Religious Fundamentalism Concept In The Johnstone Text Essay College Admissions Essay Help

Table of Contents Protestant Fundamentalism

Jewish Fundamentalism

Islamic Fundamentalism


Works Cited

The most important concept in the Johnstone text is that on religious fundamentalism. This can be defined as a style of religion that applies an uncompromising attachment to certain “fundamental” tenets of a faith. Fundamentalists generally are reactionary in nature, seeking to restore the aspects of traditional religious life that have been lost, or rejected in modern times, and to bring about a return to the “old days,” which may be real or imagined.

For this reason, fundamentalism has been grouped among the predictable responses to the changes and challenges of modernity. In his book, “Religion in Society, A Sociology of Religion,” Johnstone focuses mainly on three forms of religious fundamentalism; Protestant fundamentalism, Jewish fundamentalism, and Islamic fundamentalism (Johnstone 5).

Protestant Fundamentalism The term fundamentalism was first used to describe a conservative strain of Protestantism that developed in the United States roughly from 1870 to 1925. Protestant fundamentalism emerged in the early twentieth century as a reaction to broad changes in the American society, which was arguably the world leader in modernization at the time.

It was a rebellion against the liberal effects of modern education on historic Protestant denominations. The fundamentalists defended what they believed were the authentic orthodox beliefs. Also, they believed these beliefs were under attack by the modernist liberals. Some of the beliefs they cleaved to were biblical inerrancy, the reality of miracles such as the virgin birth and resurrection of Jesus, the deity of Christ, as well as his atonement and pre-millennial second coming (Marsden 15).

Unlike many fundamentalist movements today, U.S. Protestant fundamentalism of the early twentieth century was not so much a battle with the secular state as it was an intra-religious fight with other U.S. Protestant organizations.

These other U.S. Protestant organizations were attempting to modernize their religion to be, in the progressive Protestant view, relevant for a new time. Fundamentalists of this era were militantly opposed to modernizing the Christian faith, and militantly opposed to cultural changes endorsed by modernism (Marsden 4).

Jewish Fundamentalism Since the ancient times, Hebrew prophets and other devotees were constantly trying to bring the people back to the right worship of their God. When Israel came under the Greeks and then Romans rule, this created a new fundamentalist dynamic as they were now faced with cultural as well as religious assimilation and syncretism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some Israelites adopted the culture of the foreigners, as prestige or as defiance of traditional Jewish authority while some mixed old and new cultures, and molded something locally unique from the mixture. However, there were those who held firmly to the “old religion” and even became militant champions of orthodoxy against outside and inside challenges. Many followers were willing to die for their religious truths.

The Essenes and the Maccabees are two classic examples of fundamentalist groups in ancient Judaism. After centuries of foreign rule, Judas Maccabeus led a Jewish revolt and temporarily established a Jewish state in the late 60s which was the restoration of not just the State but also of the religion.

The Essenes were surprisingly modern in their attitudes, which included their denunciation of the priests of Jerusalem “as being hopelessly corrupted by their tolerance to Gentile ways, and by collaboration with the Roman occupiers,” as well as their doctrines “of repentance and God’s coming judgment. They believed that Jews must separate themselves from such polluting influences and return to strict observance of God’s law” (Marsden 29).

Modern Jewish fundamentalism can be traced to the early 1700s as a response to the modernist shifts in Jewish culture. A major distinction between Christian fundamentalism, and the non-Christian ones is that in the non-Christian cases, modernity seems not only secular but also foreign, a force or culture of the alien West, often associated with colonialism.

Among early modern Jews, the modernist/Westernist members, the “maskilim” or enlightened men were opposed by traditional religious teachers or Rabbis as well as a new breed of more orthodox leaders who called themselves “zaddikim” (righteous men) or “rebbes”.

These men founded the movement known as Hasidism, an ultraorthodox form of Judaism which identified itself with the Maccabees and ancient Judaism. For these rebbes, the greatest threat of modernism was “the separation of Jews from their observance of the commandments of the Torah” (Lawrence 126).

The opposition by the “haredim” to the formation of a Jewish state was yet another case of fundamentalism. While many would welcome this development, some of the more traditionalist elements, including the “haredim”, did not.

We will write a custom Essay on Religious Fundamentalism Concept in the Johnstone Text specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The “haredim” (those who tremble), is a collection of organizations and communities, including Neturei Karta and Toldot Aharon, who share some ideas and values, like a strict observance of all scriptural laws and a theological opposition to Zionism and the secular state of Israel. They have attempted to purge foreign, secular learning from their religious schools (yeshiva) and to purify their culture, as much as possible withdrawing from the wider society.

Their level of fundamentalism went as far as having institution known as Miahmarot Hatzniut or “The Chastity Guards” who policed the sexual behavior of the community. Politically, they interpreted the formation of Israel as a betrayal of eschatology, an indication of deviation from divine history.

Other groups and movements have emerged in contemporary Israel, with varying agendas and methods. A small but effective group is the Gush Emunim (The Bloc of the Faithful), which emerged in the early 1970s following the Israeli success of the Six-Day War in 1967.

Adherents of this group saw this as an apocalyptic event, a sign of God’s involvement and approval. Originating as a student movement out of the Yeshiva, they comprise of younger, better educated, and higher social class than haredim members, the products of the modern age. Another difference is their attitude toward the state of Israel. They are not hostile to it but rather seek to expand it, ideally “from the Euphrates River in Iraq to the Brook of Egypt” (Lawrence, 80).

They have, therefore, been particularly active in the settlement movement in the occupied territories of Gaza and the West Bank. They have opposed any plans to withdraw from conquered territories like Sinai, and have committed vandalism and harassment against local Palestinians. They also have at one time plotted to destroy the Muslim mosque, the Dome of the Rock, which sits at the top of the ancient Jerusalem Temple Mount.

Islamic Fundamentalism For most people, the very quintessence of fundamentalism in the modern world is the Islamic version. Certainly, the most dramatic instances of recent religious violence have been meted out in its name. This had led some observers to the conclusion held by many that Islam is inherently prone to fundamentalist tendencies.

Certainly, others have separated the fundamentalism in Islam from the wider religion, branding it with the pejorative term “Islamist”. Beyond the judgmental tendencies, talking about Islamic fundamentalism is especially complex because Islam exists in so many different states and societies, with so many different internal variables (historical, political, and ethnic), and with such a contempt towards “the West.”

In addition to the “foreign” nature of secularism and modernization, we must understand the connection for many Muslim people and groups of these forces not only with Europe and the USA, but also with Christianity and with their own nationalist struggles.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Religious Fundamentalism Concept in the Johnstone Text by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Islam is also one of the few cases where fundamentalists have actually achieved political power, and established a religious social system. The founding of Islam can be considered a kind of fundamentalist movement, the recovery and re-establishment of an original and basic monotheism which continued but clarified and perfected.

One of the essential things to realize is that, from the beginning, Islam was ideally both a religion and a social system; in fact, the religious/secular divides did not really exist. Islam is not only a set of beliefs and rituals, but also a set of laws and a system of jurisprudence, established first in the sharia legal standards, then in the “traditions” of Muhammad’s rulings, and the history of interpretations and applications of both.

Islam has its unique history of movements and struggles for belief and power, dating back to the earliest years, and the controversy over the successor (caliph) to Muhammad. This led immediately to the split between the Sunnis and the Shi’ites (the Shi’a Ali or the “partisans of Ali,” kinsmen of Muhammad). Thus, Shi’ites tends to see themselves as the purifiers and reformers of a literally “misguided” Islam. However, the movements that have arisen since sustained contact with and colonization by the West interest us the most.

Wahhabism is one of the more familiar and important developments. Muhammad Ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab, started a purist movement in Saudi Arabia characterized by “opposition to popular superstitions and innovations, his insistence on informed independent judgments over against the role reliance on medieval authorities, and his call for the Islamization of society, and the creation of a political order which gives appropriate recognition to Islam”.

Specifically, this entailed a return to the textual fundamentals of the Qur’an and the other main Islamic scripture, like the Hadith. To date, Wahhabism is still an influential school of thought in Saudi Arabia.

Islam was a medium of discourse, response, and resistance in all Muslim societies penetrated by Western colonialism and culture. The Brotherhood rejected the separation of the religious and temporal worlds, and called for an Islamic society and government, arguing that political neutrality was a crime against Islam.

Eventually, they established a secret military wing to defend the group and, they hoped to someday seize power; they even attempted an assassination of the Egyptian leader, Nasser. The Muslim Brotherhood produced other movements in Egypt, like Sayyid Qutb’s takfir approach, which accused all existing Muslim societies of atheism (takfir literally means “branding with atheism”) and, therefore, rejected their legitimacy.

Some takfir groups advocated the overthrow of regimes, while others proposed withdrawal from them (e.g., Shukri Mustafa’s al-Takfirw’al-Hijra or “charging with atheism and emigrating” view). By 1975, the Jihad Organization had formed to extend the vision, calling for obligatory holy war against any society or administration not ruled by God’s laws.

Indisputably, the most inspiring model for Islamic fundamentalism in the twentieth century was the Iranian revolution. A revolution in 1906 had led to a constitution that was not anti-Islamic but not based on shari’a law either. In 1941, Muhammad Reza Pahlavi became ruler, after being reinstalled by the West following an insurrection in the early 1950s, and became a major supporter and champion of modernization, and political freedoms.

His modernizing policies and close ties to the West, together with the repression practiced through his secret police force, made the regime increasingly unpopular. From exile in France, Ayatollah Khomeini applied continuous pressure, calling for an Islamic administration which would rule but not “legislate,” since all of the laws were already provided by Islam.

In 1979, the revolution was successful, and Khomeini declared Iran an Islamic republic this marked the first time in modern history that a Muslim fundamentalist movement had actually achieved power.

Khomeini described the effort “as an attempt by the nation to cleanse itself of the dust of godless government and foreign ideas, as a way to return to God, and to the ‘authentic intellectual positions and worldview of Islam’” (Johnstone 92). Article 2 of the constitution explicitly inaugurated a theocracy, with all sovereignty and legislative power placed on God, and a Council of Guardians to lead the way.

Conclusion All fundamentalisms essentially share a reactionary or defensive nature although they also vary significantly not only between religions and between societies/states, but also within religions. They are also, not completely unique to modern times, but can be found in all times of change and threat. They are ultimately one of the recurrent forms of “revitalization movements” that arise in all societies during moments of turmoil and perceived social decline.

Fundamentalism is, thus, not “bad religion” nor is it “true religion” but rather one of the variations that religion can take in particular historical, and social circumstances. The fact that these very circumstances are certain to continue and even intensify in the future suggests that fundamentalisms is likely to persist, and it also proves that “modernity” is not the death of religion.

Works Cited Johnstone, Ronald L. Religion in Society: A Sociology of Religion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.

Lawrence, Bruce B. Defenders of God: The Fundamentalist Revolt against the Modern Age. San Francisco: Harper


The Possibility of Metaphysics Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

There can be a few doubts as to the fact that Immanuel Kant did contribute to the development of Western philosophical thought rather immensely. Nevertheless, in light of recent discoveries in the field of neurology and psychology, many of his analytical insights, concerned with the justification of the idea that the metaphysical mode of cognizing the surrounding reality is indeed legitimate, appear thoroughly outdated. In this paper, I will explore the validity of the earlier suggestion at length.

The line of argumentation, in defense of metaphysics, deployed by Kant throughout the course of his work Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics, initially aimed at exposing the fallaciousness of David Hume’s empiricist/agnostic philosophy.

According to Hume, experience is the starting point of just about any form of a rationale-based cognition. In its turn, experience consists of impressions and ideas/judgments, which are the cognition’s actual instruments. This, of course, presupposes that there is no possibility for people to be able to come up with thoroughly objective judgments as to the essence of a particular emanation of the surrounding reality.

After all, once we assume that all analytical judgments derive out of experience, there can be very little logic to considering them analytical per se. The reason for this is apparent – individuals’ experience-related judgments are necessarily subjective because it is specifically people’s endowment with the sensory apparatus, which allows them to perceive the world, in the first place.

However, given the fact that our sensations often turn out to be grossly misleading, there is no good rationale to think that our experience-based analytical judgments/decisions can be thought of in terms of a ‘pure reason’. In its turn, this presupposes that people are incapable of attaining an insight into ‘things in themselves’, by definition.

Kant addresses Hume’s argument, in this respect by pointing out to the fact that just about all the rationale-based judgments can be categorized as analytical, on the one hand, and synthetical, on the other.

Analytic judgments are those that presuppose a universally recognizable truth-value of provided definitions to a particular phenomenon/subject matter in question: “When we have reason to consider a judgment necessarily universal… we must consider it objective also, that is, that it expresses not merely a reference of our perception to a subject but a quality of the object” (Boylan and Johnson 182).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The following is the example of an analytical judgment – a square has four corners. Analytic judgments are always based on the ‘law of association ’. That is, they either affirm or negate the referenced state of affairs with the concerned subject matter.

This is the reason why all analytical judgments are necessarily the a priori ones – in order to be able to come up with them, one does not need to have had the experience of having been affected by the referenced subject/phenomenon. In analytical statements, the meaning of the judgment’s predicate derives out of what appears to be the objective quality of the referenced subject.

Synthetic judgments, on the other hand, are those that presuppose that, while coming up with them, individuals necessarily add an additional meaning to the discursive quality of the subject matter in question. The provided definition implies that the element of experience plays a crucial role, within the context of how people formulate their synthetic judgments.

According to Kant, these are the a posteriori synthetic judgments. Nevertheless, there are also the so-called a priori synthetic judgments, which imply that in order to come up with them; people must be capable of exercising their ability to reason ‘purely’ (without any references being made to experience).

In its turn, this indirectly proves the de facto existence of a ‘pure reason’. A priori synthetic judgments commonly take place within the context of people indulging in mathematical reasoning. For example, even though that the formula 4 3=7 may appear, as such, that is best tackled within the conceptual framework of an analytical inquiry (based upon the ‘law of association’), this is far from being the case.

After all, the formula’s predicate does not derive out of what both added numbers are, as ‘things in themselves’, but rather out of the very process of adding. That is, in order for an individual to be able to solve this formula, he or she will need to abstragise from the qualitative implications of both numbers, while constructing an essentially new discursive subject matter – 12.

What it means is that, contrary to what Hume was suggesting, there is indeed a good rationale in believing that the very reason why people are able to operate with utterly abstract categories, is that they are endowed with the sense of a ‘pure reason’. This sense is not being affected by the functioning of their sensory apparatus and presupposes the possibility for people to be able to perceive, before experiencing.

We will write a custom Essay on The Possibility of Metaphysics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hence, the discursive significance of the Kantian concept of an intuition-fueled understanding: “The concept of cause… is a pure concept of the Understanding, which is totally disparate from all possible perception and only serves to determine the representation subsumed under it, relatively to judgments in general, and so to make a universally valid judgment possible” (183).

Apparently, Kant considered his line of reasoning, in regards to the nature of a priori synthetic judgments, as such that does in fact validates the metaphysical form of cognition: “The judgments, which the Understanding forms alone from sensuous intuitions, are far from being judgments of experience. For (these judgments)… must express what experience in general, and not what the mere perception contains” (184).

According to the philosopher, this suggests that, contrary to the provisions of philosophical agnosticism, it is indeed possible for the manner, in which people go about assessing the surrounding reality, to contain the elements of ‘trandescent reasoning’, without the legitimacy of the obtained analytical results being undermined, as a result. Kant’s point of view, in this respect, establishes the supremacy of ‘consciousness’ over ‘matter, while indirectly confirming the soundness of the Descartian ‘body-mind’ dualism.

Nevertheless, as it was mentioned in the Introduction, despite the fact that the conceptual premise, upon which Kantian metaphysical philosophy is based, does appear logically sound, it is being inconsistent with what today’s psychologists/neurologists know about the actual mechanics of consciousness.

For example, Kant’s conceptualization of a ‘pure reason’, outlined earlier, presupposes the possibility for people’s sense of a priori intuition (or Understanding) to be discussed in terms of a ‘mental energy’, the qualitative subtleties of which remain unrelated to what happened to be the physiologically predetermined aspects of their sense of self-identity and their memories of the past. During the course of the 18th century, this idea was considered fully legitimate.

Nowadays, however, this can no longer be the case. This is because, as of today, biologists possess a plenty of proofs, as to the fact that, despite being endowed with an ability to operate with highly abstract categories, the representatives of Homo Sapiens species are nothing but ‘survival machines’ for genes that define both: people’s physical appearance and their cognitive inclinations.

As Dawkins pointed out: “We are survival machines – robot vehicles blindly programmed to preserve the selfish molecules known as genes” (2). In its turn, this suggests that we cannot discuss ‘intuition’ (Understanding) outside of how it increases the chances of people’s physical survival – at least until the time when they pass their genes to the representatives of next generations.

Therefore, ‘intuition’ (Understanding) is nothing but people’s ability to choose in favor of a circumstantially appropriate behavioral pattern while facing a particular challenge. It is needless to mention, of course, that formally speaking, one’s ‘intuition’ has very little to do with what were his or her personal experiences of the past. However, the experiential essence of ‘intuition’ becomes quite apparent, once we assess the discussed subject matter from an evolutionary perspective.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Possibility of Metaphysics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is important to understand that genes do not ‘think’ – they simply contain information, concerned with the multitude ‘behavioral matrixes’, the triggering of which is done automatically. What it means is that, when intuitively deciding in favor of a particular course of action, while facing a cognitive challenge, people do not take an advantage of their de facto ability to indulge in ‘pure reasoning’.

Rather, their unconscious psyche prompts them to act in the most circumstantially justified manner. In its turn, the subtleties of how our unconscious psyche causes us to act, reflect what used be the experiences of our predecessors having dealt with similar circumstances – all the necessary information, in this respect, is contained in genes. What it means is that, contrary to what Kant does, there can be very little reason to think of ‘intuition’ (Understanding), as being of clearly non-experiential essence.

Even though that it indeed appears to people that, while thinking in abstract terms, they do attain a new ‘synthetic’ knowledge, this is nothing but a perceptional illusion. ‘Intuition’ (Understanding) is consciously repressed memories of the past. In other words, the very laws of nature deem cognition secondary to experience, which in full accordance with what Hume used to suggest, presupposes the conceptual fallaciousness of a metaphysical approach to cognition.

The fact that there is no ‘pure reason’, as Kant defines it, can also be illustrated in regards to the non-existence (or, rather to the relativistic existence) of what this philosopher used to refer to as ‘noumenons’ (universally applicable and yet non-experiential categories of logic/cognition).

The validity of this statement can be shown, in relation to the ethnographic studies of Lucien Levy-Bruhl. While traveling through the remote/rural areas of South-East Asia, Africa and Australia, he realized that the actual reason why he often used to experience communication problems with natives, was not due to the lack of his proficiency in these people’s language, but rather due to the fact that, as compared to himself, the subjects of his ethnographic research were differently ‘wired’, in the psycho-cognitive sense of this word.

For example, while being asked to define a qualitative difference between the notions of fruit, meat and fish, on the one hand, and the notions of spear, fishing rod and rifle, on the other, these people could not quite do it. This is because, unlike what it happened to be the case with Westerners, endowed with the ‘Faustian’ (analytical) mentality, the natives could not help but thinking ‘holistically’.

This is the reason why it would never occur to them to assess the semiotic meaning of the referred notions in terms of an abstract logic (by categorizing them as ‘raw materials’ and ‘instruments’). Instead, these people cognized the earlier mentioned notions within the context of the notions’ perceived ‘usefulness’ (De Laguna 556). Because the mentioned notions are equally associated with the idea of usefulness, there could no difference between them.

In addition, Levy-Bruhl realized that the questioned natives were quite incapable of cognizing the concepts of space and time in the similar manner with Westerners. For example, instead of saying ‘after tomorrow’ they would prefer saying would say ‘in two days from now’, which in turn suggested the concerned people’s lack of comfortableness with the concept of time, as such that could be ‘stretched’ or ‘condensed’.

This, of course, points out the fact that, contrary to Kant, a priori ‘noumenons’ cannot be discussed as ‘things in themselves’, regardless of what happened to be the essence of people’s associative experiences. It is specifically people’s exposure to external circumstances, which prompts them to indulge in one or another mode of an ‘imperative’ thinking, and not the sheer strength of the applied mental effort, on their part, to think outside ‘empiricism’.

It is rather ironic that, while striving to ‘revive’ metaphysics, Kant contributed the most towards the eventual decline of this particular philosophical method. One of the reasons for this is that, despite the sheer sophistication of Kantian metaphysics, there can be very little practical value to it.

Apparently, while elaborating on the subject of analytical and synthetic judgments, Kant remained unaware of the fact that philosophy must serve the purpose of helping people to be in the full control of their lives – not prompting them to begin hating the very concept of philosophy with passion.

This is because, as it happened to be the case with just about any science, philosophy is best conceptualized in terms of an ‘informational model’, which more or less adequately describes the surrounding reality. What Kant did, however, was ‘disassembling’ this reality down to its elemental components for the sake of being able to ‘assemble’ it back. However, after he did it, the ‘reassembled’ reality ceased emanating liveliness.

I believe that the earlier deployed line of argumentation, in defense of the suggestion that Kant’s promotion of metaphysics (as a fully valid philosophical method) can no longer be considered conceptually valid, entirely correlates with the paper’s initial thesis.

This is because, throughout the course of the centuries, following Kant’s death, the development of Western empirical sciences attained an exponential momentum, which in turn resulted in people being freed of idealistic illusions, in regards to the actual purpose of their existence. As of today, only perceptionally arrogant/euro-centrically minded/religious individuals continue to believe in the existence of non-experiential knowledge, accessible only to self-reflecting and often behaviorally inadequate philosophers, such as Kant used to be.

This idea, however, contradicts what even mildly intelligent people know about the actual mechanics of the universe’s functioning. Therefore, even though Kant’s philosophy will continue being referred to as such, that represents an undisputed historical value; there can be very little rationale in trying to find any wisdom of a practical value in it.

Works Cited Boylan, Michael and Charles Johnson. Philosophy: An Innovative Introduction: Fictive Narrative, Primary Texts, and Responsive Writing. Boulder: Westview Press, 2010. Print.

Dawkins, Richard. The Selfish Gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976. Print.

De Laguna, Frederica. “Levy-Bruhl’s Contributions to the Study of Primitive Mentality.” The Philosophical Review 49.5 (1940): 552-566. Print.


The Use of Fine Art and Architecture in Advertising Essay college essay help online

The use of fine art and architecture in advertising and other media has a long history. Fine art has lent its aura of respectability and elite sophistication to all sorts of promotional material, movies, and television for generations.

Whether by endowing a product with greater status or credibility (Boston College), enhancing brand recognition, or simply displaying a time tested, and pleasing combination of colors, line, form, space and texture, fine art is useful. Like architectural landmarks, famous works of art also help the viewer to determine where the product, actor, or action, is located in time and space.

They may also provide clues to the character’s social background. However, the advertising industry and the fine arts world have for decades been engaged in a continuing discussion of what constitutes fine art. This has accompanied an ongoing examination of how to distinguish fine arts from images or objects created exclusively for promotional purposes. Recent research has also investigated and quantified what constitute the most appropriate and effective uses of fine art in advertising.

Fine art has long been the standard against which most visual media have been judged. It is usually defined as including objects created for their beauty (Merriam Webster). Student observers might say that what distinguishes fine art from, for example, craft, or other useful created items is that it can be appreciated on its own. In other words, it is compelling even when viewed apart from its original purpose, application, or setting.

To understand how advertisers use fine art, it is helpful to know how advertising developed in the first place. It is also helpful to know what the place of fine art occupied from the beginning of advertising.

Fine art has always included examples that conveyed a narrative. Much of religious art actually depicted Bible stories for non-literate viewers. Thus, even some of civilization’s greatest treasures fulfilled an illustrative function. For millennia, artists created whatever they were commissioned to create, exactly as advertisers do today (Bogart 8).

The eighteenth century witnessed the emergence of the phenomenon of the independent artist. This artist made art for art’s sake; expressing exclusively personal feelings[1]. The era of painting for patrons or for God, or both, was largely past (Bogart 18)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Central to the development of advertising was fairly recent development of art explicitly created as illustration. Modern illustration should be distinguished from, for example, the illuminations of the medieval period. It was enabled by increased use of mechanized printing of books, and periodicals for mass distribution. The reproduction en masse of items such as wrappers, boxes, or posters enriched with fine art images further transformed fine art into ephemera, for the first time.

Mass production of printed materials also, as McClintock points out, altered public access to fine art dramatically. For example, advertising posters featuring artwork (in addition to text) permitted images that in an earlier era might have remained the intimate visual property of their commissioning patron, or at most, a modest population of worshippers or elite viewers of a piece of art, to become nearly everyone’s property (McClintock 511).

However, as Bogart notes, the relation between fine art, illustration, and advertising art, has been fluid (Bogart 17). The relationship has evolved from near unity, to divergence.

The mid-1800s witnessed the development of advertising as a specialized occupation. It included fine arts from the start. One of the first readily recognizable advertising efforts was the Pears Soap campaign, initiated by the entrepreneur Thomas J. Barrat (McClintock). He bought the rights to a painting, titled Bubbles, by a well-known artist, the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood adherent John Everett Millais (Millais).

The painting depicted a lovely young boy gazing up at a floating bubble (a symbol of transience as well as an object of geometric perfection and iridescent beauty, difficult to capture in two dimensions)[2]. Barrat modified it by the insertion of a cake of Pears soap (McClintock 510). This thereby created, arguably, the first instance of product placement.

McClintock argues that Barrat’s modification and subsequent widespread distribution of the image created what she terms a “visible aesthetic space” around a commodity (i.e., soap). She notes that this achievement was unprecedented, and far-reaching in effect (McClintock 511). She further argues that Barrat and subsequent imitators were tapping into the non-verbal, non-rational, perhaps not ordinarily permitted feelings and ideas that art can so powerfully evoke; “its unique powers of communication” (Boston College).

The aim, however, was to make the viewer buy, buy, buy (McClintock 511). This distinguished the Pears campaign from creative efforts to help the viewer achieve salvation or to submit to a ruler, as many previous works of art were doubtless meant to accomplish.

We will write a custom Essay on The Use of Fine Art and Architecture in Advertising specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Figure 1: Bubbles by Millais, John Everett. Note that, as far back as art can be identified, there is usually some attempt to sell an idea. The ancient world’s giant stone deities and sovereigns are clearly public relations projects. Thus, distinguishing between creative output that is fine art versus creative output that is merely advertising is neither simple, nor straightforward, and possibly not always useful.

For artists born in the late 1800s such as Norman Rockwell, art school was the training needed for both fine art and illustration. However, by the early years of the 20th century, advertising had become more of an industry of its own, as opposed to being just one activity among many of an entrepreneur or business.

Although it was an outgrowth of both the arts of printing and typography as well as illustration, advertising still looked a great deal like fine art. However, an idealist such as Rockwell might take an oath to eschew doing advertising work (later broken, clearly) in the same way that other young aspiring people might have taken the temperance pledge (Bogart 72). His work, by ironic happenstance, was, of course, advertising gold, and helped to sell millions of copies of The Saturday Evening Post.

Today’s advertisers have access to centuries of fine art, much of it digitally imaged, and thus, digitally modifiable in a huge range of ways. However, in many ways their uses of fine arts do not differ dramatically from Millais’ exploitation. Many similar elements can be identified from current and recent advertising campaigns.

Pears Soap, for example, used a painting that was gracefully composed. Thus, it would please even an unfavorably disposed viewer. Current research suggests that, if used with care, fine art retains its power as art. If used carelessly, however, customers judge it as an illustration (Boston College).

As an example of a current image that exploits formal principles of contrast, proportion, variety, harmony, and movement, consider the Boysen Paint advertisement (Salomon).

Figure 2: Print Advertisement Design by Lukas Solomon. This, for many observers, might evoke the nearly abstract floral studies of the American painter Georgia O’Keeffe (O’Keeffe). The O’Keeffe Jack in the Pulpit series [3]apparently uses a similarly limited number of colors, provides movement vertically, and leads the eye to finish the flower although it is only suggested.

This is parallel to what the Boysen Paint image accomplishes, using only splashed paint, captured in motion by photograph. Even if one does not even recognize the brand name or associate it with paints, this image is, as a result, gorgeously pleasing to the eye.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Use of Fine Art and Architecture in Advertising by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Figure 3: Jack in the Pulpit series by Georgia O’Keeffe. Figure 4: The Pears Soap by Jeralyn Merritt. The Pears Soap campaign also selected a work by a respected and well-known artist. A parallel example would be the frequent use in media of The Last Supper (da Vinci). A recent obvious reference in advertising to the distinctive composition of this fresco was banned in Milan (Merritt). The authorities found it offensive.

This was because, among other things, it substituted women for men, and included a semi-naked figure where St. John would be. It was perhaps also inflammatory because it equated the fashionable clothing line of Marithé and François Gribaud with the serious topic of the last days of Christ.

Like the 19th century entrepreneur, Marithé and François Gribaud have selected an artist to borrow from who is exceedingly well-known and well-respected as an artist and an innovator, still today.

Like Millais, and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in England, Leonardo da Vinci was trying ou t new directions in art, as well as proposing inventions in other fields as well, such as manned air flight. Thus, until the ad was banned (Merritt) the fashion house could borrow from da Vinci the exciting aura of being multi-talented, cutting-edge, and individual.

Many people, even those who have not taken an art appreciation course, probably have heard of his bold choices for everything from his painting media (ultimately disastrous in the case of this fresco) to his shockingly human depiction of these iconic characters from the Biblical narrative. The completely uninformed may not know these facts, but they are perhaps not the target audience for the high-end sportswear. They could have chosen a contemporary media darling as well, with similar results (Gibbons 133)

Movies also use fine art and architecture to great advantage. While those who have not visited Rome may not know the names of all the background monuments and buildings and fountains in the 1953 film, Roman Holiday (Hepburn and Peck), they are highly recognizable. Such valuable pieces of set dressing are available conveniently without construction and without a sound stage (Hoffman 76) .

The art and architecture provides immediately identifiable atmosphere, and places the tale in Rome or its equivalent instantly. What could otherwise be a lightweight tale of a confused and spoiled girl becomes mysterious and elegant by its background associated with the grandeur of tourist, classical, Rome.

Figure 5: Stafford. Thus, in all popular media for centuries now, fine art has been a source of inspiration, fodder for parody and satire, and helpful visual cues for the viewer. Ads have used the expert eye of the artist to help them set up appealing compositions, whether seriously or in humorous homage.

They have used the high status and respectability or innovativeness of the artist as a source of borrowed characteristics and prestige. Moviemakers have used art and architecture to give credibility to their stories and instant depth and richness of detail to their scenes. All of these uses can be traced to the earliest applications of fine art to the selling of a commodity. Further, it could be suggested, much of art has been selling something, whether religious or political, since the first artist applied themselves to the earliest media.

Works Cited Bogart, Michele H. Artists, Advertising, and the Borders of Art. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. Web.

Boston College. “Fine Art in Advertising Can Backfire.” 2011. Science Daily. Web.

da Vinci, Leonardo. The Last Supper. Convent of Santa Maria della Grazie, Milan. Fresco.

Gibbons, Joan. Art and Advertising. London: I.B.Tauris, 2005. Web.

Hoffman, Barry Howard. The Fine Art of Advertising. New York: Stewart, Tabori


“Death” Thomas Nagel Essay best essay help: best essay help

In his essay on “Death”, Thomas Nagel analyzes the issue of death and how people think of it. He examines if people are afraid of it and why, as well as what specifically it is and what sort of condition it brings about.

First of all, Nagel defines what death is and what characteristics he will be attributing to this state. He decides to look at death as becoming a state of non-existence without further immortal continuation of life, individual or soul. This point is extremely valid because many people believe that death brings about a darkness that is not followed by anything. Usually, these are people who do not believe in God and do not follow any religion, as all religions suppose continuation of life in another form.

Thomas Nagel’s point is rather valid, as it looks at one possible condition. No one has been able to prove or show that there is some form of existence after death, so it would be logical and reasonable to examine all possible outcomes. Nagel goes on to say that death is not welcomed by most people, as it deprives an individual of all the enjoyable things in life but also of life itself. Even if all the bad things are considered, people still prefer to be alive than not.

Thomas Nagel mentions that even if all the good and bad qualities of life are taken away and life is viewed as being neutral, people would still choose life. This is very true because people prefer life to anything else. No one is aware of what will follow and this lack of knowledge and uncontrollable imagination creates pictures that are both positive and negative.

No matter how much a person tries to imagine Heaven or another beautiful world, the conscious mind still reminds about the chance for suffering or total darkness. Everyone has respect and feelings towards their personality and when they think that it will disappear they feel sad and sorry for themselves.

A counterargument made by Nagel to this, is that before people are born there is also non-existence and total darkness but people are not afraid of that. This happens because a person is not able to have imagination and reasoning prior to being born and the darkness that was before they came to life they do not remember.

In a way, it can be seen as a positive darkness because it leads to life and existence, whereas death will lead to absence of life and non-existence. Nagel compares this to create a perspective in people, “If death is a disadvantage, it is not easy to say when a man suffers it (Nagel, 3), hoping they realize that absence of feelings, imagination and ability to realize this absence is not evil or fearful.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another major point Nagel discusses is the human perception and understanding of what is good or bad in life. He gives an example of a person who has suffered brain damage and returned to a state of a 3 month old infant. The fact that the brain is unable to realize the loss of intellect means that the individual does not really suffer. Everyone else, his friends and relatives, suffer due to the fact that the person who existed before is no longer in existence.

This makes pleasures and suffering very relational to personal circumstances and time. Nagel then leads into the argument about the quality of a feeling that a person will have if they compare the “negative” aspects of being deprived of life by death, to the time before birth and what was the future person deprived off. “I confess to being troubled by the above argument, on the ground that it is too sophisticated to explain the simple difference between our attitudes to prenatal and posthumous nonexistence” (Nagel, 8).

The human inability to imagine what it would be like to lack consciousness and a state where an individual is deprived of all “benefits” of life is what limits the possibility of answering to this paradox. The life a person experiences is defined and framed by what they feel and see. Someone who was born blind would not truly feel deprivation of sight, if all the conditions for their comfortable existence were created.

They would not be able to compare what sort of stimuli and visual experiences they have lost, so the fact that other people have the ability to see, would not truly life determining. Thomas Nagel ends with a comparison between a person dying at a young and of old age. The deprivation of future possible experiences and life is what is most devastating. The fact that a person might go on living, thus receiving more positive and negative sensations, is a reality everyone strives towards.

But then, the difference in perspective reencounters with a personal experience, in relation to an individual’s understanding of time, good and evil and existence. Nagel ends saying that: “if there is no limit to the amount of life that it would be good to have, then it may be that a bad end is in store for us all” (Nagel, 10). In a way, this contradicts his above reasoning that if there is no one to experience the loss of good life, then the absence of suffering and realization is not bad at all.


Fine art in advertising Essay custom essay help

Fine art is used in all sorts of ways that are neither for public nor private viewing. Advertisers cheerfully plunder visual images from the whole history of art explicitly, and implicitly, and to achieve a variety of effects. Movie makers and television producers also freely utilize visual art and architecture, and the settings in which these items are displayed.

They use them as props, elements in the plot, and handy backdrops for the action. Their reasons are as varied as the movies themselves, but art and architecture are almost always positive elements when used in other media. This generally positive aura that clings to fine art and famous architectural monuments is true for advertising as well.

Advertisers have long been borrowing from fine arts. Works of fine arts and architecture offer many strong advantages. They are often well known. They carry with them the atmosphere of history, if they are old. If they are modern, they carry with them the idea of newness, innovation, and being in the know (Gibbons). They are, if they are well, known, probably composed and executed in a way that appeals to many viewers. They are also often free of copyright restrictions that would make their use more expensive.

Their familiarity a and the fact that many works of fine arts are well known mean that the advertiser can convey a message in the brief interval that is permitted.

Ads of any kind must compete with other stimuli in the environment for the viewer’s attention. There are other ads, street signs, articles in a magazine, programs on television, web content, and other such media also trying to get the consumer’s attention at any given moment.

There is additionally the press of life. Consumers are concerned with being safe, with getting their meals, with getting to work, and with taking care of kids and pets. Everyone is spending a significant portion of their time and mental energies on getting (and keeping) themselves clean, clothed, and prepared for work and school.

In the midst of all these activities, advertisers are simultaneously trying to alert consumers that they could accomplish all of the above better, faster, more efficiently, cheaper, more ecologically, and with better style, if they would just buy the advertiser’s product! This is a massive challenge.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The consumer’s time and attention may be measurable in seconds or fractions of seconds. Displaying an instantly recognizable image or portion of an image, or even a reference to such a well-known image saves the advertiser time. Part of their work – that of explaining themselves ‘is already done, accomplished, achieved when a very familiar work of art is shown or referenced. The advertiser’s job of getting across whatever impression or message they intend is given a major shortcut to the crucial synapses in the consumer’s brain.

An example of such a short-cutting image is the Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci (Da Vinci). Although painted in the 1500s, this work is still recognizable today. For many Western-educated people, the image of the serenely smiling Florentine lady instantly evokes some sort of response, if only to note that is a famous painting. As such, it offers great scope for parody, as by the Dadaist artist Marcel Duchamp in the first years of the 20th century (Duchamp).

While this defacement or enhancement of the original image was not advertising anything except the iconoclastic orientation of the Dadaists, this spawned subsequent re-purposed uses of La Giaconda. Any advertising presentation of the Mona Lisa evokes both the original work, and Duchamp’s satire, for most visually literate observers. Her fame is one reason that she is such a popular element for advertisers, according to Hoffman (Hoffman 60).

As one among many possible examples, Thomas Hoving, the former director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, chose to use the Mona Lisa the front cover of his guide to art for amateurs (Hoving). This suggests that even the Mona Lisa would benefit from reading this book. Anyone considering purchase will know this image, and associate it with art.

The observer will also possibly associate it with things that are venerable. This venerability suggests that the item has the characteristics of being potentially wise or learned. In the example noted above, the art work is intended to convey the message that this book could make the reader learned as well.

Cover of Art for Dummies, by Thomas Hoving (Hoving)

Additionally, the composition has for 400 years been associated with serenity and restfulness. Even for those viewers who are not familiar with the painting, the girl who posed for the painting is still attractive enough to be a cover model (although better nourished than a Kate Moss). The composition is simple and unobtrusive so it works, again, even if the viewer has no prior experience with da Vinci. Finally, the image is un-copyrighted, and its use is free.

We will write a custom Essay on Fine art in advertising specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For movie and television producers, art serves a variety of purposes as well. Sticking with the Mona Lisa, the movie The Da Vinci Code takes Leonardo da Vinci’ s paintings as the basis for much of the plot (Hanks).

The mystery surrounding this particular painting (who is she and why is she smiling?), the artist himself, his genius, and the obscure way he recorded his inventions all help to support the plot. Linking the search for unknown, hidden secrets, which is the main action of the movie, to the works of a known genius, helps to add credibility to plot elements which might otherwise seem silly.

Other movies use the nicely laid out rooms of museums as handy sets. They are designed to be looked at, so they are architecturally ready to serve as backgrounds for human actors. An example is How to Steal a Million. This includes an attempt to slip into the Claybell Laffette Museum after hours (Hepburn, O’Toole and Wallach). It also includes an artist’s studio and all the works of art being forged there. These are all scenic settings for a lovely actress.

The use of art or notable architecture also situates a character in place and time, and very importantly, class. This is the case in The Thomas Crown Affair (Brosnan). A theft of money or a car by a bored, spoiled handsome fellow might seem heinous. However, when the heist involves a painting, as it does in this film, theft just seems a bit classier.

Furthermore, the movie was shot at least in part against the gorgeous backdrop of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. This gives the viewer a chance to vicariously experience the delights of being in New York, near such great cultural institutions. It also adds credibility to the story. Making the theft from some boxy featureless place would be less exciting and perhaps not worth the risk, the viewer is led to believe.

The movie also includes other recognizable architectural monuments in New York City. These are conveniently built and in place already, relieving the producer of creating elaborate sets from scratch. These locations send messages to the viewer that these characters move and operate in an elite world where everyone knows and appreciates art.

As an example of how art in the movie setting might be used to opposite effect, imagine a movie set in a store or home displaying mass-produced paintings on velvet of kittens or Elvis. This would convey a very different impression of the intellectual and cultural sophistication of the residents, occupants, or customers of such a shop or home.

Television shows, with their smaller budgets, use famous architecture and art work as well to save money and convey a powerful impression. The television show It’s Always Sunny in Philadelphia uses the distinctive architecture of South Philadelphia row-homes (Howerton, McElhenney and Day). These buildings, shown in establishing shots throughout the show, add plausibility to the notion that these grotesquely amoral misfit characters are representative of the residents of the city.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Fine art in advertising by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The show uses real Philadelphia buildings from the mid-1800s, with the characteristic three steps up, the basement windows, and narrow width with no more than two or three tall windows on the first floor front. The interiors are less plausible because they are so expansive. They also use the iconic public architecture of the city from time to time.

In this context, the directors can safely stage plots that are generally extreme, shocking, and quite insulting to the actual residents of the city. The visual referencing of the homes of the middle class provides a believable setting for the funny, pitiable, and largely unbelievable actions of the protagonists.

Works of art, like architecture, also lend themselves to television productions. The use of artwork to provide a sense of place and a lived-in atmosphere is very important. Without artwork, the bare walls look like a set and not like a home or even an office of an upscale organization.

This has become such a major part of creating settings that a new procedure for licensing art for use has been created. This is meant to make the process of getting art for sets a faster process (Fine Art America). (Of course, using works of art that have no copyright issues is also helpful.)

The great works of art and architecture, and even colloquial architecture, have served advertisers and the producers of media for many years. They have exploited the familiarity of the public with the images of famous works to access the customer or viewer’s memories and impressions directly.

The use of fine art can save time for the advertiser, and associate their product with the positive aspects of the piece of art. In film, art can serve as a subject that adds status to a plot. Art used in a movie can help the viewer to figure out swiftly what the education and intellectual level of the character is. It also offers ready-made settings.

This is true as well for television. Architecture, especially when it is distinctive and characteristic of a time, place, or demographic group, provides a shorthand for establishing a setting quickly in the compressed time format of TV. This is actually generating an increasing market for art work. In all these uses, art and architecture add a positive and powerful set of signals for the viewer/consumer.

Works Cited Da Vinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. Pars: The Louvre. Oil.

Duchamp, Marcel. Mona Lisa with Mustache. 1919 version. Paris: Private collection, Paris, on loan to the Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou. Printed Postcard and Pencil.

Fine Art America. “Fine Art America Sample Licensing Agreement.” 2013. Fine Art America. Web.

Gibbons, Joan. Art and Advertising. London: I.B.Tauris, 2005. Web.

Hoffman, Barry Howard. The Fine Art of Advertising. New York: Stewart, Tabori


Ecology of Panther a Leo (Lion) Essay essay help online free

Introduction Understanding of the ecology of animals is very interesting. According to Humphreys (1997, p. 121), many of wildlife habitat encroachment has been reported worldwide. This has mainly happened due to the general increase in population. Increased population leads to high demand for food and other resources that led many to convert the animal habitats into poaching grounds and agricultural areas to feed the hungry population.

Panther Leo or Lion species is predominantly found in Africa where they have faced tremendous interferences from poachers who have different interests (Firouz 2005, p. 91). Some hunt the animal for skin while others do it for revenge reasons when they attack humans. Lion belongs to the genus Panther with other animals like the Tiger, Jaguar and leopard also. Lions are referred as a ‘king of beasts’ in the wilderness. This research focuses on the analyzing the life of a lion.

Geographic Distribution of the Species Triefeldt (2008, p. 56) noted that lions are largely found in Africa and in some parts of Asia. The species is reported to be endangered in these areas. Some of the remnants are known to reside in Indian National park, the Gil forest.

From the historic perspective, some of the lion species are believed to have moved away from south west of Asia and North Africa. Until the recent past, lion was the most widespread mammal seconding humans. In India, the habitat of lions is in both the forests of dry savanna and the dry forests of deciduous scrub. In Africa, the lion species is found in grasslands of savanna where there are acacia trees. In the 480BC, lions were believed to be common in Greece.

They attacked a Persian king during his reign and were reported to be rare by 300BC. Most of the lions were eradicated on the arrival of firearms during the 18th century. Later in the 19th and 20th century, lions started becoming extinct in Southwest of Asia and North Africa. In most parts like India, lions have become extinct. Generally, lions are known to live mostly in the shrubby and forested areas. The picture below shows a lion in its habitat

Pattern of distribution of the species within its geographic range According to Lions (1996, p. 58), different lion species are found in different environments depending on the geographical region. However, Africa is commonly known to harbor many lion species, their distribution pattern vary from one location to another within the continent.

In some parts of Africa, for example the Eastern part has a considerably high number of lion species compared to the number of the same species in other parts of Africa. In the Asian region, the most commonly found species is the P.L persica. In Africa, researches show that there are five different sub-species found within different geographical regions. These lion species include, the Panther a Leo senegalensis that is found in the parts of Western Africa and P.I.azandica found in the Northern East of Congo.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Followed by the P.I.bleyenberghi, a species that is found in Angola and southern parts of Congo, and the Panther a Leo krugeri also known as P.I. verneyi that include the lion species from Kalahari and P.I krugeri, which is found in southern Africa. In the Eastern Africa, there are the P.I nubica, the lion species that are categorized into Masai, Somali, Serengeti, and Congo lions.

Individual distribution Lions are well organized. Based on their sexes, there is division of roles or duties. The animals due to their form of organization rarely live in isolation. Female lions giving birth at the same time have a shared responsibility of bringing up the cubs (Riley 2008, p. 79). A part from hunting for these cubs, lioness would breastfeed them irrespective of the specific cub mothers.

The male lions’ big responsibility is to protect the female lions and the young ones. Lions therefore live in groups or prides. A pride on average can comprise 13 lions, both males and females. They also do the hunting in a group and in very rare occasion, a lion will go hunting individually.

Major habitats that the species occupies Hunter (2005, p. 46) says that the lion’s habitation varies. Their habitats include plains, forests, and grasslands. Quite a good population of lion species is known to reside even in the semi-arid and at high altitude areas except within the tropical rainforests and extremely desert areas. In fact, a lion species is known to live in Ethiopian Bale mountains that are 4,240 m. African lions are commonly found in savanna habitations or in plains.

These areas are believed to have a high prey base. Lions in Asia found in Gir forest India. The lion prides which constitute both sexes range from two to 40. Within the pride, male lions are usually more than their female counterparts are. In most instances, lions are found in groups, an adaptation that helps in increasing their efficiency when hunting and in guarding their territorial boundaries against other animals.

Important habitat components According to Humphreys (1997, p. 127), lions inhibit a wide range of habitats. Mostly they prefer inhibiting in areas that are forestry and shrubby. As seen earlier, these animals like hunting in the darkness in order to hide from the prey. They also like a habitat with some kind valleys to make the hunting easier for them since such areas help them hide from the prey aimed.

As discussed earlier, lions live not in isolation but in groups. The female do most of the hunting especially hunting the light prey like gazelles and wild beasts. On the hand, male like hunting huge animals like zebras and buffalos. Both male and female lions have different preferences for prey hunted.

We will write a custom Essay on Ecology of Panther a Leo (Lion) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most of this species as seen from the discussion above, in Africa they are mostly found in Kalahari. This place is full of scattered acacia trees. They like such a place because they shelter under these trees during sunny seasons. Female lions also give birth under trees or under shade.

Foods eaten According to DeGraaf (2000, p. 28) lions are predatory and carnivorous animals. The lion’s prey range from the small sized to the large sized animals. Their diet is mainly comprised of birds, rodents, buffalos Zebras and many other small and big animals. The lion as said earlier has the dominion over almost all other animals in the wilderness.

Lion, the king of the Jungle, is able to straggle and kill animals like Rhinos, Antelopes, Zebra, and many others to obtain food. The animal is very cunning .After killing other animals; lions ensure that they do not share their kills and do chasing away other predators. The figure below shows a lion carrying away its prey.

McGuire (1989, 40) says that in most of the occasions, the female lions do the hunting. Hunting activity is usually individually and in prides also. The prides just like female and male lions, differ in food preference. Female lions prefer hunting preys like antelopes while their male counterparts prefer large animals like buffalos (Mitra 2005, p.125).

The hunting is normally done in groups and at night. Lions are much slower compared to the speed of most of their prey. Although they can also run fast, most of the preys they hunt are faster hence, hunting at night helps them in concealing their presence against the animals they hunt.

Timing and pattern of reproduction Marshall (2010, p. 114) observes that lions are polygamous in their breeding. The gestation period of lions is around 110 days. Their breeding is throughout the year. By the age of four years, most lionesses are ready for reproduction. Mating takes place at specific times of the year among the lion, which can take several days (Mitra 2005, p.35).

A female lion, when on heat can mate with several different males. When giving birth, the female lion isolates to a sheltered place away from the rest of the pride. Some researches show that lions breed well in protected area such as game parks. A lioness on average can give birth from two four cubs per each attempt. After birth the female does not immediately mate again, it takes some time, usually about two years. The cubs are usually blind at birth. Their eyes open roughly after a week. The diagram below shows lions mating.

Olney (1994, p. 89) says that the mother lioness hunts for its young ones and protects them from predation until they are able to support themselves. In a situation where many lionesses have given birth at the same time, they share the responsibility of rising as well as feeding the young ones. Cubs’ mother isolates from the rest of the pride for a maximum period of 8 weeks. Weaning of the young lions can start from the seventh month.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ecology of Panther a Leo (Lion) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Normally, at the age of 3 years, a male lion riches maturity and at the age of 5 years, they are in a position to defend other pride members. The female lions mature so fast and from the age of 4 years, they are ready for procreation. The male lions rule the prides and always fight for their chances to take over the ruling position in a pride (Feldhamer 2003, p. 56). There is therefore a continuous competition between female lions and males over their social structure.

Conservation or Pest Status According to Skinner and Chimimba (2005, p. 118) most lion species live in Southern and Eastern Africa. It is reported that despite the breeding ability of lions, their number is decreasing each day. Estimations indicates that about 23,500 lions are in African protected areas against the 100,000 lions present a century before (Olney 1994, p. 119). The main pest affecting the lion species are the humans. Poaching of lions and human encroaching the lion’s habitats, has been on rise.

There increased cases of human-wildlife conflicts, a factor that is facilitated by loss of habitats for these animals hence migrating to human habitations. Due to habitats loss and poaching, the population of the remaining lion species lives in isolation, a factor that encourages inbreeding leading to decrease in genetic diversity. Interference of the lions habitats buy humans as posed a serious impact on species conservation (United Nations Environment Programme 2008, p. 113).

There is need to create awareness to the public on the importance and need for conserving lions and wildlife in general. A part from humans, lions also face predation from other animals. Although lions are serious carnivores, they are predated upon by animals such as cheetahs, hyenas and leopards which are commonly known in killing the lion young ones and the aged lions.

Population Management According to Fleagle (1999, p. 81), after the realization that the population of lion species is decreasing every day, a number of coordinated measures has been put in place to manage the remaining population. This plan was started in 1982 for those lions in Asia, but since the lions in this region were discovered impure genetically, the plan was suspended (DeGraaf 2000, p. 78).

The plan of lion population management in Africa started a year later focusing mainly on the subspecies in the southern Africa. This plan has been faced by a series of challenges. Most of the captive lions are from an unknown origin and diversity, a factor that makes population management based on their genetic diversity difficult. Amongst the pride, lions have a way in which they manage their population.

Lions after giving birth always like staying with their young ones in the same pride so that they can continually watch over them. This process continues up to around 40 lions, which is the maximum number for a pride. After acquiring the maximum number, that a pride can support, the incoming extra lions split and shift to a different region for easy management and foraging. This avoids competition over resources like food, water, and shelter.

List of References DeGraaf, R 2000, New England wildlife: Habitat, natural history, and distribution, University Press of New England, Hanover.

Feldhamer, G 2003, Wild mammals of North America: Biology, management, and conservation, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Firouz, E 2005, The complete fauna of Iran, Tauris, London.

Fleagle, J 1999, Primate adaptation and evolution, Academic Press, San Diego.

Humphreys, P 1997, The lion and the gazelle: The mammals and birds of Iran, I.B. Tauris, London.

Hunter, L 2005, Cats of Africa: Behaviour, ecology, and conservation, Struik, Cape Town.

Lions, J 1996, Lions’ commentary on Unix 6th edition: With source code, Peer-to-Peer Communications, San Jose.

Marshall, C 2010, Mammal anatomy: An illustrated guide, Marshall Cavendish, New York.

McGuire, L 1989, Lions, Aladdin Books, New York.

Mitra, S. (2005). Gir Forest and the saga of the Asiatic lion. New Delhi: Indus.

Olney, P 1994, Creative conservation: Interactive management of wild and captive animals, Chapman


The Gherkins – London Skyscrapers Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Abstract The aim of this paper was to report on the construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE (Gherkin) in London and how a similar skyscraper would be constructed in modern times. The Gherkin was designed by the Foster and Partners and constructed by the Skanska group from 2001-2003.

The building occupies the former site of the Baltic exchange that was destroyed in 1992 by a bomb explosion. The Gherkin is one of the environmental friendly skyscrapers of the 21st century. However, the construction of a similar skyscraper today would entail more modification such as the use of recycled glass.

Introduction The built environment has undergone tremendous changes in the twenty first century. A number of appealing contributions have been made to the built environment. For instance, modern cities around the world have constructed modern structures such canals, subway systems, bridges, and skyscrapers by the use of modern technology. The advancement in the built environment is attributed to superior cultures and civilizations, which have emerged over the years.

In the twenty first century the Western culture and civilization has greatly influenced the type of buildings constructed in Europe, United States of America and other parts of the world. For instance, the city of London boasts of having one of the magnificent skyscrapers known as the 30 St. Mary AXE or the Gherkin. The 30 St. Mary AXE is “located in London’s financial district and stands on the site formally occupied by the Baltic Exchange, which was destroyed in 1992 by a bomb explosion” (Yudelson 46).

The architects of the 30 St. Mary AXE were Norman Foster and Partners while the main constructor of the skyscraper was Skanska. The building was constructed from 2001-2003 after which it was commercialized in 2004. The 30 St. Mary AXE has 40 floors and a height of 591ft. This paper explores how the Gherkin was constructed, the civilization and culture prevalent during its construction, as well as, how a similar skyscraper could be constructed today.

Place, Period, and Size of the 30 St. Mary AXE The destruction of the Baltic Exchange in 1992 by an explosion led to the need to reconstruct the site that the Baltic Exchange had occupied. The government of the United Kingdom had hoped to reconstruct the site because “the Exchange hall was a celebrated fixture of the ship trading company” (Yudelson 46).

However, this dream was never to be realized following the extensive damage that the 1992 explosion had caused to the Baltic Exchange. As a result, in 1995 the Baltic Exchange sold the site to the Trafalgar House, which proposed the construction of the Millennium Tower.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the plan to construct the Millennium Tower was “dropped because it was totally out of scale with the city of London and the building would also disrupt flight paths for both the City and Heathrow airports” (Wells 30-31). Therefore, in 1997 the Swiss Re managed to acquire the Baltic Exchange site after which the Swiss Re sought the service of Foster and Partners to design a building that would maintain the traditional streetscape of London City (Wells 30).

After the authorization of the Foster and Partners design, the Skanska embarked on the construction of the building in 2001 at the Baltic Exchange site. The construction of 30 St. Mary AXE took a period of three years. The Gherkin was opened the following year on 28 April 2004 with the Swiss Re as the primary occupant (Yudelson 46). The building has forty floors and a height of 180 meters (591ft).

The Gherkin consumes less energy as compared to other skyscrapers of similar size. The lower floors of the building are broader whereas from the sixteenth floor the sizes of the upper floors gradually reduce. The unique design of the Gherkin makes it to have a slender outlook as compared to skyscrapers of similar size. Additionally, the design of the 30 St. Mary AXE makes it more suitable to its location.

The lower floors of the building mainly function as offices while the top most floors act as private dining rooms, restaurant, and a bar that serves the tenants and guests. The top most floors enable guests and tenants to have a full view of the city of London. Similarly, the building is “visible over long distances, for instance, the building is visible from M11 Motorway and from the statue of George III in Windsor Great Park” (Wells 32).

Due to its enormous size the building has twenty three lifts, which are categorized as follows: “sixteen passenger lifts (6 high rise, 5 mid rise and 5 low rise), two lifts for goods, two fire fighters lifts, two shuttle lifts for top floor, and one car park lift” (Wells 34). The lifts are very efficient because they can carry more than 300 people at a particular time.

However, “the main lift for the building reaches the 34th floor while the push-from-below lift provide service to users up to the 39th floor hence creating a room for a bar at the 40th floor” (Wells 35).

The Prevalent Civilization and Culture during the Construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE Civilization refers to “the material and instrumental side of human cultures that are complex in terms of technology, science, and division of labor” (Solomon 128). However, the term civilization has been viewed as controversial because it can be used to refer to superiority or inferiority. Similarly, the term civilization may also refer to culture of a particular group of people.

We will write a custom Essay on The Gherkins – London Skyscrapers specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A number of factors such as transportation systems, political structures, urbanization, and architecture indicate the level of civilization of a particular society. The Western culture and civilization has remained dominant in the 21st century. A number of architectural structures in the 21st century have resulted from innovations brought about by Western civilization and culture. Therefore, Western civilization and culture was prevalent during the construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE.

Western civilization is a term, which “broadly refers to a heritage of social norms, ethnical values, traditional customs, beliefs systems, political systems, and technologies that originated from Europe” (Solomon 130).

Due to globalization Western culture and civilization has spread to different parts of the world, thereby influencing socio-economic, political, and technologies in various parts of the world. For instance, in most cities around the world architectural structures depict elements of Western culture and civilization such as straight lines, simple, and undecorated planes (Solomon 156-157).

One of the structures that clearly emphasize the characteristics of Western architecture is the skyscraper such as the 30 St. Mary AXE in London. A skyscraper refers to “any building that protrudes beyond its built environment and changes the overall skyline” (Richards 79-81). However, over the years the heights of skyscrapers have greatly increased due to modern techniques of construction.

A good number of cities of the twenty first century are characterized by skyscrapers of similar size as the Gherkin, which distinguish them and define the cities’ identities. In most cities around the world, skyscrapers are constructed because they are economical in terms of space, thereby ensuring optimum use of space within city centers where there is limited land.

The need to conserve space influenced the construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE building, which is one of the magnificent pieces of Western architecture. Fazlur Rahman Khan, who is a Bangladeshi-American structural engineer, is credited to have developed an engineering principle known as tubular design, which has influenced the construction of skyscrapers (Wells 17-19).

Since 2000, several cities such as Chicago, New York, London, Shanghai, and Dubai have registered increase in the number of skyscrapers. This has been made possible due to the tubular design technique. The principle of tubular design is both economical and efficient because it reduces the quantity of construction materials used, as well as, enabling buildings to have several floors.

The construction of skyscrapers should ensure safety of occupants against calamities such as earthquakes, wind, and fire (Yudelson 18). Skyscrapers ought to be accessible and fitted with facilities that enable occupants to operate with a lot of ease.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Gherkins – London Skyscrapers by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The construction of most skyscrapers entail the use of “steel frameworks from which curtain walls are suspended rather than load bearing walls used in conventional construction” (Richards 137). The steel frameworks help in the construction of tall buildings with windows of large surface areas.

The use of steel frames in construction emerged during the industrial revolution, which begun in the 19th century in Europe. Therefore, the concept of skyscrapers like the 30 St. Mary AXE emerged because of Western civilization characterized by industrialization in various fields. As a result, Western civilization and culture led to the invention of more efficient and effective building techniques and construction materials, which have enabled the construction of buildings such as the skyscrapers.

Therefore, the construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE that depicts elements of Western architecture made a significant contribution to the built environment. The unique design of the building makes it to stand out from the surrounding buildings. The innovation of the design team has proved that with the new technologies and techniques of building, a number of structures can be constructed without interfering with a city’s layout, thereby positively contributing to the built environment.

The Construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE The 1992 explosion that destroyed the Baltic Exchange center created a need for reconstruction of a similar building in order to maintain London’s cultural heritage of shipping technology.

However, the reconstruction of the Baltic Exchange proved futile after the United Kingdom government authorities realized that the destruction caused by the explosion was massive. Therefore, attempts were made to design a building that would suit the former location of the Baltic Exchange. Consequently, the Swiss Reinsurance Company commissioned Foster and Partners to design a suitable building for the site.

Fortunately, the government endorsed the design created by Foster and Partners due to its unique and spectacular design. In 2001, the Skanska constructors embarked on the construction process. Being a skyscraper of the 21st century, its construction entailed new technologies and techniques of construction. Additionally, the materials used were sophisticated and modern.

The 30 St. Mary AXE was constructed using steel frames joined together at triangular nodes in order to provide support for the weight of outer part of the structure. In order to ensure the success of using the steel nodes in the construction of the building, the designers conducted a number of tests through mock-up structures and computation (Wells 35).

The design allowed for continuity of the interior parts of the building while connecting the floors in a manner that would ensure maximum ventilation in the entire building. Similarly, the egg shape design of the building enables it to reduce wind intensity at the lower floors while at the same time ensuring that there is adequate air circulation in the building. The designers also provided for gaps in every floor to provide natural ventilation of the building.

The gaps left in every floor create shafts, which allow cool air to be drawn inside the building, as well as, warming the building through fitted passive solar gain (Richards 113). “Blinds located within the cavity of the ventilated double skin façade intercept solar gain before it enters the office environment after which the intercepted heat is reclaimed or rejected depending on the requirement for heating or cooling” (Yudelson 46).

Therefore, the construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE ensured that the building would have maximum natural ventilation that saves energy use by approximately 50% lower than buildings of similar size. The various systems within the building use gas as the major source of energy and supplemented by electricity.

The construction of the 30 St. Mary AXE also entails a double wall system whereby the outer walls of the building consist of several glass windows of triangular shapes whereas the inner walls have sliding glass doors. The building’s façade is composed of a column casing of aluminum, glass screen, which is operable and a façade frame made of extruded aluminum.

Floors that mainly serve as offices have a double-glazed outer layer whereas the inner layer has a single glazed screen. On the other hand, the space between the layers has a central ventilation system that regulates the amount of heat and coldness in the building depending on the season.

The cladding system of the building majorly consists of non-curved glass despite the building’s egg shape. The glasses used in cladding are arranged in diamond triangular panes. The all-glass cladding system enables occupants of the building to benefit from maximum sunlight exposure necessary for their operations, thereby enabling the occupants to save energy (Richards 145-148). The building was also fitted with an effective and efficient plumbing system.

The building has an electric heat tracing system that ensures circulation of hot water throughout the building. The electric heat tracing system is advantageous in several ways. For example, the system helps in conservation of energy and maintenance cost as compared to conventional plumbing systems that uses re-circulation.

Due to the several floors that the building has, the construction consumed much glass, steel, concrete, and energy. For instance, in order for the constructors to lift the building materials to the upper floors much energy was required. Similarly, the construction process entailed skilled labor force that ensured the construction was a success. As compared to the earlier centuries, the construction of the Gherkin benefited from the upsurge of skilled labor force in the architectural field.

For example, the architects were experts who created the unique design of the building by exploiting new technologies and methodologies that have emerged in the architectural field over the years. Therefore, the labor force that participated in the construction of the building was not only skilled but also creative. Consequently, the labor force ensured that the building stood out as a splendid piece of architecture from the buildings that surround it.

However, despite the skilled work force that led to the realization of the project a number of shortcomings have been recorded about the building, which may have resulted from the construction process.

For example, a year later (2005) after the opening of the building for public use, “the press reported that a glass panel had fallen to the plaza beneath the building” (Solomon 197-199). Fortunately, there were no serious injuries reported because of the glass panel that had fallen off. Consequently, the incident led to the closure of the plaza and several other windows as the investigations over the incident went on.

Reports made concerning the incident shows that one of the window’s opening device had worn out. Additionally, a number of critics have considered the design of the Gherkin uneconomical in terms of space due to the various facilities fitted in the building such as the light wells and the central lift.

The critics also argue that the floor design of the Gherkin does not favor confidentiality especially in businesses that entail discussions with clients. As a result, some tenants have partitioned their offices in order to enhance their confidentiality, thereby hindering natural air circulation and lighting. Similarly, the light wells encourage transfer of sound between the floors.

Despite some of the shortcomings associated with the construction of the Gherkin, the building has attracted numerous tourists and defined London’s skyline. The construction of the Gherkin has inspired the construction of environmentally friendly buildings not only in London but also in other parts of the world where attempts have been made to construct similar skyscrapers. The sleek design of the building has also provided a plaza for public use, as well as, reducing wind deflection.

Based on some of the shortcomings of the construction of the Gherkin, a number of changes and improvements can be made if a similar structure was constructed today. However, this does not dispute the fact that the Gherkin is a magnificent piece of architecture of the 21st century.

Due to advancements in technology in construction today, a similar building as the Gherkin would use recycled glass panels in order to promote environmental conservation. Additionally, a similar skyscraper would have several roof gardens fitted for the purpose of environmental conservation. In order to enhance space and confidentiality the floors would have opaque demarcated offices and the natural lighting enhanced by artificial lighting powered by solar panels especially during summer.

This would help to enhance conservation of energy and help to reduce air pollution because solar energy is environmental friendly. The construction of a similar building as the Gherkin today, would entail a water recycling system that promote conservation of water. Additionally, the building would have a swimming pool fitted in the 39th or the 40th floor, as well as, gym facilities, which would provide the tenants and their guests with a variety of recreational facilities apart from the bar.

Since the main aim of constructing skyscrapers is to maximize the use of space within the building, a similar skyscraper as the Gherkin in modern time would have a sky lobby to enhance movements between the floors. A sky lobby refers to “an intermediate interchange floor, which enables the users of an elevator system to change from an express elevator that only stops at the sky lobby to a local elevator that stops at every floor within a segment of the building” (Richards 87).

The sky lobby would have a number of facilities that serve the tenants. For instance, the sky lobby would have dry cleaner services for the tenants, mailboxes for companies operating in the building, library facilities, a relaxing zone, and a polling center where the tenants can vote during elections.

These facilities are crucial because they enable the tenants to save time because they will have access to a number of services within the same building. Construction of the Gherkin in modern times would also entail facilities such as a double-deck elevator that allows users to use the elevator simultaneously, thereby reducing traffic caused by lifts that stop at every floor.

Conclusion The advancement of construction methodologies and technology in the architectural field has led to the construction of various skyscrapers around the world. The Gherkin is one of the magnificent skyscrapers in London. The unique design of the building has made it a tourist attraction, as well as, an inspiration for other nations to design similar buildings that would protect the environment.

The design of the Gherkin enables it to maximize the use of natural lighting and clean gas energy. Despite the shortcomings associated with the building, the Gherkin still standout as one of the significant pieces of architecture of the 21st century. Therefore, cities around the world should shift their attention towards construction of skyscrapers that promote environmental conservation. Architects of modern skyscrapers should utilize modern technologies in order to promote green building trends.

Works Cited Richards, Brent. New Glass Architecture. London: Lawrence King Publishing, 2006. Print.

Solomon, Nancy. Architecture: Celebrating the Past, Designing the Future. New York: Visual Reference Publications, 2008. Print.

Wells, Mathew. Skyscrapers: Structure and Design. London: Lawrance King Publishing, 2005. Print.

Yudelson, Jerry. Green Building Trends: Europe. London: Island Press, 2009. Print.


Adjustment in Psychology: Stress Research Paper college essay help near me

Introduction Many are the times when people have complained about feeling stressed. In this day and age, there are various pressures that are exerted on individuals as they go on with their day-to-day activities, for instance, work related issues as well as family issues (Singh, 2009).

When one experiences stress, they are experiencing their body’s response to some form of demand (Lloyd, Dunn


Coca Cola: History of the Company and Its Changes Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents The Profile and History of Coca Cola Company

Major Changes in the Company

The Impact of the Changes Made


Works Cited

The Profile and History of Coca Cola Company Coca Cola is one of the most famous companies worldwide. It has been a symbol of the American life for decades. The company has managed to produce and promote its products all over the world. It is estimated that over one billion servings of Coca Cola are drunk a day (Ferrell, Fraedrich


Columbus discovered America in 1492 and how it impacted the history of America Report college application essay help: college application essay help

When Christopher Columbus discovered America towards the end of the 15th century, the historical significance of this discovery could not be established immediately. However, historians postulate that the 1492 discovery left behind significant trails of historical impacts in America. As a matter of fact, the history of America was greatly shaped after the exploration by Columbus. This essay offers a brief account of how the American history has been modeled by the discovery.

To begin with, it is profound to note the contemporary civilization being experienced in America was mainly triggered by the Columbus’ discovery of 1492.[1] While some historians may argue that the American civilization was bound to take place even in the absence of Columbus’ discovery, it is definite that the discovery of America gave a major impetus to the rate of growth in civilization that the continent has enjoyed up to date.

The history of American civilization since the classical era was a product of the Columbus’ discovery. Some of the major areas of civilization included politics, social life and economic empowerment. It should be understood that America (especially North America) was opened up to the rest of the world. Therefore, it created an open platform through which other explorers could visit America and spread their influence.[2]

The geographical knowledge of America was also expanded as a result of the Columbus’ discovery. Initially, American land was a secluded continent that the rest of the world did not understand. The fact that the disciplines of history and geography are closely interrelated; the geography of America has been an integral part of its historical past.

For instance, the colonization of North America was made possible by its geographical knowledge.[3] Moreover, the presence of trains, valleys, mountains and landmark water bodies in the American continent are significant when exploring the history of this continent. Historians are also quite categorical that solutions related to challenges of geography in America were obtained as a result of the discovery of the continent.

When America was known to the rest of the world, it facilitated the growth and development of commerce. Traders from distant lands travelled to America in search for markets for their products. On the same note, the colonial powers scrambled for raw materials and markets for their industrial products.

Some of the products included phonograph, telephone, electric generation, electric lighting, telegraph, metallurgy, steel mills, printing press, road building, canals, sewing machine, cotton gin, textile mills, locomotive, steam boat, and steam engines. Such activities culminated into massive entrepreneurial spirit that is still being used in America today.[4] The emergence of the early American urban centers was also witnessed during the same era.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In spite of the positive impacts of the 1492 discovery by Christopher Columbus, it is also worth to appreciate that some native tribes suffered immensely on the hands of the foreigners. A case in point was the Indians.

Historians believe that their small population in North America was occasioned by oppression and myriads of infections from foreigners after America was discovered. Europeans brought major infections in America when they came to colonize the region. Some of the maladies included whooping cough, pneumonia, small pox, measles, malaria, and yellow fever.

The Europeans were already immune to most of these diseases. However, the infections turned out to be major pandemics to Indians. The same Indians were sold as slaves.[5] In any case, slave trade started when Columbus forcefully took some slaves to Spain. The history of slave trade is indeed a broad subject of the American past. The practice of buying and selling slaves was widespread during the pre-independence era of America and as such, it cannot be erased from the face of this continent.

The spread of the European culture and goods took place after the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. There is a significant cultural mix between that of the Europeans and Americans. This was occasioned by the exploration and subsequent colonization of America. Some of the foreign crops that were introduced in America by foreigners include rubber, sugar and tobacco.

The current system of agriculture that is practiced in America is believed to have been largely borrowed from the visiting foreigners.[6] America was not the only beneficiary in this process. Some of the dominant North American crops such as tomatoes, potatoes, peanuts, beans, cocoa, cayenne, and corn were exported to other continents such as Europe and Asia.

A section of historians still contend that death, exploitation and conquest were the major attributes of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus contrary to the popular belief that there was great accomplishment on the part of America. Nonetheless, it is profound to note that the American history borrows a lot from the history of Christopher Columbus. The cultural identity of the Native Americans before the 1492 discovery changed almost completely due to the influence brought about by the foreigners.[7]

In some instances, the Americans were compelled to conform to the European standards especially when the process of colonization was in full force. It is believed that thousands of Americans suffered as a result of colonization. It is against this backdrop that the American and European powers became foes to each other even after the dark ages. This was also manifested during the First and Second World Wars as well as during the Cold War era.

We will write a custom Report on Columbus discovered America in 1492 and how it impacted the history of America specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bibliography Fiske, John. The Discovery of America, Volume 1. New York: The Echo Library, 2009.

Hume, Robert. Christopher Columbus and the European discovery of America. Herefordshire: Fowler Wright Books, 1992.

Footnotes John Fiske, The Discovery of America, Volume 1. (New York: The Echo Library, 2009), 9.

Ibid, 13

Ibid, 18

Robert Hume, Christopher Columbus and the European discovery of America. (Herefordshire: Fowler Wright Books, 1992), 49

Ibid, 87

Ibid, 106

John Fiske, The Discovery of America, Volume 1. (New York: The Echo Library, 2009), 54.


Social Factors that Motivate People to Travel (in Tourism Industry) Essay essay help free

Introduction Tourism is used as a revenue generator in many countries. With an increased world population, tourist population has grown accordingly. People travel because of different reasons, some of which are personal, while others are job oriented. Beard and Ragheb identify the various push and pull reasons that people base their decisions on for traveling.

The push and pull reasons are usually personal, and they vary depending upon a person. He also adds that the push factors usually stimulate a person to travel, while the pull factors are the ones that contribute to the choice of the destination. Further, they identify other factors that influence people’s choice to travel, namely, the reason to meet friends and family’s members, tourism experience and, in general, aesthetic satisfaction (Beard,


“A Worn Path” by Eudora Welty Essay online essay help: online essay help

“A Worn Path” written by Eudora Welty is a short story which is full of symbolism. It is possible to find a variety of symbols concerning most important issues. This is a story about love and devotion, about aging and illnesses, and it is a story about racial discrimination in the USA in the 1930s. Each of the topics highlighted are worth volumes. In this paper, I will focus on racial discrimination in the US society of 1930s.

It is possible to find a variety of symbols which stand for racial discrimination. Some of these symbols are the path itself, the absence of support and the hunter. Admittedly, these are only a few symbols. For instance, the name of the main character is also a suggestive symbol of hope. However, the symbols mentioned above are more comprehensive as I believe each of these symbols represents a facet of African Americans’ life in the USA.

One of the first symbols to be discussed is, of course, the “worn path” (Welty n.p.). The path African Americans had to walk was a really “long way” which was also very difficult (Welty n.p.).

The path was full of dangers and “trials” like thorns which were doing their “appointed work” and “never” wanted “to let folk pass” (Welty n.p.). Of course, the ‘thorny bushes’ were all over African Americans’ way. The word ‘worn’ is also very suggestive. Thousands and millions of African Americans had to make the same journey and endure the same ‘worn’ obstacles.

To make the matters worse, the woman is all alone on the dangerous road, just like African Americans did not have anyone to support them. Thus, the old woman falls and she is unable to stand up, she sees someone and reaches her hands but “nothing reached down and gave her a pull” (Welty n.p.).

Likewise, African Americans had to face lots of constraints and there were few people who were ready to help. In the 1930s, African Americans were discriminated in all spheres of their lives and it was uncommon for a white person to help an African American. Notably, even those attempts made were rather ineffective, as any advance or help was followed by even more horrible conditions. Thus, the fact that the woman has the hallucination stands for the futility of some attempts to help African Americans in the 1930s.

Finally, the conversation between the woman and the hunter is also very symbolic. The man helps the old woman stand up, but, at the same time, he is rather disrespectful and he teases the woman with his gun. In a single phrase, the woman reveals the sufferings of slaves, “I seen plenty go off closer by, in my day, and for less than what I done” (Welty n.p.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The slaves were treated like undeserving creatures and were punished even without a reason. Unfortunately, little changed in the 1930s and African Americans were tortured and humiliated. The entire conversation is the symbolic representation of the roles available for whites and African Americans in 1930s. The whites were still ‘patronizing’ African Americans who were regarded as inferior.

On balance, it is possible to state that the short story is a symbolic representation of the life of African Americans in the 1930s. The old woman’s path stands for the long journey African Americans had to endure to have the life they had in the 1930s. Such symbols as the path, the woman’s hallucinations and the conversation between the man and the old woman reveal the inequality in the USA in the 1930s.

Works Cited Welty, Eudora. A Worn Path. 2001. Web. .


Educational Systems: The Comparison of Vietnam and Belgium’s Educational Systems Term Paper essay help

The variety of the educational systems in the world depends on the number of countries and cultures round the globe. The educational systems of different countries are developed to respond to the needs of the definite society and state.

Nevertheless, the globalization process makes people pay more attention to the comparison of the educational systems in different countries in relation to their effectiveness to provide the well-educated young people with the strong knowledge and developed skills and abilities. Modern young people use the education as the effective start for their further career. The problem is in the fact that there is the significant difference in opportunities provided for the students in developed and developing countries.

The comparison of the educational systems of Vietnam and Belgium presents the evidence to state that the educational system of Belgium is more developed, and it provides young people with the opportunities to use the received knowledge during their further career when the educational system of Vietnam is based on the outdated curriculum and traditional approaches of teaching.

The Educational System in Vietnam Education is an important element in the social and economic development of a country. The formal education includes basic education. The whole period of the basic education is twelve years. During this period, the majority of the school age children are enrolled in school. Despite the efforts made by the Vietnamese government regarding the full enrollment of children in schools, there are issues and challenges associated with the country’s education system.

The main problem of the public schools is the lack of the governmental funding. The economy of the country is not developed, and this fact influences the social development (London). Many children who are in their school age do not attend schools because of the poor conditions of their families.

The overall quality of education in the country is low in comparison with the other Asian and European countries. The governmental educational standards are not correlated with those ones required in the developed countries. The outdated curricula are used in schools and in the sphere of the higher education.

The school curriculum of the secondary level is rather compulsory, and it includes a wide range of disciplines such as literature, mathematics, and technology. Vocational education provides courses that should develop students’ practical skills. 1-3 and 2-3 year vocational programs that train individuals in technical education with the quality being monitored by the government are implemented (London).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, students do not receive the necessary knowledge on the modern communication technologies, and no technologies are used in teaching. Teachers are oriented to use the outdated approaches and methods of lectures to conduct a lesson. As a result, students do not develop the necessary skills, and the education process in schools and institutes is not connected with the professional practice.

To improve the quality of education, the Vietnamese government focused on teacher training. Definite programs are developed to establish learning institutions that can contribute to promoting the academic achievement along with focusing on the emotional, physical and psychological development of students because many students feel uncomfortable within the learning environments. The specific of teacher-student and student-student relations is based on the principles of Confucianism (Cargo).

Education in Belgium The educational system of Belgium is developed in relation to the needs of the Flemish, French, and German speaking communities. The basic principles of these communities’ school systems are similar. In Belgium, the start of the pre-school education is associated with the age of three years. It is not compulsory for persons to take a child to pre-school institutions. Children start to attend the primary school at the age of 6, following the next six years of basic education.

Reading, writing and arithmetic classes are typical for the primary school. The secondary education is divided into four sections that are the humanities, technical disciplines, arts, and professional disciplines. The secondary education has an objective to prepare students for the university education with the professional section allowing students to choose the profession they would like to pursue in their life (“A Report on Belgian Education”).

All the financial questions associated with the education are regulated by the local communities. The country spends 6.3% of the GDP on education. The level of enrollment in tertiary education is 27% of the population while enrollment in secondary level education is about 88% (Capron).

The local communities pay much attention to the development of the educational systems in order to educate the highly-qualified human resources who can compete within the developing human resources market. From this point, the equality of access to education is important as well as the quality of the education provided.

The educational system of Belgium can be discussed with references to Functionalism theory because the accents are made on the practical significance of the received knowledge. Students are expected to use the knowledge and received skills in their everyday work practice in order to contribute to the community’s welfare. Much attention is paid to the technical education because this sphere of knowledge responds to the global demands.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Educational Systems: The Comparison of Vietnam and Belgium’s Educational Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The curricula according to which the educational systems work are developed in relation to the interests of the communities. The concept of ‘digital divide’ is relevant to discuss the educational system of Belgium. Innovative communication technologies are used in schools and universities in order to create the necessary conditions for the students’ effective study (“A Report on Belgian Education”).

Similarities and Differences in the Educational Systems of Two Countries It is necessary to determine several factors according to which it is possible to compare the educational systems in Vietnam and Belgium. The first factor is equality of access to education. In Belgium, education is available for all children and young people because the government guarantees that every child is able to attend school regardless the financial state or belonging to the minority group.

The situation is different in Vietnam where poor children cannot afford attending schools, and moreover, many public schools are also not funded appropriately.

The next aspect is the practical importance of education. The secondary education in Belgium prepares students for university education as well as career life, and it is divided into four sections that address these concerns (“A Report on Belgian Education”).

The professional aspect deals with the ability of students to identify their careers early in life, and it is closely linked to the technical aspect of Belgium’s education. However, the secondary education in Vietnam is not oriented to the same purpose. Students begin developing their skills only in institutes. Therefore, the education system in Belgium produces more skilled employees in comparison with the education system in Vietnam.

Students in Vietnam and Belgium overcome the similar socialization processes and face similar risks while being enrolled in the new school environment. However, the principles of Confucianism help teachers in Vietnam regulate these processes (Cargo).

All the modern technological communications are available for students in Belgium when students in Vietnam can not have the access to the necessary books and learning materials.

Education in Belgium is characterized by setting clear goals, the adequate funding, using quality academic programs, developed parent involvement. Moreover, the accents are made on high expectations from students and adequate school facilities along with productive school climate when the situation in Vietnam is quite different (Ballantine and Hammack).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Educational Systems: The Comparison of Vietnam and Belgium’s Educational Systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Impact of Differences on Students and Educators The negative consequences of differences discussed earlier are associated with the educational system in Vietnam. Thus, students do not receive the necessary education for developing their career, and the rate of unemployment in the country increases because young people have no developed practical skills to start working.

The next negative consequence for students is the obscure chance to compete effectively within the global human resources market. Today, the Vietnamese government develops the alternations for the educational system in order to focus on teaching the English language in the country as the first step to meet the international requirements.

Moreover, Confucianism as the social philosophy used in the education practice prevents a lot of Vietnamese students from taking the independent decisions and from participation in the debates. As a result, the Vietnamese students are passive in relation to their career and further life.

The processes of socialization in the Vietnamese schools are based on the behavioral patterns according to which students can interact with each other and teachers. The social control limits the independence of the students’ thinking, but it contributes to increasing the role of the teacher’s authority.

In Belgium, teachers cooperate with students, and the process of teaching is the student-centered one. As a result, students develop their skills and abilities in relation to the career path which can be chosen by them even in the early school age. In spite of the usage of the more democratic style of communication within the classroom, the quality of the education in Belgium is higher than in Vietnam, and students have more opportunities to receive their higher education and develop career in the future.

The governmental control and funding in Vietnam also do not provide the opportunities for teachers to perform effectively. They suffer from the lack of financing, and they are responsible for teaching according the outdated curricula with the lack of the necessary education materials.

The educational systems of Vietnam and Belgium have a lot of differences and few similarities, and this fact can be explained with references to the culture of the countries, the situation in societies, and economic development of the countries. Referring to the example of Belgium, it is possible to conclude that the economic development and the well-organized structure of the educational system can guarantee the higher quality of education and its practical importance for the young people’s further career.

The current state of the educational system of Vietnam does not provide opportunities for the social and economic development of the country because these processes are interdependent. The educational system in Vietnam requires significant reforms to modernize it according to the global standards and with references to the cultural heritage.

Works Cited A Report on Belgian Education. 2006. PDF file. Web.

Ballantine, Jeanne, and Floyd Hammack. The Sociology of Education. USA: Pearson, 2011. Print.

Capron, Henry. The National Innovation System of Belgium. USA: Springer, 2004. Print.

Cargo, Duncan. Rethinking Vietnam. USA: Routledge, 2004. Print.

London, Jonathan. Education in Vietnam. USA: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011. Print.