The employees’ rights in the workplace are protected by a number of laws or Acts. These would include, but are not limited to, Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Family and Medical Leave Act, and Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act, 2008.
There is also a law safeguarding the religious principles of employees that is contained under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. As it would be observed, followers of different religions practice their worship through various actions and rituals. These varied characteristics, however, have always offered suitable grounds for disagreements in the work place.
This is likely to occur in situations where employees feel their rights to religion are not accorded the rightful respect in regard with the law. The title requires employers to recognize and respect the religious beliefs of their employees. This Act further protects workers from any form of workplace discrimination which may occur on grounds of race, national origin and identity, color, and gender, among other significant aspects.
The relevance of this specific Act in safeguarding the religious rights of employees cannot be overestimated. Religion is arguably one of the most sensitive aspects of life that are known to play a very significant role in today’s society. Nothing can stand between an individual and their religion, and in that case, there is no way one can be influenced to go against the demands of their religious faith (Farris, 2007).
It is basically owing to this kind of sensitivity why people should be given the freedom to fully practice their religion observances. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is significant in that it gives employees the opportunity to exercise their religious beliefs without being victimized by their employers.
Some good examples of religious practices which may require accommodation are practices involving dress and other habits of personal grooming that workers would have for religious reasons. This may include, for instance, wearing of headscarf and yarmulke by the Muslim and the Jewish followers, respectively.
This can also include a worker’s religious observance that they should not wear certain types of garments, such and trousers and miniskirts (Cascio, 1992). This Act is important in that, it reminds employers of their duty to recognize and accommodate the religion stand of their employees. This promotes understanding of one another in the workplace, thus promoting good employer-worker relations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Regardless of the many benefits associated with this Act, it can also trigger serious workplace implications. One potential ethical concern likely to arise from this Act is employer-employee misunderstandings. While it is not logical for employers to deny their employees the freedom to religion, it would be impossible for them to comply with every detail that has been provided under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Flynn, 1995).
Employers cannot entertain a situation whereby religion matters of their workers become a trade-off for their performance and productivity. This is most likely to result to cases of misunderstandings between employers and their staff, thus necessitating ill work relations between the two. This can further lead to serious implications in the workplace, such as lowered productivity and profitability.
Lack of adequate understanding, proper handling, and effective management of this legal issue can trigger serious implications for managers and organizations (Cash and Gray, 2000). For instance, poor performances and productivity would be a big likelihood where employees’ right to religious observances are denied.
Being accommodative to religious activities of employees is an effective approach that can be used to boost workers’ morale in the workplace. However, denying workers this special right does not only kill their motivation spirit, but it also generates serious workplace complexities.
Moreover, the requirement for employers to accommodate religious matters of their workers provides ample ground for many unethical practices. A good example here is where employees end up taking unnecessary times off from work in the name of religion observances, thus leading to poor performances and productivity.
Whereby religion in workplace may sometimes be a matter controversy, managers should always try to remain in good terms with their employees. One way of achieving this is by being respective and accommodative to employees’ religious practices (Colquitt, 2009). Managers should be willing to change work schedules and programmes to accommodate religious observances of their workers.
Also, managers should ensure they understand the requirements of this legal aspect, to avoid scenarios where employees misuse them for other intentions. Matters of religion in workplace can be a complex issue, and in that case, managers can seek legal advice on how to go about them.
We will write a custom Report on Religion in Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Managers can also read Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to get a better understanding of this Act. Other useful sources of information pertaining to this legal issue can be found in worship centers representing different religions.
References Cash, K.,
E-government in Saudi Arabia Analytical Essay essay help site:edu
Governments are increasingly becoming aggressive in pursuing complicated data management systems to conduct their business. In fact, some governments in the developed world are the largest users of ICT services.
However, the application of ICTs is still underdeveloped in different nations (Hamner, Taha and Brahmini 367). Governments in the Gulf region are making considerable efforts capitalize on ICTs with the goal of enhancing public service (Culbertson 85).
This has been witnessed in the 20-year plan on ICT implementation that will include the creation of alliances with global ICT leaders. This also concluded the Home PC approach that was aimed at giving its citizens personal computers and internet connection. The convergence of media and telecommunication has been on the rise in the recent past (Al-Khalifa 239).
This has increased the access its people have on information on a global scale. The regulatory measures have improved, and more internet accessibility has been granted with minimal censorship. To make this a success, the IT market saw a large expenditure of an estimated 2.3 billion dollars in the year 2005, and it is estimated that the industry will reach budgets of 3.8 billion dollars by the year 2010 (Al-Khalifa 244).
Of late, the country has created more contact with the world trade organization. This has enabled more avenues to access funds that guarantee the success of the industry. The regulations and liberalizations in the market have engaged many agencies to venture into private –public partnerships that have boosted ICT development and utilization.
This has been made possible through many promotional events that have seen the adoption of ICT services and products hence improving the productivity in all sectors. Computer sales have seen a rise where an estimated 1.5 billion sale was achieved in the year 2006. ICT has found an application in the creation of managed services and channel development.
E- Commerce, for example G2B and B2B, has risen in recent times thus enabling the simplification of information acquisition and exchange (Al-Fakhri 178). The country has many national projects that include smart cards, e-trade, e-Umrah and e-sadad among many others (Kostopoulos 7). It has dominated the oil industry in Middle East and North Africa.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This has not only seen growth internally but also investments from other rich economies such as the USA. The Saudi ICT market has potential growth since the kingdom got the World Trade Organization (WTO) membership (Al-Khalifa 246).
In the Gulf Region, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia leads in the implementation and utilization of ICTs. According to Business Monitor International (38), Saudi Arabia has the highest demand for information technologies in the Gulf region. It is estimated that the country used more than $3.5 billion in 2011 alone, which has now increased significantly.
In addition, a study by Al-Khalifa (241) has shown that the country’s telecommunication and information technology represents more than 50% of the right ICT market in the gulf region as well as the Middle East. Further studies suggest that this is due to the government’s focus on implementation of ICTs in the public and private sector.
Despite the improved development, readiness for ICT infrastructures in Saudi Arabia has been met with mixed feelings. The country has no code of practice. For a long time, it has depended on the US’s code of practice in ICT management in the private sector whereas the public sector has none.
One of this code concerns privacy issues, where the Saudi government implemented the IT criminal law in the year 2007.This has made it uncertain on legal issues to be taken on organizations or individuals who break it. In terms of compatibility, language has been a constraint in the adoption process. Most applications and user interfaces are developed using the English language making them less popular in Arab-speaking countries
Works Cited Al-Fakhri, Maher, Robert Cropf, Gary Higgs and Patrick Kelly. “E-Government in Saudi Arabia: Between Promise and Reality”. IGI Global (2010): 169-183. Print
Al-Khalifa, Hend. “Heuristic Evaluation of the Usability of E-Government Websites: A Case from Saudi Arabia”. ICEGO (2010): 238-251. Print
We will write a custom Essay on E-government in Saudi Arabia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Culbertson, Stuart. E-Government and Organizational Change. Hershey, PA: IDE company publishing, 2005. Print
Hamner, Marvine, Doaa Taha, Salah Brahimi and Grey Matter. “Potential Barriers to E-Government Implementation in Developing Countries”. IGI Global (2010): 363-354. Print
Kostopoulos, George. E-Government in the Arabian Gulf: A Vision toward Reality. Sharjah, UAE: American University of Sharjah, 2010. Print.
Competitive Advantage and Globalization Report essay help online free: essay help online free
When a company is oriented to globalization strategies, it focuses on overcoming the national barriers in market and industry with references to coping with financial and cultural issues. Today, it is possible to speak about the company’s competitive advantage when the company can operate successfully globally and according to the trends associated with the globalization processes.
Fortune 500 firms develop their globalization strategies basing on the local success which once was achieved with the help of the effective use of the firm’s resources. That is why, it is possible to state that the resource-based competitive advantage is the necessary factor for promoting the Fortune 500 firms’ globalization strategies.
Competitive advantage is the ability of the company to implement unique and effective strategies which provide the significant advantage over competitors within the industry (Barney, 1991; Barney, 2001). Basing on the modern globalization trends, it is necessary to note that competitive advantage should be supported with references to following the principles of sustainability.
Moreover, the company’s capacities are assessed referring to the customers’ interests in the brand. As a result, the Fortune 500 firms create their competitive advantage with the help of the internal resources used. Barney distinguishes between the physical capital resources, human capital resources, and organizational capital resources (Barney, 1991).
To succeed within the market, such companies as Google, Toyota Motor, Microsoft, and Wal-Mart focus on using the valuable and rare human capital and organizational capital resources as the main forces. Less attention is paid to physical capital resources because they are more imitable. The success of the company is in developing the unique strategy or approach in order to win the advantage (Barney, 1991).
That is why, the Fortune 500 firms work out globalization strategies basing on the resources which are difficult to imitate or substitute. The strong and effective organizations as well as quality employees are perceived as the internal strengths of the Fortune 500 firms.
Operational Barriers to Success To operate successfully within the highly competitive environment, companies should concentrate on improving their strategies in order to propose new opportunities, services, and products for their customers. As a result, successful companies should orient to the further movement and be progressive in comparison with their competitors (Gopalakrishnan, Kessler,
Sustainable Development: the Banking Sector Report essay help online free
Many financial institutions have realized the importance of sustainable development. Several banks are currently involved in approaches, which help other business firms understand the importance of sustainable business practices. Banking institutions need to review their lending policies to ensure borrowers use credit obtained in a sustainable manner.
Financial regulators need to establish strong codes of conduct to ensure banks comply with social and environmental regulations. Banks need to assess if their borrowers have complied with crucial environmental requirements before offering them credit (Stephens and Skinner 175).
This will make them transact with customers who are willing to fulfill their social and environmental responsibilities. Some investments which banks finance impact greatly on climate change. They have been criticized for giving less attention to environmental and social issues.
The banking sector needs to reclaim public trust and confidence to clean up its reputation. Many banks were heavily involved in the recent global financial crisis, whose effects continue to be felt in many economies. Many financial sectors are not well regulated, which makes it possible for some banks to engage in unethical practices.
Banks need to include environmental and social compliance in the loan application criteria, before giving out credit to business owners. This will make them vet corporate loan applicants to determine their level of compliance to social and environmental goals. Banks award their top executives a lot of incentives and this contributes to income inequalities in many societies.
These incentives encourage banks to pursue profitability more aggressively, at the expense of environmental and social issues (Stephens and Skinner 176). Many banks are only interested in good financial results, which do not have a positive impact on the society.
SWIFT, an association of more than 10,000 banks operating in over 200 countries, has proposed radical measures to enable banks contribute positively to sustainable development.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This association has introduced various proposals which advise banks to make a positive impact on social and environmental issues The initiative aims to encourage banks to develop products, which support socially sustainable businesses because they make a bigger impact on the lives of poor people.
Small and medium enterprises, whose operations conform to social and environmental goals, need financial support to make a bigger impact in their industries. It is necessary for banks to provide them with adequate financing to make their operations more innovative.
Banks need to implement effective processes, which enable them achieve sustainable development goals. They need to change their practices to make more people aware of the importance of sustainable development (Stephens and Skinner 178).
Financial institutions need to change their attitudes towards social and environmental issues. They need to create effective systems to monitor if their borrowers are complying with crucial social and environmental standards.
This will make it possible for them to assess if borrowers use loans for sustainable development. Banks need to provide low interest credit to lower income segments of the market, to enable them sustain positive relationships with their customers. Several European banks have been subjected to a lot of pressure by NGO’s and other watchdog bodies, to stop financing companies, which produce and sell arms (Struyk 330).
Weapon manufacturers have been accused of fueling conflicts in war torn countries, which cause death, suffering and destruction. Therefore, financial institutions need to be vigilant on business ethics to ensure they finance ventures which give people hope for the future.
Works Cited Stephens, Carolyn, and Chris Skinner. “Banks for a Better Planet? The Challenge of Sustainable Social and Environmental Development and The Emerging Response of The Banking Sector.” Environmental Development 5 (2013): 175-179. Print.
We will write a custom Report on Sustainable Development: the Banking Sector specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Struyk, Zach. “Book Reviews.” Resources Conservation and Recycling 37 (2003): 329-333. Print.
Value of Leadership Conversations Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The debate whether great leaders are made or born will never escape the media and academic discussions due to the reasons presented for and against this topic. There is a significant difference between managers and leaders and this should be the starting point of unraveling the mysteries behind this discussion (Knights 2010). This essay explains how great leadership is developed and achieved by individuals.
Natural Leaders Many scholars and psychologists have argued that great leaders like Winston Churchill are born with these qualities. These people have leadership qualities in them even if other people try to influence or undermine their abilities they will always achieve great things in life (Martins 2012).
A research conducted by the United States Military Academy showed that the brain plays an important role in determining the leadership skills of an individual. In addition, the grey matter located in the brain plays a significant role in memory and decision making.
Therefore, an individual with a large grey matter will have more leadership skills than the one with a small one. These are important elements that determine how an individual manages various situations (Hamm 2011).
Great leaders are able to make decisions that will lead to achievements in the future. In addition, they have always risen from scratch to grace even if they are born in poor families. This means that it does not matter how an individual attains his or her education or wealth but one day the person will prove to the society that he has the power to transform their lives.
Nurtured Leaders On the other hand, all leaders have been nurtured to achieve greatness since, without this, they cannot be leaders. The society trains people how to communicate and understand one another to ensure they interact without conflicts.
This means that a great leader must have good communication and interaction skills to enable the person to fit in the society (Hamm 2011). People are born without specific characters, but they achieve them by learning various issues from people around them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the family, society and friends play significant roles in shaping people to be great leaders. This explains why it is always common that most leaders come from one family like the Bush presidencies. Secondly, education gives people opportunities to nurture their talents, skills and abilities and this becomes a good way of mentoring leadership (Martins 2012).
This means that even though a person may be intelligent there is the need to attain education to ensure the person has relevant knowledge to solve and manage issues in the society. Therefore, without good education a person cannot become a good leader.
Lastly, experience plays a significant role in widening people’s knowledge and skills that are required for them to become great leaders (Eikenberry 2009). A person must have relevant experience in specific fields before he can influence others to follow a certain way of thinking.
For instance, when a worker wants to influence others to strike because of poor salaries the individual must understand different regulations that govern the rights of employees and responsibilities associated with demonstrations (Eikenberry 2009). He must understand the salary scales before demanding an increase in their salaries.
Conclusion Great leaders must have leadership qualities in them before they achieve greatness. However, these skills must be nurtured before they are put into good use. Therefore, great leaders are nurtured and not born leaders since without proper education, experience and knowledge they cannot use their skills to benefit their societies.
References Eikenberry, K. (2009). Remarkable Leadership: Unleashing Your Leadership Potential One Skill at a Time. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Hamm, J. (2011). Unusually Excellent: The Necessary Nine Skills Required for the Practice of Great Leadership. New York: Jossey-Bass.
We will write a custom Essay on Value of Leadership Conversations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Knights, B. (2010). Management and Leadership Skills: Inspire, Motivate, and Gain the Respect of Your Peers. California: Cengage Learning.
Martins, W. (2012). Leadership Conversations: Challenging High Potential Managers to Become Great Leaders. New York: McGraw-Hill.
The Impact of the Culture on the Project Management Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Introduction Studies on completed projects indicate that most of the projects fail to meet their intentional outlay and duration. The failures of the projects are attributed to the cultural diversity of the organization within which the organization originates. Most of the project managers as well as the management scholars agree that cultural diversity has an impact on the projects performance.
The major goal of this report is to identify the extent to which cultural diversity affects the projects execution. The paper will be focusing on the attitudes and some of the factors connected to the project top and line managers’ attitudes in connection to the internal set of laws as well as with respect to the project managers’ prescribed influence.
In essence, the paper will seek to answer the question of whether cultural diversity has an impact on the project management and how cultural diversity can become a barrier to the attainment of the project goals.
The paper will focus on the advantages of multi-cultural teams within the project and how such multiculturalism can be applied to provide solutions to the challenges of working within the dynamic environment where uncertainties are ever increasing. Secondly, the paper will examine how cultural diversity becomes a barrier to the attainment of the project goals.
The advantages of multicultural teams on the project management Managers of international projects are capable of applying innovations to move away from the normal forms of projects management and obtain competitive advantage as well as improve the chances for accomplishing the projects goals. The current concept in managing cross-cultural teams is the crossvergence.
Crossvergence is a concept that combines management practices of several cultures in such a way that performances applicable to the varied culture can be attained.
Lee, Roehl and Choe (2000) assert that global teams are capable of providing a wide array of essentials required for successful combination of dissimilar project management practices. People originating from various companies and country cultures have enhanced diverse experiences and management skills that can be applied by the project managers for the attainment of the project goals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another concept that can be applied in the cross-cultural management within a project is the hybridization. Hybridization is the application of the common cultural knowledge augmented with successful practices from the countries where the project is supposed to be carried out or may be drawn from the original culture of a team member.
Project managers should also expect diverse behaviors even when working with team members from the same country (Poon et al., 2005). The fact is that cultural norms and values are determined by many factors and not only by the team members’ nationality.
The experiences, gender age, education levels and job functions shape the individual beliefs and practices that can be displayed during the project implementation process. All these beliefs and practices can be combined together to form a coalesced part that enhances the project performance.
All these factors should be taken into consideration when undertaking a global project for the first time. In circumstances where a team member have a cultural origin that is unique, Hofstede cultural dimension can be applied to understand the general mind set as well as cultural patterns that are likely to be practiced in their home country.
In addition, more information about the country where the project is implemented need to be gathered to understand the common practices as well as the main sources of economic and cultural affluence that can be applied to enhance the project performance (Lee et al., 2000). The most important step for the project managers is to be much more concerned with the team members’ behaviors.
In addition, the project managers should understand and respect the values of team members particularly those that are practiced during their informal conversations. While understanding and respecting the team members cultural values are critical, the project managers should also allow their opinion be known by the team members.
Jolly (2008) argue that team members should also be able to understand the project communication standards as well as the important project norms that must be adhered to attain the project goals. These common understandings are critical in merging cultural diversity during the project implementation. The consequence is the enhanced project performance.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Impact of the Culture on the Project Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While developing cross-cultural management skills may be difficult, project managers are expected to have effective skills cross-cultural project management. These skills can be attained through understanding the presence of cultural diversity across countries and how individual values are shaped by traits such as age and gender (Poon et al., 2005).
The project managers should also apply some of the practices that indicate respect of cultural diversity particularly during the decision-making process. Finally, the project managers should take advantage of multiculturalism within the team. The project manager should built on the cultural diversity among the team members to identify and mitigate risks as well as look for the best option to attain the goals of the project.
The impact of cross culture in the project management Communication within a project is critical for the attainment of the cross-cultural managerial skills. According to Jolly (2008), individuals within the project are encouraged to meet face to face to enhance cross cultural relationship and communication as well as common understanding among the team members.
While cultural diversity among the team members can be great, the timing and procedures of project communication would play a critical role in bringing together the diverse team members to work towards a particular goal. Cultural differences always have a greater impact on the favored approaches applied in project management communication.
However, communication is not the only aspect of project management that is being impacted by culture. Studies by Lee, Roehl and Choe (2000) indicate that there are major elements of culture that directly affect the project management strategy as well as the processes in the project team development.
These elements includes material culture, which are the physical objects that results from technological advancement, language that is critical in enhancing common understanding among the project team members, aesthetics that promotes both open and casual communication , and education that enhances problem solving techniques.
The other aspects of culture that influence project communication process, team development and management strategy includes values, mind-set and religion. According to Rausch, Halfhill, Sherman and Washbush (2001), beliefs, attitudes affect the broad-spectrum of work moral principles.
The social organization is also another aspect of culture, which is critical in networking within an organization. The political life is the final element of culture, which includes the set of rules and regulations that govern the management process and all the operations of the project.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Impact of the Culture on the Project Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Project management have moved away from face to face environment where all major stakeholders were assembled jointly in one room (Shore
Comparison between Hong Kong standard of living and that of home country base Sydney Case Study essay help site:edu
The real value of international relocation proves difficult to fancy due to different economical set-ups within different regions. One of the main issues affecting international relocation is currency conversion, for example, Australian dollar is usually considered to be high hence could at times give deceptive results to immigrants.
Financial benefits still becomes one of the most considered challenges leading to high cost of living within Australia. This shows clearly that any movement within overseas jurisdiction converts into greater disposable income owing to existing vast differences.
The real financial benefits involved in the process of international move can be valued based on comparing daily living costs, rate of taxes levied within various jurisdictions as well as salaries (Australian Social Inclusion Board, 2010).
Cost of living within Australian cities such as Sydney has tremendously increased within the last ten years. This is attributed to rising inflation and high value of Aussie dollar.
Cost of living in Sydney is considered most of the times in the process of weighing destination offers since the situation in the city provides more realistic measures on spending. In such cases, cost of living indexes is considered useful since it provides accurate overview of general differences between cities (Australian Social Inclusion Board, 2010).
In Sydney, the cost of transport is considered more expensive than in Hong Kong, therefore demanding that the company reduces Alice’s travelling allowances. At the same time, public transport is more regular and efficient in Hong Kong compared to Sydney hence use of private cars not necessary. Consequently, the cost of owning and maintaining a car is lower in Sydney than in Hong Kong.
However, cost of entertainment and leisure proves difficult to quantify since it is mostly depends on an individual’s lifestyle. In the area of entertainment Hong Kong is considered leading in best arts with Sydney trailing in areas concerning night life and art.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are numerous and credible options for those finding it easier to pay premium prices in Sydney contrary to Hong Kong where they provide wide range of choices within each price bracket of products.
The use of straightforward currency conversion will grant the company advantage in the process of calculating financial benefits granted to Alice. At the same time, several considerations have to be made on different factors for the purposes of understanding ultimate financial advantage.
Such factors include; structure of payment used for international firms, nature of value attached to tittles and promotions, differences in tax rates, discounting approaches in firms within different regions and approaches to rewards granted to employees amongst other factors.
There is high cost of housing in Hong Kong hence the company will have to provide assistance in making rent tax deductible based on reimbursement schemes. Such provisions makes individuals’ eligible to tax regulation which asserts that all costs associated with employer can be subjected to deduction.
The employers will be forced to set proper rent expense for Alice within Hong Kong since the city is recognized as highly lucrative environment suitable for such professionals. Additionally, Hong Kong city does not impose a number of tax schemes such as VAT, tax on dividends, withholding tax amongst others.
Expatriate reward approach to be used for Alice’s transfer and its advantages and disadvantages Hong Kong is known to have favorable tax systems with charges of approximately 17% taxation on income. This is considered favorable in comparison to between 30% and 40% rates charged by APAC cities. Various reward systems could be used in this case as the basic foundation on which research done on such endeavors is based.
Rewards systems play an essential role in employees’ participation since it shapes the approach towards theory and method (Marsh
The Process of Information System in Amazon Expository Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Introduction
Improving Business Processes at Amazon.Com
Introduction An information system refers to a combined assemblage of parts for acquiring, storing and processing information for use by various stakeholders in a particular setting. Organizations depend on information systems to undertake daily activities interact with clients, suppliers, and achieve a competitive edge in their particular industry.
For instance, organizations use their websites to inform potential and actual clients about goods and services offered by the company. They also use information systems to carry out accounting processes and compensations among other things.
State corporations and ministries have adopted information systems to disseminate necessary information to citizens. Most companies sell their goods through information systems. Such goods include books, softwares, and electronic goods among others. This essay seeks to explore the use of information systems at Amazon.com
Background Information Amazon.com, Inc. came into being on 28 May 1996. The company serves customers through its retail websites with a deep concentration on fair prices and convenience. The company grants programs to traders to sell their goods on its websites and programs that facilitate authors, music artists, and software developers to design and sell their products. The company has two units: North America and the International units.
The company comes up with websites through which millions of products reach the intended clients. Amazon.com offers Kindle devices through which writers publish their contents and attends to developers and all types of businesses through Amazon Web Services (AWS), Amazon Web Services affords entry to technology programs that works with every kind of enterprise.
Amazon.com offers lowest possible prices to its customers through daily product pricing and freight bids through their premium membership program, Amazon Prime. It accomplishes low price bids through improvement of its operating efficiencies.
The company has put in place user-friendly programs, which enhance quick and reliable services and prompt attendance to customers’ needs. The programs offered by Amazon.com enable traders sell their goods and services through its websites accessible through cellular phones and computers as well.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More North America unit consists of proceeds gained from retail selling of customer goods and services as well as membership subscriptions through websites localized in North America. The unit gains from sales realized from exports from www.amazon.com and www.amazon.ca.
International unit comprises of proceeds from selling retail client goods and membership fees through the company’s international websites plus sales realized from export sales to customers in the United States of America and Canada.
Business Process Business process refers to activities aimed at realizing business goals. These activities fall into three distinct groups including decision-making, operations and competitive strategies.
The most basic type of function is operations support, At Amazon.com, information systems enhance business processes relating to operations through recording and preserving inventory information, information on continuing jobs, information relating to hardware repair and service, supply chain information, and other operations information.
Information systems process information into production timetables, production controllers, and systems for monitoring production. In addition, information systems gather information on human resources, compensation packages, work histories and other people-related information. Information systems convert such information into expenses information per employee and output per employee.
Information systems gather information on market, clients and their profiles, relationship with the company histories as well as information related to advertising. From this data, information systems process it to such items as elasticity reports, marketing schedules and sales activity information.
Information systems facilitate decision-making by management. They allow management to manipulate data and compare best scenario possible for implementation.
We will write a custom Essay on The Process of Information System in Amazon specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Information systems used for decision-making range from spreadsheets to sensitivity analysis tools like Monte Carlo analysis, logit analysis, multi dimensional scaling among others. The management uses such tools to make decisions touching on new products, risk and sensitivity of the market.
Lastly, information systems offer strategic support function to increase their competitive advantage through a three- tier analysis. The first level relates to piloting programs set by the company to test their viability. The second level involves adopting one or two functions of the information systems while the third level involves building up a distinct competitive advantage.
Figure 1: Information systems at Amazon.com .
Improving Business Processes at Amazon.Com Amazon.com should avoid cluttering of pages especially the product page. Too much cluttering distracts potential customer from the product displayed because of various advertisements on a single product page. Amazon.com’s homepage lacks contact information and forces a customer to search for such information.
The company should improve its homepage to include essential information relating to the company including contacts, profile and background information. In addition, the company should come up with alerts to inform customers when new products come up.
Conclusion Amazon.com is doing some great work but there is room for more improvements to gain more customers and increase profitability. Information systems are dynamic and as such, Amazon.com must keep on upgrading them.
Works Cited Econsultancy. ‘Ten things Amazon can do better online’. 2013. Web.
Fact-index.com. ‘Management Information Systems‘. 2013. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Process of Information System in Amazon by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Make Assignment. ‘Amazon.com Operational Strategy‘. 2013. Web.
Reuters. ‘Amazon.com Inc (AMZN.O)‘. 2013. Web.
Zwass, Vladimir. ‘Information systems‘. 2013. Web.
Kelly’s cognitive theory Analytical Essay online essay help
Human personality has been a complex issue for long and has inspired theorists to create ideas to enhance the understanding of the subject. The theorists have made several attempts to understand and explain how the personalities are developed, their variations, how they affect human interactions with the world and their relationships with different psychologically-related disorders.
George Kelly is one of the proponents of the cognitive theory which is the focus of this study. The center of Kelly’s cognitive theory is the manner in which individuals think because their thoughts affect their feelings and actions.The thoughts and feelings of individuals determine their personalities. Kelly identifies the major role in which the human cognition element plays in determining personality.
This aspect forms the foundation of the terminology of personal constructs which refers to the different ways in which individuals collect information and with the support of their understanding, use it to predict events (Kelly, 2006). The individual interacts with the world based on the outcome of his prediction and this interaction becomes his personality.
Kelly’s incisive evaluation on individuality is informed by the need to equate individuals to scientists. He postulates that the objectives of scientists can be linked to those of other beings. He suggests that in the same way that scientists build hypotheses and conduct experiments to establish their validity, people also develop theories based on their personal constructs and consequently employ various theories to predict events.
However, the constructs may at times be influenced by the individuals’ past experiences that may not be relevant to their present societal circumstances hence rendering the constructs invalid. The distorted constructs cannot be used to predict events because they cannot hold new data entry due to their unchangeable nature.
Given that constructs are limited in nature and cannot therefore be employed in all situations, individuals may at times be required to revise their constructs to accommodate data that is created by new experiences. The choice that an individual makes in order to change his construct is what Kelly calls “constructive alternativism”.
The premise of his theory is based on the fact that “a person’s processes are psychologically determined by the ways in which he anticipates events” (Van der Kolk,
Partnership Analysis college essay help near me
The collaboration between Microsoft and Intel is one of the most lucrative business partnerships in the last twenty years. The relationship between the two companies was very convenient because of the type of products that the companies produce (Ungson, 2008). Microsoft is the largest producer of computer software while Intel is one of the largest manufacturers of computer CPUs and electronic chips (Rainer, 2010).
The operating system from Microsoft has been instrumental in enhancing a low cost of computation. Microsoft had to find a business partner that would help in realizing its vision of providing people with a low cost of computation. Intel is widely known for producing affordable computer hardware and therefore the company became an ideal partner for Microsoft (Ungson, 2008).
The partnership between Microsoft and Intel has been very successful because of the products that the two companies produce. The products produced by the two companies complement each other because they are sold as single package. Intel produces CPUs and other computer hardware while Microsoft produces the software that is needed to run the hardware (Schooley, 2007).
Computer hardware can not work without software and vice versa. This paper will discuss the rationale behind inter-organizational partnerships in industry information systems and how the systems are used to define and support partnerships.
Microsoft has the highest stake in its partnership with Intel and it is estimated that the partnership has a market capitalization of $400 billion (Ungson, 2008). It is this successful partnership that attracted IBM to choose the two companies when it launched its first personal computer. This is not to mean that there were no other companies that would have provided the much needed software and CPUs.
Microsoft has been facing a lot of competition from the Digital Research Company for a very long time. Microsoft and Intel have continued to dominate their respective industries as a result of their association with IBM (Ungson, 2008). The need to dominate the computer industry was the rationale behind the partnership between Microsoft and Intel.
The partnership between Microsoft and Intel has been experiencing some challenges in recent years because customers have been reluctant in accepting Microsoft products (Ungson, 2008). The two companies started with some weak technologies but got stronger after the partnerships. Microsoft has for many years been criticized for its offensive business tactics.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are accusations from different quarters that Microsoft has been abusing its monopoly power (Waters, 2007). The partnership between Microsoft and Intel was commonly referred to as Wintel since Windows could only run Intel CPUs. It is this kind of monopoly that enabled the two companies to enjoy a lot of profits (Waters, 2007). The users had no option but to purchase computer products produced by the two companies.
It is this kind of benefits that made this partnership to be successful. The two companies collaborate in terms of sales, services and engineering systems which make it necessary for the companies to have an inter-organizational partnership in industry information systems (Truman, 2000).
Microsoft and Intel collaborate to provide IT solutions to their customers. The companies have joint roadmaps and other integrated features that justify their need to partner in industry information systems (Truman, 2000).
Microsoft and Intel have an objective of providing the most relevant and effective IT infrastructure for users (Truman, 2000). This can not be achieved without having a partnership in industry information systems. The need to provide fast and efficient software to customers is the reason behind Microsoft’s decision to partner with Intel especially when it comes to industry information systems (Schooley, 2007).
Inter-organizational partnerships in industry information systems have become very essential in modern business. Microsoft operates in a very competitive environment that requires companies to have reliable, flexible and efficient information systems (Ungson, 2008).
Organizations that are in a business partnership need to relate in a way that benefits customers and the companies involved (Murphy, 2008). This can only be achieved through an inter-organizational system. The partnership between Microsoft and Intel has been defined and supported in a great way by the inter-organizational system.
Microsoft and Intel are linked in the market because they depend on each other to sell their products (Truman, 2000). Microsoft and Intel have benefited in a great way through the inter-organizational system because the partnership improved communication between the two companies.
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Session Long Project 3: ”Kraft Foods Group” Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction Resources are important since they help a company in its production process. Resources are the source of input and major determinants of output (Henry, 2007). A company that has more resources may have an advantage over its competitors. However, it is important to note that resources have to be utilized effectively for them to give the company an advantage.
On their own, resources do not have any benefit to the organization. Resources, therefore, need to be transformed to benefits. As resources are transformed to benefits, they usually become overstretched or they get used up. Resources are categorized into two classes: tangible resources and intangible resources. This essay evaluates the resources of Kraft Foods Group and how they help the company gain a competitive advantage.
Tangible Resources These are resources that can be touched, seen and can be felt. There are different categories of tangible resources. At Kraft Foods Group, the following are the available the tangible resources.
These are resources that have been made by human beings and they help in execution of daily activities. In an organization, physical resources include fixed capital assets such as buildings, equipment, machinery, land, as well as any other item that helps the business in its activities and can be considered as a fixed asset (Henry, 2007).
Kraft Foods Group is rich in capital assets and it utilizes them to gain an advantage over its competitors. The company’s plants and equipment are recorded in their historical costs, and their depreciation is calculated using the straight line method. The period over which equipment is depreciated is highly dependent on its use and the type of equipment.
For instance, in the case of machinery depreciation period ranges between 3 years to 20 years after which its economical life is over and can be disposed. Apart from the plant and machinery, the company also has sufficient land that is used for productive purposes.
These are resources that refer to money flow within the organization. Kraft Group is a company that is strong in terms of finance (Henry, 2007). Financial resources are very important to any company since they enable the day-to-day running of the organization’s operations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At Kraft Foods Group, financial reports are prepared in accordance with the GAAP principles. They are reported in income statement, cash flow statement, statement of comprehensive income, as well as the statement of financial position, liabilities and shareholders’ equity. Over the last couple of years, the company has recorded financial increase. This indicates profitability in the company.
This is the most valuable resource in any organization. Kraft Foods Group recognizes that human resources are vital for the development of the organization. As a result, the company highly values its human resources. They are the ones who shape the company’s decisions and helps its employees develop in terms of skills and expertise. The company has sufficient human resources.
Intangible Resources Technical resources
Technical resources of a company depend on the human resources that are available, as well as the technological resources (Zahorsky, 2009). Kraft Foods Group has human resources who are highly experienced and skilled adequately. Their technical ability is, therefore, high.
They have the ability to utilize the available technological resources to improve the performance of the organization. Technological resources include software and design, among others. They help the company gather relevant information that is in turn used for production purposes.
This refers to knowledge that is held by members of the organization. Kraft Foods Group has people who have sufficient knowledge that can be utilized in production methods. It has a diverse team of employees who have the right skills to move the organization forward (Bramha, 2011).
The company makes use of “patents, copyrights, as well as trademarks” to safeguard its intellectual resources. It is due to its intellectual property that the company has been among the top in the world.
This is an intangible resource and a very important asset for a company. It is the difference between the company’s assets and the actual value of the company as a whole (Bramha, 2011). Goodwill is important since it influences the reputation of an organization.
We will write a custom Essay on Session Long Project 3: ”Kraft Foods Group” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kraft Foods Group has a rich goodwill and a good reputation to its customers. For instance, in the year 2010 the company had goodwill worth $63,819. In the year 2012 goodwill was worth $62,482. In the first quarter of the year 2013, goodwill was $11, 319.
Cultural, reputational and strategic alliances The company has a culture that allows innovation, diversity and economical growth. Its culture is dynamic (SWOT analysis: Lesson, 2009). It has a good reputation owing to its high quality services. It is as a result of its reputation that it has been able to develop a strong goodwill. Customers are loyal to its services and products. The company has a number of strategic alliances in order to be competitive.
This helps it expand its market and operation. For instance, the company announced an alliance with Schawk Inc., an imaging company. This would help Kraft Foods Group to expand its services to imaging and gain more customers for its food products.
Distinctive capabilities Architecture
This is the ability of a company to come up with strategies that helps it gain a competitive advantage over its rivals (Zahorsky, 2009). A company that has Architecture ability can come with strategies that other companies are yet to develop, making it competitive. Kraft Foods Group has employees who have the ability to architect competitive strategies. Creativity is vital in Architecture.
This is simply the image that the company has to its customers. A good reputation is built but not acquired. To build a good reputation, the company has to offer distinguished products and services that have the ability to win the trust and loyalty of employees. Kraft Foods Group is cautious of its customer’s health, a strategy that has been crucial in building its good reputation.
Innovation is the ability to improve on the current products and services to make them better and more satisfactory to customers (SWOT analysis: Lesson, 2009). Kraft Foods Group has employees who are highly creative, thus influencing the organization’s innovation.
The company gives its employees the chance to develop their innovative skills. The company also gives employees chances to contribute in decision-making. This facilitates innovation in the company and becomes a competitive advantage.
Conclusion A company can be rich in terms of resources, but may not have a competitive advantage. Having resources is, therefore, not enough. A company has to come up with ways to use its resources properly to gain a competitive advantage.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Session Long Project 3: ”Kraft Foods Group” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is possible to have an organization that has few resources, but with a better competitive advantage compared to another company that has many resources. The difference is in the utilization of these resources. A company that is rich in resources and uses them well is usually very competitive and successful.
References Bramha, D. (2011). Internal analysis in strategic management. Web.
Henry, A. (2007). The internal environment: A resource based view of strategy. Understanding Strategic Management. Oxford University Press.
SWOT analysis: Lesson. (2009). Web.
Zahorsky, D. (2009). A business owner’s secret weapon: SWOT analysis. Web.
Project Management: The Case of Buxton Hall Case Study college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Concept of project management in Buxton Hall Case
Objectives and aims
Application of best skills in project management
Introduction The success of a project relies heavily on how well a manager ensures that best practices in management are applied in handling issues as well as the involved persons (teams). In the case of Buxton Hall, the individuals involved needed to work as a team because the work was laborious, while time and monetary resources were limited.
This analysis seeks to address the degree of success of Buxton Hall project and the factors that contributed to the project’s success. In addition, it will identify the best practices that contributed to the project’s success and how they contributed to the objectives of the project.
Concept of project management in Buxton Hall Case For a project to succeed within the constraints of time and resources, project managers must recognize and understand the concept of a project management in relation to the project they are undertaking. First, there is need for a proper understanding of the project, including the problem to be solved, the tasks involved, resources needed, schedule and risks involved.
In the case of Buxton Hall project, it is evident that the project was well managed from the beginning. For instance, a proper development of a functional team was initiated prior to planning for the tasks. In fact, it is clear that there was a team building exercise based on open communication and consultation.
Although they had different professions, Chad, Crawford and Legacy West initiated a functional team by allowing the members to recognize some possible problems, risks and other issues that they would not like to encounter during their work on the project.
They opened a negotiation and discussion session in order to ensure that the members learn and understand each other. Moreover, they made sure that members were free with each other. For instance, the inclusion of a picnic and a softball game for the members prior to starting the job served to reduce tension between the members in future.
Objectives and aims Secondly, team members were involved in identification of project objectives. In this case, the members agreed that the primary objective was to improve the Hall. The team leaders recognised the need to work as a team, the importance of open communication and consultations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By asking the members to recognise the kind of difficulties they would not like to experience, the team mangers were setting out an objective of developing the best possible working environment for the members.
Application of best skills in project management Thirdly, problem solving and conflict management skills were applied during the tasks. For instance, there were regular consultations between the team leaders (Chad, Crawford and Legacy West Consultants). For instance, when a problem was identified when Nick was dissatisfied with Dat’s men, there was no confrontation.
Instead, Chad and Dat consulted with each other and agreed to check on the work. Secondly, members of the team were involved and consulted in decision-making as well as in conflict resolution. For instance, when a Web survey indicated some discrepancies in the manner in which Dat’s and Crawford’s foremen were acting, each leader sought to solve the issue with his juniors after consulting with the other leaders.
Conclusion Clearly, by handling members liable for their work, creating a good working environment for them, frequent consultations, creating an open environment for communication and involving the members in identification of problems and solutions provide an indication of application of best practices in the project.
In turn, these practices contributed to a timely completion of the project because they allowed the team leaders to solve problems and conflicts on time and lead their subjects by example.
Kraft Foods Group: strategic decisions Expository Essay college application essay help: college application essay help
Executive summery This formal report presents the result of a study on Kraft Foods Group used to recommend strategic decisions. The study focuses more on thorough analysis of the internal environment.
The body of the report includes how both PERT and SWORT analysis were used to analyze the company’s external and internal environment. The information discovered from the assessment lead to recommendations and conclusions which forms the last part of the report.
Introduction The demand in the food industry has created competition because consumers continually need and want to feed. The main purpose of this study is to analyze this life preserving habit of human beings and how it has made Kraft Foods recession-proof. The study focuses on strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that helps the company go through the economic downturns making it resilient and profitable.
The wide range of opportunities brought about by different products in the market together with improved technology has created more channels of marketing. This report clearly shows the analysis of the internal environment at Kraft foods. Evaluation of strengths and weaknesses of the company using SWOT analysis also formed part of the collective assessment.
The external environment It is the external environment that creates problems within the organization proving that without the external environment, it is hard to know how strengths and weaknesses affect the organization. Strategic analysis involves assessing both the general and internal environment (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt, 2008). It also deals with the internal environment and the factors that affect the internal environment.
Political factors such as government policies and systems influences tax and tariffs and as a result affect food industries. Such includes regulations and importing policies and procedures. These government interventions also affect the demand and supply of foods.
Kraft Foods is among the companies affected by political decisions and instability because it takes its products all across the world even to the Middle East. Egypt for instance has experienced war for a very long time due to transitional groups. The same happened in Libya and Syria.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Stability, purchasing powers, economic recession and inflation rate certainly affect the internal environment though they originate from the external environment. All the decisions and actions taken by the managers of the company in all the areas of the organization are affected by the economic factors.
The technology used at Kraft affects the environment and ecological aspects of the business. The technological changes affect quality standards of a product and affect the price of the product. The ingredients at Kraft Foods are developed through bio technology. Genetically modification of food products have received mixed reaction from scholars who believe that nanotechnology can be used to replace such products.
Religious beliefs, nationality and culture also affect consumption hence influencing demand of food products. The demographics clearly state that brand awareness differs depending on factors such as income distribution. Kraft Foods sells pork free products to the Middle East and Arab countries.
Internal environment PERT analysis is helpful in preparing for a SWOT analysis which involves the internal assessment of the weaknesses, strength, opportunities and threats within the internal environment of a business (Pahl, Richter and University of Applied Science Berlin, 2007). We can now see how SWOT analysis was is used analyze the internal environment of the company.
When analyzing the strength, the study showed that Kraft Foods is currently at the top of all the companies in the food industry. It is the best company in the United States that deals with food products however, it is challenged globally by Nestle making it second best in the world.
This improved revenue gives the company a competitive advantage over the other closer companies who belong to the same industry. The position that the company enjoys also helps it maintain its customer base because human beings like associating with successful entities
A financial report in 2009 shows that Kraft Foods’ revenue grew by 4.30 % room the previous year. Another strength that this organization has is that it has various leading brands of food and beverages. It produces snacks, beverages, cheese and dairy milk. It also provides grocery and convenient meals loved by most consumers.
We will write a custom Essay on Kraft Foods Group: strategic decisions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A strong research and development centre has contributed to the high reign of the company in the food industry. The company has established 11 research and development centers where experienced food scientists all over the world connect through the internet as they track each other’s activities and progress.
Despite all these strengths, the company has limited variety of products as compared to its competitors. It also lacks a marketing strategy that can help it compete with Nestle and CognAgra Foods. Kraft food has tried so many times to launch new products but they have not come up with new products not just enough for competition.
For purposes of expansion, the company can dwell more on the new products but still gives its consumer the previous products with a view of changing their consuming habit. The company creates opportunities when it the products available in the market
In Europe, the company experiences low demand because it is busy expanding new markets. It generates most of its profit in North America. The leading food manufacturer, Nestle, is stiff because Europeans do not use Kraft. Such stiff competition causes customers to try other brands because they do not see any difference in their preferred choice.
Other multinational companies that produce chocolate also create a stiff competition to this company especially in the United Kingdom. The varieties of products give the companies an added advantage in the market.
Apart from reducing the risk of concentrating on few products, creating various category of food enables Kraft’s Food to survive in the competitive environment. It provides the company with an opportunity to compete in various categories. International markets also provide opportunities for Kraft Food to increase its customer base. The company operates in oevr 150 states but has its main target in the United States of America.
Recently, Cadbury Shareholders allowed Kraft foods to acquire it in a $19 billion deal giving the company an opportunity to take control of food industry in the United Kingdom (Great Britain, 2011).
By formulating “better-for-you” options, the company shows that they are concerned with people’s health. Consumers need products with less sodium, fat and calories giving Kraft Food an opportunity to impress the consumers and give them what they want. Kraft currently markets world’s most trusted brands.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Kraft Foods Group: strategic decisions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Threats
Competition in the food industry is itself a threat to Kraft Foods. Sara Lee North American Retail, CognAgra Foods and Nestle provide stiff competition to the organization. Currently, there is a struggle for market penetration in China and India in the food industries. Kraft feels under pressure because of industry consolidation that happens across the globe.
Companies that consolidate have a large customer base and higher market share creating a challenge to Kraft Foods. Once the market share has been hindered from expanding, the purpose of a business looses meaning. This is the main reason why the managers are unable to outdo Nescafe which is the currently best food products.
The weakening of US dollars also contributes to the slow growth of the company. When the dollar weakens against a country’s currency, importing raw materials becomes difficult and expensive. All These results to the increased cost of goods and revenue shrink. The volatile cost of goods and services resist the company’s efforts to implement marketing strategies.
Recommendation It is crucial for the company’s management team to implement strategies that help survive in a business environment. The company needs to adopt a Competitive price strategy to outdo competitors such as Nestle.
The competitive strategy gives the company a chance to penetrate its competition. In order to improve the public relations of the company, managers can sponsor music shows and event as they have already done with Kraft Music Revenue.
The recommendations were mostly done by considering the weakness and threats this organization faces. The study therefore leads to discovery of missing key elements in implementation process of the organization. Through a differential strategy, the company can catch up with the emerging markets.
Natural products free from chemicals can be produced more by adopting nanotechnology instead of producing genetically modified products. This differential strategy enhances customer loyalty to their brand hence the company will increase its customer base. The company should also provide quality standard products that are attract more consumers in order to manage its competitors especially in Europe.
The company should implement focus strategy where most of its activities are based on food products. The structure of the organization should be market specific to allow the consumers recognize with the trade mark (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt, 2008). The business should focus on corporate level strategy where all its roles are linked to the goals and objectives.
The company should also have full control of the activities within the supply chain in order to track whate happens at every step of operation. This move can help the company have a large market share in countries such as China, Russia and Brazil.
The company should consider participating in global collaboration of its food products. Apart from sustainability strategy, the company needs to collaborate with the consumers, distributers and partners In order to know the sectors that need improvement.
Conclusion Kraft vision works on becoming the best in the whole world. Their brands are present everywhere giving them a chance to reign in the market in the United States of America (Warren, 2008). By creating a consistent growth, the company has an exploitable consistence growth. Wise decisions made by the management team such as sponsoring music concerts have improved the public relations.
The company has more strengths and weaknesses which can be combined with all the opportunities in order to fight the emerging threats such as stiff competition. Kraft foods can do better than they are currently once the recommended strategies are implemented.
References Great Britain. (2011). Is Kraft working for Cadbury?: Report, together with formal minutes, oral and written evidence. London: Stationery Office.
Ireland, R. D., Hoskisson, R. E.,
Advantages and Disadvantages of Project Management Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Project management is a unique process of doing things in the most appropriate manner. It is a special process that is used to plan, operate, and monitor projects. Its major objectives are achieving project goals effectively and solving specific problems. It is the way of managing changes to meet some specific obligations through the introduction of new ideas or improving the existing ones.
It focuses on controlling the introduction of desired change by planning what need to be done, when, by whom, and at what standard.
The managers are responsible of overseeing the project through team building, coordinate the work of different people, and monitoring how the work is done until the final results are attained. Project management has both advantages and disadvantages thus the managers need to maximize on advantages as they minimize on the disadvantages.
The first advantage of employing project management is that it yields to efficiency in service delivery. This is because it provides a direction to be followed to get to completion easily. Project management helps in forecasting the areas that can cause delays and plan on how they can be avoided before the commencement of the project.
They help in estimating the scenarios that are likely to occur and therefore, the managers can decide on the appropriate cause of action to take to ensure there is efficiency and effectiveness in operations. This facilitates customer satisfaction, which ensures that the business create a wider market share that in turn increases profitability.
Project management tools facilitate the development and maintenance of artifacts such as project schedule. This helps in analyzing complex situation that would take long to analysis without the aid of these tools. They ease the process of recording, linking and analyzing data thus ensuring smooth flow of the project within designated project stages.
Another advantage is that management projects facilitate objective comparison of alternative actions by providing repeatable results. Managers can apply the same strategies that contributed to successful completion of one project to other projects in the future without rigidity because they leave room for flexibility. The managers can opt to take another direction if they discover a better method of improving the project.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This increases the chances of the quality and quantity of production since implementing the basic project management strategies helps in narrowing focus. When the focus is directed to some specific and achievable goals, they can be attained at a reasonable time span and within the budgeted costs.
The main disadvantages associable with project management are of overheads, obsession, and lack of creativity. Overheads that relate to Project management include cost, time, and communication overheads. Cost overheads are financial obligations that need to be met to ensure that the project is carried out effectively.
Organization need to hire more managers who ensure that the project is carried out appropriately, and the required outcome is achieved. There are direct costs that are involved in training the project managers, developing programs, and changing the organization to align with the project demands.
Communication overheads increase due to the introduction of another level in the management team that breaks the flow of information. The information ceases to move from functional manager to team manager, but a third department of project manager is involved. Time overheads come as a result of delayed communication and other protocols that need to be followed.
Obsession is in the mind of the project managers. It can be methodology, process, or stakeholder obsession. In most cases, obsession is triggered by the fear of loss of control and other insecurities from the managers. Lack of creativity can be procedural or administrative.
Procedural non-creativity results from rigid procedures and fixed time span being set to perform tasks. Administrative non-creativity comes as a result of following the set procedures without improving.
In conclusion, project management can be both advantageous and disadvantageous to the company. Managers responsible in running project management should be keen to ensure that the project work for the best of the company. this is achieved by ensuring that they maximize on advantages and develop ways to minimize on disadvantages.
We will write a custom Essay on Advantages and Disadvantages of Project Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Comparison between Theories: Realism vs. Liberalism Research Paper cheap essay help
Overview of realism and liberalism Liberalism and realism are among the theories that are commonly used in political science in explaining the relations between players in the international political scene. The assumptions of the two theories contradict each other.
While realism is taken to portray pessimism in the relations between states in the international system, liberalism depicts optimism and positivism in as far as the relations and goals of states in the international system are concerned. Realism depicts competition in the relations between states.
According to the proponents of realism, every action in the relation between states is guided by the urge to pursue and promote the interests of a given nation state. Nation states act to safeguard their interest, which implies that the action of any state is geared towards safeguarding the interest of that state.
They care less about the interests of other nation states. On the other hand, liberalism depicts a change in the international scene that aims to enhance interaction between nation states in various aspects of development. Liberalism depicts optimism in the domestic and international affairs.
Liberalism as a philosophy in political economics focuses on the change in policies and legislation in order to promote the development of nation states. Liberalism concerns the search for a means of embracing freedom and openness in the participation of nations in political, social and economic affairs.
Liberalism, realism and the concept of power There exist a substantial number of theories that seek to explore the concept of power in domestic and international relations. Power is one of the key concepts that dictate the relation between states on the international system.
Liberalism and realism are two key theories that depict two pictures that coexist, yet they are different in theory. Realism and liberalism differ in the manner in which they depict power in the relation between actors on the domestic and international scene.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One critical thing about realism and liberalism is that they confide and believe in the need for power by actors Lukes (2005). However, there is a difference in the manner in which the two theories expresses the channels of pursuing power by the actors.
Realism and the comprehension of power
According to Wechsler (2010), realism is a theory that is two dimensional. The theory was advanced in the mid of the 20th century by Hans Morgenthau. The development period of this theory is critical to understanding the dimension of the theory in explaining the concept of power. The theory was developed at a time when the world was witnessing a vacuum in the balance of power, which was created by the Second World War.
Realism can be comprehended from the 19th century European politics where power was one of the main issues that brought about conflict between European nations. The 19th century Europe was characterized by numerous wars and territorial conquests.
These developments entered the 20th century and developed through the mid of the 20th century. The balance of power was the key center of friction between the United States and the Soviet Union during the cold war. The current political developments in international relations, therefore, cannot be separated from the concept of power (Lukes, 2005).
Realism, which is confounded on the antecedents of power by the states, is quite pessimistic when it comes to the issue of power modalities by states. This is backed by the contemporary developments in the international political economy, where each actor uses various tools to consolidate power. Realism believes that power is strongly founded in military dominance of a given state over other states.
The acquisition, exercise and consolidation of military power is the main goal of states, thus most of the actions in relations between states justify the search for power and the need to increase power of states.
According to realism, the recent wars that have been waged by the United States on other states, for example the US war on Iraq and the US war in Afghanistan are forms of actions that portray power through military dominance (Lukes, 2005).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Comparison between Theories: Realism vs. Liberalism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The struggle for power and subsequently war are brought about by the search for power, which is the core dilemma of realism. There are a number of developments that have emerged in international politics, which seem to draw away the linear view about the interest of states. Global politics can no longer be solely explained by basing on a single attribute of power as opined by the proponents of realism (Williams, 2006).
Realistic schools of thought that seek to broaden the attributes of power in international politics include neo-realism, which tries to depict the international system as an interactive system where power is not solely based on military dominance as opined by the realism school of thinkers.
However, the status of anarchy as opined by realists cannot be completely wished away in as far as sovereignty continues to be one of the main pillars that define a state. It is argued that a substantial number of realists have already ascended to the assumption that the status of anarchy is a factor that cannot be ignored in the relations between states (Jackson
Scientific and technical education for ESL students Exploratory Essay essay help: essay help
Course Introduction This is an Intermediate ESP (English for Specific Purposes) course for ESP learners in their 1st term in their 1st Year at the Industrial Secondary School in Najran, Saudi Arabia. This course is designed to introduce students to the more “technical” aspects of the English language in order for them to acquire a level of proficiency in both verbal and nonverbal communication utilizing technical jargon and concepts.
The inherent necessity of such an endeavor is based on the subject matter of the Industrial Secondary School which consists of electronics, computer science, electrical engineering and general automotive design. This mixed curriculum requires students to familiarize themselves with a wide assortment of technical terminologies and processes which are written in the English language (Carrió-Pastor, 2009).
Familiarity with such concepts is essential in order to properly apply the lessons that are to be taught to them. To ensure that students will have ample time to develop technical English proficiency, the course duration will encompass 15 weeks with an average of 60 hours of teaching. Each class will be composed of 25 to 35 students with ages ranging from 16 to 18 years old.
Students have been classified as possessing a lower intermediate level of English and, as such, transitory periods will be necessary in order to ease students into the different topics that will be covered in this course. Overall, this course is designed to increase technical English competency and proficiency to prepare the students of the Industrial Secondary School to understand and apply the lessons that they will be taught.
Overview of Aims and Objectives The aims and objectives of this course focus primarily on the framework advocated by (Robinson (2011) when it comes to teaching the technical aspects of the English language to ESL students.
This involves aspects related to understanding the context of the verbage, internalizing the use of technical terminologies, applying practical use of the terminologies being taught and lastly an evaluation of core competencies through writing, listening, grammar and speaking to determine the current level of understanding of the learner (Robinson, 2011).
Through such methods of learning and evaluation, both the student and the teacher will be able to understand the current level of progress the student has in internalizing the lessons on technical English and where improvements need to be made (Bokor, 2011).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By the end of this course, it is expected that the students will be able to perform the following:
be able to read and understand text in technical English and respond verbally or orally to the prompts of the text
Write extensive responses to a set of given technical text to the extent that the response shows a level of insight and clarity into how particular types of technical jargon are meant to be utilized
is able to respond both verbally and non-verbally in a grammatically correct manner with technical terms and jargon
lastly, the student should be able to converse with another student utilizing technical jargon in a means that makes sense, shows proficiency and the ability to contextualize what the jargon means based on the situation that the conversation took place in.
Context and Needs Analysis The definition of the context for this course is based on the following factors: people, classroom settings, teaching resources, time, and the nature of the course. In total, the overall duration is set at 15 weeks and will held every Tuesday and Thursday from 9am in the morning till 10am. The course will be held at the Najran Secondary Institute in Saudi Arabia with all the necessary fees and expenses being paid by the students.
A traditional teaching method will be utilized over the duration of the course involving a classroom setting which is teacher-fronted. It is expected that each individual class will consist of 25 to 35 students all of which have a low to mid intermediate level of understanding involving the English language.
This course is considered mandatory for all students that which to progress to their second term at the Najran Secondary Institute due to the necessity of being able to learn and apply, both verbally and nonverbally, the various technical elements of the subjects that they will learn.
Before proceeding, it should be noted that since this course is being taught to students who do not utilize English as their primary language then it can be considered as a type of Target Language development course under the context of teaching students how to properly learn, understand and apply technical jargon and phrases in the English language.
What were the implications of Germany’s reunification for France and how did Francois Mitterrand respond to it Dissertation a level english language essay help
Introduction Francois Mitterrand was born in France at a place called Jarnac in the year 1916. He rose to become the 21st president of France and the longest serving president that France has ever had. During his formative years, he was a student at the Paris University where he studied political science and law. During the Second World War, Mitterrand served in the French army as a soldier.
He was discharged after he was injured during the war. Francoise Mitterrand was known to be a very controversial figure in France politics. However, regardless of this fact, he was able to be elected as the first left wing president of France leading through his Socialist party. Before his election as the French president, Mitterrand had held different ministerial positions for a long time.
He had thus established himself as a political heavy weight in France. Mitterrand’s presidency was full of controversies, which were mostly unearthed after his retirement. It was revealed that, during his time as the president, he formed an anti-terror unit to monitor and obtain information from journalists as a way of keeping his family life secretive.
This group was later found to have engaged in an illegal tapping and eavesdropping exercise as part of their duty to hide the president’s secrets. The paper presents the implications of Germany’s reunification for France showing how Francois Mitterrand responded to it. However, it will first offer the challenges that France encountered at the dawn of the reunification.
The Challenges that France Faced in the Wake of German Reunification While under Charles De Gaul and Francois Mitterrand, France had developed into one of the strongest European economies. However, under the Gaullist policies, it was meant to be the strongest European power. Francois Mitterrand was working towards a European integration, which eventually became the European Union.
The French people were opposed to German reunification because they felt that a fast unification, as it was happening in the year 1989-1990, would complicate matters for the French agenda in Europe (Sarotte 2011, p. 257). Eastern Germany was an impoverished nation under the communist policies that had held back its development for so many years. The Soviet Union was the main benefactor for East Germany.
For some time, it had withdrawn its support to the nation. Even with the support that it was supposed to offer, its efforts in Germany were very poor thus making East Germany suffer the fate of many communist states (Larrabee 1989, p. 38). The economic and monetary unification that France was vouching for would therefore be jeopardised if Germany would be unified.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Eastern Germany was so left behind in terms of development that even its housing structures were those of 1949. It would therefore require massive injection of capital to raise its status for the country to be integrated in the envisaged European Union.
This matter was a great challenge to France because it would be more expensive to undertake the integration with East and West Germany as one nation. According to Blitz(2009), those fears were confirmed after the integration because, to date, the Western part of Germany that was previously the more prosperous of the two has always had to transfer funds for the development of the eastern part of Germany (p. 2).
Such were the fears of the French people that an early integration would destabilise their plans for a unified European community. France’s opposition to Germany reunification was informed by the fact that the Soviet Union’s president Mikhail Gorbachev had informed it (France) that it would lead to a security risk (Tiersky 1995, p. 8).
Gorbachev had indicated that the unification of Germany would lead to a coup de tat in the Soviet Union. It would lead to disintegration of the member states. According to Tiersky (1995), this case would pose a very challenging problem to the whole Eastern European block of countries as well as to France (p. 9). Therefore, France had to be very careful in its approach towards German unification.
The prospect of security risks led to the French government opting for a distant approach towards German reunification, which was later on interpreted as being opposed to Germany’s reunification. The stability of the region and France’s domination of the regions both economically and politically gave France a good reason to have fear on the reunification (Newman 2010, p. 155).
Although it cannot be rightly concluded that France was opposed to German reunification, it can be rightly proved that France had great reservations on this issue. The prospect of the Eastern Europe collapsing posed a very great challenge to Frances’ economy as well as its security as Meirs (2002, p. 211) reveals. French leadership was seen to be divided on whether to support the reunification or not.
The then French President Francois Mitterrand observed this move through the sent out mixed signals. President Mitterrand would verbally support the reunification. Nevertheless, his actions would relay a different message.
We will write a custom Dissertation on What were the implications of Germany’s reunification for France and how did Francois Mitterrand respond to it specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This strategy was played out when Mitterrand would visit East Germany as a way of supporting its existence as well as visit President Gorbachev whose country (the Soviet Union) controlled East Germany (Cogan 2011, p. 258). Although France was hesitant towards German unification, it was just a matter of time before the two countries were reunified.
Mitterrand recognised that this would take place eventually, and was anxious for this reason that a unified Germany should be well integrated into the European Community before it was unified. The most challenging bit for France to cope with was the timing for the unification because France rather preferred a delayed reunification of the two countries though it did not have a plan for the same.
The delayed reunification was based on France’s need to keep Germany in a certain control so that Germany does not have total control of its affairs and those of the region. The French people insisted that Germany joins the Euro currency when it is formed.
The Bundesbank was an independent entity that had succeeded for a long time in controlling inflation by giving short-term interest rates thus making it a strong bank of influence within Europe. It was very independent of the government, a fact that made it a target of politicians who felt its interest rates were not appropriate (Morys 2003, p. 3).
Thus, the main challenge that this condition faced was whether Germany would abide by it and thus the uncertainties (Jabko 2010, p. 324). France had for a long time resisted American influence in Europe. Mitterrand started leaning towards forming a strong relationship with Germany thus seeking to have control of the unification so that it happens according to his terms (Fitchett 1996).
Belikins (2011) posits that the Americans supported the reunification. As France did, they opted for a slow process whose conclusion did not have timelines (p. 664). This issue was a challenge to France because it (France) hinged Germany’s reunification to some of its programs. Any uncertainties would mean uncertainties on its ambitious programs.
According to Sarrote (2011), France did not have any underlying problems with German reunification. All it did was just to follow in the path of the other leader’s opinion. France did not need to have its own opinion on the issue. (p. 258). Another challenge that France faced was during the negotiations for a unified Germany.
The then German Chancellor Helmut Kohl surprised everyone when he came out with a ten-point road map that was outside the negotiations being carried out. This case definitely threw France and other countries into a spin because that move was much unexpected and hence a challenge to France because it strived to have control of the situation. Being caught off guard was the least it expected (Ver Net 1992, p. 658).
Not sure if you can write a paper on What were the implications of Germany’s reunification for France and how did Francois Mitterrand respond to it by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The devaluation of the mark would surely affect the franc (outflows of capital towards Germany plus increase of German exports towards France). France rushed to create the monetary union. Jacques Delors planned it in 1988. Apart from sharing economic power with Germany, France took the move with the hope that further political integration would ensue.
Was German Reunification a Threat to Francois Mitterrand? Francois Mitterrand had modelled France along the Gaullist policies in that he wanted to make France the superpower of Europe. In doing so, he aligned France to America and therefore became America’s ally in Europe. Francois-led France was still living in the after World War II fear. One of the biggest fears was the emergence of Germany to its pre-war capabilities.
The abilities of Germany were seen in the way the West Germany economy had been developed based on its strength that was equal to countries such as Britain and France. Mitterrand’s fears were that, if Germany was allowed to reunite, it would become even more powerful than before. Mitterrand had an ally to this case in Britain’s Margaret Thatcher who was also totally and openly opposed to the reunification of Germany.
According to Blitz(2009), Mitterrand was fearful of Germany reunification where he was quoted in lately unclassified documents as having told Thatcher that a unified Germany would be much worse that the Hitler’s Germany.(p. 9).Its enemies had not forgotten Germany’s military prowess during the war. This knowledge did not escape Mitterrand who himself fought in the war as a prisoner of it at some point.
Therefore, Mitterrand had genuine fears that Germany’s reunification was a threat that had to be controlled before it got out of control. To this fact, history was on his side. Thus, he had all the reasons to fear. Going back to the period after the First World War, European nations adopted an appeasement policy towards Germany, which had suffered war reparations disbursement as the then main aggressor.
Germany took advantage of this situation to reorganise its military for further war thus leading to the Second World War. Therefore, Mitterrand worked against chances that could lead to the same mistake that led to the Second World War. Francois Mitterrand had come up with a grand scheme of how he envisioned the construction of Europe (Sarrote 2011, p. 258).
The vision that Mitterrand had was the backbone of France’s foreign policy. France, being the major power then, did not want to cede that control to another power, or have it diluted. According to the New York Times of 7th December 1989, Mitterrand is quoted after a meeting with Mikhail Gorbachev as saying that the reunification of Germany would pose a danger to the delicate balance in Europe (Neith 1989, p. 22).
This balance simply meant it would interfere with the already set power structures in Europe. France had cut a niche for itself as a powerhouse in Europe. Mitterrand felt that this balance was going to be disturbed by the entry of Germany, which would equally be a powerhouse.
In his address after meeting Gorbachev in Kremlin, Mitterrand stated that the unification of Germany was a danger to the European stability and that European stability was a priority (Neith, 1989, p. 22). Being the president of France, Mitterrand was individually threatened by the situation because it would water down his powers on the European stage. He therefore had to work hard to either stop or slow down the reunification.
One of Mitterrand’s goals for Europe was the integration of European countries in to a single block. This deliverable was Mitterrand’s dream as he was determined to see it materialise. This integration would be slowed down if Germany were to reunite because of the economic conditions of East Germany.
How was the French Foreign Policy Affected by the Reunification? The reunification of Germany as it happened in the period 1989-1990 had so many ramifications to Europe because it led to the tipping of power balances in Europe. The French government was one of the most affected entities in the whole power play because of the central role it had given itself in the European affairs.
Under Francois Mitterrand, France as the biggest power in Europe then bestowed on itself the onus of setting the agenda for Europe thus entrenching it in its foreign affairs policy (Meirs 2002, p. 196).
The change in the situation led to a change in the French foreign policy, which was the backbone of Mitterrand’s approach towards the leadership of Europe. Moisi (1981) finds that French foreign policy was to be at the forefront of Europe to provide leadership as much as possible (p. 349).
This strategy had to change with the entry of a united Germany, which was going to hold sway in many matters that the French had monopolised long before. The French foreign policy had therefore to change and accommodate a unified Germany and the changes that it would come as a result.
French foreign policy up to that point was that Germany should not be reunited because it would pose a threat to the European bloc of countries. This stance however had to change because Germany became reunited and had therefore to be accorded all the full respect.
The French foreign policy on the integration of the European countries therefore had to change, with the process being done with the inclusion of a united Germany as Tiersky(1992, p. 136) reveals. German integration within Europe was the outmost priority of France prior to the reunification.
Only after releasing East Germany would the reunification happen, which would later on accommodate Germany when it becomes reunified. This policy had to change in that the reunification of Germany and the integration of Europe had to happen at the same time. France had to start viewing Germany as an equal partner with equal influence (Irondell 2008, p. 156).
This view had to happen with a change of policy about foreign matters. Before the reunification of Germany, France had a lot of say in matters to do with Germany by virtue of it being one of the four powers that controlled Germany’s sovereignty. Germany’s reunification therefore changed matters when it came to interaction between the two countries because, from then onwards, they became equals.
America too added a new dimension to the reunification equation when it started considering Germany ahead of France after a while because Germany had great financial muscles because of a strong mark. This perception however had to change after the integration of European countries into using one currency (Euro).
The reunification of Germany was just part of a domino effect taking place in Europe especially with the collapse of the Soviet Union and other communist states because it would lead to freeing up of many other states that would join an integrated Europe (Sarrote 2012).
At the same time, the European countries were moving into integration, which meant a new approach to the way things were to be handled at the foreign desk. The French foreign affairs policy was Gaullist in nature in that it put France at the centre of all European matters in terms of diplomacy as well as security.
France therefore moved its focus away from Europe and started strengthening its tie with its allies outside Europe (Belkin 2011, p. 670). It moved its influence where it could be better felt by bringing its former colonies closer to it. This influence can be seen when France moved to strengthen regimes it supported such as the Habyarimana regime in Rwanda and others in North Africa.
This movement should be noted as a search for places where it could influence without so much competition (Vernet 1992, p. 657). The French foreign policy moved from being the leader to being the member but only after integrating the European countries to form a European commission.
France changed the way it viewed other countries because it realised with time that it had lost its position as America’s most preferred ally due to the collapse of the Soviet Union, which led to the collapse of the cold war too. With this crumple, France usefulness had been diminished. Its importance on some crucial matters no longer counted. Thus, it had to reinvent itself.
According to Belkin, France moved from its approach of pushing agenda on its own to adopt a policy that would allow it to influence the European Union in driving its agenda for Europe and the world at large. The change of approach here is the hand in glove approach whereby the European Union is used to drive France’s agenda on the big stage (p.672).
How did this Development Fit in with France’s Plan to have an Integrated and Independent Europe? France powers, though partially diminished with the entry of Germany as an alternative power, remained a force to reckon with within Europe (Irondell 2008, p. 157). To consolidate its position within Europe, it spearheaded the formation of a monetary and economic union between countries in Europe.
France led other countries to the formation of the European Commission, which brought European countries’ membership as an economic zone and an exclusive club. This strategy enabled France to retain some of its influence that was lost during the unification of Germany and the breakdown of the Soviet Union.
France was still able to instil order in Europe by waving the admission carrot to non-member countries that wished to join the union or commission. According to Schaefer (2012, p. 175), France remained one of the leading countries in Europe politically because it was still strong economically and politically.
The change in foreign policy did not therefore change much in France’s operations on the European stage because they were not drastic. The entry of Germany on to the European stage as a unified country can be viewed as having cut France’s powers to some extent. Previously, France had a so much say when it came to European matters. However, with the entry of Germany, this say became limited.
It has to do with a shared platform of power because Germany was equally powerful. France’s plan to have an integrated Europe remained on course as planned because it was able to bring many European countries under the economic commission as well as under the European Union.
This plan remained as it had been set before. It was therefore achieved. France’s change in diplomacy did not change its vision for Europe so much although it is known to have caused a change to its approach towards matters to do with Europe. Whereas it controlled everything previously, the entry of Germany led it to use its influence on other forums such as the European Union.
According to Pyeongeok (2006),France took the earliest opportunity to commit Germany to a monetary union as a way of controlling the Germans (p. 113). The German mark had become one of the strongest currencies in Europe if not on the world stage. Therefore, if allowed to continue, it would greatly undermine the French people’s efforts to call shots on matters integration.
In their smart way through their president Francois Mitterrand, the French citizens committed the Germans into entering the monetary union that would see all countries use the same currency. This strategy was in tandem with the French foreign policy of spearheading the European integration, which it was able to achieve. Although France remained economically strong, it could no longer call all the shots in Europe.
It therefore had to work with Germany in putting the European house in order. France had to start working with Germany as a partner and more so an equal collaborate (Belkin 2010, p. 178). It had to pull the Germans on its side for it to achieve anything on the European stage because Germany was very strong politically and economically and that it was able to pull strings here and there even without the input of the French.
Therefore, for France to achieve its European dream, it started working together with Germany. The Breakdown of the Soviet Union and subsequent disintegration of the communist regimes led to a shift in power from France. The entry of Eastern Europe states into the European Union further weakened France’s hold on to power because it simply empowered other nations from Eastern Europe at the expense of France.
Although France had envisioned an integrated Europe, its vision was based on the opinion that it would be at the helm and control of other countries as it used before but now in an organised manner. This issue though did not happen entirely as France had planned, but still achieved the intended result.
According to Belkin (2011), there was a shift in power when other Eastern European countries became independent to join the European Union (p. 672). The U.S, which was France’s greatest ally, also shifted its position in Europe by making new allies for strategic reasons. Previously, France was America’s best ally after the world war and during the cold war era because of France’s strategic placement on the European stage.
This link had to change because the collapse of the cold war saw a great shift in alliances with former communist countries opening up to western ideologies by moving away from communism to capitalism way of governance (Belikin 2010, p. 202). This move affected France so much because it could not be viewed anymore as the focal point in the European matters.
This perception however did not change France’s resolutions. It remained influential on the European stage. To date, France’s influence still looms large because many changes are dependent on France’s backing for them to happen. France remains one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. It therefore has veto powers to pull.
This strategy has worked well for its foreign policy because many countries in Europe would always want it to be on its side when it comes to matters on the world stage. France’s seat at the United Nations has given it enormous powers to wield on the world stage. It has thus used its powers to influence the decisions of bodies such as the United Nations as well as NATO.
This move has remained in tandem with its foreign policy of influencing the happenings on the European stage as well as on the world stage (Belkin 2010, p. 202). Although France had planned to have an independent and integrated Europe, it could not achieve all because of the power changes that happened later.
For instance, Americans started moving away from France thus acquiring new allies from the former communist regimes for strategic purposes. This strategy can be viewed as a move to undermine France resolution for a unified Europe. Brown (1983) finds that, to the Americans, a unified Europe could be too powerful as it could have a lot of influence on world matters at the expense of America (p. 6).
Therefore, America’s move to get new allies greatly undermined France’s wish for a unified Europe. France had viewed Germany’s reunification as a threat to Europe’s integration. The threat that was later to be discarded.
Germany’s reunification later played a big role in the integration of Europe and the allayed fears that it could derail it. Although Germany was to be integrated in Europe, this union was to happen later on and not immediately. However as Sarrote (2012) puts it, the success of Europe’s integration depended on Germany reunification. Europe’s integration could not work out without Germany’s involvement.
However, according to Francois Mitterrand, he had hoped to rope in Germany later (p. 76). However, as things turned out, Germany’s reunification happened together with the supposed integration of the European Union.
German’s reunification can also be seen as a blessing to France’s efforts to build a strong European community because, since Germany reunified, it has been able to take a big role on the European stage in matters to do with the integration of other European countries into the Euro zone.
Germany’s entry into the big stage came with advantages of its partnership with France in ensuring a strong and integrated Europe. Germany eased some burden off France because France was initially taking care of so many things that were a bit strenuous to it. Germany’s cooperation with France simply enabled it(France) to move forward its ideas on integration.
Once the idea was sold to Germany, it became a common purpose now for the two countries to take care (Jabko 2010, p. 321). Germany has been a partner with France on matters to do with Europe.
This collaboration should therefore be positively upheld from its reunification position. In the recent times, Germany has been at the forefront of leading the European world in terms of taking care of the financial crisis faced by other countries. Germany has been at the head during Greece financial meltdown where was looked upon to provide leadership as well as financial aid to the Greek economy.
Francois Mitterrand’s Decisions His Opposition to German Reunification
Francois Mitterrand was opposed to German reunification because of many reasons that he only knew about because he was never explicit in his opposition to the situation. In the many times he spoke in public, he was in favour of Germany’s reunification. However, in private, he voiced his views in total opposition of the same.
Mitterrand’s opposition to Germany’s reunification can be attributed to two factors: personal pride as a French leader and outside pressure. Mitterrand as the French president had his pride in being the leader of the strongest western allied European power from where a lot of supremacy came in deciding the course of Europe (Tiersky 1992, p. 322).
Therefore, his opposition to German reunification can be attributed to his own desire for self-preservation of powers that came with being a French president. Mitterrand pursued the Gaullist policy that sought to influence the course of Europe’s progress on the world stage. He therefore took it personally to fulfil that dream, which on the other hand was being threatened by the reunification of Germany (Cogan 2011, p. 258).
Germany’s reunification would definitely tilt the balance of power to topple France from the top, which would be hurtful to the French leadership especially to Mitterrand. The second decision that made Francois Mitterrand oppose the Germany reunification was the post world war fear that almost everyone had about Germany.
Both leaders and citizens feared that a united Germany would go back to reclaim its lost territory and assume its pre-war status. The fear of Germany falling back to its Hitler days could not be ignored (Pyeongeok 2006, p. 114). This revelation explains the mortal fear that not only he had on a unified Germany but also the fear that was shared by many other European citizens.
The ability of Germany to cause chaos and destabilise the world peace was known. No world leader was ready for another world war if it was to come by Germany reunification. This position informed his decision to oppose reunification of Germany because of the threats it posed in case it was reunified.
Although the thought of Germany going back into another war can be described as alarmist to some extent and a veil for Mitterrand’s opposition to Germany’s reunification, Mitterrand nevertheless used it successfully to woo Margaret Thatcher, the British prime minister, to his side of the viewpoint.
His pursuit for Integration
Mitterrand’s pursuit for integration was meant to place France at the top of the European table to enable France to dictate the pace of Europe’s development. Mitterrand had a grand plan for Europe’s construction. He could only implement it if he was in a position to influence the political and economic arena of Europe. He designed a plan for integration so that he would tie countries in Europe to a single economic block.
From this point, he could therefore influence economic and political decisions made concerning Europe. This power led him to pursue policy of integration to the extent that he felt Germany should not be reunited then so that his policy is not derailed. America had come out as a strong country after the war. It was seen to be influencing so many matters that were then happening in Europe.
This over reliance on America for directions seemed to upset Mitterrand who prided himself of being French. He therefore mooted the idea of integration to come up with a strong European block that would control the affairs of Europe from within it. Although integration was seen to be threatened by the German reunification, it eventually happened without a hitch.
So much was Mitterrand’s pursuit of integration that he made sure it happened even after the reunification of Germany. This strategy according to the writer was more of a personal ambition than pressure from outside.
Mitterrand’s Support for Reunification
Mitterrand’s support for reunification was based on pressure from outside. Were it within his powers, Germany would not have reunified (Pyeongeok 2006, p.116). The reunification of Germany was based on so many factors held by the four powers that held Germans’ fate in their hands. The four major powers, which had a say in Germany’s sovereignty were America, Soviet Republic, Britain, and Russia.
These four countries had divided Germany between them. The three capitalist nations controlled West Germany while the Soviet Republic controlled the East Germany. Therefore, any decision on the reunification of Germany would be decided by the four countries and that any opposition to the same would be required to have a majority support of the four countries.
At the same time, he had the support of Gorbachev who was not so committed to the continued separation of Germany against the will of its people. Therefore, Mitterrand had to accept the fact and move with the tide. It can therefore be stated that Mitterrand’s decision to support the reunification of Germany was due to external pressures from what other countries were doing.
The main person who had the key to the reunification was Gorbachev because he held the reigns of East Germany. Therefore, the moment he let go East Germany, nothing could stop the reunification. Thus, it was a matter beyond Mitterrand. Although it can be concluded that it was beyond Mitterrand to accept Germany’s unification, he also had a role that he should be credited with playing (Pyeongeok 2006, p. 116).
He made sure that Germans dropped their Mark to join the use of the euro. This strategy was one of the conditions he set and agreed with Helmut Kohl who was the then Chancellor for West Germany. The initiative by Mitterrand to force Germans to drop the Mark was informed by the fact that the Mark had been used for a long time to determine the value of the Franc thus coming out as punishment on the French people.
Therefore, it can be said that the decision to support Germany’s reunification was also based on its dropping of its currency and entering the currency union that used the euro. Therefore, it was not so much support as it was further integration and control of Germany’s economic power since France had suffered from a strong deutschemark, which seemed to control the Franc.
Conclusion In conclusion, Francois Mitterrand can be described as a smart leader who not only led his party and country for a long time but also one who left a very big impact on the politics and economy of Europe. Mitterrand had a grand plan for Europe that he hoped would make the European block the strongest political and economic block in the world.
Although he did not make it to block the reunification of Germany, he took it within his strides by accepting the inevitable and using it to achieve his dreams of having a European union. The structures for the European Union as envisaged by Mitterrand are still at work. The union has taken in with an ongoing plan of admitting new members.
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LVMH in China’s Domestic Market Qualitative Research Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Methodology
PESTLE Analysis of Competitive Landscape
Hurdles and Obstacles Facing LVMH
Strategy Recommendations for LVMH
Porter’s Five Forces Analysis
Advantages and Disadvantages of Domestic Firms in the Sector
Advantages and Disadvantages of Foreign Firms in the Sector
China is emerging as a very attractive international business destination. This situation arises from the growing middle class in the country. In the last two decades, economic growth in the country has spurred it into the limelight as a serious investment destination. Many companies manufacture their products in China because of the competitive labor costs in the country.
The manufacturing boom has contributed to the emergence of an economically empowered middle class. In the recent years, the portfolio of businesses setting up their operations in the country has expanded. The portfolio now includes businesses seeking to take advantage of the Chinese market in addition to its competitively priced labor.
This explains the interest of LVMH in the Chinese market. LVMH is the holding company of several French luxury brands. The company is interested in establishing businesses in China to take advantage of its emerging luxury market.
Any company that tries to enter into the Chinese market must take time to understand the operating environment in the country. The business culture in China is different from the business culture in the West. The Chinese people are historically frugal. Therefore, it is important to take time to understand their needs and expectations.
However, the country’s emerging middle class has a lot in common with any middle class in the world. Therefore, the main issue that a company needs to explore before getting into China is the correct market entry strategy. This report examines the business environment for luxury products in China. It also looks at the internal characteristics of LVMH in order to prepare a strong market entry strategy for the company.
Methodology The method used to meet the two broad objectives of the project was a literature review. Literature review is an acceptable form of research that makes it possible for researchers to evaluate a broad range of issues. The range of issues that required consideration in this case exceeded the number of issues that could be covered using empirical research. This reasoning informed the choice of the research method.
In addition, the resources needed for an empirical research were not available. The second reason for choosing a literature review as the main research method was that a lot of research already existed in relation to the main issues defined in the research objectives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was unnecessary to carry out research into these issues from the scratch. The primary tools employed in the analysis of the data were the analytical instruments available to strategic planners. These tools include PESTLE Analysis, SWOT Analysis, and Porter’s Five Forces Analysis.
PESTLE Analysis of Competitive Landscape Strategic thinkers use a PESTLE Analysis to conduct environmental analysis as the basis for determining whether an organization has the capacity to interact favorably with its operating environment.
A PESTLE Analysis involves an examination of the political, economic, social, and technological issues in a given location. In addition, strategic planners study the legal framework governing a business environment, coupled with the condition of the physical environment of the area being analyzed.
Two issues characterize the political environment of China. First, the communist government is very keen on controlling the key sectors of the Chinese economy. For instance, the country does not have an exchange rate that rises and fall according to the forces of a free currency market alongside other international currencies.
Instead, the government determines the exchange rate. This issue at times puts foreign companies at a disadvantage. The second issue affecting the Chinese political environment is that the country uses a communist system of government.
In the recent years, the country has started conducting democratic elections at the local level. However, the communist superstructure still allows the central government to control all the political activities in the country. In this regard, regional party officials tend to exert a lot of influence in the conduct of business.
On the economic front, China has experienced unprecedented growth in the last two decades. The country’s economy grew at almost ten percent per annum in the last ten years. This is the leading cause of the emergence of China as a significant market. Prior to the economic boom characterized by unprecedented growth in the manufacturing sector, China’s main attraction was its low cost labor.
We will write a custom Essay on LVMH in China’s Domestic Market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More International manufacturers set up shop in China to take advantage of its low labor costs. As more companies started manufacturing in China, the disposable income of the Chinese people grew. This turned the country into one of the largest markets in the world. Business is now shifting from manufacturing only, towards taking advantage of the growing market resulting from the emergence of the new middle class in China.
The social situation in China varies depending on the parameters in use. One of the best-known Chinese policies is the one child policy, which prohibits couples from getting more than one child. This policy is also an illustration of the tight control the communist government exerts on the Chinese people. In the recent years, a lot of Western influence has crept into the Chinese social scene.
For instance, China has become the one of the locations that directors from Hollywood plan to launch new blockbusters. The Western pop culture characterized by the idolization of media personalities is also taking root in China.
From a business angle, it means that the Chinese consumers are developing a taste for the Western cultural experience. This is fuelling demand for Western products. This explains the popularity of Western brands such as Apple, and in the recent years, the proliferation of Western style eateries such as MacDonald’s fast food stores.
The technological environment in China is very competitive. The Chinese have invested resources in manufacturing technologies turning it into what a commentator called, “the world’s workshop” .
The dual investment by the Chinese government on high tech production facilities, and the Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) from international investors trying to take advantage of the low labor costs in China, have made China a manufacturing and technology hub.
However, Chinese manufacturers tend to pay little attention to quality control. Unlike Japanese manufacturers who have a strong interest in efficiency through programs like Kaizen, the Chinese tend to compete on cost by making cheaper knock off items to sell them to the poorer masses.
The economy of China is difficult to analyze. The reason for this is that the Chinese government is the only body that releases economic data on China. The data at times seem unrealistic based on estimates made by other economists. In addition, much of the Chinese economy is state controlled.
Not sure if you can write a paper on LVMH in China’s Domestic Market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For this reason, it is better to develop a business strategy that takes into account these factors. In spite of this, there is consensus that the Chinese economy, together with Brazil, Russia, India, and South Africa (BRICS), is growing very rapidly.
The physical environment in China is a major concern to international environmental agencies. Chinese cities such as Beijing are becoming polluted and have artificial fog brought about by industrial emissions. The state pays some attention to environmental issues, but it prioritizes economic the well-being of the country over environmental conservation.
Rivers and other natural features located in places with high population are becoming polluted. In the rural areas with smaller population densities, the environment is in good condition. In fact, China has some of the most spectacular sceneries such as rivers, waterfalls, mountains, and world life.
These areas can serve as the inspiration for including environmental protection measures as part of the Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) strategy when establishing a business in China.
Hurdles and Obstacles Facing LVMH In order to discuss the hurdles and obstacles that LVMH will need to deal with before making a proper entry into the Chinese market, it is important to review the application of a SWOT Analysis because it is the most suitable tool for this purpose. Hurdles and obstacles to a business constitute the weaknesses and the threats a business must deal with in order to operate successfully in a specific market.
Weakness and threats are two measures within SWOT that examine the difficulties associated with a business situation. Weaknesses are internal issues that bar the company from growing optimally. On the other hand, threats are external issues that the company does not control that can hamper its business objectives.
LVMH, alongside other international brands trading in China have two main weaknesses. The first weakness is that the company has a wide portfolio in a very narrow segment of the Chinese market. Secondly, China is relatively new to luxury spending. Unlike Europe and America, many of the Chinese luxury spenders are people who have recently made money from the changing fortunes of the country.
While the short-term outlook is impressive, the long-term performance of the Chinese luxury market is difficult to predict. If the country runs into any economic problem, the Chinese luxury spenders will revert to their old spending habits. In other words, the new middle class of China is still skilled in frugal living. Those skills will come into play as soon as there is an economic bump.
The situation in the West is different because many luxury spenders grew up in affluent families. They do not know how else to live. If they cannot afford to drive an expensive car, they will look for one that is easier to maintain. In China, the luxury spenders can discard the car all together because they have lived most of their lives without it.
The threats that accost LVMH in China are as follows. First, the brands produced by the company will suffer from threats associated with the counterfeiting of products . The results of counterfeiting include loss of revenue and loss of brand reputation. The counterfeit system in China is one of the most organized counterfeiting operations in the world. Chinese manufacturing capacity does not match its R
Promotional Strategy For The New Water Based Theme Park In Darling Harbor Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction and description of the enterprise Darling harbour is one of the recreational sites in Sydney, Australia. There are numerous entertainment and recreations sites at the centre. The main attractions of the harbour are Chinese’s Friendship Garden, Cockle Bay Wharf, IMAX Theatre, aquariums, exhibition centre, shopping centres and museum. The Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority (SHFA) has established an ultra modern water based theme park.
The park will offer entertainment for adults, teenagers and children. The main attraction for the theme parks will be water rides, travelling shows, great sceneries, food services, roll coasters; train rides fireworks, acrobatics, casinos and other forms of amusements.
The theme park is about to open and there is need to carry out a successful promotional campaign so as to attract tourists in Austria as well as from other parts of the world. This paper outlines the promotional strategies for the theme park.
Theme park mission statement The mission statement for this theme park is “to provide high quality amusement, fun and entertainment to all our esteemed customers in Australia and the world in general”
Theme park core values The main core values of the water world theme park are;
Customer focus: all products and services will focus on customers and satisfy their need. The theme park will provide High quality services and products.
Good corporate culture: the theme park promotes teamwork among all stakeholders and employees satisfaction
Safety and enthusiasm: the employees will ensure that the rides and other activities are safe. The ground will also be secured to ensure that there are no loss of property
Compassion and honesty
Theme park objectives To provide high quality services and amusement to the local and international tourists
To be a major tourist attraction in Australia
To earn profits and gain at least 20% of the target market
The promotional campaigns will promote the values, objectives and mission of the theme park (Aaker, 1998). All the promotional messages will be formulated so as to transmit the core values and mission of the park.
Target market analysis and segmentation The main customers for the theme park will be from the local and the international community. In order to identify the target market, the main customers were identified and segmented appropriately (Cateora, Gilly
Promotional report campaign for DMO Report custom essay help
Introduction The report was about a tourism promotion campaign that involved the reopening of the Africa Lion Safari performed by the Greater Western Sydney (GWS) tourism in Warragamba, Sydney in Australia achieved between 2008 and 2012.
The GWS consisted of 14 local government areas (LGA) that comprised of Auburn council, Wallondilly Share, Camden Council, City of Pernith, City of Campbell town, City of Parramatta, City of Bankslown, City of Liverpool, City of Blue mountains, City of Holroyd, City of Fairfield and City of Hawkesbury. The GWS was estimated to have a population of1.9 million according to the 2006 census.
The population covered a locality of over 9000km squared including residential, rural and industrial zones. As the marketing manager of the GWS tourism promotion team, I sent the campaign report to the management team for its consent on the campaign ideas and expenditure.
The marketing strategy comprised of the following subunits; brief discussion of the DMO campaign in terms of size, turnover, visitation, number and occupancy rates and data information, promotion in campaign strategy, target marked profile, competition and channels of distribution (Haney
Importance of continuing ones Education and Professional Development within the Medical/Health care Field Term Paper essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Why continue Education in the Medical Field
Introduction Continuing education has become a crucial endeavor in every academic field as the need for knowledge and expertise continues to be the foundation of professionalism and competitiveness in various business fields.
Continuing education refers to the pursuit of post-secondary programs and activities that are involved therein or registering for non-degree trainings, credit courses for degrees, training of workforce, self-enrichment study courses, self-directed learning, and learning through experience amongst others. Many professions have specific curriculums designed for further studies.
Continuing education therefore falls under a certain classification due to its specificity and the fact that a certificate is issued at the end of it. According to Lea and Jonathan (2012, p. 179), during the course of continuing education, marks are awarded to the scholar in the form of continuing education units. Further studies enable specialists in a certain field to update their knowledge in that field with current information.
For instance, in the law and information technology fields, new knowledge develops each day. Such education is important especially in some fields where information develops very fast due to the dynamics of the profession.
The medical field, which is the basis of the paper, provides a working illustration where new treatment and diagnostic methods are developed every day with the changing characteristics of disease-causing pathogens such as those of malaria and HIV/AIDS.
This paper will therefore focus on continuing education in this area (the medical health field) by specifically expounding on the importance of taking such a move with regard to ones education and professional development in the field.
Why continue Education in the Medical Field The field of medicine stands out as the most sensitive and marketable based on the central role it plays in terms of securing the lives of people. Therefore, it suffices to declare it the best choice for all who wish to continue their education and professionalism. After completion of their formal training, medical professionals enroll for further training.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Further education in medicine aims at maintaining, developing and increasing knowledge, improving the ability to solve problems, acquisition of new technical skills, and improvement of professionalism in performance of duties not only pertaining to medical/health issues but also issues to do with life in general. In some countries such as Canada, further education is a mandatory requirement by the regulatory authorities.
With further education, a physician is trained on how to offer better quality services in his or her field. Lea and Jonathan (2012, p. 179) affirm that continuing education involves various formal education activities such as lecture courses, attending conferences and workshops, distance learning, and directed reading.
Continuing education in the medical/health field enables the physician to keep up-to-date with changes and development in the field that is characterized by dynamism, with various diagnostic and treatment methods changing with time. Medicine and pharmaceuticals administered to patients suffering from various diseases also keep on changing.
Some disease causing pathogens, HIV/AIDS virus for instance, keep on mutating with time. The same shifting process applies to many other diseases and their causative agents. It is therefore important for medical health practitioners to enroll for continuous education and keep themselves updated and thus in touch with the newest health handling procedures.
According to Lucas and Pearson (2012, p. 277), new information on the changing nature of diagnosis and treatment is posted on medical journals, newsfeeds, magazines, and medical books.
For example, if a strain of plasmodium develops resistance to certain malaria medicine, the information is circulated across the region followed by the development of the respective new medicine. Doctors and health professionals who may not be in contact with the new information may end up using any out of date medicine to treat such a disease.
While continuing education, medical professionals also attend seminars and workshops for training on new technological developments and their impact on the field of medicine. Each day, sophisticated tools for medical treatment are developed. Medical engineers keep on mounting modern medical devices in a bid to promote efficiency and effectiveness in the field. Such devices come with a certain operational manual.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Importance of continuing ones Education and Professional Development within the Medical/Health care Field specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is therefore important that medical practitioners learn how to use such devices. Short refresher courses for medical care practitioners are also used to make medical practitioners keep up-to-date with the profession. According to Lucas and Pearson (2012, p. 279), new physicians are taken through various units in clinical medicine, administration, and psychology among other areas.
It is also through seminars and workshops that medical practitioners are reintroduced to professional ethics. Medical professionals in the continuing education program are therefore able to keep abreast with professional ethics in their field. It is also easier for such professionals to observe the regulations put in place by authorities.
When physicians work together in the further studies, they are likely to discover new knowledge in the course of their learning. Such discoveries are realized in the process of research as learners work on projects that are meant to fulfill the required units. For example, a physician who takes on a project in parasitology may end up discovering specific characteristics of a certain parasite in his or her field of study.
Such characteristics may end up making it easier to develop chemicals to kill it or keep it away from human life. Research is the foundation for better medical care. Many discoveries in medicine have been made in the course of further studies in medicine.
Continuing education in the medical field also enables the learner to remain competitive in the field of health care. Lucas and Pearson (2012, p. 277) posit that, although there is a shortage of qualified medical practitioners in the world, competition is also high in this field. The field of health is crucial to the wellbeing of humankind.
People would therefore not want to play games with human life. Medical practitioners who have the current knowledge on diagnostic and treatment of various diseases and conditions are therefore better placed for treatment.
Bhatnagar and Kalpana (2012,22) concur with the above argument by asserting that, since the field of medicine is very dynamic, medical practitioners who keep themselves informed about the changes taking place in the field are therefore able to remain competitive.
Competition in the field may be in the ability to access modern methods of treatment such as closed-heart surgery instead of open-heart surgery, ability of the practitioner to use modern treatment equipments such as high tech cancer treatment machines, and the ability to access and administer the most effective modern medicine to the patients.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of continuing ones Education and Professional Development within the Medical/Health care Field by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is out of completion that some hospitals have more customers relative to others. Patients know the health practitioners who have access to information or who are sure about their work. In fact, according to Lucas and Pearson (2012, p. 278), most of the people would prefer fresh graduates to old medical practitioners who never attend refresher courses.
Career promotions are also done through merits in most of the health centers and hospitals. It is therefore necessary for the health practitioners to keep abreast with modern knowledge by enrolling for further education courses.
Medical health care professionals who undergo further education are also able to offer better customer care services. In their further education programs, learners are also taught how to handle their clients: the patients. In many public health centers, medical health care providers treat customers in a rude way. Such behavior becomes irritating especially to the already sick customer.
The worst scenario happens in private hospitals that employ such a medical practitioner. Poor customer handling skills make customers seek better care in other hospitals. Hence, the hospital may suffer loss and decreased trust by patients. The image of the health care providers and that of the hospital itself are tainted.
Further education in the medical field enables the medical professionals to achieve promotions. According to Schrader (2010, p. 41), in further studies, one is trained on various professional courses that are crucial for better performance of certain duties.
For example, based on Barzdins’ (2012, p. 129) words, learners are trained on administration skills, customer management skills, human resource skills, and accounts management skills that are crucial in administrative positions. After such trainings, a medical health professional is allowed to obtain promotions to certain positions.
In some cases, further studies become a requirement for one to be allowed to perform certain duties in the medical field. For example, a clinical officer may not be allowed to perform a major surgery unless he or she obtains specialization in that field through continuing education. Medical doctors especially those in surgery also require to acquire continuing education through seminars and workshops.
Continuing education enables them to be granted work permits and licenses of practice. In many countries such as the United States, doctors need to attend various seminars and workshops in order to be allowed to continue carrying out surgery. According to Bhatnagar and Kalpana (2012, p. 22), it is therefore important for the medical care practitioners to obtain further education in order to continue rising up the medical career ladder.
Medical care practitioners who are able to attend continuing education are likely to obtain promotions to the next level in their careers. Medical care practitioners, for example nurses, can also undergo further training through enlisting for graduate courses or degree courses to obtain a degree in medicine.
When a nurse attains a medical degree, he or she is likely to be promoted to the next job group in the medical field career. Consequently, he or she becomes entitled to a better pay and benefits. Schrader (2010, p. 41) affirms that a better remuneration and better benefits mean a better lifestyle for the employee.
When medical practitioners complete their further studies, and are promoted to better job groups, their living standard is improved. Medical health care practitioners and their families are also able to live a better life. A medical health care practitioner who undergoes a further education program is likely to be more relied upon by customers and employers.
People are more likely to trust very educated medical practitioners than those with only the basic level of education. The level of trust by both the patients and employers is also raised. Continuing education is therefore necessary for those in the lower levels in the medical care profession. Furthering education increases the salary of the learners in the workplace.
One is also able to obtain a better job when he or she completes further studies in the medical/healthcare field. Many private and public medical institutions hire qualified and competent medical care practitioners.
Completion of further studies makes the medical care practitioner have a more bargaining power in the job market. Medical professionals who have undergone medical care training are also able to negotiate for better salaries with their employers. For instance, they can appeal for a better salary after completing their studies.
Further education is important for job satisfaction. Employees in the medical care profession must achieve job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is an endeavor that every employee aims to achieve. When medical practitioners enjoy their daily activities on their jobs, they are likely to be contented. According to Bhatnagar and Kalpana (2012, p. 21), job satisfaction may be developed through a good pay that in turn comes with better qualification.
For a medical care practitioner to have a better pay compared to his or her workmate, he or she must have gone through further education. A medical practitioner should realize that his or her life depends on his or her career choice. It is from the medical fields that they earn their living and are able to live a descent life. This argument means that all medical practitioners should respect their career and work hard to succeed in it.
Continuing ones medical education in the medical field becomes a continuous activity. Medical field is extremely dynamic. Those with passion in the field and those who would want to achieve job satisfaction in this career must love the job itself together with the information that is developed each day. Continuous education in the medical field (and in many other fields) is a basic requirement.
Job security is also guaranteed with continuous education. With job security, one is likely to experience job satisfaction. It is also worth noting that people are likely to experience job satisfaction when they are sure of the security of their jobs. If medical practitioners realize that they will lose their job, they are less likely to be comfortable working for those respective hospitals or health centers.
Continuing education enables health practitioners to have confidence that they are not likely to lose their jobs to someone else. According to Barzdins (2012, p. 129), employers and other human resource practitioners would want more educated employees for better services in their hospitals.
Therefore, if there is any retrenchment of medical workers, the employer is likely to begin with those that have lower education and qualifications. Continuing education therefore gives job security to the medical care practitioners.
In fact, a medical care practitioner who has completed various post-training courses in the medical field is able to obtain another job soon after leaving the other one. Proper practical qualifications and social certificates and trainings in the medical health field are therefore important. Some employers kick out employees who stagnate in a certain field for many years without any further training.
Such medical health practitioners are redundant in their field of work. Grantors are willing to put their money in the medical field more than any other field. These people have a soft spot for medicine and the medical profession as a whole.
This revelation means that medical professions cannot hide under the guise of lack of school fees. Grants are given to assist medical practitioners’ specialization in their field and to offer better services. Employees are also accorded the opportunity to attend seminars and workshops.
Conclusion In conclusion, furthering education is a field that has become very important in the society today. Further education in the medical field is crucial because it enables learners to become competent in the job market. It enables medical practitioners to keep themselves up to date with the current knowledge. It secures job satisfaction and confidence for learners.
It is important because of the many grants available to sponsor students in the medical field. One is also able to keep up-to-date with the current information. Continuing education can be taken in the form of classroom lectures, distance learning, workshops, and seminars. Learning can therefore be supervised directly in the lecture halls or else be self-supervised.
A student must complete a number of units through learning and or self-direction. In the medical healthcare field, the continuous education is an obligation for all the medical practitioners. Further education is therefore a key requirement in the field of medical health care and that graduates in this field should be encouraged to take such a move to keep abreast with the changes in this dynamic field of study.
Reference List Bhatnagar, K,
Research Brand Performance Quantitative Research Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Abstract This research paper seeks to investigate the relationship between customers’ perception of public relation and customers’ loyalty. The research will also investigate the role played by the brand image in shaping customer perception towards the organization.
Research Design/methodology- The research will use both primary and secondary sources of data. The primary data will be collected from a sample of customers of City Bank with the help of a questionnaire. The research will use two hypotheses.
Findings- The results of the study evidently demonstrate that the sensitivity of clients towards organization’s public relation practice is an indication of their devotion. From the research, it is clear that when there is a favorable brand image among customers, public relation perception will always have a heavy impact on customer loyalty.
Research limitations/implication- This research seeks to expound on the existing research as regards to customer loyalty. The researcher faced the problem of unwillingness since some respondents were unwilling to answer questions.
Originality- The researcher was concerned with coming up with an original piece of research that could be applied in a real life scenario.
Keywords- Brand image, Public relation, Customer loyalty, Customer relations, Finance industry, financial services, the United States
Introduction According to Hsieh and Li (2008), there is a direct relationship between customer perception of public relation and customer loyalty. These scholars hold that when a customer has a positive perception of public relations of a firm, he or she will tend to be loyal to that firm. This loyalty will further enhance a positive perception of the public relation of the firm.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Brand image plays a moderating role in this relationship. When a firm has a strong brand image in the market, the perception of the public would always be influenced positively towards the firm, and this will increase loyalty of the customers towards the firm (Hsieh
Frankfurt School of Science in Information and Communication Exploratory Essay custom essay help
Table of Contents The inception of the Frankfurt school
The four development stages of the Frankfurt school
Critics of Frankfurt School
Traditional Marxism and the Frankfurt School
Marcuse (as cited in Bennet, 1982) mentions
The inception of the Frankfurt school The failure of communism in throughout Europe, led the foundation of Frankfurt school in Germany in 1923 to present the Marxist views. The Frankfurt school was founded by Felix Weil, a young orthodox Marxist He looked at the scientific aspect of Marxism and put emphasis on the need of research in the field of history and social system through this institute.
The initial period of the institute was devoted mainly to the conventional historical research. Georg Lukacs wrote a book called ‘History of Class Consciousness’, which was published in 1923. This book provided a great inspiration for the work of Frankfurt school (Lassus, 2001).
His work, suggests that it is necessary to be free from the Communist Party to promote authentic theoretical work. It was directed by a firm believer in Marxism, Carl Grunberg from 1923 to 1930 (Lassus, 2001).
The four development stages of the Frankfurt school Ever since the classical theory of Marx came into existence, there were many changes seen in the Western society that promoted theories related to capitalism. The great theorists like T. Adorno, Max Horkheimer, etc. were actively participating in making crucial accounts to ensure and establish the impact of mass culture and communication in their critical social theory.
This was the first phase of the development of the Frankfurt school during which it “generated one of the first models of a critical cultural studies that analyzes the process of cultural production and political economy, the politics of cultural texts, and audience reception and use of cultural artifacts”( (Kellner 1989 and 1995as cited in Kellner, n. d. Para 1).
Friedrich Pollock took over as the director of the institute after the death of Carl Grunberg. He was associated with the institute right from the initial period. Max Horkheimer, who became the director of the institute in the later years, was the leading representative of the Frankfurt school. Due to his efforts, the institute could initiate the study of the cultural facets of the growth of capitalism.
The era of 1930s is marked with the development of a new critical, trans disciplinary approach to the studies of culture and communications by the Frankfurt School (Kellner,n.d.).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 1931 and 1932 many psychoanalysts including Franz Borkenau, Erich Fromm, Karl Landauer, William Reich and Heinrich Meng started working systematically with the institute and led the Marxist theory in an utterly new trend that is still persistent in the social theory.
Erich Fromm was one of the initiators of socialist humanism. Wilhelm Reich built up his own set of principles related to sexual liberalism to deal with the issue of conformism, with respect to politics, present in the society and to confront social psychosis.
Kurt Lewin and Adolph Lowe were the two prominent communist intellectuals who were associated with the Frankfurt school and played important roles in the development of social theory. Kurt Lewin introduced the group- dynamics and social action theory and Adolph Lowe involvement to the development of political economy is of great significance.
Leo Lowenthal was mainly involved in the sociology of literature along with the Hegelian philosopher Herbert Mercuse who became the most renowned personality in the 1960s among political activists (The Frankfurt School and “Critical Theory”,n.d.).
The Frankfurt school was closed down in Germany moved to the United States when Hitler came into power. Here, they found the media culture predominantly controlled by the big companies in the U.S. (Kellner, n. d.).
The participants of the institute continued their work in New York and kept on publishing in German. In the post war era the Institute came back to Frankfurt. The two of the leading theorists of the Frankfurt school in this era were Theodor Adorno and Walter Benjamin. They were distinguished for their studies in literature and mass culture.
In the post war era Jurgen Habermas became one of the prominent figures in developing critical theory as per the Hegelian convention like Adorno and Marcuse. The development of the theory of networks is the contribution of this phase. However, after some time, Habermas separated from the Marxist convention and the Hegelian tradition and laid emphasis on the expansive principles following the tradition of Immanuel Kant.
We will write a custom Essay on Frankfurt School of Science in Information and Communication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third generation of the Frankfurt school is following the convention of Jurgan Habermas and to some extent that of Hegel. The proponent of this generation is Axel Honneth. Nancy Fraser, Agnes Heller and Seyla Benhabib are the prominent women who represent the present-day generation of the Frankfurt school.
Frankfurt school was established with an aim to develop Marxist Theory within the institute and in the political scenario as well. In the process of its development, it assimilated with the bourgeois ideology and Freudian ideology during the post second world war period.
Despite all the amalgamation, the Frankfurt school stands for the tradition of orthodox Marxism in the history of social theory (The Frankfurt School and “Critical Theory”, n. d.).
Critics of Frankfurt School The critiques of the Frankfurt school represented by Adorno and Horkheimer suggest that they believed in the notion that the modern society is captivated in an iron system influenced by capitalism and Enlightenment ideas. They were quite pessimistic about any liberation from this control and thought that there was no hope for any social transformation.
They believed that it was impossible to get out of the iron cage created by the powerful Enlightenment in the modern society as it prevailed in every part of our lives. They also suggested that the culture industry is engaged in enslaving the individual and restraining the society and the people themselves back up this system. Their pessimism is also obvious in their criticism of traditional Marxism (Yaman, 2011).
The prime feature of the Frankfurt school was the culture and social analysis. However, its weakness lies in the “dichotomy between high culture and low culture (it) is problematical and should be superseded for a more unified model that takes culture as a spectrum and applies similar critical methods to all cultural artifacts” (Kellner as cited in Becerra, 2012,Para 8).
Habermas of the third generation of Frankfurt school faces the criticism because he idealizes the bourgeois community subject by presenting it as a medium of lucid debate and argument. The exclusion of various social groups and women is also a point of criticism.
However, many classes emerged in opposition to the bourgeois public sphere simultaneously, raised their voices, and stood for their interests (Kellner, n. d.). The notion of public sphere remained simply Utopian. It remained “an inclusive and egalitarian vision of society worthy of pursuit, but never fully realized” (Habermas and Frankfurt School Critical Theory, n.d. p.12).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Frankfurt School of Science in Information and Communication by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, the concept was restrained to the interests of a limited group of men who were highly educated in spite of its claims to attain common good or common interest through shared culture (Habermas and Frankfurt School Critical Theory, n.d).
The “media culture was never as massified and homogeneous as in the Frankfurt school model” (Kellner,n.d., Para 10).There is an argument that there were weaknesses in the model even at the time of its origin and it had less influence than the other models such as the models developed by Walter Benjamin, Siegfried Kracauer, Ernst Bloch etc.(Kellner, n.d.).
Traditional Marxism and the Frankfurt School The conventional Marxists considered the Frankfurt School somewhat as pragmatic since according to them, this theory condemned economism and unpolished materialism and partly they criticized it because of its heterogeneity. According to Curran et al. (1982), there was no scope for the study of real media (Chandler, 2000).
Marcuse (as cited in Bennet, 1982) mentions “The means of…communication…, the irresistible output of the entertainment and information industry carry with them prescribed attitudes and habits, certain intellectual and emotional reactions which bind the consumers…to the producers and, through the latter to the whole (social system).
The products indoctrinate and manipulate; they promote a false consciousness which is immune against its falsehood…thus emerges a pattern of one-dimensional thought and behavior” (p.43).
In the last hundred years most of the philosophical, social and economic traditions were focused in Germany. These traditions were in-built throughout modern life. During 1920s and 1930s the Frankfurt School had a great impact and its theorists and philosophers escaped from Nazism and spread their rebellious thoughts everywhere around the world and mainly in the United States (Brace, 2002).
The rise of Frankfurt School in Germany was in particular a response to the modern life. Marxism believes in crisis and according to them everything is in crisis, whether it’s a family, class or race but instead of this Frankfurt School do not accept this theory of crisis as a social concept as they believe it is an anthropological concept and it is not reducible to economic materialism.
They also believe that it exists in the mind of reactionaries (Bowden, 2012).
The important thing about Marxism is its complete break with the past and religious ideas. No supernatural element is there. They are just human theories and are mingled with other language. Everything is based on present and contains materialistic principles to define every aspect of life (Bowden, 2012).
So the initiative taken by the Frankfurt School was to first criticize Marxism and then to renew more refined form of dialectic, which was usable in modern era (Bowden, 2012).
Adorno’s several psychological theories got developed once the Frankfurt School was closed down by a disreputable government of that time. He developed some interesting theories specially related to the present audience. He developed the theory of ‘F’ scale where ‘F’ stands for Fascism. It’s a kind of personality test, which is used even today under a different name (Bowden, 2012).
The theorists of Frankfurt School believed that Marxism has some good elements in it, which could be used to develop an advanced social theory. “But even beyond that they were committed to developing and formulating an entire theory of life, human history and social ethics which would eventually need no recourse to European Christian civilization in any area of life” (Brace, 2002, Para 6).
The Frankfurt School openly challenged the entire societies to make its theories influential. Many supporters of ‘gay rights’ have been attracted towards the teachings of the Frankfurt School (Brace, 2002).
Key Pillars of the Frankfurt School:
Essentially, Frankfurt School believed that if a person is full of beliefs, he can solve any social issue.. The recommendations of the school were following (Matthews, 2009):
Emptying the churches
Big colonization to abolish identity
The advertising of excessive drinking
Dependency on the state or state benefits
The creation of racism offences
Control and dumbing down of media
Continual change to create confusion
Encouraging the breakdown of the family
The deflation of the authority of the schools and teachers
According to school, there were two types of revolution: political and cultural. The theorists observed it to be a long-term project and openly they focused on the education, media, family and popular culture (Matthews, 2009).
“One of the main ideas of the Frankfurt School was to abuse Freud’s idea of ‘pansexualism’- which was the misuse of the differences between sexes, the search for desire, to tell about the traditional relationships between men and women” (Matthews, 2009, Para 5). Matthews (2009) mentions that their aim was to:
Challenge the authority of father and define the particular roles of father and mother and seize the rights from the family the role of educators of their children.
Remove differences in the education of girls and boys
Remove all types of male dominance
Proclaim men as oppressors and women as oppressed class (Matthews, 2009).
Conclusion The Frankfurt School seems to be a bit complicated as it has some element of pessimism which cannot be found in Marxism. The other unusual thing in this school was the Germanic forms of Marxism which were extended by Adorno, Neumann and some others who were prominent in the school. They linked those forms to the forms of Anglo-saxon, American and imperialist thoughts (Bowden, 2012).
According to Munzenberg (as cited in Matthews, 2009) who abridged the idea of Frankfurt School’s long term operation, “We will make the West so corrupt that it sinks” (Para 5).
Works Cited Becerra, Maria Jose Juarez 2012. The Frankfurt School. Retos Internacionales. Web.
Bowden, Jonathan 2012. Marxism and the Frankfurt School. Web.
Brace, Robin, A 2002. The Influence of the Frankfurt School on Modern Liberal Thought. Web.
Chandler, Daniel 2000. Marxist Media Theory. Web.
Habermas and Frankfurt School Critical Theory. Web.
Kellner, Douglas. The Frankfurt School. Web.
Lassus Arnaud de 2001. The Frankfurt School: Cultural Revolution. Web.
Matthews, Timothy 2009. The Frankfurt School: Conspiracy to corrupt. Free Republic. Web.
The Frankfurt School and Critical Theory. Web.
Yaman, Burcu 2011. Critics of Adorno and Horkheimer on Modern Society: A Pessimistic Approach. Tojsat. Web.
Managing Risks in Oil and Gas Companies Dissertation essay help online: essay help online
Introduction Oil and gas companies face a variety of risks in the process of their operations. Many occurrences that happen outside a company may have an effect on the firm and the financial decisions that it makes. Changes in interest rates, prices of oil, and exchange rates among others are likely to alter the financial decisions of a firm. It is therefore imperative for firms to ensure that no potential economic changes pose a threat to their business.
According to Taylor and Kathleen (2013, p. 80), corporate financial managers are charged with the responsibility of ensuring that any past, current, and future fluctuations will not affect the economic standing of the firm. McShane and Anil (2011, p. 641) affirm that companies use various risk management tools known as derivatives to manage risks.
The tool used should caution the firm from negative impacts of various risks that may happen in its environment. According to Smistad and Igor (2012, p. 46), in western Canada, oil companies apply future derivatives to buy certain goods or services at a price that is agreed upon today.
Chanmeka et al. (2012, p. 259) argue that some companies make use of options where a firm gains the right to sell or buy certain goods or services at a certain price in the future. McShane and Anil (2011, 641) confirm that risk information is crucial to investors and the entrepreneurs themselves.
The oil and gas industry is likely to face various risks. For example, political risks, geological risks, price risks, supply and demand risks, and cost risks amongst others. This paper will discuss risk management in various gas and oil companies presenting a detailed literature review of risks in general followed by a detailed discussion of the in the oil and gas firms.
Risks The subject of risks is quite pivotal when it comes to the running of various organisations. Companies need to be aware of the possible or rather potential risks that they are likely to encounter in a bid to develop mechanisms of mitigating them in real time once they occur to ensure continued operation rather than untimely closure of such firms due to their failure to take the necessary precautionary measures.
Various risks are likely to affect different investments. Such risks include political risks, price fluctuations, and changes in supply and demand, natural calamities, geological risks, economic recessions, and government control risks amongst others. Entrepreneurship is a risky undertaking and every entrepreneur has to risk some of these factors and get into business.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Taylor and Kathleen (2013, p. 83), in the world of business, general risks affect literary every company in business though at varying intensities. Risks have various implications on business depending on the level of their impacts and predisposition of a particular business on them. In some instances, risks may lead to complete loss of business.
For example, if a business is exposed to fire and explosives risks, it can be completely wiped out in case of an accident. However, McShane and Anil (2011, p. 641) affirm that some of the risks affect all businesses in their every day affairs, for example supply and demand risk, price risks, and government regulations.
Businesses have little or no control on some risks such as natural calamity risks, for instance earthquakes and floods. Nevertheless, it is important for a business to devise ways and methods of detecting, assessing, and mitigating the risks.
Oil and Gas Companies Oil and gas companies provide a working illustration of the subject of risks that is under scrutiny based on the various risks they encounter in their everyday business affairs. From the point of extracting oil and gas, processing it into finished products to transportation, warehousing, and retailing, the whole business is a risk.
These companies encounter various types of risks in their line of business. Chanmeka et al. (2012, p. 259) assert that risks affect almost every firm in business and are likely to affect the oil and gas industry more than any other firm. According to Helman (2013, p. 62), the oil and gas industry faces tight regulations on how to conduct its business.
Such regulations include rules on how oil and gas are extracted from the source, regulations on where they can be extracted and where extraction cannot be done, and regulations of the period in which extraction of oil and gas can be done. The government has the upper hand in such regulations since oil business is lucrative.
In fact, the political wrangles that affect most countries that have oil and gas resources revolve around the control of oil wells by the government. Countries such as Sudan and Southern Sudan have been in conflict due to control of oil wells.
We will write a custom Dissertation on Managing Risks in Oil and Gas Companies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such political wrangles have also been witnessed in Kuwait and Nigeria. Whenever there are political wrangles in the control of oil and gas, the companies that invest in such nations face higher economic and political risks. Haselip and Martínez (2011, p. 1) argue that politics of regionalism, equitable distribution of national resources, and resource distribution also affect oil and gas regulation.
In some cases, the laws governing extraction, processing, and distribution of oil and gases in different states may vary. Antonsen, Kari, and Jarl (2012, 2001) reveal that it is more risky to carryout oil and gas business in dependence on foreign deposits without standardisation.
In the oil and gas industry, some companies that show interest are likely to invest in any part of the world where the oil and gas field has a sheer disregard of the political climate of the country. According to Helman (2013, p. 63), if the host country nationalises the industry, foreign investors are likely to suffer loss.
Politics of that kind of nation may also change to favour certain investors or category of investors where the foreign investor may not be considered. Antonsen, Kari, and Jarl (2012, p. 2001) argue that some economies will attract investors to begin the process of extraction.
Nevertheless, once the process of extraction is complete and the oil and business industry becomes lucrative, politicians, activists, and government officials enact laws to enable the government to leap more from the industry. An investor who puts his or her resources in such an industry is therefore likely to suffer loss. Political risk in oil industry is a major threat to the stability of the sector.
It is even more risky to invest in the oil and gas industry in some developing countries. In some of the developing countries with plenty of oil and gas such as Libya and Sudan in Africa, the countries are under poor political leadership thus posing a great risk to investors in the industry. Whenever there is a political turmoil in various nations, oil tankers are targeted due to the high flammability of oil.
In addition, Dumaine (2013, p. 102) affirms that oil and gas industries demand tight security and surveillance even in small quantities such as in China. It would therefore mean that, when there is political instability in a county, the rate of insecurity goes down. Consequently, the risk on the industry goes up.
Wilkinson and Roland (2013, p. 118) assert that the process of gas and oil exploitation has also become very risky especially with the current dynamics. For instance, drilling of oil is happening in very dangerous environments such as oceans. Extraction in such areas increases the risks that oil and gas industries have to incur in the process of extraction, refining, distribution, and marketing.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing Risks in Oil and Gas Companies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Smistad and Igor (2011, p. 91) affirm that there has also been an increase in the level of unconventional methods of oil and gas extraction. Out of such unconventional methods of mining, some potential oil and gas mines have been poorly exploited or destroyed. In fact, some of these procedures have been used to extract oil and gas in places where it would have proved impracticable.
According to Smistad and Igor (2012, p. 46), gas and oil extraction companies involve themselves in great risks by investing a lot of finances and other resources in extraction. Some companies have incurred much cost in the process of extracting gas and oil only to find minimal deposits than they had estimated.
It is therefore risky ventures for a company to be sure that geologists and rock experts have enough evidence of the presence of oil or gas in a certain area. According to Smistad and Igor (2011, p. 91), it is also risky for the extraction company to hire specialists such as geologists in oil in the process of investigating the presence oil or gas in a certain field and then fail to realise the targeted amount of oil or gas.
Oil and gas extraction, processing, marketing, and distribution constitute a business that aims at obtaining profits. The prices in the oil and gas markets must therefore be able to sustain the industry in a profitable way. Fluctuation in oil and market prices is a risk factor to the industry. No one can predict what the prices of oil or gas will be when the process of extraction will be completed.
Mehemed, Kamal, Kieran, and Kong (2012, p. 201) argue that companies in this industry therefore undertake a risk in extracting and purifying the gas without clear future market prices for their products. In several instances, oil and gas extraction companies have undergone the whole process of geological tests and drilling despite their ending up without the projected product.
In such cases, unless the gas and oil extraction company is insured, it suffers a big loss. The nature of oil and gas market has been fluctuating over the years. According to Chen and Jevons (1993, p. 667), fluctuation of oil and gas prices poses a great risk to the stakeholders in the industry.
Supply and demand issue is a limitation to the oil and gas industry. Venturing into oil and gas industry involves investing huge capital. The operations involved in extracting oil and gas are very expensive and extraction companies have to invest in the process. However, such companies may not be aware of the trend that prices of gas and oil will take in the future. Wood (2011, p. 113) affirms that demand and supply keep on changing.
When the supply of gas in the world market goes high, the prices go down thus increasing the risk of incurring heavy losses. Oil and gas industry also experiences imbalances when prices of oil go up. In most cases, when the prices of oil and gases hike, large warehouses hoard the commodities.
O’keefe and Doris (2013, p. 158) argue that hoarding increases the risk of loss of customers on retailers and local wholesalers since the commodity does not reach the target consumer. Such suppliers are also at the risk of being compromised of inconsistency by their customers.
Mohanty and Mohan (2011, p. 165) argue that it is also very hard to predict the production rates of gas and oil in various states especially with a nation with many states such as the U.S. Kendrick (2012, p. 61) affirms that unpredictability of productivity increases the risk of price fluctuation in the oil and gas industry.
In addition, Andersson, Sudhir, and Zafar (2009, p. 440) reveal that, whenever there is a financial crisis in a country or a region, for example, the American crisis or the European crisis of 2007, supply and demand of oil and gas also change. Financial crisis increases the risk of reduced purchasing power. Hence, the affected country experiences low demand for oil and gases.
Wood (2011, p. 113) point out that the economic crisis increases the risk of low supply and demand due to its ability to reduce the capital base of a nation. When a country has a low capital base, it is limited in its operations. Donaldson and Schoemaker (2013, p. 24) argue that the macroeconomic position of the industry can also increase the risk of demand and supply.
Macroeconomic power of every industry dictates the success of business under it. The oil and gas industry experiences huge operational costs. O’keefe and Doris (2013, p. 158) argue that all the other risk factors involved in the oil and gas industry drain into operational costs.
Mohanty and Mohan (2011, p. 165) argue that, when the regulations set by political leaders and governments of a particular nation are very tight, the operation cost goes up.
Tight regulations make the process of extracting, processing, and distributing gas and oil more extensive and hence expensive. Wilkinson and Roland (2013, p. 118) posit that the operations that are involved in the process of oil mining and gas harvesting determine the level of operations risks that a firm is likely to incur.
The operations involved in drilling are also extensive and expensive. Mehemed, Kamal, Kieran, and Kong, (2012, p. 201) establish that the process of drilling is coupled with many limitations, for instance, bad weather, poor soils and other geological factors, inaccessibility, and technological problems. Such problems increase the operations cost. When the operations cost hikes, the industry becomes disfranchised.
Different producers set their own market prices to overcome their cost of production. According to Donaldson and Schoemaker (2013, p. 24), variation in the cost of production makes it difficult for nations of the world to set standard oil and gas prices.
In fact, some industries incur a double or triple cost of production compared to others. It is out of such variations that oil and gas prices have become very competitive in the market. According to Robb (2012, p. 756), industries that have been in the line of production for many years incur lesser risks than new industries.
Managing Risks- Risk Identification, Risk Assessment, and Risk Control The oil and gas industry is a risk-prone industry. Various uncertainties go along these risks such as the risk of exploration, demand and supply risk, crude price uncertainty, and product line risk. According to Robb (2012, p. 756), the oil and gas industry is one of the risky ventures. Hence, to prevent the danger that the industry poses, there should be the need to manage it.
Sarkar (2012, p. 28) affirms that management of risks also ensures that the small industries and the upcoming ones become commercially viable. In addition, there are technological risks such as “cyber threats of Stuxnet virus, which also target lucrative oil and gas industry” (Sudhir, and Zafar 2009, p. 440).
These and many other risks in oil and gas industry necessitate the need for risk management. Consequently, various methods of risk management have been put in place to mitigate risks in this industry.
Risk Identification Oil and gas companies have invested in information access control and management. Such risk management strategies involve identifying and accessing the right information at all time when it is very necessary. Information management has been a great source of risk in the oil and gas industry. Oil and gas companies have therefore put in place mechanisms to harvest policy information, process it, and use it gainfully.
According to Andersson, Sudhir, and Zafar (2009, p. 440), information harvesting, processing, and management reduce the risk of operations. When companies access the right information before investment, they are able to reduce compliance risks. The company can use future derivative to organise how it will acquire various goods and services in the future at a certain price.
Sarkar (2012, p. 28) affirms that speedy exchange of information across the industry enables investors to make the right information. Classified information and access to the information systems of oil and gas companies has also been highly controlled.
Risk Assessment Modern technology aids in the reduction of variation in governance-risk-compliance. Technology is also an efficient tool in the reduction of operational risk.
According to Akhibi (2012, p. 6), the use of real time monitoring technology enables the oil and gas companies to improve the availability of the commodity to customers, reduce operational costs, avoid conflicts with the society and the regulatory authorities, and reduce the risk of demand and supply.
Dumaine (2013, p. 102), affirms that oil and gas companies are adopting condition-based monitoring in risk management, which involves positioning various sensors to measure and record the prevailing environmental conditions such as vibration and temperatures (Pinheiro 2011, p. 34). Such sensors enable the oil and gas companies to detect equipment failure in real time.
In fact, Srivastava and Gupta (2010, p. 407) assert that the devices are sophisticated to ensure that alert devices either sound the alarm or give work orders to the operations department. Wimalasiri et al. (2010, p. 49) affirm that sensors have enabled many oil companies to avoid the risk of losing billions of money in spillage and leakages.
Some oil and gas companies have set up strategic teams to manage any eventuality such as equipment failure and fire outbreaks. Schroeder and Jan (2007, p. 0.1) point out that fire departments are also connected to sensors in order to enable quick response to eventualities and occurrences.
Wimalasiri et al. (2010, 49) argue that predictive maintenance enables the industry to realise when there is the need to purchase certain equipments before the actual damage is done. Various modern technology devices are put in place to detect wear-and-tear and obsoleteness of equipments in the oil industry.
Qian, Yulin, and Gonzalez (2012, p. 859) observe that, whenever the devices sense that a gas tank or an oil tank is not up to the set standards, the necessary alert message is sent to the maintenance department for replacement.
Srivastava and Gupta (2010, p. 407) affirm that the sensor is also able to compare and analyse the level of functionality of every device in the firm and or give the right report on each. Pinheiro (2011, p. 34) observes that such quick reactions enable the firm to avoid health risks.
Risks Control Oil and gas companies have to deal with the increased compliance and regulations facing the industry today. For example, according to Molokwu, Barreria, and Boris (2013, p. 2), in South Africa, tight requirements of reporting on all operations and events of minor accidents and incidents have been an expensive venture for the industry. There are also tight regulations on drilling operations.
Oil and gas companies have therefore put in place mechanisms to ensure that the checklist for all regulations is complied with as the government of the area dictates (Chan 2011, p. 341).
Such compliance includes registration of the company, authorisation for drilling, construction of the industry, reliability in maintenance of structures such as oil wells, and the ability to remain in the market as a competitive industry (Khan 2010, p. 157). According to Haselip and Martínez (2011, p. 1), politics in a certain nation or state can play a role in the oil and gas industry.
The major role that political forces play in the oil and gas industry is to regulate prices. Politicians are opinion leaders who largely become policy makers. Oil and gas industries have therefore put in place mechanisms to work with government in price regulations and policy control.
The gas and oil companies have to deal with various environmental and health risk compliance processes. The oil and gas industry also faces the risk of geological inadequacy. In most of the nations and states, the reserve of oil and gas is already tapped out. The risk has also spread in nations that have been exploiting their reserves since they are also in the process of being fully exploited.
According to Andersen and Aamnes (2012, p. 2010), companies have therefore put in place methods of ensuring that they comply with the health regulations in their area of investment. Oil is a pollutant to the environment in a double way especially when not well handled.
According to Perunović and Jelena (2012, p. 130), the risk of oil spillage in water, for example, during mining or transportation in the sea has been greatly reduced through modern technology. Sophisticated mining methods have been employed to ensure no oil spillage during mining.
In fact, Perunović and Jelena (2012, p. 130) affirm that modern water vessels have also been adopted in transporting oil through the sea. Khan (2010, p. 157) posits that employees’ health and safety have also been a risk issue in the oil and gas industry. Oil and gas prices are another risk that investors in this industry face.
Chen and Jevons (1993, p. 667) argue that prices dictate whether a venture into extracting oil or gas is to be feasible or not. When geological limitations are high, the price risk of extracting oil or gas goes high. Oil and gas companies have therefore ensured high safety standards to employees through education and trainings.
According to Molokwu, Barreria, and Boris (2013, p. 2), employees are taught how to protect themselves, how to behave while in the extraction site or in the storage and distribution site, and even how to manage eventualities such as fire outbreaks.
Chan (2011, p. 341) reveal that oil and gas companies have also ensured that the community living near the mines and storage areas are also informed on management of fire and spillage.
According to Hayes and Hopkins (2012, p. 145), oil and gas companies have also made use of resource centres that are set within the industries. Various minds gather in the resource centres to exchange ideas on the problems facing the industry.
Schroeder and Jan (2007, p. 0.1) affirm that, unlike in the past when orders came from managers, engineers in today’s industry meet and exchange knowledge on various problems that their firms face.
Hayes and Hopkins (2012, p. 145) assert that, with the meeting of engineering experts from various departments, the right solutions are likely to be realised to eliminate various risks facing oil and gas industries for example the geological and price fluctuation risks.
The experts will come up with recommendations on the right measures that the industry should take to avoid risks. Such decisions and recommendations majorly include modification, technological adaptations, planning, and maintenance.
With the modern advancement in information technology, cyber crime and information system hacking has posed another risk to the oil and gas industry. According to Akhibi (2012, p. 6), in Nigeria, oil and gas companies have therefore put in place cyber security designs and technologies to mitigate the risk.
In oil and gas industries, information system security has been highly integrated with people, processes, data, and systems. Such ventures secure the system to ensure accountability on the side of the operators.
Qian, Yulin, and Gonzalez (2012, p. 859) argue that information security also ensures continuous surveillance of the internet protocol openings and filtration of information before it gains access to the main information system of the company.
Importance of Managing Risks specifically in Oil and Gas Companies Based on the information already presented concerning risks and their repercussions if not mitigated, it becomes clear on the need to manage risks by all organisations, leave alone the oil and gas companies. Such risks reduce the ability of the firm to predict the course of business. The oil and gas industry faces various difficulties and tight monitoring by many authorities.
Investing in the oil industry is also a very risky venture. In this light of probability of loss in the oil and gas industries, this paper highlights various importance of risk mitigation. Every derivative that oil and gas industries put in place should aim at risk mitigation. The derivatives that a firm takes should be aimed at cautioning the industry from the past, current, and future risks.
Kendrick (2012, p. 61) asserts that risk management in oil and gas industries ensures that there is proper compliance with the regulations of the authorities in their place of business. Insuring the business against various risks also enables the company to have confidence and security in trade. Such regulations should also be adhered to avoid the risk of regulations and compliance.
According to Andersen and Aamnes (2012, p. 2010), managing risks in the oil and gas industry enables the companies to have clear visibility of the current position and the future of the firm. Such a goal can be attained by venturing into future derivatives. The industry should sign for future trading ventures at certain prices with certain companies.
Conclusion In conclusion, every business venture is exposed to various risks. Consequently, every business has to put in place various mechanisms to identify, monitor, assess, and control risks. Private enterprise is generally a risky venture. However, as discussed, the oil and gas company is bound to face more risks than any other business.
The major risks that affect oil and gas companies include geological risks, political risks, government regulations, and compliance risks, price fluctuation, demand and supply, and natural calamities risk. Oil and gas companies have therefore invested heavily in various risk mitigation measures.
Such measures include risk identification, risk assessment, and risk monitoring and control. It is important to manage risks in every business venture. Risks can result in complete loss of business.
They can lead to conflicts with the authorities and the communities in the business environment. It is therefore important to comply with the regulatory measures put in place by the regulatory authorities. Insuring the business against various risks is also an important step in risk mitigation.
References Akhibi, O 2012, ‘Risk Management – An Essential Ingredient in Nigerian Oil and Gas Construction Projects Delivery’, PM World Today, vol. 14 no. 3, p. 6.
Dismissal Meeting Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Outline
Outline One of the most challenging roles of a manager is terminating an employee. Once the decision to terminate an employee has been made, managers find themselves in a rather awkward situation of having to break the bad news to the employee. Terminating an employee is not always a pleasurable activity because it comes with several challenges.
First, it can be traumatizing to the laid off employee and the other employees who have remained behind. Second, layoffs have emotional effects on the managers who have to plan and conduct the whole process.
Finally, termination always comes with issues of compensation and potential threats of lawsuits if it is mishandled. Thus, simply put, terminating an employee is one of the worst things a manager ever has to do. However, if the dismissal meeting is conducted in a professional manner, it can help maintain the employee’s dignity and help minimize any potential eventualities.
Introduction One of the most difficult decisions for managers is that of dismissing an employee (Molinsky
Addressing Aggression in Children Research Paper writing essay help
The reasons for Carla’s aggression towards her peers and a fast and efficient strategy developed to address Carla’s issues were learned quickly. This can be considered the greatest and the most important achievements of the therapy. The use of the MOAS was clearly crucial to the research results. The test allowed for assessing the scale of the problem that the healthcare specialist had to deal with. In addition, it also provided the measurement of Carla’s progress and the efficiency of the intervention.
The study has proven the efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. The therapy is crucial for dealing with the issues that have been triggered by early childhood memories. Carla had very painful memories about her father’s death. As a result, she was unable to build relationships with her peers. Thus, Carla had to recognize the possibilities of communicating with people. In addition, she had to learn that social interactions were not going to hurt her. Therefore, the intervention was designed to help the patient learn to socialize.
The fact that the patient underwent the therapy sessions together with the family is clearly a major positive aspect of the suggested treatment. According to the facts listed in the patient’s medical record, Carla was initially isolated from the rest of the people surrounding her, mostly from children.
As the research has shown, the restriction in the number of social contacts was obviously a mistake. Indeed, the instances of aggression only multiplied and became more intense after the aunt of the patient isolated the girl from her friends. Carla clearly needed communication with her friends.
It should be noted, though, that the progress made by Carla is rather uncertain. Therefore, an instance of recidivism may occur. Thus, Carla should be under her teacher’s and nursing specialist’s observation for a couple of weeks more. After she is supervised, one can make sure that she has completed her therapy sessions successfully.
Thus, such activities as creative writing, drawing, linking objects, and other tasks included into creative counseling sessions allowed Carla to express her deepest fears. Still, a sudden shock may reverse the progress, and, therefore, the need for Carla to undergo an intervention will rise again.
Speaking about the external validity of the given research, the provided scenario has a number of elements that make it unique. For example, the patient was under the influence of such factors as the overprotection of her aunt. As a result, the patient was nearly isolated from her social contacts. The given fact alone is enough to single Carla’s case out. In addition, the article mentions the childhood trauma that Carla acquired, thus, making her case even more specific.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More That being said, the problem of aggression among children who have suffered parent’ death, abuse or other traumatizing experiences is still a major issue in the modern society. The case of Carla’s problem, in its turn, can be used as a means to understand the mechanics of aggression that such children develop towards the rest of the world.
Hence, this study can be used in order to help these children. The internal validity of the research in question is also quite high, since it helps analyze the relationship between MOAS and the reduction of aggression in children. Again, seeing how the case is quite specific, it would be wrong to claim that it offers universal results. Nevertheless, the links between the interventions the improvement of Carla’s communication skills is evident.
Motivation, Work Performance, Job Satisfaction Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
Introduction Most of the successful companies have unique strategies to motivate and empower their employees. According to Caulton (2012), a company should establish the best relationship with its stakeholders and employees. Every motivated employee is an asset in an organization.
Some of the factors affecting employees’ satisfaction and performance include “the leadership style, workplace, and availability of resources and remunerations” (Caulton, 2012, p. 5). Organizational leaders should also promote their employees’ motivations. This approach will ensure the company is successful. Every motivated employee tackles every challenge in order to achieve the targeted goals. This discussion explains the effects of motivation and job satisfaction on work performance.
Motivation, Work Performance, and Job Satisfaction The terms motivation, job satisfaction, and performance are critical in every business organization. Business organizations should increase the level of motivation in order to mentor their employees. Motivation also results in job satisfaction and fulfillment. A satisfied employee will improve his or her work performance.
Motivation in an organization determines the level of job satisfaction (Baack, 1999). This will help the business realize its goals and objectives. I have worked in different companies. My experience explains why the relationship between job satisfaction and performance is a priority in every business organization. The leadership style, work environment, job design, motivational strategies, and resources affect the level of performance. This determines the employees’ job satisfaction and performance.
I have experienced various motivational problems in my life as an employee. The first motivational problem began when a new chief executive officer (CEO) took office. The CEO did not communicate effectively to the employees. The manager introduced sudden changes without discussing with the employees. The CEO changed the existing organizational culture by creating new departments and work practices.
The HR department was no longer willing to address the issues affecting the employees. The new leader also slashed the employees’ salaries without giving explanations. The CEO fired every employee who presented their complaints about the issues affecting them. The situation worsened because the performance began to dwindle. This behavior explains why the rate of employee turnover will always increase before (Vries, Bakker-Pieper
Presidential and Congressional Decision Making Evaluation Essay college essay help online
Introduction Democracy gives individuals and institutions the power to make decisions for the public. There is no way the views of all citizens can be addressed in national forums unless they have representatives. Most nations have three powerful arms of government that include the executive, congress and judiciary (Shulman 2006). This essay presents an evaluation of the presidential and congressional decision making processes and addresses their differences, effectiveness and current and future plans to make them work properly.
Similarities and Differences Characteristics
The presidential form of decision making is characterized by various factors that include the following. First, this decision is made by an individual and the views presented to the public are perceived to be from the president. This makes it easy for people to evaluate the attitude, perception and reaction of their presidents towards issues of national importance (Spillane 2014). Therefore, it is necessary to explain that people will perceive their presidents to be good or bad depending on how they make decisions.
The source of their decisions is deemed to be their personality or stand on various issues. This means that if a president makes a wrong decision the public will judge him or her and not any other person or body. The congressional decision making process is made by a group of elected and nominated political leaders (Tan 2011). These members may be parliamentarians or senators and both groups have the right of making decisions for the public.
No individual is responsible for making decisions because there is the need for most members to be present to pass a resolution (Pomeranz 1998). Therefore, when a bad decision is passed in parliament the public will not blame one person for making it. The responsibility of blame will be on all the members of parliament that were present or absent during the passing of a bill. The decisions of this house are perceived to be the positions taken by most members of parliament and senators.
Secondly, the congress is a representation of various political parties and thus the decision and votes of every member is deemed to be the standpoint of a political party or constituency. There is the need to understand that congress members are elected by their people and others nominated by political parties. Therefore, they represent their constituents or political parties and this means that their decisions must reflect the needs of these two entities (Subhash 2009).
The congress constitutes members from different regions and political parties and the decisions made are usually in favor of the needs of a political party or constituents of a member of parliament. It is necessary to explain that sometimes members of parliament may be forced to support decisions that do not reflect the interests of their constituents or political parties. These situations may lead to reprimands or protests from political parties and the public respectively.
A president is a leader of a country and thus the decisions this individual makes must be for the benefit of all citizens irrespective of their political affiliations (Shulman 2006). The president should make decisions that do not reflect political inclinations and instead address the needs of the whole population to ensure the interests of all groups are given reasonable attention.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that presidents must shed off their political inclinations once they assume office and this is reflected in how they make key decisions. Most presidents do not participate in the activities of political parties that propelled them to power to avoid being subjective when making national decisions. It is necessary to explain that the decisions made by a president should portray neutrality to enable the public to distinguish between the political and national aspects of the presidency.
Moreover, presidents have advisory teams that ensure they do not make decisions that may be misinterpreted by the public and political parties.
Presidential advisory teams are important in guiding presidents when making key decisions. These teams are made of professionals from different fields to ensure presidents make informed decisions. Therefore, the decisions made by presidents are usually as a result of long consultation and guidance from advisors that have practical experience, academic and research knowledge on various issues (Tan 2011).
The president is in charge of hiring members of these bodies and thus nobody can influence their decisions pony this matter. These teams are responsible for advising presidents, but the final decision lies on the office holder. This means that the teams do not play crucial roles in determining what decisions presidents make during their terms in office.
However, they ensure they give proper guidance to presidents and advise them on the best ways to manage issues of national importance. Therefore, presidents have the right of making decisions they deem appropriate in their countries and nobody can stop them from doing this. Congressional decision making is determined by the positions taken by political parties or constituents.
Congressmen cannot make their own independent decisions because they are supposed to represent their political parties and constituents (Norburn 2007). This means that even if they have personal preferences and opinions regarding issues of national importance they cannot make decisions that do not tally with what their constituents or political parties expect from them.
Therefore, their hands are usually tied to other people who think that they their interests should be properly represented by congressmen. The need for congressmen to consult constituents and political parties before making decisions shows they do not have powers to determine the choices of their actions (Tan 2011).
We will write a custom Essay on Presidential and Congressional Decision Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, a presidential decision making is determined by national issues that affect people from different political backgrounds. Presidents are obliged to listen to their citizens, regardless of their political affiliations and make sure their decisions reflect the needs of all citizens.
The positions taken by presidents in international forums represent the stands of their citizens. Therefore, presidents are mandated to address issues that affect the lives of all citizens in all corners of their countries and not just a handful of those that belong to their political parties (Tan 2011).
Presidents are elected by political parties, but this does not give them the power to address issues that affect their members only. A president is a national figure and thus must look at things from a non political perspective to ensure the needs of their citizens are addressed. There is the need for presidential advisory teams to ensure their presidents avoid issues that portray political interests.
This will help presidents to make non-partisan decisions that will improve the lives of all citizens. Congressional decision making is to the needs of their members. There is no independency in congressional decision making. In addition, members of the congress make decisions that are limited to their areas of jurisdiction and this includes constituencies and political parties (Tan 2011).
Members of parliament represent individuals of specific regions and thus they may not have the power to make decisions that do not affect their people. This means that the power of a member of parliament is limited to the areas an individual represents. This explains why not all members of parliament are usually present when making some decisions.
They do not see the need to attend sessions that are of insignificant value to their constituents. In addition, the decision made by a congress may not affect all regions. However, presidential decisions affect the lives of all citizens irrespective of their locations. Therefore, congressional decisions are limited in scope and do not affect the entire country like how the presidential one does.
Presidential decision making faces serious challenges due to the nature of this position. First, most people perceive the decisions of this office to represent the interest of political parties that won presidential elections (Norburn 2007).
Therefore, there are criticisms that face this office because people do not understand that presidents are national figures and do not represent their political parties while in office. Political parties that win presidential elections face criticism when their presidents make decisions that may be perceived to have vested interests (Tan 2011).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Presidential and Congressional Decision Making by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, congressional decisions do not face a lot of criticisms because people understand that they represent the interests of different groups like political parties and constituencies. Members of parliament do not make independent decisions and this means that there are no chances of criticisms from their political parties or constituents. Therefore, they do not expect negative responses from those they represent.
In addition, presidential decision making is influenced by opinion polls and interest groups. This means that presidents may make decisions that do not reflect their thoughts, but address the needs of the public.
Opinion polls and interest groups are very influential in determining the decisions that presidents make and thus they rely on the mind of their citizens to make resolutions. Therefore, the decisions made by presidents cannot be said to be totally independent from any external forces; in fact the public determines and shapes the thoughts of its presidents (Tan 2011). A president who makes unpopular decisions may face demonstrators supported by interest groups.
Presidential and congressional decision making determines the future of office bearers in different positions. People judge the performance of presidents and members of parliament, depending on the importance and nature of the decisions they make. Those willing to retain their seats in future elections must make decisions that make their constituents happy even if they do not have any economic or social value.
It is necessary to explain that political decision makers have an uncertain future because they are judged depending on their contributions in formulating policies (Stone 2013). Therefore, they are sometimes forced to make decisions that make no sense provided their constituents and political parties are happy.
It is necessary to explain that the electorate has the power of influencing both presidential and congressional decisions. However, presidents serving their second terms and congressmen that do not wish to be reelected ignore the demands of their people because they are of no value to them. Therefore, they do not mind what their people will think about them and this motivates these members to make decisions that they think are suitable or represent their interests (Stone 2013).
Presidents face serious challenges when they make decisions that may affect their political parties. Political parties that produce presidents expect them to favor their members or interests regardless of their consequences on the public. Therefore, they think that presidents will listen and follow their advice even if they are wrong; however, this is usually not the case as most presidents ignore the political aspects when making decisions (Tan 2011).
Most congressmen and presidents are usually accused of dictatorship and betrayal when they fail to obey the orders issued by their political parties. Some issues presented by political parties aim at frustrating opponents and promoting their interests and presidents usually ignore such moves and this makes them to be perceived to be dictators.
Lastly, both the presidential and congressional decision making processes face the risk of rejection due to political interference (Reuer 2011). Politics play significant roles in determining the fate of bills and other policies. The concept and application of democratic rights of political parties and individuals have been misused to interfere with the processes of making decisions by institutions or people. People think that their opinions should be given preference to those of others because democracy dictates so.
Political parties misuse their constitutional right and force ruling parties to experience serious challenges that interfere with the implementation of their manifestos (Spillane 2014). Presidents face serious challenges from opposition parties that rarely approve of their decisions.
They think that they must oppose all decisions and actions of the ruling party and this slows down the process of decision making. There are chances that nations that think they are democratic rarely make decisions on time due to interference from political parties and individuals aligned to the opposition.
The effectiveness of the presidential decision making process is determined by various factors. First, presidents or heads of states have constitutional rights of making some decisions including appointment of public office bearers and commanding key military bodies to undertake operations. The congress has no power over this issue and this makes the president to have control over other decision making organs in a country.
Presidents have the right to ensure that there is security in their countries and that people enjoy their lives (Reuer 2011). Therefore, he can make decisions that affect the lives of citizens in all regions regardless of what congressmen think about them. However, some decisions cannot be made by presidents without consultation or approval from other bodies like the houses of representatives.
For instance, the American president cannot command the military to attack other nations or conduct their operations there if he does not have the approval from the upper and lower houses of representatives (Shulman 2006). This means that in this case the president has no power of making independent decisions. Therefore, there are some decisions that the president cannot make without the approval of these houses while others do not require their consent.
The congress has a constitutional right of discussing important issues that affect a country and making decisions that ensure citizens live secure, healthy and affordable life. This body has the responsibility of passing bills and making sure that necessary amendments are made to make laws appropriate for the promotion of human life and development (Reuer 2011).
The congress does not need the support of a president when making laws and this means that it is independent from his or her influence. However, the president must approve all bills passed by members of parliament before they become laws. The bills will be returned to the house for further debate and amendments if the president refuses to approve it.
The above discussions show that the presidential and congressional decision making processes are not independent and each body relies on the support of the other to function properly. However, it is necessary to understand that not all issues require the approval of the other department to survive (Tan 2011).
The congress may have more power over the president when it comes to issues of impeachment when a president makes repeated mistakes. Therefore, there are instances where these parties have equal influence over others, but sometimes they function independently.
Presidential and congressional decision making produces both bad and good outcomes. The presidential decision making process aims at establishing appropriate ways of ensuring citizens get access to quality public service. This includes unrestricted access to justice, security, education and proper medical services.
There is the need to explain that presidents are in charge of their countries and thus anything that happens to their citizens (regardless of their political inclinations) falls on their shoulders (Subhash 2009). Therefore, they make decisions that do not portray political inclinations because they are supposed to be national representatives.
Presidential advisors help presidents to make decisions that will attract approval from members of public and civil groups. This means that they ensure presidents are not influenced by personal or political interests when making national decisions. This makes their decisions to be effective in ensuring people have access to quality services from civil servants and public offices (Reuer 2011). Therefore, the presidential decision making process is effective if it addresses national issues without political interference.
On the other hand, it is likely that a presidential decision making process may not be effective. First, this process centers power to an individual and thus there are possibilities that the person may not make appropriate decisions due to lack of consultation and debates (Subhash 2009).
The process may be influenced by limited knowledge and experience on various issues and this may make a president to make decisions that lack professional understanding. In addition, some presidents do not like following advises from other people or institutions because they think that they know better than others. Therefore, they make irrational decisions that expose their countries to ridicule and lower the ratings of their performance.
Congressional decision making is a complicated process because it requires consultation and debates. There are higher chances that congressional decision making processes can produce good outcomes because they involve debates and consultations.
Therefore, appropriate measures are taken before decisions are made and this helps the public to get quality services (Reuer 2011). In addition, this process takes a lot of time before decisions are made. This gives decision makers the time to revise their presentation and evaluate the effectiveness of their policies.
However, this process may not be suitable in producing good outcomes because members present the interests of their political parties and constituents. The interests of any of these may not be appropriate in promoting national development.
Congress men have used this process to express their political interests and frustrate their opponents. In addition, the success of any decisions determined by the support it gets from the members of various bodies; therefore, it is not a democratic way of making decisions and its outcomes may have negative impacts on citizens (Stone 2013).
The congressional decision making process is more effective than the presidential one since it has higher chances of producing the expected outcomes. In addition, it represents the views of ordinary citizens and political parties and not individuals.
Current Measures The congressional decision making process is expected to improve due to the introduction of civil and social awareness in parliaments. It is necessary to explain that traditionally most parliamentarians did not know their roles and how to execute various policies to ensure the interests of their people are addressed (Pomeranz 1998).
The need to ensure congressmen pass appropriate bills and make good decisions will improve because of the introduction of training programs that will help these members to understand the impacts of their actions on ordinary citizens. This has helped them to differentiate political and national issues and minimized irrelevant debate and bills in parliament. Nations are struggling to equip their parliaments with modern technology to ensure communication between the public and congressmen is improved.
The presidential decision making process is undergoing tremendous changes to ensure the president makes rational decisions. Most presidents listen to their advisory bodies and consult relevant departments before making decisions (Shulman 2006).
This ensures the interest of the public is given the first priority over that of an individual or political party. In addition, presidents have realized that their positions as public figures means that they must ensure their citizens live better lives and have access to what they need. This means that they have ignored their personal and political party’s influences when making decisions.
Recommendations There is the need for a congressional decision making process to take a shorter time than what is happening in most parliaments. Bills should be discussed and approved within a short and reasonable time to avoid piling pressure on members of parliament.
In addition, congressional decision making processes should be independent of any political interests to ensure there is objectivity in discussions. Moreover, the veto power of the president should be minimized to ensure the congress is not arm-twisted to make irrational decisions. Lastly, there should be guidelines to guide the contribution of members in the congress to ensure all members are allowed to present their views.
There is the need for the presidential decision making process to involve other stakeholders before making conclusions. Presidents should not be allowed to make independent decisions without consulting stakeholders. The time for issuing presidential decrees and resolutions should be increased to ensure there is proper consolation and evaluation of the decisions made before the public is informed about them.
Conclusion Presidential decision refers to the decrees, actions, orders, suggestions and recommendations made by a head of state. Presidents are allowed to make independent decisions that affect the lives of their citizens provided they abide by the regulations of their constitutions. A congressional decision refers to the resolutions passed in either the lower or upper house of representatives.
These decisions are made after members of these houses conduct debates to evaluate the impacts and importance of issues that affect the lives of ordinary citizens. The presidential and congressional decisions affect the lives of ordinary citizens and thus the people responsible for them must ensure they put the interests of the public before self.
References Norburn, D 2007, ‘A Four Nation of the Relationship between Presidential and Congressional decision making processes’, Journal of International Politics, 21(4), pp. 451-468.
Pomeranz, F 1998, ‘Corporate Governance: Opportunity for Institutions and individuals’, The Journal of Political Management, 7(3), pp. 25-29.
Reuer, J 2011, ‘Managing in the Turbulent Political World: Presidential and Congressional decision making’, Journal of International Politics, 30, pp. 219-222.
Shulman, R 2006, ‘Corporate Treatment of Political Decisions, Journal of International Politics, 14(2), pp. 83-88.
Spillane, C 2014, ‘The challenges of political decision making processes in America’, Businessweek, 6(12), pp. 5-13.
Stone, B 2013, ‘An introduction to decision making in modern political governance’, Journal of International Politics, 11(21), pp. 11-12.
Subhash, K 2009, ‘Political economy and decision making processes’, Journal of International Politics, 12(2), pp. 113-129.
Tan, W 2011, ‘Politics and Corporate Governance, Investment and Firm Valuation in Asian Emerging Markets’, Journal of International Management and Accounting, 22 (3), pp. 246-273.
Causes of Noise-induced Hearing Loss Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Introduction Hearing loss may be classified differently. The most common classification is based on the pathology where the disease may be conductive or sensorineural. Another classification is based on the cause of the hearing loss, which may be age-related (presbycusis) or in noise-induced cases as discussed below. In conductive hearing loss, the transmission of sound to the cochlea is ineffective, despite the nervous system being intact.
The ear is divided into the external, middle, and inner ear. Obstruction to the transmission of sound along the pathway results in conductive hearing loss. The causes of conductive hearing loss may be congenital such as the meatal atresia, or acquired such as the case of accumulation of wax (Gradwell,
Analysis: “Professionalism at Work: The Kids Are Not Alright” by Silverman Report essay help free: essay help free
Silverman (2013) is critical of entry level workers describing them as “entitled, unprofessional bunch.” The author notes that entry level workers lack professionalism and commitment to their employers which makes them incompetent at work. They do not take their work responsibilities seriously which makes them incompetent and unprofessional. This harsh assertion reveals organizations need to readjust their expectations when hiring college graduates to fill up vacant positions.
The article shows that business organizations need to adopt stringent measures to ensure new and inexperienced employees perform their duties well. It is notable that this decline in performance has been going on for the last five years. It is disappointing to see that many entry level employees have a poor work ethic due to their negative attitudes to work (Silverman, 2013). The article confirms that the current crop of entry level employees in many firms do not have desired qualities to perform assigned duties effectively.
Employees need to have respect for authority for them to perform their duties well. Therefore, managers of different firms need to use discipline and respect for authority as some of the criteria used to assess employee performance. Silverman (2013) notes that some new candidates even show their arrogance while still being interviewed.
This portrays poor social etiquette on the part of the interviewee which shows that he or she does not value being associated with the interviewing firm. Managers should not tolerate any negative behavior by new employees as this sends a wrong signal to other employees in the firm. Cases of poor performance and insubordination by employees must be dealt with firmly. This will make workers more diligent to achieve organizational objectives.
This article confirms that performance based appraisals are effective in evaluating the contribution of each individual employee to the organization. Entry level workers must be taken through a firm’s organizational culture and practices to make them understand their roles and responsibilities. This will make them understand that any form of incompetence and insubordination at the work place will not be tolerated.
Performance appraisals can be used as benchmarks to reward employees who perform well in their duties. Likewise, appraisals can also be used to encourage employees who do not perform well to improve their performance in the future. Organizations need to put in place strict measures to ensure each individual worker produces quality output (Schrage, 2011). Employees who are not able to achieve positive productivity levels due to their incompetence should be replaced.
Effective time management is a good way to assess if an employee is committed to an organization. All employees must be made aware of the need to keep time to enable the organization achieve positive output. Employees should not be allowed to report to work late as this slows down internal operations and other crucial work processes. Organizations should put in place disciplinary measures to reduce lateness by employees.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This will ensure all employees take their duties at work more seriously. Technology is a useful tool at the work place though it has some disadvantages. Some workers waste a lot of time chatting on various social media platforms. This behavior affects their productivity because their attention is diverted from crucial work duties to other unnecessary activities (Schrage, 2011).
It is necessary to supervise employees more to ensure that they perform their duties as expected. Time should be treated as a valuable resource which needs to be managed properly to ensure organizational objectives are achieved.
Entry level employees should be given mentors to make them adapt quickly to the transition between college and work. Effective mentors help young employees to understand the culture and practices observed by all stakeholders in a firm. Employees should be given mentors who are more experienced and knowledgeable in different work procedures.
Young employees need to be encouraged to enable them improve their attitudes and commitment at work (Baldoni, 2011). A good mentor helps a young and inexperienced novice learn the importance of setting goals and the way they are to be achieved. Mentors make it possible for an organization to get the best results out of talented employees who do not have a strong motivation to work. This helps a firm to nurture inexperienced employees who are talented.
Business organizations must have clear communication protocols which all employees must follow whenever they communicate with each other. This should be made part of the organization’s culture to make all employees appreciate its importance. Verbal communication, e-mails, letters and telephone calls should be the main forms of communication used by employees to send and receive messages.
Entry-level employees need to be discouraged from using smart phones and computers inappropriately. This will ensure they follow laid down communication policies and other rules (Baldoni, 2011). Therefore, they will be able to focus more on their duties at work. It is important for Business organizations to change the manner in which they treat their entry level employees. This will enable them achieve positive results in their operations.
References Baldoni, J. (2011, Feb. 17). Help employees listen when they don’t want to hear. Harvard Business Review. Web.
We will write a custom Report on Analysis: “Professionalism at Work: The Kids Are Not Alright” by Silverman specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Schrage, M. (2011, May 26). The new trust vs. due diligence dilemma. Harvard Business Review. Web.
Silverman, R.E. (2013, March 12). Professionalism at work: The kids are not alright. Wall Street Journal. Web.
Was the American Use of the Atomic Bomb against Japan in 1945 the Final Act scholarship essay help
Introduction Known as one of the world’s greatest bloodbath, the World War II is also notorious for the first use of an atomic bomb as a weapon of mass destruction. As a matter of fact, restricting the amount of choices concerning the reasons that made the United States government attack Japan would be an insult to the history of the world in general and the history of the relationships between Japan and the United States in particular.
Therefore, to evaluate the reasons that guided the American government in their successful attempt at mass genocide of the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, one must consider not only the political implications behind the actions of the U.S. government, but also the specifics of the relationships between the two states, the influence of the U.S. and Japan in the WWII, the peculiarities of the American and especially the Japanese culture, as well as the numerous details concerning the outbreak of the Cold War.1
Despite the ace that every single piece of the existing evidence points at the fact that the United States were either intending to stress their participation I the WWII or to display their military power to the USSR, it can be assumed that the reasons behind the notorious Hiroshima and Nagasaki attack was an attempt to eliminate the slightest possibility of having the WWII going any longer, which would have necessarily appeared in Japan due to the peculiarities of the Japanese culture unless a sudden attack would have distracted them.
The Use of the Atomic Bomb as the Sign of the Cold War Considering the arguments “pro”: the plausibility
There is no secret that there always was an element of competition in the relationships between the USSR and the USA2. According to what Crockatt says, the fact that the U.S. dropped the bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki to prove their economic and political world dominance is clear-cut. As Crockatt explains, the means that the U.S. chose to prove their point were predetermined by the differences in which the two states fought for their dominance.
According to Crockatt, the differences in the way that the two states envisioned their concept of power defined the specifics of the approaches that the two states undertook in order to seize the power over the economic space. While the USSR preferred to adopt a more localized approach, the USA tended to encompass the opportunities provided by the entire world, and the situation with Japan was one of these opportunities.
Because of the differences in the attitudes towards Japan, the bellicose one of the United States and the peaceful one of the Soviet Union, the attack of Hiroshima and Nagasaki triggered the start of the Cold War between the USA and the USSR, as Crockatt explains: “The Soviet Union remained neutral towards Japan and declared war only after the dropping of the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima on 6 August 1945.”3
Indeed, there are a number of facts that indicate the willingness of the USA to demonstrate its power to the USSR. There could not be a better moment for showing the military strength of the United States, since the Soviet union was clearly in the process of healing its wounds after taking part in one of the greatest bloodsheds in the world history; America, meanwhile, was not harmed in the twists and turns of war, since, first, the USA only entered the war in 1945, as the war ended, and, second, was separated from Europe by the Atlantic Ocean and, therefore, could not become another battlefield.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With that being said, the USA clearly had an opportunity to defeat the Soviet Union in their chase for the world economic dominance. The fact that the USA possessed the weapon of such power of destruction meant that the U.S. became the superior state whom the USSR would not be able to compete with: “The Soviets did not have the atom bomb, but the Americans did, and that caused insecurity.”4
According to the given point of view, the mere fact that the USA showed its martial potential was enough to start the Cold War5.
The above-mentioned viewpoint has all rights to exist; moreover, seeing how the tension in the relationships between the United States and the Soviet Union escalated after the given incident,6 the version of the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as the pretext for starting the Cold war becomes especially plausible.7
It can be assumed that the USA failed to show their entire military strength in the course of the WWII, as they managed to enter the process only as the WWII was getting to an end – in contrast to the Soviet Union, which displayed its military potential to the full, and, needless to say, made a great impression on the rest of the world.
Therefore, by dropping the atomic bombs on the Japanese cities, the United States technically showed that their military power was just as huge and threatening as the one of the USSR: “Sherwin demonstrates how the US decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan frew out of the Anglo-American thinking about its use as a diplomatic tool in peacetime as well as a winning weapon in wartime.”8
Concerning the arguments “counter”: the doubt
To address the hypothesis concerning the assassination of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki dwellers as an attempt to introduce the dominance of the USA into the USA–USSR relationships., it is necessary to consider the latter in detail. According to Boyle, the fight for the title of the superior nation has been lasting since both empires became powerful enough9.
With all due respect to Boyle’s research, however, it must be admitted that his account of the specifics of the USSR policies leaves much to be desired in terms of accuracy. It seem that Boyle makes a typical mistake by considering each action of the U.S. government as the response towards the ones of the USSR.
We will write a custom Essay on Was the American Use of the Atomic Bomb against Japan in 1945 the Final Act of WW2 or the Signal That the Cold War Was about to Begin specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, Boyle’s interpretation can be easily questioned, which picks the question whether the Little Boy and the Fat Man were a response to the USSR policies. Nogee’s work, on the contrary, offers much more introspective into the way in which the Soviet Union operated. Even though Nogee’s focus is on the USSR instead of its relationships with the USA, and, moreover, on the USSR of the post-WWII period, Nogee manages to capture the specifics of the state’s policy quite well.
According to Nogee, the USSR leader of the WWII era, Stalin never actually considered the United States’ demonstration of what an atomic explosion was capable of as an actual threat to the safety of Russia and the allied states.10 Moreover. Nogee makes it clear that starting a direct confrontation was more than undesirable for both states, since both the UA and the USSR were devastated after the WWII.
When considering the numerous signals that showed the start of the Cold War, one has to mention that the attack of the Japanese cities as another attempt to re-state the obvious would have been rather useless.11 According to what the existing sources say, by the end of the WWII, it was clear that the Cold War was brewing and that the U.S. and the USSR were going to divide the world into their spheres of influence.12
The Use of the Atomic Bomb as the Signal of the End of the WWII
The idea that the USA used atomic bomb as the means to bring the WWII to an end is another common interpretation of the incident.
What speaks in favor of the hypothesis: Truman’s policy
Despite the fact that at present, the interpretations of the USA assassination of the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki gears towards the idea that the given action can be interpreted as the attempt of the United States to declare the end of the World War II.
When talking about the reasons for the United States to attack Japan, one must specify that on the given time slot, the reins of power were quickly passed over from Franklin Delano Roosevelt to Harry S. Truman, who had no other choice but to follow the track blazed by his predecessor. Meanwhile, in accordance with to the score of the Yalta Conference, the U.S. was waiting for the USSR to enter the Pacific War.
In addition, a number of German cities were incinerated prior to the attacks of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in a vengeful attempt to make Germany feel the power of the Allies.
To make the matters worse, the testing of the A-bombs in the USA has just ended by that point, which must have brought Truman to the conclusion that threatening Japan by wiping Hiroshima and Nagasaki off the face of the earth would be a logical ending to the WWII. Dukes states in a very straightforward manner that the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki helped bring the victory day closer:
Not sure if you can write a paper on Was the American Use of the Atomic Bomb against Japan in 1945 the Final Act of WW2 or the Signal That the Cold War Was about to Begin by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The dropping of A-bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August brought VJ Day more quickly than had been previously hoped and feared. There was just time for the Soviet Union to fulfil its promise of declaring war against Japan three months after VE Day.13
What speaks against it: the end of the War
However, there is also enough evidence that shows the opposite to the aforementioned ideas. Indeed, the link between the fact of genocide in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the end of the WWII can seem somewhat farfetched.
Another interpretation of the hypothesis The traditional idea of seeing the USA assassination of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki dwellers as an attempt to draw the line in the WWII can also be viewed in a different light. While it can be considered that the act of dropping atomic bombs on the cities can be interpreted as the way of showing the power and influence of the USA as the state that ended the World War II, there is also a different way of interpreting the given step.
The latter, however, requires an introspective into the peculiarities of the Japanese culture. According to the existing sources, even as the outcome of a battle becomes clearly unfavorable for the Japanese, the bushido code of conduct does not allow the Japanese warriors to cease the fire and give up; on the contrary, according to the bushido principles, fighting until the last soldier falls dead is the most appropriate tactics.
Therefore, it is logical to suppose that even after Hitler’s suicide, the war would have been going on as the code of bushido dictates. While the rest of the states that the Tripartite Alliance consisted of surrendered with the leader of the Alliance having been killed, the Japanese soldiers would have been fighting until the very last of them would have fallen breathless. Therefore, the World War would have been even longer and bloodier than it was, which the rest of the world, including the USSR and the Allies, would have hardly take14n.
As history shows, culture plays great role in developing and solving international conflicts. For instance, as Kegley and Wittkopf show, cultural specifics predetermine largely the economic relationships between such states as, say, USA and China.15 The same can be applied to the conflicts between the states.
In the given case, the fact that the Japanese government would have not ceased their attempts at fighting the enemy so easily is brought to people’s attention. Indeed, according to bushido, the Japanese code of a warrior’s conduct, a soldier is supposed to fight till the end even when the opponent seems to be superior.
Therefore, it can be assumed that, unless the USA had demoralized the Japanese, the WWII would have been continuing for quite long after the surrender of Germany. As a result, the consequences of the WWII would have been even more deplorable for the Allies, as well as for Germany, Japan and Italy. While Japan would have suffered most, the rest of the states would have also driven their economical and financial resources to an absolute zero.
The U.S. and the Soviet Union: Sworn Friends or Sworn Enemies? While the two states have been maintaining moderately friendly relationship, there has always been some kind of tension between them, as if the two were constantly trying to win over the other one. Indeed, if considering the way in which the specifics of one culture is portrayed in the other state, it becomes obvious that each of the two countries have always been trying to take over the opponent. For instance, according to English, even in mass media of each of the states, the portrayal of the other one was rather negative.16
For instance, in Russian media, the portrayal of the Capitalist USA world was far from being positive.17 The given attitude, however, had not grown into anything spectacular until the Cold War; it seemed that the two states realized that, once they clash, they might get harmed greatly; in the process.
Therefore, it can hardly be considered that the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was a deliberate attempt at starting the Cold War; the U.S. should have known that, even after the WWII, the USSR would have still be able to rebuff the attack efficiently enough18.
In fact, at certain point, the development of the notorious atomic bomb was planned as a joint attempt of the USA and the USSR to enhance their influence in the world, as McCauley explains.19 The given supposition can be supported by the fact that, according to some sources, the Soviet Union was the first to come up with an idea of a hydrogen bomb.20
Conclusion: In Search for the Truth Truly, it would be wrong to believe that nowadays, more than sixty years after the WWII was ended, it is possible to reconstruct the implications behind the actions of each of the states that took part in the WWII.
However, by analyzing the factors that influenced these actions, as well as learning about the position that the U.S. took in the World War, one can possibly figure out if the action of dropping atomic bombs on Japan was the sign of the triumph of the Allies or the beginning of the Cold War. While some of the sources contradict each other, it is possible to learn the truth about the notorious Hiroshima and Nagasaki attack.
Even though the connection between Hiroshima, Nagasaki and the Cold War might seem rather loose, it is necessary to admit that by dropping the bomb on these Japanese cities, the United States have shown their military strength, which was very timely in the light of the beginning of the Cold War.
Even though there is little to no evidence showing the effect that the given action had on the U.S. reputation in the Eastern Europe, one has to admit that the Hiroshima and Nagasaki incident was rather well-timed. Indeed, considering the consequences, one has to acknowledge the fact that the U.S. has shown its military potential, therefore, making it clear to the Soviet Union that the United States were able to fend for themselves.
Meanwhile, the act of brushing millions of the Japanese off the face of the Earth could be viewed as the attempt of the American government to draw the line in the WWII and make it clear that the Allies won.21 Indeed, the given action can be translated as a manifestation of the end of the WWII and the fact that fascism was finally defeated.
The reasons for the American government to undertake the given measure, on the other hand, are rather obscure; since it was not Japan, but Germany who was at the helm of the Tripartite Alliance, it would have been much more logical to use Germany as the venue of their vengeful act.
The role of Japan in the WWII could not be described as the definitive one; Italy had practically similar share of influence in the Axis Pact. The choice of the location for the Little Boy and the Fat Man was sporadic, which meant that the United States was going to draw the final line in the WWII.
With that being said, it is reasonable to suggest that, even though the attack of Hiroshima and Nagasaki with an atomic bomb triggered an increase in the U.S. authority, the given effect was sporadic rather than planned; by attacking Japan, the U.S. clearly intended to show that it also had its share of the triumph that the victory triggered.
Considering the policy of the American government at the time, one must admit that the idea of bombing Japan as the means to threaten the government of the Soviet Union seems much like a last-minute choice, which would have been rather untypical of the U.S. government.
As the existing evidence says, making Japan surrender was crucial to the outcome of the WWII mostly because of the specifics of the Japanese culture; with its specific code of honor, the residents of the latter would have not seized their actions until they had lost each of their soldier. Demoralization seemed a viable strategy to adopt, which the USA did by using an atomic bomb.
Bibliography Bell, PMH, The world since 1945, London, Hodder Arnold, 2001.
Boyle, PG, American-Soviet relations, London, Routledge, 1993.
Carlton, D and HM Levine, The Cold War debated, New York, McGraw Hill, 1988.
Crockatt, R The fifty years war: the United States and the Soviet Union in world politics, 1941-1991, London, Routledge, 2002.
Dobson, AP and S Marsh, US foreign policy since 1945, 2nd edn, London, Routledge, 2006.
Dockrill, S Advances in Cold War history (ed.), London, Palgrave, 2006.
Dockrill, S and G Hughes, Advances in Cold War history, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
Dukes, P, The superpowers. A short history, London, Routledge, 2000.
English R D, Russia and the idea of the West, New York, Columbia University Press, 2000.
Gaddis, JL, The Cold War, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 2007.
Kegley, C and ER Wittkopf, World politics: trend and transformation, 9th edn, Belmont, CA, Wadsworth, 2003.
Kennedy-Pipe, C, Russia and the world, 1917-1991, London: Arnold, 1998.
Leffler, MP and DS Painter, The origins of the Cold War (ed.), London, Routledge, 2002.
Light, M, The Soviet theory of international relations, Brighton, Wheatsheaf Books, 1988.
Lightbody, B, The Cold War, London, Routledge, 1999.
McCauley, M, The origins of the Cold War, London, Longman, 1995.
McCauley, M, Russia, America
Cause of crime Exploratory Essay essay help: essay help
Man and crime have coexisted throughout history. Nonetheless, traditional patterns guiding the transition from childhood to adulthood have changed. Moreover, there are limited opportunities for young people to explore. For instance, unemployment rates have skyrocketed.
As a result, many youths are unable to cater for their basic needs. Poverty is, thus, one of the major causes of violent crimes. The proliferation of criminal gangs in my area of jurisdiction, as director of the county juvenile court, represents a nationwide problem. Therefore, all parties involved must redouble their efforts in dealing with juvenile deliquesces and other gang-related problems. This paper provides background information on the gang problem.
In the 1990s, the rate of crime rose in most parts of the world (World Youth Report, 2003). Most of these crimes were related to youths. In Western Europe alone, the rate of juvenile delinquency increased by 50%. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) (n.d.), about 33,000 gangs operate across the US today.
In addition, 48% of violent crimes are committed by gangs (FBI, n.d.). In some areas, the percentage is as high as 90%. It is also estimated that these gangs have 1.4 million members. Most of the groupings are well organized and use sophisticated strategies to run their illegal activities and control neighborhoods. Some of their ways of generating money include gun and drug trafficking, kidnapping and robbery.
Before preventive programs are designed, reasons behind involvement of juveniles in crime must be understood (World Youth Report, 2003). One cannot effectively deal with a problem without knowing its root causes. According to the World Youth Report (2003), sociologists believe that juvenile delinquents commit minor to serious offences. Therefore, criminal gangs differ in their modes of operation.
Consequently, gang problems must be solved by more than one strategy. For instance, some gangs commit status crimes. A status crime is a criminal offenses related to the age of a person (World Youth Report, 2003). Peer pressure is the main driver of status crime. Sociologists use such issues to connect youth behaviors with their surroundings in an attempt to explain their actions.
African American neighborhoods have the highest number of criminal gangs. This trend is associated with institutional discrimination. For instance, about one third of African Americans are born in poor neighborhoods. Furthermore, these neighborhoods are faced with innumerable social-economic hardships.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The number of African Americans who can be categorized as middle class by either income levels or education is low compared to other ethnic groups. Although their social-economic status is improving, African Americans sit at the bottom of the ethnic hierarchy (pear, 2013). Structural discrimination and lack of opportunities lead to disruptive internal behavioral patterns among African Americans. Some of these behaviors include prostitution and crime. On top, these behaviors have negative impacts on their socio-economic mobility.
Proliferation of criminal gangs is brought about by socio-economic problems. According to pear (2013), in the last two years, ethnic groups with low incomes experienced a steeper drop in their incomes than those with high incomes. Undoubtedly, African Americans were the most affected.
Accordingly, most gang members are African Americans. Nonetheless, criminal gangs traverse across ethnic barriers and their activities are diverse and complicated. Dismantling these gangs requires joint efforts from the community, law enforcers, courts and other stakeholders. In fact, everybody has a role to play if this problem is to be eradicated.
References Federal Bureau of Investigations (n.d.). Gangs: They poison our streets with drugs, violence, and all manner of crime. Web.
Pear, R. (2013, August 21). Median income rises, but is still 6% below level at start of recession in ’07. The New York Times. Web.
World Youth Report (2003). Juvenile delinquency. Web.
Examining Acceptable Use Policies Report (Assessment) essay help online free
It does not matter whether a company has the access to the new technologies and services or not, if the stuff does not follow the proper procedures, this access can be ineffective. In order to have steady development the companies should take into consideration the security of information (Easttom, p.281).
Thought, examining and developing the security policies should be the major step in companies success. Four different acceptable use policies have been examined: Level3 acceptable use policy, Earthlink acceptable use policy, Sans Institute policies, and Information Security World Policy.
Level 3 use policy is applied to all users of the mentioned service. After accepting the rules of the policy, the user is acknowledged about the responsibility for compliance with them. The main aim of the policy is to protect the User, the Level 3 Network, and the Service from illegal manipulations over the Internet.
Among the Level 3 rights are: the right to terminate or suspend the service, the right to cooperate with investigators, the right to modify the policy, the right to filter the information. Level 3 policy prohibits illegal activities, unauthorized access, spamming and mobile bombing, fraud and spoofing.
In order to control the rules enforcement, Level 3 use policy anticipates the possibility to complaint. Thus, every User, or some other party can complaint about the above mentioned amusements (Level 3, 2012). Another important thing is that “Level 3 has no obligation to forward the complaint to the User or to identify the complaining parties.”(Level 3, 2012, line 126-127).
In addition, Level 3 use policy forbids transmitting the files which include corrupted data or viruses; altering or circumventing the procedures or processes to bandwidth utilization, measure time and other similar methods; using those activities, which (Level 3, 2012).
EarthLink acceptable use policy is quite similar to Level 3 acceptable use policy. As well as Level 3 policy, EarthLink policy is oriented on stopping the violations. This policy forbids any kind of illegal use: uploading, transmitting, receiving, storing, posting, data or material. It includes the information about illegal terrorism, drugs or weapon, services, goods or substances, and many others. EarthLink acceptable use policy includes fraudulent activities connected to finances: different suspicious financial schemes and pyramids.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, EarthLink acceptable use policy does not allow gambling, spamming, and phishing. Much attention is devoted to the copyright and trademark infringement. According to it, uploading, transmitting, receiving, and posting any material that infringes any copyright is forbidden.
One of differences to Level 3 policy is the rule about network probing, which was not mentioned in the first policy. According to EarthLink acceptable use policy, any kind of detective network activity is prohibited. EarthLink policy requests everyone who considers some actions to be violation can inform about it. EarthLink in its turn can give the verbal or written warning, suspend the person or service for some period of time, block the internet access to the service, terminate the service, or bring some legal actions (EarthLink, 2012).
Sans Institutes Policy is divided into several sub policies. Thus, Sans Institutes Policy includes such security policies as Computer, Desktop, Email. HIPAA, Internet, Mobile, Audit, Network, Physical, Server, Wireless, and Whitepapers Policy. There is no similar to Audit Security Policy in Level 3 and EarthLink acceptable policies.
This policy defines different requirements, provides the authority information to the team which conducts the audits and deals with the information security and risk assessments in order to ensure the resources and information integrity and investigate incidents. Another unique security policy is HIPPA policy. This policy was creates especially to protect confidential information, which is connected to the health issues.
The policy includes 18 standards, which are summarized in the three major themes: Physical, Technical, and Administrative Safeguards. Furthermore, different to other use acceptable policies is Visitor or Physic policy, which demands penalties for information disclosure and the camera usage. The mentioned policy requires check-in system. Thus, each visitor should go through the special check-in entrance, present his or her photo identification card, and only after will have the opportunity to visit their employee sponsor (SANS, 2012).
Another researched policy is Information Security Policy. This policy addresses such issues as integrity, disclosure, availability concerns and others which concerns the information security.
The policy is intended to influence the actions or decisions and create general way of behavior, as it sets the rules, the laws, and to prevent their violations. This policy is very similar to the previous policies. However, in this one the major focus is made on the technical aspect. The main point of the policy is connected to the risk analysis (The Information Security Policies, 2012).
We will write a custom Assessment on Examining Acceptable Use Policies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Eastons book is devoted to the examining of the acceptable policies. The main focus of the examined chapter is devoted to researching the most effective user, access, system administration, and developmental policies. As well as the previous policies, those that are described in the book are focused on the technologies.
However, according to the author, the good technologies should be supported with people factor, to be precise, with professionals, who can use the technologies in order to provide the best service. The author gives many tips how to be sure in the security of the information in the internet. First of all, Easttom advices never have a copy of the password in the accessible places. Secondly, the author advices never share the password.
Finally, in any case of suspension the violation, the person should inform about it the IT department. The book gives the overview of those activities that are appropriate in the network of the company, and those that are not. Among not appropriate are: the search for the job, the photographic use, the violations of the laws.
This list may include online shopping, reading news, or watching funny videos. In addition, the author gives the recommendations how to use the e-mail service. One of those recommendations is not to open the emails from unknown author or, which is even worth, not to answer that suspicious emails (Easttom, 2006).
Many different types of policies have been examined. However, each of them claims that nevertheless the powerful software and technological equipment, the person should be very careful him or herself. To my mind, the best recommendation how to be safe was written in the Easttoms book: “Passwords must never be shared with any person for any reasons”(Easttom, 2006, p.283).
The reason is that the person near you can be your worst enemy. When we are talking about the security of the important things, you are yourself the only person you can trust. The scheme is very simple: the responsibility equals the security.
References EarthLink Policies