believe that there is no other way to get a job or not to lose a working place but to follow the demands of their bosses, even if these demands are of sexual nature. All these controversies have reasons, and different centuries introduce different pictures of how men and women understand and treat the problem of sexual harassment in the workplace.

Discussion Sexual harassment in the workplace was identified as a problem of sex discrimination characterized by “unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature” in 1964 (McLaughlin, Uggen,

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Justification for IT Capital Projects Report (Assessment) college essay help near me

Table of Contents Appropriate Models for Projects

Rationale Why the Models Were Selected

Ranking the Projects According To These Criteria

Rationale

List of References

Appropriate Models for Projects Projects can be evaluated using a number of models based on the aim of a firm. According to Mian (2011), in many cases, a firm may find itself faced with a situation where it has a number of projects that need to be completed within a short period. In such cases, it becomes necessary to prioritise the available options based on the most pressing needs and resource capacity of the firm.

In this context, the company will need to have a number of models to be sued in prioritising the projects. The first method that this firm can use is the Financial Metrics Model. This model has been very common in the past because it points out the projects that are beyond the financial constraints of a firm.

The IT Portfolio Model is another method that the firm can use to rank the projects. The third method that can be used is the Boston Consulting Group Model. Any of these three models may be appropriate in different contexts based on what a firm is striving to achieve within a specified timeframe.

Rationale Why the Models Were Selected It is important to understand the relevance of choosing the three models to rank the projects provided. Financial Metrics Model has been identified as one of the most appropriate methods that can be used to rank the models. According to Rad and Anantatmula (2005), any project that a firm initiates needs some form of financial resources.

A firm must have its priority right financially when initiating a project. First, an organisation can only fund a project to a given limit within its financial capacity. It means that a project can only be funded if the needed financial resources are available to the firm at that particular moment.

This fact explains why a firm may postpone a good project to a future date when it has the resources to fund it. The second factor that is always considered on any project is the return on investment. Financial Metrics Model emphasises on the need to ensure that the invested funds can be earned back in form of profits within a reasonable time. Sometimes a project’s cost may exceed the expected returns.

Unless the organisation in question is a non-profit making firm, such investments should be avoided at all cost. The firm must be assured that its investment will be recovered within a reasonable timeframe (Laudon

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Managerial Economics – A pharmaceutical Company Case Study college application essay help

Every organization faces numerous problems and challenges. Some of them are minor, the others are crucial. Many come as a part of the company’s planning process, and some are brought due to certain new opportunities. Whatever they are, decision-making process lies at the very core.

It is always a delicate balance between a desire to maximize company’s revenue and success and an increased risk to make things worse. Managerial economics ‘largely uses the body of economic concepts and principles’, which can help to make a decision making easier by considering such factors as supply and demand, cost-benefit, market structure, efficiency and others (Atmanand 2009, p. 11).

In this paper, I will describe and analyze according to managerial economics concepts a challenge that an organization I have worked in once faced.

A Challenge Description A pharmaceutical company faces a significant research and development decision (so-called R

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Discussion 6 Essay college essay help: college essay help

Answer questions one by one. not in paper form(examples 1. Blank.. 2. Blank )

1. In case #1, what questions do you have about the incident?

2. What went wrong in your opinion.

3. This is a real case that I was involved in. Use your forum to ask questions about the outcomes or issues.

4. What went wrong in case 2?

5. what should have happened?

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Overmedication in School-Age Children Research Paper college essay help online

Table of Contents Overmedication

Why School-age Children are Over-medicated

Behaviors that Result in Overmedication in Children

Learning Difficulties that result in Overmedication

Effects of Overmedication in School-age Children

Remedy for Overmedication in School-age Children

Conclusion

Summary of Key Points

References

Overmedication School-age children are at the risk of being given medication beyond the recommended doses. According to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (2015), the number of school-age children who are given antipsychotics has doubled over the last three years. In fact, it is estimated that more than 25% of teens are taking antipsychotics as prescribed by their health pharmacists.

This could lead to several severe conditions for children, and more specifically the school-age children. The aim of this paper is to identify the reasons for over-medication in school-age children with behavioural and learning issues difficulties.

Why School-age Children are Over-medicated According to Smith (2012), parents, schools, and health practitioners are to blame for the rise of over-medication in school-age children. More often than not, parents do not have the time to look after their children. They are too busy with their jobs, leaving little time for their children. In the event that their children develop signs of ill health, they opt for medications without researching enough or seeking a doctor’s advice (Smith, 2012).

In schools, children are under the pressure to perform better, where failure to perform results in school administrators recommending the student for further education. As a consequence, the children end up consuming more antipsychotics than they can handle. Health professionals have contributed to the increase in the number of medicines that the school-age children use.

Most health practitioners who treat children do not opt for psychological therapy. Rather, they opt for antipsychotics in treating children who are suspected to have mental disorders.

Behaviors that Result in Overmedication in Children Some behaviors result in overmedication in school-age children. One such behavior is the persistent refusal of the child to obey the superiors. When children are growing up, they sometimes develop bad behavior of failing to heed what their parents and other superiors are advising them to do, especially the boys who at some point may disobey their parents due to peer pressure.

The result is that most parents prefer to take such children to a psychiatrist. A psychiatrist is required to conduct reconstructive therapy to the child. However, some fail to do the therapy and end up giving the child antipsychotics (Cortiella

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Behavioral Patterns, Trust and Loyalty-Building In China Dissertation essay help: essay help

Findings The data collected using questionnaires stipulated a 99% confidence in the involvement of the participant on online purchasing of clothes and apparels in China. A remarkable outcome indicates that all the interviewees browsed these products online (n=200). In fact, it has been proven that such online browsing on apparels and clothes happen more often during the month.

Responses indicated that more than 50% of the respondents had browsed the internet in search of clothes for at least two times. Only a percentage of lower than 30% had browsed one or less times. In addition, the research found that the frequency of browsing was associated to free-time. Eighty percent of the participant supported the attribute that browsing took place while relaxing at home.

Although lower percentages were recorded when handling other activities such as taking meals and working, the most imperative and outstanding record was during relaxation. It was during such times as while sleeping and after meals which recorded the next count of above 25% each. The correlation between the browsing and purchasing of the Chinese clothes and apparels is somewhat independent.

The purchase of clothes on monthly periods was analyzed as follows.

Figure 1: Proportions of purchasing women’s apparels online in China

The marketing and access of the clothes and apparel is affected by such sites as Weibo, which is a blogging service connecting to Facebook and Twitter. This micro-blogging is followed by companies and sites specializing in fashion delivery by Mogujie. These were the most prevalent sites handling the delivery and marketing of the subject items taking over 30% preference.

The deviation of using apps from mobile devices was low. The respondent maintained mixed interests and equal preference for using computers of mobile apps. In this regard, the record shows that there was about 20% preference and application of mobile devices and their components in browsing or purchasing these products.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Among the issues appearing to cause variations in the purchase of clothing and apparel by online platforms included the price, discount, sales volume, size, styles and designs, user recommendations, product authenticity, changes on the actual order on delivery, delivery tactics, and maintenance of reputation, customer services, policies and requirements of the online stores (Dye 2000).

The respondents (n=200) show that the sales’ volumes are the most relevant aspects attracting attention from Chinese clients (π=10.17, σ= 1.11).

Mean Standard Deviation Price 6.53 1.23 Discount / Offer 7.73 1.33 Sales volume 10.27 1.11 Size 8.37 1.40 Quality 6.05 2.00 Design/Style 4.47 1.14 User recommendation 5.74 1.77 Discrepancy between on line display and actual product 5.93 1.67 Authenticity of product 5.62 2.01 Returns and exchange policies 8.13 1.41 Ambiance of the online store 9.71 1.61 Reputation of the online store 8.72 1.23 Delivery 9.02 1.01 Customer service 8.72 1.21 Table 1: The mean and standard deviation on concerns of purchasing women’s clothing and apparels in China

However, the data shows that there are sufficient grounds showing that all the other aspects affect the way customers make choices and preferences. For instance, it is significantly apparent that the ambiance of online store can raise as much concerns as the sales volume since the value upon deviations sums to 11.32 (π=9.71, σ= 1.61). The significance of the remaining concerns can be argued or determined from the table above.

The purchase of women’s clothing and apparels is triggered by such factors as prices, conveniences of delivery and order, time management and freedom, personalized and accessible products, recommendations and fashion updates, direct purchase from abroad and impacts from advertisements (Indelicato 2013).

The data collected from these fundamental motives assesses whether some factors are more reliable than others on facilitating online purchase of apparels and clothes. The predominant impact is attributes to recommendation from family, friends, and colleagues among others at a personal level. This impact was signified by a mean of 5.97 and a standard deviation of 1.33.

Motives π σ Lower price 4.54 0.97 Easily and conveniently order 3.80 1.56 Ignore opening hours 4.75 1.10 Greater selection 4.66 1.09 Merchandises are delivered to home 4.58 1.12 Recommended by family/friends/colleagues/others 5.97 1.33 Keep up with the newest fashion trend 5.10 1.22 Can order products directly from abroad 5.55 1.21 Attracted by the advertisements on the website 5.37 1.33 Table 2: The mean and standard deviation on motives of purchasing women’s clothing and apparels in China

We will write a custom Dissertation on Behavioral Patterns, Trust and Loyalty-Building In China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The core processes on value have been argued by researchers to include price, quality and timing. They are the most vital factors enhancing customer satisfaction. These attributes are accompanied by efficiency and effectiveness. The online purchase of women’s clothing and apparel realizes products of the highest possible quality at regulated prices and appropriate time in order to satisfy the customers.

Similarly, the distribution and supply of these products need to be ensured in order to elevate customer value. The quality and cost of these products should be regulated to attain high profits due to huge sales. These changes can be implemented by increasing the quantity of apparel and clothing production and taking advantage of the economies of scale.

Furthermore, some core ideologies and needs must be met to reach the main area of innovation lying within the designs of apparel and their quality. The online stores release new clothes with such advantages developed by innovation as flexibility and durability. They appear to be the fashion as online customers have accessible futures to customize their searches in accordance to the prevailing prices.

The data shows coherence in the variation of motives directing purchases of women clothing and apparel. First, it is apparent that 33 respondents were not deviated by the cost of these products rating such motives as 1 in a scale of 9. However, the mixture of this decision has been opened more closely by the deviation of 0.97.

The application online strategies during purchases depicted relevant results prior to the fashion credibility, direct accessibility and impacts from adverts. DeSemir (2010) postulated that the media accords varying attention and coverage to different products depending on their interests, financial benefits, specialization, and knowledge and skills of the marketer, publishers, or media houses.

Kiraithe (2012) further established that since most marketers are owned by business entrepreneurs in different capacities such as companies, partnerships, sole proprietorships and only a small percentage as parastatal organizations, profits drives most of the operations and contents advertised (Lappe 2013).

In order to test whether DeSemir (2010) and Kiraithe (2012) postulations were inherent in the context of China’s online platforms, a score rating ranging between 1 and10 was used on various items. In this regard, a mean score below 5.0 implied that respondents generally disagreed, a score of 5.0 respondents were ambivalent, and a mean score above 5.0 meant that respondents agreed to the proposed statements.

In the table, the results obtained when the respondents were asked to rate extent that they agreed with the statements: when choosing which contents to air, they focused on those that are income generating, educative, and attract audience tastes and preferences.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Behavioral Patterns, Trust and Loyalty-Building In China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More N Minimum Maximum Mean SD Delivery time scales and charges 200 1 10 4.18 3.091 Information on return and exchange policies 200 1 10 4.20 2.528 Multiple images of products 200 1 10 6.54 2.538 Table 3: Media coverage on product pages

Based on the results outputs in the table above, it is clear that the mean score of delivery time scales and charges is 4.18. The data of the return and exchange policies depicted a mean score of 4.20 that does not show any agreement or disagreement. Multiple images of products attracted a mean score of 6.54. Multiple images of products are the major consideration among different media houses in China when determining which content to post.

If many audiences are not affective on space science and technology programs, then media sites will prefer different contents. Conversely, if media can promote information technology programs among different audiences and win their confidence, their tastes and preferences would shift in favor of site-related contents (Jonas 2010). Another consideration amounting to content-airing disparity among different advertisements in China is profits.

Although businesses exist to make profit, online purchases should strike a balance and give back to the society by promoting education programs.

Information π σ Delivery time scales and charges 4.18 3.091 Information on return and exchange policies 4.20 2.528 Multiple images of products 6.54 2.528 Reviews from other shoppers 3.04 2.012 Detailed product information (e.g. material, color, place of origin washing instruction) 2.94 1.982 Product parameter (e.g. time to market, place of origin and brand) 3.57 1.897 Table 4: The mean and standard deviation on the information required on websites

This research dictates that online transaction involving the women’s clothing and apparel is more direct to dresses and tops more than 50% of the participants subscribed to the purchase of these two products. The dresses and tops attained preferences for online purchases from 114 and 111 participants respectively.

Type Coats Dresses Jackets Jeans Jumpsuits Knitwear Pants Shorts Tops Lingerie Activewear Beachwear Sleepwear Other, specify n/200 70 114 22 38 24 39 49 41 111 29 32 24 47 4 Table 5: Frequencies on the types of clothes and apparels required

Furthermore, the purchase of these women’s clothing and apparels is associated to the fashion and its originality. Out of 200 respondents, 119 informed that fashion brand was their core need while making online purchases in China.

However, other factors such as domestic famous, international famous, and luxury brands among others took a descending significance in this order.

Brands Domestic famous brands International famous brands Original fashionable brands Luxury brands Other, specify n/200 81 71 119 22 17 Table 6: The frequencies on brands of clothing and apparels purchased online

In fact, such brands are bought depending on how they have been simplistic to the purchasers. Data indicates that a tally of 132 respondents bid to the idea of purchasing simple clothing and apparels. The highest population of preferences lays on the simple and casual styles of clothing and apparel.

In perspective, a half or even more respondents chose to purchase these products over the internet than others like girly, sexy, elegant, and sweet among other styles. The margin between the two primary styles dominating online purchases and preferences is big while compared to other aspects.

As presented in the literature, trust and loyalty-building over virtual platforms is a technical factor in today’s market. In this regard, clients tend to purchase clothes and apparels from websites that have renowned credibility and reputation. This aspect explains why such websites endorsed and registered by the international trades’ affairs like Taobao rises to be the ultimate preference eventually.

In fact, the data dictates this point without further analysis. The respondent who use Taobao website to purchase women’s clothing and apparel were 136. The other website approaching Taobao was Tmall with 38 preferences out of the same population size of 200. Trust is a fundamental and exceptional attribute when disposing electronic money to sources you may find hard to follow (Earley

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The NOL Card Implementation Phase Essay (Critical Writing) essay help free: essay help free

NOL Card Implementation The prevailing technologies and developments have transformed the globe and demanded the establishment of smart payment styles. The United Arabs Emirates is the only country where smart transformation has been implemented.

In a bid to fulfil this, McNabb (2012) argues that the Dubai government has initiated changes in the payment method of the transport industry from the use of cash money to NOL cards through the Roads and Transport Authority (RTA).

In regard to the theories of E and O, the NOL card implementation phase was as discussed below.

Goals The goals of introducing the NOL cards were based on theory O, since they aimed at enlarging the operation and service of the RTA. They were to improve the capabilities of the organisation and transport services.

These goals involved making the transport in Dubai easier to use, enhancing the initiative of establishing a smart city, increasing the usage of public transport, and introducing services with some added value to the commuters (Libo-on 2014).

For instance, a person with the NOL card does not worry about the cash and currency present in the pocket, which makes it easier and convenient for the commuters, especially those picking taxis from the airports.

This transformation was also in line with the vision of Dubai government targeting to change the city in a smart way.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Leadership The theories of E and O were applied in the leadership of the initiative to change the transport payment model in Dubai. Therefore, the directions and orders of the transformation came from the government through the relevant agency.

It included the taxi and public transport operators within the lower categories of leadership and engaged them through participation in the transformation. This inclusion of all people indiscriminately showed a collective involvement in the change.

The implementation management of the new NOL cards is under the Roads and Transport Authority, which is the organisation giving an order on the activities to be performed. It provides the meters/devices for installation in the taxis, buses, and transport terminals (‘Roads and Transport Authority’ 2010).

The meters are devices where the NOL cards are swiped to make payments. In the public transport services, the employees and the taxi drivers take part in the implementation by assisting the commuters on using the new technology.

Focus The approach of theory E emphasises on the structures and system as the changes, and it is being administered and used widely by the RTA of Dubai in implementation of the NOL card. This new smart technology facilitated the installation of meters in buses, public transport terminals, and taxis.

There was also a change within the system, since the transformation of the payment method does not force the commuters to attend the bus station and get tickets after paying the fare. Currently, a person pays in the bus or at the terminal when he or she boards the vehicle.

The theory O was also used in the implementation of the smart payment of fare in Dubai. Focus was directed on the culture of the transport sector and the people using the public transport. This change focused on transforming the commuters’ culture of paying fares by cash to the use of NOL cards (Ahmed 2009).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on The NOL Card Implementation Phase specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Process The approach of theory E to get a plan for the programme and establish it to enhance the change was used while implementing the transformation in Dubai’s transportation payment method.

It started when the government of UAE planned to transform its cities before 2020, and the Road Transport Authority of Dubai provided the plans to make payments using the new smart technology.

After introducing the plan, this organisation started to establish it through installing wireless meters where the NOL cards were swiped in buses, terminals and taxis.

In this light, the transport agency in conjunction with the RTA chose Network International to be the payment provider where the two organisations were networked.

The systems of RTA had to be connected with banks all over the world so as travellers from any part of the world could use their NOL cards to make payments.

At the beginning of 2014, forty taxi operators were trained to use the new payment system, since 1000 airport taxis were expected to install the system by the summer of 2015 (Libo-on 2014).

Reward System This development came with various ways of rewarding the new technology and its implementers. The two theories were considered in appreciating this transformation, since commitments and financial offers were used as motivational tools in the programme.

The Dubai government declared its commitment in this programme and offered both administrative and financial support to its implementation (McNabb 2012). In this regard, the taxi drivers could be given tips by the other users leading to appreciations of this customised system.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The NOL Card Implementation Phase by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Consultants The Dubai government had to get consultants to boost effective change of transport payments from the use of cash to NOL cards. Among the consultants were such experts as Network International, which empowered the stakeholders involved in this transformation (‘Roads and Transport Authority’ 2010).

This showed that the theories of E and O were significant in this case.

Challenges The following subtitles assessed some problems that were encountered in the implementation of this change within the transport payment processes.

Prior implementation

One great challenge that faced the transformation was the acquisition of resources needed for the new systems. High-quality wireless meters were needed for installation in the buses and terminals. The equipments were expensive and required a lot of finances to install.

During implementation

Networking data was another major problem when this change was being implemented, since it took a lot of time before the system could be put in use. The data of RTA was to be related to Network International, which was the payment provider of this system.

The transformation faced another challenge when RTA was connecting with banks worldwide. It was noted that some banks were slow, and their numbers caused congestions in the entire process (McNabb 2012).

After Implementation

There were some challenges faced after the transformation when the new payment method was in use. After implementation, some vending machines started to experience technical problems where the NOL cards were used and made them non-operational.

In this regard, commuters were sometimes left stranded at the bus terminals because they could not recharge their NOL cards.

The final challenge was overcharging the commuters. This happened due to the malfunctioning of reading machines used in buses. Sometimes, the NOL cards took a long time to complete the check-out after a person alighted, which made the individual pay an extra fare (Libo-on 2014).

References Ahmed, A 2009, Traffic and Transport. Web.

Libo-on, L 2014, Pay your taxi fare by Nol, debit or credit card. Web.

McNabb, A 2012, Nol Cards and the Future of Money. Web.

‘Roads and Transport Authority’ 2010, Almasar Roads and Transport Authority, vol. 3, p. 4-14.

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Canada’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Term Paper essay help

Canada’s growth may be attributed to the service industry that employs two thirds of the country’s population. Its key industries include manufacturing, energy, agriculture, fishing, electricity, forestry, automotive, airspace, social programs, transportation and tourism (Wehinger, 2010 p. 67).

Canada’s economic statistics Its GDP was calculated to be$ 1.839trillion in 2013 Its GDP growth was rated at 2.0% in 2013 Its GDP per capita was calculated to be $ 52,300 in 2012 Its GDP per sectors was as follows: Agriculture 1.7%, industry 28.5% and services 69.8% in 2013 Inflation (CPI) was ranked at 1.2% in 2013 Canada’s population rated to be below poverty line was 9.4% of the total population in 2008 Canada’s Gini coefficient was calculated to be 32.1% in 2005 Its labor force included 18.89 million people in 2012 The country’s labor force by occupation was as follows: Agriculture 2%, manufacturing 13%, construction 6%, services 76%, and other sectors 3% in 2006 Unemployment rates were calculated to be 6.9% in March 2014 Canada’s main industries comprise of transportation, equipments, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood, fish and paper products, petroleum and natural gas. Economic experts ranked the country’s rate of doing business in position 17th globally.

Canada’s major exports and imports According to Landsburg (2010, p.34), “the country’s major exports include industrial machines, motor vehicles and spare parts, aircrafts, telecommunication equipments, chemicals, plastics, fertilizers, wood pulp, timber, crude oil, natural gas, electricity and aluminium”.

The total country export earnings per year are 462.528 billion US dollars (Landsburg, 2010).

According to Landsburg (2010, p.35), “Canada’s major imports comprise of machines and equipments, motor vehicles and spare parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity and durable consumer products”. The importation of these goods costs the country a total of 474.544 billion dollars (Yunker, 2010).

Canada’s major exports and imports have changed over the last decade. The United States featured in first position in importing Canadian commodities at the beginning of the last decade.

Exports of Canadian manufactured commodities to the US declined in 2009. China increased its imports of Canada’s manufactured goods bypassing the US. Countries within the EU also featured as importers of Canada’s manufactured goods.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Canada’s major trading partners The country’s main export partners include the United States at 73.2%, the European Union at 4.6%, the United Kingdom at 4.3%, China at 4.3%, Germany at 3.4% and Israel at 3.1% (Thompson, 2012).

Canada’s major trading partners in the importation of products comprise of the United States at 50.6%, China at 11.0%, the United Kingdom at 6.2%, Japan at 6.2%, Mexico at 5.5% and South Korea at 4.5% (Thompson, 2012). China also features as a major trading partner of Canada.

The country features as one of the major importers of Canada’s manufacturing industry. The UK is among the major trading partners of Canada followed by the Netherlands among the EU countries.

Canada’s policy on trade barriers Canada has a number of trade barriers. Canada contains internal trade barriers called interprovincial trade barriers. The barriers contribute to the slow pace of Canada’s economy compared to that of the US. Canada imposes very high tariffs on certain foods like dairy products to encourage the local animal food industry.

Canada imposes tariff rate quotas on other food imports. This aspect leads to high prices of food commodities in the country due to reduced competition. Canada lowers tariffs of imported goods to encourage trade with its neighbors especially the US.

Canada introduced the free trade strategy to encourage trade with the US in the 80s. Canada’s transport policy safeguards the wellbeing of its companies that operate abroad. The Trade Policy Branch enhances Canadian companies’ access to foreign markets.

Canada’s investment regulations Investors in Canada include corporate entities, individual businessmen, countries, organizations and companies. The investors are obliged to follow rules and regulations embedded in Canada’s Investment Act.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Canada’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The legislation requires the investors to file a notification before they start a new business in the country or when they undertake managerial roles of an already existing one.

Canada imposes strict regulations on the environment because chemicals and diseases can destroy its natural resources. The country’s economy is significantly dependent on natural resources. Canada prohibits goods and services that do not meet its environmental standards.

Trade sanctions Economic barriers may be imposed on a state by another in order to influence policies or compliance. The regulations may also assist in stopping human rights violations especially the use of excessive force on populations by certain countries.

A group of states may impose sanctions on a given country due to violation of human rights and bad governance.

Countries that export commodities to Canada must appropriately label them. This measure helps in the identification of the goods’ country of origin and production companies.

Canada’s other policies include trade barriers, safety regulations and immigration laws.

Canada’s membership in regional trade agreements Canada is a member of several regional trade agreements like the Canada- US Free Trade Agreement that was ratified on 12 October 1987.

The agreement later became the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994, and the membership includes Canada, US and Mexico.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Canada’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Other trade ties include Canada – Israel Free Trade Agreement of 1997, Canada- Chile Free trade Agreement of1997 and Canada – Costa Rica Free Trade Agreement of 2000.

Additional economic ties include Canada – European Free Trade Association of 2009 whose other members include Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein, Canada – Peru Free Trade Agreement of 2009, and Canada – Colombia Free Trade Agreement of 2008.

Others comprise of Canada – Jordan Free Trade Agreement and Canada – Panama Free Trade Agreement (Philip

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Hourani on Middle Eastern History Coursework essay help online free: essay help online free

Albert Hourani’s article addresses the ideas and approaches that historians use to map the history of Middle East. Hourani explained his own points of view about Middle Eastern history during a joint conference by the British and French Societies of Middle Eastern and Arabic history-studies.

The author uses his personal understanding and impressions to articulate his argument. Furthermore, the speaker refers to his vast experience as a Middle-Eastern history scholar. In the talk, Hourani references several 20th century publications on the history of Middle East.

Hourani’s main argument is that several inconsistencies are manifested during the mapping of Middle Eastern history.

This paper explores Hourani’s main ideas on how history scholars should approach Middle Eastern historical studies in order not to make false conclusions or mistakes. The scholar points out the methods of viewing Middle Eastern history he considers inappropriate.

The author begins his talk by noting the influence both British and French colonial administrations have had on the Middle Eastern history. According to Hourani, these two administrations promoted the culture of extensive historical scholarship in Middle East.

Furthermore, Hourani recognizes that the evolution of Middle Eastern history depends on the contributions of various European historians. The speaker states that Middle East is a general term that has several geographical, historical, and religious associations.

For instance, Albert Hourani poses the question whether or not these associations could mean that the Middle East is a single historical and geographical unit. After that Hourani explores this question by referencing publications, which address the origins of Islam and other Arab cultures.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The speaker’s main point is that it is erroneous to address the history of a certain geographical region without considering its association and interaction with other regions and cultures.

According to Hourani, it is not possible to consider the history of the geographical area that covers the territory from Nile to Oxus (Middle East) as homogenous. The speaker notes that the history of Middle East is definitely connected to the history of adjacent areas such as northern India and inner Asia.

The most significant, prominent and influential time of Middle Eastern history includes the era of the Ottoman Empire. Historians note that the period between the 15th and 18th centuries stands out as the time of dominance for the Arabic culture and its creativity.

Hourani argues that the influences of both the Ottoman Empire and Islam are pertinent to the Middle Eastern history. The speaker points out that the last congregation of most Middle Eastern countries occurred in the times the Ottoman Empire.

During the Ottoman’s rule, several countries became parts of the Empire. Consequently, the Ottoman Empire unified these regions under Islam. Hourani notes that Islam is the last great force that united the Arabic nations into a monolithic linguistic and cultural unit.

However, the history of Middle East outside of these three elements should not be ignored due to the prominence of Islam. According to Hourani, any historical work that addresses Middle Eastern development must consider the influences of the Ottoman Empire, Islam, and European colonization.

Nevertheless, historians find it difficult to map the history of Middle East in the period between 11th and 15th centuries due to its diversity. Hourani also points out the difficulties of mapping the history of Islam during the last fifty years because most Arabic countries have separated and turned into independent states.

We will write a custom Coursework on Hourani on Middle Eastern History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In his talk, Hourani sought to address the different methodologies and strategies that could be used when studying the history of Middle East.

According to the speaker, the influences of Islam and the Ottoman Empire should neither be ignored, nor should they be the limiting factors in the study of Middle Eastern History, as this territory is proved to have undergone multiple various influences and tendencies, causing diverse patterns and processes in its development.

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Cross-culture Project Cooperation Proposal essay help online

Focus of the Study Globalisation has opened up borders and brought people from different cultures together. Modern technologies have improved transportation and communication and encouraged expansion of corporations to overseas markets. Economic cooperation between governments has also risen in the globalisation age.

People from different cultures now work together in workplace environments that encourage diversity in relation to “communication styles, values, and cultural norms”1. Moreover, nowadays, firms are increasingly investing in international projects because of the high returns associated with such ventures.

However, a number of constraint factors related to overseas business environments affect international projects. These factors fall into four categories: economic, socio-cultural, political, and technological2.

The proposed research study will focus on how cultural differences affect international project management. The study will examine the place of culture in the management of overseas projects. It will also explore how cultural differences hamper cross-cultural cooperation within organisations.

The teams involved in overseas projects are usually drawn from different cultures. Typically, the team members speak different languages and have dissimilar customs and beliefs. If these differences are not well managed, the employees may fail to work together as a team leading to project failure.

Literature Review Studies in international project management reveal that cultures give rise to different management approaches because people often make decisions based on culturally defined values3. This implies that national cultures shape the behaviours of managers working on international projects.

Schneider and Meyer (2006) describe the effect of cultural differences on organisational performance4. They state that team members find it hard to work in a different cultural environment because of their unfamiliarity with foreign management approaches.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this regard, for a project to be successful, foreign workers must adapt to the host country’s national and organisational cultures5. A failure to recognise and abide by the cultural customs of the host country can impede cooperation and lead to project failure.

Inappropriate management (cultural diversity) practices have also been associated with project failures6. For construction projects, cultural differences affect various stages of the project cycle, including tendering, negotiation, and implementation phases7.

Moreover, cultural differences affect communication and collaboration among team members. Gray and Larson (2003) posit that cultural differences cause language barrier, which impedes effective communication within organisations8.

Additionally, it is difficult to translate a message without it losing its original meaning. Besides language, religious differences can also hamper cooperation.

A study Kirby and Richard (2000) found that employees do not prefer to work on sites perceived to have religious significance to the locals9. Thus, cultural differences have a big influence on site selection for international projects.

On their part, Ling and Hoi (2006) found that international construction firms face a cultural risk when working on overseas projects (in Singapore and India) because of the differences in culture10. They conclude that in order for a project to be successful, the team members must be able to understand the local culture.

However, they note that cooperation may still be a problem even when people speak the same language due to differences in working methods and mindsets among the workers.

We will write a custom Proposal on Cross-culture Project Cooperation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Ling and Hoi (2006) recommend that team members should familiarize themselves with the various aspects of the local culture (Indian) before the project commences11.

Kwak (2002) writes that culture, in the context of international project, is a critical success/failure factor12. If project managers are unfamiliar with the cultural diversity within the team, they may assign responsibilities to the wrong groups. As a result, a project may incur additional costs or overrun its schedule.

Moreover, if a project’s objectives do not reflect the culture of the customer(s), it may face stiff opposition leading to its termination. Thus, a project manager should take into account the customs, values, and traditions of the team members from the outset13.

Moreover, he or she must ensure that the project’s objectives reflect the culture of the clients to avoid opposition and possible project rejection.

A survey by Chen, Partington, and Qiang (2009) that involved UK and Chinese project managers establishes that the use of cross-cultural management does not always translate to project success because of the differences that exist between the Chinese and Western management practices14.

In another study, Gunhan and Arditi (2005) explore the factors affecting international project management among US corporations15. The study establishes that cultural differences among the workers increase the risk of project failure.

In contrast, Pheng and Leong (2000) examine the various aspects of cross-cultural collaboration in international projects16.

They establish that factors such as “organisational and national culture and cross-cultural communication, conflict resolution, and negotiation skills” influence international project management17.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Cross-culture Project Cooperation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Based on a case study involving Chinese (YRTSB) and American (APC) firms, the authors argue that the Chinese culture (corporate) has a big influence on decision-making. Cultural differences hamper communication, which create misunderstandings between business partners.

Moreover, the absence of cross-culture conflict resolution mechanisms contributes to the failure of joint-venture projects.

In particular, in the case study, the authors find a big difference between the Chinese and American negotiation styles. They conclude that project managers (American) should seek to understand the management style of their partner company (Chinese) in order to work together amicably.

On their part, Chen et al., (2010) explore the project managers’ approaches in cross-cultural team management18. They establish that cross-cultural differences exist between UK and Chinese managers with regard to their management approaches.

While the UK managers focus on safety, their Chinese counterparts are largely driven by commercial interests. Moreover, Ashkanasy, Hartel, and Daus (2002) in their study, establish that, in practice, transferring managerial practices is not possible because of cultural differences19.

In this study, cultural differences were found to hamper cooperation between French and Dutch companies in areas of R

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Social Media Analysis for Qatar Airways Evaluation Essay essay help online

Executive Summary Business organizations regardless of the industry are subjected to micro and macro-environmental factors. These factors play key roles in the determination of various operational aspects of any firm.

In this case, Qatar Airways is dedicated to develop a social media, which allows the company to improve its airlines services and general customer communications. The achievement of appropriate social media must involve wide consideration of both internal and external factors of the environment.

Introduction Social media is the most common technological trend of today. Almost everyone have attachment to a social media, such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, and Flickr.

Organizations are not an exemption from the strategy, as they too have adopted the trend to perform some of the basic operations aimed at achieving their goals, which primarily revolve around profit maximization.

The marketing department is in the forefront in utilizing the social media in attracting customers and retaining the ones it has already acquired. Undoubtedly, the use of social media in marketing has been on the rise.

Company/Brand Information Qatar Airways is a competitive company and one of the leading airlines in the world. Qatar Airways first began as a private business for the royal family members in Qatar on 20 January 1994.

According to Akbar Al Baker, the CEO of Qatar Airways, since the inception of the airline company, Qatar Airways have expanded to offer both local and international flights to its passengers in over 120 destinations across the world (Qatar Airways, n.d.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The firm has deeply set its root in the aviation industry and currently boasts of a large market share. Qatar Airways is dedicated to the highest quality of service delivery to their customer with a sense of warmth, friendliness, individual pride, and company spirit.

Marketing Mix Marketing mix is an important marketing tool in any industry; it plays an important role in allowing businesses to achieve the much-needed success. These four aspects include product, price, place, and promotion.

Product

Qatar Airways’ main product is air transportation for both passengers and goods; it has a set of product portfolio, which includes a 5-star online travel experience in its website. This has given the company an added advantage in terms of product offering over its close competitors (Qatar Airways, n.d.).

Price

Qatar Airways has been applying market penetration strategy within the markets that it serves through its website; this has enhanced price transparency. The company has been providing its customers with low prices in order to attract and retain more customers and increase its market share.

The company ensures that higher prices maintained through the perceived value that customers get from the service. The company does this through maintenance of high levels of hospitality and customer satisfaction (Qatar Airways, n.d.).

Place (Distribution)

Qatar Airways has advanced its services to include online facilities through its own website. The data networking techniques have automated the business processes and have allowed the connection with the customers through the internet.

The travelers are able to book their travel tickets through the company’s website. In addition, customers are able to book their air tickets online for convenience. The airlines have been able to implement comprehensive software, which can support more dynamic pricing (Qatar Airways, n.d.).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Social Media Analysis for Qatar Airways specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Promotion

Qatar Airways has been attracting its customers by participating in various activities such as sales promotion, direct marketing, sponsorship, and advertisement.

Qatar Airways has also promoted itself and the products through advertising; it advertises its products and services through media channels such as TV, newspapers, radio, newspapers, magazines and travel magazines.

It advertises its products through some of the leading newspapers such as Gulf News and Khaleej Times (Qatar Airways, n.d.).

Industry Information: Category Trends Since the management expects social media to interact with and serve a larger number of consumers both existing and aspiring, it is important that the company develop a strategy, which will help attain this key stratagem.

The airline firm must portray fully the business strategy from the setting to the implementation of the social media. The strategy must work in consideration of the above discussed micro and macro-factors or determinants in order to have vast knowledge of the operational environment (Qatar Airways, n.d.).

Competitor information: Emirates airline and Etihad Airways Emirates Airline

Emirates Airlines is ranked among the fastest growing airline companies with quality services in terms of speed and order. This kind of success from the company is built around certain operation policy or cultures.

The company’s operations are guided by superior customer service, well-developed operating strategy and employee loyalty for successful service delivery (Emirates Airline, 2013).

Etihad Airways

Etihad Airways is the second largest airline in the United Arab Emirates airline and ranked fourth in the Middle East, with its headquarters in Abu Dhabi. It operates an extensive domestic and international network providing flights to different destinations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Media Analysis for Qatar Airways by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company operates about 1,000 flights weekly; it is one of the largest airlines in terms of market capitalization and the number of employees. For instance, it has market capitalization of $68 billion. In addition, the company has a large market share both in the domestic and international markets.

The company has been using its long-term experience to provide innovative services to its customers. This has enabled the company to have a competitive advantage over its competitors (Etihad Airways Annual Report, 2012).

Target audience Qatar Airways has been recognized as the carrier with excellent customer service products. The target customers are the passengers who travel across the world through its destinations.

Qatar Airways has different sets of customers who include tourist, personal, religious, business, and in-transit passengers who travel to different destinations.

It has mainly focused on both middle and high-class travelers with main target being the people who travel with luxury and high standards of hospitality (Qatar Airways, n.d.).

Review and critique of the Current level of Integration When a company improves its brand, it means that its customer base will also increase since good brands attract and retain customers (Davis, 2009).

When marketers understand their customers’ minds and develop their brand around that information, customers will always be supplied with the products they desire; the marketer will need to be ahead of their requirements to continue being relevant to them.

Customers will also be guaranteed privacy since the marketers can access them directly and individually either through emails or confidential messages.

However, the government needs to tighten its privacy acts by ensuring that the social media used by people have complied with its demands and keep monitoring the social media to ensure that the privacy rights of consumers are protected.

SWOT Analysis Strengths Weaknesses -The management of the airline is committed to technology advancement through social media marketing. -The airline is amongst those that make the most profit in the world -The airline boasts of the most attractive crew and cabin. -It targets group audience by either tagging them individually or directing them to the link where the products are available. -The airline is in a region where the deregulation policy is applied and competition is allowed. -Prompt and quality feedback through social media -Advanced upstream technologies staff efficiency -Small number of fleet compared to the like of Emirates and Etihad Airline -Airline services are limited to particular regions of the world – There is limited consumer social-media knowledge. Opportunities Threats -Untapped market in other parts of the world, especially in Africa; -Increased number of travelers in recent days; -Prompt and quality feedback in using new social media applications -Perception of lack of security in using airlines due to attacks by terrorists -New entrants who increase competition and rivalry for the airline -Political situations and regulations must be considered so as to avoid conflicts Recommendations The macro-factors must also be considered since the social media is expected to serve people outside the company. In this case, political situations and regulations must be considered to avoid conflicts.

An appropriate social is must work in accordance with the regulations and stay away from irresponsible political messaging which may dent the image of the company.

When designing this social media the company must bear in mind what other competitors offered to better its presentation and gain an advantage over its competitors.

Finally, it is important to recognize the fact that the social media is being designed with the customer in mind hence customer knowledge of social media is important to determine the structure of the appropriate social media by the company.

Conclusion Qatar Airways has grown a great deal to become one of the leading airlines across the world. It has been ranked as the 2011 and 2012 Airline of the Year through an audit conducted by the Skytrax.

From a humble crop dusting service, the airline has grown to offer both passenger and Cargo services in almost 120 destinations across the world.

References Davis, M. (2009). The Fundamentals of Branding. Lausanne: AVA Academia.

Emirates Airline. (2013). Building a Global Network. Web.

Etihad Airways Annual Report. (2012). Web.

Qatar Airways. Web.

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Green Energy Brand Strategy: Chinese E-Car Consumer Behaviour Quantitative Research Essay essay help free: essay help free

Introduction In data analysis, the study analysed data obtained from 439 participants, who are Chinese E-car consumers. The study employed Microsoft Excel in the analysis of frequencies and the presentation of data in pie charts and bar graphs.

Background Information Do you own an E-car?

Figure 1 is a bar graph showing the distribution of respondents according to the ownership of the E-car. The figure shows that 8.9% of the respondents own E-car and the remaining 91.1% do not own E-car.

Figure 1

Are you interested in purchasing E-car?

Figure 2 is a pie chart displaying the proportion of respondents interested in purchasing E-car as 27.7% and those not interested in purchasing E-car as 73.3%.

Figure 2

When you buy your next car, is E-car one of the options?

Figure 3 below shows that the proportion of respondents who would choose E-car as their next option is 68.6% whereas the proportion of respondents who would not choose E-car as their next car is 31.4%.

Figure 3

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The First Hypothesis What time for the E-car charging can you accept?

The respondents provided diverse opinions regarding the charging time of E-car. Out of 439 respondents, 26.2% of respondents indicated that they accept charging period of less than 2 hours and 30.3% of respondents showed that they accept charging period of between 2 and 4 hours.

Moreover, 20.5% of respondents accept charging period of between 4 to 6 hours. The remaining portions of the respondents, 14.1%, 5.5%, and 2.7%, accept charging period of 6-8 hours, 8-10 hours, and more than 10 hours respectively.

Figure 4

What is the shortest mileage for the E-car can you accept?

Figure 5 below indicates the distribution of responses regarding the shortest mileage that E-car can cover. From the figure, it is apparent that most respondents (29.8%) accept E-car that can cover between 201km and 300 km. Respondents who accept short mileages of less than 100 km and between 101 and 200 km constitute 3.4% and 16.9% respectively.

Respondents who require long mileages of 101-200 km, 301-400 km, 401-500 km, and more than 501 km constitute 20.5%, 13.7%, and 15.7% respectively.

Figure 5

What price do you think is suitable for an average mid-range E-car like the BMW i3?

Figure 6 shows that most respondents (35.5%) think that the suitable price range for a mid-range E-car is between £110,000 and £200,000 while 28.9% of the respondents think that the suitable price range for a mid-range E-car is between £210,000 and £300,000.

We will write a custom Essay on Green Energy Brand Strategy: Chinese E-Car Consumer Behaviour specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Respondents who think that the suitable price range for a mid-range E-car is less than £100,000 constitute 17.5%. Moreover, 12.5%, 3.4%, and 2.1% of respondents think that the suitable price ranges for a mid-range E-car are £310,000-£400,000, £410,000-£500,000, and more than £500,000 correspondingly.

Figure 6

Brand Personality Which product attribute do you associate with the E-car?

To determine the level of awareness of BMWi3, the study asked the respondents about the attributes they associate with E-car. Figure 7 shows that most respondents (5.59%) selected practical as a tribute associated with E-car followed by 4.12% of respondents who selected stylish as an attribute associated with E-car.

Elegant and environmental friendly attributes received an equal review as both had 2.65% of customers who associated these attributes with E-car. Complicated technology (2.35%), dynamic (2.06%), eco (0.88%), and modern (1.18%) are other product attributes that respondents associated with E-car. However, some respondents (less than 0.3%) associated E-car with negative attributes such as slow, old-fashioned, and not stylish.

Figure 7

Figure 8 below indicates frequencies of positive attributed associated with E-car. Practical is a positive attribute that gained the most frequencies (143). Environmental friendly, dynamic, stylish, and modern attributes ranked second, third, fourth, and fifth with 121, 79, 62, and 61 frequencies respectively. Easy to handle and sportive are attributes that have the lowest frequencies of 37 and 21 respectively.

Figure 8

Figure 9 shows frequencies of negative product attributes associated with E-car. Complicated technology is a negative attribute that has the most frequencies (88) followed by eco attribute (75) and elegant attribute (45). Slow, old-fashioned, and not stylish are three negative attributes with 1, 2, and 5 frequencies respectively.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Green Energy Brand Strategy: Chinese E-Car Consumer Behaviour by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Figure 9

Product Associations If you consider the BMWi3 as a status symbol, which attribute do you associate the most with it?

Figure 10 indicates how respondents rated BMWi3 as a status symbol among the Chinese E-car consumers. From the figure, it is apparent that over three-quarters of respondents (76.5%) consider BMWi3 a status symbol for people who have average lifestyles. Moreover, the figure shows that 20.5% and 3% of respondents consider BMWi3 as status symbol for very successful and not successful people respectively.

Figure 10

What personalities can you associate with BMWi3?

The question provided seven options of personalities, namely, creative, funny, extrovert, honest, eccentric, introvert, and dishonest, for the respondents to choose the ones that associate with BMWi3. From Figure 11, it is evident that creative personality has the most frequencies (270) followed by funny personality (125).

Extrovert and honest personalities have frequencies of 100 and 56 respectively. The above personalities are positive personalities that the brand strategy aims to associate with BMWi3. However, respondents associated BMWi3 with negative personalities such as eccentric (56), introvert (36), and dishonest (23).

Figure 11

The Second Hypothesis Which added value of E-car such as BMWi do you perceive?

Table 1

Values of BMWi3 Perceived Importance Not important Important Very important Indispensable Total High degree of safety 155 50 102 116 423 Less environment damage 23 66 83 34 206 No fuels costs 38 53 48 74 213 High degree of comfort 61 94 32 22 209 Good acceleration 50 32 35 43 160 High degree of quality 14 60 41 37 152 Know brand 41 21 23 20 105 Good price/quality ratio 31 48 52 59 190 Great product design 25 14 22 33 94 Total 438 438 438 438 1,752 Figure 12

The figure above (Figure 12) shows that most respondents (35%) perceive the high degree of safety as unimportant added value to BMWi3. The figure also shows that 14%, 11%, 9%, and 9% of respondents rated high degree of comfort, good acceleration, know brand, and no fuels respectively as unimportant added values of BMWi3.

Figure 13

From Figure 14, 21% and 15% of respondents perceive high degree comfort and less environment damage as important added values of BMWi3. Good price/quality ratio and high degree of safety have equal ratings as 11% of respondents perceived them as important.

Figure 14

Most respondents perceive a high degree of safety (23%) and less environment damage (19%) as very important added values of BMWi3 (Figure 15). Moreover, the figure also shows that 12% and 11% of respondents perceive good price/quality ratio and no fuel costs as very important added values.

The figure below (Figure 15) indicates that most respondents (26%) perceive a high degree of safety as indispensable added value of BMWi3. Other added values that respondents perceive as indispensable are no fuel costs (17%), good price/quality ratio (13%), and good acceleration (10%).

Figure 15

The Third Hypothesis Do you have trust in the expertise of BMW, a traditional engineer car manufacturer, in producing E-cars?

From the pie chart (Figure 16), it is apparent that 86% of the respondents trust in the expertise of BMW in producing E-cars while the remaining 14% do not trust in the expertise of BMW in producing E-cars.

Figure 16

Which feelings do you have when you think of the brand BMWi?

From Figure 17, it is apparent that most respondents associate BMWi3 with positive feelings. Fun (14%), curiosity (18%), excitement (9%), liking (14%), trustworthiness (21%), and interest (10%) are all positive feelings that capture the brand strategy of BMW. In contrast, few respondents, namely, lack of interest (1%), unhonesty (3%), confused (2%), and uncertainty (1%), associated BMWi3 with negative feelings.

Figure 17

Do you think the BMWi will be successfully sold in the future?

Figure 18

The pie chart (Figure 18) indicates that 52% of respondents think that BMW would successfully be sold in future whereas 6% think that it would not be sold. Moreover, the figure shows that 42% of respondents are unsure whether BMW would be sold successfully or not.

The Fourth Hypothesis Do you believe that the BMW is honestly interested in reducing CO2 emissions to be environmental friendly?

The pie chart below (Figure 19) indicates that 57% of respondents believe that BMW is really honesty in manufacturing E-car to reduce CO2 emissions while 35% are unsure about the motive of BMWi3. Moreover, 8% of respondents hold that BMW has no intention of reducing CO2.

Figure 19

Which impression do you associate with the BMWi3?

Figure 20 indicates frequencies of impressions associated with the BMWi3. From the table, it is evident that 25.7% of respondents associate BMWi3 with eco-car while 19.4% of respondents associated it with trend. 14.1%, 1.03%, 9.1%, and 6.8% of respondents associated BMWi3 with business, family, sport, and luxury respectively. However, 14.6% of the respondents do not associate BMWi3 with anything.

Figure 20

Discussion Background Information

The background data effectively describe purchasing behaviours of customers because they indicate ownership of E-car, interest in purchasing, and options for their car of choice. According to Creusen (2010), demographic attributes are central to the understanding of consumer behaviours because their ability to purchase certain products.

From the background information, the study infers that 8.9% of the respondents own E-car, 27.7% are interested in purchasing E-car in future, and 68.6% would consider purchasing E-car as their next car. Pavlou and Fygenson (2006) argue that change in consumer behaviour is a gradual process that is dependent on awareness.

Such a trend of increasing percentages indicates that there is an impending shift in the purchasing behaviour from normal cars to E-cars. Increased awareness of environmental problems caused by the use of fossil fuels has changed consumer attitudes and behaviours of Chinese consumers (Ivan

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Environmental Issue – Climate Change Analytical Essay writing essay help

It is unfortunate that mitigation planning is not in progress especially among the industrialized nations. Who will be harmed if the negative impacts of climate change eventually catch up with the human race?

Needless to say, there are those who will be protected against such impacts because their governments are in a position to curtail the effects of climate change. What about the majority of the world population that is living below the poverty line?

It may not be completely impossible to reverse or stop the progress of climate change. If the right measures are put in place, our environment will be regenerated and the continued alterations to the climate will eventually stop (Hardy 62).

Cities such as Cambridge and New York are indeed prepared to reduce greenhouse gas emissions even though such localized measures may not generate the global impact as required.

One of the growing concerns of climate change is the rising sea level. The latter is indeed a serious issue that is yet to be addressed conclusively.

As it stands now, coastlines across the globe are an important part of socio-economic development. Any slight rise in sea level will obviously spell disaster in most land masses bordering major water bodies.

Apparently, social justice especially for the poor segment of the population will never be realized. Why should the rich be given preferential treatment? It is necessary for social justice to prevail at all levels of the society. The poor countries are being negatively impacted by the well developed nations in several ways.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, it is unfortunate to learn that the Affordable Care Act is not a universal healthcare plan in the United States. There are some states that are still adamant to allow the poor to access this healthcare plan.

In other words, the Affordable Care Act is not beneficial to the poor people in the United States since they cannot afford to be insured. Whereas healthcare is one of the areas that will be negatively affected by climate change, it is vivid that the poor people will receive the greatest brunt.

Several large nations are inactive when it comes to taking effective mitigation measures. In addition, policy and mitigation planning is not a priority area for the developed world.

As much as these nations have not demonstrated commitment to curb the impacts of climate change, it is prudent to mention that the entire humanity will be affected by the same effects at one time or the other.

It is quite a surprise that the all the international summits on climate change have not generated any positive outcomes as expected. The vulnerable public has been duped with the hope that such summits will eventually address the issue of pollution.

We truly appreciate the incredible role played by industrial revolution towards economic development. We also acknowledge the fact the entire process of industrial production cannot take place without pollution in the immediate environment.

Nonetheless, it is not logical for major emitters of green house gases to completely ignore environmental conservation in the process of production.

We will write a custom Essay on Environmental Issue – Climate Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In any case, instituting mitigation measures does not imply halting the process of production (Pittock 29). Measures such as pollution control at the point of production, lowering the volume of missions and using clean sources of energy can practically curb the negative effects of climate change.

Works Cited Hardy, John. Climate Change: Causes, Effects, and Solutions. West Sussex: John Wiley

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Organic Agriculture in the United Arab Emirates Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction This paper will provide a detailed business plan for establishing an agribusiness company. The company will focus on production of organic foodstuffs in the United Arab Emirates. The business plan will shed light on the business idea, the value proposition, and the technology that will be required to operate the business.

A detailed marketing plan that highlights the target customers and the marketing mix will also be discussed. In addition, the business plan will highlight the governance and management structure, as well as, the company’s financial projections.

The Business Idea The business idea is to establish an agribusiness company that focuses on organic agriculture. Organic agriculture refers to “a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems, and people”.1 It focuses on the use of farming techniques that promote sustainability by minimizing negative environmental effects.

The company will focus on producing organic vegetables and fruits in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The vegetables that will be produced include tomatoes, onions, cucumbers, and capsicum. The fruits will include mangoes, oranges, and strawberries.

The choice of Abu Dhabi is based on the fact that it has the largest population in the UAE. Thus, it is likely to have a high demand for organic foodstuffs. In addition, leasing land for farming in Abu Dhabi is cheaper than in other emirates.

Value Proposition Production of organic fruits and vegetables is important due to the following reasons. First, organic fruits and vegetables will improve the health status of the residents of Abu Dhabi and the entire UAE. Lifestyle related diseases such as obesity and cancer are major health problems in the UAE.

In 2013, the rate of obesity in Abu Dhabi was 33%, whereas 13% of the deaths were caused by cancer.2 The high prevalence of obesity and cancer is partly attributed to consumption of processed and inorganic foodstuffs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, the residents of the UAE are likely to consume organic fruits and vegetables because they have high nutritional value and insignificant pesticide residue. Moreover, organic vegetables such as tomatoes have high antioxidant capacities, which help in preventing cancer, coronary diseases, and rapid aging.

Second, “organic fruits and vegetables taste better than their inorganic counterparts”.3 Third, producing organic fruits and vegetables in Abu Dhabi will reduce the UAE’s reliance on imported foodstuffs.

Imported fruits and vegetables often have negative health effects since the government has little control over their production. Furthermore, they are often exposed to contamination during transportation. Fourth, establishing an organic farm in Abu Dhabi will reduce the price of fruits and vegetables.

The prices will reduce due to the short distance to the target market, which will minimize operating costs. Finally, production of organic fruits and vegetables will promote sustainable agriculture in the UAE. The company will avoid using synthetic fertilizers and pesticides that often reduce soil quality.

Technical Model Technology

The farm will use greenhouse and drip irrigation technologies to produce various organic fruits and vegetables. A greenhouse is a “structure in which plants are grown under controlled micro-environment”.4

The structure is made of transparent plastic materials, which facilitate controlled penetration of sunlight and reduce evaporation of water. Drip irrigation is a technique of supplying water evenly to all plants in a garden.

The use of greenhouse and drip irrigation technologies will help in conserving water, which is very scarce in Abu Dhabi. They will also lead to high returns on investments by facilitating production throughout the year.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Organic Agriculture in the United Arab Emirates specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Farming Practices

The vegetables will be produced using organic fertilizers such as compost to prevent accumulation of synthetic chemicals in them. The farm will use pesticides that are manufactured using organic materials to control pests and other disease-causing pathogens.5

This will help in reducing pesticide residues in the fruits and vegetables. Weeds will be controlled using environmentally-generated plant-killing compounds.

In addition, the company will focus on producing different crops on the same piece of land to prevent soil degradation. These techniques will preserve soil quality and minimize accumulation of toxic chemicals in the vegetables.

Feasibility Study

There is adequate farmland in the rural areas of Abu Dhabi since most of the citizens live in the city. In addition, there are adequate roads that connect the farmlands to the markets in urban areas.

Scientific research indicates that the land in Abu Dhabi is very fertile mainly because it has hardly been used for farming. Soil test results show that the soil has the right minerals and nutrients for growing various fruits and vegetables.

Water with the right pH can be obtained from the reservoirs of the Municipality of Abu Dhabi City. However, it is more expensive than water from boreholes due to the pumping and recycling costs.

Budget

The costs associated with acquiring the technology and equipment that will be used in the farm are summarized in table 1. The costs are for the first year of operations.

Table 1

Not sure if you can write a paper on Organic Agriculture in the United Arab Emirates by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Item Quantity Cost per unit (AED) Total (AED) Land 5 acres 50,000 per year 250,000 Greenhouses 200m x 40m 2 10,758 21,516 250m x 50m 3 13,500 40,500 150m x 60m 2 8,250 16,500 Pesticides 25 liters 230 5,750 Seeds and seedlings Tomatoes 30 kg 150 4,500 Onions 20 kg 124 2,480 Cucumbers 25 kg 85 2,125 Capsicum 25 kg 86 2,150 Oranges 15 kg 156 2,340 Strawberries 10 kg 256 2,560 Mangoes 15 kg 180 2,700 Fertilizer 4,000 kg 5 20,000 Farm equipment 16,000 Consultancy fee 12,000 Labor 50,000 Irrigation 65,000 Distribution 30,650 Marketing 25,000 Total 571,771 Business Model The company will adopt a vertical integration business model.6 The core business activity of the company will be production of various organic fruits and vegetables. The company will be in charge of all farming activities to maintain high product quality standards.

However, it will collaborate with established retailers (supermarkets) to distribute the organic fruits and vegetables. This will involve negotiating for floor space within the supermarkets to sell the products. The company will retain and use its brand name rather than those of the retailers.

The retailers will invest in the business by providing shelf and refrigeration facilities. In addition, they will employ the staff who will be in charge of sales within the stores.

The company, on the other hand, will be responsible for warehousing and transporting the organic fruits and vegetables from the farm to the stores. The retailers will be entitled to 10% of the gross annual sales as their compensation.

The benefit of this business model is that it will enable the company to focus on its core competence, which is production of organic fruits and vegetables. This will enable it to channel its scarce resources towards satisfaction of market needs through process and product innovation.

Furthermore, partnering with established retailers will enable the company to get instant access to a huge customer base at a low cost.

Target Customers The company will use geographic and psychographic segmentation to identify its customers. Geographic segmentation involves identifying customers by dividing the market into various geographical areas.7 The company will focus on serving the UAE market.

Specifically, it will focus on serving the urban populations that live in cities such as Dubai and Abu Dhabi. This segmentation strategy is informed by the fact that most of the retailers who will be distributing the products are based in urban rather than rural areas.

In the urban market, the company will target the working class due to two reasons.

First, the working class is associated with a sedentary lifestyle, which increases the risk of acquiring lifestyle-oriented diseases such as obesity. As a result, they are likely to purchase organic fruits and vegetables to prevent lifestyle-oriented diseases.

Second, the working class has a high disposable income that will facilitate expenditure on organic fruits and vegetables.

Psychographic segmentation involves identifying the target market by taking into account customers’ lifestyles, education, and socio-economic status.8 In this case, the company will target customers who are aware of the health benefits of eating organic fruits and vegetables.

The company will also target customers who are interested in leading a healthy lifestyle. These include people who are already suffering from chronic diseases such as cancer and those who would like to avoid lifestyle-oriented diseases.

Customers who are interested in adopting healthy lifestyles are likely to purchase locally produced vegetables and fruits because they are fresher than imported ones.

In addition, the company will target the affluent who are interested in consuming high quality organic fruits and vegetables to improve their health and to maintain their high social status in the society.

Marketing Plan Market Description

The market for fruits and vegetables in the UAE consists of several products. The market is dominated by inorganic fruits and vegetables. These include imported fruits and vegetables that are produced using synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.

There are also genetically modified fruits and vegetables in the market. The inorganic and the genetically modified fruits and vegetables are cheaper than their organic counterparts. Most consumers are not able to differentiate between organic and genetically modified fruits and vegetables.9

However, the popularity of organic fruits and vegetables is increasing in urban areas due to health campaigns that promote eating of healthy foodstuffs.

Product Review

The fruits and vegetables that will be sold by the company have two main features. First, their pesticide residue levels will be less than 0.05%.

Second, chemicals will not be used to preserve the fruits and vegetables. They will be made available in the stores within 6 hours after harvesting to maintain the highest level of freshness.

SWOT Analysis of the Products

The main strength of organic fruits and vegetables is that they have a superior quality in terms of taste and nutritional value. Moreover, production of organic fruits and vegetables is a form of corporate social responsibility that promotes conservation of the environment and improvement of public health.

The main weakness of organic fruits and vegetables is that they are very expensive due to the high cost of producing them. Moreover, they have a shorter shelf life than inorganic and genetically modified fruits and vegetables.

The main opportunity that is available to organic fruits and vegetables is that their market is growing rapidly in the UAE due to their health benefits. Moreover, increased regulation of production of genetically modified fruits and vegetables will increase the demand for organic foodstuffs.

The threats facing the products include limited shelf space and high competition. The dominant retailers have their own groceries that stock inorganic foodstuffs rather organic fruits and vegetables. Moreover, the low-income earners opt for inorganic foodstuffs, which have low prices.

Objectives and Issues

In the first year, the first objective will be to gain a market share of 6%. The second objective will be to achieve AED 800,000 in sales. In the second year, the first objective will be to increase market share by 8%. The second objective will be to increase brand awareness by 10%. The last objective will be to increase sales by 16%.

At the launch of the company and its products, the main issue will be to create brand awareness in order to attract customers. The company will utilize its promotional activities to create brand awareness. Another major issue will be to negotiate distribution agreements with retailers who have nationwide branch networks.

Marketing Strategy: Marketing Mix

The fruits and vegetables will be positioned based on the ‘healthy living’ value proposition. This will facilitate differentiation based on nutritional value and health benefits. Marketing initiatives will focus on highlighting the health benefits of organic fruits and vegetables to reinforce the premium positioning strategy.10

The product strategy will focus on using organic inputs to produce the fruits and vegetables. This will ensure that the products have high quality and nutritional value. Additionally, the products will be sold as fresh produce to preserve their natural taste and appeal.

In the first year of market entry, the company will adopt the penetration pricing strategy to gain market share. This will involve selling the products at a low price in order to attract customers. The resulting increase in sales will increase the market share and profits in the long-term.

Distribution will be done by retailers who have nationwide branch networks. The company intends to collaborate with at least two major supermarkets that are interested in operating their groceries in collaboration with an organic foods producer.

Marketing communications initiatives will focus on using print and electronic media to advertise the products. Facebook, Twitter, and Google will be used to create buzz among customers about the brand. The main objective of the advertising campaigns will be to create brand awareness. Public relations will be used to create brand credibility by influencing the public to develop a positive attitude towards organic fruits and vegetables.

Breakeven Analysis

The objective of the business is to breakeven in the fourth quarter of the first year. Assuming a fixed cost of AED 459,205 in the first year, an average variable cost of AED 0.05/ kg, average retail revenue of AED15/ kg, and equal production volume for each product category, breakeven can be calculated as:

This means that the company must sell at least 30,716.05 kilograms of its products in order to breakeven.

Governance and Management Structure The company will operate as a private corporation that will be registered in Abu Dhabi. It will have a hierarchical organizational structure with a few management levels.11 The board will consist of three directors who will be in charge of developing the company’s strategy and supervising the management.

The day-to-day activities of the company will be run by the CEO. The CEO will report to the board of directors. The executive management will consist of the CEO, operations manager, marketing manager, farm manager, and finance manager.

The managers will report to the CEO. The management will be responsible for implementing the company’s strategies and supervising the employees.

Competition and Survival Strategy Main Competitors

There are numerous small-scale producers of organic vegetables and fruits in the UAE. The small-scale producers normally sell directly to customers in their local communities. Al Dahra and Greenheart UAE are the main producers of organic fruits and vegetables in the industry.

Al Dahra has over two decades of experience in the industry and a nationwide distribution network. This makes it the main player in the industry. Apart from local producers, the top 4 largest retailers in the UAE import and distribute a wide range of organic fruits and vegetables.

The retailers include Carrefour, Lulu, Choithram

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International Marketing Strategy of Fortescue Metal Group Case Study college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Executive Summary The external and internal environment of Fortescue Metal Group has been analyzed in this report. The external environment presents several threats, which include high competition, tariff barriers to foreign market entry, high bargaining power of buyers of iron, and high suppliers’ bargaining power.

The main opportunity that is available to FMG is the expected increase in demand for iron in China and other emerging markets. Moreover, the company has the opportunity to increase its market share because of the low threat of new entrants and substitutes.

FMG’s strengths include access to huge iron ore deposits, extensive railroad networks, and a talented workforce. However, its overdependence on the Chinese market is a threat to its long-term profitability. Overall, the company’s resources and capabilities will improve its long-term success.

Case Study Report: Strategic Management Introduction

Fortescue Metal Group (FMG) is a leading producer of iron in Australia. Since its inception in 2003, the company has achieved rapid growth through cost reduction and expansion of production capacity. The aim of the company is to become the lowest cost producer of iron in Australia (FMG 2014).

This paper will provide a detailed analysis of the internal and the external environment of the company to determine its competitiveness. The aim of the analysis is to identify the internal and external factors that are likely to influence the company’s ability to succeed in the long-term.

External Environment

PESTEL Analysis

International trade policies are the main political factors that influence the performance of firms in the iron industry. Protectionist trade policies such as subsidizing domestic iron producers prevent competition in major markets such as China (Hau, Chatterjee

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Structural Family Therapy Case Study college essay help near me

Model Description Among the existing variety of therapies for a family, it is hard to define the most appropriate or the less effective because every family is unique, and its members face different problems and misunderstandings. In the current paper, one of the family therapy models, the structural family therapy by Salvador Minuchin, will be discussed. Its historical background, some facts from the developer’s life, and different aspects of the theory will be analyzed to make the evaluation of the case study within the frames of the chosen model possible.

Historical Background Structural family therapy (SFT) is one of the available models of treatment offered to all members of a family on the basis of the possible structural change and communication within a family. It was developed in the middle of the 1970s by one of the brightest representatives of the Philadelphian Child Guidance Clinic, Salvador Minuchin.

His physician experience in the army in Israel and the work with children in New York helped to understand that personal problems are based on a family and the philosophies inherent to it. The Israel families turned out to be a good example for Minuchin on how a variety of cultures and interests may be gathered in one certain community that has to follow the order and mind the traditions around.

Another historical perspective from Minuchin’s like comes from his childhood. As a son in a Jewish family during the 1920s, who had to live in a unique Argentina, Minuchin faced the necessity to learn different rules and truths and add them to the life of his own (Prochaska

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Marketing Management: Hewden Case Study custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

How Hewden can develop New Marketing Strategies

Conclusion

Reference List

Appendices

Introduction Hewden is a company that assumed its current trade name in 1999. It serves the building and construction industry through the provision of equipment for hire. It meets the market need for availing equipment that can be too costly to purchase as assets by respective builders and developers.

The clients can appropriate only a small proportion of their revenues and capital expenditure on machinery and equipment to get the service offered by Hewden. On the other hand, Hewden retains the ability to service and lease the equipment to other firms repeatedly. The business has an employee population of almost 900. It is currently serving the construction, infrastructure, industrial, and environmental industries with its range of products.

Its primary service is the convenience service that allows clients to manage their jobs with ease and in a timely way. Consequently, Hewden has achieved its objectives by focusing on employee development, branch network, and being a leader in environmental, health, and safety training.

A case study on Hewden is the basis of this paper’s research and discussion on the findings of competitive positions and marketing approaches by the company. This paper seeks to present a broad analysis of the present situation about the potential for the growth of Hewden in different business perspectives.

The focus includes marketing strategies, marketing segmentation options, and responses to increased competition in the market. Others are issues to do with employee management, brand management, and business growth management. The paper will bring out critical business analysis tools like TOWS matrix and segmentation methods.

It also explores aspects of competitive advantage derived from theoretical concepts of marketing and management, such as the Henry Mintzberg’s five Ps of strategy for dealing with marketing challenges (Mintzberg 2007).

How Hewden can develop New Marketing Strategies The matrix helps a company to formulate a strategy through bringing together and evaluating the strengths and opportunities that are internal and external to the business respectively. It also brings together and evaluates the weaknesses and threats that are external to the company. There are four potential strategies to follow in the matrix; namely, weaknesses and threats (WT), weaknesses and opportunities (WO), strengths and threats (ST) and strengths and opportunities (SO) (Koontz 2009).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the first case of the WT strategy, a company considers its greatest weaknesses and opts to go for a survival strategy. For Hewden, a major weakness is the differentiated culture in its depots. In addressing the weakness, Hewden considers its market environment and the need to focus on customer care. Thus, it can embark on additional training for its workers in all its depots so that they can offer customers consistent levels of quality survive.

As part of the training, the company will also need to consider the aging workforce as a factor (Brunold

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Reflective Journal – Week 4 essay help free

Weekly Reflective Journal: Where you will document what you have learned from all the assigned readings, supplementary readings. Do remember the reflective journal is not merely a narrative of work and assignments completed, it should demonstrate that you have thought through individual learning experiences and explain how and what you have learned. Utilize outside sources in your writing. For these weekly reflections, include the following sections: (1) Summarize readings and how relevant they are to your process of writing;

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Corporate Governance in Satyam Computer Services LTD Report college essay help

Abstract Satyam Company is a good example of companies that have failed due to fraud and embezzlement of funds by senior officials. Based on the findings from different scholars, the company lacked independent directors, thus giving room for wrongful misappropriation of funds.

Its external auditors also colluded with the directors to defraud the investors. The company had a weak internal control system and in its operations, the promoters held executive position, and thus they had great influence on the company’s decisions.

This essay is prepared based on the requirement of the course as directed by the tutor. This paper seeks to advise the management team of Satyam Ltd. on the best corporate culture to adopt in its administration.

The report is based on the view that the management of Satyam Company has reported at least one incidence involving misappropriation of funds by some irresponsible financial controllers.

Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse the company’s corporate governance critically and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of its internal control system before coming up with the necessary recommendations.

The recommendations that will be given at the end of the essay will be based on the provisions of the UK code on corporate governance.

Introduction In the modern world, the scope of corporate governance has changed due to the high number of companies that have failed due to misappropriation of funds. It has been taken to include the accountability concept especially in the accounting department.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The need for sound corporate governance has been perpetuated by the nature of modern businesses, which are run by third parties on the behalf of the shareholders or owners. A number of factors have facilitated the need for improved corporate governance.

Firstly, most businesses today are in the form of companies, which are owned by a great number of shareholders who are scattered, and thus cannot control the affairs of the firms (Varottil, 2010).

Secondly, the shareholders may require professionals to manage their businesses. This aspect creates a principal-agent relationship between the shareholders and the directors of the company.

Therefore, the concept of corporate governance becomes essential since for the shareholders’ interests to be secured there must be a control of the directors’ actions.

This essay therefore seeks to identify the shortfalls in the control system of Satyam Company and advise the company accordingly.

Literature review Corporate governance denotes the way in which firms are managed effectively (Bhasin, 2013). It outlines the rights and obligations of all the interested parties such as the directors, shareholders, and creditors among others.

Corporate governance also outlines the decision-making procedures and explains the role of each stakeholder in the process. It defines the corporate structure of the company clearly by outlining the role that each stakeholder is expected to perform.

We will write a custom Report on Corporate Governance in Satyam Computer Services LTD specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Owners of modern businesses employ managers to run the businesses on their behalf (Atesci, Bhagwatwar, Deo, Desouza

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Global Decision Making Exploratory Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior

Effective Global Managers

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The modern business environment is characterized by high competition, integration of markets, and changing economic trends. As a result, businesses have embarked on joining international markets to improve their sales and profits.

Companies that have adopted global strategies are increasingly finding it difficult to manage organizational behavior due to the social, cultural, and economic differences in the markets that they serve.

This paper sheds light on the importance of understanding the international dimensions of organizational behavior in the process of making global decisions. It will also discuss how managers can be more effective by understanding the international dimensions of organizational behavior.

International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior The main international dimensions or aspects of organizational behavior include people, structure, technology, and environment. A clear understanding of these aspects of organizational behavior can help a global manager to make ethical decisions in the following ways.

First, understanding people enables managers to make ethical human resource and stakeholder management decisions. People refer to the individuals or groups of individuals who establish an organization and work to achieve its objectives. Thus, it includes stakeholders such as employees and owners of an organization.

Multinational companies hire employees from different cultural backgrounds. Culture determines the way employees communicate, solve problems, work, and interact with their colleagues.

This means that employees will always interpret the decisions made by their managers according to their cultural values, beliefs, and traditions. A decision that affects employees or any other stakeholder of the organization is considered to be ethical if it respects the culture of the affected parties.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, a decision that is considered to be ethical in the US might be perceived to be unethical in Japan. For instance, staff promotions in the US are mainly based on performance. By contrast, seniority is a key determinant of staff promotion decisions in Japan.

Thus, directing an old Japanese employee to report to his younger colleague is likely to be considered as an unethical decision. By contrast, this decision will be considered to be ethical in the US.

In a nutshell, managers must understand and appreciate the norms, beliefs, attitudes, and traditions of the employees and stakeholders that they deal with in each market or country in order to make ethical decisions.

Second, global managers need to understand the organizational structures that are used in various overseas markets in order to make ethical management decisions. Structure provides a formal framework that delineates the relationships among members of the organization.

It also determines the flow of work and communication among employees. Organizational structures vary from region to region. Most western companies such as IBM and Barclays Bank have dynamic organizational structures that facilitate seamless interactions among employees.

Thus, most western companies have few management levels and encourage direct communication between managers and employees. By contrast, Chinese companies use a hierarchical organizational structure in which the company is directed by the top management.

The managers, on the other hand, lead the employees. A clear understanding of the influence of organizational structure on the relationships among employees enables manages to make ethical decisions concerning accountability, communication, and staff involvement.

We will write a custom Essay on Global Decision Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In western countries where companies use flat organizational structures, managers are considered to be ethical if they consult employees before making important decisions. Managers must recognize that employees have a right to express their views and to hold different opinions.

In countries where companies use hierarchical structures, ethical management decisions ensure that each functional unit is accountable for its performance to promote fairness and high performance.

Third, managers who have a clear understanding of the level of application of technology in various parts of the world are likely to make ethical decisions concerning their operations.

Technology is an important element of organizational behavior since it determines the level of cost-efficiency, product quality, and production capacity. Technology has positive and negative implications for the environment and employees.

Thus, people have different perceptions and attitudes towards technology in various parts of the world. For instance, in African countries where unemployment rate is very high, workers and trade unions resist technologies that replace human labor.

However, companies must still adopt technologies that promote automation in order to reduce costs and to increase their productivity.

Thus, a manager who understands the impact of technology on the society will be able to make decisions that promote the use of production techniques that minimize harm to various stakeholders and maximize benefits to the company.

This perspective is based on the fact that an ethical decision must promote responsibility and fairness. Understanding the effects of technology enables managers to make ethical decisions that encourage the spirit of altruism.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Global Decision Making by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Finally, global managers must understand the business environment in which they operate in order to make ethical decisions. The external environment of an organization consists of six major factors. These include political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal factors.

Undoubtedly, these variables vary from country to country. The effects of the external environmental factors on businesses can only be addressed in an ethical manner if they are clearly understood.

Managers who understand political factors such as industry regulations will be able to make ethical decisions by complying with all reporting and operational requirements.

Similarly, global managers will be able to make ethical decisions concerning their production and marketing strategies if they understand social factors such as citizens’ attitudes and beliefs in various countries.

For instance, an advert that has a picture of a woman is highly accepted in the US and most European countries. However, using a picture of a woman in an advert in Saudi Arabia is considered to be unethical since it contravenes Islamic teachings and the country’s traditions.

In a nutshell, a clear understanding of the business environment enables global managers to make ethical decisions by avoiding to break rules or to engage in activities that undermine established social norms in various countries.

Effective Global Managers An understanding of the international dimensions of organizational behavior can help someone to become a better global manager in the following ways. First, it enables global managers to motivate a multicultural workforce. Motivation is achieved by understanding and fulfilling the needs of employees.

Needs are deficiencies that influence employees to behave in a particular manner to achieve a predetermined outcome. Understanding the organizational and the national culture in a given country, as well as, the external business environment enables global managers to identify employees’ needs.

For example, intrinsic rewards such as staff promotions and recognition are highly regarded in masculine cultures. However, employees from low income countries are likely to be more interested in extrinsic rewards such as bonus pay to improve their purchasing power.

Thus, a global manager will be able to influence employees to behave in a particular way if he is able to understand their needs and to provide appropriate rewards to fulfill them.

Second, understanding the international dimensions of organizational behavior improves global managers’ leadership abilities. The contingency theory of leadership postulates that a good leader links his behavior to the situation at hand.

Specifically, the leadership style that a good leader adopts depends on the situation that he is dealing with in terms of business objectives, as well as, employees’ values and skills. For instance, a country where employees value freedom of expression and autonomy, a global manager can be a good leader if he is democratic.

Similarly, a production-oriented leadership style will be appropriate in an organization where employees are high motivated. Thus, a global manager will be effective if he can understand the situation associated with the various elements of organizational behavior and to utilize the appropriate leadership style.

Third, global managers can enhance their communication skills by understanding organizational behavior. Different cultures often use different communication styles. Most western cultures use direct communication styles where people say exactly what they mean.

By contrast, most Asian cultures use indirect communication styles. This means that a global manager who is in charge of a diverse workforce can create confusion and misunderstandings if he uses the wrong communication style.

Global managers can overcome this challenge by taking time to study and understand the interactions among employees, the communication styles used in their organizations, and the role of technology in communication.

Fourth, understanding the international dimensions of organizational behavior improves global managers’ ability to manage power and conflict in their organizations. Power refers to “the ability to influence the behavior of others”. The organizational structure is the main source of legitimate power in most companies.

The structure defines the power that is associated with various positions in the company. There are also several forms of power that do not emanate from the organizational structure. Nonetheless, they have immense effects on organizational performance.

These forms of power include expert power, coercive power, and referent power. Misuse of power often results into interpersonal and intergroup conflicts. Conflicts often arise when the organizational structure fails to define the officers who have the right to make decisions in every situation.

For instance, engineers who have expert power often disagree with CEOs who approve projects without their consent. Global managers can prevent conflicts if they understand the sources of power straggles within their organizations. This enables them to distribute power fairly, thereby avoiding conflicts.

Conclusion Given the dynamics of the modern business environment, global managers have to understand the international dimensions of organizational behavior in order to make ethical decisions.

Specifically, understanding organizational behavior enables global managers to make ethical decisions concerning personnel management, stakeholder management, and application of technology.

Moreover, it enables global managers to respond to external factors such as industry regulations in an ethical manner. Global managers can be more effective in leadership, communication, and conflict management if they understand the international dimensions of organizational behavior.

Works Cited Bredeson, Dean. Applied Business Ethics. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. Print.

Hellriegel, Don and John Slocum. Organizational Behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Print.

Luthans, Fred. Organizational Behavior. London: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.

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BlackBerry Ltd Case Study essay help

Synopsis of the Situation The BlackBerry Ltd, formerly known as research in motion, has not been doing well in recent past compared to its competitors. This has been as a result of inappropriate steps taken in the marketing and branding department.

This paper, therefore, analyzes the situation of BlackBerry Ltd in an attempt to identifying the possible problems, which has led to the decline of the company’s share value, as well as recommending possible solutions to the problem.

The recommendations provided do not only help in solving the current problem, but also aim at helping the company do well in future.

Key Issues The mobile phone industry is highly competitive (Grewal and Levy, 2012). BlackBerry Ltd faces stiff competition from other handset manufacturing companies such as apple, which have created a niche in Smartphones.

The competition in this industry requires companies to be on their toes in order to always please their clients, make enough profits and at the same time remain at the top of the competition (Hartley 2014).

BlackBerry Ltd boasts of a large customer base, which has been increasing over the years. According to Moon (2013), the company had approximately 10.5 million by the time the first apple iPhone was released in the market and 21 million customers by the time the first Google Android hit the market.

The author adds that the company had 78 million users worldwide and an active messaging service with about 60 million users by 2012.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, there was a report in 2013, by the media that BlackBerry had lost $1.049 billion (Moon, 2013). The company’s share value was $60 in 2011, but dropped sharply that year and has not risen above $20 since then (Martell and Rocha 2014).

In March 2013, the company recorded a 21% decline in the number of phones that were shipped (Moon 2013). This was the least the company had shipped since 2006. These were attributed to several changes in the company’s strategy to address the competitive hardware environment.

Most of BlackBerry’s loss was as a result of the fast growth of other handset companies like Samsung. In the US alone, BlackBerry’s market share dropped to 3%, down from 9% forcing the company to adopt a $1 billion cost saving program in 2013 (Martell and Rocha 2014).

The company also delayed the release of BlackBerry 10 OS, which was a great disappointment to its consumers (Moon 2013). Since then, the company has made losses in their share value and also lost most of its loyal consumers, leaving behind not too many die-hard followers.

BlackBerry has lost most of its market share to other companies manufacturing similar or better handsets for example the Google supported phones. According to Martell and Rocha 2014, 2013 was a dark year for BlackBerry, faced with a number of challenges.

There was a significant reduction in research and development expenses by 24% and also in the marketing and administration where expenses dropped by 35%. The operating expense reductions are encouraging and the situation could get better in the near future. However, the demand for the product is still very low.

By 2013 December, the company’s market share was less than 1% but rose in early 2014 by 7.1%. There was a drop in hardware revenue from 1.9 million to 1.3 million devices sold during the year. 3.4 Million. Recently, the company was forced to lay-off thousands of its employees to slash costs by 64%.

We will write a custom Case Study on BlackBerry Ltd specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company has also agreed to sell most of its real estate, especially the ones that do not bring in significant revenue to the company.

The authors also added that the company’s CEO, Mr. Chen, remains optimistic that BlackBerry will have a positive or neutral cash flow by March 2015, but confirms that the company might not record any profits or revenue growth till March 2016.

In March 2014, the company announced that it had decided to target specific customers, the enterprise customers and the prosumers. The company defines prosumers as a group of users that primarily use the device for communication and productivity purposes (Oliveira, 2013).

Applications are not primarily for this consumer. If they use applications, then it is specific ones and for specific purposes. They look for applications that get the job done for them, i.e. they create more content than they consume.

Prosumers are more self-oriented hence they choose more professional or semi-professional device. Enterprise consumers, on the other hand, refers to working business people and as well as the youth.

These are people who access email and need a QWERTY key pad for easy typing and workplace functionality (Dvorak, Vranica and Ante, 2011). These are people who need a phone that works for them.

Marketing Efforts BlackBerry Ltd has made a number of changes in its marketing strategy in an effort to retain its market share.

First, the company has consolidated and centralized the marketing strategies from its outlets across the world to ensure uniformity in marketing strategies hence the clients get the same ideas and services.

Not sure if you can write a paper on BlackBerry Ltd by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This was also considered a good solution to the client-confusions driven by the different marketing approaches of various BlackBerry outlets.

Second, the company dropped the infamous name Research in Motion in favor of BlackBerry. This name was not known by many people and those who did found the name unappealing. The company believed that its lack of popularity in terms of its name was to blame for the decline in sales.

Third, the company decided not to recycle the names that had been used to brand and market other BlackBerry phones such as bold, curve, touch and tour and instead go for simpler naming such as Z10, Q10 and so on. The company considered the new names easy to remember and associate with.

The company decided it would produce just one BlackBerry brand that would be its stronghold in marketing the entire company. It decided not to take up the marketing and advertising strategies that other companies like apple are engaged in, and concentrate on its name only.

It is only in a few parts of the world that this handset does well, with other handsets dominating the rest of the planet. It would need to clean up the bad name of the company for it to sell its latest products that is the Z10 and Q10 smartphones. (Hartley, 2014)

Fifth, the company decided to focus more on offers to lure more customers. The company has really been putting their efforts into advertising to create awareness of the product to the publics, which is besides those who already know the product.

Lastly, the company has taken advertising to a whole new level of using carriers.

The Problem From the issues presented above, it is clear that BlackBerry Ltd had quite a number of marketing issues. Its handsets have lost most of their worth. They fail to brand their smartphones which is vital in this sector. Hence, marketing its products to strengthen its brand remains key.

Due to lack of proper communication to its clients, the brand has been doing poorly over the years (Cheriton 2013). The company has not put in place proper marketing strategies that will clear the bad name it has presently.

According to Cheriton, the company should not have adopted business-as-usual marketing strategy, but rather damage-control and rebuilding-the-brand kind of marketing. If the handset has to remain in the market, it has to manufacture their product with their clients in mind so that they can deliver exactly what they want.

Though the company has a number of issues, the most crucial one, according to my understanding of the case, is the damaged image of the company and the brands it produces. Many people believe that BlackBerry is for the old, rich businessmen. They think that it has some of the most old fashioned applications and software.

Other people even perceive BlackBerry products to be difficult to use due to its complex nature. All these are misconceptions because many people lack the necessary information regarding the device. They don’t have a reliable source of information to enlighten them on the pros of BlackBerry device.

The company has not put much effort into the campaign to change this negativity and ignorance from people. Many of them rely on word of mouth to know about BlackBerry products and end up getting wrong or insufficient information regarding the device.

I believe this is the most important issue because a product must be positively known by its consumers, whether new or old, for it to do well in the market. The people must have the right information about it including knowledge of the good and possible weaknesses of the product.

The company should always endeavor to counter attack negative news about the device circulating in the market with positive news. A product may not be as great, but it needs to have a positive image for it to sell. This is what the BlackBerry device needs to do.

Alternative Solutions Despite the negative publicity about BlackBerry devices, all is not lost. The company can use the following options to redeem itself.

The first option would be to develop a totally new brand that is not currently available in the market and bring it out to challenge its competitors. The consumers would not have anything against it and would have a better chance of doing well in the market against its competitors (Grewal and Levy, 2012).

This would be an expensive and risky turn to take, but it has a high probability of success. The company only has to make sure that the device is mind-blowing and has all the features and applications that would make it sell.

The second solution would be to rebrand the devices already present in the market. The company would need to give these devices a new look, name and probably add more features and applications that appeal to the consumers.

The company would also need to remove those ­­applications that are not favored by consumers. This would make the old brands better and hence they would do better in the market.

The third option would be to relook its marketing strategies and put more efforts in redeeming its name from the wide spread negative publicity.

Selected Solution to the Problem The third solution seems to be the most appropriate in solving BlackBerry’s problem. The company needs to engage in marketing strategies that are more inclined towards cleaning up its name. This is possible by engaging in activities that only explain to the consumers the positive side of its devices.

This information needs to be true, so that the consumers are not disappointed when they learn otherwise from other sources. If this is done well, the company will gradually redeem its name as consumers forget the negative things they knew about its brands and start appreciating BlackBerry.

This would be the most viable solution to the problem as it is easy and does not require as much capital and expertise as the other two. It does not also require so much strategizing as the company can simply emulate how their best competitors do their marketing.

Adopting some of the competitors marketing strategies, especially those that have proven successful in the past, would help a great deal.

This solution was chosen after careful analysis of the company’s portfolio, which revealed that very little effort is put into marketing. The company is also not doing its marketing the right way.

For example, the company, for a long time, had different marketing and advertising strategies for the different branches in different regions across the world. This would confuse consumers and make the company seem divided and unsure of what exactly they want to achieve.

The company also has very few adverts and commercials regarding its products. The few adverts available seem somewhat irrelevant and are not interesting to the consumers. The adverts give vague and incomplete information that would not entice the client to buy the devices.

Expected Results and Rationale for the Solution Conclusions

A lot needs to be done to restore BlackBerry’s former glory. The company needs to check what it is doing wrong that is making it lag so much behind its competitors. The company needs to do an audit of both its products and management to be able to identify where exactly the problem lies: product or the management.

Cutting on costs is a wise decision to make until such a time when the company has started making enough profits.

Advertising and marketing is the only way through which consumers would get to know about the product and it is obvious that the company needs to do much about this alongside other strategies like rebranding its products.

Recommendations

The company has serious problems that need to be dealt with immediately if it is to realize any profits in the future. The company needs to re-strategize on its marketing to ensure the consumers prefer its devices over its competitors.

It needs to borrow a leaf from its competitors regarding their way of doing things so that it can be in a better position to go back to its former glory. The company needs to advertise its products more on the media in a manner that consumers will be happy with. The adverts need to be relevant for them to be effective.

The management also needs to be reorganized. The company should consider replacing some of its managers, especially in the marketing division, to allow for the introduction of fresh ideas.

The company should hire fresh and young people who know what consumers want and would not do things in the same old ways. Experience in marketing should be given first priority during recruitment to ensure that those absorbed in the company can add value to it.

The company also needs to start making client-friendly devices. They should be easy to use and have the latest applications that are found in other handsets. This way, they will compete fairly in the market just like other phones.

The names used for the products should be easy to remember and should arouse curiosity and desire for the handsets. The company should not recycle a name that has been used before as the clients will feel that they are buying an old product that has nothing new to offer.

Handling the situation

If I were to handle BlackBerry’s situation, I would first of all re-organize the management to get rid of those who are not performing.

I would then cut on the unnecessary expenses that the company cannot handle at the moment, and then put as much capital, time and personnel into marketing, advertising and branding, which would most definitely turn around the business.

Since I may not have the knowledge of the appropriate methods to use, I would seek advice from the experts and try to emulate what my competitors, who are performing better than me, are doing. This would, most probably, take time, but patience is key.

The market would not turn in my favor overnight, but it will be seen to steadily rise. It is important to note that this would be a continuous process that has to be followed from now henceforth. No stopping, but it can be improved.

Positive and Negative Results

Adopting the solution presented above would generate several positive outcomes as listed below. It would enlighten the consumers on the positive side of the company and its devices; hence they would go for the product.

The consumers would get good service from the devices that are of high quality and have the best applications. The company would also benefit as it would increase its income and return to its former glory.

There are many employees that had been laid off when the company shares value went down. However, with the increased shares value, they would get back their jobs which would be good to better their lives.

On the other hand, this solution would have some negative consequences in that it is difficult to change consumer’s minds to think something they knew was bad is now good.

The company would have to use quite a good amount of resources for this solution to work. This would not be good for the company as it does not have such a large amount to spend since it is incurring losses at the moment.

References Cheriton, R. (2013). BlackBerry’s biggest problem is not its phones. Web.

Dvorak. P., Vranica, S.

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Emergency Planning and Disaster Management Case Study college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Department

Rescue steps

Necessary operational support services

Reference list

Department Fire departments are usually front line workers in a disaster situation. Therefore, during a disaster, the general public depends a lot on fire department for assistance.

However, provision of rescue services complexes under calamities like earth quakes, hurricanes and floods. Therefore, this necessitates increased staffing to meet the threshold of effective response.

Under calamities of such a large scale as tornados, government disaster assistance teams are called in after local resources have been exhausted (National Response Framework, 1998, p. 15).

Rescue steps The first step should involve assessing the extent of the damage. This will help the department to consider the adequacy of its staff requirements.

Staff requirement analysis might involve how personnel will be activated, the management of catastrophic coverage, and the organization of shifts in situations where rescue operations will take more than 12 hours.

Nevertheless, in case of staff shortage, additional support might be requested from the staff on leave (Newman

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Leadership and Motivation Theory Coursework online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Servant Leader

Transformational Leader

Courageous Leaders

Introduction Organizational change is one of the most complicated strategies to employ. Its success largely depends on how friendly the employees are to new ideas, and the ability of the leader to persuade and mobilize the employees towards that direction.

The reception that employees give to the new change depends on factors that motivate them. Not all will have same opinion to a new idea, but understanding their unique perceptions is essential for initiating the change itself.

Most of the employees will be motivated to work when they believe that change will influence the community, the customers they relate with, the organizations and its stake, as well as themselves. In this case, they will be able to give their best and produce best possible outcomes.

It is also important to note that employees who believe there is honesty and fairness in delivering services to the partners involved and in initiating change get motivated. It is, therefore, important for the management to consider these views as they initiate change.

In order to be successful in initiating change, information about why change is necessary should be communicated to the employees for them to support its implementation. The managers should be seen acting towards the same idea for employees to copy.

Besides, all incentives in the company should be in line with the new direction. If change requires new skills, employees should undergo training so that they gain needed experience. If these conditions are put into practice, employee possibility of supporting change will be high.

The term leadership does not have a generally accepted definition. However, different notions of leadership have different attributes that favor their specifications. Leadership refers to influence that someone has over others working towards the same goal.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One notion is that a leader should be a servant leader. Others include transformational leader, courageous leader and inspirational leader.

Servant Leader Effective leader is one who serves others by providing what they need for growth, challenge, and building their confidence.

A leader should be able to teach others how to lead, provide opportunities for growth, provide diverse opinions and seek options from others, act with humility and be able to persuade and not authorize.

Persons with these traits can easily lead and get acceptance to initiate change in the organization because they give insight on issues that others may not comprehend.

Transformational Leader This leader is able to inspire others through enthusiasm and passion. They are energetic and concerned about the progress of their followers. Their personalities are able to inspire others to change perceptions, expectations and be motivated to work towards common goals.

They encourage creativity by challenging the status quo. They have clear visions that are able to challenge their followers’ actions towards same goals and fulfillment. They serve as role models hence of very much influence to individuals indebted to their perceptions and willingly follow their principles and guidelines.

Courageous Leaders These leaders bravely pursue their objectives despite possible oppositions and risks involved. Their convictions about their visions, missions, and values are so strong and openly speak up for them.

We will write a custom Coursework on Leadership and Motivation Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Having strong belief about what is good for them and constantly trying to upraise them is their most important characteristic.

They always argue for nothing less than the truth as they try to achieve their short-term objectives. Their ability to hold up their rights gives them recognition at organizational levels as well as national levels hence are able to succeed in their endeavors.

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“A madcap story of sex, style, celebrity and the women who made America modern” by Joshua Zeitz Critical Essay essay help

Written by Joshua Zeitz and published by Three Rivers Press in 2006, the book A Madcap story of sex, style, celebrity and the women who made America modern is a chef-d’oeuvre piece of literature concerning the rise of ‘flapper’ in the 1920s.

Unfortunately, the contemporary generation of students, who were mainly born in the late 20th century, has no clue of what a flapper means. Conventionally, a flapper underscores a paradigm shift where women started agitating for their rights, thus leading to a sexual revolution.

Women abandoned most of the practices that their mothers and grandmothers applied in their lives. The book majors mainly on the distinguished and perhaps maverick individuals that delineated the ‘flapper’ ideology. Among these people were Zelda Fitzgerald, Lois Long, and Colleen Moore.

This paper is a critique of arguments and theses advanced by Joshua Zeitz coupled with highlighting how the author uses facts to make his point in the book A Madcap story of sex, style, celebrity and the women who made America modern.

Analysis To highlight the thesis of sex revolution in the 1920s, Zeitz divides this masterwork piece into three distinct sections where he tackles different issues surrounding the ‘flapper’, which makes it easy to navigate through the book without getting lost.

The central theme in this book is to explore the rise and progression of flappers in the 1920s. In other words, the book highlights the birth of the fleshy party girl in the American context characterized by unorthodox way of living like conceitedness, hedonism, and inebriation.

Zeitz achieves this theme by doing intensive research to come up with real life examples of how the flapper lived. He starts by quoting from the all-time favorite writer, Scott Fitzgerald, of the illustrious The Great Gatsby, which shows how the author carried out in-depth research into the subject.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At one point Fitzgerald protests, “I know nothing about flappers…The idea that I am in any way interested in the number of knees on exhibition at the Biltmore lobby is extremely distasteful to me. You’d think I invented bobbed knees. I deny it” (Zeitz 2006, 48).

However, Zeitz maintains that Fitzgerald’s wife, Zelda, is the epitome of the ‘flapper’ thing due to her husband’s writings, which in effect makes Fitzgerald the inventor of the ‘bobbed knees‘ even though he denies it.

Therefore, Zeitz is not afraid of controversy and he does not want to come out as a populist, but he says it as he sees it, which is one of the strengths of this book.

After introducing the Fitzgeralds and their midwifery role in the birth of the ‘flapper’, Zeitz moves on to explore other women who accepted the idea of a flapper. He tackles Eugenia Kelly, Coco Channle, and Colleen Moore together with the booze-loving Lois Long.

The book carries critical information, which might not be found anywhere else in one volume concerning the rise of the modern American woman in the 1920s.

The compilation ultimately produces a one-stop material highlighting the changing face of feminism in the 1920s and the transition from the conventional Victorian whimsies to the empowered American woman, who could dress the way she wanted, date the person of her choice, spend the night partying and show up at work drunk the following day, and determine her future.

One of the many issues that I learnt from the book is that the winds of the American woman sexual liberation started blowing strongly in the 1920s and it never died as characterized by the rise of Paris Hilton among others.

We will write a custom Book Review on “A madcap story of sex, style, celebrity and the women who made America modern” by Joshua Zeitz specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The author once again becomes controversial by stating that the ‘flapper’ wave was not just a fashion trend; on the contrary, it was a capitalist move to make profits out of the confusion and agitation.

Zeitz notes, “The pioneer merchants of cool invented the flapper for fun, for profit and for fame…In branding and selling her, they inaugurated that curious, modern cycle by which popular culture imitates life and life imitates popular culture” (2006, 9).

By deciding to give such controversial views, the author invigorates the book and stirs the reader into viewing the entire issue of women rights from another perspective.

However, inasmuch as the book is a masterpiece, it has its weaknesses. The first part of the three sections of the book is written with mastery as ideas are arranged systematically.

It starts by ushering in a key player in the making of the ‘flapper’ mentality, explores her before inviting the audience to other players who emulated the key player and ultimately closing with the pioneer person to make a complete account of events.

Unfortunately, the second and the last segments are poorly structured with mixed ideas. In addition, the pictures used in the book are placed haphazardly and they do not necessarily add any information to the pages where they are placed.

Finally, the author concentrated so much on ‘white-flappers’ without the mention of the contribution of the minority groups in the flapper campaign.

Conclusion Zeitz’s book highlights the birth and the rise of the American flapper in the 1920s.The author uses facts to back his claims by giving real life examples of the people who pioneered the flapper campaign including Zelda Fitzgerald.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “A madcap story of sex, style, celebrity and the women who made America modern” by Joshua Zeitz by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The author chooses controversy, which enlivens the book. However, the second and the third sections are weaker as compared to the first one in terms of structure.

Overall, the book is interesting and a worth read especially to the contemporary students who know very little or nothing about the rise of ‘flapper’ in the American society.

Reference Zeitz, Joshua. 2006. A Madcap Story of Sex, Style, Celebrity and the Women Who Made America Modern. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press.

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Negative Health Impacts Exemplification Essay essay help free: essay help free

There are myriads of negative health impacts that millions of people will continue to face as a consequence of climate change. The ill effects of global warming should be addressed with urgency. The earth’s climate is being affected by the disruptive human activities.

It is indeed true that the emission of greenhouse gases has immensely contributed to the devastating effects of global warming. Gaseous emissions such as methane and carbon dioxide usually restrict the dispatch of long wave radiation from the surface of the earth.

When this radiation combines with the short wave rays from the sun, a warming effect is created on the immediate surface of the earth (Smith and Wigley 448). These effects are multiplied several times and eventually result into global warming.

It is unfortunate that the key policy makers are not wiling to address the impact of global warming and offer a lasting solution. It does not require rocket science to understand that greenhouse gas emissions are harmful to the life of both plants and animals.

Most of the negative health outcomes of global warming are straightforward. For instance, enhanced pollen production, interruption of the hydrologic cycle and warmer temperatures may directly lead to poor quality of air, increase in morbidity, and intense exposure to heat stress.

Worse still, there are other potentially harmful indirect effects associated with the changes in climate. When the natural systems of the planet Earth are altered, both animal and plants are exposed to great danger. For example, we have witnessed several instances of erratic weather in different parts of the globe.

These include flooding, drought, desertification, hurricanes and tornados. The aforementioned risks have hampered access to vital natural resources such as food and water. Excess precipitation that leads to floods is not beneficial at all in the survival of plants and animals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, aridity and desertification are growing at a very high rate in some parts of the world. Eventually, the human population will have limited access to necessary food nutrients.

The latter is a direct impact of climate change that the developed world should be in a position to comprehend. Even the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has scantly addressed some of the scaring effects of climate change.

As it stands now, there is uncertainty on whether governments across the world are really interested or committed to control harmful emissions to the environment.

Ever since the Kyoto Protocol was ignored, subsequent global summits on climate change have hardly instituted firm measures that can be put in place in order to curb the derailing impacts of environment pollution.

The quota system of greenhouse gas emission was a viable proposal to cut down emissions. However, the future is greatly uncertain.

Water is one of the most precious natural commodities that sustain human and animal health (Villar and Jon 7). Nonetheless, lack of adequate water resources is currently a key global concern. Poor access to pure water has been aggravated by the effects of climate change and global warming.

Where are we heading to as a planet? Water table is below the sustainable level in some regions. A case example is the northern plain of China. Although the region supports large scale wheat farming, the ground water table has been dwindling at a very fast rate.

We will write a custom Essay on Negative Health Impacts specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Recent estimates reveal that the level of ground water is diminishing at a rate of three meters per year. This implies that the region might eventually turn into an arid and semi arid zone. Second, India is spending 50% of its electricity expenses to facilitate irrigation.

Water has to be pumped from deep wells and transported some kilometers away in order to irrigate crops planted in the dry zone.

If such trends will continue, we can be assured that the human population may eventually be eliminated from the planet. It is not sustainable to irrigate crops in dry regions due to the high cost of operation.

The human population is also rapidly growing. A high population will translate into an increased demand for resources to sustain life. Consequently, the pace of industrial growth will equally skyrocket. The net effect will be the continued emission of greenhouse gases.

Hence, the pollution cycle will repeat itself. Nonetheless, such a dire situation does not mean that there are no solutions for the challenge. A case in point is the adoption of green energy revolution in the mass production of goods.

It is not mandatory to burn fossil fuels in order to generate energy. Scientific inventions can be adopted to replace rampant use of fossil fuels. The latter have already been suggested to policy makers. Nevertheless, it is taking too long to embrace the green energy solution.

Some of the clean energy sources that can be used instead of fossil fuels include solar energy, wind energy, nuclear power, geothermal energy and power from hydrogen. All of these clean energy sources have been tested and proven to be functional for both small and large scale production processes.

The world leaders should be asking themselves very critical questions regarding climate change and the associated ill effects on human health. From the readings, there is fear that the sea level will continue to rise as ice caps melt due to global warming (Myers and Aaron 35).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Negative Health Impacts by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some islands and beaches may finally submerge into oceans. The latter effect will also contribute significantly to the overall volume of liquid water on the planet. Will the increased amount of water volume affect the human population?

As already pointed out in the above section, food availability will be a challenge to grapple with in the future. In any case, food shortage in several parts of the world is a humanitarian issue that is being addressed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The latter is a subsidiary body of the United Nations (UN).

On a final note, it is pertinent to underscore the fact that human beings are solely responsible to conserve the environment. When we emit harmful gaseous compounds into the atmosphere, we risk our health.

As much as we should appreciate the role played by industrial revolution in economic development, it is also worthy to countercheck the negative effects associated with such developments. The economic and health benefits of industrialization should be keenly weighed against the detrimental impacts.

If climate change can lead to water scarcity, poor nutrition (due to inadequate supply of food), displacement of populations and gross deterioration of the natural ecosystems, then it is prudent for world leaders and policy makers to address the menace urgently.

We may end up phasing out the entire human population that we purport to safeguard through industrialization (Houghton 76).

Works Cited Houghton, Theodore. Global Warming: The Complete Briefing. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.

Myers, Samuel and Bernstein, Aaron. “The Coming Health Crisis”. The Scientist. 2007: 32-37. Print.

Smith, Steven and Tom Wigley. “Global Warming Potentials: 1. Climatic Implications of Emissions Reductions.” Climatic Change 44. 4 (2000): 445-457.Print.

Villar, Ana and Krosnick, Jon. “Global Warming Vs. Climate Change, Taxes Vs. Prices: Does Word Choice Matter?” Climatic Change 105.1 (2011): 1-12. Print.

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Petroleum Segment of the Energy Infrastructure Research Paper essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Exploration

Production

Storage

Transport

Refinement and distribution of oil throughout the U.S

Security measures in place to ensure safety of the oil sector

Conclusion

References

Introduction Petroleum products are used in different sectors as energy and raw materials for various industries. According to Leffler and Raymond (2006), oil is one of the most important commodities in the world market. It has a massive impact on other sectors of the economy.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, the United States was the leading producer of oil in the world. It has since been surpassed by Saudi Arabia and Russia in production of oil. However, the government has been committing a lot of investment in this sector.

The federal government has been keen to develop the infrastructure in the energy sector in order to boost production of energy. Although other units in the energy sector ,such as hydro, geothermal and wind energy power, have been given focus, attention has always been on the petroleum sector.

The United States has been willing to ensure that it has increased the volume of petroleum products that it produced. This has seen it improve the infrastructure in this sector to great extents.

Recent studies show that the United States has the capacity of becoming the leading oil producer in the world based on the oil reserves that have been identified in the recent past. The focus of this study will be to bring an understanding of how oil exploration, production, storage, transport, and refinement take place.

Exploration Oil exploration is one of the most complex and very expensive processes in petroleum production. Parkash (2003) defines petroleum exploration as, “The search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbons deposits beneath the Earth’s surface, such as oil and natural gas.”

This process involves different complex processes that would help in determining the presence of oil in a given region.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the United States, oil exploration has evolved over the years, from the use of a simple tool to tap petroleum products that were near the surface to complex processes that can help determine the presence of oil in the deep seas. The cost of oil exploration has been the main hindrance to small scale oil exploration in the country.

Oil exploration can take place at onshore or offshore sites. Some of the traditional ways of determining the presence of oil is the detection of oil or natural gas seeps on the surface of the earth. These are the crucial leads to many oil explorers.

According to Parkash (2003), although there are currently many sophisticated tools that are used to detect the presence of petroleum, the seeps still act as crucial leads to the possibility of oil exploration beneath the ground.

Exploration geophysics has been one of the most important tools that are currently used to identify the presence of hydrocarbons deposit.

As a result of the massive cost of drilling oil wells, there has been an increasing need to confirm that there is a substantial amount of oil in a given region before drilling of the wells can begin. Technological advancement has helped develop some tools that can assist in confirming that the amount of oil detected is worth exploring.

This means that when a region is suspected to have oil deposits, it will be subjected to a series of sub-surface geological analyses. The first stage is always to subject the area to gravity survey. Special tools are used at this stage to determine how gravitational force is affected in that particular area.

Significant presence of oil deposits would have an effect on the gravitational force, a fact that could point to the presence of oil. However, presence of ground water may have a similar effect, and this means that a further analysis is needed.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Petroleum Segment of the Energy Infrastructure specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The second stage will be magnetic survey. This is used to determine if the gravitational effect is caused by water or deposits of hydrocarbons. Magnetometer is used at this stage. The next stage would be to conduct a passive seismic survey.

Parkash (2003) says, “Passive seismic is the detection of the natural low frequency earth movements, usually with the purpose of discerning the geological structure and locate the underground oil, gas, or other resources.”

The natural frequency would be measured by close observation of seismic waves with the help of portable seismometers. Below is a picture of seismometer used in monitoring the flow of seismic waves.

Seismometer

When all these processes give a lead to a possible presence of oil in a given location, then it would be considered worth drilling an exploration well that would be the final test that a given region has potential oil deposits.

In the United States, oil explorations have been extensively conducted in Georgia, Virginia, Ohio, New York, Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, and many other states in this country.

Offshore exploration, especially in the deep sea, has also been conducted to supplement the supplies found onshore. Although very expensive, offshore oil drilling is currently becoming very popular, especially among large American corporations.

Production Petroleum production, also known as oil extraction, is the actual process of extracting usable petroleum from the earth. Upon a successful completion of the exploration process, the next step is always the extraction. This is another very costly process that involves numerous risks.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Petroleum Segment of the Energy Infrastructure by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It has been a preserve for the large specialized companies, such as Bio Tech Inc., that have been very successful in most of the oil fields in Texas. The first stage in oil extraction involves drilling of oil well at the site using oil rings. A steel pipe is then placed into the bore to enable the oil to move easily to the surface.

At the top end of the pipe, there are collection valves, also known as Christmas Tree (Leffler, Pattarozzi and Sterling 2011). It helps in controlling the flow and regulating the pressure. The figure below is Pump jack used in the extraction process.

According to Zou (2013), oil extraction takes place in three main stages. The first, also known as the primary recovery stage, takes place when natural mechanisms are used to extract oil deposits into the surface.

At this stage, such natural occurrences as displacement of oil by water and gravitational forces would help in the extraction of oil from the ground. This always takes place in cases where there are large deposits of oil. This stage is common in newly drilled wells.

The second stage, also known as the secondary recovery stage, takes place when the natural forces become too weak to support the extraction process. This is common in cases where the extraction process has been ongoing for some time.

The process involves supplying external energy into the reservoir in order to force oil deposits into the system. Totten (2003) notes that gas lifts are always used to inject carbon dioxide into the reservoir to help in forcing oil products into the drilling pipe.

The third stage known as tertiary recovery is a complex process that uses different approaches to extract oil from the ground. Also known as thermally enhanced oil recovery process, this stage uses steam injection and fire flooding in order to extract oil from the ground.

Sometimes it even becomes necessary to convert oil into electrical energy to further enhance the extraction process. The ultimate amount of oil that can be extracted from a given location depends on a number of factors.

According to Parkash (2003), the most important factor that determines the amount of oil that can be extracted from a given area is the level of oil deposits. Large oil deposits would yield higher amounts of oil. Another important factor is the permeability of the rocks.

Some rocks do not allow for a smooth flow of oil because they are tight. Such rocks inhibit the rate at which oil can be extracted from them.

Finally, the technology used and the level of skills of the workforce will play some part in determining the amount and rate at which oil is extracted from the ground.

Most of the oil extracting companies in the United States are known to use sophisticated tools in order to improve the speed and amount of oil extracted from the ground. This has helped them increase the efficiency of the entire process.

Storage When petroleum products have been extracted from the ground, they must be temporarily stored before they are transported to the refinery plants. According to Parkash (2003), storage of petroleum products can be analyzed from two perspectives.

The first perspective will analyze the storage process of the crude oil just before it is transported to refinery plants.

The second perspective will be the storage of the processed products that are waiting for transportation to various retailing destinations. Storage of oil always takes place within a short while as it awaits its transportation to the relevant destinations. Storage of crude oil may take place onshore or offshore.

The approach taken to store oil extracted onshore is different from the approach taken to store that which is extracted offshore. Onshore crude oil storage is a simpler process that makes use of large cylindrical tanks constructed above or below the surface.

The size of the tanks will depend on the amount of oil that is extracted per unit time, and the speed of the transportation system. It is important to ensure that the storage tanks are of the standard materials because any leakage of the crude oil may have a devastating effect on the environment.

Several government agencies and environmental organizations have developed requirements that should be followed when designing such tanks. This is meant to enhance environmental protection and security of the employees and infrastructure within the plant or its surrounding.

The petroleum products extracted offshore are always stored with the help of floating production, storage and offloading unit (Zou 2013).

This is a complex unit that does not only help in the production process but also in its storage while it awaits tankers that would be used in the transportation process. The figure below shows the unit on high seas.

When the crude oil has been processed into such products as liquid petroleum gas, petrol, kerosene, or heavy fuels, temporary storage of these products is needed before they can be transported to the market. Storage of these final products is a very complex process that requires a high level of safety measures.

Liquid petroleum gas and petrol are highly flammable products, and their storage at the refinery plants needs specialized equipment. According to Leffler (2008), emerging technologies have helped improvise storage equipment that is efficient in storing refined petroleum products.

Transport Transportation is the nest stage in this process. Transportation of petroleum products always takes place with the help of pipelines, tank trucks, marine vessels, rail tanks, and many other vessels.

Although crude oil is majorly transported using pipelines and tankers, the refined products require unique transport systems that take into consideration their true nature.

For instance, the transport method used for liquid petroleum gas may not be appropriate when transporting heavy fuels, such as diesel. Each product has its own unique transportation vessel to enhance safety of the people handling the products, the society, and the environment.

Transportation of gasoline must be done through specialized pipelines, tanks, and such other containers that will restrict its exposure to the air. This is so because the product is highly flammable and can have devastating effects when exposed to air and flame.

Liquid petroleum gas is stored and transported at temperatures below -162 degrees centigrade. This helps ensure that the product remains in a liquid state. The main advantage of liquefaction of the product is that it consumes a smaller space than when stored in a gaseous form.

This helps in storing and transportation of a large amount of the gaseous energy in a small container. This also reduces the possibility of the product to evaporate from the containers.

The transportation equipment must have the ability to maintain the temperatures of the product at low temperatures to avoid the possibility of transformation into gas. If the product turns into gaseous form, it can cause a massive explosion as it will be trying to force its way out of the container.

Large tankers have been widely used in the transportation of liquefied petroleum gas in the mainland. The figure below shows a large track used to transport LPG from the refinery to various consumer outlets in the United States.

In the United States, pipelines have been popular when transporting petrol and other heavy fuels, such as diesel and kerosene. Pipelines are efficient because of their speed and cost-effectiveness.

This eliminates the need for large tank tracks that are associated with more labor cost, raised negative effect on the environment, destruction of roads, and increased rates of the traffic jam.

However, it needs close monitoring and evaluation to ensure that any leakage is detected and corrected before it can cause negative effects on the environment.

Some of the widely used pipelines include flow lines, gathering and feeder lines, crude trunk lines, and petroleum product trunk lines (Leffler, Pattarozzi and Sterling 2011). Other heavy products, such as bitumen are transported in sizable drums.

Refinement and distribution of oil throughout the U.S Refinery of petroleum products is a complex process that involves a series of activities within the refinery plant.

Zou (2013) defines refinery process as, “A series of chemical engineering processes that are used to transform crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline or petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and fuel oils.”

The scholar says that the processes that take place during the refinery are so complex that it may not be easy to describe them in a layman’s language.

However, the process can be summarized into some of the general stages that crude oil is subjected to before it can produce the desired products. The figure below is a simple diagrammatic representation of what takes place in a refinery plant.

As shown in the diagram, crude oil is a combination of several products that are needed in various sectors to provide energy. In the refinery plant, crude oil is poured into a large boiler. The boiler is connected to a distillation chamber as shown in the above diagram.

The boiler is superheated, forcing its content into the distillation column. At this distillation column, different products will be obtained based on their boiling points in a process known as fractional distillation.

Light petroleum products, such as liquid petroleum gas, will be collected first because of their low boiling points. Gasoline and kerosene will follow.

Heavy petroleum products, such as asphalt, would come out of the distillation chamber last. Although the diagram shows a simple process, the actual refinery process is complex and involves the use of a series of machines.

Some of the leading oil refinery plants in the United States include Cherry Point in Washington, Whiting in Indiana, Toledo in Ohio, Cooper River, Texas City in Texas, and Decatur in Alaska.

These products are then sold to some of the major distributors of petroleum products using the above mentioned transport methods. These distributors will make the products available by any appropriate means.

Security measures in place to ensure safety of the oil sector Oil sector is the backbone of all other industries in the American economy. Accidents in this sector or acts of terrorism targeted towards it may have devastating effects.

For this reason, security measures are crucial to ensure that this sector operates without any threat of accidents or terrorist actions. Measures and codes of conduct have been put in place to enhance security and safety of this sector.

These measures were under review, especially after the Texas City Refinery explosion in 2005. The diagram below shows the massive destruction that was caused by this explosion. Fifteen people died while over 170 others sustained serious injuries.

The security measures define the standards and codes of conduct that should be observed in all the stages defined. According to Mora and Cooney (2007), dangers in this sector begin during the exploration process, to the time the product is finally consumed.

Government bodies have set standards that seek to ensure that exploration is done in a way that does not expose dangers to the environment. The policies define tools that should be used in the exploration and drilling processes.

The recent deep sea oil spillage involving BP is a clear indication of dangers that may occur when these policies are ignored. At the refinery plant, there are guidelines that define the infrastructure to be used and code that must be followed during the processing of the products.

The government has also established tough laws to regulate the transportation of these products, such as the Safety Standards for Conveyers and Related Equipment.

Conclusion Petroleum products are very important to many sectors of the economy because they offer the energy needed to drive various machines and instruments.

The process of coming up with these products is very complex. It starts with the exploration, extraction, transport, refinery, storage, and finally distribution to various outlets within the country and in other overseas markets.

References Leffler, W. L. (2008). Petroleum refining in nontechnical language. Tulsa, Okla: PennWell.

Leffler, W. L., Pattarozzi, R.,

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