Introduction Incentives are rewards that motivate a particular course of action. They encourage people to behave in a particular way. The aim of writing this essay is to discuss issues in the Reading Incentive Program and analyze it from a goal orientation perspective, highlight the problems with this type of incentives program and provide ideas for it that does not undermine students’ motivation to read.
Issues in the Reading Incentive Program In this case, a teacher was concerned about her students who never liked reading. The issue was that some students were not exposed to reading outside school and this was because of the poor economy.
Second, most of the students never liked reading during their free time at school. This was the reason why the teacher was concerned knowing that reading skills are important to the success of the students and the school in future.
An analysis of the case from a goal orientation perspective The aim of the case of the Reading Incentive Program was to encourage students to read more. It was also a way of motivating them to read outside school and during their free time.
The teacher developed the incentive program by placing a chart on the classroom wall to check the students’ progress, and each time one reads a book, he or she should report to the teacher then she will indicate on the chart by putting a star. She promised prizes to the student who read more books and this motivated the students to read more.
Students were very excited on hearing about the program. It was conducted for one month and by the end of the program, every student was reading too much and was to receive prizes because of the hard work.
Once the incentive program was dropped, she noticed very few students are reading during their free time. Such motivation should be done frequently, so that it can be a habit to the students because if they are not monitored, they reduce the level of reading thus leading to failure.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Problems identified with this type of incentive program Rewards destroy relationships in organizations, when people are forced to compete for rewards or recognition it destroys cooperation. Relationships at the work place deteriorate between supervisors and those they manage. This is because they work for rewards and this creates competition among the workers that later develops into hatred for each other (Kohn, 1993, para. 5).
It is a form of punishment because some people work for money and they do not like the job. This is because they are promised rewards after and so even if one does not enjoy what he or she is doing, the prizes motivate them (Kohn, 1993, para. 5) but does not do the work willingly.
Incentives do not change the attitudes that influence our behaviors. Once the rewards are not provided, we go back to our old behaviors thus no lasting change in our attitudes and behavior. People are not committed to what they do because they lack endurance and motivators to perform their duties wholeheartedly and the organizations collapse due to lack of cooperation.
Ideas for an incentive program that does not undermine students’ motivation to read Developing reward programs. Students should be given prizes to motivate those who do not like reading and it will improve their performance in class.
For example a student, can be given scholarship when he or she performs well in the exams. They can be given novels as a reward to improve on their literature and grammar. These rewards motivate the students to read more and it even becomes a hobby such that they read during their free time.
Developing communicating and testing criteria in terms of grades provides competition among the students although they are not necessary in motivating them.
Grading is used to determine the performance students in school and this helps them to identify where one belongs in terms of class performance. It encourages those that have performed poorly in their exams to put more effort next time since no one would like to be the last in class.
We will write a custom Essay on Reading Incentive Programs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An academic subject that can be enhanced through technology Geography is the study of the human and natural elements on earth. The study of the relationship between man and earth is enhanced by using the latest and most reliable geographic information available through technology.
The opportunities by students and geographers to observe and present data from satellites and local observation represent processes that are adding value to a wide range of studies in the21st century.
Geography’s major contribution for 21st century can be viewed through the way it provides information about earth and its systems reflect the concerns of relationship between people and the environment, and responding to challenges of global changes in climate, population changes, land use and population changes ( 21st Century Skills Map, 2009, p. 8).
Description on how to use technology to support student understanding of geography In order to access information effectively and efficiently, students should understand the legal issues surrounding the access and use of information. Use web-based access to print information, maps and graphics and they should provide accurate citations and references to the information they use from the electronic and print sources.
Evaluate the information retrieved critically by comparing and contrasting it from the different sources you have. This helps to assess the information effectively and efficiently for the problem at hand. Students should also evaluate with the use of satellite images to collect data of Earths surface.
It is important to discuss the authenticity and reliability of data that you have obtained from the various sources, such as how the information is collected, stored used and its accuracy. Make sure that you read geography content based literature about a topic written by different authors, compare, and contrast the perspectives on the topic you are doing.
Ensure that you access information on the internet regarding the environmental issues at stake. This will help understand the different positions and perspectives by different groups. Identify the position of each group or person, then compare, and contrast the positions on the issues, considering the interest that a particular group may represent by researching the information available through web database sources.
Work appropriately and productively with others. By doing this, you share ideas with other members on what they have researched and discuss how these issues affect the local and global community. Use inter-personal and problem solving skills to influence and guide others towards a goal.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Reading Incentive Programs by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion In conclusion, incentives influence people’s behavior such that they perform certain acts because there are rewards but if they are not given any reward they cease doing what they are assigned to do because they are not working for any reward.
Reference List Kohn, A. (1993).Why Incentive Plans Cannot Work. Harvard Business Review. Web.
21st Century Skills Map. (2009). Geography. Web.
The Impact of Computer-based Technologies on Business Communication Report online essay help: online essay help
Executive Summary The impact of computer-based communication can be considered as a revolution of communication. Computer based communications are currently the most common tools of communication not only in organizations, but also in social lives. Many people spend most of their time on a computer working, studying or having fun by playing various computer games.
Blogs and Facebook are some of computer-based communication tools, which have had a great impact on communication. Blogs are used as tools through which debate over various issues is conducted. As a result, they allow individuals to participate in debates on subjects of their interest. In business, customer, employees and other groups can participate in debates.
Through blogs, market information related to various issues such as taste, customer preference, competition and customer satisfaction can be obtained. They are also important public relation tools where public relation officers can respond to issues arising from an organization.
Facebook is the most popular social networking tool at present. Through facebook, individuals can share their social lives such as photos, birthday celebrations, updates and events. Facebook has provided an affordable, fast and effective tool through which communication is relayed.
However, it has been noted that long hours spent on facebook and blogs can affect an individual’s productivity adversely, however it is clear that if well managed, these tools can enhance the performance of an organization greatly. Some of the areas where they can be effectively be used is in advertisement, public relations and organizational communication.
Introduction Development in computer and internet technology has had a significant impact on communication. Currently, computer based communication has become very popular. This is evident in its increased adoption by many individuals and organizations on daily basis (Perkins, 2008, p. 44). Many people spend most of their time on the computer working, studying or having fun by playing computer games.
Computer technology has increasingly been integrated into people’s cultures. For example, carrying a laptop has become a norm rather that an exception. Consequently, the computer has become a major tool for communication. Today, using email, instant messaging, Facebook, blogs and other computer-based communications has become very common in that they are almost replacing other conventional means of communication (Kent, 2008, p. 32).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Facebook and blogs have become very common communication tools. This report addresses the impact of these tools on communication. In addition, the report focuses on how these tools are currently being used, the challenges experienced when using them and what can be done in order to effectively address the challenges observed.
Enhanced Business communication through Computer-based Technologies Importance of Blogs to Business Communication
Blogging involves development of blogs or web logs which are internet-based journals that can be accessed by customers for vital information about an organization.
The impact of blogging in business communication is based on their ability to replace the conventional means of communicating with customers by sending them newsletters through the post office (Cox, Martinez
The M a level english language essay help
Proper marketing strategy is one of the most profitable approaches that can be used by companies. No matter how good products are, there is always the need to ensure that prospective consumers are aware of the existence and goodness of the products. There is also a need to tailor product quality that best suits customers or that attracts greater revenue from the products. The following paragraphs explore the marketing and management strategies used by My M
Tullow Oil PLC Fundamental Analysis Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Introduction Tullow oil plc is a global company that deals in oil and gas production. In addition, it also deals with the production of these commodities. The company is based in London. On the other hand, it is listed on both the London and Irish stock exchange markets. Tullow plc was founded in 1985 to become a gas exploration business with its initial interests in Senegal (Tullow oil plc, 2010, p. 2).
As a matter of fact, it was listed on the stock exchange market in 1985. Later on in 2007, the company made big strides that enabled it to enter into the FTSE100 Index. In advancing its activities, it has been involved in strategic business moves like acquisitions. For instance in 2000, it acquired BPs Gas fields to increase its potential and market positioning. This deal was concluded at £200 million (Tullow oil plc, 2010, p.4).
Apart from this, the company was involved in another strategic move in 2004. With increased opportunities in sight it acquired Energy Africa for $ 570 million (Tullow oil plc, 2010, p. 5). In recent years, the company has expanded rapidly and this has been aided by its acquisition of Hardman resources. It started drilling its first well in 2006. This was done in Uganda around the Lake Albert region. In the process it was able to drill 30 wells (Tullow oil plc, 2010, p. 7).
Because of this, it is one of the largest exploration and production companies in Europe. As a matter of fact, it has over 85 production and exploration licenses. In addition, it operates in more than 23 countries (Tullow oil plc, 2010, p. 9). To enhance its operations, the company has laid more focus on four regions that it seeks to advance its operations with.
On the other hand, it has production from eight countries. Its major achievement is the two world class production projects it has in Uganda and Ghana (Tullow oil plc, 2010, p. 11). This is because it has been able to discover massive oil deposits in the said countries. Up to now, the company employs 900 people in all its operations worldwide (Tullow oil plc, 2010, p. 13).
Discussion Fundamental analysis is a broad analysis that a company has to do. This is because it analyses its health and financial statements (Graham, 2004, p. 7). In doing this, it also looks at its competitive advantages and the management that the company has put in place. Fundamental analysis also looks at the market together with the competitors. It has some specific areas that it mainly focuses on (Graham, 2004, p. 9).
This differs in relation to its applicability. It can focus on interest rates and state of the economy at that given time. In addition, it can also look at the management, production and earnings. Two basic approaches can be used to achieve this process. This includes top down and bottom up analysis (Graham, 2004, p. 15). To perform a good fundamental analysis it is necessary to use the present and historical data.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The long term objective should be to make and come up with good financial estimates. There are many objectives as per to why this is done. It will help to make a good projection on the company’s business performance (Graham, 2004, p. 17). This analysis is supposed to evaluate the management with a broad objective of making good internal business decisions that will move the company forward.
With the right measures in place, it can help the company to make and calculate its credit risks as it undertakes its business goals and objectives. Another objective can be to come up with a good stock valuation that will ultimately predict the company’s expected price evolution.
International and national macroeconomic environment These environments are important as they have a bearing on the company’s performance.
International environment The company operates on a global market. This is because it has operations in 23 countries. As a matter of fact it has mainly focused on four regions. These include Europe, Africa, South America and South Asia. The company’s international environment has the following factors in mind.
GDP growth rates Most markets that the company has focused its activities on are emerging economies which are still growing with a great potential. There has been a problem with the global economic crisis that slowed down economic activities. On the other hand, countries that the company has invested in are witnessing good GDP growth rates and that is why it has had to invest there.
For instance, Africa’s GDP has been growing by 4.3% and this explains why the company has had exploration efforts in Uganda and Ghana (Fratzscher, 2010, p. 14). This growth rate is expected to reach 7% by the end of 2010. On the other, its other markets like Asia have had good GDP projections.
It is estimated and projected that the Asian Pacific countries will experience a GDP growth rate of 7% by the end of 2010 (Fratzscher, 2010, p. 17). This is also expected for the South American market that will have a GDP growth rate of 3 to 4% (Fratzscher, 2010, p. 19).
We will write a custom Report on Tullow Oil PLC Fundamental Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Inflation and interest rates Various markets have had different interest and inflation rates. Major central banks have reported different interest rates. In relation to the markets that the company operates in, Africa has had high interest rates meaning that the cost of acquiring capital still remains high.
South American interest rates have shifted from 8 to 9 % (FXStreet, 2010, p. 3). Europe has had the lowest interest rates in the market. They have revolved between 0.25% and 5 % (FXStreet, 2010, p. 4). This represents part of the interest rates that the company has faced in the course of carrying out its activities.
Inflation rates have been changing depending on the country that the company operates in. Developed countries have had an inflation rate of 0 to 4 % (Central investment agencies, 2010, p. 8).Developing countries as a whole have had an inflation rate of between 5 to 20% (Central investment agency, 2010, p. 8). This should be factored in by the company as it will have an impact on the prices that it sets.
Exchange rates Exchange rates are very important because the company operates in different markets that use distinct currencies. Although the dollar is used as a global business currency, exchange rates vary in relation to different economies (Fratzscher, 2010, p. 21). This therefore means that fluctuating and increasing exchange rates can directly have a bearing on the company’s estimations.
After the US economy experienced some economic shocks, there have been time varying effects on exchange rates. There are various transmission channels towards exchange rates. Since the company deals with various currencies it should have good conversions mechanisms in place.
Global oil and gas prices Tullow oil plc deals in energy products and commodities. Because global oil energy prices keep on shifting, it is very critical towards the company’s performance. Shifts in prices have been brought about by unexpected factors that the company needs to be prepared for (Rigzone, 2010, p. 5). Because it operates in different markets, it needs to be flexible as far as energy prices are concerned.
Petroleum demand has been increasing every year which has demanded that companies increase production. Stagnation in production can be dangerous and limit supply thereby increasing prices. The world is moving toward full exploitation of gas as an alternative energy (Rigzone, 2010, p. 5). This means that the company needs to continue investing in gas production.
National macroeconomic environment Regional and industry/company dynamics have always changed as time goes by.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Tullow Oil PLC Fundamental Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Foreign competition There is increased competition in oil production and exploration because economies are continuing to grow. Growing economies especially in countries that the company has focused on have brought about an increase in demand for petroleum products (Essar Group, 2010, p. 4).
The industry is highly competitive and revolutionized because of increased market awareness. Increased demand for petroleum products has prompted companies to venture in this business thereby increasing competition. This therefore means that the company should continue being strategic on how it carries out its activities. With this in place it can be sure to withstand competition.
Total sales and prices Sales and prices have been shifting depending on the existing business dynamics. In general, the industry is experiencing an increase in sales because of increased demand (Petroleum economist, 2010, p. 8). Notably an increase in demand has been created by rapidly growing economies that the country has invested in.
An increase in demand has in most occasions led to increased supply. This is driven by the urge to reap highly in terms of sales from this upsurge. On the other hand, this unregulated and unplanned supply has always ended up hurting prices (Berner, 2010, p. 13). We have some oil producing countries that always come up with production quotas. In such occasions, sales have always been compromised in that given period.
Analysis of the industry and the company The oil industry has been unpredictable in most occasions. Latest results show that the company and industry has continued to make good progress. The company’s exploration and development programs have continued to deliver excellent results. There is a lot of funding in the industry that can help the company advance its operations in new and emerging markets.
There is a strong financial performance from oil industries aided by good marketing strategies. This can be explained from Tullow plc financial performance. The group has recorded an increase in pretax profit by 184% to $89.0 million in its first quarter performance of 2010 (Tullow oil plc, 2010, p. 7). Although this has been achieved there is a drop in production by 6%.Generally the outlook for the company and industry is positive.
The company further explains that its exploration and appraisal has had a success rate of 82%. This trend has also been witnessed by other industry competitors (Energy business review, 2010, p. 16). UK production has been above expectations as a result of excellent performance from the market players. For instance Tullow plc has had a working production of 18,300 boepd (Tullow oil plc, 2010, p. 9).
Iran is a major player in the oil industry (it’s the fifth largest producer) and recently it has been facing sanctions (Webb, 2010, p. 15). This has had an effect on oil production thereby changing the general industry dynamics. In Africa, Nigeria is a major oil producer but it has also been facing problems from insurgents who have reduced its oil production.
This means that companies need to be very careful especially those ones that rely on such countries. There is also a major concern that unqualified companies are being awarded contracts that they don’t deserve. This is not a good trend as it might have a negative impact on the industry’s performance.
Conclusion Investment recommendation
Although the company is experiencing a good performance, it needs to make strategic decisions in relation to investments. Because its acquisitions have been successful, it needs to continue acquiring other companies in a bid to capture a large market share. This venture needs a lot of money and the company will have to look for partners to help it finance these activities.
Because the company’s oil exploration and development has had a success rate of 82%, it needs major capital investments especially in Ghana and Uganda to ensure that they are successful. The company needs to invest heavily in exploration led growth. In addition, as the company makes inroads in other new and emerging markets it will be good if it can list in other stock exchange markets to increase its net worth. This is necessary as it will give it a more strategic position in the market.
Africa is the groups’ largest core area/market and it needs to invest in environmental management to comply with the Kyoto protocol. This will avoid a lot of conflicts that may end up in courts thereby tainting its image and operations. As a matter of fact, it should invest in health, water and hygiene to take care of the communities. Companies operating in this region have been encouraged to do so for enhanced sustainability. It needs to enhance its diversification in the market to increase the shareholders value as an expectation.
Tullow plc also needs to invest in large vessels to increase it capacity and capability. This will have a positive impact on oil production and enable the company to serve its market well. More so, it can help to improve deliveries and meet market targets and expectations. In addition, it should invest in its people for enhanced success. This is necessary because, human resource play an integral role in delivery.
Reference List Berner, R. 2010. Deleveraging the American Consumer: Faster than Expected [Online] Available at: https://www.morganstanley.com/what-we-do/research/
Central investment agency. 2010. Inflation rate (consumer prices). [Online]
Energy business review. 2010. Cairn Energy discovers gas in Baffin Bay offshore Greenland. [Online]
Essar Group. 2010. Exploit potential of shale gas: US to India and China. [Online] Available at: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/Exploit-potential-of-shale-gas-US-to-India-and-China/articleshow/6430345.cms
Fratzscher, M. 2010. What explains global exchange rate movements during the financial crisis? Germany: Frankfurt.
FXStreet. 2010. World Interest Rates Table. [Online] Available at: https://www.fxstreet.com/economic-calendar
Graham, B. 2004. Security Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Petroleum economist. 2010. Refinery sales to re-shape UK business. [Online] Available at: https://www.petroleum-economist.com/
Rigzone. 2010. Commodity Corner: Crude Continues to Drop on Recovery Fears. [Online] Available at: https://www.rigzone.com/news/oil_gas/a/97824/commodity_corner_crude_continues_to_drop_on_recovery_fears/
Tullow oil plc. 2010. Our business. [Online]
Webb, S. 2010. Analysis: Sanctions tighten pressure on Iran’s oil industry. UAE: Dubai.
Strategic Planning and Management Argumentative Essay scholarship essay help
It is true that a company’s realized strategy is the product of whatever planned strategies that are actually put into action (the company’s deliberate strategies) and of any unplanned or emergent strategies (Haines, 2004, p. 22). This is because planned strategies will play an important role in coming up with the right cross functional decisions that will enable the company achieve its long term objectives. Planned strategies will ultimately lead to a good strategic approach in the market.
There are cases where a company can come up with these strategies in advance with a well laid out plan, but in other occasions there might be need to involve unplanned or emergent strategies (Kotler, 1986, p. 17). Unplanned or emergent strategies are necessitated by circumstances. The situation in the market might demand that the company comes up with new strategies to succeed. One of these unforeseen circumstances might be increased competition in the market.
Although competition can be seen coming, its intensity always shifts in different times and this can force the company to come up with new strategies. These strategies will enable the company to come up with the right avenues to survive in the market. So, a good strategy will be a product of whatever strategies that the management has put in place to advance its goals (Drucker, 1954, p. 13). In cases where the market (competitors included) changes its strategies, the company will be forced to come up with new emergent strategies to succeed in its operations.
A normal planned strategy should be initiated by the management. The long term effect will be a strategic management process that will enhance the company’s ability to achieve the set strategies. A good strategic management process should also cater for unplanned or emergent strategies as this is the only way that the company can be guaranteed flexibility (Senge, 1990, p.13). A good strategy needs a strategic plan which is done by a strategic management process.
Strategic planning is the process by which an organization defines its strategy thereby coming up with the right direction to pursue their goals (Ansoff, 1965, p.5). In the process, they will be able to make the right decisions on how resources will be allocated to achieve these strategies (Naisbitt, 1982, p. 7). Resource allocation involves the necessary capital that will be used in implementation together with the human resource that will enforce the strategy and make it practical.
There are various business techniques that need to be used to ensure that a strategic plan is effective as this will ultimately lead to an appropriate business strategic position (Drucker, 1954, p. 5). In a broad perspective, strategic planning seems to be the consideration of an organizations future course of direction (Christensen, 1997, p. 27). This gives the organization a framework that they will use to achieve their long term objectives. It should be concerned on how the whole process will be done (Chandler, 1962, p. 12).
A strategic plan should be having a major concern on why the company is coming up with it (Kotler, 1986, p. 11). This means that there should be a viable intention of coming up with a strategic plan. With this in place, the company will have a good framework of withstanding competition (Tracy, 2000, p. 9). In the long run, the company will be able to survive in harsh business environments with an intention of ensuring that customers, employees and shareholders are well catered for.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Before a company comes up with a strategic plan it must know where it is by reviewing its performance in relation to what it had projected to achieve (Moore, 1995, p. 10). This is important as the company will tell if indeed what it had projected to achieve was really achieved (Allison
The Industrial Revolution Essay (Article) custom essay help
Table of Contents Invention of Airplanes
The transportation industry
Thomas Alva Edison
Invention of Airplanes The first aircraft was invented by the Wright Brothers, Wilbur and Orville. Their fascination to fly started in their childhood. Their father, Milton Wright, who at the time was working in the army, gave them a toy flying machine, which they made replicas and played with. As they grew up they were interested in studying the flying machines and experimented on glides.
The brothers spent a lot of time studying how birds fly and started designing gliders which they tested severally. Around 1902, the brothers flew many test glides and successfully on 17th December 1903, they flew the first manned flight off Kill Devil Hills and from then on, the airplane industry was born. Their invention of the aircraft bowled over everybody.
Although initially flying was considered a sport or hobby, like other inventions at that time, because of its risks, but by 1920’s the airplane industry was springing up. Initially, it led to the revolutionalisation of the Air-Mail and then air freights. Eventually, it changed the way people travel today. Although it took so long to gain popularity among inventors, I think it is still the best invention of the 20th century.
The aircraft is a remarkable invention in the world’s history. Airplanes have really altered the way of life significantly as people save a great amount of time in travelling. They are used to help in emergency situations or on urgent calls, and transport bulky goods.
It were not for airplanes, globalization would still be a dream, we would still be stuck up on the road for days moving from one state to another, and worst of all, flow of information could almost be impossible. Although airplanes have evolved over the years, but the Wright brothers’ invention still remains a genius idea (Wegener 58).
The transportation industry The transportation industry greatly influences our lives both positively and negatively. Positively, transportation has improved the global economy and social dynamics. It has eased the way we travel, flow of ideas and information, and conducting business transactions. However, the industry has attributed the increasing sound and air pollution from vehicles, airplanes and ships. Vehicles have really congested our cities.
It was the Industrial Revolution that saw the invention of the steam engine, which was used to power ships, trains and motor vehicles. The industrial Revolution led to the invention of power-driven engines used in vehicles, trains and ships, and it also greatly impacted the world’s transportation infrastructure with construction of canals, tarmac roads, railway lines and turn-pike road networks.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Industrial Revolution increased the population, and there were limited education opportunities and children were required to labor. Child labor was used since it was cheaper than adult labor, and with the invention of new machines there was no need for strong and experienced adult workers.
Children used to work under hazardous, congested and deplorable conditions. It is the bad working conditions that led to the rise of Labor Unions, formed by the workers, which took action to protect the laborers. Labor Unions led to adoption of legislations, which set minimum age limits for child laborers, creation of protection standards and establishment of schools for children (Wegener 156).
Thomas Alva Edison Thomas Edison was a prolific American inventor, scientist and an entrepreneur. He was born in Milan, Ohio in 1847. Edison holds 1,094 United States patents in his name and is credited for many inventions. His main inventions include the phonograph, and the motion picture camera, which led to mass communication.
Even up to date, these devices are still used although they have evolved but Edison still was the genius behind the idea. Edison came up with the model and execution of electric power generation and distribution to homes, companies and industries, an idea that greatly impacted the industrialized world. I think that Edison has done a lot in bring the world to where we are and he deserves this awards.
Work Cited Wegener, Peter. What makes airplanes fly?: history, science, and applications of aerodynamics. New York: Springer, 1997. Print.
Technology and Communication Connection: Benefits and Shortcomings Essay online essay help: online essay help
McLuhan’s theories arose from the inquiries the logician received to systematically back his media studies (Logan, 2007). The premise analyses four occurrences cooperative to all media and human interactions, specifically to enhance, retrieve, reverse and obsolesce. The innovative structure of media may progress or accelerate the present form of communication, portraying several advantages. It may also repeal its unique characteristics when pushed to new dimensions.
The new forms sometimes acquire characteristics from prior forms of communication and repossess earlier forms of services. Finally, it may lead to the total annihilation of previous forms, leading to their desertion (Poster, 2010). For example, a cell phone may enhance voice connections, reverse controls, retrieve infancy howling, and make the handset radically obsolesce.
The theorist saw culture as technical transformations, which could be easily personalized due to lack of self-sufficiency. Technologies manipulate the way man thinks, work, and share, thus prejudicing their discernment and understanding of information (Lawson, 2004). The materialization of new technology is often accompanied by emotional, material and social effects in the expansive humanity. McLuhan concludes that we create machinery, which in turn influences our etiquette.
Communication media circled from verbal to print in the early 60s, as TV and radio stretched the reach of addressees. This new association brought different societies together, forming prevalent and shared backgrounds. This theory may be used currently in decision making to determine the attainment of profits, or predict changes in an institution linking human interactions.
The society can thus organize and illustrate the new medium or expertise before it presents any alterations in routine. The relationship of technology and communication typifies both the benefits and shortcomings that new machinery provides.
Technological determinism has two magnitudes related to the elemental attributes of technology that do not permit human alterations and a low determinism which may consent human choice and modifications (Lawson, 2004). This emphasizes the relationship between the densities of society and how it influences the forces of expertise.
A HRO is a group which has effectively managed to shun disasters in the highly hazardous environment which characterizes the modern setting. Multipart processes arise in different organizations, apart from the routine procedures which necessitate watchful and unswerving procedures (Dyer
Leon Golub: Historical witness Descriptive Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Leon Golub lived between 1922 and 2004. He was a well known American painter whose paintings and portraits depicted and exposed historical events in Africa and Central America. His paintings were in form of narratives which vividly captured events happening in the real world. The paintings mainly expressed realities of power in terms of the relations between social and political spheres.
Most of his portraits were largely featured in the daily newspapers as well as weekly magazines. His paintings were inspired by major faces of individuals whose names were featured in daily news and events.
With the help of his paintings, Golub argued that the relationship between identity and masculinity with power and dominance is a direct one (The Irish museum of modern art para.1). In the 1980s, Golub created a Mercenaries Series which portrayed major historical conflicts in power and leadership.
This essay entails an analysis of personal views on museum curators exhibited Leon Golub: Historical witness. In addition, essay takes into consideration the mercenaries series in an effort to explore Golub response to the crisis which occurred in Central America and Africa in 1980s.
Discussion Golub’s approach to paintings is almost real. Having witnessed the Second World War, his paintings carry with them a historical narration. Bird (16) considers work of art from a classical point of view. He argues that past experiences influence a work of art.
Golub’s paintings clearly depict past experiences through conflicts and manly aggression which are compelled in his images. As a historic artist and painter, Golub is intensely alert of the past history to his own descriptions and symbolism (The Irish museum of modern art para.3).
Museum curators are selected in Golub’s paintings for exhibition because of their significance throughout history. The paintings are chronologically organized in a special way such that they can be traced to a single point in time making them suitable for the archives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Considering the fact that most of his work revolves around political power along with the habitual exploitation of power through brutality, Golub is able to portray the tyranny and lust for power that took place in the period of neo-colonialism. This is mainly attained via consideration of African history.
His paintings were not portrayed as a secluded inhuman phenomenon but rather as an expression of well thought-out, frequently state-sponsored, repression and violence (The Irish museum of modern art para.5). In his series of Vietnam and mercenaries, the contrast in relationship between black and white soldiers is clearly illustrated. It depicts the racial discrimination that took during the civil in the United States.
Conclusion The Mercenary Series have had a major significance to the history of the political systems of Africa and Central America at large. Golub’s contribution through artistic paintings provides viable information towards the chronological development of politics in the two continents over the years.
Currently, numerous traditional references ranging from the early artistic work resurface throughout paintings of modern days. Other themes which are still prevailing relate to power, position of man in society and mortality. This means that Leon Golub still remains a model in contemporary society in terms of creating a history through painting as well as painting people who feature in the news and events by vividly describing the relationship that exists between them and their political roles.
Works Cited Bird, John. Leon Golub: Echoes of the real. London: Reaktion Books Ltd, 2001. Print.
The Irish Museum of Modern Art. Leon Golub exhibition at the Irish museum of modern art. 2000. Web.
Staff Development and Managing Technology Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Staff development is a continuous plan in school that focuses on developing teachers’ knowledge, skills and strategies. The development programs aim at influencing teachers’ self understanding and their behaviors so as to influence the students. This happens because teachers have a direct contact with the students in their daily operations through the process of learning and teaching. The training is reinforced through continuous, classified, formal or informal plans.
Personal development addresses specific teaching career issues (Rodriguez, 2000, para. 3-7). This paper seeks to explore the essence of staff development and technology change management in schools and also analyze the effectiveness of these components.
Introduction It is important for an institution or organization to capitalize on the staff’s abilities and potentials that arises from the shared responsibilities and the use of technology. This is because employees have the ability to improve their skills through self directed programs for development and trainings.
However, whether or not it is an initiative of the school or company to have employees train, the staff has to be committed to learn and explore the learning opportunities. This is the only way in which the goals of the development plan can be achieved.
Discussion The initial ability and comfort in using information technology to enhance staff skills and knowledge of content delivery in a learning environment may be a challenge. This is because of the various attitudes that are likely to emerge due to the different attitudes, beliefs and thoughts about the technology in use among individuals. The beliefs highly influence future intentions in the use of technology in the elementary education. Teachers can be given a chance to evaluate their skills against the parameters of the training program.
A staff development practice in a school will foster personal development hence improve the overall performance in the institution. The proof for this can only be measured on improved results and achievements of students. The National Staff Development Council, NDSC advocates the improvement of professional efficiency in the teaching and learning process in order for all students to achieve their optimum results (Thomson
Critique of the Gersick’s Article best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Critique of Gersick’s research
Introduction Gersick’s 1988 study entitled Time and transition in work teams toward a new model of group development can be pin-pointedly singled out as one of the greatest in-depth researches ever conducted with regards to the intrinsic determinants of the effectiveness of any given group.
Preliminarily, the research was conducted to bridge the knowledge gap left by most group development researchers in talking about the unpredictable nature of group operations. Prior to her research, the existing modules information depicted that group operations were always predictable which—as we later find out from Gersick’s research—is not normally the case (Gersick, 1988, p.9-10).
More importantly, her research cites previously conducted authoritative studies, documents the current happenings and foreshadows what can be done in the future by people coming after her. This greatly serves the purpose of continuity—which is something that is missing in many studies.
Basically, her research involves the selection of eight groups, data collection, data analysis, then from the results; she forms her “theory of punctuated equilibrium.”
Critique of Gersick’s research Before beginning to offer my comprehensive viewpoint on Gersick’s work, it is crucial to note that my views are based on a thorough analysis of Gersick’s, as well as many other related studies, which endows me with the potential to give a professional assessment. My analysis is going to be based on the questions below which act as a guidelines for summarizing my views.
How would you characterize Gersick’s approach; phenomenological, ethnographic, or grounded theory? Why?
The approach used by Gersick is undoubtedly the Grounded theory approach. Right from the onset of her documented work, we get to know of her data collection; followed by her painstaking analysis of transcripts that contain details from the groups of people she analyzed (Sniezek, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From here, she decides to formulate a tentative method for “firmer grounding” of her results since most findings were from similar settings thus making it relatively difficult to get note some tiny priceless differences. After establishing the tentative method, she again makes an analysis and circumspectly views the results against her hypothesis and results of the data that she first collected.
It is from this data that she gets to formulate her theory. This approach is typically the Grounded theory which Davidson (2002) defines as “A research method in which the theory is developed from the data, rather than the other way around.”
How would you characterize her data collection process; direct observation, unstructured interviewing, or case study? Why?
Gersick’s data collection is a professional blend or high-breed of the all the above methods. It is a direct observation since his documented research says that she had to attend all the group meetings to get a personal observation of the happenings (Gersick, 1988, p.11-12).
As for being a case study, she selected particular groups of people for her studies (p.11). Finally, it is unstructured interviewing since she says that “I chose an inductive, qualitative approach to increase the chances of discovering the unanticipated and to permit analysis of change and development in the specific content of each team’s work” which is simply unstructured (Gersick, 1998, p.12).
Do Gersick’s findings have face validity? How do they compare with your own experiences in various work groups? Were you surprised by her findings?
Most of Gersick’s work is verifiable thus making it quite valid. The use of valid groups of people from different organizations (Gersick, 1988, p.12-14), group members being professional i.e. university graduates (p.13) and having excerpts during final presentation, (p.16-18) all attribute to the verifiability and thus validity of the findings.
We will write a custom Essay on Critique of the Gersick’s Article specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, the findings were slightly different to my experience in work groups. This greatly surprised me since I never got to witness or read about such an in-depth analysis of occurrences in work group. Additionally, there are many new important dimensions that are highlighted in Gersick’s work (especially towards the concluding pages of her work) which is part of the reason I am awed with her study.
In your opinion, are her findings widely Generalizable? Why?
Yes, although with the exception of some few specific parts. To the weighty side of yes, concepts like most people striving to finish work to in order to beat deadlines rather than ensure group progress or completion of a specific group development stage (Gersick, 1988, p.11-15). On the opposing end, her research should be conducted on a wide range of groups since her studies were conducted on rather similar groups thus might not be aptly representative.
What implications do her findings have for practice? If you really believe that Gersick discovered what she says she discovered, how will that change the way you approach the group task, the next time you’re put in charge of a work group?
From her findings, it is important that a proper plan be laid down for the first group meetings, since what happens there greatly determines the group’s course (Gersick, 1988, p.11-15). Additionally, the “mid point” in group meetings should be timely calculated since this duration offers a good chance of renewing communication flow and ensuring objectivity of group discussions (p.38).
Based on what I have learned from Gersick’s research, if I was put in charge of a group meeting, I would offer good leadership for the timely completion of a task by: adequately planning for group meetings, ensuring that the first group meeting goes according to plan and finally, making sure that the environment for group meetings is devoid of distractions that might hinder completion of the task in time.
How well does the “theory of punctuated equilibrium” fit Gersick’s findings?
Since theories are mostly based on abstract concepts, I would say that Gersick’s findings are largely fitting to her proposed theory. This is because theory fittingly interlinks with the results to fill the gap left by those who ascribe to the traditional theory (Gersick, 1988, p.16).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Critique of the Gersick’s Article by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Did adding that theory to the paper help you understand her findings? In your opinion, did adding that theory to the paper improve it in any way? If so, how?
In as much as Gersick’s representation of her theory on paper is commendable; the representations did not help me much in understanding her findings. It is also for this reason that, in my opinion, adding the theory paper did not improve it any way.
Conclusion In spite of not greatly improving the theory, the documented findings serve the important role of being able to be used by others for future reference. And in a nutshell, Gersick’s theory is greatly informative not just for researchers but also students who are bound to find it extremely useful.
References Davidson, A. L. (2002). Grounded Theory. Essortment.
Gersick, C. J.G. (1988). Time and transition in work teams toward a new model of group development. Academy of Management journal, 31(1), 9-41.
Sniezek, S. M. (2007). How groups work: a study of group dynamics and its possible negative implications. Brynmawr. Retrieved from https://serendipstudio.org/exchange/node/481
Managing Cross-Cultural Staff Argumentative Essay custom essay help
Table of Contents Tabular notes
Tabular notes Bibliographic details Murray, S. (2009). Cross-cultural training. sLondon: Financial Times. Available from web. Mead, R. and Andrews, T. (2009) International management culture. 4 ed. England: John Wiley
Analysis and Review of the Decisions made in the Simulation of the Lenity Hospital for Advanced Care (LHAC) Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Summary of the Simulation
Analysis of the Decisions Made in the Simulation
Identification of the root cause
Establishment of Airway
Process Improvement Strategies
Summary and Conclusion
Introduction Organizations in the society exist in an environment that requires comparison with other similar organizations for improvement purposes. Depending on the objectives of an organization, performance benchmarking has proved to be an effective way of ensuring that they maintain a competitive advantage in the industry.
The health sector is not an exception. Through simulation, performance benchmarking is done to ensure that health organizations maintain quality service, the safety of the patients, staff and other people in the sector while fulfilling the standards of the regulators.
The health sector is faced with various issues that require to be addressed. The online simulation process in the health sector is crucial in the training of personnel, making their decision making process easier and ensuring the safety of the patients while making use of innovations in this case. This paper addresses the decisions made in the online simulation of Lenity Hospital for Advanced Care.
Summary of the Simulation The simulation carried out on Lenity Hospital for Advanced Care was to address the increases in the nosocomial infections. These infections are a threat to the hospital due to its role in ensuring the safety of the patients and other personnel and people involved in the process (Jarvis, 2008).
The increases proved to be unsustainable from a liability perspective since the personnel and other resources were concentrating more on them yet they originated from the hospital practices. The costs involved in their treatment and management proved to be inefficient.
The infections also proved unsustainable from a quality perspective since LHAC was questioned on its quality maintenance and assurance in the process. This was done through performance benchmarking to identify the root causes of the problem, the establishment of airway recommendations and identification of process improvement strategies. The simulation identified the root causes as the equipment practices that were rather inefficient in the hospital and offered recommendations based on effective sanitation and the incorporation of the functional strategy to the business strategy.
Analysis of the Decisions Made in the Simulation This section addresses the decisions made from the simulation classified as the root cause, the airway recommendations established, the benchmarking partnership and the process improvement strategies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Identification of the root cause The Lenity Hospital for Advanced Care (LHAC) has experienced increases in the rates of nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections as Jarvis (2008) assert comes as a result of transmission of an infectious disease which could be contagious or caused by a pathogenic organism.
The types of these nosocomial infections range from surgical related infections, central nervous system infections, skin infections, blood stream infections, gastrointestinal infections, urinary tract infections, and respiratory infections which all are facilitated by the conditions and practices at the hospital facilities (Health Grades Inc, 2010). The process of addressing nosocomial infections is critical due to the diagnosis that is sensitive and the fact that some of them turn out to be drug resistant.
The identification of the root cause of the infections was the most prudent way of addressing the issue to avoid recurrences and reduce costs in management. The simulation on Lenity Hospital for Advanced Care (LHAC) identified the root cause of the nosocomial infections increase as the equipment practices in the hospital that were inefficient. This cause was motivated by the exposures to diseases and environmental pollutants in the hospital (Health Grades Inc, 2010).
The inefficient use of facilities was related to lack of homogeneity in the use of equipment in the various departments, sharing of the equipments among departments, poor sanitation of the equipment, the fact that the equipment was not enough while personal responsibility and proper use of the equipment was limited. The infections thus spread even as the number of patients in the departments increased.
The infections were further encouraged by lack of coordination of equipment use. For example, two or more different departments could be using the same equipment in their diagnosis of conditions, which could lead to the easier transmission between patients due to exposure to contaminants. The hospital also lacked tracking systems to monitor the use and care of equipment (Thornton, De Rosa
The Development of Twentieth-century Music: Schoenberg Vs. Stravinsky Essay essay help site:edu
Walter notes: “In the twentieth century, the music industry underwent a revolution and it brought with it new freedom and wide experimentation. Although there was an emergence of new musical styles and forms which challenged the normal and accepted rules that applied during the earlier periods.”  However, there are many composers who continued to work in forms and in a musical language that originated from the nineteenth century.
Nonetheless, modernism became increasingly outstanding and important with composers experimenting with form, tonality and orchestration. These composers are such as Rachmaninoff, Edward Elgar, Claude Debussy and post-Wagnerian composers such as Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler. A few of the other composers such as Busoni, Schreker, Igor Stravinsky and Arnold Schoenberg had already been recognized as modernists even before 1914.
All of these composers offered major contributions in the development of music during the 20th century in their own exceptional ways. This paper deals with two of the most significant and vital figures in this development and the roles they played. Arnold Schoenberg and Igor Stravinsky were two of the most noteworthy composers during the twentieth century, both with different but equally notable roles to the progress of the music industry.
Arnold Schoenberg, an Austrian but later became an American composer, was born on 13th September 1874 in the Leopoldstadt district, Vienna in a lower middle class Jewish family. Walter notes “Schoenberg was linked to the expressionist movement in German poetry and art and he was also a leader of the Second Viennese School.”  Schoenberg’s major milestone in the musical scene of the 20th century was his approach in terms of harmony and development.
His approach and thoughts on music have been consciously extended by at least three generations both in the American and European traditions. In some instances, it has also been passionately reacted against such as during the rise of the Nazi party in Austria when his music was labeled as degenerate art.
Schoenberg’s name was used as a personification of what turned out to be most polemical aspect of the 20th century art music, advancement in atonality. During the 1920’s, Schoenberg came up with the twelve-tone technique. This is a method of manipulating an ordered series of the twelve notes that are found in the chromatic scale which is has proved to be significant to a great extent.
In addition to coming up with the term “developing variation”, he was also the first modern composer to acknowledge an approach of developing motifs without considering the idea of the supremacy of a centralized melodic idea.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Heinz notes “apart from him being a painter, a prominent teacher of composition as well as a significant music theorist, Schoenberg taught a number of well-known musicians such as Alban Berg, Anton Webern, Hanns Eisler, John Cage, Lou Harrison, Earl Kim and many others.” Many of his practices such as openly engaging audiences to think critically and crafting the compositional method in a formal way are replicated in advanced musical structures throughout the 20th century. Schoenberg’s past life, visualizations and his views on music which was regularly polemical were crucial to a lot of the major musicologists and opponents of the 20th century era.
However, at the age of 42, he found himself enlisted into the army with the instigation of World War 1. His involvement in Military service brought a crisis in his development as it disrupted his life. As a result, Schoenberg was never able to do his work without interruptions or for a long period of time, therefore leaving a lot of unfinished work and some in their initial stages but were yet to be developed.
In spite of Arnold Schoenberg being a significant composer of the 20th century, I consider Igor Stravinsky to be more prominent of the two. Stravinsky is renowned as one of the pioneering, ingenious and high-profiled composers of the twentieth century music. He is originally from Russia and was born in 1882 in Lomonosov (originally named Oranienbaum) into a musical family. However he later became a citizen of France and eventually The United States.
Despite Stravinsky’s father being an operatic bass player, his parents did not support him and wanted him to practice law. His personal interest however was more concentrated on the musical element and by the time his father passed away in 1902, he was already focusing lesser on his law classes and spending more of his time on his musical studies.
During his university years, he made the acquaintance of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov who was a leading Russian composer at that time. He decided to become a composer at age 20 and therefore Rimsky-Korsakov who also became like a second father to him, took him under his private tutelage from 1902 – 1908.
In 1909, his piece Feu d’artifice (Fireworks) was heard by Sergei Diaghilev, the director of the Ballets Russes in Paris during a performance in Saint Petersburg. Diaghilev was satisfactorily impressed and he therefore hired Stravinsky to carry out some orchestrations and as a result he wrote the first ballet for the theater which he named The Firebird. Afterward this was rapidly followed by Petrushka and the Rite of Spring.
During his career, which spanned through six decades he composed an impressive succession of works of astounding diversity. There were the vibrantly colorful Russian ballets of the early stages, the sharp wit and purity depicted in his neo-classical compositions and the prevailing spirituality seen in works such as the Symphony of Psalms. In his later works, one could also recognize the highly individual application of serialism.
We will write a custom Essay on The Development of Twentieth-century Music: Schoenberg Vs. Stravinsky specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “Stravinsky’s career-life can be categorized into 3 stylistic periods: The first period is the Russian Period, which began with Feu d’artifice and attained reputation with the three ballets that were composed for Diaghilev.” These ballets are L’oiseau de feu, Petrushka and Le Sacre du Printemps, which was among the most legendary classical music revolution. The works of this period were largely influenced by Rimsky-Korsakov’s imaginative scoring and use of instruments and mainly employed Russian folk themes and motifs.
The second period which is known as the Neo-classical period began from around 1920 when he implemented a musical idiom that was comparable to that of the classical period up till 1954 when he adjusted to twelve-tone serialism. Stravinsky’s earlier masterpieces, which highlighted his re-evaluation of Mozart’s and Bach’s conventional songs, were “Pulcinella” and “The Octet”.
For this style, he took up wind instruments and disposed of the large orchestras that were frequently required for ballet. The last neo-classical work was the opera, The Rake’s Progress in 1951 that was based on the designs of Hogarth. From 1954 to 1968, there was the third period which was also known as the serial period.
This is when Stravinsky started using successive compositional techniques that included the twelve-tone technique that was initially invented by Arnold Schoenberg along with dodecaphony. He used the twelve-tone technique in compositions such as Memoriam Dylan Thomas, Agon and Canticum Sacrum. He also expanded his use of dodecaphony in Threni, A Sermon, a narrative and a prayer and in The Flood all founded on biblical content.
Stravinsky is considered an authority in 20th century music and has had considerable influence on composers of all times in all divisions of music. “In his use of motivic development, which refers to the use of musical figures used in a composition, Stravinsky used additive motivic development where he added and subtracted notes without regard to the consequent change in meters.”  He was also famous for using a distinct rhythm especially in The Rite of Spring, which later influenced composer Aaron Copland to a great extent.
According to Andrew J. Browne, “Stravinsky is perhaps the only composer who has raised rhythm in itself to the dignity of art.” Stravinsky’s use of neo-classicism led to a widespread use of this style by composers in the late 1920’s and 1930’s. In addition, he used folk material and often exposed folk themes to their most melodic summaries using techniques such inversion and diminution to contort them.
In orchestration, Stravinsky’s ‘The Rite of Spring’ has been discerned as the leading orchestral achievement in the 20th century. He also wrote for unique blends of instruments set up in smaller groups. Besides, he is well known for periodically utilizing extreme arrays of instruments.
As evidently observed, apart from his technical innovations in harmony and rhythm, one can detect the varying faces of his compositional technique but with a preservation of a distinct individuality, which was also very significant. Stravinsky got his inspiration from different cultures, languages and literatures and therefore the influence he had on composers during his lifetime and even after his death is still remarkable.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Development of Twentieth-century Music: Schoenberg Vs. Stravinsky by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bibliography Copland, A Music and Imagination. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1952.
Stuckenschmidt, H Schoenberg: his life, world, and work. Schirmer Books, New York, 1978.
White, E Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works (Second Ed.). University of California Press, Los Angeles, 1979.
E W White. Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works (Second Ed.). Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1979, p. 141
E W White, Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works (Second Ed.), Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1979, p. 155
E W White, Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works (Second Ed.), Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1979, p. 256
H stuckenschmindt, Schoenberg: his life, world, and work, New York, Schirmer Books, 1978, p. 15
A Copland, Music and Imagination, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1952, p. 531.
W E Walter, Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works (Second Ed.), Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1979, p. 54.
H Stuckenschmindt, Schoenberg: his life, world, and work, New York, Schirmer Books, 1978, p. 124
Black Boy By Richard Wright [Text Analysis] essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Characters in the Book
Themes in “Black Boy”
Objects and Places of Significance in Black Boy
Introduction The novel Black Boy by Richard Wright is his autobiographical story from childhood through his teenage and was published in 1945. Wright was born in 1908 and lived until 1960 and has been exclaimed as a great novelist, non-fiction writer, poet, and short-stories writer. His works of art are widely read and still relevant to modern-day society. This essay shall perform Black Boy text analysis and explore its main themes.
Wright writes more about his life from early childhood dealing with racial relations and unsettlement to social isolation, clashes with religion, problems with employers of the white race as well as political issues. The book forms part of American non-fiction works in modern-day literature. Wright’s work of Black Boy is the novel of study in this paper. The paper analyzes the book’s plot summary, characters, themes, quotes, objects, and places mentioned and their significance to the author.
Plot Summary The story opens with one of the earliest memories of the author in a rural Natchez, Mississippi plantation as a child of four years, standing near the fireplace. Since he had been warned to stay quiet, he plays with fire and accidentally burns down the family house. This causes his mother to beat him up almost to the point of death (Jones and Wright 4).
They later move to Memphis, where his father abandons them, and his mother Ella struggles to provide for the family while the family falls into perpetual hunger and poverty (Andrews and Taylor 15). As is clear from the summary of Richard Wright’s “Black Boy,” Ella’s hard work causes her to develop health problems leaving Richard with the option of looking for odd jobs to provide for the family.
At this point, education is not a priority for Wright and his brother. The family then moves to Elaine, Arkansas, to live with Maggie, Ella’s sister, and her husband Hoskin, where life is much better due to the success of the saloon business run by Hoskin. Hoskin is later murdered out of sheer white jealousy, and the two women run away with the two children to West Helena, Arkansas, where life is excellent due to their combined financial efforts. Maggie leaves for Detroit, forcing Ella and the children to experience hard economic times.
They later travel to Jackson, Mississippi, to live with Richard’s grandmother. Alan, Richard’s brother, goes to Maggie’s place in Detroit, Ella lives with her mother in Jackson, while Richard chooses to live with Uncle Clark in Greenwood, Mississippi. Richard later goes back to his granny’s place, despite the problem of hunger but faces another challenge of strict religion from his granny and Aunt Addie, who force him to attend religious classes.
His Uncle Tom comes to live with the family in Jackson. Richard joins the school with an interest in writing upon graduation. He joins the work-life at an optical shop in the post office and other jobs and keeps his struggle with racism. The story comes to a close as he leaves the Communist party and also the south region still determined to continue his writing work (Felgar 37).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Characters in the Book Wright is the central character of the novel, with the story revolving around him. He is presented as a four-year-old child who progresses with the story in his childhood to early adulthood (Briones 4). As a young child, he refuses to accept the notion about his color, lack of religion, and develops intellectual curiosity. Wright is presented as not only believing in his own worth and capabilities, but also as a stubborn, willful, independent and a rebellious youth who challenges parental authority, refuses to adapt to strict religion, stands up to his aunts and uncles even challenging them to physical violence, refuses to read the script required by his school principal and stands up to the whites at his workplace (Wright 156-167).
Wright is willing to express himself, and this makes him experience emotional isolation and physical violence, which fuel in him an urge of creativity and love for reading and writing (Felgar 700).
He is a non-conformer with a strong-willed character despite his background, social status, and racism. He is willing to stand to his principles but has negative traits when he lies, steals, and engages in physical violence and shows some weakness and inferiority towards some whites. He is not closely connected with people, especially his family though he loves humanity (Bell-Russel 115). Due to his age, his character traits are dynamic, depending on the circumstances.
Ella Wright is Richard’s mother. The story captures most of the moments when she is sick and suffering. However, she presents parental authority when she disciplines Richard and is compassionate and independent due to her ability to take care of the family when her husband abandons them. She is tolerant and affectionate, especially in her support of Richard’s writings (Gallantz 88). The author uses her suffering nature to present the issues of family relationships, poverty, racism, hunger, and injustice. Nathaniel, Richard’s father, is introduced briefly as a selfish man who abandons his family and later on as a sharecropper who represents slavery (Felgar 39). Granny, with her white hair, is compassionate as she takes Richard and his family to live with her. Her strict religion and hot temper stand out as she acts as a dictator who forces Richard to religion, uses it as an excuse for her anger, and stands in the way of Richard’s curiosity (Felgar 700).
Addie and Tom are presented as dependent living with their mother, but Addie is strictly religious, fearful, and a conformist. Maggie is a hardworking lady, married to Hoskin, and on his death remarries, thus representing her dependence while still compassionate and affectionate as she takes Alan to live with her. Reynolds and Pease, who are whites, and Nealson and Ed Green, who are black communists, are racist, rigid, and intimidating (Dinnerstein 81).
The female relatives stand out in the life of Richard from his mother, who disciplines and supports him, his Aunt Maggie with whom Richard gets well along, his granny who is hot-tempered and religious, and his aunt Addie who teaches Richard the religious classes. Richard’s brother does not seem significant in Richard’s life. He does not share in Richard’s rebellion and later goes to live with their aunt Maggie in Detroit. The school principal is a conformist and dictatorial who tries to force Richard to change his speech.
Themes in “Black Boy” Black Boy outlines several issues, most of which are connected to Richard. Racism forms the central theme, which Richard associates with discrimination and injustice (Young 695). While growing up, he witnesses a black boy beaten by a white man. Hoskin is killed out of jealousy of the whites. His principal wants him to give a speech to please the whites.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Black Boy By Richard Wright [Text Analysis] specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He encounters Reynolds and Pease and eventually leaves the Southern region due to racism (Felgar 701). Family life serves as a one of the themes in “Black Boy” by Richard Wright presenting it as living a deprived life with no support, especially emotionally and financially, when the father leaves them and the criticisms experienced from the relatives who want Richard to conform to their expectations (Briones 5).
During his childhood days, Richard experiences miserable living conditions, poverty, hunger, constant resettling of the family, lack of emotional support, and hunger, among others, which make him more hardworking and determined (Nexuslearning.net). The family, however, proves supportive through the willingness of the relatives to help Richard’s family during his mother’s illness and her support for his writing work.
Religion is presented in Black Boy. Richard is of the opinion that religion is oppressive and meaningless though there are some images and stories of the same he finds attractive. Richard perceives religion as a way of silencing curiosity and a questioning attitude to maintain the status quo of racism (Wright 100).
Isolation is presented in the book through the life of Richard, most of which he spends alone. These times provide him with strength and happiness, out of which his love for writing, reading, and creativity is developed. Black Boy also presents the theme of rebellion based on the behavior and attitude of Richard from his childhood to his early adulthood.
Richard rebels against and challenges both parental and other forms of authority (Wright 2). Despite Richard Wright’s parents’ demands toward him, he refuses to fit in their racial expectations and rebels against religion from his granny, he attempts physical violence against his aunt Addie and uncle Tom, refuses to read the speech as directed by the principal and goes against the party expectations and those of his fellow employees.
Objects and Places of Significance in Black Boy As is evident from the theme essay on “Black Boy,” the novel Black Boy places emphasis and significance in certain places and objects in society. The places start at home, the church, Beale Street, the school, the church, and the communist party (Felgar 699). Richard portrays the home as a place of high emotional conflict with him being criticized for his rebellion, his father leaving them, and having to work at an early age (Wright 7).
However, the home is also presented as a place of support where Ella can get help from the family during her poor health condition while she also supports the writing of Richard. Richard’s family perceives Beale Street as evil, yet contrary to this, Richard meets Moss his landlady and daughter who welcome and show interest in him by suggesting that he marries Bess since to them he is a nice person.
Black Boy presents the place of the hospital, whereas a custodian dealing with animal tests, his black friends are not able to handle the experiment since the white doctors had not taught them, causing them to cover up for their mistake.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Black Boy By Richard Wright [Text Analysis] by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is presented in the working life of Richard since whites do not mind blacks stealing or lying as long as they maintain their places in authority (Andrews and Taylor 77). The church plays a significant role in the book that granny and Addie use to discipline Richard.
The church has transformed them into faith and belief that causes them to believe that the church is the one that can change Richard, who to granny is sinful and rebellious. Granny perceives the word of God as law and hence cannot be questioned while Richard is not interested in it. Black Boy presents the church as one way of increasing racism (Dinnerstein 82).
The school presents as a significant place that enables Richard to get away from his family and reveals his desire for reading and writing. It presents a platform for Richard to be able to express himself, for example, through being able to give a speech and write “The Voodoo of Hell’s Half-acre” published in the local daily.
However, the aspect of racism is also presented where the principal demands that Richard presents a different speech than the one he wanted to create a good impression and appease the white audience to maintain his job. Later on, in his professional life, Richard joins the communist party, which gives him a platform for his writing career (Bell-Russel 116).
The party helps him realize that racism is not common to everyone, with some people just able to help others with human perspectives and have the zeal for realizing their full potential as usual human beings. Richard realizes that these kinds of people try to transform not only themselves but also the world through the use of politics. He finds like-minded people, but they are suspicious, ignorant, with human fears and insecurity, and they criticize him based on intellectualism. Richard experiences another moment of isolation, and he later leaves the party to maintain his values (Wright 389).
Conclusion As the Black Boy text analysis shows, the novel by Richard Wright comprehensively presents the story of the author in his childhood through to his teenagehood. The relevance of the book has been enhanced through the use of first-person narration. This paper provides a review and analysis of the novel based on the plot summary, characters, themes, objects, and places mentioned in the story, thus revealing its creative and orderly manner.
Works Cited Andrews, William, and Douglas Taylor. Richard Wright’s Black Boy (American hunger): a casebook. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Bell-Russel, Danna. “Richard Wright: Black Boy.” Library Journal, 1 (1997): 115-116.
Briones, Matthew. “Call and Response: Tracing the ideological shifts of Richard Wright through his correspondence with friends and fellow literati.” African American Review, 37.1 (2003): 53-64.
Dinnerstein, Leonard. “The Viciousness of Racism.” Labor History, 40.1 (1999): 81-82.
Felgar, Robert. Understanding Richard Wright’s Black boy: A Student casebook to issues, sources and historical documents. Westport: Greenwood Publishers, 1998.
Gallantz, Michael. Richard Wright’s Native Son
Important Characteristics for Effective Teaching Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction Teaching is very vital in the learning process. The success of effective teaching is greatly dependent on the characteristics possessed by the person providing teaching services. This paper discusses characteristics of learning process and also provides statements of self-evaluation criteria for the characteristics.
Characteristics that you feel are most important for effective teaching The first characteristic of effective learning is being able to establish parameters. The teachers define the tasks in a very clear manner and set high levels of anticipations and for students’ behavior and learning. The teachers should be able to set parameters within which students can achieve effective learning, meet set expectations and generate outcome.
The established parameters should be measurable; have the ability to be appraised. The self evaluation criteria are by way of measuring how students are performing within the teacher’s set teaching parameters; the performance of students are supposed to be evaluated through assignments and outcomes recorded and compared periodically (Adam
Ending Global Poverty Problem Solution Essay custom essay help
Poverty has not only blighted communities to hopelessness, but it has also proved to be the main stunting menace to growth in the whole globe. There is thus a concerted effort from all world entities towards the fight against global poverty.
At the international arena the UN (United Nations) has formulated eight poverty-fighting goals which upon endorsement in the September UN Summit in New York, would provide money-making opportunities and save the lives of the world’s poorest countries (Samuelson 1). The summit will prepare an outline with distinct actions for all governments that will produce real results over the next 5 years.
The plan must fight corruption, create new jobs, empower women, improve access to education and healthcare, and increase investment opportunities (Cline 95). The summit would produce a new set of commitments based on mutual accountability and rapport between donors and the developing world.
The World Wide United Foundation (a non-governmental organization) boasts of guaranteeing the basic human necessities to every human born into the world. Key among the strategies of this foundation is its oversight role in pursuing the enactment of international laws on political accountability (Root 39).
One of the officers in this organization cites that we have international laws that govern violent crimes and ‘crimes against humanity’ yet being impoverished, homeless, unhealthy, cold and naked is not considered a crime for which those in leadership positions should be held accountable.
He challenges the international community to enact laws that categorizes the misuse of power ‘which leads to poverty’ as a crime against humanity. He assures that with strict penalties, the enforcement of this international law would ensure a transparent and just leadership (Lodge 97). He also suggests that the adoption of a worldwide health insurance would go a long way in availing quality health care to the poor.
A human rights activist says that the main task at hand is to enlighten the public concerning their rights. He asserts that an enlightened citizenry would exercise its democratic right by voting for government officials who would air the plight of the poor. He believes that an informed citizenry would unite to demand for their rights from a corrupt political system.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He emphatically challenged charitable organizations not to follow the course of the government, by allowing themselves to be hindered by complex bureaucracies engineered by those who seek to gain from the weak ones (Deen 1).
A senator did admit that poverty levels are on the upward trend, attributing this to the complexity of the challenge of poverty. He, however, appreciated the current mechanisms which are in place to reduce poverty levels. He said that better social policies had been drawn by the senate to address the issue, exemplified by the stimulus package bill which has proved to be effective.
A community resident attributes the suffering of the poor to the existing bureaucratic system of governance which does not consider the plight of the poor. He claims that the poor suffer the most (are lowly rewarded), yet, they usually work the hardest in mines and fields. He claimed that these peasants are the backbone of our economy and the professional world cannot do without them.
The preceding random test was fairly reliable and it is quite evident that the challenge of poverty is multifaceted; it thus does call for a concerted effort from all global, national and regional entities in addressing it. The persistence of poverty can be attributed to poor governance and ignorance.
Poverty erodes human happiness and leads to societal vices such as crime, terrorism, prostitution and ultimately death. A sustainable economic development can be achieved through: just governance, equitable distribution of resources, empowering the citizenry and providing the basic necessities of life to the citizens.
Works Cited Cline, William. Trade Policy and Global Poverty. California. Barnes
Pursuit of Happiness by Women in Modern Day America Descriptive Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Civil Rights in the United States
Women’s Role in the Civil Rights Movement
The Pursuit of Happiness
Civil Rights in the United States Civil rights are what citizens in a democratic country are entitled to and they include rights such as the right to vote, right to equal treatment and opportunities, the right to life and the right to protection from any harm or violence. Civil rights are designed to guarantee the freedom of a country’s citizens, allowing them to speak, think and act without any fear of reprisals.
It is the government’s duty and responsibility to create an effective legal framework that will see these rights being enjoyed by every citizen (Paterson et al. 5).
Women’s Role in the Civil Rights Movement The movement of civil rights in the United States was founded with the main aim of ensuring that the necessary legislation was formulated that would enable American citizens enjoy the civil rights. Past literature that focused on the civil rights movement has shown that women had multiple roles in the movement, the same as their male counterparts. Majority of the women involved in this movement were of black origin while the rest formed part of the minority groups in America (Crawford et al. xviii).
These women were fighting for their freedom from slavery and also from being colonized by the whites in a country that was believed to have exercised freedom during a period of instability around the world .A conference for women involved in the civil rights movement were convened in Atlanta, Georgia in the year 1945 to 1965. The conference brought together women activists and scholars who were fighting for the equal rights of women in America.
The main objective of the conference was to acknowledge individuals and groups of women who had actively protested and campaigned for reforms in the civil rights. These women were united with the main purpose of gaining the pursuit of happiness that was included in the Declaration of Independence (Crawford et al. xvii).
The Pursuit of Happiness The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was seen to be a first step towards creating a more liberal and democratic America. The pursuit of happiness is an important part of the Civil Rights Act that stipulates American citizens have the right to pursue lawful business in a manner that is not inconsistent and disruptive to the equality rights of other American citizens. The pursuit of happiness is meant to increase a citizen’s prosperity and enjoyment in their life or business endeavors (Licht 98).
The practice of pursuit of happiness is basically the pursuit of property even though property is deemed to be less valuable than the freedom or life of an individual citizen. Individuals view having property as having security which allows them to be free from any interference by the government or other people. The pursuit of happiness stipulates that having secure property is having secure liberty which is viewed to be a sign of security (Licht 98).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The pursuit of happiness for women today is viewed as an important right in America as more women today are fighting to be empowered and gain equality in all aspects of their lives. Women everywhere in America be they in a minority group are seeking the right to feel secure and go about their daily lives without the fear of being attacked or having their right to liberty and freedom being infringed upon.
Works Cited Crawford, Vicki. Jacqueline, Rouse and Barbara Woods (Eds). Women in civil rights movement: trailblazers and torchbearers, 1941-1965, Bloomington, USA:
Indiana University Press, P.xviii, 1990, Licht, Robert. Old rights and new. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute. P.98. 1993
Paterson, D., Richard Griffiths and Susan Willoughby. Civil rights in the USA, 1863-1980. Oxford, London: Heinemann Educational Publishers. P. 5, 2001
History of Children’s Literature in Western Culture Research Paper scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Plato’s reign (50 B.C.-A.D. 500) Both the Greeks and Romans regarded children as individuals whose sole purpose was to undergo training for adulthood. Plato, one of the most notable rulers of the time, held it that story-telling sessions should take the form of a play and he insisted that professional storytellers and poets be the ones in charge of the story delivery.
Plato also played an active role in ensuring that stories meant for children were censored well enough for this purpose. At the time very few stories had been composed specifically at children and various generations of children grew up listening to the very same stories. Stories from this period include the Odyssey and Iliad.
The usage of manuscripts in children instruction (500-1500) During this period, children were not given the high value they command today and in a family setting, they were regarded in the same way that the adults were. Parents dedicated a lot of their time trying to establish economic strengths and most of children who hailed from poor backgrounds would spend most of the day working alongside their parents. The levels of literacy were very law and this was made even worse by the unavailability of books (Bingham and Scholt, 1980).
It did not make any economic sense to print books for children and so most of the stories in this period were passed on from generation to the next by word of mouth. However, some manuscripts contained information that could appeal to children even though it was all purely for instructive purposes.
With every passing generation, the stories would acquire some new twist thanks to the highly active imagination of the adults of the time. Stories from this period include Robin Hood and King Arthur.
Invention of the movable type printing press (1500-1650) The most significant invention of this period that genuinely pushed the development of children’s literature was the movable-type printing press. Books could now be produced in bulk and this immensely increased the levels of literacy. The opening of trade routes resulted in the introduction of new stories to the west and with better economic circumstances more children were encouraged to take part in educational activities (Bingham and Scholt 1980).
This period marked the beginning of publishing texts specifically aimed at children. However, most of this texts still did not regard childhood as innocently as was required. Consequently, most of the children’s books such as the Book of Martyrs drew directly from real life portraying bloody scenes in times or war (Hunt, 1995).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The rise of John Locke’s tabula rasa (Late 1600s) During this period, John Locke’s philosophy of regarding the child’s mind as a blank slate received widespread acclaim. He proposed that children would develop better if they were given easy to read and pleasant literature at that tender age and then gradually learn the harsh realities of life as they grew up. For the first time, childhood was viewed as an innocent period of growth making the children appear like a newly discovered creatures (Hunt, 1994).
The birth of the English children’s book and the first novel (Late 1700s) During this period, individuals from the middle class were starting to become more refined and they started treating their children with the innocence they (the children) deserved. It was during this time that the first proper children’s book was published (Townsend, 1996). The first novel featuring a highly creative story was also written during this time.
Various authors from this period including John Newbery began to move away from the traditionally uncreative stories and instead focused on more imaginative and pleasant specifically targeted at children. Newberry’s Pretty Pocket Book became the first published book to contain pictures, games and songs (Hunt, 1995).
The end of didactic children’s literature (Late 1800s) As the world ushered in the nineteenth century, the world began to appreciate the value of children and the published books aimed for them carried stories that were given more thought as far as the fantasy and imagination aspect were concerned.
The writers of the time laid emphasis on the enjoyment rather than on the instructive aspects of the stories and this period saw a lot of experimentation as authors strived to see which barriers could be broken but still produce the desired effect.
The stories in this period also created a clear cut distinction between the genders by emphasizing the man’s role as one of establishing dominance over rivals by winning wars and the woman’s role as that of observing subservience to the man and taking care of the home (Hunt, 1995). Stories from this period included Huckleberry Finn and Treasure Island.
The development of Multimedia technology (1900s to Today) The 20th and the 21st centuries witnessed tremendous changes in the development of children’s stories. Authors and publishers have experimented with a number concepts including books entirely made of pictures to producing internet-based texts. The child in this period became even more protected.
We will write a custom Research Paper on History of Children’s Literature in Western Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Towards the end of the 20th century, the highly imaginative texts continued to sell but as the 21st century was coming in, some level of realistic writing began to receive appreciation. The rise of multimedia production and the advent of the internet also served to broaden the ways in which educational material could be presented including the likes of animation and podcasts. One of the most notable publications of this time is the Harry Potter series and its accompanying films.
Reference List Bingham, J.
Negotiation Article Analysis essay help site:edu
When negotiations are held, the main intention is to come up with an agreement that will provide a roadmap for an action to be taken (Howard, 1982, p.5). Negotiations have mostly been aimed at ensuring that existing conflicts are resolved amicably. They occur over a wide area and have no restrictions. In addition, negotiations can occur between organizations, businesses, governments and in other personal situations.
There are many actual negotiation situations that have occurred in a global context. Examples include between international corporations and organizations, government to government and international acquisition (Howard, 1982, p.15). In international business there have been negotiations between the US and China (in relation to currency). China has been accused of manipulating the value of the Yuan. It has been agued that they have not moved towards a more flexible currency.
On the other hand, the US has been accusing China of being a currency manipulator because it has kept the value of its currency unchanged to the dollar for almost two years (Stohr
Simple Stimulus Learning Analytical Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Learning is one of the most crucial processes for human beings particularly when it comes to co-existence in the environment (Aslin, 2008). There are a number of ways through which learning can occur and result in the transformation of behavior. Psychologists define learning as a life long mental process endured by human beings through the acquisition of various forms of knowledge. The ultimate outcome of any meaningful learning is the acquisition of new knowledge, skills, abilities, value systems, and the development of new personal ways of relating with the environment (Aslin, 2008).
Habituation and conditioning are some of the simplest forms of learning. In situations where a given stimulus is incorporated in learning, it is known as stimulus learning. Meaningful stimulus learning occurs when behavior is transformed through the use of stimuli.
This essay discusses the simple stimulus learning. It explains the concept of habituation, analyzes the various factors which affect perceptual learning, and examines the effects of stimulus exposure. The essay also highlights the application of simple stimulus learning to real life situations.
According to prominent psychologists, stimulus learning is defined as the permanent transformation in behavior due to first hand experience by an individual (Postman, 2007). The change in behavior is the physical manifestation of the knowledge and skills acquired through learning. This presents a more objective way of finding out if meaningful learning has occurred. Behavior as a result of learning should be relatively permanent as opposed to behavior dynamics arising from emotional variations.
There are several forms of learning which have been identified by psychological theorists. Habituation is one of the simplest forms of knowledge acquisition. It results from continued exposure to a specified stimulus. Habituation follows a general pattern which involves the familiarization of a stimulus by an individual.
This process is achieved through rapid motivation or noise which in turn controls the individual’s thought process (Postman, 2007). Frequent exposure to a given stimulus will force an individual to become used to it to such an extent that it draws no attention.
For instance, if someone shifts to a home on a noisy road, the experience of automobiles passing by will be a major issue. However, being in the environment for some time will eventually lead to the noise being part of the day. The individual, therefore, becomes habituated to the surrounding such that attention to the busy road fades away. This form of learning helps individuals exist in an environment which is filled by vision and noises (Aslin, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Perception presents one of the most dominant means through which humans learn. Perceptual learning occurs as a result of constant practice as well as first hand experience. It causes a change in the collection of important information from the environment which in turn affects an individual’s actions (Adolph, 2007). It has also been noted that people learn through their actions as they interact with the environment. An individual’s desire to explore the environment facilitates perceptual learning to a great extent.
As one looks, listens, touches, walks as well as employ other forms of direct observation, he or she acquires knowledge, values, and skills through perceptual learning. Since perception involves fist hand encounter, it is useful in the acquisition of information that help in dealing with immediate objectives (Adolph, 2007). A number of factors have been known to affect perceptual learning.
Experience has been picked out as one of the major factosr that affect perceptual learning and development (Adolph, 2007). The length of time to which one is exposed to a given stimulus determines the extent or degree to which learning may occur. Experience has been linked with age and the timing of when an individual is exposed to it affects the effectiveness of the learning process. Another factor that plays a central role in perceptual learning is the ‘constancy’ of perception.
Variations in lighting intensity of the object and the relative positioning of the perceiver greatly affects the energy that facilitates the perception of a given object. Perceptual learning and development enables individuals understand that objects and situations remain unchanged despite the variations in some sensory inputs (Adolph, 2007).
A number of psychological researchers have explored the factors that affect the different forms of learning. Prior exposure to particular stimulus has been found to affect the rate of learning in individuals (Postman, 2007). This is because an individual can be able to associate the different stimuli. Exposure, according to research findings, has been known to enhance predictability of given actions or stimuli and hence shapes behavior.
Individuals interact with the environment through the various forms of learning and hence can influence as much as they are influenced by their surroundings. Simple stimulus learning has several real life applications. Living in a noisy neighborhood will eventually lead to co-existence when the response to the stimulus fades away through habituation.
The essay has elaborated the concept of simple stimulus learning and habituation as one of the simplest form of learning. The various factors affecting perceptual learning have been analyzed. The ways in which exposure to stimulus influences the learning process have also been discussed. Moreover, the paper has highlighted the applications of simple stimulus learning to real life situations. Stimulus learning, therefore, is one of the most critical means of acquiring knowledge and skills which facilitate meaningful living.
We will write a custom Essay on Simple Stimulus Learning specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Adolph, M. R. (2007). Perceptual learning and development in infants. McGraw Hill Plc. Aslin, R. P. (2008). Learning and stimulus response: an analysis. Berkeley Press
Postman, G. L. (2007). “Understanding stimulus learning.” Psychological Review Journal, 64 (3):426-437
Analysis of the Performance of Domestic scholarship essay help
Introduction Background of the study
The restaurant industry, both domestic and multinationals, were faced with extremely tough challenges through the end of 2009 due to the economic hardship that lead to weak labor and tight credit markets. The result was a decline in discretionary spending by consumers. With the US economy slowly reviving, the industry posted improved results during the first half of 2010.
As a result, the restaurants are expanding and management teams are increasingly considering the most effective strategy to integrate in order to exploit opportunities presented in the market. The resultant effect is that these firms will be able to remain competitive (Cummings et al, 2010, pp.5). Multinational firms refer to those firms in the industry which operate both locally and internationally. Domestic firms only operate within the US.
Research indicates that restaurants are opening up branches worldwide and are hence facing numerous challenges. Firm seeking to venture into the international market must assess various factors. Some of these factors include inflation rates, interest rates, politics, cultural differences, government regulations among other factors. The study entails a report comparing the differences between multinational firms’ and domestic firms in the restaurant industry.
The aim of the report is to analyze the performance of domestic and multinational restaurants in the US.
Scope of this report focuses on comparison of performance of domestic and multinational restaurant in US.
Discussions Percentage change in sales, operating Income and growth of assets will be discussed in this section.
Change in sales
Restaurant firms grew larger in size and generated higher sales during the first period (1981-1990) and the second period (1991-2000). Sales from food service grew by at least 49 percent from $228 billion in 1990 to $339 billion in 1999. The huge growth was in sales by commercial food service establishments that prepare, serve and sell food to the consumers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Their sales more than doubled from $178 billion in 1990 to $275 billion in 1999 (Price, 2000, pp.23).As for the multinational restaurants such as Burger King, Pizza hut, KFC and McDonalds, saturated US food market forced them to go abroad.
Operating income of the domestic restaurants is lower than the operating income of the multinationals. This is results from the fact that multinational firms have an effective diversification opportunity thus reducing the degree of risk they face. Reasons for diversification include benefiting the firm’s owners through increasing the efficiency of operation in the firm.
Diversification decisions may reflect the preferences of the restaurant managers. The motivation for diversification is to minimize risk of relying on only one or few income source, avoid cyclical or seasonal fluctuation by producing foods with different demand and achieving a higher growth rate in the hotel business. Bankruptcy costs are lower when firms incorporate the concept of internationalization.
Multinationals may attain competitive advantage by venturing into the foreign markets since they have sophisticated skills and new technologies (Porter, 1991, pp.538) .This enables them to outperform local corporations in foreign markets. The advantage is reflected by rapid expansion and value of future growth opportunities of the multinationals.
It is important to also note that domestic firms have relatively lower growth in operating income and higher pre-tax earnings loss compared to multinational firms (Markle
My life in Western Europe in 600 AD Creative Essay essay help
The European Middle Ages, popularly referred to as ‘dark ages’ can only be described by one word, ‘barbaric’. This was after the fall of the Roman Empire that had ruled for almost 500 years. Hooligans, Hans, barbarians and Goths came from all directions, East and North, sweeping down Europe.
Many buildings and architectural structures that were used during the reign of Roman Empire were destroyed. The Western half of Europe was now in a state of anarchy but Eastern Europe was still thriving. Power was now decentralized, army was disbanded and the force that upheld Rome collapsed. During this time, there was little education and trade, countries were fragmented into small portions that were now under the control of feudal lords.
Barbaric tribes were immense and kings had little power. This means that the Roman army that used to protect the empire was almost powerless and could no longer guarantee security and distance travels became quite risky. I could not even visit my uncle who lived in the neighboring city to have a chat with my cousins and being the only child at home them, life was so boring.
I had to stay indoors for most of the days as schooling had also become difficult. My father would leave us home to go look for casual jobs in the agricultural farms as this was the only place that one could secure one. Feudal lords had taken over all the lands and the laws that protected such property were no longer applicable.
By now, schools were closed roads were not maintained d and living standards were dismal. Agricultural practices were torn down and the agribusiness that had thrived was now replaced by subsistent farming. The fertile lands in the areas of Iran and Iraq that had flourished in technology collapsed and resulted to use of rough methods of irrigation which had a great effect on rivers Tigris and Euphrates. There were salt sediments along these basins and eventually, they became deserts which are prevalent to date.
Misery continued and life became almost unbearable. This was made worse by the emergence of plagues that saw the continued downfall of cities like Persia, Indonesia and Arabia. Northern Greece was also invaded Dorians and this led to the collapse of the famous arts culture and playwrights that had charmed the world.
The Mycenaean who were the Greeks in the Bronze Age and popularly referred by Greeks as Ionians fled and settled in Turkey. Today, there is the believe that the Philistines referred to in the bible were the Ionians who settled in Israel. The church conserved ancient and Biblical writings and it helped in bringing people together since it had a centralized authority and was constant. The barbarian kingdoms were always fighting and could not agree with each other.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Persian Empire tried to take over Byzantine and this marked the beginning of Byzantine civilization. Later, Persia is overcome by Byzantine forces and the Jerusalem cross taken from the Persians. Later, Arabs conquered Byzantine and when they try to do the same to Constantinople, they fail.
For the many years, life here was terrible with no luxuries or riches that were prevalent before the collapse of the Empire. The church continued to unify people in the kingdoms that would later unite to form the present glorious Europe. With the advancement of the middle ages, there was some light at the end of the tunnel and the little that the church had salvaged was used as centers of learning later.
Chicago: Crossroads of America Reflective Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
“Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it”. – George Santayana
This statement cannot be refuted. People should know their history in order to have the future. A great role in understanding one’s history is played by historical exhibitions. They can be especially helpful for young people who will be able not only to read about some historical events, but to see some pictures of those distant years.
hus, the exhibition “Chicago: Crossroads of America” at the Chicago History Museum provides people with a great opportunity to find out something new in the history of this great city and too see the artifacts which reflect some peculiarities of Chicago story and represent a part of American culture.
This exhibition embraces the entire history of Chicago. Of course, it points out the most significant eras of this city which made it well-known worldwide. As far as I am concerned the most fascinating and ambiguous part of Chicago history was the era of jazz and gangsters. Many books reveal the years of gangsters revealing different figures and some pictures, but it is impossible to feel that atmosphere reading a book.
However, in the “Chicago Jazz and Blues club” the visitor becomes a kind of part of those years. When I was there I immediately started thinking about gangsters and Prohibition. When I saw “copper still and bucket for making alcohol” I was a bit surprised how easy gangsters could create the drinks and, of course, money.
I would not say that this is the most significant artifact at the entire exhibition, but it is definitely interesting since it is impossible to imagine this apparatus (and evaluate people inventiveness) if you are reading about it in the book, and even if you see the picture. It is necessary to add that this artifact is the part of Chicago history since the 20-30 was “the jazz era” which was “accompanied by prohibition” (Lewis 436). Thus, this part of exhibition is the reflection of a definite period of time.
However, the most significant artifact which reflects not only the history of Chicago, but the whole spirit of this city is, to my mind, the Pioneer locomotive. This great construction symbolizes the rapid development of the city and its continuous progress. Of course, now there are many machines which are faster and more progressive. However, this “old” locomotive seems a great the great guard of the past and the future of the city.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As Hudson stated (precisely and gracefully) that the railroads “completed the work which nature had begun of making Chicago the great central mart of the continent” (Hudson 27). This locomotive is embodiment of this supremacy. In my opinion, the Pioneer is a symbol of the eternal development of humanity. People will never stop moving forward on the powerful locomotive of progress. Thus, The Pioneer can be not only an example of the city of Chicago development, but it is the reflection of the whole humanity.
Thus, after visiting the exhibition “Chicago: Crossroads of America” at the Chicago History Museum” I found out more about the history of this great city. In particular, I saw the embodiment of the Chicago development, the Pioneer locomotive and was able to see with my own eyes the device which reflects the era of gangsters and jazz, a device for making alcohol. To my mind, such comprehensive and exciting insight made me understand some historic events better which only proves that exhibitions made the visitors feel the necessary atmosphere and plunge into some era becoming a part of it.
Works Cited Hudson, Harper. Chicago, a History and Forecast. Charleston, SC: BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2009.
Lewis, Lloyd. Chicago – The History of Its Reputation. New York: READ BOOKS, 2007.
Rise of Christianity in Europe and Islam in the Middle East Essay essay help
Table of Contents Similarities in their growth
Difference in their growth
Common factor about Islam and Christianity
Materials, ideas and religion were commonly traded along Silk Road. Compared with other religions, Buddhism was the most outstanding religion in this trade route (Baumer, 2000). Christianity appeared on Silk Road at around 432 AD. This was a time when the Roman Catholic Church prohibited the Christian group of Nestorians in Europe. The effect of the prohibition was that Nestorians fled to the Eastern side.
Traders in the Silk Road acted as agents of Christianity and by 638 A.D the earliest Nestorian church was built in Changan. One of the historic evidence of the existence of Nestorians was the writings found on the cave temples at Dunhuang. Other branches of Christianity which emerged in later years were: ‘‘Roman Catholic Church, protestant churches and the Eastern Orthodox Church’’ (Baumer, 2000).
The beginning of 8th century marked the start of conversions into Islamic religion. Destruction of symbols such as wall paintings, prolific artwork, monasteries and stupas was meant to convert people into Islamic religion. It is also important to note that Islam condemned the use of symbols.
Temples and stupas which belonged to Buddhist were left and buried under the sand. Largest part of central Asia had been transformed into Islam by the period 15th century.
There are a number of factors that contributed to spread of Islam in the central Asia. In the first instance politics, which is an agent of change, brought about the spread of Islam. The fact that government of central Asia supported Islam was a reason for people’s acceptance of the religion. A common observation is that people accepts rules made a government. This is why the spread of Islam was fast.
Another critical factor to the spread of Islam was trade. At that time, businessmen favored trading with Muslim contrary to Buddhist since they were given better treatment. Moreover, assimilation was an additional element for switching into Islam. It was easier for people to corporate with government’s demand rather than risk being killed or hurt for flouting rules and regulations. As Islam expanded, more mosques were built along Silk Road which replaced monasteries and stupas.
Similarities in their growth From the literature above, both Christian and Islam religion grew due to intense trade and its conditions along Silk Road. People accepted Islam religion since it was easier to conduct trade with Islam than Buddhist. Disseminating Christian ideology of equality in the afterlife was the main factor which led to acceptance and ultimately growth of Christianity.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Difference in their growth While growth of Islam was due to political force where government supported Islamic religion, Christianity gained its fame by spreading the gospel of good hope for tomorrow. Christian beliefs in incarnation, atonement and trinity were a reason for its acceptance and spread.
On the other hand, Islam belief lies on pillars. Baumer (2000) identifies these pillars as ‘‘prayer, charity, observance of Ramadan and pilgrimage to Mecca’’. It is also evident that traders were forced to accept Islam due to excellent trading conditions as compared to Buddhist.
Common factor about Islam and Christianity One of the common factors about Christianity and Islamic religion is their belief in existence of supernatural power. Christians hold that God created the universe and all of its contents. This is similar to Islam who belief that God is Allah who created the world and its elements. Furthermore, the two regions maintain prayer as means of communicating with God. The holy bible and Koran were written by people who were inspired by God. These are the common facts about Christian and Islam religion.
Reference Baumer, C. (2000). Southern Silk Road: In the Footsteps of Sir Aurel and Sven Hedin. Bangkok: Orchid Press.
Different Cultures in Tito’s Good Buy and in the Land of Free Compare and Contrast Essay essay help: essay help
Cultural diversity has always been a serious obstacle for people to overcome because it is primarily based on the difference in moral standards, and principles of general behavior and traditions. The impact of cultural bans is brightly illustrated in the stories presented for analysis.
Both literary works – “Tito’s Good Bye” and “In the Land of Free” – unveil the hardships the people should overcome when living in a host country. Hence, the first story, “Tito’s Good Bye” written by Garcia, narrates about two important periods of the protagonist’s life – the deplorable present and happy life in the past.
The second story is about the changes that occurred right after the heroes return to the free and wealthy United States. Both stories depict the adversities that immigrants have to overcome to adjust to life in America as well the way social and physical environment hampers their accommodation to new culture and people. Despite the differences in the plot, the stories’ characters move to America in the quest of better life, but face frustration and disappointment instead.
In Garcia’s “Tito’s Good Bye”, the main character is forced from Cuba to the United States because of the rise of communism. The story starts with news about Tito Urena’s death from heart attack in his office. From the very beginning, the author provides a thorough description of Tito’s present life including the place he worked, the people he communicated with and the attitude he had towards other people, which emphasizes some notes of pessimism. Special consideration should be given to the description of the place where Tito’s worked in New York, “a squalid room over a vegetable market in Little Italy” (Garcia 159).
This place could be the reflection of Tito’s feelings. He was suppressed and even miserable. He was lonely in his “squalid room” and in his life. He lost everything he had, but failed to succeed in his new life. On the other hand, “In the Land of Free” begins positively where the main characters – a Chinese American couple – move to America hoping that this country will bring peace and happiness to their lives.
This is shown by the descriptions and attitudes revealed in the beginning of the story: “there is thy home for years to come. It is very beautiful and thou wilt be very happy there” (Far 148). Lae Choo was glad to bring her child to their American house. She believed that the country which became their second homeland would welcome their little boy as well. But further, the couple’s opinion dramatically changes and they get more frustrated and hopeless when facing people’s cruelty and indifference.
The plots are largely based on the contrasts. The Sui Sin Far’s heroes are first delighted and blinded by the atmosphere of happiness, but further the illusions fade away with all hopes for a better life. Thus, the country which gave them a new life took away the most precious. In fact, the government took away their lives since their son was the sense of their lives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The same is revealed in the second story where description of death is intertwined with flashbacks to a happy past. The main character suffers because of the great pain and he even has no opportunity to think of all good in his life. Only Garcia contemplates on those bright things that happened in Tito’s life which could smooth his last minutes. However, Tito is deprived of such relief; his last minutes are hollow and painful, just like his new life.
Referring to the analysis of physical environment, it should be stressed the protagonists from both stories feel a considerable pressure from the surrounding world reminding them of their ethnic origins. In the first story, the physical environment relevantly emphasizes transformation of Tito’s character. Tito’s office is not far from the court, but far from his family. All his life passes in front of his desk but it is not with his close relatives. His work becomes the sense of his life because he starts working there spending all day long there.
Tito’s death in office also seems logical, therefore. This shows to what extent the hero is separated from his family. He dies of heart attack, the most painful death as many doctors admit. Thus, he suffers greatly physically. Of course, this is the last cut down which he has to pass. Besides, such death also symbolizes his relationship with his family. His heart is torn, just like family relationship. The second story also deals with hostility of new circumstances; a Chinese couple faces bureaucratic obstacles after Lae Choo delivers a baby.
In California, the place where the ratio of immigrants is the biggest one, the indigenous population expresses its hostile attitude to them. Hom Hing, a thriving merchant, had great expectations and believed that he would be prosperous and happy with his family in America. However, later the young family faces a lot of disappointments. They witness that the most obvious things need documental confirmation. They see that even if they have already gained some respectful position they are still reminded that they are new-comers.
Of course, these Chinese people understand that the system may have such flaws. But they could not accept the human indifference which is revealed with the help of the young American lawyer. The story proves that cultural difference influences people’s attitude, particularly in the time of colonialism.
The social environment is explicitly revealed in Sui Sin Far’s narration who manages to depict the social interaction between different cultural groups. From the very beginning, we see the hostility of police officers who are reluctant to let Lae Choo, Hing’s wife, to pass the boarder with the newborn child because they do not have the necessary certificate which is an official permission for a child to come to the country.
The life in America of the Chinese family gets worse as some people are eager to take advantage of them revealing no respect and dignity. In particular, a lawyer James Clancy who is supposed to assist this family tries to cheat them and to get his money. He brings only some documents which, however, cannot bring their child to the family. Thus, the lawyer says he needs money to go to Washington and finally bring the necessary certificate. Desperate mother agrees to give him the necessary sum (which is quite big).
We will write a custom Essay on Different Cultures in Tito’s Good Buy and in the Land of Free specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Of course, they do not have such money so Lae Choo gives away almost all of her jewelry. In fact, she is eager to give everything to bring her little boy back to her. Thus, instead of building a prosperous future, the Chinese merchant loses all his welfare together with the lost hope for a happy life. The second story discloses Tito’s conscious desire to be detached from his family. Hence, New York of that period witnessed many illegal immigrants with whom Tito had to work.
However, absorption with material welfare made him more indifferent to other people’s problems. The problem is aggravated because, like those people, Tito was also an immigrant, but he betrayed his roots for the sake of personal well-being. Perhaps, the loss of cultural roots and awareness was connected with his movement to New York. Both characters, Tito, a lawyer, and Hom Hing, a Californian merchant, have to face aggression on the part of the native population revealing their explicit hatred and condemnation to ethnic minorities and other cultures.
In conclusion, both stories are examples of how cultural changes can negatively influence people’s lives. They disclose the hardships that the cultural groups have to face. However, unfavorable social and physical settings hinder their adjustment to the new culture and customs. Struggling for a better life, both, Tito and Hing, meet reluctance and misunderstanding on the part of the new country.
In order to enhance the readers’ impression about the periods those heroes lived in, the authors provide the description of place and circumstances under which they had to move to “a free land”. However, the allusion of happy life just remains unrealized because immigrants fail to abandon their cultural roots believing that they deserve respect and recognition. One way or another, both stories have pessimistic endings, which prove people’s reluctance to be tolerant to other cultural identities.
Works Cited Far, Sui Sin. In the Land of Three. Guidelines: A Cross-Cultural Reading/Writing Text. UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Garcia, Cristina. Tito’s Good Bye. Guidelines: A Cross-Cultural Reading/Writing Text. UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Social, Cultural and Gender Inequality from a Global Perspective Essay essay help free: essay help free
As the executive chef for this hotel and resort corporation, applications for vacancies in the firm fall under my jurisdiction. Most of the respondents for the recently advertised supervisory vacancies are females from your culinary institution. We are also privileged to have a majority of our male employees who are graduates from your institution.
What is however disheartening is the reaction of these male employees on hearing that many of the supervisory posts applicants are females. The prospect of them being under supervision of female(s) does not augur well with them. This is definitely a shocker and it is really unbelievable that such a mentality still exists in today’s world.
Gender inequality which basically refers to open or concealed inequality between persons on the grounds of gender should not be an issue in this modern world (Centra and Gaubatz, 2003, p. 17). Graduates, and especially males, from your kind of institution are expected to be enlightened and are not expected to show any form of discrimination. They are expected to be way above such unacceptable practices at these times.
I would kindly like to give an insight on how this can be dealt with through various practices and training of students while they are still in the institution so that such instances does not occur elsewhere in future (Centra and Gaubatz, 2003, p. 18). Slotting into evocative discussion about gender of the tutors or lecturers with students will serve to prepare these young men and women to operate in a society that has turned more diverse and universal. It is the duty of the tutor to craft a lecture-room environment that serves to enhance meaningful discussions concerning gender.
As the society progressively turns to be global, learning institutions have an obligation to embrace gender diversity. Such an inclusiveness calls for both tutoring and gaining knowledge about gender issues. The seriousness with which most of these institutions seek to root for gender sensitivity is often debatable (Hernandez, 2001, p. 12). However, there is little doubt that involving students in meaningful discussions on gender will read them to fit in a society that is progressively getting more diverse.
So as to participate in any meaningful discussion about gender, the learners first need check their own convictions and mind-sets. Quite a large number of them do join learning institutions with already biased beliefs concerning given genders (Boerman-Cornell, 1999, p. 66).
This attitude definitely is carried into the lecture rooms. In today’s interdisciplinary class set ups, this poses problems mainly due to the following; convictions touching on gender attributes are not supported by any evidence at almost all times and such beliefs are opposed to change.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What makes this even more serious is that once the learners have shaped convictions concerning gender, they are stubborn toward differing explanations. It has also been proved that when information to counter their gender convictions is presented to them, it actually serves to reinforce their biased beliefs. This means that the lecturers have to do what it takes to counter learner resilience when talking about gender issues.
It has earlier been stated that it is normally the tutor’s duty to craft a lecture-room environment that enhances meaningful discussions concerning gender. Learners should be readied for the twofold activity of scholarly proficiency and experimental understanding (Hernandez, 2001, p. 14).
A good beginning point for tutors is to develop an open discussion concerning gender by getting into a more broad debate on gender attitudes. This is normally attained by enhancing learner aptitude and at the same time promoting their critical reasoning about the hypothetical machinations that underlie debate on gender issues.
For both genders, participation in discussions on gender calls to mind negative emotions. This is despite the fact that when the learners are faced up to arguments to lessen their levels of justification means, a reflective interpersonal set up of learning and development comes up (Centra and Gaubatz, 2003, p. 32).
For tutors to engage in significant discussions about race with the learners there are usually three aspects they need to have in mind. The first one is the lecturer/learner interaction. Coming up with a constructive association with learners in any course needs to take place on two stages.
The first one is to recognize the learners as a set. The tutor needs to be aware of grouping adherence and arrange for the ones who find it hard to conform to group pressure (Hernandez, 2001, p. 23). The second level points to individual contact between the tutor and the learner. Learning best takes place when there is a good rapport between the learner and his or her tutor.
The second aspect that tutors need to facilitate is attentive skills. This is achieved by way of voicing and body language (Boerman-Cornell, 1999, p. 69). Body and voice language also includes eye contact and the tutor must be attentive for nonverbal reactions from learners.
We will write a custom Essay on Social, Cultural and Gender Inequality from a Global Perspective specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third and final aspect that tutors need to embrace is different teaching styles. This is due to the fact that students learn best in various ways. There are those who are at home with visual presentations, those comfortable working in groups and those who get the points best by way of reading (Boerman-Cornell, 1999, p. 69).
Reference List Boerman-Cornell, W. (1999). “The five humors.” English Journal, 88: 66-69.
Centra, J. and Gaubatz, N. (2003). “Is there Gender Bias in Student Evaluations of Teaching?” Journal of Higher Education 70 (1) 17-33.
Hernandez, H. (2001). “Multicultural education: A teacher’s guide to linking context, process and content.” Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. 12-23.
Do People Inherit their Personality? Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Determinants of Personality
Introduction Personality differences are one of the primary factors that differentiate different individuals, because of the varying nature of peoples’ behaviors. Behavioral differences are evident in people’s ways of thinking or reactions to different occurrences in their immediate environments.
Therefore, personality traits define an individual’s profile in terms of character hence, determining how such individuals will interact with their immediate environment and other people. The question of the primary determinant of peoples’ personality traits is one of the most controversial topics in psychology, because of the varying arguments presented by different psychologists.
On one end, some psychologists believe that individuals acquire their personality traits through genetic inheritance; while on the other hand, some argue that peoples’ personality traits are products of the environment. Contrary to these two antagonizing notions, some psychologists believe that, both heredity through genetic inheritance and the environment play a role in shaping an individual’s behavior.
As research studies show, although individuals may inherit some personality traits from their parents, parental methodologies of nurturing children also contributes to shaping an individual’s personality (Nash
Miami School Negotiations: A Plan for the Mediating Process Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction In all aspects of society life, conflicts are bound to occur. These conflicts are normal and may in fact contribute to the health of the community. However, the positive contribution of conflicts greatly hinges on the conflict resolution schemes which are employed. As such, it is imperative that the people involved in the conflict resolve the issues constructively.
Key to the constructive resolution of conflicts is the use of negotiation tactics and strategies in the mediation process. Stitt (2004) defines mediation as simply the act of facilitating negotiation activities so as to help the disputants overcome the various obstacles in the negotiation process and therefore get to an agreement.
In this paper, a review of a conflict between the Miami School District and the Miami School parents shall be made. An overview of the conflict in this particular case shall then follow with the major parties involved being identified.
The negotiation strategy to be used to address the issue will be discussed and the rationale behind it explained. In the end, the paper shall demonstrate the significance of the mediator’s skills in arriving at an agreement that suits parties across both sides of the divide.
Mediatory Role Negotiation and mediation are termed as procedures that are utilized in dealing with opposing preferences. Negotiation involves the discussion between the opposing parties with the aim of reaching an agreement. Mediation on the other hand is a form of negotiation involving the presence of one or more outsiders. In the negotiation process, the parties in question may choose to take an approach in which discussions are held concerning their respective interests.
On the other hand, mediation is a process that employs a neutral party/parties to facilitate the negotiation process between the opposing members. Shamir (2003) states that “mediation is an assisted and facilitated negotiation carried out by a third party.”
Since I have no direct interest in the conflict or its outcome for that matter, my role as a mediator is ideal. Impartiality on my part is an especially crucial consideration since if either party suspects the mediator of being partial or having vested income in the outcome, the process would fail.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Poitras (2009) articulates that a mediator who is perceived to be impartial and only out to get a just solution will elicit the trust and confidence of the parties involved. The diplomatic nature of the mediator also increased the chances of achieving positive outcomes by facilitating unanimity.
The dispute The school board and the student’s parents have coexisted peacefully over the past many years. The Contention arose following the decision by the school board to redraw the school boundaries resulting in many students not being able to stay at their present school.
The main concern of the school board results from the unexpected increases in enrollment. The board feels that school boundaries have to be drawn in order to take into consideration these new realities in Miami. The school board feels that if no intervention is made, overpopulation in schools will occur leading to the overworking of teachers and a decrease in the education quality.
As such, the school board feels that redrawing of boundaries is an important step to ensure better services are provided to the students.
However, the parents who are the other major stakeholders in this conflict do not share the sentiments held by the school board. The parents are particularly concerned that the proposed plans will lead to a disruption of the student’s school life since many students will not be able to stay at their present school.
In addition to this, the parents feel that this move will lead to an increase in student’s travel time are well as have social impacts on the children. Owing to the fact that the children will be transferred to schools that have lower reputations compared to their current school, parents also feel that the quality of education will be degraded.
Negotiation Grounds Negotiation involves exchange of proposals and demands so as to reach a solution (Stitt, 2004). This particular case presents well defined goals by both parties involved. A goal is defined as a known or presumed commercial or personal interest of all or some of the parties to the negotiation.
We will write a custom Essay on Miami School Negotiations: A Plan for the Mediating Process specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The goal of the school board is to proceed unperturbed with its redrawing of school boundaries so as to offer better services to the student population. The goal of the parent’s on the other hand is to preserve the school boundaries so as to ensure continuity and avoid the degenerating effects that the proposed new boundaries are bound to lead to.
Despite the presence of these polarized interests between the two sides, there also exist common interests by both the school board and the parents. Both parties are genuinely concerned about the well being of the local community in general and the students in particular.
Both parties therefore desire to reach a solution that will not alienate them to each other since the two entities have always coexisted peacefully. These joint interests are very pivotal in the reaching of an agreement.
Negotiation Strategy Having established the positions of the various parties and my role as the mediator, the negotiating and meditating process can occur. For the negotiation process to be undertaken a strategy has to be followed. The negotiating strategy that I will follow is the Integrative bargaining. Stitt (2004) affirms that “Integrative bargaining operates under the assumption that there is at least one settlement that results in a win-win situation for the various parties involved in the negotiation process.”
Each party will be required to reduce their demands or aspirations so as to accommodate the other party. The key factor that makes me favor this approach is that it tries to resolve the issue in an amicable fashion so as to ensure a health future relationship between the parties. Safeguarding of future the relationship between the parents and the school board is critical in these negotiation efforts.
The first step for me as the mediator will be familiarizing myself with the issue. I have therefore examined the background information so as to develop strategies on how to deal with both antagonists. I also intend to hold separate meetings with the concerned parties and clarified my role in the negotiation process. A mediator’s attempt to establish common values and experiences with the negotiating parties may yield to a good rapport with the parties.
As a mediator, once the goals and interests of both sides have been laid out on the table, I will be able to begin facilitating the negotiation process. I will begin by helping both parties better understand their interests and priorities. From this, it will be clear that the parents are not so much as opposed to the idea of the school board redrawing the boundaries as to the lack of involvement of parents in the process.
The parents view that this would result in crossing cultural and economic boundaries since the students would be placed in poorer districts. This crossing of lines would lead to a tainting of the community’s suburban image. It is therefore possible to appease the parents by having them elect members to be included in the boundary redrawing efforts. This will ensure that some of their interests are taken into consideration in this process.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Miami School Negotiations: A Plan for the Mediating Process by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The quality of education is one of the issues that are of high priorities to both parties. The need for redrawing the school boundaries is seen as inevitable by the school board. However, it can be done in such a manner that it does not lead to the high levels of objections.
As a mediator, I can look into ways that the school board can undertake this activity while ensuring that the travel time for students is kept to a minimal. The parents will however be willing to deal with the fact that economic boundaries may have to be crossed.
Through the course of the negotiation process, I will highlight an impasse created due to the parent’s perception that placing the students in a multicultural setting will result to negative influences. The parents believe that this will have a negative social implication since schools in the other neighborhoods have incidents of violence which the parents perceive to be as a result of culture.
By helping the parties to recognize these impasses, they can overcome the culturally-based impasses. Having done all this, it is possible that the two parties will reach an amiable compromise based on reducing their demands and dealing with the issues of high priority.
Since there exists goodwill and a desire to avoid dispute by both parties, it can be expected that both parties will fulfill their ends of the bargain therefore leading to a harmonious coexistence.
Conclusion This paper set out to demonstrate that mediation can be used in negotiations to help in the timely reaching of an amiable stand by both parties involved. Since there is a desire by both sides to come up with a solution that will be beneficial to the community, both teams are likely to engage in negotiation efforts to constructively resolve the conflicts at hand.
Compromises will have to be made and both teams will have to agree on terms that are acceptable to all parties. The role of the mediator is invaluable in that it enables the conflicting parties to better understand their interests and also facilitates the moving forward of the negotiating process according to the needs and pace of the parties.
References Poitras, J. (2009). What makes parties trust mediators? Negotiation Journal, Volume 25, Issue 3, Pages 307-325.
Shamir, Y. (2003). Alternative Dispute Resolution Approaches and their Application. PCCP Publications.
Stitt, A. (2004) Mediation: a Practical Guide. Routledge Cavendish.
Comparison of Night by Elie Weisel and Cry of the Beloved Country by Paton Compare and Contrast Essay scholarship essay help
Elie Wiesel’s memoir Night gives a thought provoking account of the ruthless maltreatment of his family during the Holocaust by Nazi Germany. Wiesel was brought up in the mountains of the present day Romania and in 1944, at fifteen years old, his family was captured as part of a mission by the Germans to torture the Jews. Thereafter, Wiesel and his dad were detached from his youngest sister and mum at Auschwitz.
All the family members died in different circumstances leaving the young Wiesel behind. Alan Paton’s novel Cry, the Beloved Country, is a commanding, spare, poetic modern classic that protests against the structures of the South African society that would lead to apartheid in the 1940s. The novel tells the story of Reverend Stephen Kumalo who undertakes the difficult and expensive journey to Johannesburg from the remote village of Ndotsheni (Paton, 1).
He makes the journey in order to find his wayward son, Absalom, and assist her sick daughter, Gertrude. In as much as the two novels are distinct, they portray the same thematic link: good and evil in the society.
To begin with, both the two novels give a portrayal of social breakdown and racial injustice in the society. The society represented in Cry, the Beloved Country, is unjust, segregated along racial lines in which the white people have assumed ownership of the most profitable farmland from the black people.
For that reason, blacks have been compelled to migrate from their tribal villages to try to find work in cities like Johannesburg. In the cities, white businesses rely so much on the labor provided by the blacks, for which they work for subsistence wages.
Since the blacks have been forced to leave their traditional social structures such as adherence to morals and reverence for the elderly in the society, social breakdown has inevitably followed. Because the blacks left the traditional social structures that lent stability to their lives, the crime rate among the blacks is increasing at a fast pace.
The novel Night, by Elie Wiesel, also portrays the theme of social breakdown and racial injustice in the society. The Nazi’s captured and killed so many Jews after forcing them to endure treacherous situations. Wiesel notes, “Without passion, without haste, they slaughtered their prisoners” (4). Their oppressors did not even spare the weak among them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Nazis purposely withheld proper means of transport and forced the Jews to travel in cattle cars to the concentration camps. By doing this, they placed their voiceless prisoners on the same level as the animals. Therefore, this undermined the significance of the Jewish existence, dehumanized them, and belittled their self-esteem.
The novel depicts instances of the breakdown of the Jewish social structures. Wiesel witnessed occasions when sons turned against their fathers by abusing them, abandoning them, or fighting with them. The Jews themselves abandoned the traditional social structures that lent stability to their lives when they started turning against each other in the concentration camps. In addition to the kapos, who were also Jews, they never treated each other as brothers and sisters.
Even though the two novels give an illustration of extreme social injustices, they also have a human heart. In Cry, the Beloved Country, the sense of despondency is envisaged by the likelihood of reunion amongst the races and the blacks coming together once again.
Even in the evil parts of the book, bright spots wherein individuals show human love to each other, not considering the race, are evident in the story. For instance, a white man offers free transport to blacks who were on foot because of a bus boycott. Another show of human heart is whereby Kumalo and Jarvis desperately search for their sons to reconcile with them. Although Kumalo finally discovered that his son had changed to an evil man, he endured the ordeal of the trial with him until he was sentenced to death.
Jarvis is depicted to have undergone a change of heart when he tried to reconcile with his dead son through his writings that he had left behind. In the book, Paton seems to imply that societal change is possible if it can start to be effected from people’s heart. The novel upholds that such change is possible in the future.
In Night, instances of compassion, as depicted by the relationship between Elie and his father, are evident. In the concentration camps, Elie did not want to give up because he never wanted to leave his father alone since they had been separated from the other family members.
A number of kinships portrayed in the novel are very different from that of Eli and his father in that the sons abuse, abandon, mistreat or kill their fathers. During the Holocaust, the Jews changed dramatically because there was scarcity of food and everyone was struggling for his or her own survival.
We will write a custom Essay on Comparison of Night by Elie Weisel and Cry of the Beloved Country by Paton specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Amidst the cruelty and selfishness that ruptured familial bonds, Elie showed compassion to his father. This strong bond between the father and the son illustrates that Eli’s compassion and solidarity are stronger forces for his continued existence than his instinct for self-protection.
In Night, Eli seeks to find an answer to the questions he was having, but there is silence and he seems to get no answer. Eli asks, “Where is God?” but there is no divine response. He failed to understand why God could permit such a torture to be experienced by devout worshippers. Another type of silence in the book is seen when the Jews failed to resist the oppression that they underwent during the Holocaust.
On the other hand, in Cry, the Beloved country, Kumalo is able to get answers to the questions he was having. Even though he was going through tough times, his only solace came from faith in God. The trial of his son shook his faith but never broke it. He spent most of his time in prayer in order to get the answers from God. Unlike Eli’s case, Kumalo was able to find comfort from fellow compatriots.
These two books are so rich, so proficient in describing the trouble, the dissatisfaction, and the unbelievable misery in a torn planet. Understanding the past is important when one wants to understand the future. Therefore, these novels remain relevant in our current society.
Currently, the world is full of various atrocities that parallel the situation in South Africa before apartheid and the oppression of the Jews during the Holocaust. In spite of these violence and gloom, the novels remind us that we have the power to change the world. Everyone has the potential to do good. Although the novels are set in different parts of the world, they indicate that at times good can prevail over evil or on the contrary, evil prevailing over good.
Works Cited Paton, Alan. Cry, the Beloved Country. New York: Scribner, 1948. Print.
Wiesel, Elie. Night. New York: Hill
Paris and Its Tourist Places Report college admission essay help
Paris is fondly represented as a city where romance thrives and it is for this reason that visiting and the sites and city is appealing. Paris is often a venue of many entertainment and social events such as large fashion shows and movie launches among others. The city is the capital of France and is relatively small by the standards of most capital cities of the world.
This provides would be visitors with a major advantage since the sites are mostly within walking distance and allows the visitor to take in as much of the city as possible. It is reported that the French are stylish and flirtatious, the architecture is memorable and the nightlife and restaurants are well suited for the pursuit of pleasure and romance.
The city is split by the Seine River into the left and right banks and is divided into 20 districts which spiral from the center. With a city map easily available in the town book stores, visitors can stroll to their hearts desire visiting the museums, landmarks and numerous restaurants in Paris (HotelTravel.com).
According to history, the city was founded around the 3rd Century BC on what is today referred to as “lle de la cite” (HotelTravel.com). The origins can be traced to a tribe of Celtic Gaul’s known as Parisii. After decades of conflict between the Roman’s and the Gaul’s, the Roman’s took the city and in 52 BC and later introduced Christianity in the 2nd Century AD.
The Roman’s were overrun by the Frank’s in the 5th Century AD in 508 AD, the conquerors (Frank’s) united Gaul as a kingdom and made Paris the capital renaming it after the original inhabitants. This marked the beginning of the city that has survived numerous revolutions and global events to date.
The Parisian climate is best at springtime, despite the fact that it may at times be a bit wet; the city is usually very vibrant during this season. The winter also has plenty of activity with many cultural events taking place. During the summer, the weather and the city in general are usually warm and lazy; many Parisians leave the city for the beaches located to the west and south of France. However, this trend has changed in recent years and the city is not quite as desolate as it used to be a few decades ago (HotelTravel.com).
Paris is a very popular tourist destination receiving over 30 million tourists annually (Places in France.com).For entertainment the city offers a wide variety of options, it has two popular opera houses, the spectacular Stade de France which hosts large sporting events such as the World Cup in 98, the unique cabaret shows of the Moulin Rouge and many other attractions. Indeed a trip to Paris would be incomplete without a visit to the famous Eiffel Tower.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The tower built on the Champ de Mars by Gustav Eiffel stands at 324m high and is among the most recognized structures in the world. Other beautiful and memorable sites that are a must see include the Arc de Triomphe, Notre Dame Cathedral, Avenue de Champs-Elyees, Place de la Concorde and the Luxor Obelisk. The city indeed has a lot to offer including museums, boat rides, amusement parks and much more (Places in France.com).
Travel Item Approx Cost Air Fare – London Paris Return (CheapFlights.com) 56 Pounds Car Rental – economy form7 days (arguscarhire.com) 198 pounds Hotel – 1 star cost per day bed and breakfast Approx 330 pounds X 6 Days = 1980 pounds Suggested Activities Visit Eiffel tower, Arc de Triomphe, Notre Dame Cathedral, Avenue de Champs-Elyees, Place de la Concorde, and Luxor Obelisk. Enjoy a meal on a boat on River Seine. Visit the amusement parks. Sample Parisian nightlife. Approx 25 pounds daily X 6 = 150 pounds Total Cost Approx 2400 pounds Works Cited ArgusCarhire.com. Argus Carhire. Web.
CheapFlights.co.uk Cheap Flights. Web.
HotelTravel.com. Hotel Travel. Web.
Places in France. Travel Guide to Paris the Capital City of France. Web.
Travelpack. Travelpack. Web.
Rhetorical Analysis of the Article scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Structure Firstly, we have to mention that the distinction between structural and stylistic peculiarities of persuasive essay writing have to be taken into consideration. It is commonly preferred to analyze the structure of the essay at first, looking for the author’s methods of achieving his/her purpose of persuading the audience.
Hence, at the beginning of the peace of writing under the name ‘Black Widows Recruited for Terrorism in Russia’, a reader can already observe the author’s attitude towards the issue or a problem. The very first sentence of the essay’s introduction provides the contrast in generalizing information, which indicates importance of this picture changing the hundreds of people’s way of thinking. Generally, the author’s task at the beginning of persuasive piece of writing was to attract the readers’ attention.
As a matter of fact, the writer has accomplished this task by choosing the technique of opening with a strong statement with slight exaggeration. Having further introduced the main thesis of the essay and having given some background information, the writer moves smoothly to the body of the piece.
In the main part of the essay the author represents his main arguments and reasons, which confirm his thesis statement. Briefly, the first body paragraph offers a distinct case of an act of terror realized by women. The author empathizes further the distortion of a perception of woman’s function in the society.
The second paragraph describes the phenomena of ‘Black Widows’, who being in a flow of revenge were committing crimes. All the proceeding paragraphs are aimed at backing the points stated above. These paragraphs have purpose to explain and give reasons for a phenomenon, woman terrorism in particular.
However, we have to point out, that the author did not use the technique of including a fully distinguished rebuttal section into the main body of the essay. Instead, the writer has directly come to conclusion, which was an appeal to certain people, in particular legislative establishments, which can work on the ways of improving the situation of ‘Black Widow Terrorism’.
Style Factual Information
Facts are one of the most powerful means of persuasion. The author in his article has used a considerable amount of facts, which one can be checked on veracity. Introducing factual information was a reasonable way of supporting one’s point and offering the issue for further discussion;
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Appeal to Authority (Quoting)
It is always highly desirable to back u your opinion with particular thoughts of experts, which are already professionals in their field and can offer a reader security and sure about the words they say or prove. For example, in the current article a reader may observe the following personalities as Speckhard and Yulia Yuzik.
Appeal to Examples
A variety of examples, which have been used in the article, are quite an effective mean of persuasion.
Audience On the whole, the article ‘Black Widows Recruited for Terrorism in Russia’ is aimed not only at the legislation establishments, who are empowered to change the increasing processes of woman terrorism, but also at an educated general public.
The issue of woman terrorism and its reasons may be a topic of consideration for psychologists, sociologists and representatives of other social studies, who are willing to join to finding the solution to this problem.
Rhetorical Strategies Appeal to Reason
The author has developed his arguments being guided by motives and reasons. He bases his conclusions only with reference to authoritative people and facts.
Appeal to Ethos
The latter implies credibility and reliability of the author. The writer of this particular essay is considered to apply this rhetorical strategy successfully, while using only credible sources to develop an argument. Further, the writer sets a common point through admitting beliefs of the opposite sides of an argument. Last, but not least, the author has organized his article in an easy to follow pattern.
Appeal to Emotions
Appeal to emotions is one of the key points in persuasive essay. As far as our mind is inclined to visualization and sensual perception on the whole, this technique may appear a useful tool for persuading. We can state, that the author of the article has managed to achieve expected results through appeal to audience’s emotions. The writer uses emotionally colored language, which induces the reader to react correspondingly. E.g. a cherubic teenager smirking as she waves a pistol in the air
We will write a custom Essay on Rhetorical Analysis of the Article specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In general, the author of the article has achieved the result in arguing over the question of woman terrorism, its reasons and appealing to the legislative bodies and all people on the whole to contribute to solving this problem.
Works Cited Lunsford, Andrea “Everything’s an argument” Bedford/St. Martin’s; Fourth Edition edition. (December 2007): 123-134
Schuster, Simon „Russia’s‚ Black Widows‘: Terrorism or Revenge?“ (Wednesday, Apr. 07, 2010) http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1978178,00.html
Racial and Ethnic Inequality Essay college application essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction This essay examines racial and ethnic inequality based on an article by Erlanger Steven. The article indicates that racial profiling by the police in Paris is still a sticky issue that has to be addressed.
Basing on different sociological perspectives, the article is analyzed towards understanding the phenomenon and recommending a policy framework. Good policy and grounded initiatives are the only sure way of dealing with racial and ethnic inequality.
Article Summary An article by Erlanger reports that police in Paris harass black and Arab men more than their white counterparts. A research done by the “open society justice Initiative” on “ethnic Profiling in Paris” indicates that police in Paris stop and do identity checks on black and Arab men more prevalently than is the case for white Paris men. This study confirms the wide spread accusations or racial profiling leveled against the police. For one white man checked, at least six blacks and 7 Arabs are checked.
Secondly, the study also established that clothing was a major factor used in profiling individuals. Out of the total population checked, those found wearing cloth that is representative of French youth culture formed 47% (Erlanger 1). Thirdly, out of those stopped, blacks and Arabs were more susceptible to police frisking and detention. From interviewees in the study, it is clear that police target youths on a purely racial line.
Article Analysis Racial and ethnic inequality has been a big challenge or stumbling block in the way people interact around the world. Different sociological perspectives have been proffered to explain the phenomenon of racial and ethnic inequality or discrimination. There are four main sociological schools of thought i.e. the functional theorists, the conflict school, the interactional theorists and the labeling school of thought (Arrighi 105).
The functional perspective focuses on how ethnic and racial inequality advances the interests of different groups in society (Arrighi 107). Theorists in this school of thought although acknowledging the fact that racism or ethnic discrimination cannot be admired, they point out that this phenomenon is sustained by the function it plays (Schaefer 253).
In most cases, racial or ethnic discrimination is sustained by the purpose or role it fulfills especially for the dominant group. In the case of Paris, as presented in the article, discrimination against minority blacks and Arabs serves as a way of asserting dominance of the white majority in society.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Secondly, through discrimination, the dominant group manages to keep the minority checked i.e. it denies them the freedom necessary for self actualization and enjoyment of life in Paris. Largely, discrimination gives the discriminating group a good feeling or airs. The airs that come with understanding the perceived competitor is subdued sustains racial and ethnic inequality and discrimination.
On the other hand, functional theorist points out that racial and ethnic discrimination makes society dysfunctional in many ways (Schaefer 253). The only way of ending racial and ethnic inequality and discrimination is to help people realize how dysfunctional such attitudes and dispositions are. For example, police in Paris belief that much crime is committed by black and Arab youths.
This may be true; however, the major reason why these minority groups resort to crime or delinquency is the frustration from not being able to live in peace like the majority. As the frustration due to denied opportunities and harassment increases, phenomenon like the violent riots that were witnessed in Paris in 2005 cannot be avoided.
The second sociological perspective on ethnic and racial inequality is the conflict perspective. Conflict theorists look into the phenomenon of racial and ethnic inequality in terms of conflict between different classes in society. In line with Marxist thinking, the economically dominant do not want the less privileged to become empowered (Schaefer 253). The bourgeois cannot allow the enlightenment and empowerment of the proletariat.
According to the exploitation theory, proffered by conflict theorists, economic competition and related conflict is the major explanation as to why discrimination persists. The herd mentality and close identification with race or ethnic group results from a self preservation instinct. In the mind of many in society, the other poses an economic threat.
In the case of Paris, many Arabs and blacks are considered largely as unwanted aliens on sorts. As indicated in the article, those perceived as immigrants especially from Africa are targeted most. One reason why they are targeted would be to ensure they do not assimilate and rise within the economic echelons (Arrighi 110).
As the conflict theorists explain, racial discrimination does not serve society. It basically leads to acrimony and dissatisfaction in society. The actions of police make Arabs and blacks see them as enemies. As a result, the two groups cannot work harmoniously for the good of society.
We will write a custom Essay on Racial and Ethnic Inequality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The blacks and Arabs continue seeing whites as oppressors while the whites see the others as unwanted and unworthy competition of sorts. Such like conflicts have precipitated into xenophobic attacks.
However, racial and ethnic discrimination can not conclusively be explained by the conflict perspective. The exploitation and minority is not entirely about them being an economic threat. The findings presented in the article point more towards a labeling perspective or explanation of ethnic and racial discrimination. The blacks and Arabs are not discriminated because they are a threat to the economic well being of the whites but rather because they have been labeled as more likely to do criminal acts.
The authorities, after following historical data, are convinced of prevalence of crime or given characteristics among a given group. This then becomes the label and all members of the group become suspects of sorts. As the study presented in the article indicates, labeling does not help much as it only creates an angry lot. Many black and young Arabs are angry because they feel targeted on the basis of color.
The final perspective on racial and ethnic inequality is the interactional view. Interactional theorists indicate that level of interaction and mode of interaction either fuels or stops racial and ethnic discrimination. As reported by (254), the contact hypothesis, proffered by interactional theorists posits that racial discrimination is lowered by increased interaction between people of different racial groups that are of relatively equal social or economic status.
Interaction with others helps individuals to appreciate that beyond the color difference, human beings are largely the same or similar. Race or ethnicity is a mere accident. As people interact, they are able to challenge their own leaned stereotypes and prejudices leading to acceptance of others.
Conclusion In conclusion, authorities have to look at the issue of racial and ethnic discrimination a little more carefully. If it is not checked, it leads to conflicts that can turn violent as witnessed in Paris in 2005. Policy guiding police interaction with populace has to be geared towards fairness in the way the treat all citizens. As an official indicated in the report, training can play an important way in changing outlook.
Police and other citizens have to be helped to understand how other groups are functionally important, how the groups contribute in the economy, why the labels against them are prejudicial and stereotypical. Finally, forums and ways of facilitating interaction between police and Arab or black youths can help dissipate the prejudices.
Works Cited Arrighi, Barbara, A., Understanding Inequality: the Intersection of Race/Ethnicity, Class, and Gender .Maryland: Rowman
Analysis of the reading experience for the “Framing Class” Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
The writer of the essay introduces and actually bases most of the opening paragraphs of the essay on how the media frames the issue of class distinction in society. With proper usage of examples, it is easy to see how the media defines the rich, the middle class and the poor.
This part of the essay is very interesting to read and it is easy to understand what the writer is trying to propose. The challenge comes in the paragraph introduced by the title “The realities of class” (Kendall, 236). By introducing the facts and figures, the author seems to contradict herself.
Reading through at first, it almost seems that the writer is trying to argue that the statuses of individuals is determined by economic forces in a real-life situation and not dictated by the media as she had earlier said. The creative piece that had preceded this section looses its substance though it had initially made a lot of sense. While reading through the paragraphs embodied in under the sub-title “The realities of class” the smooth flow of ideas from the initial part of the essay is interfered with. It becomes easy to lose focus and most of the time I found myself getting tempted to skip this section altogether.
The part with the statistical data was the most difficult to try and focus on and it was not until I got to the later paragraphs that I realized its connection to the development of the entire essay. However, even then I still did not find it absolutely necessary and I reached the end of the essay thinking that the author could have made her point without getting into the intricacies of economics.
In order to understand the section titled “The realities of class” I had to devise a strategy that would enable me connect it with the rest of the essay. This plan involved some personally crafted approaches to enable me make sense of the section. These approaches included:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Since I already knew that this paragraph was coming, I would spend some time to carefully read the section and try to understand the importance of every sentence in the section. I should be prepared to expect some change in the flow of the essay when I get to this section and will therefore not get disappointed to find it almost fully different from the initial paragraphs of the entire essay.
The section contains facts and figures which on the face of it could be slightly intimidating. However, in order to understand the section, I will try not to get scared by the numbers and will spend time to find their relation to the general topic. This after all is not an economics paper and it would be safe to assume that the author did not intend for the figures to confuse the average reader. Therefore, chances are that it will not take a lot to make sense of the data.
I will try and avoid the temptation to get over with this section of the essay and move on to the next part. This will be achieved by setting out from the onset to only proceed once I have completely understood the author’s intention in including it in the essay. Sentences that did not initially make sense will be read through attentively and if need be, they will be re-read until that point where I am satisfied that I have made sense of them.
After applying this strategy, the message of the author has now become clear. Contrary to initial opinion, the writer is not trying to deviate from the topic but is instead using the numbers to emphasize her argument that the media should try to positively cover issues of the poor and the middle class.
For instance the percentages of people in the different categories of wealth have been used to emphasize the point that a majority of the population is in the middle and the low class sub-groups. With the super rich and the very rich altogether making a measly 1% it does not make sense for the media to dedicate a huge percentage of their airtime and paper space to address the issues of the people in this class.
This essay is targeted at illustrating how improperly the media have framed the issue of class differences and it is supposed to come up with recommendations on how they can improve their performance. It therefore makes sense for Diana Elizabeth Kendall, the author, to use facts and figures from general society in order to support her argument. Failure to do this would have made the essay lose all the credibility.
Using the strategy in analyzing the essay has made me aware that it is not wise to ignore some parts of a reading on the premise that they do not rhyme with what had been initially read. The strategy will definitely come in handy in analyzing other pieces of literature and will be used again to enhance understanding.
Work Cited Kendal, Elizabeth. Framing class: media representations of wealth and poverty in America. Maryland: Rowman
Status, role, primary groups, and secondary groups in social interactions between different racial and ethnic groups Report writing essay help: writing essay help
Status is the ranking of groups or individual persons within a certain and specific perspective based on a given criteria. This perspective refers to the hierarchy of esteem and reputation that exists between certain groups. It therefore establishes which group or individual shall interact with which other group and how that shall be done in accordance to the respect disserved from by given group.
Therefore, roles in a given status group can be stratified according to the given expectation of the group, for example, cooks and caregivers or can be got from experience. As a result, functions include the manner a certain group is patterned in order to perform its function for the sake of the other groups as a whole.
The society is made up of various types of groups which have different racial and ethnic backgrounds and have a certain degree of cohesion due to common interests and values in life like race, religion and ethnicity. In the society there are various types of groups which are very different from each other. First we have the primary groups.
This group is usually small in number and the group has members who are very personal and affectionate to each other. Members of this group have a relationship that is usually kinship- oriented for example families. The relation between this group lasts for so many years with a face-to-face communication.
Secondly, we have the secondary groups; they are much larger than the primary groups and include formal and institution type of relations. This group can last as long as the members do not disband it, therefore they are not permanent as the primary group. Roles in this group can be interchanged between members and it is more tenuous and lacks the affection displayed in primary groups.
There are times when the primary group may be represented in a secondary group setting for example attending college represents association to the secondary group while there are relationships that were developed in the primary groups that a person belonged to. On the other hand, there are other organizations in the secondary setting that care affectionately about the welfare of another while a family in a primary setting, individuals may be hostile towards another thus there can be variances in the groups.
Hence from the above groupings of the society, different racial and ethnic groups have shown to see their own social status in a different way from the other. For example in a primary group, some ethnic groups like the Latinos and African Americans have shown to hold in high esteem the role that grandparents perform in the society and therefore they subscribe to that ideology than any other ethnic groupings like the white Americans.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand the status in a secondary setting, classmates in college have placed less emphasis on the role of ethnicity or race. In this group, the role of the members in the classroom can be interchanged to suit one’s own liking by merit and not based on the ethnicity of the individual.
In addition, the members of this group display different characters that they acquired from their own ethnic and racial primary groups and they tend to believe and act according to the norms of that group. However, they are tolerant to each other which make it possible for secondary group members to in interchange their roles without conflicts.
In a primary setting, an ethnic group like African Americans subscribe to the role that a father has to a family more than white Americans who though believe in the importance of a man to a family, do not subscribe to that norm as depicted by African American families.
In conclusion, it can be held that the status role and groups that an individual or society belongs to influences the type of social interaction that will occur between them and the way they view each other’s culture and way of life.
Trading symbol from NYSE Term Paper college essay help near me
Table of Contents Introduction
NYSE symbol: SAM
Brief history of The Boston Beer Company, Inc
Performance of the Boston Beer Company, Inc
Introduction The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is the largest stock exchange in the world in terms of market capitalization. In 2007, the NYSE merged with another company, Euronext so that the entire stock exchange became fully electronic.
The signing of the Buttonwood Agreement in May 1792 was the precursor to the formation of the current NYSE which began with less than 50 stocks. There are over 2,500 securities listed on the New York Stock Exchange to date though the number is not constant since new securities as well as tradable securities are added or delisted regularly. It is currently located on 11 Wall Street in lower Manhattan, New York City and the listed companies at the NYSE have a collective capital base of over US$25 trillion.
NYSE symbol: SAM The Boston Beer Company, Inc. (NYSE: SAM) is a publicly owned company listed in the NYSE as a component of the brewery industry. The company was first listed on the NYSE on 21 November, 1995 after selling part of its capital to the public as common shares.
Brief history of The Boston Beer Company, Inc The Boston Beer Company, Inc was established in 1984 in Boston, Massachusetts by three individuals and initially begun its operations by contracting the Pittsburgh Brewing Company for the brewing of its brands prior to the establishment of The Boston Beer Company’s own brewing plant in Cincinnati.
Boston Beer Company is the current largest American-owned brewery after the merge of the previous largest company, Anheuser Busch with the Belgian-Brazilian Company InBev on November 18, 2008 to form Anheuser Busch InBev -AB-IB (Jackson, 10).
Performance of the Boston Beer Company, Inc In 2005, The Boston Beer Company (NYSE: SAM) attained fourth quarter net revenue of $64.8 million, an increase of 16% over fourth quarter 2004. Net revenue rose up by 9.7% to $238.3 million in 2005 compared to the previous year (Roberto 7). There was also an increase in net revenue per barrel mainly because of price increases and a change in the package mix (BBIC 8).
Advertising, promotional and selling expenses increased by $6.0 million, due to higher shipment fuel costs, selling costs and promotional investment supporting the brands (Fuhrmann 10).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In general, the Better Beer category of the company grew by 8% while that of the Craft beer grew by 9%, and the end result was a 5% growth of the company for the full year 2005. The Company had net income of $15.6 million, or $1.07 per diluted share with a net revenue increase of $21.1 million or 9.7% because of the augmentation in shipment volume along with a 2.4% increase in net revenue per barrel and thus a rise in the share value (Jackson 7).
In 2006, fourth quarter net revenue was at $73.3 million due to an increase in shipment volume and a net revenue per barrel. Net revenue rose by 20% to $285.4 million in 2006 relative to 2005 revenue (BBIC 7). Gross margin for the fourth quarter 2006 dropped to 56.0% from 57.7% in the fourth quarter of 2005 because of rising supply chain costs perpetuated by the increase in beer demand and increase in package material costs (Roberto 8).
There was also an increase in net revenue per barrel is due to package change costs.Net income for 2006 was $18.2 million, or $1.27 per diluted share, which was a notable increase of $2.6 million, or $0.20 per diluted share compared to the previous year. Net revenue rose to $47.1 million while gross margin as a percent of net sales was 57.6% mainly due to net price increases induced by unfavorable packaging material and supply chain costs.
In 2007, the fourth quarter net revenue was $92.2 million which was perpetuated by an increase in core shipment volume (BBIC 6). The 2008 fourth quarter net revenue grew by 13% with the net income being $3.6 million mostly motivated by the raise in costs of raw and packaging materials (Fuhrmann 11). Other expenses included the new Pennsylvania Brewery which brought about start-up costs and the Latrobe Brewery asset impairment charge.
The net revenue for the fourth quarter of 2008 increased by13% to $103.8 million, because of volume and pricing gains (BBIC 4). Net income for that year fell by $14.4 million, or $0.97 per diluted share to $8.1 million, or $0.56 per diluted share relative to the to previous year mainly due to the increases in cost of goods sold, advertising as well as promotional and selling expenses(BBIC 4).
In addition, the Boston Beer Company issued a recall in April 2008, after a third-party supplier responsible for a fourth of the bottles used the Boston Beer Company manufactured defective bottles which contained small pieces of glass (Jackson 7). Consequently, the share value of the company’s shares fell by over 3% after the recall leading to the drop in net income.
2009 saw the net revenue for the fourth quarter rise by $3.4 million to $107.2 million again mostly because of core volume gains. The net revenue of the year 2009 rose to $415.1 million a 4% increase (Fuhrmann 14). Net income for 2009 was $31.1 million or $2.17 per diluted share, which is an increase of $23.0 million, or $1.61 per diluted share when compared to 2008(BBIC 3). Product recall costs of 2008 were $22.8 million which led to improved gross margins of 5% in 2009.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Trading symbol from NYSE specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More 2010 is a promising year for the Boston Beer Company especially with the launch of the new spring seasonal, Samuel Adams(R) Noble Pils that continues to enjoy a favorable reception by consumers, and traders (BBIC 2). There are still existing challenges such as increased competition from domestic forte brands as well as regional craft brands and competitive pricing though current approximation of for 2010 is in the range of $2.35 to $2.65 earnings per diluted share.
Conclusion Since the listing of The Boston Beer Company in the NYSE, it has been able to make tremendous progress mainly due to the company’s consistency in effective performance and corporate finance. The value of NYSE:SAM is currently ranging between $30.70 and $56.40 with the theory and practice of corporate finance being a major contributor to the bullish activity of the shares.
Long term Capital investment decisions such as the opening of the Pennsylvania Brewery in 2008 and the IPO in 1995 have all been profitable even with initial losses being experienced. The company has financed most investments with equity and shareholders are frequent recipients of dividend unless in occasions with reduced income such as 2008.
Working capital management has led the company to reduce advertising, promotional and selling costs since 2008. Such action is being amplified by cutbacks in freight expenses to wholesalers, addition of sales staff as well as better advertising rates and more efficient spending by the company to equalize the increase in salaries. Consequently, advertising and promotional costs as well as cost of sales sustained in 2009 declined by $11.3 million relative to 2008 costs.
Works Cited Fuhrmann, Ryan. Sam Adams Brewing Growth in the U.S. 2010. Web.
Jackson, Sally. The Boston beer company to ask for federal regulations requiring full disclosure on beer labels. 1996. Web.
Roberto, Michael. Anheuser Busch and Sam Adams, 2008. Web.
The Boston Beer Company, Inc (BBCI). Investor relation center: Archives. Web.
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Nelson Mandela “Freedom in Africa” Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Apartheid and Oppression
Demonstrations, Detention and Mass Killings
Freedom in Africa
Introduction It can be difficult to understand the meaning of oppression if at all one has never experienced the struggles coupled with oppressions hence, the desire to liberate from shackles of oppression. However, it is not easy to find the way out of oppression, especially when the oppressors seem to gain much from their egoistic acts. This has been the story in Africa, the story of oppression from the colonial masters. Yes, indeed it is the story of oppression between white settlers and Africans, fighting for resources and power. Nevertheless, in order to gain freedom, individuals or groups of people must have strong determination.
On matters of freedom, there are two warring groups fighting to gain something or protect their legacy. Each group has its own demands, of course by realization. Thus, since the disparities between the groups are many, the subjugated group will find it hard to fight for freedom. Nevertheless, if the group remain adamant and plan well, the situation will one day rectify where, the once mighty and feared will turn powerless. (Melber, 2006, 261-278).
At some point, the struggle for freedom can include mass killings, detention, rape and racial discriminations. Nevertheless, the two parties receive equal blame for their respective participation for either oppression or freedom. For example, the struggle for freedom in South Africa is one of the best examples of freedom in Africa so far. This incredible enlightenment came from Nelson Mandela who for his quest for African freedom did not lose self-determination to press on until finally declared, first past the post.
In the quest of freedom for Africa, Nelson Mandela has been a reference figure to many people who are still fighting for freedom especially in Africa. His enduring in addition, tireless devotion, became an ingredient of downtrodden semantics of the oppressors. South Africans were to fight their enemies and tormenters in order to achieve freedom.
On the other hand, the South African apartheid had claimed more from them hence, calming and breaking its foundations was a vision to achieve. Nevertheless, Nelson Mandela is one key inspirational figure in social and political sceneries. This man tirelessly fought for oppression and racial discrimination of South Africans. His participations on the antiapartheid rule in South Africa have won him a Nobel Peace Prize, leave alone being the President of South Africa.
The country that was once marked by oppressive tactics is now a figure of freedom in Africa. He led the country to reject colonial rule and one race government, into a rule of the majority and multiracial regime. Tirelessly, Nelson Mandela fought for the respect of human rights and equality whether white or black. (Mandela, 1990, pp. 2-48).
Though Nelson Mandela’s journey was marked with setbacks, epic struggles and strange happenings, the spirit and desire to achieve his visions renewed his hope and determinations, leading to his historical triumphant tribulation. Interestingly, Nelson Mandela grew up in an environment full traditions, cultural worships and social African elegancies.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, as he grew up, it came to his realization that, apartheid rule was dominant, representing the most cantankerous and successive system of oppression and discriminations. South Africans had struggled in vain to reject this system. They feared death as anybody who was going contrary to this system, faced dire consequences including death.
Thus, South Africans, like any Africans during the period of colonialism, had to fight on notwithstanding of threats, in order to end oppression. The deaths had to cease no matter how long it took, so that Africans create their own administration full of African values, freedoms and tranquility.
Apartheid and Oppression Like White people, Africans also needed an environment free of oppression and racial discriminations. Indeed, Nelson Mandela is the founder of freedom in Africa. Over the decades, Africans have been struggling to achieve justice and freedom in all speckles of life. This is the reason why, heroic, self-determined brave men and women who do not fear death through hanging or Police brutality voyaged to hasten and achieve liberation. The pillaging periods of social and national enslavements educated Africans that, they had to fight in order to achieve liberation, and that freedom is necessary for smooth survival and prosperity.
However, people can only win the war through visions and formation of peace units. For example, driven by hunger of justice, the South Africans decided to mould machinery called, African National Congress (ANC), which will act as a spear towards freedom. Among its top leaders, was Nelson Mandela who together with other eminent leaders, decided to lead a generational front of achieving freedom.
The group would stage protest marches as a way of uniting all those who wanted freedom. The white people oppressed South Africans in an unprecedented scale. For example, in order to rule well, Nelson Mandela realized that, the regime had divided the country along racial and ethnic lines, in what many termed, divide and rule system. A particular grouping represented each race or ethnic group. There groups included, the Colored People’s Congress, Communist Part, people from Dutch descendant fell under Afrikaners, South African Congress, and the African National Congress (ANC).
However, these groups thrived under the monarchial White National Party and it actually dictated what these parties did. In addition to social and ethnic segregations, the regime allocated about 87 percent of South African land to white settlers, leaving eight million South Africans to share the remaining 13 percent. In 1912, Mandela joined ANC with a view to quest for freedom. (Richardson, 1978, 185-219).
This party led protests and led mischief to the ‘notorious state laws’ which the regime abrogated to a level of deity. In fact, the regime had even enacted an oppression policy with a mission to achieve their demands. Nevertheless, the South Africans under the umbrella of ANC, decided to brawl on clandestinely, up to the time when they could achieve freedom. The ANC had to defend its members from the oppressive apartheid administration.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Nelson Mandela “Freedom in Africa” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, in order to reach out their conquest of freedom, AFC decided to embark in reactionary violence, silent mass mobilizations to gather numbers, and seeking international attention. Later, Nelson Mandela and the larger AFC leadership unveiled the Nation’s Spear, which used as a motto towards liberation. Moreover, the party decided to incorporate African states. Amid danger and consequences Mandela faced, he vowed to defend his people. (Decalo, 1992, pp. 7-35).
Unluckily, the apartheid regime arrested Nelson Mandela together with his lieutenants and sentenced them, five years in jail. Up to this far, the apartheid regime though that, it had completely shunned Africans from championing their freedom. All the same, later on, this idea came out to be acme of false tranquility, which only lasted in the twinkling of an eye.
At Robben Island where apartheid jailed Mandela and fellow ANC leaders, the leaders were busy developing another plan of action. Although the court found Mandela, the main suspect of leading the quest, contrary to apartheid laws and sentenced him for a longer period, the war on democracy still smelled from far.
In the Rivonia Trial Chambers, apartheid characterized oppression and white supremacy as opposed to black South Africans. The war had just begun; the war between white invincibility and freedom in Africa. In jail, Mandela and his fellow detainees continued to write to other interested civilians and international community, pestering them to force apartheid to release the detainees. (Gready, 1993, pp.489-523).
Demonstrations, Detention and Mass Killings It has never easy for most African counties to achieve freedom, even today; many countries are still languishing in domestic and international oppressions. Though physical white regimes are no more in Africa, the issues of neo-colonialism still hold many African counties ransom to oppression. Mandela and his fellow ANC leaders were fighting to end white man dependency, which is itself oppression. Freedom in Africa meant that, Africans would wholesomely rely on themselves, economically, socially and politically. Perhaps this is the reason why, apartheid continued to abuse the jailers to stop them from heightening their political insinuations.
Interestingly, even some jailed illiterate people, graduated from dungeon cells, ready to defend their rights and freedoms. The student uprising in 1976 climaxed the whole war of freedom in Africa. However, the apartheid tortured civilians and apparently, the voice of the people harkened further and further; no machinery would stop civilian upsurge. Not even, army attacks, repression, sanctions and international seclusion, could stop the militant South Africans whose destination was freedom.
On learning how unstoppable civilian had become, apartheid decided to employ dialogue with Mandela. However, Mandela was not ready to accept the demands of apartheid. Instead, he vowed to oust the adversary of African freedom. The white men oppressed Africans on grounds of protecting their bigotry, cultural ambiguities and privileges. (Meredith, 1998, pp. 261-273).
The apartheid did not allow Africans to vote nor did they have civic rights. Additionally, the white people regime had deprived them land. On the other hand, if an African passed near a white man, he had to take off his hat besides, not stepping where the white man walked. In order to win this war, Africans had to stop regarding themselves along ethnic lines and form a single unit with similar ambitions.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Nelson Mandela “Freedom in Africa” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since the exploitations from apartheid seemed many, the Africans could not bear them any longer. The regime had taken everything helpful in the eyes of an African. Even land, which Africans consider a precious commodity, became rare because; the white settlers occupied the most productive areas leaving unfertile sections to the populous Africans. Poverty administered their lives coupled with inhuman mistreatment from apartheid regime.
Freedom in Africa The hard-won freedom is today the paramount thing in freedom for all African states. For example, many countries in Africa conduct elections to choose their leaders. Africans were fighting to have the right to choose their leaders. In Ghana for example, the county went into an election inviting international observers to oversee the whole exercise whether it respond to the rule of majority. Indeed, the outcome of the exercise indicated how Africans have achieved the freedom to choose their leaders not warranted during colonial periods. In many African states, action dominates key institutions due to the realization of rights and freedoms.
South Africa being a symbol of freedom in Africa had their laws changed by Congress to represent the ill of the people. During the period in which Mandela spent years in prison, Africa was liberating itself from the shackles of colonialism. Instead of the perceived trivialities within Africans, mutual interdependence took place hence; Africans became more united. Mandela, 1990, pp. 76-106).
Nelson Mandela started championing African freedom when he was a young pugilist in 1940’s. Ancient African practices like tribalism, ethnicity and pluralism continued to eat the society slowly. The emergence of the apartheid as the powerful regime in South Africa heightened African differences.
However, Africans had to defeat their adversary not as a divided group, but a single entity. Mandela never believed in ethnicity and pluralism to be the drivers of revolution and African democracy hence; freedom in Africa. As a substitute, Mandela believed in equality of people whether Black, White or Negro. Perhaps this is the reason why he fought tirelessly to work with all South Africans irrespective of their ethnic or tribal backgrounds in the African congress structure (ANC).
The idea of national liberty exhibited by many African states is a clear indication of freedom in Africa and tribute belongs to Nelson Mandela for this beneficial ideology. Even after becoming President, many people around the world expected him to revenge but instead, Mandela continued to press for equality among every person living in South Africa whether Black, White, Jew, Indian or native. it is this particular sensibility that has made Mandela an international figure respected all over the world. (Meredith, 1998, pp. 8-37).
Nelson Mandela championed the freedom of Africans to get sound education. The colonial powers prohibited Africans from attending schools in order to receive education. Moreover, colonial masters denied Africans, the accessibility to information and learning fearing for further opposition of their prejudices and privileges. However, Mandela might have received part of his education during the 27 years he spent in jail. Today, many Africans albeit poverty, attend schools to get education and access information.
Additionally, some African governments offer free basic education to its civilians to create awareness within social, economic and political ladders. For years now, education has been a key figure in uniting Africans who fall in ethnic and racial divides. Nevertheless, the learning of one common language like English has made communication among Africans smooth hence, social development.
Conclusion Today, African counties experience freedoms ranging from civil to political human rights. Democracy that was once a culture of western counties, currently exhibit in many African countries. Although some sub-Saharan counties experience internecine conflicts over resources, dictatorship and stolen elections, democratization is still taking roots in Africa. Nelson Mandela championed freedoms in Africa because, Africans can understand their own problems hence, solve them amicably without relying on western counties.
South Africans fought to obviate oppression hence and instead achieve freedom for all. Nevertheless, African counties need to personify their leadership modalities to avoid domestic feuds like the one experienced in Nigeria and Kenya in the recent times. The road to freedom is not an easy one just like many Africans thought. Just on the way, there are many obstacles like segregation, murder, police extra judicial killings, greed for power and racial segregation. However, with determination, Africans achieved freedom they enjoy today.
Reference List Decalo, S. (1992). The Process, Prospects and Constraints of Democratization in Africa. Journal of African Affairs, 91(362), 7–35.
Gready, P. (1993). Autobiography and the ‘power of writing’: political prison writing in the apartheid era. Journal of Southern African Studies, 19(3), 489-523.
Mandela, N. (1990). No easy walk to freedom. (2nd ed.). Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publishers.
Melber, H. (2006). Where There’s No Fight for It There’s no Freedom. Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 24(2), 261-278.
Meredith, M. (1998). Nelson Mandela. A Biography. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Richardson, H. (1978). Self-determination, International Law and the South African Bantustan Policy. Journal of Transnational Law, 17, 185-219.
Role of Technology in Business and Advertising Essay scholarship essay help
Introduction Today’s technology has advanced to a point where the graphical user and three-dimensional are on use. Unlike the earlier when people had to produce everything practically, the computation skills have amazingly incorporated the touch, voice or click commands. The main aim of most companies is to embrace technological skills, to make the human tasks easier. Arguably, today’s technology requires inventiveness and resourcefulness especially in the advertisement sectors such as use of internet enables resourceful communication and sharing of information. Advancement engagements are however appreciative due to the quality and quantity of output.
General Overview of the Company Star Marketing Agency is an advertising agency with a primary base of business dealings within the Los Angeles County or Orange County Advertising platform. It has a specialty on creation of affordable marketing and advertising campaigns for other growing companies. Most of its capabilities revolve about “branding, web designing, advertisements, and public relations.”
The company has capability to check on strategic plans and build a platform of marketing strategies, come up with approaches for negotiating media contracts and recommend sales support efforts for other companies. “The aim is to eventually create a consistent corporate identity across multiple media platforms” (Jin, 2005).
Overview of the Report This paper forms an analysis of technological effects on Star Marketing and advertisements business dealings. What are the main situational affects of computer technology on business production especially its impact on the marketing and advertising sectors. The analysis also focuses on the intellectual behaviour of people regarding the effects of technological changes to the business settings.
Star Marketing and Advertisement company deals with marketing of businesses through evaluation of developmental problems associated with the business setting. It offers the global approach towards products and services awareness over the usage of computer systems and mobile telephony. What determines business marketing and advertising actions? The company dealings address the issue of utilizing the new and anticipated computerized knowledge or electronic skills in advertising.
The use of Internet for Business Information Management/Systems Star Marketing and Advertising Agency focuses on the issues of technology in businesses and advertising. According to Kalakota and Robinson’s definition (2002), “advertising is distribution of any kind of message or promotion that adds value to the customer, while enhancing revenue for the firm.”
The electronic advertisement entails advertising through electronic billboards as a way of ensuring clients know existence of the business and its seriousness. Electronic billboards have great impact and the message rarely fails to address the intended meaning. The other method is the mobile advertisement that is at its vast edges of growth among many users.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The use of Business Information Management/System In a close link to Star Marketing Agency, the right marketing occurs in the presence of passion, experience, knowledge, vision and curiosity. As a firm that is concern with raising other firms to a competitive level by marketing and enhancing promotion of the products, the company is not the typical business-advertising agency that fits the needs of a specific company. The transactions styles enhances capabilities to approach the marketing challenges from different point of views and employ a wide range of disciplines such as branding, print advertising, promotions, and building collaterals among others.
According to Jin (2005), today it is not wise to confine marketing strategies to the television, radio or print media, the options are quite diverse. The biggest question many people ask regards the effect of technology on advertising especially for the already known products. How would technology enhance advertising when there are already millions of personal views, pod casts and wide direct connections with production companies?
Knowledge Management Systems One prominent impact of the internet technology is on the creation of a democratic media. The broadcast is international and free, and according to Jin (2005), the highly recognized advertisement sites need to allow personal perspectives and make the aspect of internet publishing easy and accessible to majority without the need for technical knowledge. The available tools ought to promote democracy for the macro-media such as web-blogs, video casts, wikis and pod casts.
The universal knowledge behind the current technological tools enhances knowledge transmission by allowing direct and literal subscription of contents such as the Rich Site Summary (RSS) feed facility, which allows automatic syndication of text, audio or visual data to subscribers. Most of these adopted RSS allow people to publish and update news feeds on the internet. In a close link to Jin’s writing (2005), today people are no longer mare consumers but producers as well because of the ability to produce and share data.
Risk Management Influences of the social aspects on advertising
The word of mouth especially from someone who is known or trustworthy remains as the best style of advertisement since time in memorial. Compensating the comments by use of advertisements is almost impossible. This form of advertising has come back in form of the internet-based forums on the sites that allow users to place personal comments or requests.
Just like the earlier tittle-tattle conversations, the web sites enjoy incorporation into the databases of common search engines like Google thus becoming recognizable as important sources of information. Many of these real-time comments posted by consumers are enough evidence that the word of mouth is back on a supercharged format.
Professionals would argue that the greatest influence to buying patterns fall upon the brand of the product but the impact of the real-time comments is higher. Majority of the conceivable customers like to base their decisions on the rational world. Internet advertising means that every strength and flaw is available, for instance, if one wanted to acquire a car, it is possible to find some models, their reviews, pricing and the comments some people have over the car.
We will write a custom Essay on Role of Technology in Business and Advertising specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A willing buyer would want to know what the other person who has experience of the product has to say and pessimistic comments would definitely affect negatively on the sales. Brand building is not the only big influence in today’s advertising territory, as experts would claim. The comments do not create the brand but have great damages in this hyperactively connected world.
The hyperactive connected world phenomenon might be quite new in the advertising industry, but evidently as Star Marketing Agency indicates, the errors committed by companies or its representatives get instant communication today among consumers and may have huge impacts to the business. This is an indication of the power of the electronic billboards, search engines and thus the need for information technology in the advertisement industries.
Today the companies can be able to use the comment related sites to feature available goods or services, find and resolve problems involving common sales. Before embracement of technology, the foundations for most advertisement were supporting ‘information asymmetry’ phenomenon (Levitt and Dubner, 2006). Most company fails to reveal truthful information because of aims for easy influences to target groups or change on negative public perception as a strategy of influencing the market.
The companies whose products experienced market inferiority complex utilize the strategy as well. The effect of such advertisement campaign on the hyperactive connected markets would face zero-rating by the fact that the consumers have knowledge and expertise to tap information from the huge base of consumer comments. The clients have the ability to know any inferiority complexes facing some products in the market even in good time. The connecting technologies have enhanced information symmetries.
In line with Levitt and Dubner (2006), the connected clients do not face high advertisements influences in comparison to their unconnected counterparts. Technology leaves no room for advertisement lies thus promoting fair transparent communication. There is enough information access and thus consumers can enjoy fair judgement over advertisement campaigns and invalidate the questionable ones whenever they find the need to (Levitt and Dubner, 2006).
The new advertisement language
The commercial massages are no longer in use today, in a close link to Star Marketing Agencies, clients want the great life comments from experiences that fellow consumers have had with particular services or goods. They prefer reading information from the company’s site as opposed to basing their judgements on commercial advertisements through the media. The mobile technology enables the client to connect at free will and reach out for third person’s opinion or find some technical information to make good decisions.
Customers wish to talk to the companies other than getting information through the traditional advertisements thus the need to adopt a technologically based language. This calls for the need to use advertising as a tool for conversing with the micro targets as opposed to the large target groups. The consumer/company relationship overrules the possibility of faking the information regarding advertisements. With this kind of system, it is also easy to identify faking of comments posted among internet users.
Personification cannot workout in the new advertising mechanisms of “blogging”. Arguably, the internet commenting technology takes the natural human tone of communication. Detection of fraudsters by users can easily occur owing to the concept in unique styles of the chat rooms.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Role of Technology in Business and Advertising by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Systems Developments The mobile telephony industry is under constant and effective growth to enable clients to have their personal opinions. It utilizes transmission of audio data, short messaging texts (SMS), e-mails, the multimedia messages texts, picture messages and broadcasting services (Tahtinen and Salo, 2004).
Mobile governance in businesses involves the extension of concepts of governing to deliverance of information, goods or services to the clients in a civilized and personalised manner (Tahtinen and Salo, 2004). The advancement of technology influences the way information is accessible as well as the point of origin. The mobile commerce is a concept that has improved widely in reference to distribution of text or multimedia messages in the aim of enhancing business activities (Barnes and Scornavacca, 2004).
The cell phones industry currently takes control of the information transfer field with ease because of the low and fundamental initial setup costs involved. The user experience and business models especially in developing countries remain a big hindrance to its full adoption. The various methods of mobile advertising such as the “WAP banners and the event oriented” texts fail to meet the satisfaction because they lack enough advertisers confidence as well as the creativity required to capture client’s attention.
The unyielding problems relates to usability, dissatisfaction of the consumer and lack of flexibility or longevity in usage of wireless data advertisement. The technology thus only captures certain corporate users or market niche such as the high-income earners and mobile technology professional with the ability to meet the premium fees (Barnes and Scornavacca, 2004).
Risk Management With regard to the above-mentioned perceptions, the new and advanced electronic communication styles of advertising in the business industries have huge and negative influences to the older generations mainly due to the generation differences. There has been so much revolution on the way communication is today.
It is under high performance to a point that the youth have the ability to consume news twice as fast as the creating or publishing speed. Although the older generations are regaining their long lost trust over the use of the web for advertising at a remarkable speed in the aim of catching up with the rest, most of them are not yet able to get closest to the current internet bubble.
Determinants of business marketing and advertising actions
The talks about brands and products mean that companies ought to participate through partnership with the advertisement industries. The conversations are the today’s determinants of sales, thus the need for the companies to engage in these procedures of incorporating the micro media in the marketing plans. Most companies are able to monitor the customers’ comments and requests though the search engines (Barnes and Scornavacca, 2004).
The technology offers a system where a customer’s complain gets a solution from the company through a response in real time before the issue gets out of hand. Such interaction enables brand relations between the micro media enterprises and the company due to the connections by the advertising agencies. Useful insights are also achievable to offer the real-time feedback over a product and its reputation in the market. The advertising agents can then be in a position to know where products transformations or requirements are important.
They offer advice over the issues of decision making over active or passive participation in advertising. If taken in the right procedure, “Blogging” is an interesting part of advertising because it assists the company to create a closer relationship with the consumer thus has a better understanding of the needs and requirements (Levitt and Dubner, 2006). It offers the client the opportunity to build a rapport with the company and enhances transparency and honesty. The action a business decides to take requires influence of the agent, who must have studied the consumer comments in adherence to technology.
Change Management Instead of the earlier conception of trying to find ways of expanding business via the internet with the sole aim of making profit, business are now engaging the popular styles of utilizing agencies to share information and connect potential clients. The business ideas are now more eminent as opposed to business models.
The internet has now become a social facility where people can read, add, write, change and even consult the web page authors. The search of any micro media information is equally a common and efficient scenario. A huge group of people are virtually able to work together. This are the system that support the users view over the use of information and how it helps to review and rate information in order to be in a position of making proper decisions.
Utilizing the future expectations The future of electronic advertising has its basis on the broadband of the mobile devices, such as phones. This is an opposition to the current static web technology on the mobile devices such as laptops or palmtops. The aim is to make the geographical contextual information easy and possible through the mobile advertising that covers a wider geographical context. The level of delivery also changes to a point of an online delivery where the users have access to most recent news. Advertising depends on the public driven macro media.
Summary Although dependent on the political decisions regarding privacy issues, the advertising industries anticipate a state where, the future advertisements will have a strong geographical and technological awareness. Today it is eminent that the role of computers has a huge impact on every person.
Computerisation has taken over majority of the societal roles and has greatly improved lives. The most advanced machines include the intelligent systems that have the ability to control other manual machines. Today the manufacture industries use computer procedures and information fed to the processing systems to give out the desired output. The battle with technology is dynamic and a continuous process expected to bring about new challenges every day.
This mainly influences on the marketing and advertising department is very vibrant due to the stable anticipated creativity. The society is dependent of technology today and having the computers in the workplace, homes and at hand enables effectiveness, and efficiency required for better and all round businesses. The computers cuts down on the production costs and time since there
References Barnes, S.J, and Scornavacca E. (2004). Mobile marketing: the role of permission and Acceptance. International Journal of Mobile Communication. Vol. 2. No. 2, 128-139. New Zealand: Inderscience Publishers
Jin, Z. (2005). Global technological change: From hard technology to soft technology. Bristol, United Kingdom, UK: Intellect Books publishers
Kalakota, R. and Robinson M. (2002). M-business: The Race to Mobility, New York. NY: McGraw-Hill.
Levitt, S. D. and Dubner, S. J. (2006) Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything. New York, NY: HarperLargePrint Publishers.
Tahtinen, J. and Salo, J. (2004). Special features of Mobile Advertising and their Utilization. University of Murcia, Spain: Proceedings of the 33rd EMAC Conference.