Religion usually develops as a social institution and as a cultural system and system of beliefs which are typical for the definite social group. That is why religion can be discussed as a social or group phenomenon. The members of the definite religious group create their own community which evolves according to the certain norms, codes, doctrines, and moral rules.
Thus, the religious group is a kind of a moral community, and as a result, religion within society is based on the development of the definite group. From this point, religion can be defined according to those characteristics which are used to discuss different social groups. However, religion as any group phenomenon cannot be presented only as a positive institution.
There are many conflicts and dilemmas which depend on the definite religious issues. Thus, religion is a group phenomenon which has all the features typical for various social groups, and religion can be the source of conflict within the society because of the differences in religious visions.
It is important to note that social institutions which develop within the people’s community cannot exist without references to the group factor. From this perspective, religion exists within the group. Furthermore, religion is discussed as a phenomenon characteristic for the group’s development because religion has the features typical for the structure and organization of the group (Furseth). These specific features are the goal establishment, definite agreement on norms, codes, and doctrines, and the differentiation of the members’ status (Johnstone 42-43).
According to Johnstone, religion develops within the society in its interactive relationship with the other social institutions and units, and it depends on the specific group dynamics (Johnstone 111). Thus, sociologists cannot discuss religion in its isolation from society, focusing only on the aspect of beliefs and religious visions because it is important to concentrate on religion as a product of the social development.
The progress of religion is also based on five prerequisites of the group life. These significant prerequisites are recruitment and reproduction, socialization, producing satisfactory levels of goods, preserving order, and maintaining the sense of purpose (Johnstone 43-44).
It is possible to discuss the aspects of religion from the perspective of these points which are meaningful for the development of the social group. The recruitment and reproduction in relation to religion is associated with the necessity to attract new members or reproduce them within the religious group to provide the opportunities for the group’s further progress. All the members of a religious group should be socialized.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In other words, they should be taught the codes and norms which are adopted to follow in definite religion. To be competitive, religion should deliver certain goods and services for the members of the group. Moreover, the effective organization is based on the strict order and on a purpose to provide the definite religious sense for the group (Johnstone 43-44). Depending on the above-mentioned factors, religion can develop into a significant social phenomenon which becomes bureaucratized to regulate its growth as an institution.
The existence of a religious group is connected with many issues and challenges. Following almost all the patterns of interaction which are typical for the society, religion is also associated with definite contradictions and religious dilemmas which can lead to conflicts. Conflicts traditionally develop as a result of focusing on differences related to the discussion of the definite phenomenon.
In spite of the fact religion functions to provide a ray of hope for the members of the religious group, it is often the source of a conflict because religion and religious society are opposite in their nature to secularization and civil society with its rules.
Moreover, religion can be used as a tool for manipulation within the society (Putnam and Campbell). These points can be discussed as the misdirecting effect of religion (Johnstone 125-127). Religious conflicts are almost impossible to avoid because of the impossibility to ignore the social diversity.
It is significant to pay attention to two main conflicts according to which religion develops as a group phenomenon. The first type of a conflict is defined by Johnstone as interreligious. It is characterized by the competition to win followers as resources for the religion’s development and power as the guarantee of the religion’s progress. Religions are typically different in their doctrines and claims.
eligions insist on the exclusive character of the proclaimed dogmas and on the truth of their religion. Such a position is the source for conflicts between religions (Johnstone 125-126). However, the religious group can be also challenged by the intrareligious conflict when the division in interpreting doctrines and practices is observed (Johnstone 130). Moreover, it is possible to speak about conservative and liberal approaches to interpretation of doctrines.
Thus, religion is a group phenomenon which exists and develops according to the rules typical for any social group, basing on the patterns of interaction usual for this society and reflecting each main characteristic features. Furthermore, religion as any social phenomenon develops as a result of different contradictions and conflicts which can be interreligious and intrareligious. Being different in approaches to the principles of social justice or truth, religions or the members of the same group can be opposite to each other.
We will write a custom Essay on Religion Social Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Furseth, Inger. An Introduction to the Sociology of Religion: Classical and Contemporary Perspectives. USA: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006. Print.
Johnstone, Ronald. Religion in Society: A Sociology of Religion. USA: Pearson, Prentice-Hall, 2007. Print.
Putnam, Robert, and David Campbell. American Grace: How Religion Divides and Unites Us. USA: Simon
The Short Story “Lust” by Susan Minot Essay essay help: essay help
Susan Minot, the person behind the masterpiece short story Lust, creates and brings out the main character of the story in a unique manner. The protagonist’s relationship with the other characters in the story brings it out her uniqueness as opposed to her physical appearance.
Through her actions and feelings, the audience sees her real part in the story. Lust’s narrator does not have a name, but she is in her teenage years going to a religious academy that is located away from her home. The narrator comes out as a promiscuous person right from the beginning of the story when she says, “Leo was from a long time ago, the first one I ever saw nude” (Minot 3). Her relationships seem to be mostly with boys as opposed to associating with girls of her age.
She is also sexually active as she confesses, “he kisses my palm and then directs my hand to his fly” (Minot 6). Her sexual escapades with different boys set the plot of the story. Even without the name of the main character, the audience can tell how she behaves and relates with others, which brings out the imbalance of power that exists between men and women particularly when it comes to sex. The powerful sexual desire that men in this story have completely overcomes the narrator.
Minot uses both the first and second person throughout the story whereby in some instances she uses “I” as she talks about her life experiences. For instance, she says, “I had tasted Bruce’s tongue” (Minot 3), while in others she uses “you”, which stands for all women in general; fro instance, she posits, “You begin to feel like a piece of pounded veal” (Minot 16).
The main character portrays behaviors of being overtly promiscuous such that in one instance, she admits that sleeping around was a normal thing that did not worry her at all. However, she discloses her fears of the promiscuous life by confessing, “All the next day, you’d be in a total fog, delirious, absent-minded, crossing the stress and nearly getting run over” (Minot 10).
She goes on to state that for a boy sleeping with many girls was a good thing whilst for a girl it was an ominous thing to sleep around. This aspect shows that despite portraying a “do not care” attitude, at times she knew what she was doing was wrong and it was eating her from the inside. However, it is only at the end of the story that the narrator brings out her fears and worries.
The narrator brings about the emotional detachment the main character has with authority figures; for instance, her parents. It is very easy for the audience to see there is no emotional bond that exists between her and her parents. She says, “My parents had no idea…parents never really know what’s going on, especially when you’re away at school most of the time” (Minot 5).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This assertion shows that her parents took her to a far away boarding school so that they would not have to deal with the issues that their teenage daughter was going through. The mentality of knowing her family is not anywhere near allows her to have all the freedom she wants in order to engage in whatever she likes.
Another character who was propagating the main character’s promiscuous behavior according to the narrator was the school doctor. He was giving students the emergency pill without asking any relevant questions as the narrator notes, “The joke was that the school doctor gave out the pill like aspirin” (Minot 8).
The main character reveals to the audience that most girls in the school used the pill, which would prevent them from getting pregnant once they engaged in unprotected sexual escapades. She could take the pills in the morning just before they went to the school chapel.
The narrator shows that even if she wanted to stop her promiscuity, she could not get enough support to advice her and stand with her, particularly her parents. The housemother, Mrs. Gunther, made a point of advising them on how to find true love as she had fallen for the only boyfriend she had, Mr. Gunther, at eighteen years old, which ended in a marriage. However, the girls ignored all her advice and they would go about their partying, drinking, and having sex.
Minot also shows that the main character was not confident even though she exuded a different personality. She felt weak with the men she associated with and so she was always obligated to say yes to sexual advances whenever they asked for it.
She admits, “So if you flirted, you had to be prepared to go through with it” (Minot 9). She later states how the boys would get angry if girl refused to give into sex advances. Therefore, Minot brings out the main character as someone who had a low self-esteem, which she masked with partying, drinking, and even taking drugs.
She wanted to portray a personality that was extremely social, outgoing, and fun to be around while it was the exact opposite as she divulges, “After sex, you curl up like a shrimp, something deep inside you ruined, slammed in a place that sickens at slamming…”(Minot 16). At one instance where she was with Tim, she stripped naked and lay on the rug after he had gone to close the door.
We will write a custom Essay on The Short Story “Lust” by Susan Minot specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the entire story, the audience can see that the main character’s lustful behavior stands out courtesy of how she associates with other secondary characters in the story. Emotional dependence comes into view by the way the narrator lacks any qualms with sleeping around especially since she is a girl. Girls and women in general grow up in a society that nurtures the precept that it is very wrong to sleep around as compared to boys and men who emerge as macho by perpetuating the same.
The narrator also shows the amount of peer pressure that young people face and end up engaging in sex, alcohol, and even drugs. This aspect comes out clearly by how almost every girl in the school would take the birth control pill and also how the narrator could not say no to sex; she concedes, “I thought the worst thing anyone could call you was a cock-teaser”(Minot 9).
Minot has done a tremendous job by enlightening the audience on the challenges that young people, especially at their teenage years, face due to peer pressure to involve themselves in sex, alcohol, and other drugs. She also shows how girls give in to sexual advances easily to boys. Girls learn a little too late that sex never leads to love and as the narrator posits, “you open your legs but can’t, or don’t dare anymore, to open your heart” (Minot 17).
Works Cited Minot, Susan. Lust
Devil’s Playground Essay essay help online
Today, people are inclined to think that the modern society becomes more tolerant in relation to following definite social norms, rules, traditions, and rites of passage. I can refer to such important life periods and events as the graduation from high school and marriage as certain rites of passage, but they do not have the real ritual meaning for many people.
The graduation from university, career development, and marriage can be considered as important stages in my life, but I do not discuss them as the real rites of passage. For instance, getting married, people provide their vows, but this process often lacks its spiritual significance. Social norms and rules of morality should regulate marriages, and spouses should not betray their partners. In reality, these norms are regularly violated.
The advantages of the life patterns accepted in our society are in the possibilities for the personal and professional development. However, the disadvantages are in the people’s ignoring many social norms because of their limiting character. It is the first step to the social chaos and decline which can be observed today in the youth’s alcohol and drugs abuse in spite of all the limitations.
From this point, social norms, rules, and rites of passage are important to regulate the social life. Moreover, it is almost impossible to determine some strict rules regulating the life of the modern people in relation to morality without involving the legal issues and laws.
Nevertheless, there is the world where people follow the social norms and rules strictly. According to the Amish people’s visions, the world can be divided into the ‘English’ one and the ‘Amish’ one. Thus, the main difference is in the religion and social norms followed which determine the people’s way of living.
When Amish young people are at the age of sixteen they receive the opportunity to experience the life typical for the ‘English’ world. It is the period of their rite of passage known as Rumspringa. The main problem is in the fact the representatives of the ‘English’ world cannot understand the meaning of this period for the Amish youth because there are no fixed or followed rites of passage in this world. The advantage of the Amish life is in plainness, religious rituals, daily routine, rural activities, and humility.
They do not use electricity, television, telephones, and cars. Alcohol and drugs do not harm their health, and there are no other provocations and serious challenges in this world, except the period of Rumspringa. That is why, following their Rumspringa rituals and traditions, the Amish people face a lot of provocative situations which emphasize the differences between the two worlds and visions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Devil’s Playground (2002), the ‘English’ world is based not on following social and moral norms, but on violating them (Devil’s Playground, 2002). The religious principles are broken, the behavior of young people and their way of life are closely associated with alcohol, drugs, sex, and parties.
I cannot agree with such a position because it is only a limited viewpoint used to oppose the ‘English’ and ‘Amish’ worlds. Although some social norms in the modern world are not as strictly as in the ‘Amish’ world, it is impossible to speak about the Western world as the ‘Devil’s Playground’.
The Amish culture reflects the principles of life typical for the 18th-19th centuries. They wear plain dresses, men work as farmers, and women bring up children. The Amish people try to depart from all the conveniences as well as any temptation. From this point, the culture of the Amish people is based on the religious principles which help define the ‘Amish’ world.
The ‘English’ world is based on following people’s temptation, and the culture of the ‘English’ world depends on the secular principles. That is why, according to the stories presented in the movie, the ‘English’ world can be defined with references to rock music, premarital sex, alcohol, and the importance of money (Devil’s Playground, 2002).
Nevertheless, the features used to describe the oppositions between two cultures cannot be used as important to define them. I am inclined to define the ‘English’ world as more secular, but not as more ‘Devil’s’ one. The Amish people cannot live without their rules and norms. And the modern Western society tries to develop rules which are more convenient for them and contributing to the progress, but not limiting.
The rules and principles adopted in the society help regulate its development. The progress in the Amish people’s society is almost impossible because of rejecting the typical elements of the evolution, but the growth of spirituality can be observed when the community is regulated by preachers. Thus, the process of Rumspringa is important for the Amish people because adolescents can consciously choose the life and rules they want to follow basing on their own experience.
They can choose the most appropriate life pattern at the age of sixteen, comparing the ‘English’ and ‘Amish’ worlds. The Amish tradition to be baptized after making the significant decision to plan the future life according to this or that pattern is also important. From this perspective, the process of Rumspringa is the major stage in the Amish people’s life which helps cope with the life-changing issue.
We will write a custom Essay on Devil’s Playground specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference Devil’s Playground. (2002). Web.
Inventory valuation methods Essay online essay help: online essay help
Introduction All business organizations have different methods of valuing their stock. This is aimed at ensuring that the right price is used in issuing stock. For instance, it will not be appropriate for a firm to make losses by issuing stock at a lower price than purchasing price.
Besides, a business organization has to decide on the method of inventory valuation. This is aimed at attracting a monetary value in the store. This is useful in costing output, state costing and decision making processes. Thus, this paper will highlight some of the methods used in valuing inventories.
First in first out (FIFO)
This is an inventory method that is used to value stock based on the assumption of first in first out. Stock that is purchased first is the one that is issued first. The price of the inventory issued is determined by the price of the first stock. In addition, the value closing stock is done at the latest cost.
This method has many advantages. This has facilitated its increased use in many firms. For instance, it is a realistic system or method of evaluation. Here, the oldest items are issued first followed by the newest items. Furthermore, the method’s calculations are easy whenever there are no fluctuations in the price of materials.
This method ensures that the closing stock value reflects the latest cost (Khan
Concept of the Charter Schools in Education Essay custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
What Is a Charter School?
Why Are They Necessary?
Are There Any Drawbacks?
Introduction Undoubtedly, education is the basis of every individual’s life as well as the future of the nation. The USA is famous for its high quality education. At present, it also takes pride in a variety of educational choices for young learners. Charter schools entered the educational scene in the late 1990s. Arizona is the state where the number of charter schools is on the rise and 14% of students in the state are enrolled in charter schools (Faller n.p.). Popularity of these schools is quite high.
However, as anything new, charter schools have their proponents and opponents. The latter say that charter schools take money from the district schools and allocate funds ineffectively. They also note that results of charter schools are not always satisfactory and the methods used are not properly evaluated. Nonetheless, proponents of these schools stress that the majority of charter schools have proved to be effective.
Clearly, Arizona must allocate funds to help charter schools develop as these establishments help cover larger groups of students, they introduce alternative educational approaches and they are competitors to district schools, which favorably affects development of educational system in the state.
What Is a Charter School? There is a great variety of charter schools which differ in form, curriculum, governance, etc. Charter schools may also focus on specific areas, e.g. sport, art, science, etc. Charter schools are non-profit or for-profit organizations. These schools may use traditional as well as innovative approaches. As a rule, charter schools are attended by students living in the district where the school is physically situated (“Charter Schools; Admission Requirements” n.p.).
There is one major similarity. If the number of applicants is too high, students are enrolled on the basis of a lottery. Students are not enrolled on the basis of their academic or sport achievements, ethnicity, socioeconomic status of their families, etc. (“Charter Schools; Admission Requirements” n.p.). Charter schools may have different visions and missions, but they are all aimed at providing educational opportunities for people.
Why Are They Necessary? Some people claim that charter schools should not exist as traditional district schools provide the necessary educational opportunities to those who need them, but this is far from being that way. Many parents face a variety of issues concerning their children attending district schools. Some are unsatisfied with their children’s results. Some are unsatisfied with the quality of teaching. Charter schools may be regarded as an alternative to a more traditional school.
They can be seen as a competition (Faller n.p.). Admittedly, competition positively affects development of any sphere. Everyone knows that the very existence of a competitor makes organizations (as well as people) perform better and seek for new better ways. Therefore, charter schools help raise the standards. Hence, it is a good idea to invest in tools which lead to development.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from creating competition, charter schools can also be regarded as an option to address certain issues concerning coverage. For instance, they help cover larger population which is extremely important for the state. Importantly, charter schools (in the vast majority of cases) provide free education.
Admittedly, in the times of severe financial constraints, this can be a way out for many families. Thus, more children and teenagers have opportunity to obtain high quality education. This is why it is important to allocate funds to help the state provide high-quality education to larger groups of students.
Remarkably, charter schools provide high-quality education which is quite innovative in nature. Many charter schools are A or B rated educational establishments, i.e. students enrolled in these schools show high results (“Charter Schools; Admission Requirements” n.p.). Interestingly, many charter schools employ innovative approaches. For instance, Carpe Diem Collegiate High School and Middle School is one of such innovative educational establishments (Pandolfo n.p.).
Students have cubicles where they learn with the help of computer programs. They also have workshops where they discuss issues and learn to think critically. This is a very innovative approach which is quite effective. Students like studying there as they may learn at their own pace (Pandolfo n.p.). Those who can learn a topic faster do not need to wait until other students catch up with them. Those who need more time do not feel frustrated and can also move at their pace. This individual approach makes study enjoyable.
Are There Any Drawbacks? As has been mentioned above, many opponents claim that innovative approaches used often prove to be ineffective. Of course, there may be some drawbacks. According to Arizona Charter Schools Association, some charter schools do not achieve high results (“State of Education” 3).
Some charter schools exploiting alternative approaches are only C and D rated schools. However, if parents think an approach cannot really work for their child, they do not need to choose the school employing the ineffective approach. Admittedly, when choosing a school for children, parents should be thoughtful. It is necessary to ask many questions and even visit some classes to see the difference. Charter schools’ ratings are available and it can be quite easy to find A or B rated charter schools.
Some may say that charter schools obtain quite significant funding, at the expense of district schools. However, these two types of schools have equal opportunities. At that, there is quite strict regulation when it comes to charter schools (Faller n.p). It is not easy to start a charter school as it is necessary to provide a thorough plan for five years where all major points (staff, funds allocation, curriculum, etc.) are covered.
We will write a custom Essay on Concept of the Charter Schools in Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also possible to mention another drawback, i.e. the lack of places in effective charter schools. This downside may be removed. Establishment of new charters schools can help solve this problem. Thus, allocation of funds to support development of charter schools is important as it provides more opportunities for people living in the state.
Conclusion To sum up, it is possible to state that funding charter schools is vital for educational system of Arizona. These schools are aimed at providing more opportunities for young learners. These schools are a good competition for district schools which will try to improve their approaches to remain competitive. Schools will try to find new effective ways to help students develop and achieve their academic goals.
Of course, charter schools should be under strict supervision of the state to prevent any violations. Some people say that Americans do not need these schools, while others insist there should be more charter schools. At any rate, it is up to parents to decide which school to choose for their child. However, when doing their research, parents should try to be far-sighted. Parents need to know that there are many options for their children.
Works Cited “Charter Schools; Admission Requirements.” Arizona State Legislature. 2007. Web.
Faller, Mary Beth. “Arizona Charter-School Enrollment In On Rise.” The Republic. Nov. 2012. Web.
Pandolfo, Nick. “Educational Nation: In Arizona Desert, a Charter School Competes.” The Hechinger Report. Sep. 2012. Web.
“State of Education.” Arizona Charter Schools Association, 2012. Web.
History of the Christianity Contributions to the Western World Essay scholarship essay help
Christianity makes a lot of contributions to the Western world because the history of Westerners is closely associated with the development of Christianity. From this point, many religious aspects which are characteristic for Christianity are reflected in the social and political orders of the Western states, in morality and philosophy of the Western people.
It is possible to state that two important contributions made by Christianity to the development of the Western civilization are the accentuation of the significant role of family within the society and the contribution to the Westerners’ morality, philosophy, and theology with references to the Ten Commandments.
Today, a lot of people are inclined to reject the significance of family as a social institution within the contemporary society. However, it is important to pay attention to the fact that family remains to be the basic social institution discussed as a fundamental one in many sociological theories (DeMar 38-40).
The focus on the importance of family and the sacrament of marriage can be considered as one of the main contributions provided by Christianity to the Western world. The sacrament of marriage and the role of family as the form of interactions between a man and a woman within the society are stated in the Bible. People can reject the significance of marriage for them, but they continue to marry in front of God in churches and discuss their families as a sense of their life.
There are many aspects associated with the role and functions of spouses in marriage which are regulated from the perspective of Christianity (Morris). That is why, Christianity with its accentuation of the family’s role is influential for the development of the society with references to its basic institutions.
The development of ethics and philosophy within the Western society is also based on the contributions of Christianity to these fields. The effective contribution to regulate the Westerners’ ethics and behaviors is the Ten Commandments (Nigosian).
Christians are inclined to follow the principles described in the Ten Commandments and other ethical doctrines without asking for their justification. The Ten Commandments involve the issues connected with the people’s ethics and rights necessary to cooperate within the society. That is why, the basics of the social interaction can depend on the Ten Commandments directly or indirectly (Morris).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From this point, it is important to focus on the fact that non-Christians also follow the social ethical rules and norms correlated with the Ten Commandments while interacting within the Western society. Thus, the contribution of Christianity to the development of the Westerners’ ethics and morality is obvious because the theological questions connected with the Ten Commandments are not only actively discussed within the society but also consciously followed.
The progress of the Western culture and Western society is closely associated with Christianity. That is why, the Christian contributions influence almost all the spheres of the social life. The most obvious contributions are to the development of the Westerners’ beliefs, moral principles, rules, and moral norms with references to their ethics and philosophy.
Thus, the Christian Ten Commandments regulate the everyday life of many Westerners according to their morality and rights. Moreover, such Christian tradition as marriage is not only a religious practice but also a significant social act which affects the progress of the society in any Western country.
Works Cited DeMar, Gary. America’s Christian Heritage. Nashville, TN: Broadman
Entrepreneur Management in Canada Reflective Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction In the past, there has been no extensive study of entrepreneurs, and thus a general shortage of knowledge concerning what propelled entrepreneurs to success. Nevertheless, the recent concern in reviving an otherwise dormant field has changed the norms and the majority of business universities across the world currently offer entrepreneurship courses (Elyasi, Ghafourian,
The Rocks of Grand Canyon Essay custom essay help
Abstract The Grand Canyon is the second largest canyon in the world. The region has attracted a lot of tourists from various parts of the world for different reasons. Tourists come to this region for many reasons. Some of the tourists are scholars, while others are just holiday makers.
The rocks of Grand Canyon were formed in a number of ways. The sedimentary rocks found in this place have been inexistence for a period of over 2 billion years. Various climatic conditions and environmental factors have reshaped the rocks in this place. Currently, the rocks exist in different layers, with each layer being unique.
Introduction The Grand Canyon is one of the most visited places in the world due to its wonderful nature. According to Karl, the Grand Canyon is one of the largest tourist’s attractions in the world, drawing attention of both leisure and academic tourists. This scholar observes that this place is one of the most amazing sceneries around the globe.
The rocks, the trees, and the animals found in the Grand Canyon National Park, and the general nature of this place has seen it make visitors come to the region several times. Thayer says that nature at times comes with many wonders. This scholar says that the nature at the Grand Canyon is breathtaking because there are a number of objects which are obviously defying nature.
The nature of this place demonstrates a number of facts about the development of Grand Canyon. There are a number of natural sceneries in North America with some of the amazing features. However, the Grand Canyon presents something special to visitors who either come for leisure or for academic purposes. The caves in this place formed due to a number of natural activities, come in different shapes and sizes. The caves clearly demonstrate the strength of the rocks around it.
The rocks of the Grand Canyon are some of the most beautiful sceneries at this place. Kaiser says that the rocks of the Grand Canyon have attracted the attention of various scholars from different professions. The sedimentary rocks are arranged in beautiful layers of over 40 that are visible when one visits the Grand Canyon National Park. According to Abbott, there are about fourteen unconformities in geologic records which are in Grand Canyon.
These are features that are obviously going against the law of nature. Understanding these rocks will require an understanding of the historical perspective of the development that took place, and which resulted into the sceneries at Grand Canyon. This research is focused understanding the physical and historic geological facts about the Grand Canyon.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Formation of the Rocks of Grand Canyon The history of the geology of the Grand Canyon can be traced back to about 2 billion years ago. According to Augustin, a number of scholars have tried coming up with explanations as to how the rocks at Grand Canyon were formed.
Various geologists have studied the fossils found in this place in order to explain the facts about the formation of this place. This scholar says that some of the records about the formation of this place are contradictory. However, recent geologists have come into agreement in some of the facts. The fact that the rocks at Grand Canyon have been in existence for the last 2000 million years is undisputed.
Karl says that during those Precambrian times, substances such as sand, ashes, silt and mud were on the shallow end of marine basin adjacent to the organic belt. In about 1800 to 1600 million years ago, a number of Island arcs came into a collision with proto-North American continents. The plate tectonic processes then condensed and grafted some marine sediment in the basin. The sediments were pushed out of the sea onto mainland. As time went by, these rocks were buried deep under the surface, about 12 miles deep.
This resulted in a massive pressure on these rocks from the weight above them. The result was the formation of metamorphic rock. The resultant is what was named as Granite Gorge Metamorphic Suite which has attracted the attention of archeologists and geologists alike. This granite consists of Metasedimentary Vishnu, and Metavolcanic Brahma which were formed about 1700 million years ago.
During the collision of mainland and volcanic islands, several magma blobs arose from subduction zone, and then intruded into Granite Gorge Metamorphic Suite. The plutons iced slowly, which then formed Zoroaster Granite. Some part of the granite would later form metamorphosed gneiss. This is visible currently when one is studying these rocks as bands with a light color. According to Thayer, this intrusion took place in three phases. In the early Vishnu age, there were 2 phases of this intrusion.
The third intrusion came much later in about 1400 million years ago. This phase experience a massive faulting, specifically along the south-north faults. This led to a partial rift of the continent. The collision would then lead to the extension of this continent, from Wyoming-Colorado borders to Mexico, nearly doubling-up the depth of the crust in the entire region of Grand Canyon. This was how the ancestral Mazatzal Mountains which is about 10 kilometers high was formed.
Then subsequent erosion came, which lasted about 300 million of years. This erosion swept away sediments of the mountain. The consistent erosion of the mountains over a span of several years resulted in reduction of the height of the mountains, and after a while, the high mountains were turned into small hills which are barely ten meters high.
We will write a custom Essay on The Rocks of Grand Canyon specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Kaiser, two main factors have contributed to the formation of rocks within this country. About two million years ago, the climate in this region played a major role in the formation of rocks of the Grand Canyon. The region was very wet all through the year. This scholar describes this as the ice age which was about 2 million years ago. During this time, excavation at the Grand Canyon was very high, which dug it deep as it stands now. The figure below shows some of the excavated site at the Grand Canyon.
This figure shows the activities of nature that has resulted in a massive excavation of the sedimentary rocks formed about 1800 millions years earlier. The wet weather meant that there was a constant flow of water during most part of the year. The figure above shows a ridge formed due to constant flow o water. The figure clearly demonstrates the power of water in motion in the development of some rocks. The movement of water started off by washing away the top, soil which could easily be swept away.
As the top soil was washed away, the sedimentary rock that had been formed due to the cooked-pressure remained exposed to the flowing water. This movement of water on the rock slowly excavated the rock over hundreds of millions of years. The first step would be to soften the rock. When the rock was made soft, it became easier for some of its particles to break off, and with time, the erosion became deeper and bigger. As Karl explains, the flowing water would form a path.
The figure above shows a path of water that can be clearly be stated as the main agent of the erosion of the sediments. Other parts where the water has not formed its path have remained higher. As the rock particles fall into the moving water, they are always swept off into downer parts of the stream. As they move in this water, they come under constant collision leading to their further breakage.
They decrease in size, and lose their original shapes. The vegetation is another natural factor that has had impact in the formation of the rocks. The sedimentary rocks can be strong enough to withstand the flow o water for a very long period of time. However, when there are vegetations on the rock, some of the roots would crack the rocks as they penetrate into the soil.
When the rock is crack, it becomes easy for water to penetrate into the rock and cause further erosion of the sediments. Earth quake forms another agent of the breakage of the rock in this region. The region is still prone to massive earthquakes which create cracks on the rocks. Mass wasting erosions still affect the regions, leading to further breakage of the sedimentary rocks.
Human activities have affected the rocks of the Great Canyon in two main ways. At first, activities of human accelerated the excavation of the sedimentary rocks. During those early years, farming was not practiced. However, hunting and gathering wild fruits were common. This could also involve digging deep into the soil to get some of the roots that were either considered as medicine, or fruits.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Rocks of Grand Canyon by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This digging was part of excavation, and when water swept such surfaces, erosion would be inevitable. As men became more sophisticated, farming became important. Farming also had an increasing effect on the excavation of the rocks. It was easier for the soil on the farms to be swept off. By the end of Pleistocene ice age nearing the onset of the Holocene, the climatic condition of this area began to change.
This was majorly due to human activities. The climate of this area was changing from a cool and wet pluvial climate, to a semi-arid climate. The area is currently a semi-arid. With the conditions getting drier, water erosion on the rocks became less. However, mass wasting was on the rise. Several cliffs became stiffer, making the Grand Canyon and tributary canyons wider. Mass wasting was reducing rocks in this canyon, as the debris fell off and was swept into Colorado River in a gradual and consistent process.
As modernization came to effect, people realized the importance of preserving these sites. Upon the realization that the sites were important, people came up with strategies that would help preserve these places. Building of dams have significantly minimized capability of Colorado River (which was one of the leading excavators of the canyons) to dig out the rocks Grand Cantons.
It has totally changed the pattern of movement of sediments, and their deposition. Glen Canyon Dam was constructed to control floods in order to bring a restorative effect on the Canyons. Animals, both domesticated and wild animals also play a vital role in the developments of the rocks at Grand Canyon.
Every animal, both carnivores and herbivores play an important role in the development of rocks. When these animals walk within the Grand Canyon National Park, they break particles of the rock. This is especially so to the large herbivores with hooves which have the ability to break rocks into smaller particles. These herbivores also eat the vegetations that cover the soil. This leaves the soil bear, and when rain comes, it easily erodes the rocks.
The Composition of the Rocks of Grand Canyon According to Abbott, understanding the composition of the rocks of the Grand Canyon may be interesting process. This geologist and a scholar say that the rocks of Grand Canyon have been in existence for a period of over 70 million of years. The plate tectonics on the North American continents and other adjacent island caused collision, and this was the genesis of how the rocks in this place started forming, as explained above.
As time went by, several activities, mostly natural process accompanied by some human activities, resulted in a massive erosion of the rocks, and the result is what we have today; different layers of rocks on top of one another forming the current Grand Canyon. The figure below shows the composition of the rocks of the Grand Canyon.
The figure above shows rocks arranged in a strata, with each stratum having a particular layer of rocks having different years. The layers are as follows.
This is the top most layers in the strata. According to reports given by Thayer (29), this layer is over 250 million of years old. The Kaibab Limestone has formed the surface of Coconino and Kaibab plateaus. In this stratum, the composition of the rocks is mainly sandy limestone, with a huge layer of sandstone under it.
Shale and sandstone subsist as upper layers in a number of places, particularly the upper regions of the cliffs (Abbott 94). The color of this layer is ranging from grayish-white to cream, depending on a number of factors. Abbott (26) notes that the layer has a strong resemble with a bathtub ring, and so the layer was named Canyon bathtub ring.
This scholar says that geologists have stated that this ring was curved in a way that may give the impression that the process was influenced by activities of human being. Besides the rocks stated above, some fossils also form composition of this layer. This includes the sea lilies, the corals, mollusks, and some brachiopods (Abbott 22). Fish teeth and worms also form part of this layer.
This is the second stratum. This stratum is about 255 million of years old. This layer was formed through a pretty similar process as that of Kaibab Limestone above, but as time went by, it was pushed down due to the formation of the Kaibab Limestone. The composition of the rocks in this layer is similar to that in the Kaibab Limestone. Their fossil history is almost the same, only that the worms and fish teeth found in Kaibab Limestone are very minimal in Toroweap Formations. This layer is dark in color. The color ranges from grey to yellow.
The formation of this layer was in about 260 million of years ago. The rock composition in this layer is different from that of the above two layers. In this layer, the main composition of the rocks is pure quartz sand. According to Kaiser (59), these are essentially petrified sand dunes. This scholar also states that this stratum has a wedge shape cross bending, which is visible in places where the traverse section of the layer can be seen. In this layer, the color ranges from cream to white colors (Abbott 83).
Although archeologists and geologists have tried to study the rocks in this layer, skeletal fossils are yet to be found here. This may be an indication that this layer could not have supported life. However, the geologists and archeologists are still studying this layer for further investigation because a number of invertebrate tracks, and some fossilized burrows have been discovered.
This layer has been in existence for about 265 million of years. In this layer are the soft and easily eroded shale rocks (Karl 45). They have formed a slope. The weakness of this layer has been the main agent of mass wasting of these rocks. Because of this weakness, the rocks in this layer easily break off, undermining the sedimentary rocks in the above layer.
This makes it easy for this layer, and layers on top of it to fall off into the drainage in the lower canyons down into Tonto Platform. In this layer, the color is rust-colored red. The fossils in this layer include conifers, ferns, and other plants. Also discovered were fossilized tracks of amphibians and reptiles.
This layer has been in existence for about 285 million of years. The layer mainly consists of shale which is mixed up with limestone capped together by sandstone (Thayer 48). In the western part of the Canyon, limestone features are more prominent (Augustin 29). Geologists have associated this by the possibility that this side could have been a marine as opposed to the eastern part. In this layer, the color ranges from tan for sandstone caps, to red for shale (Abbott 46).
On the eastern section, there are a number of fossils of the reptiles, the amphibians and some terrestrial plants, whilst on western part are the marine fossils (Thayer 19).
This layer has been in existence for about 335 million of years (Karl 87). The main composition of this layer includes dolomites and marine limestone. According to Augustin (65), the Redwall limestone is the most prominent of the Canyon layers forming a cliff of about 400-500 feet high.
This layer is a barrier between upper canyon and the lower parts of Canyon. Though various earth movements, this layer cracked in some regions, breaking the barrier between the upper and lower parts of the canyon. The rock is brown in color. However, due to the presence of iron oxide, this layer appears to be red. Some of the fossils in this layer include corals, fish, trilobites and clams (Augustin 34).
Temple Butte Limestone
This layer has been in existence for about 350 million years. In the eastern part is dolomite; while to the west is freshwater limestone. The rocks in this layer are irregular. This may be due to the erosion of the Mauv Limestone. The layers are also very prominent, which then forms a cliff of great heights of several hundreds of feet (Karl 67). The colors of the layers range from grayish cream to the west, to purple on the east.
The rocks in this layer have been in existence for over 515 million of years. These layers differ in color and composition. Vishnu Schist forms the base of the Grand Canyon
Conclusion The Rock of Grand Canyon is one of the geographical wonders around the world. The rocks have attracted a number of geologists who have developed interest in understanding how the formation of the rocks was. The formation of the rocks was heavily influenced by a number of climatic conditions. The initial rocks of this place were ingenious rock. This changed after a long period of natural activities. The rocks of The Grand Canyon are mainly sedimentary, having been formed due to weathering process of the initial rocks.
References Augustin B. The Grand Canyon. New York, Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2010.
Kaiser J. Grand Canyon: the Complete Guide. Ringgold: Destination Press, 2011.
Karl K. Grand Canyon Geology: Two Billion Years of Earth’s History. Boulder: Geological Society of America, 2012.
Stanley S. Earth System History Third Edition. New York: Clancy Marshall, 2009.
Thayer D. An Introduction to Grand Canyon Fossils. New York: Grand Canyon Association, 2009. Print.
Footnotes Augustin B. The Grand Canyon. New York, Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2010.
Karl K. Grand Canyon Geology: Two Billion Years of Earth’s History. Boulder: Geological Society of America, 2012.
Thayer D. An Introduction to Grand Canyon Fossils. New York: Grand Canyon Association, 2009. Print.
Kaiser J. Grand Canyon: the Complete Guide. Ringgold: Destination Press, 2011.
Stanley S. Earth System History Third Edition. New York: Clancy Marshall, 2009.
Camera phone debate Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction Advancement in technology has brought about revolution in telecommunication industry. This has led to increased use of camera phones and digital cameras in the United States. Estimates show that nearly half of American families have cameras. Moreover, they also show that nearly 40% of the families have camera phones.
This shows that people have embraced technology. However, it is worrisome that some people risk their lives to use these gadgets. For instance, a graduate student (Jamal Albarghouti) took footage of the Virginia student massacre on a camera phone. Similarly, another 19 years old college student (Ho) took footage of plane crash on a digital camera. These cases provide examples of citizens who risk their lives to take video footages (Rottenberg and Winchell 262-265).
Summary of the two articles Praise for Student’s footage of Virginia tech Mass killing
The article by Lily Yulianti narrates about a chilling event at Virginia Tech. Yulianti reports how a Palestinian graduate student (Jamal Albarghouti) took footage of mass killings at the college using a phone camera. Albarghouti took a detailed footage of the event. Yulianti mentions in the article that Larry King, a news reporter with CNN, was amazed at Albarghouti’s achievement.
The article goes through the event as taken in the footage. It mentions mass shootings, which was experienced at the College. In addition, the article covers Albarghouti’s interview with Larry king. Yulianti’s main concern in the article is about Albarghouti’s safety (Rottenberg and Winchell 262-265). She could not understand why Albarghouti stopped and take footage of events in such a commotion. Moreover, he was not a professional journalist.
The article describes how Albarghouti gave an account of the event to King. Yulianti describes Albarghouti’s account on the event as clear and firm. However, she also notes that Albarghouti was used to such hostilities back in Gaza. Later on, the author introduces the citizen journalism debate, which has received criticism from traditional media. She therefore wonders why exclusive reports from citizen journalists are met with suspicion by the mainstream media (Rottenberg and Winchell 262-265).
Disaster Photos: Newsworthy or Irresponsible
The second article is about a debate on whether photos taken by survivors are newsworthy or irresponsible. The article begins by recounting how plane crashes have prompted concerns by safety investigators.
In addition, it gives a detailed description of London bombings as well as witness photos from survivors. The article wonders why victims put the lives at risk to take pictures during tragic events like plane crash. It goes on to give a story of Ho, a student who took pictures of a plane crash disaster, in which he was a crew (Rottenberg and Winchell 262-265).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This was quite worrying given that he could have easily delayed rescue missions as well as his safety. The article talks of photos from Eddie Ho, which were, broadcasted in ABC’s good morning America. Moreover, this information was also broadcasted in CNN and NBC. The article therefore tries to debate whether taking photos at such crucial moments is newsworthy or irresponsible. It utilizes several scholars such as Helen Muir and Kelly McBride to analyze the debate (Rottenberg and Winchell 262-265).
For instance, one scholar cautions media from taking footage/ pictures from citizens without prior information on how the sources got such information. However, other proponents like Sherwood welcomes contributions from citizen journalists like Ho. In the end, the article reaches a consensus on the issue by noting that over time, it is upon survivors to decide when to take pictures or not (Rottenberg and Winchell 262-265).
Analysis The first article gives an overview of events before criticizing journalists at the end. It gives an overview of citizen journalism and an overview of how it is clear and firm. It does not give detailed information on professional journalism although it criticizes mainstream media, which consist of professional journalists, of being suspicious of citizen journalism. The author therefore uses appeal to describe one side and to refute the other (Whately 11).
In this regard, the model utilized in the first article is Aristotelian, which promotes one claim but refutes the other. On the other hand, the second article gives a detailed description of both sides of the debate. For instance, it gives example of proponents of survivor photos with their reasons and those against survivor photos. In the end, it reaches consensus on situations when survivors can take photos. This article shows a rogerian argumentation, which normally reaches consensus after exploring both options (Whately 11).
Conclusion From the two articles, it is clear that the latter provides more information for decision making than the first. For instance, it does not only make claims on the need for survivors to stop taking picture in distress, but it also provides evidences from proponents.
These include Helen Muir and Kelly McBride, among others. On the other hand, it provides information from opponents like Sherwood, among others. Finally, it reaches a solution with evidence from Mark Glaser. The second article is therefore more convincing than the first (Munson and Black 55).
Works Cited Munson, Ronald, and Black Andrew. The Elements of Reasoning, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 2011.
We will write a custom Essay on Camera phone debate specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rottenberg, Annette, and Winchell Donna. Elements of Argument, London: Bedford, 2012.
Whately, Richard. Elements of Logic, New York, NY: Sheldon
Health Care for Human Beings Essay online essay help: online essay help
Good health is very important for human beings. This is because any health complication denies people a chance to live comfortably and perform crucial duties in their lives. Most of their resources are spent on expensive medical services. Access to affordable health care has always remained a big challenge to many people.
One of the most important factors that prevent most of them from accessing health services is poverty. This implies that it is important for governments to take the responsibility of providing health services to the poor through medical insurances.
Providing medical insurance for the poor is an effective method that can be used to ensure that individuals who do not have adequate financial resources gain access to quality health services. There are numerous advantages that are associated with provision of medical insurance for the poor.
For instance, it enables them to find regular doctors and visit them more frequently. Most people find it difficult to have regular doctors because of limited financial resources. This is usually detrimental to their health since it is easy for them to develop health problems unknowingly. In addition, medical insurance for the poor enables people to visit doctors regularly. Regular visits to doctors are very beneficial because they make it possible for early diagnosis of diseases that are deadly if not treated early.
The other benefit of providing medical insurance for the poor is that it enhances their financial stability. This enables them to feel better and also reduces depression. The financial stability is achieved when money that is supposed to be spent seeking medical attention is utilized on other needs. Poor health among the poor causes them to undergo depression. This is justified by the fact that in addition to physically struggling with their health conditions, they constantly think about how to access medical facilities and cater for other needs.
Another important concern with regard to provision of medical insurance for the poor is prevention of diseases. This is an important strategy that can be used to eliminate diseases in the society. People are able to use their money in catering for other needs other than looking for medical attention. Preventive care is particularly very important for women from poor backgrounds. Medical insurance enables them to access preventive services such as mammograms, cervical cancer screening and other services that enhance their health.
Women are regarded as high consumers of health care services hence the services should be made affordable. In addition, they are highly exposed to chronic diseases such as diabetes, stroke and heart diseases. This issue becomes complicated where most of the women do not have the ability to pay for health services. Their problems can only be solved by ensuring that they are provided with medical insurance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although some scholars have pointed out the disadvantages of providing medical insurance for the poor, there are many benefits associated with the plan. It relieves them of the stressful moments that are associated with sicknesses. For instance, when people are sick, they experience psychological, physical and financial instability.
However, when they are provided with medical insurance, they do not have to worry about these issues on a daily basis. This gives them the ability to meet other important needs in their lives. As a result, they are able to live more settled and comfortable lives. The poor should therefore be provided with medical insurance because it is very useful.
Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Essay essay help online free
Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is an agency of the US federal government that governs Medicare. In addition, CMS collaborates with state governments in governing Medicaid, State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).
The HITECH Act tasks CMS with the responsibility of advancing the implementation of IT in the healthcare industry. In addition, the act gives CMS the responsibility of implementing the electronic health record (EHR) and formulation of standards for certification of EHR technology. Implementation of IT in healthcare is one of the major activities of CMS. Therefore, CMS collaborates with the Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT (ONC) to improve the efficiency and relevance of its activities.
Tens of thousands of patients die annually due to preventable medical errors in various American hospitals. According to a report by the Institute of Medicine, avoidable medical errors lead to the death of between 44,000 and 98,000 patients annually (Kohn, Corrigan,
Apple Company’s Competition Case Study online essay help: online essay help
As at the end of 2009, what was the major strategic challenge facing Apple’s senior management? Apple is a global brand and a market leader. However, it is now battling to keep up due to strategic crisis resultant from a range of internal and external factors core to its design and related business strategy specifications. Although computer sales soured considerably for Apple prior to 2008, the company’s management faced numerous challenges in deciding on its various product categories and had to take precautionary measures to avoid the following notable issues that stood out in its previous years of operation (Apple Inc. 4).
Emphasis on the use of proprietary designs as opposed to mutually exclusive designs that can be cloned by other manufacturers.
Placing excessive focus on style and design at the expense of the real performance of its products.
The above were the company’s key business strategic specifications.
Apple’s generic strategy and a brief description Overview
Apple Inc. has gone out of its way to bring about strategic value in the manufacture of computers and other related products in its industry of operation. The company has managed to stand out from its competitors with its emphasis on design, quality, elegance, outstanding customer service while at the same time outsourcing actual production to trusted electronics manufacturers. Even so, Apple has encountered various challenges ranging from stiff competition to the commoditizing of the notebook market (Apple Inc. 8).
Since its inception, Apple has been pursuing a wide differentiation strategy by producing exceptionally high quality designs with customized service. The company’s strategy is broad, placing emphasis on unsophisticated product users to special needs high end users.
The competitive intensity in the industry segments in which Apple competes
The advent of personal computers and notebook usage have resulted in intensive competition characterized by dozens of manufacturers selling in the already saturated computer market globally. Consequently, the penetration of computer in the day-to-day life of individual customers and businesses has led to the gadget becoming a necessity and more of a commodity product. Most users place more emphasis on business economy as opposed to sophisticated features.
Consequently, this has led to the upsurge of low end products from such competitors as Dell, Lenovo and HP. Further, the similarity of product features resulting from standardized industry settings has set the stakes high hence necessitating Apple to rethink its strategy (Apple Inc. 15).
The specific strength or weakness, opportunity or threat that explain the challenge, e.g. a strength that is threatened, an external threat that is looming, etc.
The most apparent threats facing Apple Inc. include relatively prices on the company’s products, incompatibility with other company products and increased competition from such companies as Dell and HP. In addition, there seems to be increased music downloads with increased competition.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The above can be perceived to be the main external threats facing Apple Inc. All in all, Apple has designed a strategy to stay aloof of the competition by coming up with high end products while still producing products for low end users. This factor has played a huge role in preventing market share erosion. Case in point is the production of the high end iPhone 4S while still maintaining the production of the free on contract iPhone 3gs.
In addition, Apple Inc. has proven that it does not need to be the market leader. This is because the company has managed to maintain a growing customer base with the production of subsequent devices. Consequently, the firm’s revenues have continually superseded those of competitors. With continued innovations in such areas as cloud computing among other areas, Apple Inc. is bound to stand out from the existing and future competitive forces (Apple Inc. 16).
Works Cited Apple Inc.: The Steve Jobs Effect. Apple Case Study, 1-16. Web.
Strategic Management in Apple Case Study essay help site:edu
Since its inception, apple has witnessed one success after the other. It invested in high quality products which made it a market leader from the very earlier days of its incorporation. Borrowing from the famous saying that successful companies do not compete in a sector but rather strive to shape the nature of the sector, Apple endeavors to technologically improve its products.
The firm heavily invests in research and development to ensure that it keeps up with the ever changing customer needs. Unfortunately, despite the successes, the competitive nature of the technology industry poses some strategic challenges to Apple firm.
The main strategy of apple has been to come up with state-of-the-art technology that would satisfy customer needs. Products like iTunes and iPods that apple introduced to the market in 2006, has enabled the firm to command a substantial percentage of customers.
Moreover, in the year 2007 Apple introduced an I-Phone which not only helped the firm in increasing its market share, but also led to rise in prices of the firm’s stocks. With substantial efforts directed towards innovation, Apple has been able to be a technological leader in the industry.
However, the firm operates in a first-cycle market where there has been a paradigm shift in technology. The competition especially in personal computers is very stiff and each firm in the industry is trying to outsmart the others. Apple can be able to comfortably offer it products at high prices to the crateful design community.
However, the reverse is true for personal computers to individuals unless someone is looking for sophisticated features. On the same note, other firms are offering their products at lower prices than Apple. It is important to note that in the technology industry, it is impossible for a firm to maintain its competitive advantage for long.
Despite the advances that Apple has been able to make, there are new threats in the industry. Switching costs in the technology industry has drastically reduced thus increasing the rivalry from other firms for example, Dell, HP and IBM. On the same note, switching costs for customers are low thus placing the customers at a very strong negotiation position.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This requires strategies that can increase the switching costs. Moreover, the shrinking United States market calls on the firm to venture into other markets. Unfortunately, in a market where regulation is not that that efficient imitation can not be avoided and Apple needs to enhance its strategic decisions.
Apple has various weaknesses which include its heavy investment in research thus increasing its operating costs. Additionally, the firm highly depends on Motorola and IBM for the processor chips which put it in a precarious position incase the firms make unfavorable decisions.
However, Apple has various strengths vital for its future endeavors. Firstly, its closed operating system is secure and not susceptible to computer viruses and hacking. Secondly, it designs complete products which not only come with applications but also peripheries. Additionally, the firm has been praised for its high horizontal and vertical integration. Similarly, the firm is design and innovation oriented which is a crucial feature in the technology industry.
Despite the strategic challenges facing Apple, the firm has many opportunities to solidify its market control. One of the opportunities is to take advantage of Mac OS which has gained the reputation of being safe, reliable and secure among the customers.
Similarly, Apple can capitalize on exposing the weaknesses of its closest competitor, Microsoft, and thus sell its brand as a superior one. Moreover, the firm will have to increase its overseas outlets to ensure that it increases its sales. However, it is important to note that strategic decisions will need to be made faster and effectively to avoid imitation and to counter its competitors.
Sherlock Holmes Films Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Brett Jeremy and the Holmes Audience
Betrayal of Holmes
Introduction Although we may not typically consider a trailer released months before the film’s debut or a quote from an interview as a part of an actual movie, these do serve significantly to shape how we approach our viewing of the film for the first time as well as how we reflect upon it while viewing, after viewing, or upon revisiting it.
To many diehards of Sherlock Holmes, Benedict Cumberbatch appears to be the definitive figure in this contemporary work. Playing Arthur Conan Doyle, Jeremy Brett complicates the detective in the adventures of Sherlock Holmes up to 1994. On the other hand, most viewers observe that Benedict has honored the great man who defined Holmes for the current generation.
Although Genette discusses the paratext in reference to literary works in particular, the concept can easily be applied to the filmic text. Cumber batch provides a writer’s eloquence in relaying Brett’s impression.
A literary paratext might include a book’s cover, title page, preface, or even reviews about a book, whether quoted upon its jacket or encountered by a potential reader in a magazine. In the analysis of this paper, a film paratext could be a movie trailer, DVD cover, title sequence, reviews from the press, or interviews with the writers, directors, and cast.
Brett Jeremy and the Holmes Audience Sherlock’s creators, Steven Moffat and Mark Gatiss, anticipated an international audience of newcomers as well as a homegrown Holmes fan base. This is amid Brett’s public battle with a bipolar disorder that almost ended his career in acting.
The first episode’s title is a variation of A Study in Scarlet, Conan Doyle’s 1887 novel that introduced Sherlock Holmes to readers; it is an appropriate choice for the episode that introduces 21st century Sherlock to television audiences in Britain. Brett’s death in 1995, after a heart failure, was a major blow to other members of the cast.
The murdered “pink” lady reflects not only a color and story connection with the original text but twists the tale into a modern commentary about eye-catching colors for women working in the media and the victim’s need to be perfectly groomed and color coordinated in order to be acceptable for her job and her lovers (Aumont 38).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even her accessories, such as a mobile phone, are in, as Sherlock refers to them as being of an alarming shade of pink. In every version of this episode, whether broadcast in the U.K. or internationally, in edited or full format, the story begins not with Sherlock but with Jeremy Brett, who becomes the character with whom the audience is expected to identify and thus is an appropriate entry character to get viewers involved with the story.
Brett’s flashback to an Afghani war zone, also appropriate to the original Watson’s war record (another plus for traditional Holmes fans), makes him a sympathetic modern character who might be a returned veteran like someone viewers know in real life.
The news-style flashback modernizes Watson’s pre-Sherlock experiences, as does his visit with his therapist and comments about writing a blog.
His final line before the opening credits, “Nothing ever happens to me,” may be appropriate for the couch potatoes watching this episode; vicariously, their lives, too, are about to change as they enter the world of Sherlock’s adventures (Aumont 29). The opening theme immediately follows this line, overlaying the rush of London traffic and pulling Benedict Cumberbatch, and the viewers, into the story.
They, walking alongside Watson, become pulled into Sherlock’s world, learning a lot about the detective’s “science of deduction” as well as his personal history within the scope of the first episode. This Victorian setting in England brings forth Downey Robert Jr. as Holmes opens up to the 21st Century tales of sensibility (Aumont 34). Beyond the television series, new viewers can also “play Watson” by visiting Sherlock’s website, The Science of Deduction, which appears the same as on television.
Betrayal of Holmes Appropriating Ritchie’s initial vision for the films, Downey has on multiple occasions promoted the adaptations as potentially homoerotic. During the first film’s production, his suggestion to the press that Holmes and Watson would wrestle and share a bed attracted critics’ and audiences’ attention.
On the other hand, Brett’s appearance in the 41 episodes of Holmes from 1984 to 1994 allows the audience to comment on his betrayal of Holmes. They observed that He would have continued with such line of action had he not died at the young age of 61 (Aumont 42).
We will write a custom Essay on Sherlock Holmes Films specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although Ritchie has never declared Holmes as gay-rather, he has elaborated “while these guys are sort of in love with each other,” they are “a hetero-sexual couple that at moments could seem gay” (Aumont 46). Downey’s inferences have dominated, serving as the defining paratext for the films.
Genette’s theory of paratextuality posits seemingly external materials as an inextricable part of a text, with the prefixpara- at Once denoting that which is “separate from or going beyond” while also serving as “analogous or parallel to,” according to the OED (Aumont 48).
Works Cited Aumont James. L’Analyse des films/Analysis of Film. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1988. Print.
International supply chain Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction According to Chrismopher, to understand an international supply chain we have to define a simple supply chain. The components of a supply chain involve the parties that respond to a request made by a customer. Here, a supply chain does not only constitute the manufactures and the suppliers. It also constitutes retailers, transporters, customers, and warehouses (14).
According to Logan in the past two decades, the supply chain networks have developed and extended in scope and application. This has resulted to more interrelated as well as complex networks. The reason underlying such development is associated with globalization of the world’s economies. It is the emergence of competitors across supply chains that compete in the international arena for market place dominance.
This competition has resulted to establishment of international supply chains (59). According to Chrismopher, organizations have to establish an international supply chain because of the global business environment that expands on a daily basis. Here, organizations have to respond to consumer expectations that are beyond the confines of their traditional expertise (20).
According to World Economic Forum, in the past 20 years global sourcing as well as supply has become a reality. According to Logan, the local for local manufacturing patterns have been done away with. In turn, the closing of the local patterns pave way to establishment of a global village (15).
An example is the migration to China that has become the favorable destination. China has become a force in international trade. During 1990, its trade activities increased three times faster as compared to the global economy. Between the year 2000 and 2002, when the world was suffering a stagnated trade it was enjoying a 30% rise in imports and exports (Mentzer 34).
The market today has fierce global competition that entails an excess of supply over the demand. According to Mentzer, businesses undergo such risks because of quantitative anomalies and qualitative effects. The qualitative irregularity comes about because of principal components and biasness in the selection.
On the other hand, qualitative effects come about because of the pressures associated with productivity enhancement, duplication removal, minimization of costs and elimination of waste. Businesses address the risks by balancing these priorities. Employing real time data, risk mitigation strategies, as well as use of analytical tools are some of the strategies a business can use when balancing these priorities (9).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Risks in the international supply chain
Risks in the supply chain are the products of consequence and incidence. Globalization has resulted to a business environment that is complex and interrelated. In turn, the complexity of the supply and demand networks has intensified (Mentzer 10). In reviewing the risks that come with global supply chains, we will review real events around the world that brought about challenges in the global supply chains that brought about risks in the sector.
Political instability in North Africa specifically Egypt and the Middle East resulted to short-term hiccups in the supply of oil and natural gases. In Egypt, there was political instability in early 2011 whereby the president Hosni Mubarak stepped down because of military pressure. Demonstrations and protests filled the country advocating for better living conditions and transparency in governance. The region has 61.1% of the total oil reservoirs and 45% of the natural gas reservoirs in the world.
In addition, it dictates 35.3% and 18.8% of the world’s oil and natural gas production and supply (D
Snowstorm Causes Accidents In North Dakota Essay essay help online
A sudden snowstorm surprised the North Dakota area on Monday morning, causing many accidents around the area. One of the accidents had happened at around 9:40 a.m. at Interstate 94. “Two cars and a truck wrecked at about 9:30 a.m. and left motorists stuck on the highway for 70 minutes,” Lieutenant Bob Boone, the Fargo Fire Department spokesman reported.
This was evident with the many cars packed up half a mile on both sides of the scene. At the scene were two fire engines, a water-tanker truck, a rescue squad, a paramedics unit, a tow truck, and state and county troopers. Boone confirmed that the truck driver got minor injuries but was rushed to MeritCare medical Center.
John Washburn, an undergraduate in a local university, was lucky to remain uninjured after driving into a mailbox. He reported that he had just pulled off his snow tires the previous week. “The ground froze fast last night when it was near zero. The concrete was so cold this morning that instead of melting, the snow turned to ice,” said Dotty, who witnessed the accident.
A 68-year-old woman died on impact when her vehicle slammed into a mailbox. There were no witnesses to the accident. On a separate incident, students taking driving lessons collided but remained unharmed. However, the driving instructors suffered broken bones.
The National Weather Service at Fargo’s Hector International Airport reported about the source of the snowstorm. The forecasters had only expected mere flurries. Boone reported that the accidents occurred since the drivers had removed their snow tires. In total, sixty vehicle accidents occurred between 9 a.m. and 11 a.m.
Competitive Advantage in Companies Case Study a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Companies strive to gain a competitive advantage over their competitors. Environmental conditions are some of the major factors that determine the competitiveness of an organization.
Analysis of the internal strengths and weaknesses of a firm helps in determining the competitiveness of the firm. For an organization to gain a competitive advantage, it should have the ability to add value to various products and counter threats by its competitors. In addition, the resources and capabilities of the organization should be rare and inimitable.
The organizational structure is also a critical success factor of an organization. An efficient organizational structure helps in coordinating various capabilities and resources of the organization. This increases the competitiveness of the organization (Barney, 1995). The sole aim of the existence of any organization is the production of goods and services that fulfill the needs of their customers. Therefore, it is vital for an organization to have an efficient production system.
Lean production is an efficient production system that helps in improving the competitiveness of an organization. Lean production leads to a significant reduction in the cost of production. Lean production strives to minimize the amount of inventory. This reduces the costs of managing inventory. Keeping low levels of inventory frees up capital for other income generating activities. This increases the profitability of an organization. In addition, lean production helps in reducing the duration of the production cycle.
However, an organization may face several challenges during the implementation of a lean production system. Lack of a reliable supply chain limits the efficiency of a lean production system. Disruptions in the supply chain may have adverse effects on an organization due to the low levels of inventory in lean production systems. In addition, the organizational culture may limit efficient implementation of a lean production system.
Toyota credits its success to its lean production system – the Toyota production system. In fact, Toyota was the first company that introduced the concept of lean production. The Toyota’s production system leads to production of defect free products. In addition, the system strives to reduce the batch sizes of the production cycle.
This minimizes wastage. Toyota’s lean production system strives to minimize the level of inventory. The company receives various components just before it uses them in production lines for the manufacture of vehicles. Toyota has an efficient supply chain that enables suppliers to access the company’s database and determine the components that the company needs. However, Toyota has spent decades to develop and perfect its production system.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The organizational culture of the company facilitates efficient running of the production system. Toyota’s production system enables it to make efficient use of resources and add value to various products. Toyota’s lean production system is inimitable. The company has spent several decades to perfect the production system. This has enabled Toyota to identify skills, abilities, and resources that are essential for the smooth running of the production system.
The management and employees of Toyota make numerous small decisions that lead to the ultimate efficiency of the production system. The uniqueness of the production system makes imitation by other companies impossible. Companies can only use certain aspects of the Toyota production system to improve the efficiency of their production systems. Therefore, Toyota’s production system is one of the major factors that give the company a competitive edge over other automobile manufacturers.
Reference Barney, J.B. (1995). Looking inside for competitive advantage. Academy of Management Executive, 9(4), 49-61.
Religion and Politics Essay essay help free: essay help free
Religion is closely related to politics in a number of ways. In the traditional society, religious leaders were both temporal and civil leaders. In 1648, a treaty of Westphalia was signed, which separated politics from the Church. However, religion has always influenced policy making process and decision-making in government. In many parts of the world, religious leaders influence political leaders to come up with policies that are in line with the provisions of religious beliefs.
However, the main question is how religion influences politics. In the United States, there is a clause in the Bill of Rights referred to as the disestablishment clause, which provides that politics must be kept separate from politics. In established democracies, somebody with questionable religious record stands no chance of being elected. The populace believes that a religious leader would always be willing to listen to the wishes of the majority (Settimba 9).
A non-religious leader is believed to be indifferent to the sufferings of the majority in society. In other words, a non-religious leader would fulfill his or her own interests instead of serving those who elected him or her. During campaigns at state level in the United States, local leaders quote the Bible whenever they want to bring out a certain fact.
In human life, each group has a belief system that is established with the help of religious values. These beliefs influence the political standpoint of an individual in a political system. The media will always evaluate the life of a politician using certain religious principles.
These principles are derived from religious morals and beliefs. In this case, a candidate in an election is identified as a Christian or a Muslim. The religion of a political leader determines the number of votes he or she would gunner in an election. In the United States, politicians associate themselves with Christianity because a majority of voters are Christians.
In the Arab world, a political leader must associate himself with Islam because it is a dominant religion in the region. Furthermore, the religious sects must be stated clearly before a political leader is elected. In other countries, religion is the major variable in every electioneering year. It is believed that certain religious affiliations are related to cultural beliefs that affect the performance of leaders in any political system. Recently, the issue of religion emerged in the United States when Obama was said to be a Muslim.
Many people were much worried that Obama was a Muslim. Islam has always been associated with extremism meaning that Muslims are accused of using warped means to attain justice. It was feared that Obama could support Muslims once he became president. However, the president dispelled fears by declaring that he was indeed a Christian. This nearly cost him the presidency (Johnstone 64).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is a popular belief among Christians that good leaders are usually sent by God. This is based on the Bible whereby many kings and prophets were sent by God to lead Israelites in the times of war and calamities. Political leaders have always presented themselves as leaders sent by God to accomplish certain missions.
Through this, they have been able to ascend to leadership positions. Whenever political leaders make speeches, they quote the Bible to show the electorate that they understand the Christian principles. The idea that political leaders must come up with policies favoring the poor is based on the teachings of the Bible. The Bible and the Koran teaches that people must always be assisted to achieve their potentials in society.
It is not the interest of the ruling class to help the poor. The main aim of the ruling class is to amass wealth and use the proletariat to ascend to power. Political parties that tend to favor the poor in their manifestos have always clinched political power. Social justice ideology is based on the teachings of the Bible because the poor must have equal access to resources including healthcare, education, and employment.
Religious Fundamentalism Religious fundamentalism was first used in the United States to refer to those individuals who opposed the principles of the mainstream church. Those who subscribed to the ideas of the Protestant Churches were perceived as religious fundamentalists. In other words, fundamentalism was interpreted to mean diverting from the mainstream faith.
However, what should be clear is that fundamentalists had pertinent issues with the mainstream church since the mainstream church never allowed competition. Religious fundamentalists observed that it was critical to follow the teachings of the Bible instead of subscribing to the interpretations provided by the religious leaders. Religious leaders interpreted the teachings in the Bible to suit their interests.
Many people were not happy with this behavior. The mainstream church interpreted the Bible in accordance to the new dynamics of the modern world. However, fundamentalists were never happy about this. They believed that it would be better to stick to the teachings of the Bible. In the modern society, fundamentalism is used loosely to mean diverting from the normal beliefs and principles of major religions (McGuire 76).
Fundamentalism is a relatively new term in the sociology of religion because it was first used in the 19th century. The modern society is complex to understand because of the changes brought about globalization and technology. Therefore, fundamentalism in the modern society has a different meaning. Religion in the modern society serves a different purpose as compared to its role in the traditional society. Religion is an instrument that brings people together.
We will write a custom Essay on Religion and Politics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In this regard, it must be used to bring about understanding and unity. This implies that religious teachings are usually interpreted to simplify the complexities in life. Religious fundamentalists do not believe that anything has changed as far as religion is concerned. In this case, modern interpretations must not be accepted because they go against the traditional teachings of religion (Weber 22).
When other people embrace change in society, religious fundamentalists encourage conservatism. To them, religion is absolute meaning that it dictates everything in society. There is a controversy among scholars regarding the use of the term because fundamentalists are perceived as people who are not intelligent.
Others view them as uneducated individuals who believe religion is everything in society. Religious fundamentalists believe that some things should not be allowed to go on in society. For instance, they oppose science, abortion, feminism, the use of family planning drugs, and homosexuality.
Recently, the term has been associated with Islamic extremists who believe that justice should be sought through terrorism and violence. For Islamic fundamentalists, the main problem in the world is exploitation. The west has always exploited people in other parts of the world, including the Middle East. To them, the main issue is that the west has always neglected the presence of Arabs.
Works Cited Johnstone, Ronald. Religion in Society: Sociology of Religion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.
McGuire, Meredith. Religion: the Social Context. New York: Sage, 2002. Print.
Settimba, Henry (2009). Testing times: globalization and investing theology in East Africa. Milton Keynes: Author House, 2009. Print.
Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Los Angeles: Roxbury Company, 2002. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Religion and Politics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Religion in Society. Religious Influence on Politics Essay online essay help
The relationship between religion and politics is normally interpreted differently by different people due to the presence of a wide gap between religion and politics.
However, the most important aspect of religion is that it plays an important role in the world of politics. Religion has been used for many years to legitimize regimes, build support for social movements, deflect social complaints, and also to provide definition and understanding of justice (Allen-Dell’Amor par. 1). The relationship between religion and politics is dependent on the type of religion and political system in question.
Most nations in the modern world have put up measures aimed at separating religion and the state. However, this has been almost impossible due to the fact that there are myriads of religious aspects that have been borrowed by the state. Religion has been used by many politicians to assert their influence on the people.
In the United States when the 2012 presidential campaigns were underway, Former U.S. Senator Rick Santorum came up with policies based on religious beliefs. He believed that the Republican Party was on the side of God (Allen-Dell’Amor par. 2). Religion has great influence in the moral thinking of people and thus affects how people view political policies. Throughout President Bush’s term, he based most of his principles on religion.
United States is one of the few countries that have the oldest democracies in the world. Religion is still a major influence in political decision making. The influence of religion in politics is undeniable. However, these influences can either be positive or negative. This depends on how religion is used to influence politics. Politicians are known to use religious excuses when advancing their political agenda (Johnstone 198).
Politics are controlled by the constitution. Most of the information found in the constitution is based on some religious background. The ethical issues, moral obligations, justice and several other aspects of the constitution have religious inclinations.
The use of the constitution in managing a country’s politics therefore incorporates religion into politics. Most constitutions are religious in nature. For instance, the swearing functions of political officers require the use of religious books and religious statements. For a United States president to assume power, he or she must be sworn in using a Bible and the mention of the word “God” in the swearing in statements is very conspicuous (Allen-Dell’Amor par. 4).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The current world has witnessed reduced religious influenced in politics as the world becomes more secular than it used to be in the past century. The increased level of secularism has tried to separate religion from state. Politicians who are not religious can now be voted into offices.
Besides, religious leaders no longer influence political directions (Norris and Inglehart 25). In any case, the current world religions have influence on politics although the influence is not as strong as it used to be a century ago. Religious subjectivity has also reduced across the world. This has resulted into minimal influence of religion on people’s lives.
The influence which the clergy had in state affairs has declined significantly especially in the industrialized and democratic nations (Norris and Inglehart 25). Currently, religion is still influential among people from poor countries since they are the majority in the world.
It will be wrong to conclude that religious influence in the world politics will be completely eradicated since most people still have strong religious affiliations. Therefore, religion will always be part and parcel of politics. The only issue of importance is that the world has come up with two major groups namely the believers and the non-believers. As a result, there is increase in the gap between these two extreme groups (Norris and Inglehart 25).
Religious fundamentalism The word ‘fundamentalism’ is normally used when referring to a requirement by a group to firm devotion to certain theological principles (Global researcher 11). Modernization and e globalization have had a negative effect on fundamentalism. This has weakened people from observing religious doctrines although modernist theology has continually increased in terms of influence. Fundamentalism is still being observed by several people around the world.
Fundamentalists have a strong belief in their religions and the Holy Scriptures (Johnstone, 164). Hence, they possess a strong desire of replacing the current secular law with a law that is more religious (Global researcher 1). This has resulted into cropping up of some religious extremists all over the world. Such individuals inflict harm on others in the pretext of religion. The world is currently undergoing sporadic changes some of which have been influenced by religion (Global researcher 1).
Before the pre-modern era, religious fundamentalism was a way of life for many societies around the world. When modernization and secularism became pronounced across the globe, the impact of fundamentalism had significantly reduced in many nations. Analysis of fundamentalism in the modern world reveals the presence of religious fundamentalists in all the world’s major religions (Global researcher 5).
We will write a custom Essay on Religion in Society. Religious Influence on Politics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The principles that are observed by these religious followers may be different in some cases although they share other beliefs that define their fundamentalism ideals. Their views on aspects such as abortion, homosexuality, adultery, feminism, and science reveal a lot of similarities and differences.
Political liberalists do not advocate for fundamentalism. They associate bad aggressive behaviors such as extremist with fundamentalism. This argument may possess some backing due to the recent attacks by Muslim extremists on Christian nations and the infiltration of Israelites into Palestine. Most acts of war and terrorism in the world are linked to religion and fundamentalism (Global researcher 4).
Religious fundamentalism influences the social and political practices of any society (Global researcher 20). For example, the dressing code, gender roles, marriage, and the rule of law are some of the aspects that are influenced by fundamentalism. The levels of influence of fundamentalism on human life are widespread and cannot be discussed exhaustively. This spans from the American world and Europe.
On the other hand, Christian fundamentalists are dominant in Africa, the Middle and Far East. As much as the world is becoming secular, fundamentalism has become more intense since the past 30 years (Global researcher 4). The number of fundamentalists is regularly increasing. The problem is that as these numbers increase, there are increasing instances of violent attacks on other groups or non-believers.
Fundamentalism in the world began in the 16th century. It was later amplified in the 19th and 20th centuries when political leaders approved the existence of state religions (Global researcher 14). This gave fundamentalists more power and vigor to spread their influence. The decline of religious influences in state affairs across the world came with radical fundamentalists since secularism was seen as un-Godly.
This explains why the fundamentalists decided to take such dangerous measures in an attempt to restore the influence of religion in society. Some fundamentalists often go an extent of misinterpreting the Holy Scriptures in an attempt to justifying their deeds. Currently, fundamentalism has more negative effects compared to the positive effects that are known to humanity.
Works Cited Allen-Dell’Amor, Julene, Book Review: How Does Religion Influence Politics. 2012. Web.
Global researcher. Religious Fundamentalism: Exploring International Perspectives. 2009. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Religion in Society. Religious Influence on Politics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Johnstone, Ronald. Religion in Society: A Sociology of Religion. New York: Prentice Hall, 2006. Print.
Norris, Pippa and Ronald, Inglehart. Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Print.
Ethics is not Based on Religion Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The purpose of the study and my opinion
General discussion on the issue and relevance of the reasoning
How ethics is earned and its benefits
The philosophical perspective on the issue
Introduction The relationship that exists between religion and ethics is an issue that draws varying opinion from various individuals. This is evident due to the wide spectrum of views that are presented by religious personalities and non-Christians. Indeed, there are those who believe that religion has obvious historical connection to ethics.
They affirm that the connection between the two aspects are deeply rooted and morally founded. They also state that ethics is not only tied up with religion but religion settles ethics. That is they believe that religion is the bedrock of ethics and that religious persons are individuals with immense moral principles.
However, another school of thought states that religion and ethics has no direct correlation. Individuals under this school of thought argue that ethics is not based on religion. They state that one can be ethically sound even without religion or attending Christian teachings.
They hold that ethics is a concept that is based on strong humanistic assumptions. The assumptions are justified through reasoning and understanding that most people including secular individuals practice ethical principles or live under moral values. The reasoning seems to be factual, realistic and true in my view since not all religious personalities embrace ethical guidelines. This paper discusses the relationship that exists between ethics and religion based on the varying schools of thought that are presented.
The purpose of the study and my opinion This paper gives insightful and credible information on the relationship that exist between religion and ethics that studies human conduct. It seeks to equip those who believe that religion has a historical connection with ethics and those who believe that ethics is not based on religion with pertinent information on the issue. In review of the two schools of thought, I agree to the reasoning that ethics has no basis in religion.
This is because it is just a means to achieving ethical values but not an absolute means of being morally sound. This is evident since even non-Christians live under strong ethical guidelines more than some religious individuals. This explains why the reasoning that ethics is not based on religion may hold absolute credibility.
General discussion on the issue and relevance of the reasoning As noted, there are individuals who believe that religion has a strong connection to religion. They state that religion forms the basis of ethics and that ethics is a key component of religion. They reason that individuals with a strong religious background automatically develop ethical principles that include honesty, faithfulness, prudence and kindness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because religion teaches noble ideals and principles that foster good life and interrelation ideals. The principles that are socially relevant and culturally acceptable have been instrumental in enhancing cohesiveness in most settings. However, the second school of thought overrules the idea. The thought depicts that ethics or moral values are not based on religion.
Individuals who believe in this school of thought reason that being a religious person is not a guarantee to adopting ethical lifestyle. They affirm that religion is not an end but may just bet a means to an end. The individuals state that it is mythical for one to believe that religion contributes to the development of ethical principles.
This is wrong since developing moral values is a strict humanistic perspective that is intrinsically informed. Ideally, it is proven that even those who do not subscribe to any religious setting live under immense ethical guidelines. The secular individuals live ethically more than some of the persons who attend religious teachings.
This aspect has been proven through observation and studies that shows that there are religious people who practices ethics while others do not. Consequently, there are secular people who live a morally upright lifestyle more than Christians do while others do not. Therefore, it is right to conclude that developing ethical or moral values is dependent on humanistic perspective. It is an individual’s choice and determination since practicing noble principles of life requires total dedication.
How ethics is earned and its benefits Indeed, ethics that is a central aspect to good life or a satisfying life can be earned without going to church. Various individuals have earned it across the social divide including secular individuals who knows very little about religion. This quells the notion that those who live ethically are individuals with strong Christian background. As indicated by scholars, moral values or ethical principles that include honesty, faithfulness, kindness, cautiousness and prudence are essential for human life.
The principles foster peaceful coexistence and intercalations that is noble for effective integration. They facilitate economic, social and cultural growth among individuals in the societies. Evidently, an individual who hold no ethical value and principles lives in the brinks of destruction. Such a person cannot meet his social and economic obligations with ease.
The philosophical perspective on the issue As noted by philosophers, the varying notions about the relationship that exist between the two concepts are dependent on one’s understanding. They state that the issue is a polarizing topic that has led to great divisions across social strata. This is because every group that supports either of the views does not always want to give in on the issue.
We will write a custom Essay on Ethics is not Based on Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The groups want to gain prominence or dominance over the issue and to be heard. That is every group is keen to supporting their basis of argument without the willingness to compromise their stand on the issue. This calls for sobriety and immense caution when this debate is instigated due to its sensitiveness especially among Christians and secular personalities.
The philosophers also state that, one cannot flourish ethically by virtue of being a Christian or a strong member of a certain religion. Flourishing in any aspect by embracing these ethical principles is more than a religion. It calls for effective decision-making and determination to living a satisfying life.
It is a choice that is made by both Christians and secular individuals who are keen to changing their lifestyle. The philosophers affirm that the reasoning behind the two schools of thought have not found credible answers since there are morally sound personalities who holds distinguished characters in both sectors.
That is, there are religious individuals who are ethically poor and who do not treat others with dignity that they deserve. They fail to recognize the rights of others due to acute selfishness and negative attitude. The same way there are good and bad individuals in the secular world. Therefore, the relationship between the two concepts is a debatable issue.
Conclusion Imperatively, the varying notions about the relationship that exist between the two concepts are dependent on an individuals understanding. This is due to the complicated nature of the topic. This is evident as presented under the two schools of thought that various individuals subscribe to in the modern world.
The Rhetorical Analysis: Nuclear Wastes Challenges Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The challenge of nuclear waste
Introduction Wastes derived from nuclear reactions are a health hazard with long-term effects on people who are exposed to them. While it is possible to assume that all people know this fact, the nuclear waste question attracts heated debates among scientists, politicians, and other interest groups of health hazards that people create everyday (Wald 12).
Politicians campaign for enactment of policies to resolve the nuclear waste question that they do not understand. On the other hand, scientists make incredible attempts to research on the possible strategies that can be put in place to dispose nuclear wastes (Gwyneth 35). From the public eye, the challenge is even more amplified since the public absorbs all information it receives with a presumption that it is correct.
The dilemma that rises is knowing the extent to which nuclear wastes are dangerous and or what the way forward can be to handle the problem. As the paper unveils, all people engaging in the nuclear waste debate are not so correct yet not too wrong. This position is discussed in the paper by considering Richard Muller’s article on how important the subject of nuclear waste is relevant in the scholarly and contemporary world.
The challenge of nuclear waste At first glance, Muller’s Nuclear Waste They Say / I Say: the Moves That Matter in Academic Writing seems inclined to the face of anti-nuke while engaging in the arguments about the problem of nuclear wastes. In his arguments about his position on nuclear wastes, he presents enormous number of disputes that favor his position about the significance of handling nuclear wastes in an appropriate manner particularly waste disposal.
His readers are incredibly persuaded by his argument by interrogatives, which send readers consistently looking for the answer about particular debates on nuclear waste. For instance, he poses the question of how “we possibly certify that this material can be kept safe for 100,000 years” (Muller 207).
This question is strategic in defending his positions on nuclear waste. The question calls readers to take on the subject of debate of nuclear waste by helping to reinforce the magnitude of the problem. It also makes readers assume and speculate on particular actions to curtail the problem. By creating this atmosphere, one wonders how people would create such an immense health hazard and yet remain non-cognizant of its implications.
From the point of Muller, production of nuclear waste seems like the worst mistake that people have ever made in the history of the human race. Muller argues that he is so concerned about the problems since, even without presenting a large number of facts, people would still draw conclusions (Muller 209). Nevertheless, Muller continues to provide statistical evidence on the negative implication of nuclear wastes on human health.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although Muller seems convinced about the health hazards of nuclear wastes at the beginning of his book, he later provides statistical evidence that contradicts his position. For instance, he claims, “to present the facts and just the facts, and let you draw the conclusions” (Muller 209). In this extent, he does not provide a consistent position about nuclear wastes disposal.
Although he thinks nuclear waste is problematic, he is not convinced about how serious the problem is to people. For instance, towards the end of his book, he posits, “if the Yucca Mountain facility were at full capacity and all the waste leaked out of its glass containment immediately and managed to reach groundwater, the danger would still be 20 times less than that currently posed by natural uranium leaching into the Colorado River” (Muller 212).
The impression created in the reader’s mind is that the position taken earlier in his book is not the appropriate one. However, this confusion on the subject of nuclear wastes reinforces his argument that the subject attracts valid views among different people (scholars, politician, and other interest groups) for which none of the views can be considered right or wrong.
Based on this argument, nuclear waste is not perhaps the only threat that people face. In comparison with some other threats, it does not top the list. Nevertheless, the emphasis of Muller on the dangers of nuclear wastes through statistical evidence makes the problem stand out as a harmful risk with the potential of causing death.
In this regard, Muller’s work may be interpreted as endeavoring to forcefully draw the attention of people to focus on the dangers that may emanate from improper disposal of nuclear wastes. Orientation of the attention of people to look into a mechanism of handling the nuclear waste question may provide substantive grounds for looking early into the problems of nuclear waste before the problems escalate to levels that make them produce more adverse effects (Vennessa Para.3).
Muller deploys rhetoric strategies to enable him drive his point home. Through his facts, evidence, and arguments that connect with his viewpoints on the topic, the reader gains mixed reactions on the topic.
On one hand, the reader may argue that the challenge of nuclear waste needs to be resolved with the best option involving a scientific approach. On the other hand, engagement of the political aspect in the problems prompts the incorporation of political strategies such as enactment of policies to regulate the handling and disposal of nuclear wastes.
We will write a custom Essay on The Rhetorical Analysis: Nuclear Wastes Challenges specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The issue that concerns Muller is whether the existence of a way of disposing nuclear wastes is better in relation to having none at all.
He argues that one of the alternatives to dispose nuclear waste products is through placing it at a secure facility that is far away from human civilizations. According to Muller, Yucca Mountain is one of such places. Indeed, he confirms that the government of the United States has established a prototype nuclear waste facility at Yucca Mountain.
Through this confirmation, he creates rhetoric to the reader who endeavors to know the impacts of such toxins on people given that Yucca Mountain is not much populated. Responding the rhetoric, Muller reasons out that people living in the area face the risk of being poisoned through drinking water in case nuclear containers leak.
He further evidences that uranium takes 10,000 years for its radioactivity levels to decay to levels similar to just before its mining. To ensure that he does not take a stand on the issues of nuclear waste, Muller argues that, as time moves on, Uranium, which comprises the major bulk of nuclear wastes, decays progressively. Therefore, it is not necessary that nuclear wastes are maintained secure for the whole period of 10,000 years.
Based on his calculation results, Muller argues that, in case nuclear toxins are maintained safe for 300 years while maintaining a 1% chance for the escape of the wastes during the time, the risk of contamination of drinking water by the wastes is incredibly reduced. However, the argument has to be in relation to when the waste is just placed at Yucca Mountains in its natural state. This argument creates a rhetoric dilemma to the reader.
Should people leave the risks of lives of others at mere chances? Many readers of Muller’s work would contend that it is not appropriate to leave the lives of thousands of people to dangers that pose potential health risk to them based on the arguments of chance. In case people know that radioactivity that takes place in rocks would pose threats to their lives, they would adopt any possible option that is within their power to eliminate the risks or even curtail them.
The arguments raised by Muller also open his work to criticisms. One of the criticisms is whether the fact that the water flowing in the Colorado River poses the risks of contamination from radioactive material found in the rocks is enough to justify disposing nuclear wastes at the Yucca Mountains.
Unless the waste that is disposed off at Yucca Mountains is from the radioactive material that was extracted in the mountain, and which could have found its way into the Colorado River, any attempt to dispose nuclear wastes from materials obtained elsewhere would go into adding more nuclear wastes into the Colorado River. Therefore, the existence of a risky situation does not justify any attempt to magnify the magnitude of the risk.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Rhetorical Analysis: Nuclear Wastes Challenges by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rhetoric analysis of Muller’s arguments on the problems of nuclear waste is a challenge of the question on the best scenarios for storage and disposal of nuclear wastes. Nuclear plants, which generate nuclear wastes, are not found in an area that has many people. This fact raises the question of whether the place of disposal of nuclear wastes needs to bother politicians and scientists in the extent that Muller would want people to embrace, or more focus should be on the safety of the nuclear plants themselves.
The leakage of the nuclear power plants in Japan (Foster Para.2) evidences that the problem of nuclear material-related risks is bigger than the challenge of disposal of the nuclear wastes and the place of storage of the wastes once they have already been produced. The challenge is whether the creation of nuclear energy justifies the risks that are associated with the process of creation and the wastes produced.
This argument is based on the incapacity of people to get rid of the levels of nuclear wastes that have already been produced. Why then should people produce more of the refuse? Muller insists that many people are inclined to the line of thought that nuclear energy is an ardent solution to the reduction of reliance on the fossil fuel energy. However, is it an acceptable answer bearing in mind the risks involved?
Conclusion In his book Nuclear Waste They Say / I Say: the Moves That Matter in Academic Writing, Muller gives readers who are not well acquainted with science an opportunity to synthesize the problems related to nuclear waste generation, storage, and disposal.
Although it is acceptable that problems exist, it is debatable whether a good scenario exists, which can be provided to explain efforts to reduce nuclear waste risks to levels that are slightly lower. Can people afford to trade their right for living in a safe environment with energy sources that are superior? If it is possible, what are the costs? Muller addresses these perplexing issues.
Works Cited Muller, Richard. “Nuclear Waste” They Say / I Say: the Moves That Matter in Academic Writing. New York, NY: W.W. Norton
Road to Revolution Essay scholarship essay help
The American Revolution was one of the key events that took place in America during the second phase of the eighteenth century. In 1607, the British brought many drastic changes in the American society that interfered with their civilization. During this time, Britain was much preoccupied with advancing its economy. In this regard, Britain enacted colonial policies that would favor its maximum exploitation of its colonies. This paper discusses the road to American Revolution.
The revolution started in 1763 when the ‘French and Indian war’ ended. The British Proclamation of 1763 was meant to help them create governments for the new colonies, forester peace among vanquishers, and facilitate British commercial interests in the colonies (Allison 2-17). The British government had incurred many expenses during the war and it was keen on regaining its lost resources through taxing its colonial subjects.
Accordingly, many taxation measures were implemented in order to generate revenue for the British army in America. The Sugar Act was implemented in 1764 and it was meant to reduce tariffs charged on non-British merchandise sourced from West Indies. It was also supposed to facilitate the collection of those goods. This act was followed by the first Stamp Act, which was implemented from 1765 in order to provide income for the army (Brinkley 23-105).
Soon after the enforcement of this act, the Quartering Act was also put in place in 1765, and it was intended to enable the British army to have access to social amenities. More taxes were levied on goods that were imported through the enforcement of the Townshend Act that was introduced in 1767. The British also implemented the Navigation Acts, which further strained the economy of the Americans.
The Americans resisted the new taxes imposed on them through various methods. For example, they refused to buy goods imported from Britain. The harsh economic policies led to serious economic disillusionment, which sparked off violence in various parts of America. In March 1770, a serious picketing incident in Boston led to the gruesome massacre of five Americans by the British troops.
This was followed by the burning and sinking of a British mercantile vessel in Rhode Island in 1772. “On 16 December 1773, some colonialists destroyed many tons of tea in Boston and the event was termed the Boston Tea Party” (Middlekauff 56-89). In reaction to the spate of violence, the British government immediately responded by imposing more punitive measures on its subjects.
In mid 1774, the Boston Port Act was sanctioned and it led to the cordoning of the Boston Port, which later resumed its operations after the compensation of the East Indian Company. “The British Congress further proclaimed Quartering Act, Administration of Justice Act and Massachusetts Government Act in the same year” (Guevara 78-109).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Americans argued that these Coercive Acts were arbitrary infringement on their prerogatives. Consequently, in late 1774, the colonists organized a demonstration during the First Continental Congress.
As the hostility escalated, many colonists engaged in chaotic protests that culminated to American Revolution in 1775. Independence was finally granted to the American colonies in 1776. From 1777, the Americans started making constitutional changes that would enable them develop their country. The struggle for independence was very difficult for the Americans. However, through a concerted effort they managed to dislodge the British from their territory.
Works Cited Allison, Robert. The American Revolution: A Concise History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.
Brinkley, Alan. American History: A Survey, New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hil, 2009. Print.
Guevara, Che. The Economics of Revolution, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Print.
Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Print.
Companies Ethics: Benzene and Toxic-Tobacco Law Brochure Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Benzene exposure
The Toxic-Tobacco Law Brochure
Scenarios of Bribery/Gift Giving
Benzene exposure Benzene is a toxic substance if consumed above the recommended minimum levels. The company understands all the regulations that are intended to keep the environment clean and non-toxic to human beings and other animals. The decision by the company to release benzene into the local water resources used for domestic purposes is a real issue of concern.
Professionally, the company will not break any laws by releasing the toxins into water resources. The concentration of the toxic substances will be far much below the recommended levels. This implies that if the toxins are released into water, no harmful effects are anticipated (Harris, Pritchard
Summary of concepts/ideas by Christine Matheson Essay college essay help online
The article by Christine Matheson emphasizes the importance of consumers being environmental conscious in their purchasing patterns. Specifically, the author highlights the need for consumers to adjust their buying behaviors by refusing to support firms and businesses whose operations contribute to environmental pollution.
For example, she opens the article by noting that her writing is “…a bunch of ideas to help you become a greener fashionista “(Matheson 116). Therefore, the author outlines the need of consumers to employ green shopping strategies. Such an adjustment will contribute towards elimination or minimization of the opportunity cost incurred in the process of undertaking waste management.
The author asserts that it is imperative for various industries to adjust their production processes. Some industries that contribute to environmental pollution according to the author include the fashion industry and the transport industry. The author calls for consumers and producers to appreciate the importance of recycling in lowering the rate of environmental pollution.
Additionally, she underscores the importance of industries in diverse economic sectors embracing sustainable technology and adopting renewable energy in their production processes. For example, car and vehicle manufacturers should adopt hybrid technology.
Additionally, the author is of the opinion that limiting the high rate of environmental pollution, which is currently being experienced, requires collaboration of individual and government efforts. This assertion arises from the fact that the government will be required to institute laws, institutions, and infrastructure to enhance reduction in the current rate of environmental pollution.
Summary of concepts/ideas by Collin Beavan Similar to Christine Matheson, Collin Beavan emphasizes the importance of protecting the environment. Collin identifies consumers as the most effective agents of change. The author asserts that it is fundamental for consumers to adjust their consumption behaviors. He alludes to the importance of consumers establishing an ecological balance in their consumption processes.
For example, he asserts that consumers should design, implement, and adhere to environmental friendly rules that guide their consumption processes. Rather than focusing on the incorporation of systems that contribute to minimal or no environmental pollution such as adoption of sustainable technology and use of renewable energy, the author is of the opinion that social change is the only missing ingredient.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He posits that he believes, “…in rising to the challenge rather than shrinking from the obstacles” (Beavan 61). Therefore, to achieve this goal, consumers should develop a comprehensive understanding of what they need in life, which should form the basis of developing the necessary technical and social systems. Thus, consumption should be based on socio-technical design.
Despite the contribution of the government and other institutions in limiting climate change, Collin Beavan is of a different view. The author cites change of culture as the most effective avenue of countering environmental pollution and climate change. The author appreciates the fact that cultural change can have a significant effect compared to instituting legislations and systems to deal with the same.
The author further opines that despite the perception that individual effort is minimal in tackling an enormous challenge such as climate change, individuals’ input can lead to the development of a positive culture towards climate change within society. Consequently, individuals, as opposed to systems, are the agents of change “because it is upon the definition of a good life that our socio-technical designs must be used” (Beavan 62).
Conclusion In a recap, the two authors try to illustrate the role of consumers in limiting the high rate of climate change. Adjustment of consumption behavior has been highlighted as one of the most effective ways through which consumers can aid in countering the high rate of climate change. However, to be effective, it is necessary to develop effective systems.
Works Cited Beavan, Colin. “The Year without Toilet Paper.” The New York Times, 22 March 2007: 61-62. Print.
Matheson, Christie. Green Chick: Saving the earth in style, Illinois: Sourcebooks, 2008. Print.
The Importance of Value Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
From a psychological perspective, values can be presented as broad preferences of individuals about various actions and outcomes. At this point, they express individuals’ sense of morally justified action. Values also allow people to distinguish between right and wrong, as well as shape their attitudes and perceptions about other individuals. Shared beliefs have influenced the formation of social norms under which people should observe behavioral patterns accepted in society.
As a result of social development, belief systems have been premised on different norms in terms of morale, ethics, and individual choices. These discrepancies are predetermined by the presence of cultural values that influence people’s perceptions of such issues as the good, evil, or justice. Due to the emerged differences, a number of value theories have been developed. In sociological studies, value theory is associated with individuals’ views that are shared by a community, as well as how those views change under certain conditions.
While discussing the importance of value, many Western theorists, including Max Weber, Talcott Parsons and Emilie Durkheim inclined to believe that values are regarded as independent variables. However, the supporters of traditional sociologists withdrew the concept of value and focus on cultural dimension that builds the foundation for value creation. At this point, although values are often identified with common notions and concepts, their meaning is differently represented across cultures, leading to subjective and objective judgments.
This is of particular concern to religious norms that often influence people’s attitude toward the political power and social norms. For instance, some countries consider the important role of religion in shaping social, cultural and political relations whereas other societies insist on the separation of religion and social system because the former is more associated with personal values.
In fact, considering social values as products of individual behavior, the emphasis on behaviorism and observational philosophy should be placed. The introduced theoretical frameworks are influential for development of educational systems that encourage a learning process as a set of activities focused on understanding morale, ethics, and law. The learning process reflects individual’s engagement in gaining experience about acceptable norms of behavior, as well as deeper understanding of self-image.
Finally, learning provides individuals with the accepted definitions of the right and wrong. In order to control value creation, social sciences refer to the political, social, and cultural institutions studying various dimensions of human organization based on empirical evidence. The proposed framework contributes to comprehending the common values that are accepted in societies, as well as those shaped in various cultures.
As it has been mentioned before, social values can refer to cultural norms that are considered in a broader context. Hence, norms create rules and principles of behavior in various situations whereas values define what actions should be considered as morally right or wrong.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although cultural norms base on broader meanings, their understanding differs in various societies. Although cultural values are regarded as objective principles, they are still premised on individual’s attitudes toward specific traditions and norms recognized in a particular culture. Hence, values reflect the human ability to analyze and synthesize various aspects and principles that bear especial meaning to them.
For instance, various communities have a specific set of principles and rules that distinguish them from other communities. This is of particular concern to professional communities in which members adhere to specific philosophy and vision of an organization. Hence, although many company’s values differ, the development of global standards influence their normative systems. Due to the globalization process, organizations often address such issues as cultural diversity, human equality, and individual values.
Values can change across time to adjust to new conditions and challenges. If a member of a community adheres to a value that contradicts the commonly accepted norms, the community’s authority can impose certain regulations that encourage adherence and conformity to accepted behaviors.
As a result of such violations, fixed values are often controlled by legislature. The development of the legal system has contributed to the development of the international law that introduces global standards in such fields as healthcare, education, culture. There are many non-governmental organizations, including the World Health Organization, the United Nations, and the World Trade Organization, that provide consistent frameworks for shaping global principles of accountability and legitimacy.
In conclusion, values constitute overwhelming definitions that encompass personal belief systems and socially accepted norms. They also refer to the preferences about such concepts as moral action, ethics, and human behavior. In the course of social development, theorists have worked on various frameworks that can justify value creation across cultures and communities. Although the presence of diverse value systems, there are specific standards that should be followed by the world community.
These standards are monitored by international organizations and, therefore, violating rules can lead to imprisonment and punishment. In general, the existence of fixed values is not justified because societies are constantly developing, introducing new norms, perceptions, and preferences. At the same time, acceptance of diversities in belief systems is also important because it expands individuals’ perception about moral and immoral actions.
Death Comes to the Archbishop Essay college essay help: college essay help
In the article Death Comes to the Archbishop, Norman Cantor focuses on the life of Thomas Bradwardine. Cantor details how the archbishop’s endeavours in science and psychology made him one of the greatest scholars of Oxford-Franciscan school of thought. As a young boy, Bradwardine was a bright student.
He later joined Oxford University where he studied mathematics, philosophy, and theology. By the age of 30, he had become a faculty member of the university. In the year 1323, Bradwardine joined Merton College where he studied Masters of Arts. At Merton College, Bradwardine met a group of scientists who were devoted to studying astronomy, physics, and mathematics.
With the help of these scholars, Bradwardine published several scientific treatises, which made him one the best-celebrated philosophical and theological persons in Oxford-Franciscan school of thought. In the next paragraphs, this article describes the philosophy of the Oxford school towards the relationship between faith and the natural world.
As illustrated by Cantor, the philosophers of the Oxford school of thought believed that God was a supreme and infinite being. This implied that from their perspectives human beings could not question God’s deeds. Equally, it was believed that human beings could not understand God’s actions clearly. However, Bradwardine and his fellow scholars believed that human beings had the capacity to investigate and understand the natural world.
Based on Bradwardine’s treatises, it is apparent that philosophers of the Oxford school of thought believed that there were relationship between faith and the natural world. For instance, Bradwardine asserted that God created the earth and several other planets in the universe. This view contradicted with the religious doctrines that were widely upheld by the public. As highlighted by the article’s author, Bradwardine’s innovative doctrine was little known outside Oxford.
Although Oxford school of thought philosophers had developed innovative theories on nature, these theories were never developed during their lifetimes. For instance, the Bradwardine theory of the universe implications was never developed because the theory could have contradicted with the then religious and moral beliefs.
Similarly, deeper understanding in the field of biomedical sciences was blocked by the people’s faith. By then, medical theories developed were ineffective since they had no basis on science but rather on faith and psychology.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If the Black Death had not struck down Bradwardine, the modern science would have been different. Although some of his theorists on nature were never developed until the 16th century, it should be noted that some of his innovations such as his experiments on optics led to the inventions of eyeglasses.
In this regard, if Bradwardine lived longer he could have come up with more innovative theories and inventions. Similarly, his death marked the end of Oxford School of thought. Therefore, if he could have lived longer he could have influenced his fellow elites to advance his theories and inventions.
Equally, by the time of his death Bradwardine was 50 years old. This implies that at the time of his demise he was still in the productive age bracket. Therefore, if Bradwardine had lived longer there are higher chances that he could have convinced those in power to believe in some of his scientific theories. As evident from bibliographies of great inventors such as Albert Einstein and Isaac Newton, Bradwardine’s great ideas could have created an intellectual revolution if he could live longer to expand and implement his ideas.
The Phantom Menace of Sleep-Deprived Doctors Essay college application essay help
The article written by Darshak Sanghave is aimed at discussing the causes that underlie medical errors in hospitals. In particular, the author focuses on such a problem as sleep-deprivation experienced by many interns. Furthermore, the author mentions the lack of coordination among different practitioners.
Yet, this article can be related to various economic aspects of economics. One should first speak about health economics that evaluates different strategies implemented by medical organizations. For instance, Darshak Sanghave discusses the advantages and disadvantages of 30-hour overnight shifts. The author shows that this approach is largely ineffective because it greatly impairs the quality of healthcare services that patients receive.
Additionally, Darshak Sanghave touches upon a question that has long been studied by many economists. In this case, one should focus on the relationship between demand and supply. Judging from the examples given by the author one can say that many medical organizations cannot meet the demand for their services. This is why interns have to work almost round-the-clock. This is one of the problems that should be addressed by hospital administrators.
Furthermore, economists often focus on the efficiency of investment that is aimed to improve the quality of products and services. Despite the increasing cost of healthcare, patients still fall victim to medical errors. Therefore, it is vital to develop strategies that can improve the work of medical institutions.
These issues are relevant not only to hospitals, but to many other organizations, including private businesses. On the whole, Darshak Sanghave’s can be assigned in a course of economics, because it shows how different economic concepts such as production of services, supply, or demand can be applicable to various fields of human activity.
Yusuf ibn-Ayyub Salah-al-Din Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction Yusuf ibn-Ayyub Salah-al-Din (commonly known as Saladin) stands apart as the single most prominent figure in the history of the Middle East. Because of his exploits in the Crusades, Saladin is perceived as the chief “hero” of the Crusades by both his Islamic side and the Christian side. Saladin was able to establish a strong dynasty and lead his army to victory against the Crusaders. This paper will set out to discuss Saladin with emphasis on his military expeditions, and his encounters with the crusaders.
Early Life Saladin was Born in the village of Tirkik, Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq) in the year 1137 to a prominent and influential Kurdish family from the area. A few years after his birth, his family immigrated to Aleppo (which is modern day Syria). Saladin grew up in modern day Syria and he was an avid scholar of the Islamic religion. He embarked on religious studies until the age of 18 when he was appointed deputy to his uncle, Asad Ad-Din Shirkuh, who served as a military governor for Nur al Din, the emir of Syria (Grossman 303).
Early Expeditions Saladin’s first military expeditions were carried out in the north of Egypt under his uncle Shirkuh’s command. Saladin engaged in a military expedition in support of Shawar, the caliph of Egypt, who had been driven out of Egypt by powerful local lords.
Shawar had asked for help from Nur al Din to regain his position as Fatimid in Egypt. This military campaign was a success and Shawar was able to defeat his rivals and reestablish himself as Fatimid. Following this victory, Saladin and his uncle remained in Egypt to represent the interest of the Syrian Emir.
Shawar was opposed to the presence of Syrian forces in Egypt and this led to his falling out with Saladin’s uncle. As a result, Shirkurh and Saladin engaged in military expeditions against Shawar. Shirkurh commanded four military expeditions into Egypt to fight against the Fatimid and the local lords who were resisting Syria’s over-lordship (Grossman, 303).
These rebellious local rulers were acting with the support of the Crusaders in the Holy Land who also feared Syria’s overlords. With Saladin’s help, Shirkuh carried out military expeditions against these local rulers as well as the caliph of Egypt therefore establishing Egypt as a Syrian stronghold. Shirkuh’s death in 1169 gave Saladin a chance to become the head of Syrian forces in Egypt.
Saladin’s Personality Historians record that Saladin was serious and contemplative by nature. In his early years, he was not enthusiastic about the military expeditions by his uncle but took on active fighting roles during the invasion of Fatimid Cairo. He established himself as a courageous soldier and a brilliant strategist. Saladin was a just ruler and he was often personally involved in the grievances brought forward by his subjects.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Gibb documents that in reaction to the abuses carried out by his governors and officers, Saladin issued decrees prohibiting illegal taxes and other oppressive practices against his subjects (48). Saladin’s justice can further be demonstrated by his decision to spare all the Christian inhabitants of Jerusalem even though his army was far superior to the Christian forces and he could have destroyed them if he wanted to (Byfield 73).
Saladin was a modest person, owing to his religious background. He wore simple clothes and he treated the men of religion with whom he regularly associated himself with as colleagues in spite of the fact that he was the Sultan. However, he commanded great discipline among his subjects and did not condone unruliness.
Byfield states that Saladin has an instinct for iron discipline and when his Sudanese guards were accused of being disloyal to him, he massacred them (74). Rioters in Cairo were hanged and the unruly Bedouin Arabs were engaged in battle under Saladin’s command.
Saladin’s Mission in Syria, Egypt and Palestine Nicolle observes that Saladin’s prominence began when he took on the role of Nur al Din’s governor in Egypt (15). As the governor of Egypt, Saladin set out to change the official faith of the country from Shi’a to Sunni effectively abolishing the Fatamid caliphate in Egypt. The conversion of Egypt from Sunni to Shiite was very significant since it made it bridged the division that Syria and Egypt had had for centuries because of religions considerations.
Saladin also embarked on an ambitious recruitment effort for a new army that would be loyal to himself and not the Fatimid Caliph who had died in 1171. At the same time, Saladin tried to foster loyalty to himself instead of Nur al Din, the Emir of Syria under whom he served.
When Nur al Din died in 1174, he was succeeded by his ten-year-old son. In the months following the Emir’s death, Saladin marched from Egypt with his loyal army, took over Syria, and proclaimed himself Sultan of the vast territory (Byfield 74). Saladin ventured into Palestine in 1177 following the breakdown of the truce with the Crusaders. He hoped to recover some of the territory that the Crusaders had taken and establish a Muslim stronghold in Palestine.
War against the Crusaders Saladin’s first engagement with the crusaders was in 1170 when he tried to capture the southernmost fort of Jerusalem. This early efforts were unsuccessful and the Crusading knights were able to rebuff Saladin’s forces. A truce was signed and this fragile peace deal was able to last for a decade.
We will write a custom Essay on Yusuf ibn-Ayyub Salah-al-Din specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The fragile truce lasted until 1180 when the Frankish Prince Reynald of Chatillon attacked Holy Muslim cities of Mecca and Medina. In retaliation to these attacks by Prince Reynald, Saladin vowed to vanquish the Christian forces and execute Reynald for his action against the Muslims. Saladin’s victory over Frankish forces at Hattin is regarded as one of the most spectacular in military history. He was able to defeat the Frankish knights in the battlefield and force them to abandon their quest to free the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Having destroyed the Christian army, Saladin continued to seize the remaining Christian strongholds. In a few months, Saladin was able to launch an attack against Jerusalem. His attempts at breaching the walls of the City of Jerusalem using siege engines was thwarted by Christian defenders who protected the city. However, the Christian force was weak and they therefore bargained for a peaceful surrender with Saladin. Following this surrender, Saladin was able to seize Jerusalem on October 2, 1187.
The Third Crusade was prompted by the great defeat of the second Crusade by Saladin in 1187. On hearing the news of how Saladin had decimated the Christian army, Richard I (popularly referred to as Richard the Lion Hearted) declared that he was staging a Third Crusade to recover Jerusalem. In the first clash between Saladin and Richard the Lion-Hearted, Saladin’s Army was defeated. A serious of battles continued with Richard pressing Saladin’s forces until they withdrew to Damascus.
The Ayyubid Dynasty Saladin founded the Ayyubid dynasty and established Egypt as its power base. This dynasty was able to survive though to the 13th century. As the governor of Egypt, Saladin was able to establish an Ayyubid army that was solely loyal to him. With this Egyptian Ayyubid army, Saladin set out to expand his empire first in Egypt, and then next to Syria where the Emir had died. This expansion missions were successful and Saladin was able to establish himself as the ruler of vast territory in the Middle East.
The Death of Saladin Saladin died in 1193 after a period of brief illness. By his death, he had succeeded in creating a vast and strong Dynasty that would last for over a century. Historians record that because of his irresistible impulse for giving; he did not even have enough money left to pay for his funeral when he died since his vast wealth had been given to his poor subjects.
Saladin was buried by his subjects in a magnificent tomb in Damascus with an inscription reading, “Oh mighty God, let his soul be acceptable to thee” (Grossman 304). Following Saladin’s death, his brother al Adil took over the leadership of the Dynasty.
Conclusion This paper set out to provide an informative discussion on Yusuf Ibn Ayyub, who was one of the most fascinating personalities in the history of the Middle Ages. The paper has highlighted Saladin’s early life and his early military expeditions. It has highlighted that through warfare and diplomacy, Saladin was able to bring Egypt into harmony with the Syrian government. However, this great figure will always be remembered for his military conquest against the Frankish Knights and the seizing the Holy City of Jerusalem.
Works Cited Byfield, Ted. A Glorious Disaster: A.D. 1100 to 1300: The Crusades: Blood, Valor, Iniquity, Reason, Faith. New York: Christian History Project, 2008. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Yusuf ibn-Ayyub Salah-al-Din by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Gibb, Hamilton. The Life of Saladin. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973. Print.
Grossman, Mark. World Military Leaders: A Biographical Dictionary. Boston: Infobase Publishing, 2007. Print.
Nicolle, David. Saladin and the Saracens: Armies of the Middle East 1000-1300. London: Reed International Books, 1986. Print.
Colonialism and Economic Development Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Reasons for Aid Withdrawal
India’s Take on the Matter
Repercussions of the Aid Withdrawal
Introduction Most developed countries are opting to stop the aid they give to various developing countries. This is due to the fact that countries which were once colonies of various nations from the west are now economically stable. Many of the countries which depended on foreign aid for their development are now able to individually fund their projects.
Consequently, many developed nations have opted to reduce or even permanently eliminate the foreign aid. Britain is one of the countries that have announced its intention to stop its foreign aid to India by 2015. However, contrary to the expectations of many that India would get disturbed over that move, the reverse has been actually the case.
Reasons for Aid Withdrawal It has been realized that developed countries which were once economically stable are now facing financial crises. On the same note, the donor countries have gone back to the drawing board to determine if actually the aid is as important as deemed, and if the aid achieves its expectations. Given the economic problems that are facing many developed nations, their economies need money to spend.
In this regard, these nations have to choose between giving aid to foreign nations and solving their own internal problems (Mandhana par 3). Therefore, emerging markets have found themselves on the receiving end when any decision to reduce aid is taken. On the same note, though India used to be among poor countries, it has now turned to be among the world’s economic power destinations with the ability to donate money to other low income countries.
India’s Take on the Matter For a country that has been receiving aid since its independency, the information was expected to come as a rude shock. On the contrary, this information was not received by India as negatively as it would have been for developing countries due to several factors. To begin with, the amount of money that Britain has been injecting into India’s economy to fund various projects, is very little compared to the amount that India injects into the same projects.
On the same note, despite the economic difficulties that are facing almost every country in the world, India’s economy has been growing at an impressive rate for a relatively long period of time. As a result, India has been able to elevate its status to a lower middle income country (Mandhana par 7). Similarly, India can afford to donate to other countries for example, the Philippines, implying that India is not that poor. As put by the then Prime Minister, India does not depend on the foreign aid for its economic development (Mandhana par 8).
Repercussions of the Aid Withdrawal Though India did not seem concerned about the announcement that the foreign aid will be withdrawn, there are economic repercussions of the decision by Britain. Firstly, though India’s economic growth is impressive, there are still a lot of people living below the poverty line (Mandhana par 15). These people highly depend on the aid from foreign countries for their basic needs. Secondly, Britain’s aid has highly influenced the health sector and its withdrawal will have significant implications.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conclusion The article brings into the forefront issues that are emerging between former colonies and their masters. Countries that were once dependent on foreign aid have now turned into economic giants and can no longer be considered as being underdeveloped. On the same note, it highlights the trends that are most likely to be taken by most developed nations, the United States of America being one of them. Developing nations should therefore take caution not to be too dependent on foreign aid because no one can tell what is in store.
Works Cited Mandhana, Niharika. “A Global Shift in Foreign Aid, Starting in India.” New York Times. 2012. Web.