Relationship Between Law And History Term Paper Essay Help Free

The Roman law The Roman law was successfully codified to be in line with the roman customs. The coded form became one of the most valuable cultural heritages in medieval Europe, because it shaped the laws. The initial customary laws were efficiently transferred from one generation to another but created various conflicts over custom and human rights, since they were venerable to abuse by judges and favoured particular social classes.

The customary laws come to existence through joint community suggestions; however, unilateral suggestions by individuals caused division along tribal lines and centuries. The law then developed through establishments by the praetor’s decrees as well as senate verifications or resolutions as well as opinions of lawyers/jurists. The judges would seek opinions of the jurists to make final judgements. The jurists ‘opinions therefore assisted in enhancing the law with the required quality.

Various constitutions of the roman emperors also played significant roles in formation of the Roman law. The law generally provided a distinction between the concept of property ownership and possession. According to Stein (3), Roman law is very similar to many current codes since its supports that a property owner has a right over property and can use it for personal gain, but a possessor is only in control for a limited period of contract, lease, employment or commission.

The first Roman emperor had an introductory law that was acceptable to many proceeding emperors. Contemporary civil systems therefore have a root on the Roman Emperor Law especially the juridical terminologies.

The Hammurabi/Roman Law The Hammurabi/Roman Law that was practiced during the 8th Century by Babylon rulers indicated that a wrong act faced tough law, thus the “eye for an eye” application. The law was applied regardless of the victim gender. Problems on the subject of adultery meant that the victim had to prove his/her innocence before the priest by swearing. If found culprit of such acts, the victim would be forced to jump and drown in the sea.

Although the rules of the society were harsh, such as support for divorce without considering reasons, a woman still had the right to claim share of the property as long as they had children with the husband. Failure to prove her innocence also indicated that the man had a right to keep her as a servant and fail to pay dowry. Serious cases were however dealt with by the courts and the outcome was a sentence to death through drowning.

These were strict rules that various societies leant and implemented although the code differed from one to the other. The rule was an indication over the importance of regulating the society, for instance to ensure social order, legitimacy and proper administration of wealth. Various laws are extremely unique in their cultural settings, but have a close interconnection on these importance and reasons. Code of Hammurabi was an original establishment meant to ascertain order.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The law was however harsh, strict and made a distinction between the social-economic classes and social believe that the code came to reality from the sun gods as opposed to establishment by societal leaders. A common aspect of the law was fairness or just treatment for everyone in the society.

Code of Hammurabi made the society to be a culture made by people and their achievements through thoughts or physical existence. It included both the mental and physical resources that integrated beliefs, customs and values into a common system. This code provided evidence that the law gives people a sense of identity, security, continuity and dignity. Law represents the religious society made of perpetually dynamic individuals, groups, or associations (Stein, 31).

Most problems in the society regard knowledge or faithfulness between social-economic values and culture. We fail to administer the law because culture involves achievements. Today’s society is not only about growth but is concern with material achievements and system governance. According to Stein (28), societies have a culture that assimilates various aspects, provides the procedures and specifications of engaging societal believes and promote ethics.

Work Cited Stein, Peter. Roman Law in European History. London, UK: Cambridge Press Printers. 2005. Press.

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Discipline or Formal Punishment of Juveniles Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Social and Economic Problems in Juvenile Courts

Congestion Problems and Dwindling Resources

Brutal and Strange Punishment

Lack of Due Process in Juvenile Courts

Alternatives to Formal Punishments

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The juvenile court was first implemented in 1899 based on the understanding that juveniles were different from adults and should be tried separately from adults. The juvenile court system has changed significantly since its original formation.

While court decisions have granted minors more rights, the proliferation of drugs and guns as well as other changing social conditions has created a rise in juvenile crime that has in turn led to tougher laws and increased the number of juvenile transfers to criminal courts. Both factors have caused the juvenile court system to behave more and more like criminal courts over the years and until now the system is almost indistinguishable from its adult counterpart.

Whether one favors emphasizing rehabilitation efforts for juvenile offenders or taking the route of punishing those who break the law, both sides have expressed the opinion that the current system need to be changed. This paper looks into the problems (social, economic, and financial) experienced by the juvenile courts that make them unsuitable for handling delinquent behaviors among juveniles. It also explains why discipline rather than formal punishment is the best way to deal with juveniles.

Social and Economic Problems in Juvenile Courts Regardless of the small number of teenagers in the society, the fraction of young people processed through the juvenile court and the juvenile corrections system continue to rise. This rise is owed to more official and corrective juvenile justice policies that create more court transfers and extended use of confinement and juvenile imprisonment. Declining resources in the child welfare system have driven more upsetting adolescents to the juvenile justice system.

The demand for institutional beds and out-of-home residency is mounting. A case in point is the large proportions of youths held in custody in a number of large California counties pending the accessibility of foster or group home beds. Because many juvenile justice clients and their families also are served by child welfare agencies, the dwindling social service budgets lessen the juvenile court’s already scanty treatment resources (Hess, 2009).

These demographic, economical and fiscal forces mean that the juvenile justice system will handle many more intensely distressed adolescents in the next couple of years. The solution to this problem would be the introduction of discipline measures such as in-home supervision rather than confinement in prisons which often lead to congestion.

Congestion Problems and Dwindling Resources The nation’s experience with prisons and jails demonstrates that exclusive dependence on building new beds hardly ever solves congestion. Above and beyond problems with overloaded and out of date buildings, the juvenile justice system faces the pressing need to employ and train new personnel. The juvenile justice system, like most corporations struggles for a declining pool of experienced workers in the subsequently two decades.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Salaries in the juvenile justice system conventionally have been lesser than similar salaries in the adult justice system and well below salaries in the profit private sector. Training funds are very limited for juvenile justice personnel (Siegel

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The Great San Francisco Earthquake Essay essay help

Introduction An earthquake is essentially a quiver which resulted by sudden energy release from the earth inner surface. The release of energy causes a ripple of seismic waves that are felt in the form of shaking. The damage caused by an earthquake depends on the magnitude and the length of such earthquake. (U.S. Geological Survey2008, April 22).

The length however depends on the size of the wave since the larger the wave the larger the area affected and consequently the longer the period of time taken. Each year the earth experiences up to half a million-earth quakes of which only 100, 000 can be truly felt. The probability of occurrence of an earthquake depends on the nature of the locality as well as its geology. South California alone experiences up to 10000 earthquakes a year.

History of earthquakes in San Francisco Earliest reported earthquake in California was felt in 1769 the worst of them all was the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. There have been severel other smaller earth quakes that have hal minimal impact and even gone unnoticed. Others which have been of a greater impact

Situational analysis and probability of an earthquake in the near future Research has predicted that there exsists a 25% probability of an earth quake with a magnitude of up to 7.0 occuring within the next two decades in sanfrancisco. Based on the historical data as well as computer simulations it has been suggested that there is an even more greater chance that an earthquake of an even greatter magnitude will occur in the next 45 years.

The death toll is estimated at a shocking 5,800 deaths if the magnitude is at least 7.0. this means that the value could be higher if the ripple effect is of agreater magnitude(Abercrombie and Brune1994)

Sanfrancisco notably lies on the san andreas fault which is considered the most vulnerable to such earth quakes. The last time such an event occured in 1989 it left 66 dead and 3,757 injured. It only lasted fifteen seconds but the damage to property was indisputably large with the San Francisco Oklahoma Bridge collapsing. This damage went to the tune of 6 billion in property damage. The then United States president George bush issued a 3.45 billion package that was to act as relief for the affected.

The effect could have been even more grave had there been a tsunamic effect. This would have resulted in flooding of the coastal towns sweeping away their homes and destroying their productive farms. The earth quake would damage the regions leeves bearing an effect similar to that of harricane katrina.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The damage would even be worse after the earth quake as the flood water contaminates the fresh water supply that is mainly supplied though an over land aquaduct that would cost even more to repair. It is estimated that at least 24,000 homes were damaged and 100000 left homeless after the floods caused by snow melts hit sanfrancisco back in 1997. Up to 50 leeves were damaged (United States Geological Survey 1999, October 15)

Even more compelling scientists from the United States geological survey suggest that there is a 70 % chance that at least one or more earthquakes with intensity not less than 6.7 will in the next 30 or so years strike San Francisco bay. This is equated to one that occurred in 1994, which left 57 people dead, and others wounded and caused destruction to the tune of $ 20 billion. (Seismological Society of America, 2008, April 17)

General effects of an earthquake Earth quakes are categorized among the top ten most deadly natural disasters. They have the following effects

Shaking and ground rupture -This is the single most probable effect of an earth quake. The intensity of the shaking will depend heavily on the magnitude size as well as the distance from the epicenter. It will also depend on the geology of the area in question. Geological concerns go to the nature of the superficial soils in the subsurface of the earth.

Landslides and avalanches -Landslides also bring along volcanic eruptions which may cause serious storms and wild fires. Landslides are specifically dangerous to both the affected and those who make attempts at providing rescue services.

Fires – Shaking causes damage to power lines and gas pipe systems which are a remedy to massive fires. The effects of these fires were typically felt in the 1906 San Francisco earth quake. The destruction by fire or any other human motivatied factor such as stampedes accidents and collusions would participate heavily to the increased casualties. These however will depend on the level of awareness of the poplation as well as the preparedness.

Soil liquefaction – This is a situation where sand and other granular material owing to the saturation of water temporarily loose strength and dissolve into liquid making the foundations upon which buildings and other rigid structures stand on to become loose causing the building to collapse or tilt. In the Alaskan earth quake the effects of soil liquefaction were immensely felt. This would however e an unlikelyeffect on sanfrancisco due to its geology.

We will write a custom Essay on The Great San Francisco Earthquake specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Tsunami – Tsunamis are often mistaken for tidal waves that rock the seas due to oceanic currents. The mechanism behind tsunamis is much more different. A tsunami is essentially caused by unusual sudden movement of water volumes in the open sea. The sudden movements could be caused by an earth quake in the submarine soils as well as landslides

Floods -Earth quakes that occur in the open sea cause a tsunami effect that leads to seeping of water from the open sea and into the mainland causing floods. Sanfrancisco would be hardly hit by these floods due to its proximity to the sea.In the mainland they cause destruction of dams and water barriers leading to flooding.

Human impacts -Earth quakes have a toll on every aspect of human life. They bring along a death toll besides the destruction caused to the infrastructure. They also cause disease owing to lack of necessities. Financially they lead to high claims for compensation besides the relief costs occurred in resettlement (The Virtual Museum of San Francisco, 2011).

Emergency Planning Options. Citizen based approach

This a proactive and reactive approach which involves two basic components; Leadership which involves appointment is disaster management managers who will be vetted based on willingness aggression and objectivity and partnership which involves embracing an integrated vision and mission and letting the community be part of the campaign

The approach recommends the cooperation between government agencies and the people living in San Francisco. The government formulates a plan that requires the engagement of the people partially or as a whole. Government departments such as the police accept suggestions and receive volunteers who are trained and licensed as local disaster managers. The people are collectively involved in the

The strategic approach

The approach collects together all available resources and coordinates manages motivates the implementation of the awareness campaign. It encourages the building of an integrated programming system e.g., school based curriculum and emphasizes on capacity building and empowerment

Strategy Implications

The strategy adopted will among other things require the change of policy to accommodate the budgetary concerns of the implementation process. It will also require cooperation from all participants and interested parties including investors and development partners. The partnership will help diversify the information platform and increase the level of awareness. The integration of the measures into the various programs such as the school-based curriculum will require training for the implementers who include teachers and administrators. (Interagency Coordinating Committee (ICC) 2008)

Way forward

With the objective of a better disaster management system the government should undertake in research to improve the understanding of the earthquake process its likelihood and impact. It should also develop cost efficient ways of combating the effects on individuals as well as improve the level of resilience in the population. There is a lot of information available in the various sources concerning the effects and consequences of an earthquake. Every citizen should develop a need to know to ensure that they make informed decisions in areas such as construction development and investment

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Great San Francisco Earthquake by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Abercrombie, R.E., and J.N. Brune. (1994). Evidence for a constant b-value above magnitude 0 in the southern San Andreas, San Jacinto and San Miguel fault zones and at the Long Valley caldera. California. Geophys. Res. Lett., 21 (15), 1647-1650.

Interagency Coordinating Committee (ICC).(2008). Strategic Planfor the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program Fiscal Years 2009–2013. Web.

Seismological Society of America. (2008, April 17). New Hazard Estimates Could Downplay Earthquake Dangers. ScienceDaily. Web.

The Virtual Museum of San Francisco. (2011). San Francisco Earthquake History 1915-1989. Web.

U.S. Geological Survey (2008, April 15). California Has More Than 99% Chance Of A Big Earthquake WIthin 30 Years, Report Shows. ScienceDaily. Web.

U.S. Geological Survey. (2008, April 22). Earthquake Hazard Maps Show How U.S. Shakes With Quakes. ScienceDaily. Web.

United States Geological Survey. (1999, October 15). 70 Percent Chance That Large Earthquake Will Strike San Francisco By 2030. ScienceDaily. Web.

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Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive health (ASRH) is a very important subject that needs to be address differently from the normal Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH). The main reason being that adolescent are exposed to greater risk that come with sex and the possible negatives consequences afterwards.

Even though most adolescents are now getting a lot of information concerning sex, how to protect themselves from the sexually transmitted diseases or unplanned for pregnancies, they do not adhere to this knowledge (Schutt-Aine

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Bipolar Disorder Paper Research Paper cheap essay help

Bipolar disorder is a neuropsychological disorder characterized by changing moods and energy levels that affects the ability of the patients’ memory to function normally. The disorder affects the neurons in the brain, hence causing uncoordinated functions of the brain. The effects on the brain depend on the periodic episodes of depression and mania that characterize the disorder.

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) asserts that, “manic-depression distorts moods and thoughts, incites dreadful behaviors, destroys the basis of rational thought, and too often erodes the desire and will to live … brings in its wake almost unendurable suffering and, not infrequently, suicide” (2002, p. 3). The disorder disrupts neuropsychological coordination resulting into cognitive impairment.

The bipolar disorder causes periodic episodes of depression and mania in patients. The intermittent depressive and manic episodes affect neuropsychological functions in patients making them to have abnormal behavior. During depressive episode, the patient experiences low mood and loss of interests in the daily activities because of depression on cognitive abilities.

The signs and symptoms of depressive episode include depression, feeling of helplessness, loss of pleasure in activities, fatigue, irritability, sleep disturbance, suicidal feeling, and chronic pain amongst other clinical symptoms. “In severe cases, the individual may become psychotic, a condition also known as severe bipolar depression with psychotic features such as delusions or, less commonly, hallucinations, usually unpleasant” (Grier,

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Democracy in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam Term Paper scholarship essay help

Democracy in Indonesia It wasn’t until the year 1998 that Indonesia saw actual democratic rule, even if it had attained independence years back. This country began experiencing the democratic rule after General Suhart stepped down following threats to overthrow his government. In a period starting from the year 1998 up to 2003, this country went through “the slow transition to democracy”.

However, as Ward notes, “contrary to countries where popular uprising has led to the natural formation of political parties and a ‘grassroots’ democracy taking shape, democracy in Indonesia was imposed from the top-down by its political elite” (Par. 5).

In the year 2004, the country’s first “direct presidential elections” enabled Susilo Bambang to take over leadership of the country. This leader was formerly an army general. From the time Susilo took over power, he has been seeking to make the democracy of the nation to be stronger. Following his popularity among the Indonesian people, he has been able to go for the second term, which started in the year 2009.

In considering the indicators of how strong the democracy of this country is, voter turnout can be one of these indicators. However, even if ‘voter turnout’ is indicative of a particular level of lack of interest in a nation’s “political system”, this indicator can not be considered as being one that can be relied upon for indicating the ‘democracy strength’ of Indonesia.

The Wolrd Bank makes use of a number of other indicators to measure the strengths of democracies in various countries all over the world. Basing on these indicators, beginning from the year 1998, the country has shown quite a number of improvements is such issues as “guarantee of personal freedoms….anti-corruption measures and the regime’s own accountability, but only because it began from such a low level …it still ranks below most of other East Asia democracies” (Ward, Par. 7).

In regard to the strength of the rule of law in Indonesia, Indonesia ranks lower than the rest of the Asian democracies.

However, Under the current president, Yudhoyono, this country has gone on to realize improvements on a gradual basis in, as Ward points out, “all aspects of the World Bank’s democratic indicator’s, and his second term will therefore be closely watched for indications that the fledging democracy is becoming more firmly entrenched in all levels of Indonesian society” (Ward, Par. 8).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In general terms, Indonesia enjoys freedom of press, and there is guarantee of citizen’s civil rights among others.

Democracy in Thailand Considering the case in Thailand, the differences that exist among the “political ideologies” go on to have a destructive impact on the stability of the country.

Claims are presented by the “Red Shirts Movement” that it has been engaging in a fight to have “real democracy” and that Abhisit’s government should surrender power because this leader ascended to power just through “a backroom deal shaped by powerful military rather than a popular mandate” (Chachavalpongpun, Par.1). In response to this, Abhisit presents an argument that he has intentions to save the country’s democracy from “the irrational demonstrators”.

This leader directs accusations towards the “Red Shirts” of just being a replacement of the Prime Minister, Thaksin, who was earlier on in power but later overthrown. At the center of all these arguments creating a crisis lies, “the deep-seated conundrum in Thai politics: that is, the widening gap between the Thai poor in the remote regions represented by the Red Shirts and the Bangkok elites whose power position has been guarded by the current royalist government” (Chachavalpongpun, Par. 2).

Democracy in Thailand, as it might be looked at from anywhere in the wolrd, still stands to be a concept that is manipulated. This democracy has turned out to be a “victim of elite interests”. For about fifty years, Thailand has gone through several kinds of tyrannical rule.

“The holy trinity of the established forces consisting of the monarchy, the military and the bureaucracy, has long called the shots….even under a civilian regime, the elite in Bangkok oversee every move in political life” (Chachavalpongpun, Par. 5). While this has gone on, the poor people in Thailand have been neglected.

When Thaksin came in to power in the year 2001, he opened the political space in the country. He employed his “political skills” to take advantage of the gap that exists in the society in order to be backed up those living in poverty. He did this by “challenging the dominance of power by the established forces” (Chachavalpongpun, Par. 12). He uplifted the living standards of the poor people. As a consequence, this leader became popular among the have-nots but a threat to the elites in Bangkok.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Democracy in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mean while, as Chachavalpongpun points out, “Thaksin’s tilt towards authoritarianism while serving in office and even becoming a despot before he was overthrown allow the Bangkok elite to claim some kind of justification for the 2006 coup and its continuing aftermath” (Chachavalpongpun, Par. 13).

The effort to adjust again the “political equation” has resulted in to the current clash between the two opposite forces in Thailand. The political leaders work tirelessly to make their regimes stronger and to protect their wealth but at the same time making claims that they are protecting democracy.

However, in the case of Thailand, the truth is that, democratization has not actually paid attention of the citizen’s real needs. The aspiration of the “Red Shirts” has been to “to reverse democratization so that it becomes a bottom-up process” (Chachavalpongpun, Par. 13). In Thailand, generally, there are no guarantees of the citizens’ civil rights, there is no enjoying of free press and also, there are no free and fair elections.

Democracy in Vietnam The present “socialist democratic regime” in Vietnam is “the first ever democratic regime in the country’s political history” (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam” Par. 1). The country’s very start of the first democratic regime was marked by the “Declaration of the Independence for the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945” (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam” Par. 2).

Earlier on, “the economic and socio-political life was controlled by such systems as the colonial system, feudal and semi-feudal systems” (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam” Par. 2).The well-known aspect associated with these systems was that the citizens did not possess any right to take part in whatever political life of the nation. This implies that, there existed a very minimal number or no mechanisms for setting up implementation of democracy. The rights and fate of an individual in the nation rested in the hands of the society or the crowd.

This country’s “first democratic regime” came in to existence in the course of the “national liberation revolution” and this regime resulted from “entire people’s struggle for liberation under the leadership of a communist party” (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam”, Par. 7). The regime brought the basic rights to the people, including the right to life. Under this regime, the people acquired the right to be citizens of a liberated and self-governing nation and the right to take part in the “political life” of the nation, among other rights.

However, basing on the historical background where this country commenced on the journey of setting up and developing democracy, it can be realized that this country must continue working hard to completely understand “the nature of socialist democracy” so that it can be able to identify the incomplete features of the present democracy (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam”, Par. 9).

It is true that, “Vietnam has been undertaking the building of the socialist democratic regime in the context of a tiny, underdeveloped economy after enduing wars to defend national independence and reunification for dozens of years of dealing with several socio-economic structural upheavals” (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam” Par. 10).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Democracy in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Under such conditions, it is quite obvious that this country has not yet set up a democracy that is perfect and therefore should consider taking appropriate measures to make the gap between the goals the country has set and realty to be narrower.

However, it can be clearly seen that, even if the socialist democratic regime in Vietnam is still undergoing construction, “this regime has brought in to full play its pre-eminent characteristics” (“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam” Par. 12). The socialist democratic regime in Vietnam has moved along with the nation in the course of fighting for independence and freedom and has made a contribution, at a significant level, to “socio-economic development’.

The people of the “Socialist Republic of Vietnam” are assured of all “fundamental rights to freedom, including the rights to equality before the law, free and fair elections, freedom of expression, freedom of the press, complaints and denouncements”(“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam” Par. 33).

Comparing and ranking the states of democracy in Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam The Indonesia’s state of democracy is seen to be higher than that of the other two countries. This country is “stable and tolerant under a mature president, with better growth prospects in the region” (Hartcher, Par. 10). Hartcher further points out that the United States “think tank Freedom House” has described this country as “the only free and democratic country in South-Asia” (Par. 10).

According to Hartcher, this point is also emphasized by Andrew Maclntyre and Douglas Ramage where they give a description that “Indonesia in 2008 is stable, competitive electoral democracy, with a highly decentralized system of governance, achieving solid rates of economic growth, under competent national leadership, and playing a constructive role in the regional and broader international community” (Par. 11).

More so, Indonesia enjoys freedom of the media and a judicial system that is uneven, but currently undergoing improvements. Democracy in this country has turned out to be concretely legitimate, having “generals and mutifs” battling it out through the ballot box and not fighting in the streets.

This whole situation is contrary to what is happening in Thailand. In Thailand, the poor people have been neglected. There is a crisis in this state where we are having two opposing forces. The urban elites are against the protection of the poor in remote areas. “Thailand is now suffering a constitutional crisis, emergency rule and an investment strike”(Hartcher, Par. 9).

In essence, the basic difference between the two countries is that the “Indonesian power elites” have a universal respect for the “legitimizing power of democracy” while those elites in Thailand do not. More so, Thailand does not enjoy free media the way Indonesia do.

On the other hand, looking at Vietnam, this country is making the necessary efforts to perfect its democracy. Unlike in Thailand where we have a strong conflict between two forces, here every concerned party is determined to ensure people enjoy freedom in the country. However, Indonesia seems to be ahead of this country in regard to the state of democracy. Vietnam is in the process of improving its democracy after going through a long history.

Considering these three countries, according to my personal judgment, Indonesia stands in the first position, followed by Vietnam and Thailand comes last. Indonesia has done all its best to improve democracy in the country and it is even seen to stand above all the countries in the region.

Vietnam, despite the long journey it has travelled, will soon also realize great improvement in the state of democracy, especially when it will be offered adequate support from friends. On the other hand, the wrangles that are seen in Thailand where by some sections of the society are neglected makes it to be less democratic compared to the other two countries. This country has a long way to go and it has to learn from Indonesia in order for it to improve the state of its democracy.

Prospects for further democratization in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam In each of the three countries, there are prospects for further democratization. Starting with Thailand, in order for the state of democracy to be improved, there should be institutionalizing of the democratic structures and the democratic process in the country is supposed to be designed to be more relevant to the large majority of the people of Thailand.

“The legacy of past authoritarian regimes can only be overcome by greater popular participation and community mobilization” (Muntarbhorn and Taylor, Par. 2). It must be ensured that the state does not go beyond the boundaries of its powers.

It is the duty of such parties as the civil society and the NGOs to carry out this. A balance should not just be established between the state organs but also between the state and the “non-state actors”. The state organs refer to such organs as parliament, the executive, the military, and the judiciary. On the other hand, the non-state organs may include the NGOS, the business sector and the community as a whole. By taking these steps, Thailand will be able to take its state of democracy to a whole new level.

On the other hand, Vietnam is making an effort to improve its democracy state. This shows a move towards a positive direction. What this country needs is to obtain understanding and support from friends regionally and internationally in order for it to realize its goals. In the case of Indonesia, even if this country has a better state of democracy, it needs to carry out further improvements in such areas as the rule of law in order for it to climb to even a higher state.

Works Cited Chachavalpongpun, Pavin. Thailand’s manipulated democracy. Asia Sentinel, 2010. Web.

Hartcher, Peter. Thailand turns in to Indonesia – and vice versa. National Times, 2009. Web.

Muntarbhorn, Vitit, and Taylor, Charles. Roads to democracy: Human rights and democratic development in Thailand. 1994. Web.

“The evolution of democracy in Vietnam”. Vietnews, 2010. Web.

Ward, Rich. The state of democracy in Indonesia. 2010. Web.

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Religion: Islam Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Islam belief

Islamic banking system

Conclusion

Works Cited

Religion is defined as an institutional system of belief of superhuman power or powers; that are believed to have control over humanity: there are a number of religions existing in the world with Christianity and Muslims as the most dominant. This paper discusses the Islam religion.

Islam belief According to religion survey conducted in 2009, the religion has a total number of 1,571,198,000, people; this represented 22.9% of the world population.

In the last couple of years, Muslims have been associated with a number of negative perceptions; because of what some other Muslims have done, terror attacks in different parts of the world has been blamed on Islam religion in what is referred to as holy war; these terror attacks have made people hold different opinions towards the religion. For example in the story, The Alchemist , section one the writer says, “When Santiago first travels to Africa, and the reader sees his vaguely skeptical attitude toward the Muslims he meets.

While in the bar, he hears the call to prayer and watches the Muslims prostrate themselves on the ground” (Coelho 1), when they are praying they are facing Mecca where they believe their God stays. It is the fastest growing religion with and the second largest religion in the world. Muslims tried a lot to change the bad image of Islam, but with no benefit. Islam has many concepts and people have different thoughts about it.

Islam is Arabic word, which means “peace.” Muslims believe that Islam came from God and the prophet Mohammad is the last prophet; in the religion, there is a lot of emphasis on the meaning the religion, this portrays the religion as a religion that has its strong holds in peace development. Just like the religion of Christianity put more emphasis on love.

Prophet Muhammad, who is the main character in the religion in his works, put more emphasis on mercy. He was the last and greatest of God’s messengers, who were mandated to continue the works of Abraham, Jesus and Mosses. He preached to people to have mercy on each other. He did emphasize on the need of mercy to the less fortunate in the society. This goes in line with the strong holds of the religion, peace.

The religion call their God Allah, this means God, the true God. The character of the lord is that of peace and mercy. In the article by Abd-Allah Umar Faruq called, One God, Many Names page two, the writer notes that “For Muslims, All¥h is the most inclusive of God’s names, embracing all his other names and attributes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In accordance with conventional Arabic usage, All¥h can be applied only to the Creator and cannot be assigned to any other being, angelic, human, animate or inanimate, real or imaginary” (Abd-Allah, 2), this implies that Allah is a holy name that need to be respected. The article recognizes Allah as the primary name of God. It tends to illustrate that the name of the lord illustrates who he is and defines the religion, he is seen as the peaceful one and one who is merciful. The name of God in either the Muslim or other religion is respected.

In the article, by Abd-Allah Umar Faruq called, One God, Many Names, finds that the ideology that either Christianity or Muslim derived the name was the same or similar. This is in that the Biblical Elohîm (God) and h¥-Elôh (the true God) of Moses and the Hebrew prophets or the Aramaic Al¥h¥ (God, the true God) of Jesus and John the Baptist the recognition of the supremacy of the lord is recognized. From the spirit of the article then it can be derived that the God that either the Muslim or the Christianity worship is the same.

The article emphasis on living ethically like the life is of the early prophets of God. The word name is seen as the most beautiful name in the two articles. The prophet Mohammad was told the Quran by Gabriel. Quran is Islam holy book. Muslims follow what is written in the Quran and they believe in it. Four kinds of Muslims that are Sony, Shah, Sofuh and Whabies, All kind of Muslims are almost the same with no big different.

People have different thoughts about Islam. There are two kinds of thoughts about Islam. Firstly, the kind of people who have a background about Islam, and know the concepts of Islam; they understand that all Muslims are not the same. In addition, they know terrorists are not real Muslims and they do not follow the concepts of Islam.

Secondly, the kind of people who have negative ideas about Islam; those people think that Islam is the religion of terrorists. The problem is they do not know anything about Islam; they just believe what media will say. Because of the media, many people got negative thoughts about. I believe Islam is a religion of peace, justice and tolerance. Islam is the only religion that believes in other religions.

As God said in the holy Quran, Muslims should believe in other religions that came from God such as Judaism and Christianity. In addition, Muslims should believe in all other prophets who are sent by God like Abraham, Jesus, and Moses. Because of the order of God, Muslims cannot fight or kill other people even if they are not Muslims. God sent the prophet Mohammad with Islam to complete the monotheistic religions (Abd-Allah, Umar Faruq 1-10).

In the books, The Alchemist, the superiority of men over women as it is perceived in the Islam religion is shown when Santiago dreams, pursues Fatima, the religion has the belief that marriage should be respected and it is holly. The man is seen as the one who should initiate the relationship and the women follows.

We will write a custom Essay on Religion: Islam specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A woman is not supposed to show directly that she is in love with a man. In section five, the writer says, “Fatima, Santiago’s love interest, tells him that she would rather him achieve his Personal Legend than stay by her side. Her reasoning is that she loves Santiago and therefore must love his dreams as well” (Coelho, 5). This shows how love is valued in the religion.

Islamic banking system Lately the world is experiencing a rapid growth of Islamic banking alongside with the conventional banking. This tread has made some countries to amend their banking to accommodate the increasing tread. Islamic banking operates slightly different from the conventional banking and an in-depth understanding of its operations is required. Islamic banking is a mode of banking like any other conventional banking systems however it activities are governed by Islamic laws.

The Islamic laws are called Shariah and the banking operates according to Islamic laws of transactions called Fiqh al-muamalat. Firstly, what the sharia provides is banking services without the payment or acceptance of interests from its customers or to the bank. The interest is referred to as Riba. Interest in conventional banking can be seen from two angles, one, the interest paid on savings by the bank to the customer and the interest paid by a customer when he has been financed by the bank.

The theory of the interest is that the customer has allowed the bank to use his money and thus need to be compensated, the rate is agreed on when the contract is made or the bank has a set rate that always is applicable. The banks provide the two services but does not charge or pay interest. The question is how does the bank make profits? How does it attract savings? In addition, how does the customer benefit? We will examine that later. Secondly, it prohibits any financing or even involving in any illegitimate business activities.

The holy book called Quran prohibits this. some businesses that are directly prohibited by the sheria laws not to be engaged in by one who practices the Muslim faith, a good example on this is selling of pork and its products the banking system cannot deal with a person who engages into the business. Another form is what is called games of chances, this include gambling and betting.

It does not finance. Lastly, the sheria prohibits financing of high risk businesses with high uncertainty. Another question that comes into our minds is whether the customers are only Muslims faith practitioner, that was the idea however since the business want to attract more resources in terms of saving and the benefits of lending. It opens its doors to other faith holders to have accounts with them on the condition that they will be fully compliant with the sheria laws governing banking.

For advises mostly on the following of the law there are numerous firms offering the service under Shariah advisory councils. This paper gives an in-depth analysis of Islamic banking starting with a brief history of it emergence, it will also expand on some of the products that are available in the system and in line with that it will be comparing it with the conventional banking system.

In conclusion, people have different believes and thoughts; some believe in God and some do not. The most important thing is ethics and the personalities of people. Many people are looking for peace like Muslims, but they do not know how. The world should try to accept Islam like any other religion.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Religion: Islam by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On page seven, Abd-Allah notes that “Arabic prayer formulas and recitation of the Qur’an. For us, All¥h has a direct emotional and spiritual efficacy which no other word for God can replace”, this implies that the religion is a religion of peace (Munir 34-45).

Conclusion Different people hold varying perceptions and attitudes towards Islam religion: some believe that the religion is responsible for terrorism attacks experienced in the world while others believe it is a religion of peace. Prophet Mohammad is believed to be the founder of the religion: Muslims belief that Islam is a religion of mercy and love.

Works Cited Abd-Allah, Umar Faruq. One God, Many Names. 2011. Web.

Coelho, Paulo. The Alchemist (Coelho) Summary and Analysis. 2011. Web.

Munir, Ahmed. Islamic Banking: A Success Story.” Economic Review 35.4 (2004) : 34-45. Web.

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Integration of Nation States Essay essay help online free

There is an ongoing debate among political scientists about the current and future trends in international relations. The key question is whether the world of nation states becomes more centralized and interdependent or it grows more fragmented and nation states tend to be more separated from one another.

This paper will defend the argument that international politics is more inclined toward unity rather than fragmentation and that despite numerous conflicts and disagreements, nation states try to find some common denominators in their relations with one another.

To some extent this argument supports the theory of political liberalism which postulates that the policies of a state are inevitably affected by the interests of other players (Griffiths, O’Callaghan

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Christianity and Hinduism Religions Comparison Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction Different religions are studied with a motive of understanding people from other parts of the world. Since some individuals are characterized by religious fanaticism, it is crucial to appreciate their beliefs in order to try to understand them.

Western religions are mostly monotheism and are separate from the western religions which are generally distinguished as polytheist. generally, western religions such as Christianity are based on the believe of a supreme being or one deity while western religious such as Hinduism common in India are animistic i.e. they belief that inanimate things such as nature, the universe and nonliving matter are conscious just like the belief of the Native Americans.

Western religions emanated from the western culture and reinforced through Christianity i.e. Roman Catholicism which was segregated by the Great schism into Protestants who formed a diversified into movements such as Neopaganism, evangelicalism and spiritism as compared to the western religion whose great influence was Hellenistic religion. This paper shall explore Christianity as a western religion in comparison with Hinduism which represent the Eastern religion.

Comparison of Hinduism and Christianity Differences

One of the most significant teachings of the Hinduism is reincarnation which elaborates on origin as well as fate of humankind. This concept awards meaning to .life since it explains that man has existed in other lives and on death, he or she will come back to live on earth as another being or a creature depending on his previous actions.

Reincarnation comforts those individuals whose lives arte dictated by their actions and assures them of yet another chance of living to become perfect (Jones 86). This contrasts with Christian teaching about the origin of man as creation and his fate as a judgment by the supreme deity who may condemn one to eternal death or eternal happiness in paradise.

Reincarnation elaborates on not only why people live but also on the reason for their distinction and diversity such as being impoverished, disabled, and wealthy. This is attributed to prior life which is dictated by Karma in the current existence. As a result, reincarnation establishes the meaning of reward or punishment in the present life as having dependent on previous deeds (Hufner 7).

There are vast differences between the two religions in that Hinduism is based on polytheism or plural gods in which there is are also goddesses within Brahman. This is unlike Christianity where there is a single higher being that created, maintains life and will ultimately judge man in accordance to his deeds. Moreover, Hinduism points out that whatever that contains life is a personification of Brahman hence, dictate the inner self (Jones 85).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Conversely, Christianity points out that God created all living creatures in heaven and on earth and awarded man with the gift op freewill. Thus man chooses his or her deeds and should be guided by the bible in appeasing God who cares and values man. Thus there is a distinction between man and the Supreme Almighty, the only one worth of worship through hymns and prayers because he provides life full of goodness (Beck 78).

According to Hinduism, when a man sins he owes it against his own self and not against god. Therefore man suffers for his deeds as he reincarnates until he is feed of Nirvana. This is opposed to Christianity where God has set rules which are meant to guide the ways of man who freely chooses to obey or disobey.

Sin offends God who punishes man through distancing himself from him or causing him a spiritual death. Additionally, in accordance to Hinduism, salvation is marked when one fails to undergo reincarnation meant to make individuals better through various successions, to achieve perfection and unite with Brahman (Hufner 8).

On the other hand, Christianity teaches that salvation is a free reward from God to be embraced and not earned and was marked by the death of Jesus Christ as a ransom for mankind’s sins. Finally, Hinduism recognizes and appreciates presence and importance of other religions such as Christianity which in contrast, emphasize that there is only one true religion and therefore nullifies or disregards the others.

Similarities

Similarities that exist between Christianity and Hinduism includes presence of alter in places of worship, the concept of trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit) which compares to Vedic trinity comprising Shiva (one who puts to destruction) , Vishnu (Who sustain life) and Brahma as the one who created with Lord Krishna being the most supreme. Like Christianity teaching on long suffering, Hinduism teaches of spiritual tolerance. Through ancient practices animal sacrifices were paramount for forgiveness of sins in both religions.

This reflects that Christianity and Hinduism advocate for righteousness whose failure to abide results to punishment or accountability (Hufner 2). The two religions also incorporate music in their practices. For instance, Christian hymns signify worship, a prophetic call for spiritual transformation as well as a personal or community’s creed of salvation and commitment to obeying God (Beck 79).

Hindu songs express strong emotions such as divine love and different melodies are used for meditation as individuals pursue self recognition (Beck I19). Besides, Hindus have scriptural writings recognized as revealed and others as remembered. The scriptures are keen on religious practices to be followed. The most supreme gods are Upanishads and Vedas. Similarly, Christians have the Bible which forms the scriptural base for most of their teachings.

We will write a custom Essay on Christianity and Hinduism Religions Comparison specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion There are many differences than are the similarities between Hinduism and Christianity. It is surprising how individuals are willing to sacrifice their lives due to religious fanaticism defending believes which lead to many religious wars in the world such as the jihad. Therefore, it is essential to really understand other religions for the purpose of cultivating tolerance and esteem for all humanity.

Works Cited Beck, Gay. Sacred Sound: Experiencing Music in World Religions. Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. 2006. Print.

Hufner, Katharina. Hinduism from Within and Without. Germany: GRIN Verlag. 2010. Print.

Jones, John. India: Its Life and Thought. Middlesex: The Echo Library. 2009. Print.

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Catherine the Great Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Sophia Augusta Fredericka also known as Catherine the great was a Russian empress who reigned in the period 1762-1796. She was born on 21st April, 1729 in Stettin, Prussia which is now known as Szczecin, Poland. Having been born of Prince Christian August of Anhalt-Zerbst and princesses Johanna Elizabeth of Holstein- Gottorp, she was automatically a German princess.

It was after her conversion to orthodoxy that she adopted the name Catherine and was married to the heir to the Russian throne by the name the Grand Duke peter in 1745. The marriage was however not a happy one. The marriage problems nevertheless did not deter her intellectual and political interests and capabilities and Catherine made some efforts in the removal of her husband from the throne and she later took power as the queen hence the title Catherine II.

Catherine had always been ambitious and intelligent and had the desire to be the head of the Russian empire despite the fact that she was born in German. She used various tactics to gain the support of the Russian people for instance through her loyalty to Russia and the Russian orthodox (Streeter 4).

It was in the year 1761 25th December, when Empress Elizabeth died and peter became the emperor, Peter II, hence making Catherine the great to be the empress. Peter was faced with a lot of political, military and even church related problems.

There were even attempts to overthrow him and placing his son Paul on the thrown while at the same time having Catherine as the temporary ruler until the son reached the optimum age of being a ruler. This plan however did not consider the fact that Catherine had a very strong desire to be a ruler by herself and that she could not stand the position of being a background figure as she awaits her son Paul to be of age but rather she had to fight intelligently.

It was on the 28th day of June the year 1762 that Catherine combined efforts with her then lover, Gregory Orlov and brought together the troops of St. Petersburg to her aid and declared herself as the solitary ruler of the Russian empire hence the name Catherine II. Peter was arrested and after a short period of time he was killed and nothing could deter Catherine’s determination of ruling the Russian empire.

Although Catherine was very ambitious and had great plans in regard to improving the domestic and foreign matters of the country, she concentrated much on securing and laying a firm foundation of her position during her initial years of her reign.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is because she was aware of the fact that a majority of people were not for her idea of being a ruler but rather considered her son, Paul, to be the appropriate person to take on the leadership position. She was also viewed by many as having seized her husband from power illegally. She therefore saw these people as a threat and had to do everything possible to gain their support and trust and make her stay as a ruler comfortable and appealing to many.

She was very keen not to cause any further disparities but rather to unite the people, for instance, she understood that the people needed to rebuild Russian peace before she could indulge on homeland affairs. A foreign policy was necessary and Catherine placed Count Nikita Panin in charge of foreign affairs to implement the policies and was successful.

It was two years later, 1964, that Catherine was now ready to perpetrate reforms as she now felt secure and had gained the trust of the majority through her loyalty.

The reform acts and agendas set by Catherine were driven by the enlightenment and education idea. Her first notable reform for instance was facilitated by the enlightenment spirit. She advocated for the change of the Russian legal system as she considered it ineffective based on the fact that the system relied on old code of laws which were long passed by time making them ineffective.

She aimed at bringing positive changes in the legal system for instance through enactment of laws and policies that ensures that there is equal protection for all individuals without any form of discrimination. She also advocated for the prevention of participation in criminal activities as opposed to the imposition of cruel and harsh punishment of the offenders as prevention is always better than cure and more so less costly for the particular country.

It was in June 1767 that Catherine the great established a legislative commission that was supposed to take part in the revision of the old laws and although she was very hopeful that the commission would do its best and achieve the expected results, there were very little positive achievements to an extent that Catherine suspended the activities of the commission toward the end of the year 1768.

Apart from being involved in domestic affairs, Catherine also dealt with the foreign affairs, for instance, she made it possible for Russia to access the black sea coast without restrictions (Henry 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Catherine the Great specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Catherine the great is a very significant figure in Russia as she is associated with the expansion of the Russian empire for instance to the central Europe and the black sea, the improvement in the administration and management practices and also her vigorous persuasion of the westernization and modernization policies.

It is under her rule that Russia was able to have strong foundations to an extent that it could now rival with Asia and Europe. Catherine dedicated her time and capabilities to issues associated with the domestic affairs specifically the functioning of the government.

Education and enlightenment was also a major aspect that Catherine the great promoted in Russia. She was actively involved in the expansion of the Russian education system for instance she established a plan that aimed at expanding and improving the education system in Russia in 1786.

Although she did not live to make the plan a complete success due to her death, she saw to it that there was an increase in the number of the educational institutions including elementary and secondary schools after which other aspects of the plan were carried on by his son.

She also advocated for improvement in arts for instance theatre, painting and music and also sciences in schools and the society at large as she saw this as a source of recognition and good reputation for the country hence a source of civilization. It was in 1796 that Catherine the great died and her throne was succeeded by her son by the name Paul (Lewis 1).

Works Cited Henry, Cavendish. “Catherine the Great Biography.” Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2011. Mar. 14, 2011

Lewis J. Jone. “Catherine the Great.” About.com, 2011. Mar. 14, 2011

Streeter, Michael. Catherine the Great. London: Haus Publishing, 2007.

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Automated Teller Machine’s Manual and Usage Essay college essay help near me

Introduction An Automated Teller Machine (ATM) is a computerized banking machine that allows clients to access basic banking operations such as deposits, withdrawals and balance checking among others functions. ATMs are very convenient since they allow the clients to access their accounts without the hustles involved in traditional banking processes (lining up and filling multiple forms). As such, they save the clients a lot of time and money.

In addition, they are efficient accurate and fast as compared to the banking tellers. However, in as much as ATMs have proven to be convenient in our lives, a number of risks have developed over their usage. The most prominent threat is that ATMs give criminals a chance to get to our money especially if ATM users do not take precautions while using the ATM machines.

Even though people can avoid such risks by using common sense, it is always a worthwhile endeavor to review some proven tactics periodically in a bid to avoid mishaps, all the while improving your chances of averting risky situations. Lannon and Gurak (2010) assert that manuals are among the best tools to ensure that clients use products and services conveniently and safely. In this regard, following these six steps will improve your chances against various risks associated with ATM usage.

ATM security

Ensure that you look around the ATM location before you decide to approach it. The purpose of this step is to ensure that there are no suspicious people larking around the ATM or standing too close to you while you transact your business. In addition, ensure that you use an ATM that you are familiar with. A trusted ATM is more secure than a ‘new’ one.

Be prepared

Ensure that you have all the requirements needed to use an ATM machine. Make sure you have your ATM card, you know your business in the ATM, and most important of all, you have memorized the correct PIN number (eHow, 2008). Covering such details ensures that you take the least time in the ATM thereby lessening the chances of experiencing further complications while at the machine.

Inspect the machine before Inserting Your Card

Incase you see something unfamiliar on the ATM machine; do not use it because it may be part of an elaborate scam. Any additional equipment may be used to compromise your bank account. Such add-ons include card readers and hidden cameras.

Card insertion and usage

After inserting your card into the ATM machine, use the interactive and simple instructions that will display on the ATM screen as your guide. If you have any concerns, ask the assigned ATM attendant for assistance. The attendants are thoroughly vetted and can be trusted to help you have an easy and secure ATM experience.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Get Cash Out of Sight

Whether it is little or a lot, cash can be tempting. As such, do not attempt to count your cash at the ATM; ensure that you get it out of sight. Pocket or fold it in your hand until you are in a safe location. This will lessen the chances of an abrupt attack from other people.

Automobile ATMs: security

You are a likely victim of a carjack when you have cash in hand and in a stopped car. Therefore, take a few seconds to lock your car and roll up your windows when using an automobile ATM. This will ensure that you are safe from such crooks.

Conclusion Even though ATMs have proven their worth in our livelihood, they are not perfectly safe. In this regard, ensure that the ATM you use is safe and you have all the requirements needed to use the ATM. In addition, follow the on-screen instructions at the ATM and ask for assistance where required.

After using the ATM, ensure that you hide your money. As precautionary measures: DO NOT share your Personal Identification Number (PIN) with anyone. In addition, do not write it down instead, ensure that you memorize it and change it regularly. Incase of any complications, ask the ATM attendant or contact your bank for assistance.

References eHow (2008). How to Use an ATM. Web.

Lannon, J.,

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Global Warming: Causes and Effects Cause and Effect Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Causes of Global Warming

Effects of Global Warming

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Global warming is one of the greatest problems facing the world today, because of its frightening effects that are evident in the present world. Global warming is the tremendous increase of the global temperatures, which results due to the trapping of heat in the atmosphere. Signs of global warming are evident all over the world with the increased temperatures, unpredictable climatic conditions, disappearing of some species of birds and animals, and an increase in the sea level.

Although people are not only aware but have also have tasted the impacts of these effects, very few individuals have taken the required action to save the earth from destruction, as most people still embrace practices that are the primary causes of global warming such as the use of fossil fuels, deforestation, and the use of chemical fertilizers.

Therefore, although some natural factors have contribute to global warming, human actions are the primary causes of global warming and unless such practices are controlled, likelihoods of Saving the earth from effects of global warming, for example, drought, flooding, and extinctions of some species of flora and fauna are minimal.

Causes of Global Warming The primary causes of global warming are the most cherished human practices that have existed since time memorial. One of the primary causes of global warming is the increased amount of the carbon dioxide emissions in the environment.

With the ever-increasing use of electricity as one of the primary sources of energy in most sectors of the economy, there has been a continuous release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Electricity is primarily produced from burning of coal in power plants, and because it is very hard to survive without it, likelihoods of such gases filing the earth are high.

Carbon dioxide is one the gases that trap heat energy in the atmosphere, leading to increased atmospheric temperatures. Another cause of global warming is the ever-increasing emission of greenhouse gases from burning of gasoline. The modern car culture is one of the primary sources of green house gases, as most transportation and manufacturing industry rely on fossil fuels as its primary source of fuels.

Global warming is also a product of some agricultural practices such as planting of rice in paddies. Although agriculture is the backbone of most global economies, some agricultural practices are primary sources of some dangerous greenhouse gases such as methane, as a result of the breaking down of bacteria in areas with limited supply of oxygen (Essick 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition to increased use of fossil fuels and some agricultural practices that release dangerous gases into the environment, other human practices such as deforestation have also contributed to global warming. Although nowadays most individuals use cooking and other environmentally friendly sources of energy in their homes, the use of forest for fuel is common, because of the numerous trees that are cut daily for charcoal and wood.

Further, the need for land to accommodate the ever-increasing population numbers has forced most societies to encroach into forested or protected land. Deforestation destroys trees that are the primary air purifiers, as they help to remove carbon dioxide from the environment. On the other hand, the use of chemical fertilizers that are rich in nitrogen have also contributed to global warming, as nitrogen compounds have one of the greatest heat-trapping capacity (Markham Para. 1-5).

Effects of Global Warming As a result of the numerous contributions of human actions to global warming, human beings must bear the brunt of their actions, which unless they accept to control, the wellbeing o future generations will be at stake. One evident effects of global warming is the rising level of the sea level, caused by the melting of the ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland. The effects of such increases are evident, as floods and massive storms have become one of the most prevalent calamities that face most societies year in, year out.

In addition, there has been an increase in other deadly calamities, such as droughts and tropical diseases that are connected to global warming; hence, the need for individuals to cooperate and save the world. Further, as research studies show some species of birds such as the Adélie penguins have drastically reduced in numbers, a case that is likely to become worse if people do not take responsibility for their actions, as most species of flora and fauna will find it very hard to adapt to new ecosystems (Jones 1).

Conclusion In conclusion, considering the deadly nature of the effects of global warming and because global warming is primarily a product of human activities, there is need for collective responsibility to save Mother Nature. Failure to do this can lead to numerous devastating calamities that will greatly jeopardize the wellbeing of both present and future generations.

Works Cited Essick, Peter. Causes of global warming. National Geographic society. 2011. Web.

Markham, Derek. Global warming effects and causes. Planet Save. 2009. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Global Warming: Causes and Effects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Jones, Jeremy. What are the effects of global warming on earth? 2010. Web.

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Assessments for English Language Learners Analytical Essay argumentative essay help

Assessing is an influential tool in determining the learning outcome in students. Therefore, it is the responsibility of teachers to utilize the various assessment ways in order to determine the progress of their students. This paper seeks to explain the value of diagnostic, formative and summative assessments for English Language Learners (ELL). It also goes further to summarize the five alternative assessment formats and the importance of each feature.

Diagnostic assessment involves evaluating the individual current knowledge and skills in order to distinguish the appropriate learning program for him. This is particularly important to the English Language Learners since it helps them in assessing of their own self. Another form of diagnostic assessment includes forward looking assessment which helps in assessment of the individual future events. It is worthy to mention that diagnostic assessment is a form of formative assessment.

Formative assessment is done throughout the learning process. Formative assessment involves the activities that are performed by the students and the teachers which results in information that is used as a feed back to improve the learning and teaching process.

This type of assessment is usually used by teachers to review their approaches in teaching and also determine the next step of the learner. Formative assessment does not necessarily involve grading of the students but its main aim is to help in learning of the subject (English) (Chappuis, 2005).

The formative assessment is characterized by; improved quality interactions in the classroom, students are involved in the learning process, feedback is issued between the students and teachers in order for them to improve on their work and sharing criteria between the students and the teachers.

Summative assessment involves analyzing the learning outcomes and consequently reporting the outcomes to the parties concerned (Chappuis, 2005). This is usually done at the end of the class, term, course, semester or the end of the year in order to summarize the achievements of the student. Students are normally graded according to their respective performance in the subject undertaken.

The most used English language proficiency (EPL) test in the school is ACCESS for ELLs (Stiggins, 2007). ACCESS test is used for assessing communication and understanding of English language among the people who use the language. It has an aim of developing the standards of English language through the test and instructions issued to the learner. The standard of this test is graded according to the performance indicator that has five clusters of grades.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More ACCESS tests have got advantages in that it is more secure as compared to other shelf tests, ACCESS tests are based on the standards of each country and ACCESS tests emphasizes on English as a social language.

However the main drawback of ACCESS tests is that it fails to recognize the knowledge of the student i.e. it fails to assess if the student has comprehended the use of English language.

Assessment in classroom can take various different forms (Stiggin

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