Rainbow And Its Various Aspects Research Paper Online Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

Causes and Formation

Types of Rainbows

General Facts In Regard To a Rainbow

Works Cited

Introduction A rainbow can be defined as an arch of colors that is usually formed in the sky under certain circumstances. The main cause of the formation of rainbow is the refraction and dispersion of the sun light which occur in the event of rainfall or any other form of moisture that could be present in the atmosphere. The seven colors in a rainbow are identified as violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange and red although these are those that are visible with many others that are not.

Rainbows are known to take many forms for instance red bows, twinned bows, dark bands, colored fringes, spokes, bows that cross among others depending on the circumstances under which they are formed. This piece of work gives an investigation of the various aspects associated with a rainbow for instance how it is formed and the causes of its formation as well as the various forms of rainbows.

Causes and Formation Rainbows are familiar among various people in the universe since they can easily observe it but the underlying principles behind its causes and formation still remain unclear. According to Oblack (2011, par 1), a rainbow is formed through the interaction of sunlight and moisture in the atmosphere.

The sunlight is usually made up of various colors and water in the atmosphere for example rain droplets act like a prism through which the sun rays are refracted so that the various colors ( red, yellow, indigo, violet, orange, blue and green among others) of the sunlight can been displayed as a rainbow.

We can, therefore, say that rainbows are caused by the ripping of white sunlight into its constituent colors which is made possible by the raindrops. The water droplets acts as a prism which is responsible for the refraction and reflection processes that are necessary for the formation of the rainbow or rather the display of the various colors contained therein.

Types of Rainbows According to Oblack (2008 par 3), there are various types of rainbows for example primary rainbows, secondary rainbows, glory clouds and the supernumerary rainbows. Primary rainbows form at the core with the red color being the outermost in the primary bow while the others are within. The bow is usually very shiny. The secondary (rainbow) on the other hand is reasonably fainter (as compared to the primary rainbow) owing to the second reflection and emerges outside the primary one.

This type of rainbow is formed when sunlight undergoes two reflections as it hits the water droplets as opposed to one reflection as it is the case in the formation of the primary rainbow. The glory cloud develops when the sunlight enters a cloud which contains water droplets of relatively the same size. The glory cloud is usually opposite the sun, that is, at the Anti solar point. The anti solar point is the point that is directly opposite the sun as one can view it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It can be said in simple terms to be the line that seems to connect the sun, the observer and the specific location of the glory cloud. The supernumerary rainbows are formed as a result of interference of the sunlight where it is forced to go through different paths in a water droplet which explains the wave nature of light (Walker 429)

These different types of rainbows can then be divided into other general forms of rainbows for example reflection rainbows which are usually formed as a result of reflection of the source of light which is principally the sun. A reflection rainbow is a blend of two divergent rainbows which result from light coming from the sun and its reflected image.

Lunar rainbow on the other hand is formed as a result of the moon’s refraction as opposed to the sun. This is possible when there is the presence of a full moon since it is usually bright enough and its light can be refracted by the water droplets. The lunar rainbow is nonetheless dim than solar rainbow because the light involved is also not as bright as that of the sun.

A double rainbow is completed when raindrops reflect the sunlight inwardly making it probable for us to see a dark band right between the bows. A secondary rainbow is usually seen on the outer part of the primary bow and it entails two reflections. The second reflection is particularly in charge of the inversion of the colors of a (secondary) rainbow as opposed to the primary bow.

There is also another form of rare rainbow by the name, monochrome rainbow. This is rarely experienced and it is formed when there is a shower mainly during the sunrise or sunset when the sun rays are not very hot. In such a time the spectrum is not usually full and the shorter wavelengths are usually absent or scattered making the rainbow appear quite different as compared to when the sun is still very hot.

The fact that the spectrum is not usually full when the monochrome rainbow appears is not a justification that these types of rainbows appear under the moonlight. This is because rainbows under moonlight appear in the presence of a full spectrum but they seem to be white in color due to our inability to see the colors clearly (The National Center for Atmospheric Research par 12).

General Facts In Regard To a Rainbow It is argued that for an individual to view a rainbow there must be the presence of both the sun and moisture in the atmosphere. One also has to be at an angle of approximately 42 degrees to view it clearly. A rainbow is not located at a particular position in the sky as many people may think but rather its position is dependent upon some factors for instance the sun’s position at a particular time and the viewer’s location. It is made of more than the seven colors we see and the colors are also seen differently by different people.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Rainbow and Its Various Aspects specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The rainbow appears in the opposite direction in respect to the sun in regard to the viewer’s perspective with the core part of the rainbow appearing to be brighter as compared to the external areas of the rainbow.

Rainbows formation is made possible due to the geometry of raindrops and it follows that the sun usually shine from behind us and its rays enter the raindrops where they are refracted inwards then reflected from the raindrop and finally refracted from it coming back to the viewer’s eyes. For there to be a rainbow formation, the sunbeams are refracted as it goes into the surface of a water droplet then reflected to the back of the droplet and finally refracted in the event of leaving the droplet.

This causes reflection of the incoming sunlight over various angles to a maximum of around 42 degrees depending on aspects like the size of the droplet and the refractive index which is different in different waters. The rainbow colors are in the shape of a circle but as we observe it we just see part of the circle due to the long distance hence the arch shape (Anonymous 1).

Rainbows are perceived differently with many myths being formulated in regard to their presence. It is associated with various cultural and religious aspects depending on various societies and their beliefs. It has for example been considered in Greek to be the trail that was made between the earth and heaven by Iris, a messenger.

The people of China on the other hand had for a long time believed that a rainbow stood for an incision in the sky which had been closed up by a goddess employing stones that were of diverse colors. Some of these myths have been proven wrong as research has advanced and people have been able to gain a clear understanding of various aspects of rainbows (Supriya 2).

The aspect of rainbows have been studied for a very long time especially while studying other aspects of reflection and refraction but it is evident that people still know little about the underlying concepts of the rainbows for instance causes and even the circumstances through which they are formed.

Works Cited Anonymous. “What causes a rainbow?” Howstuffworks, 2011. Web.

Oblack, Rachelle. “Glory Clouds’. About.com, 2008. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Rainbow and Its Various Aspects by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Oblack, Rachelle. “Rainbows”. About.com. 2011. Web.

The National Center for Atmospheric Research. “About Rainbows.” Ucar, 2011. Web.

Supriya, Sharon. “Interesting Myths and Facts about the Rainbow”. Oneindia, 2008. Web.

Walker, Jearl. Multiple Rainbows from a Single Drop of Water and Other Liquids. American Journal of Physics Vol. 44, No. 5, pages 421-433 1976.


The Concept of Photons Research Paper essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Origin of photons

Lifecycle of the photon

Characteristics of photon

Uses of photon


Works Cited

Introduction A photon can be defined as a particle or unit that represents a quantum of electromagnetic radiation for example light. It usually contains energy that is proportional to the radiation frequency. A photon is always in motion with a constant speed of light which is approximately 2.998* 108 m/s whenever there is no form of resistance.

Photons are usually formed in a number of ways, for instance, we can get a photon via the progression of an electron (in an atom) discharging energy which is reached when the particular electron moves to a somewhat lesser orbit around a nucleus. Another way in which a photon could be created is through an acceleration of a given charge (Anato, Moskalenko and Snoke 1). This paper gives an in depth discussion in regard to photons including their origin, their lifecycle, their characteristics as well as their uses.

Origin of photons The origin of photons can be traced back in the early twentieth century. Lewis Gilbert is associated with photons as he was responsible for bringing out the various concepts of photons in 1926 although the general concept of light had been there for a long time. There had been a belief that light is usually made up of some form of energy even in the ancient times which can be seen in the book of Optics which was published long time ago.

This was true but people did not have the understanding of the photons concept and the fact that they were the ones responsible for the production of energy. During the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries, people had gained a lot of interest on the aspect of light and a variety of theories were developed in order to understand the key factors underlying it for instance the wavelength and refraction characteristics associated with other particles like the protons.

It was in the beginning of the twentieth century that the discovery of photons came about raising a lot of concern among people. Various studies have been carried out since then in regard to photons leading to many discoveries with the most recent one being that of the laser which have been proved to be very effective in various fields and procedures like X-rays (Bortz 28).

Lifecycle of the photon Just like a living organism, a photon undergoes t some processes during its entire lifetime (formation, living and death) and the processes can be termed as the lifecycle. A photon has a relatively long life span and could be even infinite unless the light energy in it is consumed, for example, when a photon strikes an object that is likely to absorb it.

The determination of the lifecycle of a photon is an aspect that has proved to be very difficult unlike that of other particles like atoms, ions and electrons. This is due to the fact that in most cases, photons tend to be destroyed once they are detected due to the risks linked with them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique (par 2), the determination of the life cycle has been made possible through a technique where photons are trapped in a superconducting cavity for study. This way, it was a bit easier to study in real time the birth, the life as well as the death of a single photon whose result could be taken as a representative whole.

Anato, Moskalenko and Snoke (3) assert that the emission of a photon could be as a result of excitons which usually have a finite probability for an excited electron to reunite with the whole hence the emission of a photon.

The life cycle for an exciton could be described as follows; there is usually an exciton which is formed as a result of absorption of a photon, the exciton then passes through a solid whereby scattering process is experienced and finally the exciton recombines to emit a photon which usually take place far from the creation point, at some area in the solid.

The lifetime of the exciton is not constant but rather dependent on some factors, for instance, the proportions of the recombination processes and the experimental conditions among other factors. According to the above factors it is argued that the lifetime can range from picoseconds to milliseconds or even longer. All in all much have not been discovered in regard to the life cycle of photons although there is still hope that with time a definite conclusion will be reached.

Characteristics of photon Photons have a wide range of characteristics and the following are just some of them according to the photon theory of light. According to Zimmerman (2), photons have no mass and resting energy an aspect that sounds not to be realistic but it is proven to be true. Photons however have momentum and energy at the antinodes which is responsible for taking on mass from energy expansion.

This is unlike other particles (like neutrons) that always have a small amount of accumulation under all circumstances. They also move at the speed of light which is 2.998* 108 m/s. Another unique characteristic of photons is that they can either be destroyed or formed when either radiation is absorbed or else emitted.

Photons are also known to have various particle related interactions with electrons and other particles. They do not contain any electric charge whereas all other related particles have an electric charge. For example, neutrons are neutral, protons are positive and electrons are negative. They are generally the smallest measure of light and are able to exist in all possible states concurrently.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Concept of Photons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another characteristic unique to photons is that once they are polarized, it becomes very difficult to measure them precisely and it would call for the use of a filter, which is exactly equivalent to that produced by their current spin. They are also emitted through a variety of natural processes and do not decay instinctively in empty space. Apart from the above characteristics, photons posses a distinctive wavelength and a specific state of polarization which is absent in other particles (Clark par. 4)

Uses of photon Photons have become very essential tools in regard to technology today. They have for instance found their application in various technological devices that either create or produce light as a mechanism of their usability for instance camera flash or even flashlight. This is because the photons are created and manipulated to provide the energy needed for these devices to function.

It is the mechanism and working of photons that has enabled individuals through the use of technology to capture and create light energy in a number of productive ways necessary for various developmental processes (Akkermans and Montambaux 12). Photons have found various applications in the different fields of life like X-rays in medicine, construction sector, weaponry and even electronics.

This has been made possible due to the use of the photons to produce lasers which have various uses in different fields. Despite the benefits associated with photons, there are also some risk factors that come along with handling photons and so people should be more careful on this to avoid injuries. This is so because some photons could be dangerous due to the amount of energy they possess which is dependent on their patterns as well as their wavelength (Orkwell 4).

Conclusion The concept of photons is not very new although most discoveries have only been made recently. All in all, it has helped a great deal through its various applications especially in medicine and electronics. Photons have been able to stand out distinctively among other particles like the protons, electrons and neutrons due to the unique characteristics they posses.

We can also state that photons in the form of energy are usually infinitely small just as it is the case, infinitely large. Matter as finite energy is also considered as an intermediary as well as part of infinite energy. The future of photons is bright as there are still other discoveries on the way with an aim of bringing even more improvements in various sectors of the economy.

Works Cited Akkermans, Eric and Montambaux, Gilles. Mesoscopic physics of electrons and photons. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Anato Sviatoslav, Moskalenko Evich and Snoke D.W. Bose-Einstein Condensation of Excitons and Biexcitons: and Coherent Nonlinear Optics with Excitons. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Concept of Photons by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bortz, Alfred .The Photon. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2004.

Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique. “Life And Death Of A Photon ‘Filmed’ For The First Time.” Science Daily, 2 Apr. 2007. April 14, 2011.

Clark, Josh. “How Quantum Cryptology Works”. Howstuffworks. 2011. Web.

Orkwell, Mark. “About Photons”. Ehow. 2011. Web.

Zimmerman, Jones Andrew. “What is a Photon?” About.com. 2011. Web.


Economical Significance of the Lowell Mills Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction Preamble

At the zenith of the 19th century, America was advancing promptly as an industrial nation. The growth in industrialization spurred innumerable changes in both social and economic spheres. Factories hastily replaced the agrarian era which had dominated the economics for long. In New England textile mills honing all sorts of cloth fabrication processes were undertaken beginning from weaving to shipping; these processes were centralized in one locality for ease in management and cost efficiency (Evans 24).

The preferred labor forces in these factories were women, who became the leading operatives owing to their innate sowing skills. Moreover, it was believed that textile work was easy hence suitable for women and at the same time serving to minimize idleness on young girls.

Lowell, based in Massachusetts was the primary hub for textile manufacturing; for the period spanning 1820 to 1850; it provided young girls of New England with the panorama for economic prospect and personal growth (Robinson 67).

This in essence was a very unique opportunity to that era, because women were supposed to play the passive role of helping with house chores but not to go in pursuit of jobs and employment. The women working in these mills were termed as female operatives but described themselves as mills girls asserting their dignity as factory workers (Nancy 102).


In the year 1821, the Boston Associates bought a land located at Pawtucket Canal located north of the city of Boston, Massachusetts (Dubblin 72). After building several imposing structures, they put up numerous textile mills and widened the canal for water supply to enhance power tapping (Nancy 99). The first mills commenced work in the year 1823 and extra mills were added to the industry for the next twenty five years.

Several years later, in 1848 Lowell won the accolade of the leading industrial center in America, since the mills were able to produce capacity of up to fifty thousand miles of cotton annually. The associates required a hefty work force to cater for its busy mills, explaining their decision to employ young women who were otherwise idle and obtainable (Faragher and Mari 52). The enlisted girls in the labor force were excerpted from New England farms, Lowell was known around the globe for its inventive solution.

These young girls, expressing themselves daughters of Yankee farmers were persuaded to take up the jobs by the prospect of making their own money and supporting their families. In the factory facility they were offered monthly wages, job opportunities and boarding facilities. This led to massive exodus of young girls into the big city to pursue economic acumen, where they worked tirelessly for six days, twelve hours a day. Later as they got acquainted with each other they protested the harsh working conditions and the long labor periods.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The young girls became acutely aware of their rights and later protested against the associates who seemed to overwork and under pay them. Terming themselves as daughters of freemen they refused to be trampled on with impunity (Robinson 78). In spite of the harsh working conditions, women persevered and worked for the associates for a long time. Later in the nineteenth century, women formed a two-third of the overall labor force as immigrant women joined them to bloat the industry.

Historical Context In the early years of 19th century, a woman working in a factory was unheard of, so when the Lowell mills announced job offers for young women it was broached with uttermost dissension. Nevertheless, the job offer was accompanied with an enticing package which compelled young girls to leave comforts of their homes to earn extra income to support the poor families.

Lowell mills associated structured a good working milieu ensuring that girls had three mills per day together with boarding facilities, not forgetting the monthly remunerations. To beguile more of the young girls into working, they promised that job opportunities would abase idleness until the girls were ready for marriage.

Mill life was exceedingly daunting at first, the girls followed stringent working schedules marked by the ringing of bells. The company expected the girls to observe time, follow company rules and attend church services(Kessler 144).

The culture of New England in the beginning of the 19th century groomed young girls and women to be meek, decent, and familial. Therefore Lowell mills associates had an added advantage in convincing parents that working in their factories would afford their daughters the most ideal environment to enhance the most treasured attributes of the society.

Francis Cabot Lowell adapted an excellent idea on how to use the girls as laborers at the same time sharpening their personal dispositions (Robinson 58). Their boarding houses were kept and managed by morally accurate old woman who guided and instilled good morals into the young girls. The activities in the boarding facilities wee equally regulated including the sleeping time and the prerequisite that all the girls attended church service.

Lowell ensured that the supervisors and overseers at work places were morally straight and could be entrusted with young girls. There was a strict regulation which segregated the girls from the other male workers, except the supervisors owing to the cultural precepts of the time. One of the requirement for all the girls enlisted for work in the mills was good moral conduct, there was no room for immorality as this would foul the reputation of the industry.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Economical Significance of the Lowell Mills specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Perspectives Communal Changes Spurred By Lowell Mills Girls

The girls working for the mills afforded the Lowell Mills associates with glut of their skill and labor a factor which caused the industry to blossom to be the most productive textile industry in America by the year 1948 (Dublin 87). Not only were the finished products sold locally, they were also exported for foreign trade a factor which enhanced higher profits and growth on the industry.

The employment opportunity offered the young girls many opportunities for self improvement and learning since the mill afforded them well equipped libraries for reading and debating clubs for equipping them with insightful knowledge. The knowledge acquisition helped to increase the level of literacy amongst girls increasing the living standards in the society.

The mills had a magazine ran and operated by the workers of the company which gave the girls a platform to express their voices and views. And when they had a revolt against working schedules and wages, they brought fellow women folk into a higher realm where rights of workers and women are respected (Evans 45).

The young girls, who lived together in boarding facilities, had time for discussions and deliberated on existing events such as anti-slavery and Mexican war and this opened up their minds to the world shoring their sophistication and ability to blend with the external world.

Even though the working conditions at Lowell Mills were harsh, the young girls garnered satisfaction from their work since they were independent and in a position to own their income. The money earned as wages was mostly utilized to support families and for self improvement.

As a result of this the poor Yankees were able to improve their lives and change their lifestyles. In comparison to other positions available for women, these jobs were highly paid and this allowed women to be economically independent a factor which not only changed their mind sets but also changed the societal perceptions on the girl child.

Societal Impact on Lowell Mills Girls

Working at a Lowell textile mill gave young girls chance to explore their skills and abilities as they earned income. With it came financial independence and liberation from male chauvinistic society which had deemed girls as worthless in the labor world.

Faragher and Mari point out that women became a significance in the political economy (112) Women were empowered to soar and discover their potentials since the wages earned were utilized by many workers to further their education. For the period spanning 1830-1832 free schools were established in Lowell and any girls from the villages had an opportunity to better their educations and pursue other better paying professions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Economical Significance of the Lowell Mills by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Even though many operative at Lowell mills did not hold fond memories of the experiences, many admitted that it aided them in achievement of their life goals. Mill work was never permanent but it was a gratifying step between the workers rural past and middle class anticipated future (Faragher and Mari 215).

Many girls who had the real goal to marry were able to amass money for their dowries, as Francis Lowell once said, the employment opportunities made girls good wives and mothers. As Kessler established eight five percent of the girls were married immediately after leaving the mills and they had ascended from the lower class, since farmers daughters opted not to marry farmers but sought for middle class men and settled in towns(96).

Analysis and Summary

The textile mills at Massachusetts advanced astonishing productivity of power driven equipment. The most interesting precept of this blooming industry was the enlisting of women as the key laborers a factor incongruent with the societal tenets of that era. The newness on machinery and women workers who were highly effective causes Lowell mills to be illustrious, standing in sharp contrast to the gloomy bigoted social culture which had inhibited the girl child from exploring her potentials.

For many women who worked at the mills, the working opportunities were frail for they were within the limits of imposed textile corporation (Nancy 132). The control exerted on the workers was resented though it is believed that, control enhanced productivity and excellence.

The mills were mainly controlled by men who were very keen on the morality and social conduct of their employees. The pre-industrial tradition of self-rule and autonomy made the management of the Lowell mills to be sensitive to the management policies a factor which enabled them to transform the lives of young girls at the same time garnering massive profits.

Conclusion The experiences of Lowell women depict a paradoxical picture on the impact of industrial capitalism Labor protests, clearly illustrated the dissatisfying labor regulations and wages on the part of the employees. However, the Lowell mills offer the much needed opportunity for women to grow and change their lives and goals. In nutshell, Lowell mills both subjugated and enlightened women in ways unfamiliar to the reindustrialize opinionated economy.

Works Cited Dublin, Tom. “Women Transformation at Work Place.” New York: Cornell University Press, 2001. Print.

Evans, Sylvia. “Born for Liberty.” New York: The Free Press, 1996. Print.

Kessler, Alice. “Out to Work, Women Perspective.” New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.Print

Robinson, Loom. “Women at Work Place.” HI: Press Pacifica, 1992. Print.

Nancy, Woloch. “The American Experience and Women at Work.” New York: The McGraw-Hill Inc. 2004. Print

Faragher, John and Mari, Buhle. “Out of many (6th Edition).” New York: Prentice Hall. 2008. Print.


Concept and History of the Lasers Usage Research Paper college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Uses of Lasers


How to make holograms

Applications of Holograms

Reference List

Introduction Laser is a name that is derived from Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Laser machines usually give out light in that is in form of electromagnetic radiation via a process called optical amplification that uses simulated emitted photons.

The emitted lasers contain an elevated level of spatial and temporal coherence that are very hard to get when using majority of the present forms of technology. Laser beams can be directed towards very minute objects, because of their ability to gain high irradiance powers. A laser is made up of a gain medium, which is put inside a high reflective optical cavity and a source of energy for the gain medium that must have the ability to amplify light by stimulated emission.

The gain medium takes up pumped energy that is used to increase the quantum energy of electrons. An increase in the amount of particles in a specific excited state will lead to population inversion; hence, light amplification, when such numbers are above the quantity of particles in lower energy states.

This is caused by the large amount of stimulated emission that will pass through an object as compared to the amount of energy that is absorbed. The amplification of light will result in the development of an optical amplifier, which may develop into a laser, in case it is put in a resonant optical cavity. Lasers normally function in two primary modes namely uninterrupted or pulsed mode.

These two modes depend on the method in which power required to energize the formed lasers is supplied. In most scenarios, lasers are called continuous waves when they show signs of maintaining power stability over long durations of time and the high power frequency has minimal effects on the intended application (Slusher, 1999, pp. 71-79).

Uses of Lasers One primary use of lasers is in optical research and education laboratories. For example, since the invention of the Helium-Neon gas laser, there has been numerous discoveries on the use of discharges to amplify light consistently. This type of laser has the ability of operating under different wavelengths; hence, the vast number of educational researches that are associated with it. Secondly, lasers find wide application in industries more so for cutting and welding.

As a result of the ability of Carbon dioxide lasers to give out high quantities of energy at a go, this energy can be used to cut heavy metals faster, as compared to most traditional methods. Moreover, some manufacturing and processing plants use laser interferometers to ascertain distances and displacements, more in areas of heavy machinery. Additionally, lasers play a central role when it comes to classifying varying species of chemicals and ascertaining the development most chemical processes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is possible because lasers have the power to energize molecules to a fluorescing point. Lasers also find wide application in grocery shops, more so supermarkets in barcode scanners to identify goods. This has greatly enhanced operations in supermarkets, because they help to provide all the details of goods by just passing the bar code reader across the bar codes that are normally embedded on goods.

In medicine, lasers are very useful in surgery. Primary applications of lasers in this field include the use of lasers as hot scalpels for cutting tissues, in LASIK eye surgery, in the treatment of glaucoma and macular degeneration, and during the removal of birthmarks and tattoos. Lasers can also be applied in some medical procedures such treating of kidney stones and during the process of angioplasty.

On the other hand, Lasers are also important in most military operations. High-power lasers are normally used as defense tools when it comes to attacking enemies in most deadly missions that require the use of range finders and detonation of bombs and missiles in definite areas. In addition, there is a wide use of lasers in military communications systems, to give clear communications, more so when in enemy zones (Hecht, Ewing,


The role of the church in the life of the middle ages Essay essay help free: essay help free

During the medieval times, the church was a dominant phenomenon that exercised control over almost all realms of life in the western world. The church had control over politics, forming one of the greatest beneficiaries of taxes. It was also actively involved in educational matters, controlling educational institutions and the ideas of philosophy.

As expected, it was the one which came up with ideas related to religion and morals in the society. The church was thus an inseparable part of the medieval times, and anyone researching the history of the middle ages, must come across the role played by the church during this time. This paper is an in-depth investigation of the role played by the church in the middle ages.

As stated in the introduction, the medieval church played an active role in the government of the medieval times. Literally, the government ruled together with the church. Church leaders like Bishops and Abbots were normally the ones assigned the roles of reading for the King.

They also performed writing functions for the King, often being given the positions of Vassals. Priests were appointed by the lord in their locality, and thus they, in a way, served their appointing authorities. Christians were also involved in a number of fights over territories. These fights led to the creation of Christian kingdoms in lands that were previously occupied by Muslims and other religions. These fights were known as the Crusades (Hinds 97).

During this time, the church also set up a court that could hear a variety of cases, and the church had laws that governed the conduct of the peoples. This court was known as the inquisition. The church also required all peasants to pay taxes for its support, and in return, it offered guidance to eternal life. The church enjoyed its power for almost 1000 years. It even remained after the Roman Empire collapsed.

In the medieval times, the church played a great role in the social lives of the people. For instance, the Pope was bestowed with the power to excommunicate any member of the church, who went against it.

It was believed that the Roman Catholic Church, which dominated Europe, and had a lot of power and influence, was the determining factor of what happened to a person during his life, and even after death. Due to the power that the church enjoyed, it became corrupt in aspects like marriage, jobs, and other opportunities that it oversaw. This substantially affected the morals of the medieval society, and the trust that the people had in the church.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the aforementioned fights, the European people had a lot to learn from their rivals. Some of the commendable happenings of the aftermath of the crusades, and that can be attributed to the crusades include lessons about mathematics, foods, astronomy, silk, paper and even medicine.

The European people also learnt about silk and its uses (Sedivy 1). This interaction of the European people with their rivals can thus be credited with introducing formal education to the European people. This is because previously educational activities were carried out in the church, as followers were taught about the doctrines of the Catholic Church. In actual fact, a child started serving God immediately after birth and thus children leant a lot of things from the church.

The medieval church played an active role in the economic activities of the society during the middle ages. A big proportion of the livestock that existed at the time was the property of the church. The church also owned large parcels of land, which it utilized for a variety of economic activities.

Although the tithe can be regarded as a political tax because it was mandatory, it had a myriad of economic effects. Peasants were supposed to give one tenths of their crops and animal products (Arnold 1). Parish churches helped in the growth of towns since the churches were situated in places where most people carried out their activities.

As evidenced by the discussion above, the medieval church had a lot of roles in the society. One of the roles that the church played, and that stand out in historical books, is the role of the church in politics. Although the church was involved in general administration, it acted like an overseer of the political class, and thus it benefited immensely from political revenue.

The church also played key roles in education and the economic dynamics of the medieval time. For instance, the church was the one that introduced education to then people, and it was a central figure in economic activities because it owned vast wealth, and controlled portions of proceeds belonging to peasants.

Works Cited Arnold, Jack. “The Roman Catholic Church of the Middle Ages”. 1999-2011

We will write a custom Essay on The role of the church in the life of the middle ages specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hinds, Kathryn. Life in the Middle Ages: The Church. California. Barnes


Harold Washington Library Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Abstract The largest library in Midwest is Harold Washington Library Centre that confirms to both traditional and postmodern elements of designing. The building is a neat amalgamation of traditional motifs from mythology and culture of Chicago and Midwest as well as postmodern architectural styles.

The building is different in its construction and design from its contemporary library buildings due to its incorporation of both designing and not just that of functionality as is done in most modern buildings. This paper discusses architectural design of the building in detail.

The libraries being built in the 21st century are, according to Terry Webb, “more than just a repository of information and knowledge, and epitomizes a higher aspiration that is fundamental to civilization and its persistence.” (Webb 5) In other words, modern day library construction is moving beyond just technical requirements of construction.

Traditionally architectural designs of libraries had entirely reflected upon the practicality and functionality aspect of the building, completely doing away with the designing aesthetics. Therefore, such public buildings have been designed with “preeminence of function and significance in a construction virtually devoid of pleasing form.” (Webb 7)

Library designing is essentially designing of the interior space area such that there is a distinct reading area, circulation area, stacks area, etc. It has also been suggested that the simplest and most efficient shape for a library building is a rectangle (Webb 7). Classical architecture of libraries usually has a fortress like appearance with heavy bronze doors and small often-barred windows (Webb 8). However, this has changed considerably with the advent of the modern libraries built in the 21st century.

Libraries today has become more post modern in their orientation, with a lot of stress being put on the aesthetics of designing than simply catering to the functional requirements of the building. This paper discusses the background and building of one such example of modern day library. It is the Harold Washington Library Centre (HWLC) at Chicago built in 1990-2 is the main library of the Chicago Public Library (Watkin 682).

The paper first provides a brief description of the background of the location and culture surrounding the building. Then provide an understanding of how it was built and in the end understand how it would have been built had it been built today. This paper presents a detailed architectural review of the modern library and its importance to architecture.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More HWLC is a monumental building and was commissioned as a part of the renewal of the urban landscape of the city. The designer of the building was Thomas Beeby of Hammod, Beeby, and Babka (Watkin 682). After refurbishing the Chicago Cultural Center in 1977, it was found that the building was outgrowing its collection (Becker). Then pursued a long debate on the contraction of a new library building in the city but was derailed due to lack of funding.

Ultimately, in 1983, the then mayor of Chicago, Harold Washington, supported the construction of a new central library (Duff 91). Then in 1988 a designing competition was held that drew five entries and was eventually shortlisted to two designs – that of Hammond, Beeby, and Babka, and Helmut Jahn’s (Plootnik 565). The later was not selected because the design was consider too expensive a project.

Figure 1: Harold Washington Library, Chicago (Harold Washington Library) In 1986, Harold Washington offered two square blocks for the construction of the library (Duff 91). The designing of the library was done under a lot of enthusiasm of the city dwellers for construction of a well-designed building. The designing competition was conducted under the specification that the construction of the project should not exceed $144 million and the area under construction should be 700,000 square feet.

The construction of the project began with funding from the state and private funding, the construction of the library began that covered an entire block. It is the largest public library in the world and is named after the mayor who supported its initiation, Harold Washington (Watkin 682). The library is located at the south end of Chicago loop (Watkin 682). It was built in 1991 and $195 million was spent in its construction (Knox and Belcher 62).

The building is approximately of 750,000 square feet (Watkin 683). The next section of the paper presents the culture that prevailed during the construction of the library. The building exemplifies the words of its pioneering initiator Harold Washington: “With the same adventurous spirit of Jean Baptist DuSable when he founded Chicago, we are going to do some great things together.” (Duff 91)

Chicago city has a rich tradition in urban architectural landscaping. When the city was almost destroyed in the 1871 Great Chicago Fire, the city was rebuilt with the help and inspiration of architects like William LeBaron Jenney, John Wellborn Root, Louise Sulivan, and so on (Duff 91). The city has a rich architectural heritage and the HWLC is yet another addition to it.

Basic information available regarding the construction of HWLC is as follows:

We will write a custom Research Paper on Harold Washington Library specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More SEBUS group designed the building and its construction was finished in 1991.

The size of the building is 756,640 square feet and the cost of construction was $144 million.

There are 2337 readers’ seats available in the library and 70.85 mile shelving space.

The library houses 2,000,000 books and 8,585 periodicals.

The building is built in 10 storeys and at the top has an intriguing winter garden. The building is essentially a postmodern architecture with an equal blend of Chicago’s traditional architectural heritage and modern architecture. The building is highly functional and has a space of 520,000 square feet without the winter garden (Plootnik 565). The building is located in the Loop area of Chicago that has a skyscraper clad urban landscape.

It houses some of the most famous architectural works as well as works of outdoor art like that of Pablo Picasso, Joan Miro, etc. This area is culturally rich with the art and music school of Chicago located in the area. The next section enumerates on the exterior and interior designing of the exterior and interior of the building.

The building is a blend of contemporary and old architectural elements. The exterior design of the library is presumably inspired from other Chicago landmark buildings like the Rookery, Monadnock buildings, and Auditorium in the Loop neighborhood (Duff 92). The bottom of the building is made of granite blocks and it has large arched doorways. The windows are set in natural bronze frames (Duff 92). The ornamental base is similar to that of the Auditorium Building in Chicago. The maximum of the exterior is made with red brick.

The prevalence of use of granite at the bottom of the building and use of red brick for exterior walls is representative of the Beaux-Art style of the nineteenth century. Further adaptation from this style is heavy use of adornment of the exterior walls and dominant axial symmetry (Schulze and Harrington). The main aim of the designers was to make the building similar to the grand civic buildings of the classical western civilizations. That is why the building has a monumental presence in the city.

The arched windows are five storey tall breaks the monotonies of the red brick walls. They break the walls on three sides of the building. The windows are linked with cast stone ornamentation (Harold Washington Library). The arched windows are similar to the work of Sullivan, Root, and Daniel Burnham on the three buildings present in the Loop that are the Auditorium building, the Rookery and the Monadnocks (Duff 92).

The flatter expanse of the red brick wall is small, rectangular windows that are linked together with cast stone ornamentations. This technique used by the designers is reminiscent of Chicago’s Revival Movement. The granite bottom blocks and the brick walls were divided using wall decorations that were sculpted in the form of “Ceres and ears of corn” (Schulze and Harrington).

The western façade of the library is different from that of the other three Chicago buildings. This is due to the use of modern elements and material in its construction. On the western side of the building, facing the Plymouth, is made of glass, steel and aluminum. The pediment attic is also made of glass, aluminum and steel components enhances its modernistic look.

Therefore, this sense of designing bears close resemblance to the Mannerist style (Schulze and Harrington). The western part is done with continuous glass curtain wall with dark green aluminum frames. These ascend to the cornice and the pediment made of glass on the tenth floor.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Harold Washington Library by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The top of the building has a cross-axial roof and is centered in the skylight for the Winter Garden (Duff 92). The roof is ornamented with numerous foliates. To these five cast mental owls each of fourteen inches painted in green would be added to match the ornamentation of the building designed by Raymond Kaskery and Kent Bloomer had designed painted aluminum acroteria.

The acroteria on the Congress Parkway shows seedpods signifying natural bounty of the Midwest. Owl is used in the ornamentation of the building top, as it is the Greek mythological symbol of knowledge. The figures shows the owls perched in the acroteria foliage.

The ornamentation of the library is truly used as a revival can vas for the history in the building. The designer wanted to revive the classical architectural history of Chicago as well as blend in the aesthetics of postmodern architecture. The iconography used in the buildings represents Midwest and Chicago. The “head of Ceres” who is the “roman goddess of grain” are present in the medallion on the wall along with “ears of corn” that represent prairie type of agriculture prevalent in Midwest (Schulze and Harrington).

The “cornice railing” on the ninth floor of the building that marks the uniformity of the building heights as proposed in the 1909 “Plan of Chicago” by Daniel Burnham and Edward Bennett (Schulze and Harrington). Further, it also has the Windy City Man installation high on the façade that is self-explanatory in its significance.

The public door of the buildings leads the visitors to the lobby. The northern entrance leads to the lobby that has brown, orange, and pink lines to ascent the walls. The corridor leads to the south of the lobby or the Central Hall. The Central Hall can be reached through all the three public entrances.

This is similar to the classical design of a central hall. It is a three-storey hall. The hall’s floor is laden with marble and from its center, the lower laden auditorium of the library consisting of 385 sitting arrangements is available. This can be seen though the center space of the central hall.

And the ceiling also has a circular open area through which the children’s library on its top is visible. The floor is stacked with large collection of artwork that are visible on the walls, floors, and ceilings of the hall. The hall also includes the mosaic Events in Life of Harold Washington by Jacob Lawrence in the floor. The other areas of importance like the auditorium, the main exhibition hall, meeting rooms, etc. are easily accessible through the central hall.

The building has a square footage area of 75000 square foot. Even though the building is huge and complex in its architectural design, visitors to the library find is least difficult to find their way around.

All the floors within the building are accessible through escalators or elevators. The second floor of the buildings has the children’s library names Thomas Hughes Children’s Library. This section is the largest collection of children’s books in the Midwest. The children’s library has a size of 18,000 square feet of space. The children’s library also has a theatre for puppet shows and magic performances (Duff 92).

From the third through the eighth floor are the core HWLC. These are connected through en elevator and a centrally placed elevator. These floors hold the sections for the four subject divisions of the library. The users of the library can browse through the library collections, research, or use other services like inter-library loan, etc. these also have computer assisted references, language learning center, reading machines for blind people, and learning center for adults (Duff 92).

Figure 2: Design and layout of the library, (Duff 92) The reading room of the library is monumental. The public space is done in “marble, terrazzo, bronze, and maple” to match the elegance of traditional libraries (Duff 93). The space is designed to give out the feeling of scholarly, comfortable, and relaxed atmosphere, but not overbearing. The ambience of the room is derived more out of the layout and design of the room, and due to the use of light colored raw material in construction of the interiors and the use of indirect lighting.

The furnishings in the reading room are made of natural maple wood. The plastered walls are painted in a light shade of gray that runs throughout the building. The Turkish and Italian marbles used on floors, countertops, and wainscots are mainly used in light colors. The carpeting and the terrazzo too are done in soft colors. The indirect pendant lights with light colored tiled ceilings are considered good for both reading and preservation of books. Almost all the books in the library are shelved in open stack shelves.

On the eastern part of the library, there are 50 smaller reading areas for the library users. There are ten reading rooms with ample of natural lighting from the large arched windows running along the State Street. Further, this section also has eight refurbished patron tables from the old Chicago Public Library of 1897 (Duff 93). There are one-storey alcoves that provide a quieter study area using maple carrels for the patrons.

The ninth floor houses the Winter Garden that provides the most spectacular effect to the architecture of the HWLC building. It is an atrium with lots of sun light filtering though the glass ceiling. The patrons can read or can relax in the garden. This also allows for private parties or events at night. The garden is filled with olive trees and ivory covered walls.

The administrative block of the library is on the tenth floor overlooking the garden and is attached by a bronze-railed bridge connecting the north and south halves of the building. On the north, side of the Winter Garden is the Harold Washington Archives that is led through the double doors.

On the other side of the winter garden are the colorful murals from Chicago artists. This leads to the professional section of the library with the section of science, and history. On the side of the building overlooking South Loop is the public restaurant. There is also a lounge on the ninth floor, the laboratory for preserving the books, and Special collection department (Duff 94).

The HWLC is a combination of the traditional architectural form with modern functionality. However, if the library had to be built with the modern perspective in mind, the building would have looked similar to the Seattle Central Library or the Picture Book Museum at Iwaki City.

The HWLC library confirms to both design and functionality. But design has a greater predominance with lots of ornamentation and stress on detailing works. However, modern library design would be more minimalistic in nature will less stress on ornamentation, and more space. The library space, as perceived by many, is believed to be a stuffy space. Therefore, proper use of space, light, and air is important to remove the stuffy feeling.

This element is found missing in the HWLC library, that has a more dominance traditional walled concept of the library. The reading room of HWLC is found to be large though walled from all sides, with light gray walls that make the rooms morose to some extent. However, a reading space with lots of light filtering though glassed walls would provide a great respite for readers, as they would be in constant connection with the external world and the stuffiness of the books all around can be removed.

Therefore, the functions of the library should dictate what the look of the building should be rather than designing the looks and then fitting in the functions. A modern building would use less of the classical material like marbles, red bricks, granite, etc. The library building in a modern sense would use materials like concrete, glass, and aluminum.

However, a particular blend of modernity and traditional architectural form in the exteriors can become confusing. One simple usage of this blend can be in allowing the exterior of the building resemble a traditional classical architectural design, while the interior being designed to attain optimum functionality through modern minimalistic style. However, a mix of both in the exterior as well as in the exterior creates a confusion of designs.

Works Cited Becker, Lynn. Sleekness in Seattle. 2006. Web.

Duff, John B. “The Harold Washington Library Center.” Library Journal (1991): 91-96. Print.

Harold Washington Library. Harold Washington Library Center. 2011. Web.

Knox, Janice and Heather Olivia Belcher. Chicago’s Loop. San Francisco, CA: Arcadia Publishing, 2002. Print.

Plootnik, Art. “Chicago to Build nation’s largest municipal library.” American Libraries August 1988: 565-66. Print.

Schulze, Franz and Kevin Harrington. “Harold Washington Library Center.” 2003. Chicago’s Famous Buildings. Web.

Watkin, David. A history of Western architecture. London: Laurence King Publishing, 2005. Print.

Webb, Terry. Building libraries for the 21st century: the shape of information . North Carolina: McFarland, 2000. Print.


International Political Economy and Finance Essay college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction and Summary of Readings




Works Cited


Introduction and Summary of Readings The spheres of international monetary economics, political economy, and finance are considered to be the areas of numerous discussions and misunderstandings. In spite of the fact that certain groups of people have to gain control over the fields identified, as a rule, if some mistake or challenge takes place, almost all countries around the whole world have to undergo numerous changes, suffer from economic or financial, or even both crises, and be unable to take the actions which may improve the situation within a short period of time.

One of the latest events which covered the whole world was the economic crisis of 2008. However, the main point is that this crisis is regarded as unpleasant surprise for many leading countries that was still predictable or even predicted.[1]

In order to understand the reasons of the crisis and its effects of the economic and financial sectors, a number of researchers and economists try to offer their assumptions, ideas, and analyses. In this paper, attention will be paid to the works of three amazing economic writers: Joseph E. Stiglitz, Paul Krugman, and Robert Wade. Their ideas are captivating reflections on the economic crisis that took place in 2008 and covered the whole world. Each paper is a unique evaluation of the events and the possibility to explain what caused the crisis.

“Financial Regime Change?” is Wade’s attempt to consider the political aspect of the regimes under which world economy is developed. What he offers is to focus on the “dominant ‘global’ model of financial architecture of the last two decades, the credibility of which has been seriously damages.[2]”

Krugman’s “Can Europe Be Saved” contains the information about the introduction of a single European currency as the “logical next step[3]” and the events which took place in Europe to cope the crisis spreading over the whole world.

Finally, “From Freefall: America, Free Markets, and the Sinking of the World Economy” by Stiglitz is the evaluation of the economic crisis and the financial sector in different developed and developing countries and their direct connection to the USA system.

Analysis For a long period of time, it was not that easy to define true reasons of the economic crisis that caught the world in 2008. The conditions under which people could develop their financial operations, create dreams, and build plans seemed to be rather successful; however, one day, several countries faced a challenge defined as inability to control the housing bubble and perform the functions which were necessary to manage risk.[4] The world and the USA in particular were not ready to solve so many problems at the same time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The point is that the USA is the country that serves a successful example in different spheres of life for many developed and developing countries, and when it became evident that the country could not resist a number of real estate problems. Even the activities of the financial markets turned out to be unsuccessful, and Stiglitz admits that “the banks got hoisted by their own petard: the financial instruments that they used to exploit the poor turned against the financial markets and brought them down.[5]”

However, it is necessary to admit that the USA was not the only country that had to re-evaluate its positions and opportunities. As soon as the problems in the economic and financial fields became evident, several European countries got involved into the crisis. Of course, the situation in the USA was not crucial for the development of economic crisis in such countries like Spain or United Kingdom, still, a certain portion of relations between the banks influenced the development of financial problems.

At the beginning of the 2000s, the situation with the foreign currency markets worsened considerably: housing bubble and its impact on the percentage of GDP in America, for example, prove that all past experience was not as influential as it was in 2008. Wade indicates that in 1980, US debt in finance was about 21%, and in 2007, it was about 116%.[6]

This is why the level of experience and the quality gained during the last years did not provide the Americans with the possibility to control their political economy as well as financial sector. Though many American economists tried to link the crisis of 2008 with the events during the Great Depression, it was not enough to avoid losses and benefit from the incomes identified.

In addition, all three authors under analysis admit the UK’s role in the development of the crisis around the whole world. Certain attention should be paid to the promotion of Euro as the only common currency in Europe.[7]

It is necessary to underline that a number of advantages of a single currency are evident: people should not take care of currency exchange while visiting different countries, export and import is based on one single system, and it always seems to be easy to gain the necessary control over one currency that promote successful existence of several currencies at the same time.

However, some countries were not ready or eager to accept one currency as they were confident in the power of their own currencies. This is why it was hard to find the necessary alternative and achieve appropriate agreements on the international arena.

We will write a custom Essay on International Political Economy and Finance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Taking into consideration the ideas offered by the writers, their main weakness is that all of them try to find a country or even certain people to blame on or evaluate past experience to find some solution to the current problems. It is wrong to believe that there is one particular source of negative experience and crisis in the world.

Each country has its own grounds, make its own mistakes, and suffer because of its own inabilities under certain conditions. The crisis is the result that people stop taking care of their mutual prospects but become too egoistic, this is why the problems on the international arena appears, and economic as well as financial sectors undergo a number of difficulties.

Application Nowadays, the situation seems to be better than it was in 2008. Some countries like the USA or Great Britain find the solutions to their economic and financial problems.[8] However, to improve the conditions and promote safe living conditions, it is necessary to maintain some special activities and ideas.

Information offered in the articles and personal understanding of the issue is of analytical character, this is why the authors aim at discussing the events and defining their positive and negative aspects, and their ideas can hardly be applied to some current problems and challenges.

Still, one lesson may be taken from the works: each crisis, economic problem, or financial challenge has its own roots and reasons, however, it is not always possible to define a true nature of problems. And to improve the situation, it is necessary to avoid the idea of making some fast decisions but try to analyze the situation from a variety of perspectives.

Conclusion In general, the ideas offered in the articles by Stiglitz, Krugman, and Wade are powerful indeed: the economic crisis of 2008 is an important event that promotes a number of changes on the international arena. Numerous banks and other financial organizations have to re-evaluate their possibilities and their weaknesses in order to create better conditions for the citizens. And if someone wants to make some improvements in a particular sphere, it is better to evaluate the whole situation and then offer solution and integrate ideas.

Works Cited Krugman, Paul. “Can Europe Be Saved?” The New York Times, January, 12, 2011, https://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/16/magazine/16Europe-t.html

Stiglitz, Joseph, E. “From Freefall: America, Free Markets, and the Sinking of the World Economy,” in Essential Readings in World Politics by Karen A. Mingst and Jack Snyder. (New York: W.W. Norton


Falling in Love as Part of Natural Selection Research Paper essay help: essay help

Love is a concept that no one is neutral about as its meaning varies among individuals. Nonetheless, since it is a frequent source of pleasure and pain, there is one thing that cuts across all the notions on this intricate issue.

Individuals often feel attracted to one another, to animals, or to innate materials all in the name of one concept: love. Thus, throughout all the ideas of love, it is evident that individuals often yield to the demands of their emotions and psychological temptations as they move from a feeling of neutrality towards another person and start falling in love.

The idea of falling in love is part of the natural selection. Transforming ones emotions towards a person to that of love takes place naturally.

The concept of “falling” means that it is not expected or planned and it is totally out of the control of the person. The term “fall” in this aspect is used in the same way just as in the phrase “falling down into ditch. People often get in love without even realizing what is happening to them. Some individuals have wrongly perceived that it is possible to go through life without having the feeling of love towards a person.

As they have discovered, getting through life without falling in love is an impossibility because as humans, our physiological make up is tuned such that we have to enter into a love relationship with someone in the course of our lives on this planet. Further, the science of love exhibits to us that falling in love is in fact ingrained in our physiological makeup and as a natural component of our being, we cannot help to fall in love with other people.

The design of the human physiology, as elaborated by evolution and natural selection, makes it possible for people to inevitably, uncontrollably, and irreversibly, fall in love with others. It has been argued that since human beings are social animals, who need the company of one another to continue to exist, then people have naturally developed a natural need to fall in love so as to be able to exist comfortably in the community with others.

On the other hand, some people claim that evolution and science have no association whatsoever with the idea of falling in love. They hold that people are subject to a mystifying, inexplicable compulsion that makes them to want to match up with the right individual for them. Further, this theory maintains that humans cannot resist falling in love due to the fact that things are designed to take place in a particular way.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, there is escaping the fact that one would ultimately get engaged with his or her perfect partner someday. However, it is important to point out this theory disregards the reality that often takes place. One cannot refuse to fall in love. Thus, escaping from this reality is a fruitless attempt. The more effort one puts in trying to escape from it, the more ones natural physiology says a big no! Falling in love is an inescapable reality that cannot be left for destiny to decide.

Studies done by various scientists have revealed that there are changes that take place in the brain when someone is in love. In a research study, scientists took functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brains of seventeen teenagers to examine the changes that take place when someone in love, and although they found certain gender differences in the brain activity of such people, they discovered that feelings of intensive romantic love were associated to the activity of the right caudate nucleus and right ventral right ventral tegmental areadopamine (Carey, para. 14).

These areas of the brain usually have increased concentration of dopamine hormone, which is a brain chemical that generates emotions of contentment and pleasure.

Further, scientists have observed that falling in love is developed from a form of three primary brain networks that evolved to mammalian reproduction, and these are “the sex drive that evolved to motivate individuals to seek sex with any appropriate partner, attraction, the mammalian precursor of romantic love, that evolved to enable individuals to pursue preferred mating partners, thereby conserving courtship time and energy” (British Broadcasting Corporation, para. 17).

And, lastly, “the brain circuitry for male-female attachment that evolved to enable individuals to remain with a mate long enough to complete species-specific parenting duties” (British Broadcasting Corporation, para. 18).

According to the Alberoni Theory, the idea of falling in love is the same as that of a religious or political loyalty and that individuals mainly enter into a loving relationship when they are ready to change or commence a new chapter in life (Redmond and Holmes, 22).

The socio-psychological theory maintains that falling in love is a quick process of destruction-reorganization termed as the nascent state, which is a state of pure creative energy in which the person no longer considers his or her previous identity to be important and becomes highly vulnerable to enter into a fulfilling relationship with another person.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Falling in Love as Part of Natural Selection specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After merging, the new unit thus created is considered to be highly charged with shared aims and eroticism; therefore, they develop a shared life project and a common perception of life.

People in the nascent state have to encounter various challenges to win the love of one another, and the idea of falling in love is not a regression, but it is an essential stepping-stone for establishing future fulfilling relationship. Thus, this theory suggests how the idea of falling in love is important for people to partner up in life.

Falling in love is important for the purposes of procreation. Since the continuation of the human species is realized by means of a sexual relationship between men and women, this implies that the men will usually go for women who are most fertile and that women will go for men who are have the healthiest seed for nurturing children.

This idea explains several things about our sexuality, including why males and females search for and mate with one another and why certain qualities are desirable (Jacobson, para. 6). The primal force of the need to exist has made the human sexuality to evolve to a level of sophistication that meets humanity’s desire to perpetuate their existence.

Thus, in conclusion, currently, people do not want to be regarded just as production machines to rear young ones. Therefore, to allure two individuals to become a unit, evolution and biology have worked together to instill the sexual act both with the feeling of satisfaction and with an air of mystery that moves people along the romantic expedition.

Works Cited British Broadcasting Corporation. “How the brain reacts to romance.”News.bbc.co.uk. BBC News, 12 Nov. 2003. Web. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3261309.stm

Carey, Benedict. Watching New Love as It Sears the Brain. Sensualism.com. The New York Times, 31 May 2005. Web.

Jacobson, Simon. “Why do we fall in love.” Chabad.org. Chabad-Lubavitch Media Center, 2011. Web. https://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/1211/jewish/Why-Do-We-Fall-in-Love.htm

Not sure if you can write a paper on Falling in Love as Part of Natural Selection by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Redmond, Sean, and Su, Holmes. Stardom and celebrity : a reader. Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2007. Print.


Travelling Through the Dark by William Stafford Critical Essay college essay help near me

Living in a modern world people often have to face with several moral and ethical dilemmas that disclose their readiness to act. Each person, sooner or later, will have to make an important choice and take responsibility for a crucial decision. The problem is that the choices and decisions we make do not only affect our moral ideals, but also the world surrounding us.

Concerning this, William Stafford’s poem called Travelling through the Dark metaphorical discloses the importance of taking actions rather than observing, which is especially vital in unexpected situations. Otherwise, ignorance and failure to make an immediate decision can be fraught with severe consequences and, therefore, acting correctly and following moral and ethical implications is a duty of each in the world.

The poem is a metaphorical disclosure of the necessity to take immediate actions rather than observe. Hence, the poet discloses a person’s attitude to the essence of morale and its importance while making tough choices (Mendelson and Bryfonski 461). Though the plot is quite simple for understanding, it enables readers to conceive how a person acts and behaves while encountering challenging situations as well as what the speaker feels while depriving deer of life.

Hence, when the stops the car to check what was wrong, he realizes that the situation was far more complicated than he expected. Although he first thinks that “it is usually best to roll them into the canyon: that road is narrow,” but his further reflections prove that he is not indifferent to what happened (Stafford 936, line 3).

The speaker did not neglect the tragedy and thought over the way to act correctly in this situation and find the morally justified solution. In particular, he tries to explain his decision to put the deer aside the road as this can save more lives: “that road is narrow, to swerve might make more dead” (Stafford 936 line 4). However, he immediately withdrew this idea and started thinking of more ethically right alternatives.

Making a choice is always a real challenge for the speaker leading him to the analysis of the meaning of darkness, which is often associated with uncertainty, ambiguity, and the unknown.

Perhaps, this metaphorical representation of future and life creates even more hesitations and doubts toward the rightfulness of all human actions in terms of morale and ethics (Mendelson and Bryfonski 462) Hence, when the speaker finds a dead deer, the first thought that occurs to his mind is “to roll them into the canyon” (Stafford 936 line 3). At the same moment, the hesitation comes to rescue the situation forth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The state of ambiguity is also recognized by the speaker who also provides the readers with a sign moral consideration: “Beside the mountain road I hesitated” (Stafford 936 line 12).

This hesitation also reveals the idea that a person is ready to provide help and act morally. In the poem, the speaker is in the front of an important decision that the audience expects from him to do: “around our group, I could hear the wilderness listen” (Stafford 936 line 16). However, he realizes that swerving is risky because a car might fall into the canyon causing more human deaths.

In the poem, Stafford does not only reflect on moral dilemmas and significance of human resolute actions and participation but on a person’s moral duty to preserve life. Therefore, people often tend to take steps instead to observe, specifically when it is a matter of life and death.

When the speaker decides to interfere, he expresses his readiness and moral duty to help: “By glow of the tail-light I stumbled back of the car and stood by the heap, a doe, recent killing; She had stiffened already, almost cold. I dragged her off; she was large in the belly” (Stafford 936 lines 4-8). Here, the speaker is bold enough to get out of his car and pull the dead deer aside. Also, the author’s realization of the importance of life is followed by guilty consciousness that is concealed in his attempt to check whether the deer is alive.

The speaker realizes that the dear is about to deliver a fawn, but he realizes that he can do nothing but make a difficult choice: “her fawn lay there waiting alive, still, never to be born” (Stafford 936, lines 10-11). Hence, the very thinking of the possibility to save a life serves the speaker as an excuse for his refusal to help. Despite his difficult choice, the speaker still realizes the sacredness of life.

After a thorough analysis of the poem, it is possible to deeper understand the role of human deeds as well as their readiness to participate rather than to observe. The topic presented in the poem contributes significantly to realizing the essence of human life as well as the way it is affected both by nature and civilized world.

More importantly, it also reveals the situations immediate decisions and actions are signifiers of morally justified choice. In the poem, the speaker did not ignore the situation and decided to act immediately under moral and ethical decisions.

We will write a custom Essay on Travelling Through the Dark by William Stafford specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Mendelson, Ed. Phyllis Carmel, and Dedria Bryfonski. William Stafford (1914-). Contemporary Literary Criticism. Detroit: Gale Research, 1977.

Stafford, William. Traveling Through the Dark. In Literature, Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing. Ed. X. J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia. UK: Longman, 2006.


The Three Parenting Styles Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction





Works Cited

Introduction Parenting is a stage of life that comes about when one gets children to bring up. It is natural and there are no manuals or rules to parenting as people just learn about it as they go. Though there are many ideas on how to bring up children some will be individual based, others from their own parents while others will adopt ideas from their friends. Parenting styles can be described as the ways parents use to parent their children (Aunola et al 217).

Psychologists have therefore established three different parenting styles that are used by parents either with or without their consent. The parenting styles, permissive, authoritative and authoritarian are usually based on the communication styles, disciplinary strategies as well as warmth and nurture. This paper is therefore an in-depth analysis of the three basic parenting styles used by most parents.

Permissive Being permissive entirely means not being strict. This style of parenting is where the parents let their children to make decisions on their own. Most of the control is left in the hands of the children themselves, though the parents come in to make a few rules if any.

Nevertheless, the rules made by the parents are not meant to tie down the children and are thus not consistently enforced (Then 1). Parents using this parenting style usually want to make their children to feel free. They also tend to accept their children’s behaviour and acts regardless whether they are good or bad.

This is because they tend to feel unable to make them change hence choosing not to be involved with their children’s lives. Therefore, this parenting style is characterised by a lot of affection and warmth as the children are not subject to punishment no matter what they do. The good thing about this style is the fact that communication is always open and parents are able to discuss anything with their children.

This parenting style has been described to be not the best as children require proper guidance as they grow and being left to choose what they want on their own could make them make the wrong decision which could affect their entire life. However, children who are critical thinkers may grow up being good decision makers as they have been exposed to such conditions before.

Authoritarian This is the opposite of the permissive style of leadership. In this style the parents set up clear-cut rules and guidelines which are deemed to be followed by the children. The parents therefore expect their children to obey them or else get punished. Nurturing is very rare in this leadership as the children are rarely left free. The parents tell their children what to do and make decisions on their behalf without explaining to them (Then 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Parents using this style tend to focus more on the negatives rather than the positives such that a child who fails in school or wrongs is severely punished or scolded while the one who has exemplary passed is rarely praised. The children who grow up under this parenting style do not learn to think and do things on their own thus find it very difficult to make decisions later in life. This parenting style is mostly applicable to children who are very stubborn and need to be closely monitored.

Authoritative This parenting style is also referred to as the democratic style as parents help their children to learn about themselves, being responsible for themselves and their behavioural consequences (Iannelli 1). This style is described as the best as it is a blend between permissive and authoritarian parenting styles. Parents using this style using set the necessary rules and enforces them while taking each situation as it comes.

The democratic parents usually want to make their children understand why they are being punished because of unacceptable behaviour or breaking up of rules. It is because of this reason that punishment is usually discussed with the children before being implemented. As a matter of fact, parents and children work hand in hand thus ensuring that the children respect their parents while the parents do not oppress their children as well. Conflicts under this parenting are handled in a reasonable manner without hurting either party.

Conclusion The parenting styles discussed above are applicable depending on the views people hold for each. Each of the three parenting styles has its own merits and demerits. In the permissive parenting style the parents have adequate time to do what they would wish to do since they are not constantly monitoring the children (Spera 2).

Chances of separation in such a family are very high since people develop their own different lives. In the authoritarian parenting styles children tend to be very respectful thus parents have low levels of stress. The democratic style on the other hand is very involving for the parents as they have to be on toes and talking with their children to keep the unity of the family.

Works Cited Aunola, K., Nurmi, J.and, Stattin, H. “Parenting styles and adolescents achievement Strategies”.2002- Journal of Adolescence, 23, 205-222

Iannelli, Vincent. Parenting Styles. 2004- April 17, 2011.

We will write a custom Essay on The Three Parenting Styles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Spera, C. “A Review of the Relationship among Parenting Practices, Parenting Styles and Adolescent School Achievement”. Educational Psychology Review, 17, 2, June. 2005.

Then, Joseph. Three Basic Parenting Styles. 2011- April 17, 2011. <https://ezinearticles.com/?Three-Basic-Parenting-Styles


Tyranny of the Majority Essay online essay help: online essay help

Introduction Tocqueville tells us of the right of the people to do as they will, but still holds the view that power and influence are held by the majority (Tocqueville 287). Justice is not dependent on the majority of any particular group, but on the views held by a majority of the people, which implies that the rights of an individual are limited to what majority of the people consider as just.

According to Tocqueville, people are observed to ignore the limits of reason on a small scale when the matters in question affect them directly, and total control of a situation belongs to the majority who are represented by the circumstance. An individual who possesses power or influence is likely to misuse his authority by causing harm to those who oppose him. In a similar manner the majority, who are seen to determine the course of action, can decide to wrong their adversaries (Tocqueville 287).

Tocqueville goes on to challenge the mixed governments, stating that it is not possible to get several principles to work together with a view to achieving freedom. The lack of understanding is because there will always be one principle of action that outweighs the others. In view of this, in order to avoid complete dissolution of mixed governments, one social power is supposed to dominate the others, but its power or authority should be bound so as to uphold liberty and contain its influence (Tocqueville 288).

Liberty in the United States Tocqueville observes that unlimited power is dangerous since human beings are not skilled on handling situations with justice and wisdom. According to Tocqueville, the main evil in many institutions in the US is a result of their excessive power, as opposed to their weaknesses.

He observes that the United States exercises excessive liberty, in that a lot of decisions are left in the hands of the majority. When matters are taken to the public for an intervention, the majority rule. The legislature is also observed to represent the majority, while the executive is appointed by the majority. Everything, including the jury and the public troops are observed to operate based on the say of the majority (Tocqueville 290).

Tocqueville observes a situation whereby the executive, legislature and government can represent the majority while remaining democratic, such that they are free from manipulation based on the passion of the majority. He identifies the lack of barriers in many institutions to control tyranny, and as a result, the government’s authority is undermined by the circumstances as opposed to the laws (Tocqueville 291).

Opinion of the majority While arbitrary power implies the authority exercised with a view to benefit the community, tyranny refers to the influence propagated by the law.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The relationship between police officers and the majority is seen to reflect on the association between a master and a servant, in that the public can demand the attention or assistance of the officers at any time. The power of the majority in the US varies from that in Europe. In Europe, the supreme monarchs are incapable of stopping some ideas that are contrary to the authorities from spreading to their dominions.

On the contrary, the United States is very much influenced by the majority. This implies that discussions remain open until the majority make up their minds on what is to be. Once the majority arrive at a decision, the supporters and opposes unite and agree on the accuracy of the decision reached (Tocqueville 292).

The authority if a king is different from the influence of the majority in that the influence of a king is physical, whereby the subject’s private will is not subdued, while the power of the majority is both physical and moral. This is because tyranny focuses on the actions and will of the people, and it also tends to inhibit any challenges as well as debates.

According to Tocqueville, America has the highest limitation of true independence of mind and freedom of discussion. This is contrary to the situation in Europe, whereby religious and political theories stand the chance of propagation overseas. This is possible because European countries are not restrained by any authority (Tocqueville 293).

Effects of Tyranny on Character of the Americans Tocqueville observed a difference between actions based on what an individual did not regard as right and pretending to approve what one did. The first scenario depicts a person who is weak, and therefore does things with the flow in spite of his own opinions, whereas the latter looks at a person justifying his wrong actions in order to please the crowd or group.

In free countries, everyone is expected to hold an opinion regarding a particular item or situation. In democratic nations, public life is constantly integrated with familial matters and the sovereign authority is available on either side. In addition to this, the attention of the sovereign authority is predictably attracted by loud utterances. In the situations mentioned, more people are observed to speculate on the shortcomings and live at the cost of its passions as opposed to total monarchy (Tocqueville 295).

The situation is a result of the stronger enticement and easier admission that more often than not, leads to degradation of the character of the citizens. The situation in America is such that the authority of the majority is final and overwhelming. This causes people to give up their rights as citizens and those who do not see themselves as inhuman. Tocqueville observed few individuals who showed candour and independence of opinion, which was an attribute possessed by many people, in the American history.

We will write a custom Essay on Tyranny of the Majority specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The few distinguished characters are not comparable to most other Americans, who seem to have a single line of thought, leading to the same judgements and results. Most Americans are observed to possess certain traits that reflect ignorance of democracy, and display bad behaviour that damages their national character (Tocqueville 299).

Tocqueville observes patriotism to be a virtue possessed by a few American. He observes total monarchy systems where the king is observed to show great intelligence and virtue, to an extent where his courtiers do not question his decisions, as he is seen as totally virtuous.

This is contrary to the situation in America, where philosophers do not sugar coat their words, and flatter their crowds before unleashing the harsh truth upon them. The trend in America is one that is seen to lead to use of dictatorship as opposed to democracy, and praise leading to thirst for power. According to Tocqueville, this trend can be only avoided by limiting the authority bestowed upon an individual, since power is known to corrupt mankind (Tocqueville 303).

History of Liberty and authority The battle between liberty and authority was a common feature between subjects and the government, in the old times. The governing tribe or caste was seen to be antagonistic to the people they ruled, and the position was also hereditary. The power that the rulers possesses was necessary though dangerous according to the people, since it could be used to harm people who objected their rule, in a similar manner to how the same power could be used to defeat an enemy.

Liberty was therefore necessary for the patriots, and it was exercised by limiting the power that a ruler was allowed to exercise. A rebellion was justified if the ruler infringed the political liberties or immunities allowed. The governing power was also controlled by the public, whereby constitutional checks were established, requiring the consent of the community before implementation of some acts (Mill 12).

This grew to a point where the public felt that they needed to be of the same opinion as the rulers, and their governors should not be independent powers. This led to their desire to revoke their magistrates at will, so that these rulers could not abuse their powers to the disadvantage of the public. This sprung up the temporary ruling system, where rulers were elected for specific periods of time (Mill 14).

Custom Throughout history, people have believed that their feelings regarding nature are better than reasons, which are thought to be redundant. People’s opinions on how to conduct themselves are based on the principal of their individual feelings, and their actions are based on sympathy to a level which they would appreciate it, if they were in a similar position.

People are observed to be unaware that their choices are based on their personal liking, since most of their actions are not supported by reasons. Those people who provide reasons for their actions are in most cases are aimed at gaining the favor of the audience. There are some ordinary individuals whose actions are based on genuine reasons that are guided by their notions of morality or taste (Mill 17).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Tyranny of the Majority by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Mill, the opinion of an individual is affected by the various factors that affect their wishes in regard to the behaviour of other people. These factors vary from reason, to superstition, to prejudices. Their decisions can be influenced by their social relations, desires or feelings, like envy or contempt. Their self interest also affects their opinions.

The morality of individuals is dependent on their class interests, as well as their opinions on the superiority of their class. Common examples are the differences in morals between princes and subjects, and men and women (Mill 17).

Society and individual According to Mill, consciousness is a factor of the autonomy of conscience, reflection and emotion. It also demands total freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subjects, realistic and tentative, technical, ethical or theological. The liberty of thought is different from that of conveying and distributing personal views in that the latter involves other individuals. Liberty of tastes and pursuits looks at the structure of an individual’s life in order to conform to one’s own character.

It involves one doing whatever they wish without consultation, no matter how perverse it may seem to others, as long as it does not cause harm to other people. Mill also looks at another king of individual liberty that involves the freedom to unite, as long as it does not cause harm to other individuals. The people exercising the liberty to unite should avail themselves of their own will, with no deception.

According to Mill, a society that does not appreciate these liberties cannot claim to be free, or to exercise freedom. In addition to this, Mill says that the only true freedom is that which allows people to pursue their own good in their own way, provided that it does not hinder the freedom of others. According to Mill (19), every person needs to guard himself, and

“Mankind are greater gainers by suffering each other to live as seems good to themselves, than by compelling each to live as seems good to the rest.”

Social tyranny according to Mill and Tocqueville Tyranny is not bound by the actions of the political functionaries if is propagated by the society itself, and not the individual inciting or proposing it. When the society decides to carry out its own directives in things that it should not involve itself in, that can be termed social tyranny (Mill 38). Both Mill and Tocqueville share the opinion that this kind of social tyranny is more frightening than other kinds of political oppression.

This view is because there is no strategy is place to enforce penalties for wrong choices upon the society, and the wrong choices can therefore result in more devastating effects. Most of the population does not see the command of a government as their command or its views as their views. It is for this reason that the majority view the government as invading on their individual liberty.

The public is always in readiness to demonstrate their disappointment in the government whenever it acts in a manner as to impose control over the people in ways that they are not familiar with. Since there is no way to test the ways in which the government impinges on the liberty of the people, the society decides based on their personal preferences.

In doing this, the public chooses a side in any particular issue, in most cases the side that is contrary to that of the government, whereby they determine whether the actions of the government are right, and whether what it does, or what it fails to do, conforms to their thoughts. Both Mill and Tocqueville agree that the absence of rule or principle results in each side viewing the other as being on the wrong, though the involvement of the government brings about imbalance since it may have been wrongly summoned or condemned.

Conclusion The tyranny of the majority is observed with fear since the society executes it own mandates. Wrong mandates or interference in certain issues may be cause more harm than political oppression, since the society is not answerable to anyone, as opposed to a governor or ruler, who is elected. Protection of the community against public figures is not enough, but the society should allow be protected from its tendency to impose its own ideas and practises as rules of conduct, instead of imposing civil penalties (Mill 69).

Both Tocqueville and Mill agree that there should be a limit to the justifiable level of intrusion of communal judgment with personal liberty. The line between personal independence and social control is a difficult one to establish. The first step requires that some rules of conduct be set, by both law and public opinion.

Works Cited Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty. Kitchener, Ontario: Batoche Books Limited, 2001. Print.

Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America. Pennsylvania: Electronic Classics Series, 2002. Print.


Colour composition and Polarised Light Research Paper a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Relationship between Light and Colour


Works Cited

Introduction Colour and light are two inseparable factors and especially for those in the field of photography. The ability to achieve a perfect composition of colour and strike a balance between colour and light always poses a challenge to many people. How well these two aspects balance largely determine the outcome of the process. This discussion looks at these two very important aspects and how once can achieve balance between them to get that perfect shot.

Colour While every aspect of photography is important, colour and light are the most fundamental (Verity 23). Colour plays a significant role in determining the content of any picture in terms of emotions. Just by looking at the colour composition of a photograph, it is possible to easily depict the mood that the photographer intends to create.

Every colour has a meaning and depending on how much it has been emphasized, an onlooker can easily derive a message from it. Bright colours like orange and red for instance are a depiction of happiness and excitement. Dull colours on the other hand create a refreshing, relaxing and cool mood. Colour yellow does not create excitement like red does neither is it a colour of relaxation like blue and green are. Instead, yellow brings about a feeling of warmth

Other than creation of moods, colours are also used to create certain desired effects. Depending on the angle of the camera together with the proper framing, it is easy for a photographer to draw great attention to a subject that though is brightly coloured. For example and Indian woman wearing beautifully coloured sari can have the right colours in the sari captured in such a way that the draw attention.

One can also use contrasts of colours to create dynamic patterns and designs. Colour contrasts are always catchy to the eye so that it tends to explore the various colours contrasted. Light also influences colour composition by and large. For instance on sunny day you may want to concentrate on bright colours like red and orange.

However, for a dull cloudy day a combination of saturated colours will work best. The amount of exposure that you give when taking a photograph also influences the colour composition and consequently the final product (Popular Mechanics 23). Therefore if you would like to have some colours subdues, then you may allow more light to pass. On the other hand, when intending to emphasize particular colours less light should be allowed so that such colours can stand out.

Light Light is said to be an electromagnetic wave that moves through vibration that could be as long as 360 degrees. By definition, light is a radiation that is electromagnetic in nature, which the human eye is able to perceive. Light travels in the form of a wave. The different speeds at which these waves of light travel are perceived as different colours by the human eye. Polarization of light refers to the direction taken the wave of light when it is vibrating.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Usually, when the wave of light is undisturbed, it tends to move and vibrate randomly. The wave of light experience constant changes as it moves buy depending on the medium through which it is passing, it may be polarized in a number of ways. One way in which light is polarized is limiting the direction of vibration so that the wave is only able to vibrate in only on direction. The outcome of such polarization is that the light gets in through a medium is not the same as the one that comes out on the end side of the medium.

Filters are responsible for polarization of light and they do son in varying ways. Some filters polarize by filtering particular colours so that they are no longer visible in the wave of light. Two filters placed together with one bring on top of the other have the effect of being opaque or transparent to light. If these filters were to be turned round, then the light passing through the filters can be sort of turned off and on.

There are those filters that are made in such a way that they do not allow transmission of light. They are known as crossed polarizers. These filters are such that when one allows light form a horizontal angel, the other allows from a vertical angle and thus preventing transmission.

Relationship between Light and Colour Having discussed colour composition and polarization as two independent concepts let us now shift focus on the relationship that cist between colour and light. It has been said that light has a nature that is considered triple. This is a common argument especially by photographers (Konnen 87).

By this they mean that light has three very essential aspects that are the quality, the direction and the colour. How well one is able to master the three aspects will determine by and large the final images produced and whether ort not one will be able to achieve certain desired effects like the dilution of some colours for purposes of creating certain moods (Hirsh 78).

According to the research and discovery of Isaac Newton, ordinary light as perceived by the human eye has seven rainbow colours namely, red, yellow, green, blue, indigo, orange and violet. Light is therefore a combination of different colours. What appears as pure white light as perceived by the eyes of a human being is light that has these colours well balanced. However, it is not always easy to have light with these balanced colours as the constantly get altered as they travel in form of waves.

The colour of light has a great impact on the mood that an image taken has. It is of great importance therefore for any photographer to understand the concept of lighting and colour composition to use them to his advantage and create the desired effect.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Colour composition and Polarised Light specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another very important aspect that must be looked at is what is known as saturation of colours. Simply put, this is the concentration of a given colour. This is also used to mean how intense a given colour is. This means that colours that tend to be very vivid or highly conspicuous are considered saturated. Colours that are somewhat dull on the other hand are considered unsaturated. Lighting affects saturation of colours so that polarized light may reduce saturation so that pretty much of the colour is diluted and the vice versa is true.

Being aware of the existence of this concept, it then becomes important to for photographers to know how to control saturation and use it to their advantage in order to achieve the desired effects and moods. The time of the day by and large affects saturation of colours. This is because the sun being the source of light is at different intensities at different times of the day. When the sun is rising in the morning, the colours at that time tend to be saturated.

This is also the case in the late afternoon. Colours however tend to be less saturated at midday. Therefore, if you were taking the photograph of a landscape, the best time to take the photo would be very early or late afternoon when the sun is about to set to achieve highly saturated colours.

One may also use a filter to alter the saturation of colours. Polarizers are used to increase the intensity or saturation of colours. When light is polarised it has the effect of diluting colours. Thus use of polarisers will help reduce the amount of polarized light coming ion the surface of the image being photographed thus increasing the saturation.

Conclusion It is indeed of great importance that photographers grasp the concept of polarisation of light and colour composition really well. This is because it is the only way to achieve the best images possible. When one is not clear about either of these two aspects, then they may fail to achieve the desired results in their photographs.

Any poor picture that is produced by a photographer is as a result of failure to balance these two aspects and this makes it all so vital. It is only through experience that one is bale top master these aspects properly. Photography is an art that is perfected over time through constant practice.

Works Cited Hirsh, Robert. Exploring Colour Photography: From Films to Pixels. London: Focal Press, 2010. Print.

Konnen, Gary. Polarised Light in Nature. New York: CUP Archive, 1985. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Colour composition and Polarised Light by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Popular Mechanics. “Hearst Magazines.” Volume 76, No 3. New York. Sep 1941.

Verity, Enid. Colour Observed. Michigan: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1980. Print.


Structural Functionalism and Yard Sales Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Discussion Yard sale, also known as Garage or rummage sale is an event which involves the sale of used goods or items by individual owners (Mangam 9). Examples of goods which are sold during the event include household items like furniture, sports and farm equipment among others. The individuals may sale the goods due to various reasons. For example, a person may want to move to another residence or may just want to clear old equipments from his or her house.

Some of the items may be new while others may be old. The event is usually publicized though various media so that potential buyers or customers may be made aware. The goods do not have fixed prices and for this reason, bargaining is usually very common. Some buyers may buy the items for use while others may buy them for sale at a profit (Pohl and Pohl 34).

Structural functionalism can be defined as sociological theory which views society as a system composed of various parts which are interrelated, and function together in harmony, for the stability and benefit of the whole. The theory uses the analogy of the human body, which is composed of various organs like the heart, the lungs, eyes, nose among others.

Each part or organ of the body plays a specific role. If one part dysfunctions, then the whole body is affected. For example, if our eyes cannot see well, then the whole body is affected because the legs for example may not walk, without being guided by the eyes on what direction to move to (Harrington, Marshall and Müller 602).

The theory makes some assumptions in explaining the functioning of systems. One of the assumptions is that all systems operate in a way that is aimed at maintaining equilibrium. Yard sales can be seen as an event which involves two parties; one being the person who sales the goods and the other being the one who buys them. The disposal of those goods by one person plays the role of helping another person possess the same, thereby maintaining equilibrium in terms of ownership of the goods (Ritzer 40).

The other assumption of the theory is that systems are composed of various interdepended units, each with a specific role to play for the benefit of the whole. Yard sales involve people selling goods which they may not attach a lot of value to. Even though the goods may be of less value to them, it does not mean that they are useless because somebody else may purchase and use them for a beneficial purpose.

The exchange of the goods with the money enables the seller to use the money obtained from the sales for other purposes, which could not have been met using the goods or items themselves (Ritzer 40).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The other assumption of the theory is that systems operate under the principle of consensus between various units. Yard sales involve exchange of ownership of goods from one person to the other, not through coercion or conflict, but through consensus, in which the owner of the goods advertise the sale and those who are willing or interested in purchasing them do so at their free will.

The sale itself involves bargaining, which is aimed at reaching consensus between the buyer and the seller. Whatever the price they agree is therefore based on consensus and therefore no individual feels as if he or she gets a raw deal (Ritzer 40).

Works Cited Harrington Austin, Marshall Barbara and Müller Hans-Peter. Encyclopedia of Social Theory. New York, NY: Routledge Publishers., 2006.602.

Mangam, Bryan. The Essential Guide to a Successful Garage Sale. Raleigh, NC: Lulu.com Publishers., 2007.9.

Pohl Irma and Pohl. Rummage, Tag


Color in Art and Design Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction This research work has tackled the meaning of color and light and how we are able to distinguish objects appearance by the virtue of light falling on those objects. It distinguishes why some object appear different from others. Some of basic colors have been tackled and how different cells on our eyes are able to differentiate colors.

Light has been tackled as a very useful component of color. Some fundamental cells in our eyes which facilitate vision have been covered and how they behave in presence and absence of light. In art and design this paper depicts the great role of color and how colors can be used tactically to improve the work of artists.


The word color itself has got a wide scope in regard to the perspective one would like to look at it. according to Bohren


Tim O’Brien: The True War Storyteller Research Paper essay help online free

In How to Tell a True War Story, author Tim O’Brien directs the reader’s attention to the idea of truth, not simply in the telling and retelling of certain events from the Vietnam War that forms the narrative of the story, but on a deeper, more fundamental level about how reality is constructed, not simply within the context of a war but in general.

Tim O’Brien’s story simultaneously constructs and deconstructs itself several times over the telling; this action destabilizes the narrative, and gives the reader the sense that the narrative may give way at any time – as indeed it does.

The inherent fluidity of the work – this constantly shifting form – positions the story more as an example of a deconstructed text as opposed to the traditional war narrative, and in this act of deconstruction, we glimpse O’Brien’s larger purpose. Essentially Tim O’Brien’s How to Tell a True War Story asks about the nature of truth itself: is truth that which we experience, or that which we remember, a composite of the two, or something different altogether?

The consensus of many critics who have approached this work appears to be that Tim O’Brien’s How to Tell a True War Story endeavors to make plain the distinction between “story-truth and happening-truth” – truth that is made up or fictionalized, and truth that is unequivocal, or what “really happened” (Henningfeld n.p.).

Critic Rosemary King points to the fact that Tim O’Brien’s title itself has multiple purposes and implications for the readers (King 182) In the first instance, How to Tell a True War Story concerns itself with defining that which is “true”, yet Tim O’Brien applies two meanings to the word: one “he uses alternately throughout the story to mean either factually accurate,” and the other meaning applies to that which is “higher and nobler” (King 182).

Tim O’Brien’s How to Tell a True War Story follows three different narratives: the first concerns the soldier Mitchell Sanders’s recounting of the events surrounding another solider – Curt Lemon’s – death; the second story follows the narrator as he listens and comments on Sanders’s depiction of the events; and the final narrative is the author Tim O’Brien’s explanation and series of tips directed toward the reader detailing how to distinguish a true war story from a false one (O’Brien 174).

In each story, each individual narrator takes pains to prove that his version of the story represents the authentic recounting of events exactly as they took place in Vietnam, and all three narrators also declare the validity of their narratives using history as proof (O’Brien 174: King 182).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In King’s opinion, the ultimate marker of a true war story is the one that “capture[s] the genuine experience of war because truth registers only through gut instinct” (King 183). Through these three narrators, King argues, Tim O’Brien presents the thesis that facts perhaps do not warrant the ultimate measure of authority simply because they happened in someone’s remembered past (King 183).

Rather, of more value than the actual “historical artifact” of the events that occurred is “the significance, or truth, of the experience” (King 183). In King’s words, Tim O’Brien’s concept of truth as delineated in How to Tell a True War Story “has deep implications for story telling because he suggests that altering facts may be more significant than clinging to the story of what actually transpired” (King 183).

Critic Catherine Dybiec Holm, on the other hand, believes that for Tim O’Brien “there is no stable sense of truth or reality when it comes to war” (Holm n.p.). In How to Tell a True War Story Holm sees an author who presents his readers with the truth of this statement over and over. O’Brien, in Holm’s understanding, does this both through the straightforward use of passages such as the following:

When a guy dies, like Lemon, you look away and then look back for a moment and then look away again. The pictures get jumbled; you tend to miss a lot. And then afterward, when you go to tell about it, there is always that surreal seemingness, which makes the story seem untrue, but which in fact represents the hard and exact truth as it seemed. (O’Brien 176)

Or, Tim O’Brien uses “indirect means,” such as employing constantly variable narration to recount an event and offering a different take and conclusion on the event with each new version (Holm n.p.). Holm also agrees that the title offers a sense of irony and layered meaning, “since he suggests that it may actually be impossible to accurately tell a true war story” (Holm n.p.).

In How to Tell a True War Story Holm observes the impact of the war itself on all of the narrators as they struggle with the subject matter of their stories. In Holm’s opinion, Tim O’Brien’s goal in the story is to elucidate directly how the monstrous experience inherent to combat can and will affect the discernment of reality, “even for a narrator” (Holm n.p.). In Holm’s words:

O’Brien emphasizes the nebulous nature of truth when it comes to war stories by taking one story and telling it four different ways. Additionally, he starts several of the story versions with statements that make readers question whether the narrator realizes that he has told the story before.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Tim O’Brien: The True War Storyteller specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More O’Brien’s device could lead an astute reader to wonder whether the reality of war and the retelling of this particular war story has become confusing, at least in this narrator’s head. And O’Brien’s narrator backs this up with prose that directly questions what is and is not real regarding memories of war (Holm

However, as critic Diane Andrews Henningfeld aptly observes, the possibility that Tim O’Brien’s story “is demonstrating…the impossibility of any truth at all” represents an equally legitimate interpretation of the work (Henningfeld n.p.).

The affect of war on the perception of reality and truth may certainly be one of the underlying messages of the story, however in Henningfeld’s opinion, How to Tell a True War Story is actually about nothing less than how people – soldiers or otherwise – construct meaning through language. “Rather than being an epistemological tool, this story serves to demonstrate how language only seems to provide knowledge, when all it really provides is more text” (Henningfeld n.p.)

The reader witnesses a glimpse of this phenomenon when Tim O’Brien as the narrator warns the reader that “in many cases a true war story cannot be believed. If you believe it, be skeptical. It’s a question of credibility. Often the crazy stuff is true and the normal stuff isn’t because the normal stuff is necessary to make you believe the truly incredible craziness. In other cases you can’t even tell a true war story. Sometimes it’s just beyond telling” (O’Brien 179).

In How to Tell a True War Story, Tim O’Brien seems less interested in giving the reader a straight answer and more about posing the question in numerous ways. He also challenges the idea that a war story has to mean something, or that it has to make sense on some level. “A true war story is never moral. It does not instruct, nor encourage virtue, nor suggest models of proper human behavior, nor restrain men from doing the things they have always done.

If a story seems moral, do not believe it. If at the end of a war story you feel uplifted, or if you feel that some small bit of rectitude has been salvaged from the larger waste, then you have been made the victim of a very old and terrible lie. There is no rectitude whatsoever. There is no virtue. As a first rule of thumb, therefore, you can tell a true war story by its absolute and uncompromising allegiance to obscenity and evil (O’Brien 174).

The fact that story builds itself up and then tears itself apart again several times over the course of the narrative speaks to its proper understanding as a text of deconstruction or “metafictional story” (Henningfeld n.p.). Tim O’Brien in Henningfeld’s opinion “is a deconstructive master.

While it appears that he is saying one thing about true war stories, what he is really doing is undermining not only the entire quest for truth, but also the possibility of truth existing in any knowable form” (Henningfeld n.p.). It follows then that How to Tell a True War Story has a much broader application than as a “war story,” but rather a critique of the construction of reality through language, memory and historicity.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Tim O’Brien: The True War Storyteller by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At no point in any of the three narratives does Tim O’Brien allow the reader to “forget that the story the reader is reading is a story, not reality,” because he and the other two narrators “constantly comment on their own construction” (Henningfeld n.p.) Tim O’Brien allows each character in the story to admit that the stories they have told are fictions – some or all of the details have been “made up” (Henningfeld n.p.). An example occurs when Mitchell Sanders tells a story about his patrol that climbs a mountain:

“Last night, man, I had to make up a few things.”

“I know that.”

“The glee club. There wasn’t any glee club.”


“No opera.”

“Forget it, I understand.”

“Yeah, but listen, it’s still true. Those six guys, they heard wicked sound out there. They heard sound you just plain won’t believe.” (O’Brien 180)

This admission by Sanders “calls attention to the entire story as a work of fiction” and the fact that all the narrators participate in this seemingly endless revision speaks to Tim O’Brien’s overall point – that reality is what we say it is (Henningfeld n.p.).

Tim O’Brien’s How to Tell a True War Story, though it appears to be centered around the events of the Vietnam War from the perspective of the soldiers who fought there, is actually about “the quest for truth, the use of the imagination in telling the truth, and the art of storytelling in creating the truth” (Henningfeld n.p.).

Works Cited Henningfeld, Diane Andrews. “Critical Essay on ‘How to Tell a True War Story’.” Short Stories for Students. Ed. Carol Ullmann. Vol. 15. Detroit: Gale, 2002. Web.

Holm, Catherine Dybiec. “Critical Essay on ‘How to Tell a True War Story’.” Short Stories for Students. Ed. Carol Ullmann. Vol. 15. Detroit: Gale, 2002.Web.

King, Rosemary. “O’Brien’s ‘How to Tell a True War Story’.” The Explicator 57.3 (1999): 182-184. Web.

O’Brien, Tim. “How to Tell a True War Story.” The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature. Eds. Michael Meyer and Doug Downs. 8th ed. New York: Bedford / St. Martins, 2008. 174-183. Print.


Climate Change Definition and Causes Analytical Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

What is Climatic Change?

Explain the natural causes of climatic change

How does human population play a role climatic change?


Works Cited

Introduction Weather is known to change its pattern every now and again as observed throughout the globe. In studying the average pattern of weather, climate becomes the understudy. This average pattern usually stays the same for centuries.

On the other hand, earth changes every time, with several human activities as well as natural occurrences, which change the climate in many ways. This paper will try to define climatic change, explain its natural causes as well as the role human population play in climatic change (“Global Warming and Climate Change” 1).

What is Climatic Change? Climatic change refers to the alteration of statistical properties of weather pattern, usually for as long period such as millions of years. This alteration can be observed with respect to well-known weather situations or, in some cases, harsh weather events. Climate change can be experienced throughout the globe or in specific regions of the globe (Broecker 79-89).

Explain the natural causes of climatic change There exists several natural causes of climatic change, these include, among others, ocean invariability, solar output, volcanism, plate tectonics and orbital variations. The ocean forms an integral part of climate system and therefore, any prolonged fluctuations contributes to heat redistribution effecting heat redistribution in the oceans of the world. The sun is known for its natural energy that it inputs to the world. Nonetheless, any short term or a long-term variation in the sun’s intensity is of great effects to the climate (Broecker 79-89).

Likewise, volcanism exposes the earth’s internal materials to surface, in the process releasing gases to the atmosphere, which cause climatic change. For instance, Mount Pinatubo eruption decreased the global temperature by 0.5 degrees Celsius. Plate tectonics as well, impinge on both global and local climatic pattern over a lengthy period. This is because it redesigns the oceanic and land areas and consequently creates topography.

When such processes occur, the oceanic configuration is altered and this transforms the mold of oceanic circulation. Orbital variations also lead to climatic alteration as it varies the seasonal sunlight exposure on the earth’s surface. The variations, also known as Milankovitch cycles, have great effects on climate as they correlate with glacial as well as the progress and recoil of the Sahara (Broecker 79-89).

How does human population play a role climatic change? Human population has been believed to accelerate the demise of species in the world and climatic change due to uncontrolled emissions. Nevertheless, a new study made by a set of scientists regarding human population and climatic change has given signs of positive impacts especially around 2050.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, increasing urbanization is seen to contribute a further 25% emissions while the ageing numbers of human population in Europe, China, India and USA, is projected to reduce emissions by about 20%. Another factor that is expected to reduce emissions is reduced growth rate of human population. This is expected to reduce emissions by about 30% with the United Nations projecting a lower growth rate at 0.3% by 2050 (Verve 1).

These opinions are based on the fact that, urbanization would increase emissions because of increased supply of labor hence higher productivity and enlarged economies, while the aging human population would lower productivity and slowing economy, thereby reducing emissions (Verve 1).

Conclusion Climatic change is the average alteration in the pattern of weather over a period in a place. Its gradual change over the years has been as a result of both natural and manmade causes. The natural causes include, among others, solar output and volcanism. On the other hand, manmade causes include deforestation, oil and coal mining, among others. The human population is expected to play a major role in the reduction of emissions by 2050, thereby redressing climatic change (National Academy of Sciences 1).

Works Cited Broecker, Wallace. “The Great Ocean Conveyor”. Oceanography. vol. 4, No. 2, 1991. pp. 79-89.

“Global Warming and Climate Change”. PART 1: What is climate change? 03. Jan. 2006. 15. 04. 2011.

National Academy of Sciences. “Global Warming facts


Poverty and its Effects on Childhood Education Research Paper online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Introduction The effects of poverty on the extent of children’s educational attainment have been the subject of academic debates for quite some time now. The reason for this is simple – there is a strongly defined rationale in assumption that, due to being exposed to poverty, children get to be deprived of a number of educational opportunities, which in its turn, lessens their chances to attain social prominence later in life.

According to Hamburg (1985): “Poverty does not harm all children, but it does put them at greater developmental risk, through the direct physical consequences of deprivation, the indirect consequences of severe stress on the parent-child relationship, and the overhanging pall of having a depreciated status in the social environment” (p. 4).

Nevertheless, even though that, while participating in subject-related discussion, most researches do agree with the idea that exposure to poverty does undermine children and adolescents’ chances to become the productive members of society; they often tend to refer to the discussed subject matter from qualitatively different perspectives.

In this paper, we will aim to substantiate the validity of an earlier articulated suggestion at length by summarizing and critically analyzing three peer-reviewed articles, concerned with exploration of different aspects of a childhood poverty theme, in relation to a number of education-related issues.

Summary/Critique Guo, G. (1998). The timing of the influences of cumulative poverty on children’s cognitive ability and achievement. Social Forces, 77(1), 257-287.

In her article, Guo hypothesized that educational effects of children’s exposure to poverty should be discussed within the context of what accounts for children’s academic ‘ability’ and ‘achievement’, as according to the author, these two concepts are being qualitatively different.

Whereas, children’s educational ability has clearly defined inborn subtleties, the extent of their educational achievement appears to be rather environmentally then biologically predetermined. What is means is that, it is during the course of their adolescent years that students’ exposure to poverty is being particularly contra-beneficial, in educational sense of this word.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to substantiate the validity of such her hypothesis, Guo conducted a longitudinal analysis of an available sociological data, in regards to the spatially defined characteristics of 12686 youths’ academic successfulness, through years 1979-1992: “The original national sample of the NLSY included a total of 12,686 youths aged 14-21 as of January 1, 1979, with African Americans, Hispanics, and economically disadvantaged Whites oversampled. Starting in 1986, the cognitive outcomes of the children of the female youth were assessed every two years in 1986, 1988, 1990, and 1992” (p. 265).

As it appears, Guo’s empirical findings do in fact support the soundness of study’s initial hypothesis – according to these findings, it makes so much more sense discussing the effects of poverty on children’s educational achievement rather than on their educational ability per se: “Empirical findings support the achievement hypothesis that poverty experienced during early adolescence after childhood is particularly important for achievement” (p. 282).

It is needless to mention, of course, that such author’s conclusion subtly undermines the legitimacy of strictly environmental approaches to dealing with the issue of children’s academic inadequacy. And, since there are many good reasons to consider these approaches as essentially anti-scientific, it will not be much of an exaggeration, on our part to refer to article’s discursive conclusion as truly enlightening.

The foremost strength of Guo’s study is that in it, author succeeded with substantiating the full soundness of an idea that children’s exposure to poverty cannot possibly be thought of as only the factor that contributes to the lessening of their chances to attain good education. In its turn, this undermines the conceptual validity of a number of currently active social-assistance programs, designed to help ‘underprivileged’ youths to make the best of their lives, such as Head Start.

Therefore, the value of study’s apparent innovativeness should not be regarded as ‘thing in itself’ – by having proven the fact that it is methodologically inappropriate to think that the exposure to poverty undermines children’s cognitive abilities, as it is being commonly assumed nowadays, Guo had revealed the sheer fallaciousness of the most fundamental tenets of ‘multiculturalism’, as the concept based upon irrational belief in people’s equality.

At the same time, it would be wrong to suggest that Guo’s study does not feature any weaknesses. For example, even though author had admitted the inborn subtleties of one’s rate of IQ, throughout the empirical part of her research, she did not bother to outline the correlatives between children’s ability to indulge in abstract reasoning and the particulars of their racial affiliation.

Also, study’s overall conclusion: “The substantial effects of childhood poverty on childhood ability suggest considerable benefits from early intervention programs such as Head Start for young children” (p. 283), does not seem to correlate with earlier articulated idea that young children’s genetically predetermined cognitive abilities cannot be facilitated to a considerable extent by the mean of an environmental intervention.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Poverty and its Effects on Childhood Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rank, M.


Can Literature “Tell the Truth” Better than other Arts or Areas of Knowledge? Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Thesis statement

Analytical part




Thesis statement One of the most striking characteristics of post-industrial living is the fact that currently dominant socio-political and cultural discourses grow increasingly marginalized, in intellectual sense of this word. In its turn, this explains why, as time goes on, more and more people are being tempted to seek answers to life’s secrets in tabloid press and in the books by self-appointed ‘experts on morality’, known for their tendency to utilize sophistically sounding but essentially meaningless New Age phraseology.

The validity of this statement can be well illustrated in regards to continuously growing popularity of Rhonda Byrne’s book The Secret, first published in 2006. Despite the fact that in this book, Byrne had proven herself possessing a clearly defined anti-scientific outlook onto surrounding realities, it nevertheless did not prevent The Secret from becoming a bestseller, within a matter of a week, after its initial publishing.

As it was noted by Smythe: “The Secret props up faltering dogma by relying on charismatic representatives and a lot of smooth talk, which is so expert and cleverly edited it is easy to miss the false premises, tautologies… and other varieties of fuzzy thinking”.[1]

The earlier articulated suggestion corresponds to the discussed subject matter (can literature ‘tell the truth’ better than other arts or areas of knowledge?) rather directly, as it helps to expose the potential fallaciousness of would-be positive reactions to assignment’s question, due to the sheer extent of question’s contextual inappropriateness.

After all, there is ‘fictional’ and ‘scientific’ literature, with these two types of literature differing from each other qualitatively. And, as history shows, it is only the scientific literature that is being potentially capable of ‘telling the truth’. In our paper, we will aim to explore this hypothesis at length.

Analytical part There is a number of so-called ‘eternal questions’, which never cease puzzling the majority of growing adolescents, endowed with genetically predetermined ability to indulge in abstract philosophizing, such as ‘what is the universe?’, ‘what is love?’, ‘what is the purpose of life?’, ‘what is death?’, etc.

And, even today, many people continue to firmly believe that it is namely by reading the works of classical and contemporary fictional literature that youths would be able to find answers to these questions. The fact that as of today, the dogmas of political correctness are being forcibly imposed upon people in Western countries, created additional preconditions for the growing number of citizens to refer to the very process of reading as intellectually beneficial, regardless of the actual content of what it being read.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As Griswold had put it: “Women readers of formulaic romance novels… whom academics formerly regarded as passive vessels into which mass culture poured its most mindless drivel, are now reconfigured as agents, cultural actors making decisions and insisting on their rights”.[2]

However, the works of fictional literature cannot possibly ‘tell the truth’, simply because, as practice shows, they are being written by as much of dilettante individuals as most readers themselves. The only difference between the author of some emotionally-charged bestselling novel and the readers is the fact that, unlike readers, he or she was able to turn its graphomaniac urges into the tool of generating money – pure and simple.

Fictional literature is only partially able to ‘tell the truth’ only for as long as it contains empirically valid psychological observations, which in their turn, confirm natural laws’ full objectiveness. Yet, with the exception of Jack London’s Social-Darwinist short stories and novels, there are virtually no fictional literary pieces that explore scientific motifs, in relation to the qualitative essence of people’s existential mode.

It is specifically scientific literature, which is being rarely ‘read’ but mostly ‘studied’, that does offer people scientifically legitimate answers to life’s dilemmas. The reason for this is simple – even though science does not provide answers to just about all the questions that people might have, the answers it does provide are absolutely legitimate, because their legitimacy can be proven in practice.

For example, one may go about gaining an insight on the essence of love by reading countless romantic novels. And yet, the chances for such an individual to become enlightened on the subject of love, as the result of having read these novels, would still remain rather slim.

Alternatively, one may go about reaching the same objective by the mean of studying relevant scientific articles – as a consequence, it would not take too long for such an individual to realize that, under no circumstances may the essence of people’s romantic amorousness be referred to as ‘divinely’ but rather ‘chemically’ predetermined – this is the actual truth.

Given the fact that by reading fictional literature, people seek to experience aesthetic pleasure, which in their minds is being closely associated with the attainment of emotional comfortableness, they naturally tend to think of such literature in terms of ‘blue pill of ignorance’, as opposed to referring to it in terms of ‘red pill of truth’.

We will write a custom Essay on Can Literature “Tell the Truth” Better than other Arts or Areas of Knowledge? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, it will only be logical, on our part, to suggest that literature’s ability to ‘tell the truth’ relates to the extent of such literature’s emotional sounding in counter-geometrical progression. To put it plainly – the more a particular author expounds on the subject of morality, for example, the greater will be the chances for author’s insights, regarding the discussed subject matter, to be fallacious.

The reason why the works of fictional literature, concerned with exploring the matters of morality, cannot possibly be assumed of being capable of ‘telling the truth’ is simple – as practice shows, in these works, authors usually build their line of argumentation upon a so-called ‘moralistic fallacy’.

In their article, D’Arms and Jacobson define the essence of ‘moralistic fallacy’ with perfect exactness: “The most blatant way to commit the moralistic fallacy is simply to infer, from the claim that it would be morally objectionable to feel F toward X, that therefore F is not a fitting response to X”.[3]

One does not have to be particularly smart to be able to realize why fictional pieces of literature usually feature clearly defined moralistic themes and motifs – by indulging in moralistic reasoning, authors simply strive to divert readers’ attention from the fact that they are nothing but essentially primates, with the layer of their cultural sophistication being only skin-deep.

After all, just as it is being the case with apes, people’s foremost existential priorities appear to be solely concerned with sexual mating, attaining dominant position in social hierarchy and accumulating material riches. In its turn, this partially explains why; whereas, we tend to associate the reading of fictional literature with ‘pleasure’, the reading of scientific literature invokes in our minds the notion of ‘work’ – apparently, the realization of ‘truth’ can rarely be emotionally pleasing.

Therefore, even though the semiotic significance of fictional and scientific literary works can be formally discussed within the conceptual framework of ‘literature’, it would be so much more appropriate to talk of fictional literature in terms of ‘entertainment’ and of scientific literature in terms of ‘science’.

And, it is needless to mention, of course, that these two notions are being only superficially related – whereas, the concept of science of being synonymous to the notion of ‘truth’, the concept of entertainment is being synonymous to the notion of ‘diversion from truth’.

What it means is that that are no objective reasons to believe that, when compared to arts or other areas of knowledge, fictional literature is being more capable of ‘telling the truth’ – that is, of course, for as long as we think of truth in terms of scientifically validated facts. If we were to adopt a relativist perspective on the notion of truth, the suggestion that literature is being more ‘truthful’, as compared to science or art, for example, would not appear completely deprived of a rationale.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Can Literature “Tell the Truth” Better than other Arts or Areas of Knowledge? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More And yet, the adoption of such a perspective would prove methodologically inappropriate, since literature is nothing but one among many of people’s three-dimensionally extrapolated intellectual byproducts. In its turn, this implies the full objectiveness of the notion of ‘truth’.

Conclusion We believe that the earlier provided line of argumentation, as to the fact that fictional literature cannot be considered a particularly legitimate ‘pathway towards truth’, substantiates the validity of paper’s initial hypothesis.

Only scientific literature contains empirically obtained insights onto the essence of dialectically predetermined interplay between causes and effects, to which people never cease being exposed, throughout the course of their lives. However, since scientific books and articles deal with thematically narrow and utterly abstract subjects, they cannot be considered as the part of conventional literature per se.

References D’Arms, J,


Groupware Systems Quality and Efficiency Problem Solution Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

The processes by which organizations determine the kinds of information they need to achieve their business results are extremely complex. Technologies often predetermine the quality and efficiency of organizational decisions. Contrary to previous beliefs, organizational decisions concerning technologies and groupware are not always rational.

As a result, IT professionals must be aware of the contexts and environmental complexities affecting organizations and their decisions. How to choose and evaluate the best groupware is one of the most challenging tasks organizations must face. Simultaneously, the most important decisions about groupware are not about technology.

Rather, these are people and work processes that predetermine the quality and productivity of groupware systems in organizations. Organizations must be able to address people issues that create confusion and prevent groupware systems from being effectively implemented in the workplace.

Technologies are indispensable ingredients of sustained profitability in organizations. Businesses adopt sophisticated technologies to meet their strategic objectives. The use of groupware has become a distinctive feature of the corporate reality: according to Miller (2004), “groupware is similar to other systems that enable document management, often using a centralized system to work through business collaboration processes to create budgets, etc”.

Groupware benefits organizations and facilitates collaboration in business environments (Miller, 2004). Businesses use groupware to track and manage documents (Miller, 2004). Groupware can become an excellent instrument of fast and productive search among thousands of documents, which organizations create on a daily basis.

How to choose and identify the best groupware systems is the most challenging task for organizations. The latter must define groupware requirements, and this process is very difficult and complex (Boehm, Grunbacher


A Nation for the Massacre of Jews in Europe Term Paper college essay help online

The period between 1939 to1941 remains a historical predisposition for the Jews and Nazi-Germans as it was the period of the Holocaust. It was a time that the rivalry between the Jews and Nazi emanated. In light of this, many Jews were murdered by people whom they had lived cohesively. The details of those events are detailed by two books written by Jan Gross and Jan Karski respectively. Published on diverse dates, these books chronicle the events that happened in a realistic approach.

The events that catapulted the mass murders of Polish Jews are chronicled in Jan T. Gross’s book, Neighbors: The destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland by fellow citizens in a village resided by the Nazi’s in Poland. In the book published in 2001, the author uses pieces of eye witnesses’ accounts to produce the book that received criticism across the geographical divide.

Murderous acts were carried out by people on Jedwabne’s existing Jews. It was in 1941 and the Jews knew the people who carried out the act well. They had lived cohesively but on this fateful day, their friends turned to foes. The murderous acts were executed in an inhuman way. For example, the Jewish population in Poland were confined in a barn then set on fire.

On the other hand, the Story of a secret state, written by Jan Karski provides a personal experience of the Nazi-Jewish mass killings in Poland. Karski was a doctoral student in Poland. He gives an account of how the killings were executed in his book. Published in1944, the book delves information and the details of the massacre from a personal view. Karski narrates that while in a group of other Polish soldiers, they were held hostage by Russian soldiers under wooden barns.

In light of this, Karski plotted an escape with the help of fellow hostage, Lieutenant Kurpios. He underwent numerous traps and landed himself as a Polish underground in various countries including France. He travelled to London to inform the Polish government in exile there on the pains of the Jewish people[1]. In his experiences he encountered the difficulties that the Jewish community was undergoing in their foreign land.

Critique Gross’s book has arguably led to a foray of criticism from various quarters.

These quarters have been ethnologists and historians. Gross relied heavily on third party knowledge with minimal consultations in other study tools such as historical facts in archives. Historians argue that Gross’s work is more like a journal article and not as a work of history.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, he uses the setting of burning barn of Jedwabne to construct Polish-Jewish relations. He arguably focuses on particulars to make generalizations, simply known as inductive reasoning. For instance, he makes generalizations on limited data. Moreover, the book is so shallow in giving the details of the massacre.

It largely details the attacks with minimal literature on the reasons for the attacks. A casual reader with prior knowledge of the atrocities committed might find it hard to understand the book. For example, the book only chronicles the events of the massacre, making it partial. This implies that it looks at the massacre from a one-sided perspective without giving the reader the other side of the coin [2]

Another major flaw in Gross’s work was his alienation of facts that the pre-war Jewish- Polish relations had considerable effects on the Jedwabne massacre. He largely depended on the accounts of a single Jew to analyze the effects and chronology of the war. Gross singled out that the wars experienced in the town were more detrimental to the relations of the Jewish and Polish individuals unlike others in the regions.

In his analytical book, he only focused on those wars and did not discuss into details their etiology. In light of this, he provided a one-sided approach into the massacre. For example, he could have arguably detailed the reasons that led into the massacre and not only victimizing one side [3]

Story of a secret state

The plot analysis in the book is over riddled by the monotonous description of his encounters although it was a personal experience narration by Jan Karski. Moreover, personal narrations are overly dotted with fictitious parts. He hugely, just like Gross relied on his personal experiences eluding other important historical literature that could have helped to shape the story [4]

Even though the story was aimed at propagating a historical ideology, it takes the avenue of literature story telling genres such as narratives. By including personal experiences heavily on the story he washes out the historical salt in the massacre. For example, he takes considerable space in the book to discuss his intricacies in the war as opposed to telling the reader about the happenings. In light of this, Karski only shapes the discussion from his experiences without involving any other secondary source to spice up his story.

Historical Context The book has analytically given a green light on the events that shaped today’s German-Jews rivalry. Although it analyzed the Holocaust from a particular to a generalized standpoint, it arguably shaped the research platform on the rivalry between the Nazi-Germans and Jews. In light of this, the book articulates the birth rivalry due to the murderous acts committed against Jews. In this regard, the enmity tries to articulate as they happened in real times.

We will write a custom Term Paper on A Nation for the Massacre of Jews in Europe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Historians argue that for an author to claim to write history, acknowledging the works of other writers in the same subject is not only important but also shapes the overall work. It gives the work a background to rely on. For example, it takes account of a sole soldier to tell the story without putting emphasis into secondary literature.

Such actions water down the premises and subsequent conclusions that emanate from the historical-driven works. Usage of the same would have created a critical ingredient to achievement recognition in the story. However, Gross alluded to these vital precautions thus deeming his work rather a literature oriented story than a historical one[5].

Story of a secret state

Similarly to Gross’s work Karski left out a critical avenue for historical representations. He focused on narration as opposed to prose in telling out the story of the massacre. In light of this, he skipped numerous historical instances experienced in the course of his encounters in Poland to bring out a rather weak historical hypothesis. For example, he only uses his personal experience to tell the story. Although it brings the reader close to the events that happened in the Jedwabne massacre, it lacked historical taste.

However, it would be unrealistic to abandon the reality that the book has arguably helped in shaping the historical background of the Holocaust. Historians articulate the books as the avenues that enabled the realization of the Holocaust. For instance, after the production of the books, the Holocaust events became realities to many leaders notably in the political and religious spheres. This is because the books were published after the Holocaust since Karski worked as an undercover agent.

Conclusion In conclusion, the two books have provided a credible analysis. By using the personal accounts of individuals, the books have shed light on the intricacies of the Holocaust and also providing critical historical literature for future generations. By reading the books, an individual relates with the events like they happened yesterday due to the clear usage of the language.

Moreover, the books have used good language to be understood by all individuals regardless of the academic disciplines. For example, the books can provide a critical grounding for not only history scholars but also religious and theological studies. Religious and theological scholars can effectively apply the knowledge gained from the book to analyze the religious distribution in the world.

Works Cited Crowell, Samuel. The debate about Neighbors. n.d. Web.

Gross, J., T. Neighbors: the destruction of the Jewish community in Jedwabne, Poland, Boston: Penguin Books, 2002.

Not sure if you can write a paper on A Nation for the Massacre of Jews in Europe by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Holocaust. Literature of the Holocaust. n.d. Web.

Janet, J. Story of a secret state. 2009. Web.

Telegraph. Story of a secret State. 2011. Web.

Footnotes Janet, J. Story of a secret state.

Telegraph. Story of a secret State.

Holocaust. Literature of the Holocaust.

Crowell, Samuel. The debate about Neighbors.

Gross, J, T. Neighbors: the destruction of the Jewish community in Jedwabne, Poland, Boston: Penguin Books.


Personal position on Inclusionary practices Research Paper essay help: essay help

The campaign for inclusive education has been going on since Mann’s proposition of “common schools” in the early 19th century. The current American society is more heterogeneous hence, the rationale for inclusionary education practices.

Nevertheless, what is inclusive education? Inclusion refers to a community of learners, which involves a variety of races, cultures, religion, and level of learners in terms of different learning styles, strengths and weaknesses, physical and cognitive disabilities (Miller and Katz, p. 20). Inclusion thus creates a friendly learning environment that grants learners an experience of the heterogeneity in the society.

Inclusion means educating students with disabilities in the regular classrooms as well as mixing students from different ethnic, religious and socio-economic backgrounds under one classroom (Hastings and Oakford, p. 87). This provides a free and appropriate public education system for all children irrespective of their race, culture, financial background, and capabilities.

Hence, inclusion promises success for the disadvantaged child. Inclusionary practices provide a vehicle for realizing federal and state mandates such as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that require educators to grant all children an equal opportunity to education.

Further, putting students with disabilities and other limiting factors in a regular classroom provides an opportunity for the less fortunate children to experience their full potential in an inclusive community and hence have a sense of belonging both in school and in the community.

Inclusive education in practice is more complicated hence requires certain strategies for its success. For inclusive education to be successful, all parties must share the values of inclusion. This means that everyone involved in the education system must be aware of the importance of mixing all types of students irrespective of their race, culture, financial background, disabilities and so on in one classroom.

This will go a long way towards ensuring that learners do not feel left out and discriminated against. Consequently, children will develop a sense of belonging and will be able to perform to their full potential academically.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Children with cognitive limitations may think and reason at a much slower rate than ordinary children. Putting them in a class with students who have a higher IQ helps them in that their minds are triggered to work almost as fast as their counterparts do. Such children should be encouraged to be able to cope in the classroom.

Hence, it is important for teachers and students to value these individuals and appreciate their differences (Hastings and Oakford, p. 90). As Shafik Abu-Tahir states, “Inclusion is recognizing that we are one even though we are not the same” (Dattilo, p.26)

One of the major barriers to inclusion is negative attitude. Students and teachers have a tendency of developing bad attitudes towards students who are not of their race, or because they come from a poor background. Teachers may not want to include them in school activities such as school trips and symposiums.

This may make such students feel unwanted and left out and eventually develop a low self-esteem. As a result, such students may become rebellious, and register poor academic performance, anti-social behavior and other unruly traits. Therefore, it is imperative that teachers and students understand and appreciate each other regardless of their different backgrounds.

In conclusion, inclusion is the solution to the problems our schools face due to increased social heterogeneity in the society. Once students from various backgrounds, including those with disabilities and other limitations develop a sense of belonging, their self-esteem will rise and their interest in school will be at its peak. Hence, students will be able to realize their full potential because of the equal opportunities granted to them.

Works Cited Dattilo, John. Inclusive Leisure Services: Responding to the Rights of People with Disabilities. 2nd ed. State college: PA Venture Publishing, 2002. Print.

Hastings, Richard, P. and Oakford, Suzanna. Student Teachers’ Attitudes towards the Inclusion of Children with Special Needs. Educational Psychology 23.1 (2003): 87-94. Print.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Personal position on Inclusionary practices specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Miller, Frederick and Katz, Judith. The Inclusion Breakthrough: Unleashing the Real Power of Diversity. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2002. Print.


Investing in China vs India Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction The concept of foreign direct investment has been avoided by many for the claim that it is more often than not expensive and risky if weighed against the alternative of export and licensing. The introduction of a new plant or branch whichever the case it may be causes serious cost concerns since the company begins from scratch. The case is more serious if the company is beginning from scratch and not merely expanding.

This state of affairs therefore suggests that it is only multinational companies that can successfully undertake this process. This however involves substantial analysis and consideration of the investment opportunity from a political social economic and structural stand. The process requires a lot of knowledge on the market, capital, expertise and strategic partnerships to facilitate the inception of a company into a foreign market.

As far as criticisms go foreign direct investment is perceived as threat to the parent country’s sovereignty especially if the countries have had an unpleasant history in trade politics or social arenas. This is because they are said to present unfair competition to the local market and are conceived by the general public to be exploiting the local taxpayer to benefit other countries[1].

They have been perceived as capitalist attempts to exploit the available resource in a state only to abandon it once the resource has been depleted. The truth of this criticism is subject to thorough proof. There is no doubt that china and India presents a perfect arena for the analysis of the similarities opportunities and challenges that are evident in these markets in as far as foreign direct investment is concerned.

China has historically been known for its continued openness to investment. The country presents a positive ground for international investment by providing the essential factors of production such as labor materials and capital[2]. Chinas populates growth rate offers a sustained labor force. Twenty years ago the country’s annual net worth in economic terms was a mere 19 million dollars in foreign investment. This figure furiously grew within the next ten years to over $300 billion in the first 10 years.

There has been a positive effort by the Chinese administrative regime in ensuring that their legal regime motivates prospective foreign investors. It has made tremendous adjustments in its policy to comply with the World Trade Organization requirements in as far as trade regulation is concerned.

It has placed measures that ensure that the number of state owned corporations is minimized and regulated. It has purposely reduced its control in these companies as part of a restructuring plan for the economy. It has proceeded to consolidate most of these state owned corporations to reduce their monopoly in the market and allow enough room for entry of new players and investors. This has liberalized the Chinese markets creating an open window for investment in the various sectors in its economy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As critics have it, even in the effects of these policy measures the market still remains a halfway open opportunity. The uncertain political atmosphere presented by the dispute between china and North Korea presents a cause for alarm for an investor. Security is an important and necessary concern for investment and therefore this presents a risk in the event of war. Nonetheless the common observation has been in favor of liberalization and the increase of foreign investment in the country.

India also presents a viable case for investment. The economic background of the country has continuously suggested a positive trend. The country’s support sectors in education religion and culture have been associated with a positive attitude for investment and business. This is supported by the receptiveness of its administrative regime as well as a stable economic trend.

The country has grown in foreign investment form a 1 billion dollar foreign investment budget in 1990 to become a worldwide second best investment destination as was reported by a survey conducted by the UNCTAD[3]. The survey suggested a high potential in the country’s subsectors such as telecommunication, construction activities and computer software and hardware.

India has also made strategic adjustment in its policy in the hope of creating more liberalization. The country has a restrictive policy portfolio that limits the extent of foreign direct investment in some of its sectors. For instance it bears harsh rules in the banking and finance sectors and restricts the levels of investments to allow for local ownership.

Investment in this sector can only go as far as issuance of shares in a restricted context of the company. In addition to this the investment also has to be licensed by the appropriate authorities. India presents several advantages that thrive from the factors within the economy.

The face value impression suggests that china is a more appropriate choice for investment. This can be associated with the dominance of china in many of the macroeconomic elements in an investment opportunity. However both countries’ development record is more or less equally impressive. Technically speaking China is an investment giant since it bears a heavy foreign reserve that goes to the tune of $1 trillion.

As it were the rate at which its development infrastructure operates in as far as construction and building is way out of competition for India. On a scale of ten the attractiveness of India is five times less than china[4]. Chinas export proportion in the national GDP stands at 50%. This has been motivated by the change in import policies that have reduced the import duty by up to 6%.

We will write a custom Essay on Investing in China vs India specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An in-depth analysis of the internal affairs of the country discloses a different tale. The conspicuous reliance of the country on the proceeds of foreign investment are as a result of a failed banking sector and capital markets. A statistical evaluation of the financial institutions suggest that up to 70% of state owned banks are either faced with massive debts or are bankrupt.

The country’s stock market as crawled through the last decade collapsing with slight changes in the global economy. The last kicks of the sector have seen the local investors continue to save with few spending and investing. The result has been a creation of a negative trend in the value of other sectors such as real estate with the value of property falling to uneconomical values

It has therefore taken a deliberate effort by its communist leader President Wu and his communist supporters who have aggressively mobilized labor capital and raw materials with the aim of maintaining a positive public image of active and viable investment opportunity.

Undeniably they have succeeded in creating a showcase with its dictatorial and capitalist based methodology that has often resulted in unreasonable actions such as destruction of existing housing structures and reducing the role of the agricultural sector by reducing the amount of arable land and infect causing a high extent of environmental degradation.

The analytical stand is that the macro economics favor china but the more important micro economic facts lie in the favor of India. Micro economics concern factors such as competitive edge efficiency in the utilization of available capital as well as high productivity.

The Indian case on the other hand is one that provides hidden tokens not visible to the layman eye. The Indian population comprises of highly educated English speaking members which presents a perfect opportunity for training. India also happens to the most stable English speaking democracy in the history and jurisprudence of the democratic campaign. This falls into sharp contrast with the authoritarian regime of the Chinese.

India also presents a safe ground for a service based investment a window that has been exploited by the increasing number of western based companies that continue to outsource to India. The Chinese one child policy has made the population of the country grow into a purely elderly based population.

India on the other hand continues to support a large diverse population. The number of people within the under twenty age bracket in china is less than that of the Indian population. Of these young people up to 80000 enroll in American universities as compared to 62000. Generally India is much more independent as compared to the foreign dependent china.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Investing in China vs India by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More China has been faced by events of political instability with the number of protests increasing up to 75 0000. The Indian population has not been spared too. The number of these protests is however much lower. The Indian dispute resolution mechanisms have been able to contain these incidences through alternative dispute resolution.

Bibliography Vinod, P, Interpreting Corruption: Elite Perspectives in India. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1996, 110-111

Yasheng, H and Tarun, K. “Can India Overtake China?” Foreign Policy 2003 137-150

Footnotes Vinod, P. Interpreting Corruption: Elite Perspectives in India. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1996, 110-111

Yasheng, H and Tarun, K. “Can India Overtake China?” Foreign Policy 2003 137-150

Vinod, P. Interpreting Corruption: Elite Perspectives in India. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1996, 110-111

Yasheng, H and Tarun, K. “Can India Overtake China?” Foreign Policy 2003 137-150


Investing in China vs India Essay argumentative essay help

Introduction The concept of foreign direct investment has been avoided by many for the claim that it is more often than not expensive and risky if weighed against the alternative of export and licensing. The introduction of a new plant or branch whichever the case it may be causes serious cost concerns since the company begins from scratch. The case is more serious if the company is beginning from scratch and not merely expanding.

This state of affairs therefore suggests that it is only multinational companies that can successfully undertake this process. This however involves substantial analysis and consideration of the investment opportunity from a political social economic and structural stand. The process requires a lot of knowledge on the market, capital, expertise and strategic partnerships to facilitate the inception of a company into a foreign market.

As far as criticisms go foreign direct investment is perceived as threat to the parent country’s sovereignty especially if the countries have had an unpleasant history in trade politics or social arenas. This is because they are said to present unfair competition to the local market and are conceived by the general public to be exploiting the local taxpayer to benefit other countries[1].

They have been perceived as capitalist attempts to exploit the available resource in a state only to abandon it once the resource has been depleted. The truth of this criticism is subject to thorough proof. There is no doubt that china and India presents a perfect arena for the analysis of the similarities opportunities and challenges that are evident in these markets in as far as foreign direct investment is concerned.

China has historically been known for its continued openness to investment. The country presents a positive ground for international investment by providing the essential factors of production such as labor materials and capital[2]. Chinas populates growth rate offers a sustained labor force. Twenty years ago the country’s annual net worth in economic terms was a mere 19 million dollars in foreign investment. This figure furiously grew within the next ten years to over $300 billion in the first 10 years.

There has been a positive effort by the Chinese administrative regime in ensuring that their legal regime motivates prospective foreign investors. It has made tremendous adjustments in its policy to comply with the World Trade Organization requirements in as far as trade regulation is concerned.

It has placed measures that ensure that the number of state owned corporations is minimized and regulated. It has purposely reduced its control in these companies as part of a restructuring plan for the economy. It has proceeded to consolidate most of these state owned corporations to reduce their monopoly in the market and allow enough room for entry of new players and investors. This has liberalized the Chinese markets creating an open window for investment in the various sectors in its economy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As critics have it, even in the effects of these policy measures the market still remains a halfway open opportunity. The uncertain political atmosphere presented by the dispute between china and North Korea presents a cause for alarm for an investor. Security is an important and necessary concern for investment and therefore this presents a risk in the event of war. Nonetheless the common observation has been in favor of liberalization and the increase of foreign investment in the country.

India also presents a viable case for investment. The economic background of the country has continuously suggested a positive trend. The country’s support sectors in education religion and culture have been associated with a positive attitude for investment and business. This is supported by the receptiveness of its administrative regime as well as a stable economic trend.

The country has grown in foreign investment form a 1 billion dollar foreign investment budget in 1990 to become a worldwide second best investment destination as was reported by a survey conducted by the UNCTAD[3]. The survey suggested a high potential in the country’s subsectors such as telecommunication, construction activities and computer software and hardware.

India has also made strategic adjustment in its policy in the hope of creating more liberalization. The country has a restrictive policy portfolio that limits the extent of foreign direct investment in some of its sectors. For instance it bears harsh rules in the banking and finance sectors and restricts the levels of investments to allow for local ownership.

Investment in this sector can only go as far as issuance of shares in a restricted context of the company. In addition to this the investment also has to be licensed by the appropriate authorities. India presents several advantages that thrive from the factors within the economy.

The face value impression suggests that china is a more appropriate choice for investment. This can be associated with the dominance of china in many of the macroeconomic elements in an investment opportunity. However both countries’ development record is more or less equally impressive. Technically speaking China is an investment giant since it bears a heavy foreign reserve that goes to the tune of $1 trillion.

As it were the rate at which its development infrastructure operates in as far as construction and building is way out of competition for India. On a scale of ten the attractiveness of India is five times less than china[4]. Chinas export proportion in the national GDP stands at 50%. This has been motivated by the change in import policies that have reduced the import duty by up to 6%.

We will write a custom Essay on Investing in China vs India specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An in-depth analysis of the internal affairs of the country discloses a different tale. The conspicuous reliance of the country on the proceeds of foreign investment are as a result of a failed banking sector and capital markets. A statistical evaluation of the financial institutions suggest that up to 70% of state owned banks are either faced with massive debts or are bankrupt.

The country’s stock market as crawled through the last decade collapsing with slight changes in the global economy. The last kicks of the sector have seen the local investors continue to save with few spending and investing. The result has been a creation of a negative trend in the value of other sectors such as real estate with the value of property falling to uneconomical values

It has therefore taken a deliberate effort by its communist leader President Wu and his communist supporters who have aggressively mobilized labor capital and raw materials with the aim of maintaining a positive public image of active and viable investment opportunity.

Undeniably they have succeeded in creating a showcase with its dictatorial and capitalist based methodology that has often resulted in unreasonable actions such as destruction of existing housing structures and reducing the role of the agricultural sector by reducing the amount of arable land and infect causing a high extent of environmental degradation.

The analytical stand is that the macro economics favor china but the more important micro economic facts lie in the favor of India. Micro economics concern factors such as competitive edge efficiency in the utilization of available capital as well as high productivity.

The Indian case on the other hand is one that provides hidden tokens not visible to the layman eye. The Indian population comprises of highly educated English speaking members which presents a perfect opportunity for training. India also happens to the most stable English speaking democracy in the history and jurisprudence of the democratic campaign. This falls into sharp contrast with the authoritarian regime of the Chinese.

India also presents a safe ground for a service based investment a window that has been exploited by the increasing number of western based companies that continue to outsource to India. The Chinese one child policy has made the population of the country grow into a purely elderly based population.

India on the other hand continues to support a large diverse population. The number of people within the under twenty age bracket in china is less than that of the Indian population. Of these young people up to 80000 enroll in American universities as compared to 62000. Generally India is much more independent as compared to the foreign dependent china.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Investing in China vs India by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More China has been faced by events of political instability with the number of protests increasing up to 75 0000. The Indian population has not been spared too. The number of these protests is however much lower. The Indian dispute resolution mechanisms have been able to contain these incidences through alternative dispute resolution.

Bibliography Vinod, P, Interpreting Corruption: Elite Perspectives in India. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1996, 110-111

Yasheng, H and Tarun, K. “Can India Overtake China?” Foreign Policy 2003 137-150

Footnotes Vinod, P. Interpreting Corruption: Elite Perspectives in India. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1996, 110-111

Yasheng, H and Tarun, K. “Can India Overtake China?” Foreign Policy 2003 137-150

Vinod, P. Interpreting Corruption: Elite Perspectives in India. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1996, 110-111

Yasheng, H and Tarun, K. “Can India Overtake China?” Foreign Policy 2003 137-150


Movie Review: Monsters (2010) Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

If there’s one film in 2010 which has an obviously misleading title, it is definitely this movie. The word “monsters” conjures up images which are frightful and terrifying, but viewing this film may actually be disappointing for the most part.

The story is basically about a photojournalist sent to Mexico to babysit his boss’s daughter and assist her in getting back to the US. This takes place at a time when there is a barrier that had been set in place to contain the ‘creatures’ that have evolved from a plane that crashed in Central America carrying samples of alien life.

The plot thickens when the circumstances force the lead characters to tread the “infected zone” in Mexico – the enclosed area supposed to be inhabited by alien creatures – in order to finally set foot in ‘safe’ US territory. A love angle sub-plot is also injected in the story to spice up the manner which this narrative unfolds.

This film is said to have been created with a low budget, from the actors, to the set, to the special effects. This Gareth Edwards’ directorial debut film had a cast and crew of only 5 people – believe it or not. On a sad note however, it seems that not much time was devoted to developing the story because there is not much substance to start with. Not that it is a predictable or the usual run-of-the-mill alien chronicle or an actual based-on-a-true-story personal close encounter with an extraterrestrial.

It has a simple plot about humans trying to cross a territory where unknown “creatures” abound, although mysteriously, only the Mexicans are harmed and not the lead American characters. Even at the gasoline station where Sam and Andrew get to see 2 aliens up close, the main characters are left unharmed and the creatures just walk away after doing some kind of mating ritual.

Director Gareth Edwards makes use of black and white footage in the beginning of the film, which at the end of the movie, is revealed as actually what happens after the lead characters are rescued by American soldiers from the gasoline station they sited nearest the Mexican border. What happens next is supposed to be a flashback of Sam and Andrew’s story.

The production design is convincing. The destruction and deaths related to the creatures are overtly manifested with the uniformed soldiers, the fighter planes soaring the skies, the tanks roaming the city, the destroyed buildings, ruined cars dumped on trees, dead people sprawled on the road, the deserted towns and cleared roads among others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In sailing the lake and crossing the forest en route to the US, Sam and Andrew’s first encounter with the aliens are equally as spooky, and their escorts, who, despite being experts in these areas, surprisingly failed to protect themselves, leaving the lead characters on their own.

Most of the encounters with aliens take place at night – perhaps to add more drama and evoke fear among the viewers. The eggs lain by the creatures on the trees is one fascinating site to behold because of their luminosity as a response to flickering light, although the prospects are just sickening, if one thinks of the possibilities of all those eggs hatching and becoming full-grown octopus-like creatures in the near future.

The hues utilized in this movie are also varied, and is one aspect which makes this interesting. There are browns and yellows (in the hotel room and in the Mexican kiosks), greens and blacks (in the forest and the lake) and the other scenes made use of the regular normal hues.

The sound element also adds to the scariness of the movie. The creature made this particularly horrifying sound which is certainly unlike any sound, but is similar to an elephant’s squeal but somehow contained or coming from a deeper source. It also makes this fast clicking sound – kind of creaky, but very alien-like – which will certainly make one wonder what the monster will do next.

Cinematography in this film is excellent. A variety of shots, angles and different types of framing were used to enhance the storyline. The director made use of extreme wide shots, long shots, medium shots, close ups, over the shoulder shots, etc. There were extreme close-ups of funeral flowers, candles and portraits of the victims of this disaster. Some scenes had great views like the sunrise while Sam and Andrew were sailing across the lake – this evoked the feeling of tranquility and peace within.

However, this feeling is immediately cut short since it is contrasted with the images of immovable rusting ships on the river banks, with all the indications of carnage/massacre that just recently took place. There was also a variation of animate and inanimate subjects captures in the video, and camera angles were mostly eye level, although there were high and low-angle shots as well. The framing was first-rate as balance was evident in majority of the shots taken.

The actors in the movie also did well with the portrayal of their respective roles. Sam, as the rich daughter, did well in playing the part of soon-to-be-married lady pushing off the advances made by Andrew, the photo-journalist who was an employee in the publishing company owned by her father. Andrew on the other hand could have done better in putting more emotions into his acting. The man selling the ferry tickets did a significantly better job than he did.

We will write a custom Essay on Movie Review: Monsters (2010) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Despite being classified as a sci-fi / horror flick, Monsters does not quite hit the mark on either of these two genres. The sci-fi part may have been because of the fictitious story which is based on Science, since it is a creature, a monstrosity, and it evolved from alien samples. Still, due to the lack of exposure of these monsters – which appear in only about less than 10% of the film – it is even quite difficult to imagine these creatures.

There are also a lot of questions these creatures raise like what do they feed on, what they do with humans, how can they be killed, etc. It is not really a horror flick because the monsters are just huge, that’s it. The monstrosity is what makes it extraordinary and formidable. They were not even shown coiling their tentacles on people or directly harming a person. There is some element of suspense definitely, but not really horror.

It sometimes even borders on confusion because the creature was shown to have a lot of tentacles when they saw the monster in the river. However, the next time around, it had legs like that of a spider; hence, the viewer is left in a quandary. In the next scene, the pick-up truck in front of them (Sam and Andrew in the van) is pulled up by tentacles or what appear to be giant tree vines. The only justification for this is perhaps there were varied alien species and distinguishing one from the other can be difficult.

The first half of the movie is quite slow and boring where the viewer is wont to ask “So where are the monsters?” The pacing of the movie only gets pumped up during the 2nd half of the film when the creature makes its first appearance to the lead characters in the river, while Sam and Andrew were being transported to their destination.

Another question that needs to be raised is the use of the gas mask. Initially, it seemed like the gas mask was a necessity in travelling the so-called “infected zone”. However, the lead characters are shown without gas masks and their escorts do not even provide them with gas masks as they get to face the creature the second time. This is one question that was never answered in the film. Was it just an added prop to make the “alien invasion” more convincing?

It is said that much of the special effects in this film were done through the use of computers. The director himself, Gareth Edwards, was directly responsible in creating the special effects used in this motion picture. The Monsters in this film were actually designed by Edwards through the use of Adobe Creative Suite.

Edwards designed “tentacled bioluminescent aliens using images of deep sea fish and animating them with the modeling software 3ds Max” (Kohn, 1). Gareth Edwards is a very talented individual and this is not the first time that he did the special effects for a film. He has a host of other films – documentaries in particular – where he has applied this talent for visual effects, and he is preparing to do more in the offing.

It’s only in the last few scenes of this movie that the monsters are given a lot of exposure. The two main characters – Sam and Andrew – get to see two alien creatures dancing and communicating with each other in full view. The story could have been richer and with more of the oomph found in sci-fi flicks if Edwards allocated more scenes for the monsters than the questionable love angle between the main characters.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Movie Review: Monsters (2010) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As mentioned earlier, the film raises a lot of questions. There was one statement made by Sam and Andrew’s escorts that the creatures do not do anything if they are left alone, hence, the Mexicans can still risk living in their country, even in the “infected zones”. The question however is why the creature still attacked the soldiers who were transporting Sam and Andrew.

Does this imply that the monsters are now asserting their superiority over humans? Has it gone out of control? Or have the Mexicans been really mistaken? Since these questions were left hanging at the end of this film, perhaps it would help to assess the possible reasons the director preferred this type of ending, or perhaps the viewer should draw his/her own conclusion. Is this film actually a satire? Is it possible that there really is more than meets the eye in this film? Any scenario is possible to make this film more relevant to the viewer.

Then again, it’s also possible that Director Edwards wants to create an effect that is similar to the mind-warping that other film directors resort to, in order to create an “auteur” image before the public. From a more optimistic perspective of this art work, here is what other critics have to say: “If ‘Monsters’ is any indication, first-time director, Gareth Edwards, will be dazzling audiences for years to come” (Armstrong, 1).

Works Cited Monsters (2010). Dir. Gareth Edwards. Perf. Whitney Able, Scooty McNairy. Magnet Releasing (US), Vertigo Films (UK). 2010. Film.

Kohn, Eric. “Making Movies with Laptops and Ingenuity”. The New York Times/Movies. 13 Oct. 2010. Web.

Armstrong, Eric. “Monsters (2010)”. The Moving Arts Film Journal. 21 Jan. 2011. Web.


Gulliver’s Travels: Modern Interpretation of the Famous Story Research Paper college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction.

Gulliver’s Travels in literature.

Screen versions of Gulliver’s Travels.

Modern society and the story of Gulliver.


Works Cited

Introduction. When considering the book of Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels, it is essential to remember that this is one of those works which raises far too many questions, rather than gives certain answers. Many people admit that the book “does not admit to easy categorization” (Smith 20). However, the majority of people still regard the book as a story for children (Zapata 65).

Admittedly, this is one of the most famous literary works worldwide which, naturally, inspired many people to make numerous versions of Gulliver’s story. Film versions of the story deserve special attention since cinematography is the most available source of learning anything. Notably, Hollywood created several stories which correspond to the existing stereotype concerning the book.

Gulliver’s Travels in literature. One of the first commentators of the book, Lord Orrery, described Swift’s work as “a satire, an allegory, a series of voyages, a “moral political romance,” a “philosophical romance,” and an “irregular essay” (Smith 20). Nowadays the book

… has been described as a narrative satire, a picaresque tale, a novel, a political allegory, a travel book, a parody of the travel book, an imaginary voyage, a philosophic voyage, and as both utopian and antiutopian romance. (Smith 20)

Adult readers are sure that in Gulliver’s Travels Swift criticized many aspects of the contemporary society. However, the majority of readers have regarded the book as an adventure story and child or juvenile literature. Perhaps, Swift is responsible for such misunderstanding since in the Publisher to Reader the author hopes that the book will become “may be at least, for some time, a better entertainment to our young noblemen than the common scribbles of politics and party” (James et al. 294).

Nonetheless, people liked the story and the book was translated into many languages and, therefore, there are many versions of the same story. Admittedly, translator should be regarded as a writer which tells the story from his perspective, so any edition and translation of the book can be regarded as a bit different story which bears traces of the times when it was written (Real 59).

For instance, one of the versions of the book is “a free adaptation” of the first voyage of Gulliver “with many departures from the original” (Real 59). It goes without saying that many countries have Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels which are quite different when compared.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Screen versions of Gulliver’s Travels. Admittedly, screen versions are characterized by even more “departures” from Swift’s story. It is necessary to point out that Hollywood versions largely focus on adventure rather than concentrate on eighteenth century’s society criticism. Notably, later versions picture modern concerns and ideas about contemporary western society.

In the first place, it is possible to consider two versions of the story. The first one is an animated film, Gulliver’s Travels (1939). This version can be regarded as a conventional approach to the story understanding. This is an animated film for children which focuses on adventure and funny dwarfs’ depiction. Admittedly, the first book of Gulliver’s Travels is the most famous and admired by children. This version tells a story of Gulliver omitting many details of the story but focusing on the major theme of friendship, love, and understanding.

The next famous Hollywood version of the story is the film Gulliver’s Travels (1978). It is similar to the animated film considered above. In fact, it is partly live-action and animated film. It also promulgates the ideas of love and friendship. It is also a good children film which is based on one of the most loved story.

The next screen adaptation of the story deserves much attention since it is not a mere story for children. The drama Gulliver’s Travels (1996) is quite close to the original version which focuses on concepts which are close to the contemporary viewers. Of course, the film is entertaining and even spectacular since this format is generally accepted by films producers and consumers.

However, the drama touches upon such issues as people’s ignorance, shortsightedness, pride, vanity, greed and meanness. Admittedly, the film is not concerned with criticizing eighteenth century English society, but it criticizes twentieth century western society.

One more screen adaptation of Swift’s most famous story to be considered is the film, Gulliver’s Travels (2010). This is one of those free adaptations which only take up basic points of the story and articulated their own ideas creating a brand-new story. The film depicts a story of the modern average man who has average problems at work and in his personal life.

Noteworthy, the film is quite overloaded with special effects which serve to created entertaining effect. The film producers also tried to convey their ideas and criticize certain aspects of the contemporary life. Thus, screen versions are also quite different from the original, though they have one thing in common. Apart from the fact that these versions use core points from Swift’s work, they reflect modern life and promulgate ideas which are valued in the times of the films’ production.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Gulliver’s Travels: Modern Interpretation of the Famous Story specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Modern society and the story of Gulliver. It goes without saying that Gulliver’s Travels is known to the majority of children pertaining to western culture. People get acquainted with Gulliver in the brightest period of their lives, in their childhood, when everything is perceived through a joyful lens. Naturally, people tend to go back to happy memories and are eager to spend some more time with one of the most admired heroes from their childhood. Thus, many modern writers and film producers find their inspiration in Swift’s story.

These people often use the story about Gulliver to reflect the modern society. Notably, Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels though written to criticize his contemporaries perfectly fits for criticizing modern societies. Basically, western culture did not change greatly since then, so many eternal issues concerning people’s behavior remain up-to-date now.

At present there are still many shortsighted people who are not ready or reluctant to except changes, just as in the times of Swift. Now writers and film producers want to promulgate ideas of good and draw people’s attention to their problems which are unworthy. The story about the traveler who acknowledged so many different worlds is the most suitable for this purpose.

Conclusion On balance, it is possible to state that Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels is mainly regarded as an adventure story for children and juvenile. Its popularity throughout times led to its long life in literature and cinematography. Modern writers and film producers use the famous story to reflect and criticize modern society which is characterized by many imperfections, just as the society was in the times of Swift.

Works Cited Gulliver’s Travels. Dir. Dave Fleischer. Perf. Jessica Dragonette and Lanny Ross. Fleischer Studios, 1939.

Gulliver’s Travels. Dir. Peter R. Hunt. Perf. Richard Harris, Catherine Schell and Norman Shelley. Belvision, Valeness, 1978.

Gulliver’s Travels. Dir. Charles Sturridge. Perf. Ted Danson, Mary Steenburgen and James Fox. Hallmark Entertainment and Channel 4 Television Corporation, 1996.

Gulliver’s Travels. Dir. Rob Letterman. Perf. Jack Black, Emily Blunt and Jason Segel. Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation, 2010.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Gulliver’s Travels: Modern Interpretation of the Famous Story by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More James, Heather, James Patterson, Thalmann Meyer (Eds.). The Norton Anthology of Western Literature, Vol. 2. New York, NY: Norton, W. W.


Industrial Revolution’ Process and Challenges Essay college essay help online

Introduction The period of eighteenth century was characterized by several developments in Europe. One of the key developments during this period was industrial revolution. Industrialization began in the second phase of eighteenth century. “Industrial Revolution was a period from 18th to the 19thcentury when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the socio economic and cultural conditions of the times” (Hudson 3).

Britain took a lead in Industrial Revolution and from this place it spread to other nations in Europe. The idea of industrialization later spread to North America and it eventually reached Asia and Africa. Industrial revolution brought drastic changes which influenced many aspects of mankind. For instance, there was a remarkable population growth and the level of economic production also improved. The mode of production also changed. In this case there was a shift from the use of human labor to the use of machines and modern tools.

Causes of Industrial Revolution Several factors accounted for the onset of industrial revolution in Britain and they include the following. Availability of raw materials from the colonies overseas boosted industrial production in Britain. The British government had established several colonies and it always exploited them economically.

For example, Britain got many raw materials from India which served as one of its prime colonies. Britain was also endowed with a lot of natural resources. For example, it had minerals like iron, tin, and copper. In addition to these, it had coal which was used for driving engines in the factories (Licht 23).

Availability of capital enabled Britain to invest in industries. Capital was derived from many sources. For example, they generated revenues from colonies inform of taxes. Part of this revenue was invested in industrial production of goods. Financial markets also provided loans to entrepreneurs.

Political stability also kept Britain safe from social economic upheavals. In 18th century a wave of nationalism was quickly spreading in many territories in Europe. Unlike other European countries that had political instability, Britain remained politically stable for a long time. The peaceful environment therefore gave the investors enough confidence to participate in economic investments. Britain had a strong naval power which insulated it from external invasions that would probably interfere with its investments.

Agrarian revolution that preceded industrial revolution was also an important factor in the sense that it boosted the production of agricultural raw materials. For example, cash crops and dairy products promoted the development of agriculturally based factories.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Availability of efficient modes of transportation enabled Britain to participate actively both in local and international commerce. Britain developed good transportation networks. For example, it had good sea transport that made it possible for it to import raw materials, and at the same time it exported finished products to overseas markets. Road and railway networks were also constructed in Britain and they facilitated the supply of raw materials to factories, and finished goods to markets.

Scientific revolution introduced new concepts and skills. During the18th century many people were preoccupied with making new discoveries which led to the invention of several machines and tools. In addition to these factors, trade also played a decisive role in this process.

Since there existed a high demand for the new finished products trading activities also increased and several products were transported to overseas markets. The finished goods fetched good prices in the international markets. The sale of goods overseas improved profit margins of the industries. The profits were further reinvested in industrial development.

Technological Developments The invention of the modern machines and other items was not a simple process as many people may think. It was a gradual process which was characterized by a series of experiments that were conducted over a long period of time.

The scientists and entrepreneurs who are today accredited for these inventions faced myriad challenges. Some of them even died in the process of conducting the experiments. In some cases they even faced criticism from individuals who were opposed to them. During the industrial revolution many items were invented and they included the following.

First, there was improvement of machines. The making modern tools encouraged the development of factory equipment. Chemicals such as acids and alkalis were produced and they facilitated the manufacturing of other items. “Steam power was used both in mines and in factories” (Hudson 150). The textile industry was among the first mechanized factories. This was done through the construction of the spinning jenny.

Effects of Industrial Revolution Social Effects

One of the social developments that emerged during this period was urbanization. Most of the places that had industries attracted huge populations and social amenities were also developed. This is because many people went looking for labor in factories. Urban centers therefore emerged. For example, Manchester city emerged because of industrialization (Engels 134).

We will write a custom Essay on Industrial Revolution’ Process and Challenges specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Child labor became wide spread because of many reasons. Education opportunities were still minimal at this time and many children were given the responsibility of working. Children were often exploited by employers and they were paid very little money compared to adults, for equal work done.

Since child labor was more economical, many employers used it and it was quite common especially during the early period of industrialization. Poor working conditions coupled with long working hours really affected the health of children. Some of them contracted fatal diseases, while others were hurt in the factories. Most of them ended up dying at an early age.

Housing units for the industrial workers were inmost cases very poor. Many people who worked in the industries lived in deplorable conditions. They mostly lived in crowded slums which did not have basic social services. The squalid conditions in the slums often led to perennial outbreak of diseases like cholera which claimed many lives. Because of these problems strikes and job boycotts were prevalent among the workers who demanded for better services and working conditions.

Loss of labor also occurred with the invention of new machines. People who worked as artists or weavers lost their jobs considerably because they could not compete with machines. These led to serious protests against industrialists. The attackers were called luddites.

Trade unions were formed out of the need to come up with a bargaining power. The trade unions always served the interests of the workers and they aimed at making working conditions better. For example, they could bargain for the improvement of working conditions.

The standards of living generally varied depending on an individual’s social class. People who had meager wages led miserable lifestyles, while those who had stable incomes had improved lifestyles because they could buy new goods. The employers generally enjoyed life because they had a lot of resources.

Economic Effects

Industrial Revolution uplifted the economy of Britain and it emerged as the richest country in the 18th century. Since it got a lot of income from trade, it was able to expand its investments to other territories. Banks and other financial institutions developed tremendously. However, there was a huge economic set back in the colonies which were over exploited by the colonialists.

Political Effects

Industrial revolution was characterized by capitalism which brought about saturation of markets due to over production which could not much the level of demand. As the markets for goods reduced, trade barriers were introduced by various countries in order to safeguard their markets. European powers therefore had to seek colonies in order to get more markets. “This is what led to colonization of Africa and Asia in the 19th century” (Hudson 189).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Industrial Revolution’ Process and Challenges by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Industrial revolution was a gradual process which was affected by many challenges. Industrial revolution indeed brought many improvements in the life of mankind. This process did not come to an end at the beginning of the new century, but it continued spreading to other places.

Today many countries still strive to achieve their long term dream of getting industrialized. Sophisticated items and machines are currently being invented. I therefore envisage a better future for the human race because of the high rate of technological advancement.

Works Cited Engels, Friedrich. The condition of the working class in Britain. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Hudson, Pat. The industrial revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Licht, Walter. Industrializing America: the nineteenth century (the American moment). New York: Wiley, 1995.


Business Organization and Policy Report essay help: essay help

Introduction In today’s business world, many developments have taken place. Business operations processes have been improved significantly, for instance, many organizations have embraced the use of internet in various business activities. These include online ordering processes, internet advertisement among others.

Since technological development plays a major role in breaking geographical barriers, it was expected that technological evolution will reduce clustering of organizations. However, this is not the case. The incentives for clustering have remained intact even after perpetual improvements in business operations i.e. various companies still realize the need for clustering.

Reasons why companies still trend to locate themselves near their competitors (and often their outsourcers) In many cases, various companies tend to locate near their competitors and their outsourcers. Despite of the technological advancement, they still find it useful to locate near their competitors. This is known as clustering. Clusters are concentrations of numerous companies which are interconnected in on one way or another. In most cases, companies forming a cluster produce and supplies products or services to a specific industry. There are many reasons why these companies tend to cluster together.

Economies of scale

By locating near to each other, companies in the same industry can enjoy the benefits of group buying within the area. According to Freixas and Rochet (1997), economies can significantly reduce operational costs through fixed costs and increased returns in transaction technology (20). For instance, when many firms are clustered together, they may form coalition to deposit or withdraw together hence decreasing their operational costs.

Availability of raw material

Another reason why companies locate together is the availability of raw materials. In most cases, many companies especially resource oriented companies tend to locate near their resources of raw materials. This is aimed at reducing the transportation costs. This is more important in case where raw materials are bulkier than the final products.

Firms will also tend to cluster around their outsourcers in order to access cheaper goods and services. For instance, cloth making companies will tend to cluster around a button manufacturing firm. It is not economical for an organization to manufacture all its inputs. It will need to outsource some of its operations in order to minimize their costs.

By locating near their outsourcers, companies can easily communicate. For instance, a dress making company can easily give directions to the button making firm on the design, colour and the best material for making specific set of buttons. This significantly improves the efficiency while reducing costs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Innovation

When organizations in a particular field are located together, it increases their ability to innovate. For instance, organizations may join hands in conducting research. Business research is very expensive and it may require an organization to invest a substantial sum of money in order to carry out a successful research.

Many organizations may not afford to conduct research due to financial constraints. This is despite the fact that research can significantly affect the success of an organization. By locating near to each other, firms from the same industry can conduct a joint research in their industry. This will help them in improving their performance at a lower cost. Past studies has shown that companies in clusters are more innovative than isolated organizations (Koch, not dated: 10).

Clustering of firms also increases the level of competition in the market. When companies engages in production of similar goods locate in the same place, they will most probably distribute their final products in the same market. Therefore, customers will have a wide variety of choice.

By assuming that customers will behave rationally, they will tend to choose the product with highest quality level. Therefore, each company from the cluster will put all the efforts to provide the best quality product in the market. Such kind of competition increases the level of innovation in these organizations.

Kuah (not dated), observed that clustering will attract customers through innovations to come and compare quality and prices (5). Customers will prefer to visit an area where they can access wide variety of a particular product. This will reduce the time consumers spend while comparing quality and prices. This can only be achieved through clustering. Firms attract more customers by coming together.

Comparative advantage

Clustering of related companies has significantly contributed in improving their competitive advantage. The company’s competitive advantage plays a very important role in determining its success. Competitive advantage depends on what a company provides in the market for its buyers.

Innovation plays a significant role in improving an organization’s comparative advantage. Comparative advantage enables an organization to discover unique ways of competing with its competitors. Kuah (not dated) observed that firms in clusters grow faster than the average (10). In other words, clustering of companies increases the ability of firms to expand on their operations.

We will write a custom Report on Business Organization and Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Financial services

Another reason why firms have continued to cluster together despite of the technological developments is because of the financial services. In order to carry out its activities, every firm will require the services from banks and insurance. For instance, a company may need to get a loan to expand its business. Firms also need banks to keep their money safe. Therefore, many firms tend to cluster near these services.

Apart from banking services, a firm will also require insurance services. Insurance is very important to a firm in reduction of risks.

High productivity

By clustering together, various organizations are able to increase their productivity. For instance, it becomes easier for these companies to access public good as well as information which are necessary in business operations. The ability of an organization or a worker to access networks of various kinds is a key component of economic success (Anonymous 2001: 2).

These include the idea networks, financial networks, network of vendors as well as other necessary services. Location that provides all these activities improves on the efficiency while reducing the operational costs. Bekele (2007) observed that organizations in a cluster could improve on their productivity by imitating or emulating each other (61).

According to Kuah (not dated), externalities formed by clustering of the firms facilitates the process of technological development (7). This is because the knowledge accumulated by one firm helps facilitates evolution of technology in other firms.

Other Reasons for Clustering Strong domestic clusters have also significantly contributed in attraction of the foreign investment. Foreign owned companies have played a very important role in improving the performance of clusters. They come along with new ideas and technology to be emulated by other firms in the cluster.

This has led to upgrading of various companies within a cluster. For small businesses, locating near their competitors is very important. By locating near their competitors and related industries, young companies can accelerate their rate of growth. It is also easier for the young companies to develop their reputation and recognition within the market when located in a cluster.

Different companies may also cluster in order to access transportation facilities. This enables various companies to access their human capital at a lower cost. Research has shown that face to face communication is very important to an organization (Anonymous 2001:1). It is important for the employees or entrepreneurs to come together to solve problems, make decisions and negotiate on various deals regarding an organization.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Organization and Policy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, many companies will tend to cluster in one place where mass transit or automobile means of transportation is available, affordable, and reliable to bring people together (Anonymous 2001: 1). People prefer to work in places where they do not have to travel for long.

Many organizations have also been enticed to locate near to each other in order to access the public goods. For instance, firms may chose to locate in a certain place where they can access reliable security. Firms will also tend to cluster in an area where they can access good drainage facilities. It is also cheaper to provide government services when organizations are located near to each other rather than when they are dispersed.

Relevance of External Economies of Scale Economies of scale are the privileges which an organization enjoy due to its size for instance low costs per unit produced (Cowley, not dated, par 1). When companies are located close to each other, they are able to enjoy the benefits associated with economies of scale. For instance, an organization can afford cheaper inputs. This significantly reduces the operational costs in an organization. Consequently, this increases the organization’s profit margins.

When firms are in clusters, they manage to pass lower cost to their customers. This enables them to provide cheaper goods in the market. Consequently, this increases their share of the market. This discussion has shown that firms in a cluster grow at a very high rate. With time, their inputs will increase and these firms will be able to enjoy bulk-buying economies of scale (Cowley, not dated: par 4). Firms obtain greater discounts and once again reduce their operational costs.

Firms in a cluster also enjoy technical economies. For instance, a cloth-making firm may not be able to afford a button-making machine. However, several firms in a cluster may buy a machine jointly and enjoy services, which they could otherwise not have accessed.

Influence of Environmental Factors on Corporate Structure and Strategy In every organization, there are various environmental factors, which affect the corporate structure and strategy applied by an organization. Every organization must take into consideration its surrounding environment in order to come up with potent decisions. Strategies applied by similar firms may widely vary depending on the nature of each environment where each firm is located.

The marketing operations of an organization significantly depend on the surrounding environment. The heads of marketing department are obliged to study the nature of the market in order to come up with effective marketing strategies. For instance, if an organization is situated in a cluster with a number of firms producing similar products, it will be important to differentiate their products from those produced by their competitors.

Differentiation strategy enables an organization to create a product that is unique in the entire industry hence winning customers from their competitors (Anonymous, 1994, par 5). Product differentiation is one of the most effective marketing strategies that are significant in clusters.

The level of competitiveness in the market significantly influences the marketing strategies. In a highly competitive world, the marketing strategy, which aims at outselling a product, is critical (Anonymous, 1994, par 6). If an organization’s product is weakest in the network, more resources should be committed at improving the product value.

However, if the firm’s product is the strongest among the others in the network, fewer resources should be devoted in improvements. However, the amount of money invested in improvement of the product will depend on the profitability of such action in that particular market. Sometimes it may be uneconomical to invest more in a certain product.

Another way through which environmental factors affects corporate structure and strategy is through pricing. If an organization applies the market penetration strategy, the prices set should be low (Anonymous, Par 8).

When an organization is not the leader in a certain market, then the leading organizations already have created the expected prices in that market. In this case, an organization must pick the price that does not significantly deviate from those created by the market leaders. In this case, the firm must consider the prevailing prices in making strategies.

The government policies also play a major role in formulation of strategies in an organization. For instance, government may regulate the operational activities of firms in order to protect consumers. In this case, firms must consider these regulations while making decision touching these issues.

Business Planning Process and Policymaking and the Reasons for Change over Time In every organization, the process of planning and policymaking is very critical. The performance of any business is determined by the strength of the plans and policies implemented by the management. Business plan is the path that leads an organization to its target (Drost 2001: par 1).

When firm is in a cluster, business plan is necessary in directing the firm’s operations in the right direction. An organization can also use a business planning process as a means of creating new business opportunities in the market hence increasing sales (Orchtel, 2009: 1).

While making a business plan, it is important to come up with a name, which integrates with the product dealt with (Drost 2001: par 2). It should sell the product.

While making a business plan, it is also necessary to have a vision and mission. That is, the future of the organization. Other important elements in business planning are the objectives and goals. For instance, a firm in a cluster should set its goals based on the nature of their environment. The goals should be set to specific time lines (Drost 2001: par 4).

SWOT analysis is also important in business planning. Through the SWOT analysis, an organization is able to identify its strengths and weaknesses. It will also be able to identify its threats in the market. This is necessary especially for the firms in clusters as it helps an organization to improve on its performance.

There are several reasons for organizational change. To start with, organizations may change due to technological changes. For instance, machines now do most of the tasks that has been done manually in many firms. Organizations must make changes in their organizations in order to accommodate technological changes.

Another reason for organizational change is due to changes in consumer needs. Customers’ needs are always changing. It is the duty of an organization to make necessary adjustments in order to meet the needs of their clients. For instance, an organization should make an intensive research on the customer needs in order to meet these needs. The success of an organization is determined by its ability to satisfy consumer needs.

Another reason for change over time in organizations is changes in outside regulations that govern an organization. When outside regulations change, firms must change accordingly in order to conform to these rules and regulations.

Conclusion In conclusion, this discussion has clearly shown that there is a justified need for companies to cluster even in the contemporary business world that is characterized by advanced technological developments. The study has shown that most of the advantages associated with clustering of firms still hold even with technological advancement. Firms still continues to enjoy the benefits of geographical proximity with their competitors.

For instance, firms can still enjoy the advantages of economies of scale when they locate close to other firms in the same industry. Firms are also encouraged to locate close to each other in order to enjoy financial services and other public facilities. Several firms have significantly increased their productivity levels through the combined benefits of advanced technology and clustering. This has significantly contributed to the success of majority of firms.

References List Anonymous, 1994. Marketing Plan. Web

Anonymous. 2001. Why Do IT Companies Cluster? Web.

Bekele, G., 2007. Agglomeration, Spatio-Economic Clustering and Competitive Performance: Methodological Approaches and Empirical Evidence from the U.S. Ney York, ProQuest.

Cowley, J., Production. Web.

Drost, H., 2001. Steps to Creating a Simple Business Plan. Web.

Freixas, X., and Rochet, J., 1997. Microeconomics of Banking. New York, MIT Press.

Kuah, A., Cluster Theory and Practice: Advantages for Small Business locating in a Vibrant Cluster. Web.

Ochtel, R., 2009. Business Planning, Business Plans and Venture Funding: A Definitive Reference Guide for Start-up Companies. California, Carlsbad Publishing.


Wal-Mart’s Ethical Issues Research Paper best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Wal-Mart’s Ethical Issues

Conflict of Ethical Values

Outcomes and Consequences

Ethical Values of Wal-Mart

Critical analysis of Wal-Mart



Introduction Today, Wal-Mart faces a variety of publicities especially form the media, either negative or positive, depending on the point of view or topic of discussion. One of the most common topics is that of favouritism that faces incomprehensible thoughts within the corporate structure.

In analysis of various normative theories in what is commonly referred to as Sidgwick’s Stratagem, Henry Sidgwick shows existence of intuitionism, just egoism (“Egoistic Heronism”) that supports chase for personal contentment and Utilitarianism (“Universalistic Hedonism”) supporting trail for universal just (Frost, 2009).

Although Wal-Mart top executives have different opinions over these claims, indications that the issue of favouritism is deeply obscured aspect within the corporate culture is evident. This paper forms an analysis of the ethical issues raised against or for Wal-Mart Corporation and the potential outcomes of some of the negative or conflicting views about the firm.

Wal-Mart’s Ethical Issues Ethical Issues

The common incidents fall upon daily undertakings with major occurrences common on their promotion procedures. Female employees with credentials, qualifications, experience and obligatory achievements fail to get the top/executive positions. Employees with high education achievements such as degrees also fail to get these positions for the reason that they have not served in the industry for long enough. They base their promotions on those who have had career developments within the firm.

If a person is not a long-term serving employee of the firm, the chances of advancing career positions are very low regardless of the academic credentials. The top executives of Wal-Mart will disagree with these claims but most employees of the corporation continue to raise their concerns through unions and their allegations often differ from the company’s vision and goes against company policies.

Kohlberg’s first stage of ‘Moral Development Theory’, which is very similar to Piaget’s ‘Moral Thinking Theory’, indicates that pre-conventional morality is a situation where people fear questioning economically powerful entities such as Wal-Mart, on assumption that the corporations are rightfully in charge of implementation of policies such as wage policies (Crain, 2009). Expressing concerns directly can label one a repulsive to company policies or culture and highly compromise chances of promotion.

Ethical Concerns

Favouritism in the workplace is a common ethical issue that many firms face nowadays. At Wal-Mart, the issue is mainly among the departmental or general managers during the promotion periods. Personal relations especially with the general managers or chief executives triggers some form of favouring that undermine qualifications of others.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance having a family-friendship form of interaction with the manager may cause him/her to consider your application strongly over other potential challengers who might have higher grades and better work experience as the position may require.

Conflict of Ethical Values Nobody should have priority for a given position or promotion based on friendship or other form of informal relationship. The managers must be role models in enhancement of ethical issues at the work place, instead of acting in a disgruntling manner. When business ethical values are compromised, it becomes apparent that measuring performance levels does not mean anything. Knowing the executives in private is the main business fixation that matters thus nullifying ethical practices.

Outcomes and Consequences Wal-Mart often faces lawsuits filed by employees against unethical behaviours such as discrimination. According to Hartley (2010), the company has among the highest number of pending lawsuits concern with ethical issues internationally, but promotions-related favouritism continues to emerge particularly during promotion time. Wal-Mart records indicate that it faced over four thousand lawsuits in 2004, an equivalent count of approximately a new count every two hours, meaning that it stands as a defendant in court six times every working day (Hartley, 2010).

The juries often rule in favour of the giant company especially owing to the fact that lawyers specialize in suing such big companies due to possible hefty material rewards if the ruling goes against the company. This favouritism unethical behaviours during employment and promotion procedures, does not affect the corporate levels but store level personnel.

Such unethical acts that keep reoccurring year after another are not easy to change and eventually overcome, it is only possible to analyze the consequences with time. According to Kohlberg’s Moral Development Theory, people are eager to maintain a morally upright society through social and individual rights questioning but it fails to be ideal because different social groups have different values.

Wal-Mart is the world largest retail store. The corporation is a private employer that faces great admiration as well as huge criticism especially on matters concerning its practices of employment. Some of these claims of unethical acts can cause huge economical effects on the corporation due to community reactions such as decisions to shop elsewhere in protest. Are the clients ethical is shopping in stores that have a link to unethical behaviours/ practices? The decision mainly depends with personal values (Frost, 2009).

Most people find it unethical to continue buying from a company that is linked to various malpractices against their employees, but they continue shopping at the stores because the company offers the most economical products within their level. They make their personal values based on personal benefits and not the company’s progressive descriptions.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Wal-Mart’s Ethical Issues specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Personal mutual fund investments may end up being invested in Wal-Mart, yet one fails to shop at the stores. You protest their unethical acts by failing to shop at their malls, but you are an indirect company shareholder. Arguably, standing by personal true values would require withholding from mutual investments to the company by finding out where your holdings are invested.

Ethical Values of Wal-Mart In line with Burrow et al (2009), standing by personal values requires critical analysis and consideration of various factors. Although the company faces may unethical allegations spanning from engaging illegal migrants, low wages, unpaid overtime operations and gender related discrimination especially during promotions, most clients still consider the company as the best-priced or discounted retail store globally.

The company also participates in great philanthropic work such as funding various local non-governmental organizations involved in various resource or human conservation activities. These forms of community relations are evident ethical acts that foster local community causes and development issues. The personal values that people make are thus a great determinant of the economic progress and normative choices.

Critical analysis of Wal-Mart On a critical analysis of Wal-Mart, the company pay low wages to its employees compared to the federal levels. The company’s policies concerning personnel aim at aggressively keeping the wages at the lowest level possible.

The old workers are retrenched as a strategy of getting young people who have good energy levels to perform at the low rates without protests. They also fail to pay overtime. Gender-related discriminatory acts are common accusations; therefore, Wal-Mart is not only a threat to basic living standards of employees but to majority of related persons, and thus the economy in general.

Other competing stores also lower wages or benefits for their own gain due to lack of competition and some good paying stores are forced to close due to in ability to maintain competitive levels. Wal-Mart also pressurises local suppliers to low products pricing thus compromising on their wages.

Conclusion Shopping at Wal-Mart is thus unethical, but boycotting is not a sufficient course of action since it does not assist in levelling the playing fields such as legislation to prevent unethical acts such as low wages or benefits. There ought to be strong standardized laws to control salaries, payment of health premiums for workers.

Treating people’s claims in an impartial manner and respecting their basic human dignity are principles of justice that grate philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and John Rowls emphasized. Leaders like Martin Luther King and Mahatma Gandhi also fought to achieve similar principles that are in line with the normative theory that emphasizes on distinction between right and wrong, just and unjust as well as desirable and undesirable acts (Frost, 2009).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Wal-Mart’s Ethical Issues by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Burrow, J. L., Everard, K. E.


An Inconvenient Truth Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

An inconvenient truth is a film by Al Gore elaborating the very controversial issue of global warming. Al Gore as a politician and scientist explicitly enlightens the public about environmental pollution that causes global warming and hence the green house effect.

Human activities carried out on this planet are the main causes of the disastrous global warming, which has led to drought, hurricane, diseases, tornados, and floods among other life threatening disasters. Carbon emissions from industries, homes, and automobiles among others are the main sources of global warming. Moreover, deforestation trims the ‘carbon sink’ and hence leads to carbon dioxide concentration in the earth’s atmosphere.

Al Gore uses visual arts like charts and photographs of the earth, hurricane, and floods to mention but a few to explore his concept on the recent dramatic climate change. He asserts that there is increasing levels of carbon dioxide on the earth surface. The correlation between human activities that increasingly release Carbon on earth surface and lack of vegetation cover are the main contribution to the increase. In the last fourteen years, there has been a high level of carbon emission.

The main effect of increased carbon dioxide emission in the atmosphere is the high ice melting on different mountains. Due to the high temperatures caused by global warming, the Himalayas, Peru in South America, Italian Alps, and Patagonia among others have experienced significant ice melting in the recent past.

In addition, many rivers are drying up due to global warming. Therefore, in the near future, water will be scarce because all the water catchments are presently under destruction. Recently, there has been high level of floods in Asia and South America resulting from intense ice melting. Conventionally, ice melts and evaporates due to high temperatures leading to high level of rainfalls hence floods.

The recent occurrence of Hurricanes, tornados and typhoons is due to high temperatures in the oceans and other water bodies. Such hurricanes include, Ivan, Dennis, the infamous Tsunami, Emily, and Katrina, which recorded high number of deaths and tremendous loss of property.

However, the main cause of these hurricanes is the increase in temperatures at sea level. Due to global warming, there is an increase in the temperature of sea or ocean water beyond normal levels. Consequently, there is an increase in the velocity of wind, which increases its energy levels leading to disastrous hurricanes. Therefore, as the carbon dioxide emissions increase in the atmosphere, more catastrophic events are yet to hit the earth in the near future.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The green house effect has led to high soil temperatures. Atmospheric temperatures have gone up leading soil moisture evaporation. The impact is drying up of vegetation due to lack of water. There is a high expansion of deserts like Sahara and the rest. Therefore, this phenomenon contributes to global warming because vegetation is the main source of carbon sinks on earth’s surface. Cities like Nairobi and Harare have recently recorded high levels of Malaria because the vectors, which thrive in warm areas, have migrated to high altitudes.

These two cities are on highlands; however, due to global warming from industries, automobiles and farming among others, the temperatures increase thus favoring mosquito survival. Other infectious diseases like avian flu have reemerged due the effects of green house gases. Environmental pollution has not only led to global warming, but also break out of new infectious diseases like Ebola and West Nile virus among others.

In conclusion, the global warming has led to disastrous effects on the earth. These include drying up of vegetation cover, hurricanes, tornados, typhoons, floods, depletion of coral reefs, earthquakes, ice melting and wildfires among others. In addition, there is break out of new diseases due to global warming leading to loss of lives.

However, human activities on earth are the main cause of global warming due to emission of green houses gases. The increasing human population has led to increase in vegetation clearance to increase food supply. Therefore, a decrease in human carbon emission and continuous reforestation is the only solution to curb global warming because trees consume any carbon dioxide that is in the atmosphere according to Al Gore.


Impact of the Religious Fundamentalism on Society Term Paper online essay help: online essay help

Some Christian, Jewish, and Muslim fundamentalists are using their views to control people in their community and worldwide and have similarities of being a cult. Fundamentalism, whether it is Christian, Jewish or Muslim, seems to be on the rise. Fundamentalists think they are defending the “true” faith, but are they? Why are these movements spreading and what is their nature?

Christians, Jews, and Muslims are religions based on the Abrahamic doctrines and are characterized by opposition to those who fail to follow their beliefs and teachings. These are monotheist faiths since they worship a supreme deity referred by different names.

They are ignorant of ‘others’ faiths and oppose their standpoint, therefore denying them mutual understanding and respect essential for people to coexist harmoniously (Ruthven 4). These religions have an “us and them” syndrome where they observe themselves as victims, and therefore marginalize themselves from the main society where they have continued to thrive.

In addition, religious fundamentalism forms the foundation of unrest since nineteen eighties, when Berlin Wall collapsed and marked the end of the Soviet Union, hence end of cold war hacking left its scars on Asia Latin America and Africa. Modern religious wars have led to great number of people being killed having religion as the grounds for inspiration and identity (Ruthven 5). Religion is therefore the opium of the masses as asserted by Karl Marx.

Fundamentalism is a pejorative concept used in a sacred context, which can be defined as firm adherence to certain theological beliefs due to a literal understanding of the scriptures and opposes the popular beliefs (Bruce 9). Fundamentalism is a concept that can be traced in the early twentieth century and is used in today’s world to refer to religious beliefs supported by individuals who see a need to identify themselves with original ideologies, which is essential in retaining their social and religious distinctiveness.

Fundamentalists could also be described as religious extremism or religious fanaticism, a notion similar to that of a cult. A cult is a pejorative term that describes a group of individuals, which has its own beliefs system and usually follows directives of particular leader who established it, and whom they worship. Some point out that a cult is manipulative and usually imprisons the minds of its followers through ritual practices where members devote themselves.

Cults are usually characterized by having controlling charismatic heads who brainwashes and indoctrinates its followers by ensuring their dependency on the organization is achieved by instilling terror, disgrace and guilt, which enable the leaders to exploit the followers. The directives are usually unquestioned and emphasizes that salvations is the way to survive apocalypse. They segregate themselves from the main society and usually punish those who abandon it (Willis 155).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Islam, Christians and Jews are main religions whose sectarian practices are similar to those of a cult, since they describe each one of themselves as the true religion. They restrict their followers from abandoning the beliefs and most importantly, they segregate defiant members who are bound to face the leader’s wrath when they do so.

For instance, some religions like Islam advocates for apostasy where one faces a death penalty on defying Islamic teachings. In such a case, these unorthodox practices are disregarded by public opinion that refers to those who practice them as fundamentalists (Bruce 10). In addition, religious leaders in these religions demand total loyalty and submission from their followers (Hedges 91).

Some, such as televangelists utilize their religious position to financially exploit through deception to the followers to ass wealth for themselves (Hedges 174). As a result, there is dependence on the members where they are assured that their generous contributions will lead to abundance blessings, not only in this life but also in the one to come. Moreover, these leaders apply tactics to ensure that the followers cannot question, or have an independent way of thinking thus there is overreliance on the leader for direction (Hedges 26).

Therefore, in such a case, the followers become united in a single brotherhood and a communal feeling is achieved in serving their one and only leader (Hedges 80).

The communal feeling however triggers the religious leaders to develop ways to ensure that their control is maintained by instructing its members to stop intermingling with the other members of the society. This promotes exclusion where followers refer to themselves as ‘us’ and the outsiders as ‘them’.

The members acquire a sense of worthiness where they observe themselves as having an opportunity to have salvation, which is a precious gift they need to safeguard. This thinking is exploited by the religious leaders who assures the followers that indeed, they are unique, privileged and chosen to have a chance of exercising the will of God, hence they will be rewarded (Hedges 88).

For instance, according to the article written be the Network for Church Monitoring, there has been a notion that Christian, Jewish


Climate Change Impact Research Paper college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Causes of Climate Change

Impact to the Planet

Could we be hitting a Mini Ice Age?


Works Cited

Introduction There is no doubt the earth has and will continue to experience Climate Change. However, the topic of our earth’s climate is a major concern worldwide. Many people confuse climate change with global warming. Climate change is the change in global weather patterns, whereas, global warming is an increase in the world’s temperatures.

But is our planet really warming, is it really a man-made problem? Yes, Earth is already showing many signs of worldwide climate change. But what’s causing it, and how might it change the planet? Today scientific opinion on global warming has changed. Most scientists theorize we may be hitting a mini ice age.

Causes of Climate Change The causes of climate changes are varied; first, the cyclical variations of the orbital processes control the solar radiation reaching the surface of the earth causing varying climatic conditions. Eccentricity or shifts in earth’s orbital shape from an ellipse to a circle and finally to an ellipse, within a time span of a hundred thousand years signify that solar variation is directly dependent on eccentricity (Pidwirny Pr.5).

The equinox precession as the earth rotates around the sun results to solstices and equinoxes, which alters earth’s proximity to the sun. Tilting of the earth causes climatic variations in that when it is least, it causes reduced variation in climate linking winters


Toeing the Line between Norm and Abnormality: Who’s Fat?! Analytical Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Paving the Road with Good Intentions

Down with the Norm!


Works Cited

Introduction As the plot of the story unwinds in front of the reader, there is only a single thought throbbing in the reader’s head, the pity for the leading character. However, there is mote than merely the conflict between the society and the “fat girl” exposed to the reader in the book. A clash of cultural viewpoints, the novel offers plunging into the enticing world of people’s prejudice, secret fears and the everlasting confrontation of an individual and a crowd.

As the plot of the story unwinds, the conflict gains more shades; starting from the confrontation between Louise and the society, it slowly glows into the confrontation within Louise herself: subject to the evaluations of the others, uncertain and weak-willed, the heroine of the story finally comes into the conflict with her own self, as if one piece of her self told her to listen to the others, while the other would cry for self-respect and the needs of Louise. Thus, it would be more reasonable to consider the conflict within Louise.

Paving the Road with Good Intentions On the other hand, it is quite natural for the members of Louise’s family and for her husband to demand that she took care of her health.

However, if taking a closer look at the situation, it becomes evident that each of the well-wishers except Carrie were guided by their own egoistic ideas – the mother was ashamed to have such clumsy and ugly daughter, the husband stopped loving Louise because of her weight – did he love her, after all, or were these merely the job prospects that enticed him? – and only Louise was deeply concerned with her friend’s health and troubles.

To drive the parallels between the attitudes towards Louise, pay attention to Richard’s acid remark: “I don’t want to touch you. Why should I? Have you looked at yourself?” (Dubus 175) and contrast it to Carol’s soft: “I want you to be loved the way I love you. Louise, if I help you, will you go on a diet?” (Dubus 168). Impressing, isn’t it?

However, it is still obvious that the support of Louise’s friend was of little help – it was merely natural for her to keep her “fat” physique. Demanding that she should change was as unreasonable as, say, demanding that a cat stopped being a cat and turned into a dog. The rest of the people did not understand it, though.

Down with the Norm! Another idea which Dubus suggests to the reader is that the norm created by the society is still required. Although it was quite reasonable for Louise to demand as much personal space as she wanted to, without restricting herself to the rules established fro God-knows-what purposes, there was still the problem of esthetics which Dubus raised. It was not in vain that the author depicted the despicable way Louise looked as she was fat: “Her cheeks had filled out, there was loose flesh under her chin, her arms and legs were plump” (174).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, Dubus raises even more important question: how to correlate personal freedom and esthetics? Van a man balance between the two? The sole person in the novel who managed to find the golden mean between body and soul was Carol. Louise lacked grace, her relatives and her husband lacked humanity, and it seems that the latter is much greater a problem.

Conclusion Unlike most of the moralizing esthetes, Dubus does not hurry to support either of the opponents, leaving the pains of the choice to the reader. If considering the story closer, all the participants of the uneasy life situation are well worth sympathy – they are all merely people, with their sore spots and prejudices.

Living in the modern society presupposes following the norm. Those who do not agree with the opinion of the society become outcasts. However, Louise’s viewpoint seems the most convincing – though outcasts have little fun in their lives, they still are well worth respect, while those agreeing with the majority opinion look merely pathetic. It is the matter of choosing one’s own lifestyle, not the matter of being right.

Works Cited Dubus, Andre. “The Fat Girl”. The Tyranny of Normal: An Anthology. Ed. Carol

Donley. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1996, 164-177. Print.


“The Fat Girl” by Andre Dubus Analytical Essay writing essay help

The Fat girl is one of the most popular short stories by Andres Dubus. It is a story of a young girl Louise and her search of herself, her love, identity and self-acceptance. She was in conflict with herself and the society because of her weight. In facts, her character is the embodiment of the girls of the modern society who suffer because of the extra weight.

The story gained a great popularity as it depicts the urgent problem that many people face and raise an important question: Should people try to be themselves or be the ones the society wants them to be.

In this paper, we will try to answer this question. We will focus on the issue of self-identity. Thus, we will analyze the story to answer a question: was it a right decision for Louise to lose weight and what consequences of this decision? Thus, on the one hand, she got thinner and it gave her many possibilities: to marry, to do things she never did before like swimming in the pool and wear nice clothes. On the other hand, she lost herself and could not enjoy her favorite food feeling hungry all the time.

In order to support the idea that losing weight was a right decision, we have to provide several convincing evidences. First of all, she became attractive and gained the approval of her mother who was never satisfied with the appearance of her daughter and encourage her to lose weight:

“For days her relatives and acquaintances congratulated her, and the applause in their eyes lasted the entire summer, and she loved their eyes, and swim in the country club pool, the first time she had done this since she was a child”. (Dubus, 172)

Thus, Louise’s self-appraisal rose and she felt another person, a better person. A young woman became the one her friend and family wanted to see her. She liked the way people treated her, and she felt more self-confident. Finally, she was the way her friends were. She was slim, attractive and she could lead a “normal” life.

Her new appearance gave her a possibility to get married, though she thought that she would never do this because she was not pretty and not attractive, “Richard was the first man outside her family to kiss her barbecue she was sixteen” (Dubus 172). It was an unattainable dream for her.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More First of all, because of the words of her mother when the girl was nine, “in five years, you’ll be in high school and if you’re fat, the boys won’t like you” (Dubus 164). But now, when she was slim and beauty, she could leave the thoughts about unsuccessful relations with boys. She had a beautiful wedding, handsome husband, awesome honeymoon and finally a child.

As opposed to “all the benefits” of getting thinner, there are considerable disadvantages of it. First of all, it is really hard, both physically and psychologically. The girl says about this time, “during her afternoon classes, she was nervous and tense, and she chewed her pencil and tapped her heels on the floor and tightened her calves” (Dubus 169). Moreover, all she could remember about her college years is her hunger and “meals in her room”. She was obsessed with the numbers she saw on the scales and could not think about anything.

But the most serious problem that occurred during her dieting is that the girl lost herself, “she felt that somehow she had lost more than pounds of fat; that some time during her dieting she had lost herself too” (Dubus 171). It goes without saying that appearance influences the psychological state of the individual. In case of Louise, it had very bad consequences. First of all:

“There were times, with her friends, or with Richard, or alone in the house, when she was suddenly assaulted by the feeling that she had taken the wrong train and arrived at a place where no one knew her, and where she ought not to be” (Dubus 173).

This resulted in depression and ruined the life she was building for so long. She was about to lose her husband and friend, she lost the approval of her mother. It seemed as if all people around her loved not real Louise, but the thing girl in her body. Finally, she gave up and returned to her life and her habits.

Thus, it is hard to say whether fat people should try to get thinner by all means. Leading a healthy lifestyle is important. But the example of obsession in the text provides that one should think about himself first of all. Every person is an individual, and we should accept ourselves as we are.

It is the most convincing point of view that we can see in the message of the story. Louise lost her identity. In fact, she was never happy because she could not be the one she was. The pressure from the side of her mothers and the idea that fat people cannot be attractive and pretty made her do things that made her life unhappy.

We will write a custom Essay on “The Fat Girl” by Andre Dubus specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Dubus, Andre. “The Fat Girl.” The Tyranny of the Normal: An Anthology. Ed. Carol C. Donley. Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1996. 164 – 178. Print.


European Conquest and Colonization of Africa Essay (Critical Writing) essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Why Europe conquered and colonized Africa

Tricks used by Europeans to conquer Africa

Response of African to colonial rule


Works Cited

The course of African History took a new dimension between 1885 and 1900 when the Europeans took over African countries as colonies (Vandervort, 97).

Before this period, larger percentage of African land experienced little interaction with Europe except the British who occupied Gambia, Lagos, Gold Coast and Sierra Leone, France on the other hand occupied Senegal, Benin and Ivory Coast while Portugal established themselves in Mozambique and Angola(Vandervort,102). The powers occupied African territory after a long period of free trade and peaceful relation between them and different African communities (Vandervort, 112).

Why Europe conquered and colonized Africa The Europeans initially considered African land as worthless, however, by the end of the 19th century their perception about Africa had changed due to the changes in Europe making them move to Africa for rescue (Vandervort, 145). They were motivated by several factors with political, social, and economical sphere among others.

To start with, European nations were motivated by economic factors arising from the industrial revolution which started in Britain and extended to other European countries such as Belgium, France and Germany (Hochschild, 158).They wanted cheaper mineral resources for their home industries claiming that resources were abundant in Africa for example, rubber was available in Congo hence being the greatest point of interest after Charles Goodyear had discovered its use (Hochschild, 159).

Similarly, industrial revolution led to increased capital forcing European traders and their governments look for areas to invest (Hochschild, 164).They believed Africa was the most appropriate area for investment since Europe had been flooded by goods produced, this enabled King Leopold get support from Belgium and British businessmen to venture and invest in Congo where he attained a profit of 28 million francs between 1878 and 1908(Hochschild, 160).

Secondly, the Europeans were motivated by political factors from their countries for example, since by 1870, Britain and France were the most powerful nations in Europe , after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871 in which Germany won against France and took over mineral –rich areas of Alsace and Lorrain, France therefore vowed to compensate by acquiring colonies in Africa (Hochschild, 280).

In addition, political sentiments regarding public opinion by citizens of Europe motivated the governments to look for colonies in Africa for example, in 1882 the French Assembly agreed to ratify De Brazza’s treaty with Chief Makoko in response to public opinion leading to creation of Congo as French colony(Hochschild, 281).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thirdly, the Europeans were motivated by strategic location of most African countries that would ease their trade movements into other parts of the world .The conflict of interest resulted to show of might by European nations such as France and Britain over the Egyptian (Hochschild, 284).

The loss of Egypt to Britain made France intensify her activities in Congo hence occupying Port Novo in 1882 while king Leopold II of Belgium after along travel over the world called a meeting in Brussels in 1876 aiming at stopping slave trade in Africa ,he then sent Henry Morton Stanley to explore river Congo basin which was strategically located for trade between West and Central Africa(Hochschild ,95).

Socially, the missionaries in Africa demanded protection from their mother countries as they faced several problems such as rejection by Africans and sometimes violence from rebellious Africans thus hindering their aims of civilizing Africans (Hochschild ,147).

Tricks used by Europeans to conquer Africa After the scramble and Partition of Africa, the Europeans were faced with a challenge of establishing their rules in over Africans. They therefore applied different methods depending of the reception of Africans: to start with, they used Christian missionaries which were to spread the message of love and brotherhood among all groups of people making the converts submissive to their governments (Hochschild,120).

They build schools bases on their faiths where children of the African converts could go and learn Christian doctrines at the expense of traditional and Muslim believes that had been rooted in most parts of Africa (Hochschild, 124).

Secondly, the European nations signed treaties with African rulers giving them opportunity to occupy different parts of Africa. For example, the government of Belgium sent Henry Morton Stanley to sign agreement with Congo ruler so as to occupy the Congo basin (Hochschild, 85).

The treaties were signed by African collaborators who were latter used as mercenaries against those who resisted. The Europeans also used the information from the explorers such as Speke and Stanley who gave repots on lakes, navigable rivers, mountains and minerals in Africa hence attracting the colonialists to Africa (Vandervort, 176).On arrival to these areas, their representatives were able to convince African rulers who later accepted their occupation(Vandervort, 177)

We will write a custom Critical Writing on European Conquest and Colonization of Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, they were able to use military conquest against African rulers who failed to recognize their rules (Vandervort, 184).Their military forces defeated many Africans who resisted giving them the opportunity to establish their rule in various parts of Africa (For example, the British used excessive force in Southern Africa in oppressing the Shona and the Ndebele who resisted against them (Hochschild, 125).

They also applied military force in East Africa against the Bunyoro of Uganda and the Nandi of Kenya ().The Belgium on the other hand used mercenaries from Zanzibar against the resistance to establish colony in Congo (Hochschild, 127).

To reduce the cost of administration, the colonialists used chartered companies to administer over their areas of influence and were charged with the responsibility of collecting taxes, building roads in the colonies and representing their governments in these areas(). The British used the British South African Company in Sothern Africa and British East African Company to administer over East Africa while the Germany used Germany East African Company to Rule over Tanganyika (Vandervort, 135).

In addition, in some cases the colonialists used bribery tactics by giving gifts such as cloths to African chiefs and kings so as to accept their policies and ended up constructing military posts to ease their attack on resisting communities (Vandervort, 136).

Response of African to colonial rule The scramble for Africa by Europeans resulted to conflicts between the powers hence the German chancellor Otto Von Bismarck invited other European leaders for the Berlin Conference of 1884-85 in which they agreed upon laying rules for any country wishing to acquire territory in Africa(Hochschild ,84).

During the conference the European leaders’ greed on areas of jurisdiction leading to increased aggression into the continent thus evoking African anger. The rulers were faced with options of either surrendering or retaining their positions leading to their responses, to start with, some communities developed resistance movement in which they took arms against the colonial powers in an attempt to protect their political and religious independence (Hochschild, 9).

During the second half of the 19th, the Asante and the Fante of Ghana offered great resistance to the British occupation in their land while King Leopold II encountered fierce resistance when the Sanga people of Congo led by Chief Mulume Niama rebelled killing one of his officers and refused to surrender leading to the death of 178 people by the Belgium army (Hochschild ,10).

Other African rulers such as Toure of the Mandinka empire adopted both diplomatic and military strategies when he requested Napoleon of France for protection against the British so as to safeguard his position, he however, failed since the Berlin Conference prohibited any signatory from occupying other members sphere of influence(Hochschild,11).However, French accepted the offer but due to their hostility ,he approached the British and later offered the greatest resistance against the European powers(Hochschild,12).

Not sure if you can write a paper on European Conquest and Colonization of Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, some African rulers collaborated with the Europeans who had conquered their land because they expected to receive several rewards from Europe. Collaboration was an African response to imperialism through active policy of cooperation and compromise (Vandervort, 156).

It was adopted by African rulers due to factors such recovering their lost territories from their traditional enemies for example, the Maasai of Kenya expected protection against their traditional enemies the Nandi who had conquered their land while the Buganda of Uganda expected protection against the Bunyoro who were their enemies (Vandervort, 123).

The African leaders benefited on short-term basis, through access to fire arms, consumer goods as well as protection from external conflict from neighbors(). The Europeans signed agreements with African rulers who applied collaboration tactics in order to reserve certain areas for their own interest for example, Dahomean government of Porto Novo collaborated with France to prevent the British expansion movement(Vandervort,129).

The benefits of collaboration such as protection against traditional enemies, material gains through fire arms and clothing as well as ruthless military expeditions from European leaders forced Africans give in to colonial rule hence colonization of Africa(Vandervort,134).

Conclusion The European scramble, partition and colonization of Africa emerged in the last quarter of the 19th century and witnessed mass movement of Europeans to the continent. With the defeat of Africans the European governments were able to establish authority over the subjects (Hochschild, 166).

They proceeded to institute brutal and repressive administration that called for African fight for independence. For example, King Leopold forcefully conscripted African men, women and children into serious physical punishment and persecutions over the harvesting of rubber in Congo (Hochschild 165).The colonization of Africa however changed the destiny of many Africans who adopted the Western civilization through religion and education.

Works Cited Hochschild, Adam .King Leopold’s ghost: a story of greed, terror, and heroism in colonial Africa. Michigan: Houghton Mifflin, 1998.Print.

Vandervort, Bruce .Wars of imperial conquest in Africa, 1830-1914. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, 1996.Print.


Improving I.T. Helpdesk Services Problem Solution Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction It is an inevitable fact of most I.T. operations that one way or another a client will eventually need help with a particular problem they encountered with a piece of software, hardware or method of operation that will need to be resolved. This is where company helpdesk services come in to resolve the issue through technical troubleshooting and assistance.

In a way I.T. helpdesks were created in order to insulate the main employees in an I.T. company (managers, developers, programmers etc.) from having to directly answer questions about a product. While many may criticize this practice the fact remains that in terms of product distribution several companies have millions of customers who utilize their products on a daily basis. It would be physically and logistically impossible for a single developer, programmer or manager to effectively deal with all those calls.

As such the process of customer assistance is relegated to a support system where I.T. helpdesk personnel are trained in the necessary technically know how needed in order to resolve most issues. There have been criticisms targeting the efficiency and capability of I.T. helpdesks stating that various helpdesks are only able to provide minimal support, cannot properly coordinate help services and often “pass the buck”, so to speak, when it comes to difficult or irritable customers.

The inherent problem with this assumption is that external I.T. support service companies such as Convergys and Sykes and various other outsourcing companies located in India and the Philippines have been shown to have more than adequate services when it comes to appropriate customer handling. There are usually efficient methods of problem escalation in order to resolve and issue, problem ticket handling and finally ownership of calls in order to prevent callers from thinking that they are not valued by the company.

On the other hand not all I.T. departments in various organizations have the same level of organizational capability as compared to large customer service and I.T. outsourcing firms such as Convergys. This does not mean though that the helpdesk employees are not as good as those found in large outsourcing firms rather the methods and processes utilized by such firms is far better than what is found in the average I.T. organization.

This indicates that there is a definite need to expand the current knowledge processes needed for adequate I.T. support for consumers. To this end this paper will attempt to determine what knowledge processes need to be incorporated into I.T. organizations so as to improve the standard of customer service and create a better reputation for the industry.

Proper Segmentation of Customer Service Representatives into Different Tier Systems The best and most efficient way of dealing with problems related to consumer related technical difficulties is to setup a tier system where problems can be escalated effectively leaving people at the lower end of the tier being able to take in more calls. This of course calls for a separation of the training process with tier two to tier three support representatives receiving more technical training as compared to tier one agents.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The reasoning behind this is rather simple, not all calls that are relayed to an I.T. helpdesk are overly complication, some can be general inquiries or minor issues that can be dealt with easily while others can be more inherently technical which require more expertise on the part of the technical representative (Hoffman, 1996).

When an issue comes about that requires a greater degree of technical knowledge than what the current representative has as escalation of the call to a tier two or tier three agent with more advanced training will allow the tier one agent to properly resolve the issue through the call transfer and immediately take in the next consumer related call. It must be noted that several I.T. organizations receive on average hundreds if not thousands of inquiries and product technical troubleshooting requirements on an almost daily basis (Hoffman, 1996).

On average though basic troubleshooting and technical skills information is needed for a majority of the call while problems involving incredibly technical troubleshooting compose around 2o to 30 percent of all calls received.

As such by separating the call volume between technical and nontechnical inquiries the helpdesk is able to resolve issues at a much faster and more efficient rate as compared to having all agents take in the same amount of calls. Such information is easily available on line and most I.T. industries should take this into account when deciding to implement changes in their company.

Creation of a client records database to record solutions and problems to well known issues In most I.T. helpdesk centers there are often clients and issues that enter into a call queue more so than what is considered normal. Such occurrences either stem from and inherent problem with the client being able to work the software/hardware properly or there is an inherent issue with the software or device that the company has yet to properly address.

In such cases it is necessary to keep a records database than can come up in order to assess whether a particular customer has called in the past and for what issue. The reasoning behind this is rather simple, if a helpdesk representative knows what other representatives have advised the client to do then certain steps will not need to be repeated which would enable a faster and more efficient resolution to the current issue a hand (Techrepublic, 2010).

Companies such as AT


Current Event in Marketing Research Paper college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Technical Communication

Challenges of Social-Network Marketing

Costs and benefits of marketing through social networks



Introduction Current marketing strategy is highly based on social networking websites or social forums in websites, since the sites have a number of benefits for due to high levels of online social-Interaction. Online marketing has been in use over the time but current trends show that companies are ready to diversify and invest in marketing through social sites or include some form of social interaction on their websites. The strategy encourages site visits and promotes sales (O’Guinn et al, 2008).

Technical Communication In addition, a contemporary marketing strategy focuses on amount of sales as unit for measuring performance. The strategy is preferred due to huge number of the websites users and the high number of transactions that social network marketing generates. The capacity and effectiveness are both attributable to social interactions and discussions regarding services or goods offered (Plummer et al, 2007).

Challenges of Social-Network Marketing Social networks form of marketing faces a huge challenge concerning information security. As technology advances, people are finding ambiguities that compromise patent laws such as the ability to hack business information. The risk involving consumer identity also incarcerates freedom of potential users.

Current marketing strategies are thus based upon virtual or online social networks. However, the security threats are making clients to become keener in clarifying the viability of a site before venturing into interactions or online transactions. These security risks are mainly showing more aggression in vibrant social sites such as Hi5, MySpace, twitter, Face-book especially due to their links to various emails servers or the personal information that each user must submit before commencement of interaction sessions.

Socialization is also promoting formation of effective business alliances. This is quite a huge challenge since businesses need to enhance the right security measure that caters for Information safety. The recent security attack on giant web-based companies, Google and Yahoo in China, is a clear indication that this form of marketing requires major investments on security measures. People fear loss of personal integrity due to compromised data such as use of personal information by fraudsters for malicious acts (Wimmer and Dominick, 2005).

The hefty investments by public and private sectors in the implementation of infrastructure especially in developing countries point outs that there is vigorous competition among firms in getting message, goods or services across the borders. The social marketing sites are also being quantified and regulated to ensure information security and provision of legal framework in cases of rights violations.

Costs and benefits of marketing through social networks There is a lot of enthusiasm among the internet users especially the youth created by social networks or the concepts of social networking in various sites. The practices of interaction are equally advancing at a high rate and today most firms are able to incorporate the online chatting systems to cater for its clients’ needs/inquiries. Internet browsing is a leisure activity for many people and this is a strong advantage for the advertising firms since they can easily find and capture the attention of the site visitors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The process also avails a cheap and easy way of interaction between the client and the firm representatives, thus easiness on diversification of needs. Social sites present marketers with the latest information regarding clients’ demands and therefore they are able to adjust easily in accordance with the demands and build stronger or better relationships with clients at a lower cost.

The networks also present clients with an easier and convenient method of accessing information about services or products. The direct form of online interaction also enables them to gain wide-ranging information about products or services. The firms do not require a lot of persuasion procedures or bargains during trade.

During the online marketing, the niche market is not defined and sites provide data that relates to general market sizes. The diversity of market is thus a huge advantage to firms since they can find profitable opportunities both locally and internationally.

They have ability to analyze powers of potential clients, thus confront only those strategies that would alleviate sales. (Cooper et al, 2009). Today’s marketing styles is thus more focused on automation of interaction between sellers and buyers, as opposed to the physical interactions. (Cooper et al, 2009).

The social sites are presenting opportunities for engaging vibrant advertising where the real interaction between sellers and willing buyers provide first-hand information before settling a deal. The social interactive form of advertising is today’s vibrant form of trading interaction.

Over the years, marketers have always considered face-to-face to be a very strong and effective marketing strategy, since the buyer has answers for all queries. The system is carried along using social sites such as twitter and face-book, which have turn out to be the contemporary and transformed buyer-seller real-time interaction.

Conclusion A few advertisements or forum options on social sites are very essential and an excellent advertisement strategies. Currently, firms are investing heavily on these forums sites due to site visits and need to embrace technology. The social forums enable people to interact and share experiences of products or services, without any necessary need to know or understand each other’s background.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Current Event in Marketing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People willingly offer each other advises regarding the good or bad aspects of a product and the procedure of protecting one-another from poor services or products eventually adds up as a marketing tool for the high-quality products or services. Informative forums such as the blogs also enhance business growth especially for new products, since users will positively leave some recommendations for other site visitors.

Reference Cooper, S., Grutzner, F.,


A Good Teacher: Teaching is More than Just Lecturing Argumentative Essay essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction

Argument one

Argument Two

Argument Three


Work Cited

Introduction Teaching is a dynamic profession which entails many tasks. A good teacher ought to be interactive with his/her students as teaching is far more than just standing in class and giving a series of lectures. This article will attempt to prove that a good teaching is more than just lecturing; it calls for dynamism and interaction with the students.

Argument one A good teacher ought to be empathic; he/she should bond well with the students. Being empathic creates a platform for growing friendship which will enhance good teaching. Empathy makes the teacher-student relations warm making it possible for students to open up on, for instance, what should be done to improve their performance. Finally, the environment created by being empathic makes it possible for the teacher to pick out off pitch which may be affecting a student.

Argument Two A good teacher should be flexible and open to change. Teaching ought to be one of the most dynamic professions as it prepares students for a world which has never been static. By being responsive to forces of globalization as well as technology, a teacher will always remain relevant in the eyes of the students. Students are very responsive to technology and forces of changes and teachers should integrate these changes to their teaching as this will make learning enjoyable to the students (Moore 4).

Argument Three Presentation skills are very basic for teachers and they cannot teach without them. Teachers should learner to be charismatic as this will help them to have the attention of their students in order to pass a message across. Charismatic teachers will instill confidence in their students and this will make it easier for the students to learn. Charisma will also make it possible for a teacher to be viewed positively by his/her students and might be adopted as a role model.

Conclusion Empathy, presentation skills, flexibility and open mindedness makes a teacher interactive with students. Interactivity brings students close to teachers creating a platform where teaching can be customized to enhance high performance on both parts. Clearly, teaching is more than just lecturing.

Work Cited Moore, Alex. The good teacher: dominant discourses in teaching and teacher education. New York: Routledge, 2004. Print.


Maya Angelou’s Journey towards Acceptance of Self Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Ever since the publishing of Maya Angelou’s autobiographical novel I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings in 1969, literary critics never ceased pointing out to the fact that novel’s themes and motifs are being concerned with the process of a main character striving to attain the sense of self-identity. Nevertheless, this did not prevent them from discussing the qualitative essence of this process from a variety of different perspectives.

For example, in her article Arensberg (1976) refers to the subtleties of how Maya went about attaining existential identity as such that have been in the state of constant transition: “The unsettled life Angelou writes of in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings suggests a sense of self as perpetually in the process of becoming, of dying and being reborn, in all its ramifications” (277). In its turn, this implies that Maya’s perception of herself never ceased being the subject of continuous transformation.

On the other hand, while suggesting that Maya did succeed with gaining solid sense existential self-awareness, Walker (1995) refers to it as something that came to being as the result of novel main character’s spatially defined intellectual evolvement: “By the end of the book… she [Maya] no longer feels inferior, knows who she is, and knows that she can respond to racism in ways that preserve her dignity and her life, liberty, and property” (103).

In this paper, I will aim to confirm the soundness of namely Walker’s suggestion, while pointing out to the fact that, by the end of Angelou’s novel, Maya did not only become fully self-aware individual, but that such her self-awareness came as the result of novel’s main character having learned how to accept her inborn affiliation with the Black race.

The discussion of earlier mentioned process in regards to three events, described in the novel As novel’s context implies, throughout the early phases of her life, Maya has been experiencing a number of psychological anxieties, due to the sheer extent of her physical unattractiveness. Moreover, there were clearly defined racial undertones to Maya’s emotional uncomfortableness with who she was: “Wouldn’t they be surprised when one day I woke out of my black ugly dream, and my real hair, which was long and blond, would take the place of the kinky mass that Momma wouldn’t let me straighten?” (2).

And yet, as novel’s plot unraveled, Maya was gradually freeing herself of these anxieties. I believe that the following three events, described in the novel, contributed rather substantially towards helping Maya to learn how to take pride in her blackness.

The conversation that took place between Maya and uncle Tommy

In Chapter 10, Angelou refers to the conversation that took place between Maya and uncle Tommy. While sensing that the young girl lacked self-confidence, uncle Tommy did his best to assure her that good looks is not something that solely defines one’s chances to attain social prominence: “Ritie, don’t worry ’cause you ain’t pretty.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Plenty pretty women I seen digging ditches or worse. You smart. I swear to God, I rather you have a good mind than a cute behind” (68). It is needless to mention, of course, that such uncle Tommy’s remark did help Maya to accept who she was. After all, prior to having socialized with uncle Tommy, Maya used to suffer a great deal, on the account of her ugliness.

And, as the context of further chapters implies, uncle Tommy’s words did have an effect on Maya, as she was becoming progressively less disturbed with her physical appearance. In the article, from which we have already quoted, Arensberg states: “Shuttled between temporary homes and transient allegiances, Maya necessarily develops a stoic flexibility that becomes not only her ‘shield,’ but, more importantly, her characteristic means of dealing with the world” (274).

Thus, it will not be much of an exaggeration, to suggest that Maya’s socialization with uncle Tommy represents a crucial point in the process of novel’s main character being set on the path of self-actualization through acceptance.

Maya’s encounter with Mrs. Flowers

In Chapter 15, readers get to meet Mrs. Flowers, whose influence on Maya never ceased being utterly beneficial, it is was namely due to being exposed to the sheer extent of this character’s sophistication that Maya was slowly learning how to take pride in her racial affiliation: “She [Mrs. Flowers] appealed to me because she was like people I had never met personally.

Like women in English novels who walked the moors (whatever they were) with their loyal dogs racing at a respectful distance… It would be safe to say that she made me proud to be Negro, just by being herself” (95).

It was specifically after having met Mrs. Flowers that Maya acquired taste for learning, as this intellectually sophisticate Black woman never ceased encouraging Maya to read: “She said she was going to give me some books and that I not only must read them, I must read them aloud” (98).

After having been prompted to indulge in reading by Mrs. Flowers, Maya started to realize that her blackness was not something to be ashamed of. In its turn, this facilitated the process of novel’s main character learning how to accept her racially defined sense of self-identity even further.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Maya Angelou’s Journey towards Acceptance of Self specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Maya’s exposal to Mrs. Cullinan’s subtle racism

Chapter 16, contains description of another event, the exposure to which had increased the strength of Maya’s resolution to accept her racial self-identity – namely, the conversation between Miss Glory and Mrs. Cullinan, during the course of which Mrs. Cullinan refused referring to Maya by her real name Marguerite and instead, suggested that the name Mary suits Maya so much better: “Well, that may be, but the name’s [Margarete] too long. I’d never bother myself. I’d call her Mary if I was you” (107).

And, as it appears from what happened to be Maya’s emotional reaction to Mrs. Cullinan’s suggestion, she thought of it as being utterly insulting: “I fumed into the kitchen. That horrible woman would never have the chance to call me Mary because if I was starving I’d never work for her” (107). By expressing her contempt with Mrs. Cullinan’s subtly defined racism, sublimated in White woman’s willingness to degrade Blacks linguistically, Maya had once again confirmed the fact that she was firmly set on the path of racial self-acceptance.

Apparently, Maya was able to recognize the name Mary as being connotative of ‘whiteness’, which is exactly the reason why she refused to be called by this name – after having accepted her blackness as the integral part of her self-identity, Maya could never bring herself back to trying to be just like Whites.

Conclusion I think that the earlier mentioned events do provide readers with the insight on what accounted for the actual subtleties of Maya’s journey towards self-acceptance.

Given the fact that Angelou describes this journey as rather linearly defined, it substantiates the validity of paper’s initial thesis – while being continuously exposed to a number of life’s challenges, Maya was slowly learning that her self-identity could not be discussed outside of what happened to be the particulars of her racial affiliation. And, it is specifically after novel’s main character had accepted this fact cognitively, that she was able to attain emotional comfortableness with her newly acquired sense of individuality.

References Angelou, Maya. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. New York: Bantam Books, 1997 [1969].

Arensberg, Liliane “Death as Metaphor of Self in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings.” CLA Journal 20.2 (1976): 273-91.

Walker, Pierre “Racial Protest, Identity, Words and Form in Maya Angelou’s I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings.” College Literature 22.3 (1995): 91-109.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Maya Angelou’s Journey towards Acceptance of Self by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More


Human Resources Essay college application essay help

What unfair labor practices may have occurred? Although Pete Ross went against the stipulation in the Employees’ Handbook that prohibited consumption of alcoholic beverages within the company premises, the company’s supervisor, George, seem to have hoarded some hatred towards Ross. The discharge of peter Ross was unfair labor practice because out of hatred, George requested and supported his discharge.

The plant manager perceived the discharge as routine but rooted for punishment rather than discharge in order to support first-line managers. Furthermore, other machinists read mischief in the discharge of Ross for according to them; it was not just another routine practice.

The machinists had many fears that the company was at liberty to discharge them unfairly, just as Ross and this prompted them to join the union. Despite the fact that Ross did quality work, George ironically blurted to that the company did not need quality but quantity work. This remark underscores the hatred that George harbored towards Ross and therefore it is evident that Ross lost his job unfairly.

Termination of John Briggs was another unfair labor practice. The company terminated him because he advocated for the rights of machinists by encouraging them to join International Association of Machinists Union. John Briggs advised other machinists to join the union as a way of protect themselves against unfair labor practices by their employer.

All through his dealings, John Briggs acted within the law but the employer felt threatened by his efforts thus discriminatively terminated his contract on false grounds that, he was unproductive and continually absent in past year. According to Alberta Labour Relation Board, no employer “…shall refuse to employ … or discriminate against any person in regard to employment or any term or condition of employment because the person is a member of a trade union or an applicant for membership in a trade union” (2003, p. 4).

This provision prohibits employers from preventing or undermining the efforts of employees from participating in their respective trade unions. Therefore, termination of John Briggs due to his participation in the International Association of Machinists was an unfair labor practice.

Should management offer reinstatement to Pete Ross or John Briggs? The company management should offer reinstatement to John Briggs because the employer violated his rights of participation in the trade unions. Unlike Pete Ross who went against provisions in the Employees’ Handbook, John Briggs was advocating for the rights of the employees within the law.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Alberta Labor Relation Board prohibits employers from “…seeking by intimidation, dismissal, threat of dismissal or any other kind of threat, … to compel an employee to refrain from becoming or to cease to be a member, officer or representative of a trade union” (2003, p. 5).

In this case, the employer sought to threaten other employees by dismissing John Briggs so that they (employees) do not join trade union to champion for their rights. If the union could intervene for the termination John Briggs, the employer would be guilty of violating the rights of employees to join and participate in unions voluntarily. Thus, the management should reinstate John Briggs and allow him to exercise his rights.

Moreover, the employer unfairly appraised John Briggs that he had been excessively absent in the past year and had low productivity. If John Briggs had been continually absent during the past year, the employer would have warned him and there would be sufficient documentation to prove it; unfortunately, such proof was conspicuously missing.

This allegation was timely because John Briggs offended his employer when he mobilized other employees to join trade union so that they can protect themselves against slipshod discharge they had witnessed. In addition, John Briggs commended on the quality of work that Pete Ross did yet George, the supervisor never liked. This portray that John Briggs was a very productive employee who deserved promotion and not termination, thus the management should reinstate him.

Was Briggs correct when he answered, “That is none of your business” to the questions about the authorization cards? Given that the management was interfering with employees’ efforts to join union, John Briggs correctly responded to the plant manager and supervisor who grilled him concerning distribution of authorization cards. It was not the business of the management to pry into the affairs of workers and their unions.

Although the remark seem to have offended the management, Smith argues that, “disciplining an employee for using an alleged commanding and disrespectful tone of voice to a manager while he/she was acting in the capacity of a union representative is unacceptable” (2003, p. 3). Therefore, John had the right to command and remind the management that employees needed freedom to participate in any matter relating to the unionization of the workers.

From the perspective of the employer, the interrogation meant to intimidate and prevent John Briggs from issuing more authorization cards to the employees. The employer questioned the validity of the cards in terms of authorizing signature and the issuing authority that bypassed the company management. Since the mangers wanted to suppress the rights of employees, it was futile to inform them about the unionization of the employees, because they were going to undermine the efforts.

We will write a custom Essay on Human Resources specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The management knew that unionization of the employees would eliminate discrimination and unreasoned discharge of employees without any justifiable cause. Understanding the kind of management in place, John Briggs was right to tell off the management that it was none of their business to know matters related to unionization of employees.

References Alberta Labor Relation Board. (2003). Unfair Labor Practices by Employers. Alberta Labour Journal, 1-10.

Smith, G. (2003). Unfair Labor Practices. Journal of Good Labor Practices, 1-12.


Crude oil and U.S. Gasoline market Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Key Determinants in the Price of Gasoline

Gasoline Market

Crude Oil Market


Works Cited

Introduction Crude oil refers to a combination of organic hydrocarbons that exists naturally. The mixture that forms crude oil is normally separated to its individual hydrocarbon compounds. Such compounds include: gasoline, kerosene and jet fuel. The components of the crude oil are separated by industrial physical process called fractional distillation. Gasoline is another name for the commonly known petrol. It is a highly flammable compound and exists in liquid form.

It is a component of crude oil. This paper seeks to discuss issues that pertain to the crude oil market and the U.S. retail gasoline market with the view of determining whether or not “there exists a relationship between the crude oil market and the U.S. retail gasoline market”. The paper will look into the views that have been held by stakeholders in the two markets with the view of establishing the values, experiences and responsibilities that have led to such views.

Key Determinants in the Price of Gasoline Just like the volatility in the prices of crude oil, the price of gasoline often varies with relatively unpredictable trend.One of the determinants of the gasoline price is the global demand for the crude oil. The trend of the global demand for crude oil is also seen to be a factor in the price of crude oil in the United States.

This view of the global demand of crude oil as a factor towards the price of both crude oil and that of gasoline is derived from the study of the prices of the two commodities in the United States over the time period between the years 2002 and 2008. It was noted that the prices of the two commodities remained high for the mentioned period of time. However, the prices fell in the period of 2008 while the global supply for oil remained the same.

A study of the global economic recession that was experienced during the period beginning in 2008 explained the cause of price changes. It was realized that before the recession, therewas a high global demand for crude oil over the supply of the same. This pushed the prices up with respect to the laws of demand and supply. The fall of global demand following the recession, therefore, led to the reduced prices experienced since the year 2008 (Killian, 92).

Another view that has attempted to explain the high gasoline price in the period between 2002 and 2008 is the actions engineered by the investors in the crude oil. Killian explains that in a bid to exploit the profitability of the oil market, “the investors in search for high returns bought crude oil and stored it in anticipation of higher future prices” (Killian, 92).

This act is commonly referred to as hoarding. In this bid, investors can in anticipation of increased prices or in an attempt to cause price increase of a commodity, buys and store the commodity with the aim of selling it when the prices goes up.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This step of buying and keeping suppliers creates shortage of the supply hence increased prices. This view is, however, inconsistent with the data provided by records of the organization for economic cooperation and development (OECD). The data indicated a supply of crude oil in the period contrary to the uneven data that would have otherwise been realized. There were also general trend of increase in prices of other commodities during the period which further refutes the claim of investor manipulation of the market (Killian 92).

Gasoline Market Another determinant of the gasoline prices in the United States is attributed to the “unanticipated disruption of U.S. refinery output” (Killian, 100). Events like fire that abruptly halts the operations of the refineries have been characterized with “significant increase in the real price of gasoline” (Killian, 100).

These particular disruptions, however,have less significant effects in the prices of the imported crude oil. The phenomenon is expected to have the reverse effect of reducing the price of crude oil as a result of reduced demand which is insignificant in the world market. The factors determining the demand for crude oil and the price of gasoline in the United States such as disruptions results in specified shocks in supply and demand are not easily predictable(Killian, 100).

It has been noted as a problem in the United States that there is lack of facilities to process gasoline. The lack of enough refinery capacity has witnessed a demand for the gasoline product that exceeds the supply. A difference in trend is therefore realized in the case of gasoline and that of crude oil. While the price of crude oil is majorly driven by the international forces, the gasoline prices are further determined by the production capacity of the refining industry.

Another factor in the market of gasoline is the existence of many varieties of gasoline which has “hindered market flexibility” (OPEC 151). Insufficient regulatory measures also lead to disparities in gasoline prices across regions of the United States (OPEC 151). The new specifications established in the gasoline refinery industry that was aimed at improving the quality of gasoline also led to lower supply of gasoline in the U.S. (OPEC 152).

The factors to the price of gasoline have also been attributed to calamities. One of such occurrences was the “damage to the gulf coast drilling wells and refineries” (Out of gas 3). The damages for example would translate to the shortage of gasoline leading to subsequent increased prices.

The high prices of the gasoline can also be attributed to government policies that have over time been oriented to only one aspect of controlling the price. The “chimney plan: to perpetuate the nation’s addition to cheap petroleum” (Out of gas 3) has been criticized as a profit oriented move rather than price control. It is however viewed that steps to reduce the consumption of gasoline would rather reduce the price as opposed to increasing its supply (Out of gas 3).

We will write a custom Essay on Crude oil and U.S. Gasoline market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bodies are, however, put in place to collect and analyze data with the aim of a better understanding of the trends of the crude oil and gasoline in terms of demand, supply and prices. According to the director of petroleum division at API, “API’s weekly surveys of US oil supply data are essential” to a variety of parties including the US government (Matusic 1). These bodies “collect industry data and disseminate the information”(Matusic 1) that can then be used for planning purposes.

Crude Oil Market In the earlier decades, the rises in oil prices in United States were attributed to political aspects like the wars in the Middle East and embargoes by the Arab states as retaliation to the United States’ support for Israel, which limited supply of crude oil into the United States from the Middle East countries.

The major determinant in the oil sector is still recognized to be its supply relative to its demand. The industrialization of countries like the people’s republic of China and India has put pressure on the global supply of oil due to the relatively increased demand for crude oil. The threat of the United States’ supply of oil has been worsened by the move of oil supplying countries in the Middle East to reserve their oil for domestic use.

The increased consumption by the two giant countries, China and India, has led to increased global oil prices due the increased demand. There is need for “international effort to reduce demand for oil” (Katel 7). With this respect, no solution has been identified to help control the prices downwards. This factor is beyond the control of the United States according to professionals in the energy sector.

According to Medlock, “it is going to be difficult for the energy supply to expand production at a significant enough pace to drive down prices” (Katel 7). The external drivers of the international oil price are passed to the price of crude oil in the United States and subsequently the prices of the separated components of the crude oil of which gasoline is part(Katel 24).

Conclusion The prices of both crude oil and gasoline are seen to be dependent on a variety of factors. The stake holders in the energy industry are all seen to be players in determining the demand, supply as well as the prices of the crude oil and gasoline. Other factors like natural calamities are also identified to be determinants of prices of crude oil and gasoline.

With respect to the extensive exploration of the two subjects, it is identifiable that the price of gasoline has over the past periods of time depended on a large number of factors besides the price or even supply of crude oil. It can therefore be concluded that the market for gasoline and that for crude oil in the United Statesdoes not bear a significantly close relationship to one another.

The market for crude oil is significantly determined by many other factors at the international market while the market of gasoline greatly depends on a large number of domestic factors. It must, however, be noted that since gasoline is a product of crude oil, the market of gasoline in the united states shapes the bearing of the crude oil demand in the united states and not globally.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Crude oil and U.S. Gasoline market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Katel, Peter. Oil Jitters. CQ Researcher. Web.

Killian, Lutz. Explaining Fluctuations in Gasoline Prices. A Joint Model of the Global Crude, n.d. Web.

Matusic. The Energy World Is Powered By Numbers.Research Library, ProQuest, n.d. Web.

OPEC. The US gasoline situation and crude oil prices. Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, 2004. Web.

Out of Gas. Nation. EBSCO, n.d. Print.


Asian American Discriminations in Colleges Research Paper writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Research hypotheses

Research Findings Based on Academic Qualifications

Research Findings Based on Non Academic Sources

Research Findings Based on Admission Procedures


Works Cited

Introduction Most colleges crumple with a challenge of assessing clever strategies for selecting students to join their institutions. Several civil society groups and organizations have come out to strongly oppose perceived discrimination faced by Asian American students in these admissions.

Those vested with the authority to admit students to colleges and universities claim merit is the only factor considered. The puzzle in this fact is whether it is only the Americans who are born bright, while Asian Americans are mainly academic dwarfs. This is quite arguably – intelligence is not a preserve of the Americans.

A recent study on academic performance by Asian and Caucasian students reveals that the Asian students on average perform better than Caucasian students. Some colleges display open discriminatory admission criterion such as setting a limitation to the number of Asian Americans students that they can admit.

Even with this open discriminatory criterion, such colleges have insisted that “there is no such thing as discrimination against the Asian Americans in their institutions and that it would be a serious injustice on their responsibility to propose such measures”(Bunzel and Christensen 52).

Research hypotheses Research conducted on the undergraduate admissions in four leading universities i.e., Stanford, Princeton, Harvard and Brown reveals that the population of the Asian American students is approximately ten percent of the total number of applicants. Two approaches are used when drawing conclusions on the causes of these small numbers of applications.

The first one is whereby a comparison is made between “the percentage representation of Asian Americans in the admittance and/or enrollment pools of their respective colleges and universities with the percentage of the overall population in the country that is Asian American” (Takagi 11).

The second one, mostly used by the opponents of the current admissions procedures makes a comparison between “the numbers of Asian Americans offered admission with the number that actually applies. The main focus in these statistics is to compare the Asian American admission rate” with the Whites (Bunzel and Christensen 54).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research Findings Based on Academic Qualifications Research findings on the first approach suggest that “Asian Americans constitutes of approximately 2 percent of the whole population, and they make up more than 8 percent of the freshmen admitted in the four universities that from the basis of this study” (The Princetonian Daily).

Opponents of this study, however, argue that the system is flawed in that it fails to consider the geographical deliberation of the Asian Americans in different states, especially ones that have a metropolitan population. For example, the Asian American community in California is about 6.7 percent, whereas it is about 22 percent in San Francisco.

It would, therefore, be reasonable to have a higher percentage of the Asian American students in Colleges within San Francisco, which is not the case. Second, the number of Asian American students who qualify for university admission is always way higher than that of the Caucasian students. A higher number of Asian Americans also undertake the Scholastic Aptitude Test and achieve high scores compared to the Caucasians.

In addition to this, using racial model does not consider the fact that most of the Asian Americans further their education beyond the age of seventeen. Again using the Asian American percentage of admissions into the universities, which stands at 2.1 percent as the foundation for evaluation of the university and college admissions is misleading.

The procedure fails to consider the actual population of Asian Americans high school graduates who send applications to the colleges. The 2.1 percent would be relatively low if an excess of 20 percent of the total applications were received from the Asian Americans.

Due to these reasons, the Asian American admissions rate which is the second approach seems to be a better statistical criterion for the examination of the issue of whether the Asian American students are being discriminated against in university admissions. In this approach, the rate of admission of the Caucasian students is used as the comparative basis for evaluating the Asian American admissions in the universities.

According to the latter approach, various factors influence the admissions rates. The most of these are the “statistical impact of affirmative action policies which aim at raising the admissions proportion of ethnic groups that receive priority in the university admissions” (The Princetonian Daily).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Asian American Discriminations in Colleges specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is thus evident that such groups will have an advantage of the numbers to be admitted irrespective of the total number of applicants. When the group that is not within the preferred frame has a lower percentage of admission than another group under the same category, two things could be possible.

“First, the population of applicants in the former group is less qualified compared to the latter and second the admissions process could be prejudiced whether intentionally or unintentionally against the victimized group. Therefore, the critical question in this research is on whether the low levels of admissions of the Asian Americans are necessitated by low level of their qualifications or is caused by discrimination.

In the history of the United States, Asian Americans have always been subject to discrimination in the education system since the 1960s. Most universities, however, seemed like they were taking an affirmative step toward the elimination of this trend by increasing the number of students admitted from the marginalized groups. The affirmative action appeared to make significant progress in improving the situation as more students from the Asian American community were able to connect university and college admissions.

The affirmative action was perhaps the only strategy that favored them and so the number of high school graduates unable to secure university admissions also remained relatively high. The academic performance of these students persuaded the administration in these universities to admit them based on merit rather than the special treatment advocated for in the affirmative action policy.

Research Findings Based on Non Academic Sources Research on the extracurricular activities of high school students indicated that only thirty percent of the total population of Asian American students participated in sports and other out of class activities. The number of these students participating in scholarly activities was, however, higher than that of whites.

This group also seemed to refrain from community activities which are inclusive of the ethnic and social organizations. From this information, a conclusion can be drawn against the stereotype that students from the Asian American community do not participate in extracurricular activities (Takagi 14). Further research indicated that the lower rate of admission into colleges was not as a result of the supposedly non-participation in non-academic activities but merely as a result of ethnic discrimination.

Besides sporting and intellectual activities, the other non-academic qualifications under consideration include personal habits and character. These could be considered as some of the criterion used in the university admission process. According to Takagi, “Every university’s has the right to reject or accept applications from students suspected of dishonesty and give special attention to students with a high level of intelligence and integrity” (16).

There is little evidence that point out the Asian American students to be less endowed with any of the positive character traits a university would require for student admission. The fact that these traits are personal means that they have nothing to do with the person’s ethnicity. An Asian American student could be fouled up just like a white student.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Asian American Discriminations in Colleges by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Research Findings Based on Admission Procedures It has proved impossible to account for the low rate of admissions of the Asian American students in the universities using the reasons mentioned earlier on. The other logical explanation on this issue is the characteristics of the procedures used when admitting students to colleges. There are four main categories of students who are given special consideration in this process.

“The first group is the ethnic minorities who are the target for the affirmative action, second is the athletes, third students from geographical locations that are given preference and fourth students with ties from alumni with legacy, the faculty member and university staff. An increase in the admission of these individual cases implies that there will be limited chances for the other students owing to the fact that most of these universities do not admit students beyond their facilities capacity.

Many university admissions officials hold on to a lot of stereotypes based on racial diversity. One of these stereotypes states that Asian Americans are more inclined to developing their personal careers in ways that most of the times benefit just them rather than the entire community. Another one states that Asians Americans are interested primarily in studying science disciplines and technical fields and fail to recognize other subjects of education.

These stereotypes only indicated the level of ignorance perceived to exist among the Asian American communities. Opponents of these stereotypes point out that most of these stereotypes are characteristics that originated from the western countries and not Asian. Technological advancements, for example, have their roots in the west while the Asians over the years have been concentrating on the development of rational and humanities theories.

Conclusion From the discussion above, it is clear that all the explanations provided as an account for the low rates of admissions of the Asian Americans in relation to the other communities are not valid. The only valid reason, therefore, is merely ethnic discrimination, an assertion which most of the universities’ admission officers deny.

A report by Bunzel and Christensen drawn from the Brown University sums up this issue that the “numerical limits were in fact in operation through the use of historical benchmark mechanism” (57). They also point out that this was “a process by which a set of enrollment goals was established using a benchmarked figure anchored on the figures of enrollment of a previous year’s freshmen class” (59).

The outcome of this practice alludes establishing a limit on the number of applicants from the Asian American community being admitted in the colleges. The answer to this problem is complex and cannot be determined by single research. Ethnic diversity should be seen as a blessing to the society though present society fails to recognize this fact.

Many people would rather perceive an increase the number of Asian Americans in the universities to be as a result of “unfair advantages being given to the Asian Americans than the result of unfair disadvantages being eliminated” (Bunzel and Christensen 60).

Works Cited Bunzel, John H, and Christensen, Jeffrey D. Diversity or Discrimination?: Asian Americans in College. London: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Takagi, Dana Y. The Retreat from Race: Asian-American Admissions and Racial Politics. N.J: Rutgers University Press, 1992.

The Princetonian Daily. Student Admission at Princeton University, 1876. Web.


The Term Crusade Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background Information

The Crusades

The Arabs View of the Crusades

Arabs Response and Reactions towards the Crusades


Works Cited

Introduction The word crusade is a common word among the modern Christian especially in the developing countries where open air Christians meetings are common. The term crusade in such meetings refers to a meeting or rather a gathering whose main purpose is to convert people to the Christian faith. However, originally crusades referred to the anti-Muslim campaigns that were established in the eleventh century with the aim of restoring Christian control in Europe.

Fought in the period between the eleventh century and the thirteenth century, the crusades involved military actions that were sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church. The actions, however, extended up to the fifteenth century in some European countries. Ideally the crusades were meant to silence the Islamic religion which had just started to spring.

The Roman Catholic Church used its power and influences to stamp its authority on regions which were willing to submit to the church. This paper seeks to discuss the response of the Arabs to the crusades. The paper will look into the events of the crusades, the Arab view of the crusades, their response to the crusades as well as their reaction to the west after the crusades.

Background Information It is worth noting that the Roman Catholic Church was a powerful authority in religion terms and politically. The Roman Catholic Church controlled Europe politically and it was a religion of the day.

The power possessed by the church was so great that its head, pope, could have politically leaders and kings dethroned just by his word. It is therefore correct to say that the church through the pope was the leader of a good portion of the world then. The rise of the Islam religion was technically an opposition to the church thus the need to show that the church was still the leader.

The Crusades The crusades were seen as reactions meant to restore the “holy places from Mohammedam tyranny” (New advent 1). A vow was made to rage war against the “Mohammedans, pagans,and the Heretics” (New advent 1). The description of the crusade war captures the Spaniards war over the Moors, the wars in northern Europe over the Prussians and the Lithuanians.

The crusades were sanctioned in Christian gatherings after summons. People were then given crucifix upon which they were proclaimed to fight for the church. Privileges were offered to such soldiers. The history of the crusades started earlier before the eleventh century. The introduction of the “religious ideas, art and culture of the east” (New advent 1) into the Western Europe such as Gaul and Italy was a significant phenomenon in the history of the crusades.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There were also cases of attacks on Christians who went to Jerusalem to worship at the holy Christian shrines. These attacks were made by the followers of Mohammed.The rise of the Seljukian Turks led to further attacks on Christians and a number of territories in Europe. It was due to these attacks that the church moved to what was seen as a step to reclaim the glory of the church and to restore Christianity and the sanctity of its holy places (New advent 1).

A meeting was addressed by the then pope at a mass of people in Auvergne in the late years of the eleventh century. The pope urged the people to arise and save the holy place from the invasions. People then took the vow that was an element of the established movement to protect the church. The pope then undertook communication to the whole Christian fraternity in Europe calling for the crusades.

Large masses were organized and subsequent attacks were made towards the east led by groups from France, Germany and parts of Italy. The victory of the Christians saw the establishment of Christian states which were however surrounded by hostile enemies. The Christian states were laterconqueredand subjected to the authorities of their enemies.

This was majorly due to the division among leaders in the west who as a result failed to offer protection to the Christians who were established in the East. Reconciliation was then struck by the thenpope and the leaders united to protect the Christian states. The crusades continued into the thirteenth century but lost its support from leaders who saw the move as reducing authority over their citizens who joined the crusade movement.

The loss of support from the western authorities led to the capture of the Christians by the Arab East in the late thirteenth century. The final periods into the collapse of the Christian territory in the east were marred by disorganization that saw even Christians fighting themselves. The crusades however continued in other places throughout the fourteenth and the fifteenth centuries.Thewhole action of the crusades and its enlisted reactions were rather violent military undertakings (New advent 1).

The Arabs View of the Crusades The Arabs viewed the crusades as a move to conquer and exercise control over the land. The Arabs saw the crusade attacks as inversions that needed to be rebelled against. The war was fought and the crusaders lost the battles to the Arabs. The Arabs have the opinion that after the war, the western crusaders succeeded in exploring the east as trade areas for the west. The Arab word, in their view continued to decline in terms of the development (Crusades 1).

The crusades have of late been viewed by the Arabs as having been the first colonial step by the western countries. According to the Arab world, “poverty, corruption and violence in the middle east” (Madden 220) were just impacts of the crusades and colonialism by the west (Madden 220).

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Term Crusade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More With respect to this view, the Arabs are blaming the crusades for the negative things that subsequently happened in the Arab world. The Arabs have the view that the crusaders invaded a peaceful land and destroyed it in the event of the war caused by the inversion of the western Christian groups. The Arabs still have the occurrence of the crusades in their minds and they view the United Statesand as the current crusaders into their land (Madden 220).

Arabs Response and Reactions towards the Crusades The inversion of the east by the crusaders had the impact of displacing the Arabs from their homes. The crusaders were on a march to Jerusalem and were destroying property and killing the Arabs as they moved to Jerusalem. There was actually a recorded massacre in the city of Ma’ara as the crusaders moved through it towards Jerusalem.

Rumors also spread as to the actions of the crusaders that included cannibalism (Crusades 1). This sent fear among the Arabs and they fled their homes in attempts to save their lives. It is recorded that by the time the crusaders reached Jerusalem, all Arabs and Muslims had fled the area or those who were found there were killed.

In response to the actions of the crusaders that humiliated the ArabMuslims, action was called to the war of jihad by al-Hawari to counter the Christian inversion. This move was, however, not successful. Another response was a demonstration by the Arabs in Bagdad to call for actions against the Christian inversion which also called for an unsuccessful jihad against the crusaders.

In the bid to win the favor of the hostile crusaders, some of the Arab leaders responded by collaborating with the crusaders in acts considered as treason against their territories and their people. The most significant response is however the rise of the Arabs in Iraq that saw the first defeat ofthe crusaders in the city of Bagdad (Sindi 1).

Another reaction of the Arabs to the inversion by thecrusaders was the later move to remove the crusaders from the Arab world years after their defeat. The move by the crusaders into the east and their subsequent settlement after the end of the crusades did not change the eastern religion which was basically Islam.

After some time, the Muslim leaders developed expressed hatred for the crusaders race in the region and plotted a move to remove them out of the East. The move to eject the crusaders race from the east was initiated by Salah, one of the Arableaders, in the year 1187. In this bid to eject the crusaders form the land, another battle was fought between the crusaders and the Mamluks for more than half a century until the crusaders were defeated and evicted from the land sixty years later (Ham 50).

The Arabs have subsequently perceived the west as intruders who only intend to destroy their land. They have since seen the west as colonialists who are currently being headed by the United States (Madden 220).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Term Crusade by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion The crusades were a series of sanctioned military actions by the Christian European states against the Arab East. The crusades were used strategically to show that the church was superior. The crusade movement was a step to restore the sanctity and respect of the Christians and the Christian holy shrines which were being undermined by the Eastern Arabs during the periods. The crusades were a military move that led to loss of lives in the fights. As a result of the crusades, Arab community viewed the west as intruders who brought destructions upon the Arab land. The Arabs, in response to the crusade attacks initially resorted to passive measures to save their lives from the Christians but later responded in military actions and finally managed to counter the crusaders.

Works Cited Crusades. The crusades. Crusades, 2009. Web.

Ham, Antony. Middle East. New York, NY: Lonely Planet, 2009. Print.

Madden, Thomas. The new concise history of the Crusades. London, UK: Rowman


Why Free Speech Is An Important Freedom Argumentative Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Freedom of speech is synonymous with freedom of expression. These two terms do not only explain the ability to speak or voice opinions without limitation or interference, but also the use of other means in communicating or impacting information.

This includes the use of expressions, music and art like painting, photography, and performing. In many countries, this freedom is provided for in as a basic freedom. Under the Universal Declaration of human rights in the United Nations there is a provision for this freedom. There are many genuine reasons why free speech is an important freedom.

Reasons Expressing oneself is a basic and important aspect of life and is also part of the basis for communication; it is more instinctive than learned. Throughout childhood and life, freedom of speech supports the learning of an individual through the acquisition of new views, ideas, concepts and theories in scientific, social and other fields of education.

One is able to participate in healthy debates and discussions, learn how to win and persuade in arguments and tolerate or even accept other people’s perceptions and ways of thinking. When an individual is able to express their ideas and opinions, it enables them to relate with others, participate in and enjoy interaction and bonding with other members of a group, team and community.

The main importance of speech learning and development is to facilitate expression and help an individual to live in harmony with other people in society, making sure that there needs are met and their rights, values and principles are not violated. Limiting or interfering with the freedom to speak and express oneself is a big violation of the basic rights of an individual and it restrains an individual from living a normal, productive and independent life.

Freedom of speech is an important aspect of social life in a civilized and democratic society. It enables people to make decisions on their rulers, systems of development and administration and initiate debates and discussions on important issues that concern public policy and governance.

People can voice their concerns over any problems or issues on accountability, responsibility and transparency of leadership. Freedom of speech is essential in the maintaining of law and order and making sure that there are checks and balances on individuals or groups which violate the law.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although there has been debate on the justification of freedom of speech, it is important to realize that society cannot develop or advance when imparting of and access to information is impeded. In some instances privacy, control and protection of information is required but this does not mean that information should be completely barred from the public.

Freedom of expression is also important where social and cultural issues are concerned. When people are at liberty to express their opinions on critical issues concerning social values, norms and standards, social harmony and order is achieved.

In order to facilitate effective change which is inevitable, sensitive Issues concerning social life, like abortion, aesthesia, divorce, parenting, marriage etc. should be open to debate whether there is consensus or not. It is obviously clear that not all forms and means of freedom of expression that supported and defended but in order to prevent social tension and chaos people should be free to speak.

Conclusion There are many reasons why free speech is an important freedom. Most societies agree that there should be clearly set guarantees on protecting and defending of this freedom without very little limitation except when it is very necessary and there has been general consensus on taking action against disbursement of information.


Fair Enough? Big Business Embraces Fair Trade Report (Assessment) argumentative essay help

Main arguments for and against the involvement of big businesses in fair trade Arguments for

Fair trade has promoted goods production for the reason than, since its inception, various certified products have found their way to chains of big retail markets, thus global marketing and enhancement of online shopping that minimizes on involvement of intermediaries.

Arguments against

Why are there lower tariffs on the supplies that do not need processing as opposed to processed products? Major brand like Nestle’ support fair trade through the ‘Partner Blends’, but fail to support producers by supporting tariffs that may encourage them to produce, process and export their labelled products.

They offer good tariffs for green coffee beans and higher tariffs for the roasted beans. The big business/retailers fail to encourage investing on processing facilities for producers, yet this is the only way that producers can enjoy better profits. Arguably, from this point of view, big retailers attempt to promote fair trade is just a cynical way of cashing in as opposed to an ethical commitment to promote or appreciate supplier’s efforts.

What would the purchase of fair-trade certified products and changing the label of the final product indicate? Fair trade is about protecting and promoting producers from possible supplier’s abuses. If major brands are allowed to boast their labels on these products, consumers are made to believe that these companies always promote fair trade.

To the producer, fair trade compromises the quality since the current standards fail to specify criteria to determine quality of products.

Critics over involvement of major brands in fair trade Statistics indicate that although most fair trade good are in major brand’s or specialized stores and within mainstream distribution channels. The major retailers also offer online shopping for the certified brands thus promoting the products. However, the process lacks justification due to the pricing factor. Ethically the situation creates a huge imbalance between the producer and consumer.

Minimum pricing of fair trade goods means that if it were above normal equilibrium price, then supply of the products would exceed demand, consequently majority of products would end up being sold through the free markets. This is a common scenario today and the producers would rather sell through free markets, other than lose while waiting for fair trade. It is not ethical to have a policy meant to promote production that end promoting free trade.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Major brand groups are using the fair trade in their advertisements to achieve significantly. They draw out ethical conscience of consumers in developed countries by indicating that fair part of the price goes back to promote the producer’s standard of living. Is it unethical for consumers to buy free-trade goods and donate some equivalence to charity?

Relevance of consumer prices on fair treatment of producers Although Fair Trade is enabling customers to understand and appreciate both the organic and fair-trade label of products, consumers are made to believe that the high prices they pay go to the good will producers especially in developing countries. Fair trade is currently based on dialogue, respect for produces and transparency, therefore high pricing does not necessary translate to better global equity, fair treatment or better compensation of producers.

Only a small percentage of the prices directly reach to the producer. Majority is supposed to benefit the community through promotion of development projects through cooperatives. However, the cooperatives pay high annual registration or certification fees to the fair trade labelling organizations. The situation is not fair enough since the additional costs leave the farmer with very little profit gains. Furthermore, in fair trade, guaranteed prices do not mean support for a certain quantity of produce.

Responsibility of ensuring producer’s protection Although free markets are promoting ways of reducing exploitation by the intermediaries, protection of grower’s interests mainly depends on the producers. A well-established free trade that lacks infringing barriers of trade for instance the harsh import fees or tariffs would certainly improve the product prices.

The challenge of managing exploitation can be catered for through entrenched producer’s cooperatives. They would also be in a position to manage fluctuation of prices at the international commodity markets. The situation would lead to a balance between supply and demand.


Law Enforcement after 9/11 Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction The terror attacks of September 11, 2001 in the United States, popularly known as 9/11, changed the world’s view of terrorism forever. In the aftermath of these attacks, the Bush administration declared war on terrorism, this war was aimed at capturing Osama bin Laden and smashing al-Qaeda operations around the world.

These actions were taken in order to prevent future terrorism attacks and to avoid the emergence of other terrorism networks. The US received support for the right to defend itself around the world, and even by the UN Security Council Resolution 1368.

Stringent measures aimed at law enforcement and fighting terrorism were implemented in the wake of these attacks, most of which had not been applied prior to the attacks. Domestic response to these attacks included the enactment of several legislation that have proved successful in curtailing terror activities. Notable legislation amendments included the creation of the Department of Homeland Security whose main aim was to combat terror. Improvements in aviation security have been successful too in the fight against terror.

The response of the US government in the wake of September 11 was important and has proved to be effective in averting terror acts. It is our obligation to support the government in its attempts to fight terror, as this will make our streets, buildings, and the transport industry safe.

Legislation that have been successful in Averting Terror Activities Domestic response to 9/11 led to the amendment and enactment of several legislation aimed at fighting terrorism. The President signed into law the Homeland Security Act of 2002.This created the Department of Homeland Security, which was charged with the responsibility of identifying and combating terrorism acts. Congress again passed the Patriot Act, the legislation would help perceive and fight terrorism and other offenses.

The Bush administration also instigated a National Security Agency operation to “eavesdrop on telephone and e-mail communications between the United States and people overseas without a warrant” (Smith


Employee Retention in Workplace Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Factors contributing to high turnover rates

How to retain employees

What rewards do employees want

What makes a good workplace



Introduction According to Prakashan (2008, p.1-51), “employee Retention involves taking measures to encourage the most productive employees to remain in the organization for the maximum period of time” or up to completion of their projects. Additionally, Carsen


Human Resource Management in Japan Essay college essay help online

Table of Contents Description of the Mitsubishi corporation management

Analysis of japanese management

Professional experience


Description of the Mitsubishi corporation management The Japanese management system is based on the traditional values of the Japanese society in combination with the measures taken by the enterprises to attract qualified working force t the business in the post-war period after the Second World War. In this respect, the nature of the business relations in Japan is fostered by the traditions and historic circumstances.

However, it is necessary to compare the way the business is ran in Japan and in the Western world and find out whether these two types of business are interchangeable and whether there is a slightest necessity for applying the Western type of business management to Japan. At the same time, globalisation is the concept that facilitates the process when the borders blur between cultures which also concerns business, the management tactics, and corporate culture.

The image of a company man is distinguished in Japanese business model in terms of employment and management. As indicated in the case cited in the study by Beardwell and Claydon (2007), “…company man may be on the way to extinction in Western firms…” (p. 571).

In this case, the concept of ‘company man’ is referred to as a person who is on the lifetime employment and has an extremely high level of corporate culture and corporate commitment to the work, company, other individuals that work there, and the goals set and reached by the company as a whole.

So, it can be understood that the skills and achievements of every person are not important whereas the main thing that counts is the company’s achievement and financial performance. Therefore, the lifetime employment can be considered an advantage and a disadvantage in the framework of changing roles and priorities in global business.

Analysis of japanese management The main HRM roles in Japan. The main human resource management roles in Japanese companies have a little different function than in other countries of, for instance, Western world. For example, the supervision is a typical role executed by an HR manager in all countries but only in Japan the manager should contribute greatly to the solution of the problem rather than become a part of the problem and simply report about it.

In this respect, every manager should be aware of what is going on in the company, especially related to the sector of his/her direct supervision. The system of payment and bonuses does not depend on the performance levels of employees. So, rewards and benefits are distributed in accordance with the age, seniority, and length of employment principles making the promotion on the professional ladder almost impossible for young colleagues in spite of the effective performance or extraordinary skills applied to practice (Tayeb, 2005, p. 41).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As reported by Debroux (2003), “…top managers in large Japanese companies think that the main role of management is to increase capital efficiency and maximize shareholder profits” (p. 68). As such, the roles of Japanese human resource managers are not clearly defined from management perspective because the corporate culture blurs away the differences and borders.

Pros and cons of solving the case from HR perspective. The company man case can be solved from the human resource perspective but it will take a lot of time to adjust people’s way of perception and the hierarchy they got used to in accordance with the principles promoted in the Western companies.

The pros of solving the case from human resource perspective include a wider range of opportunities for personal and professional growth within the companies. As such, graduates of universities who obtain a position in a corporation would not be trained during the entire career in one corporation and the training programmes would be more focused on acquisition of the basic skills and knowledge for successful performance and financial benefits for the company.

The cons of solving the case from human resources perspective include the relations between the traditions and loyalty in Japanese companies and effectiveness of performance. As claimed by Tayeb (2005), “the Japanese loyalty is to the group to which they belong and for which they are prepared to sacrifice their personal interests” (p. 65). So, it is possible that implementation of the new HRM model would influence the performance of Japanese companies in a negative way.

Difficulties in the case. The most difficult issues in the case concern the promotional patterns applied to Japanese companies as contrasted to the Western firms where the abilities and skills contribute to the professional achievements and, consequently, enable employees to attain their career ladder goals and increase of the wages.

In this respect, the main problem that should be solved concerns the management roles and the structure/hierarchy of the company based on the age-related issues where seniority is the reason for promotion and not the achievements that contribute positively to the image and performance of the company in whole. As soon as management problems are solved in the companies, pay and bonus functions of HR managers can be reconsidered after introduction of changes into structure of the company.

Tactical questions in the process. The issues of primary concern include the context in which the problem occurs because Japan is the country with solid history and traditions that are part of this history. Besides, every employee is aware of the strategic and tactical plans of the company and fulfils his/her functions in order to make a contribution to the final goal.

We will write a custom Essay on Human Resource Management in Japan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The behaviour of employees is the key factor to the corporate success of Japanese companies due to the loyalty and commitment principles promoted through the career-long training, seniority-based promotion, and seniority-based wages and bonuses that do not depend on the professional qualification of employees.

In this respect, the situation is difficult to approach with or without human resource perspective because it is closely related to personnel and would influence people and their work as well as corporate performance in whole.

Professional experience To handle the case from different managerial perspectives, it is necessary to be aware of the typical principles in the country where the problem occurs because the origin identifies how the case should be approached and what strategies better suit the situation in terms of the managerial functions, management roles, and corporate culture.

For instance, in Japan every employee who works for a large corporation is either a part-time/seasonal employee or was recruited right after graduation and overcame training within the corporation to understand the principles of work and become qualified in his/her professional sector. Lack of knowledge about the national rules of business operation may lead to inadequate approach chosen for the case.

To conclude, every national have specific traditions and rules that become either influential for the behaviour or the basis for business conduct. As such, Japanese companies should solve the problem of redundancy of employees without influencing the employment status of currently employed workers.

Bibliography Beardwell, J., and Claydon, T., 2007. Human resource management: a contemporary approach. 5th ed. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education.

Debroux, P., 2003. Human resource management in Japan: changes and uncertainties: a new human resource management system fitting to the global economy. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Tayeb, M. H., 2005. International human resource management: a multinational company perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Human Resource Management in Japan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More


Tourism in New York Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction Tourism refers to the scenario whereby individuals known as tourists travel and stay in places different from their usual environment for at least a day or at most o year for the purposes of recreation business New York is one of the states in the United States with a total of sixty two cities.

Each of these cities plays a significant role in the tourism industry in the New York State. New York was the origin of the tourism industry in the United States at around 1820, and it arrived in the United States at a surprising rapidity. Earlier on, most of the Americans spent their leisure time visiting tourist attraction sites in Europe (Gassan 2).

Tourism emerged in the United States from the Hudson River valley, north of New York City in the 1820’s. It was triggered by the confluence of historical accidents as well as the proximity of the valley to the New York City which was then one of the fastest growing cities financially and population wise in the United States. The valley also had remarkable scenery and a favorable geographic position since it connected the country’s most sought after destinations as a water way (Gassan 2).

The Role and Significance of Major Cities Major cities inside and outside New York state plays a major role in the tourism industry in this region. Most of them are densely populated such that they are a source of the many tourists that visit the many tourist attraction sites in New York. Major cities in New York have significant tourist attraction sites that play a major role in the number of tourists that visit New York each year.

They also have good infrastructure mainly in the transport and communication system that makes it easier for tourist to operate from New York since they are able to move from one tourist site to the other at ease. Furthermore, these major cities have been developed with good housing and other facilities such as hotels that accommodate tourists in their stay during their vacations as they move around the state visiting tourist attraction sites.

Apart from being the largest city in New York State, New York city is the largest city in North America and it harbors ever 15 million people in its metropolitan area.

The city’s international profile rose drastically since the September 11, 2009 terrorist attack of the world trade center which left thousands of people dead and it since then entered the list of the world’s top ten most visited destinations (Boniface


19th Century Norms of Marriage Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Views on 19th century marriage norms


Works Cited

Introduction Most feministic writers view the institution of marriage as a deliberate creation by the society to oppress women, as revealed through their works, which always have characters that represent their views on the issue. The writers are mostly radical in their view of the norms that shape the marriage institution.

Women are exposed to unbearable situation in their marriages, only because the society requires them to be married. The works of Kate Chopin, Mary Wilkins Freeman, and Willa Cather, exposes the nature of marriages, suggesting deliberate attempts and positive attitudes towards reforms encouraging women to have second thoughts when joining the institution.

Views on 19th century marriage norms The 19th century marriages remain hit by problems ranging from infidelity through pretence to oppressions as the paper unfolds. In Mary Wilkins, “A New England Nun”, the woman character Louisa is compelled to wait for her suitor for fourteen years in order to get married.

This is quite oppressive considering the fact that Joe has another girlfriend and wants to Marry Louisa because he has promised so. Louisa has to leave her solitary life of happiness to go and live with Joe in his place as dictated by the marriage. She is to sacrifice her happiness at the altar of the marriage institution (Wilkins 9). When she gets the opportunity to dismiss it, she does so without any regrets recovering easily.

Through satirizing the marriage institution as one shaped by the governing norms, the women writers are advocating for a system that is more flexible for women to pursue their happiness beyond the confinements of marriage. Willa Cather has her males portrayed as weak since the women have to work in order to support them (Cather Para.33).

Louisa in Wilkins story, associates the presence of the man around her and having to do some roles shaped by the norms within the oppressive marriage institution. She has to wipe his muddy boots as well as placing a chair for him. These are some of the duties that the woman is compelled to undertake that these writers seem opposed to, hence their campaign for reforms.

Kate Chopin’s “The Storm” gives a description of the events of infidelity that take place during the storm. The story portrays the marriage institution as fake and full of pretence. Through the description of the sexual encounter between Alcee and Calixta, who are both married to different people, Chopin satirizes the serenity that appears from outside when viewing the marriage institution as bogus.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The two characters seem to satisfy each other best feeling restricted by the rules of their marriage, which they keep stable by simply lying to their spouses (Chopin, “The Storm” Scene II). Rather than staying in marriages only to regret, Chopin implies that it is better if people can only pursue their happiness even if it breaks the norms that have been set forth by the institutions such as marriage.

Minutes after having sex with another man, Calixta welcomes her husband and pretends to be happy when presented with a gift. She even goes further to give him a casual kiss on his cheek as a sign of appreciation. The husband does not suspect anything and so does Alcee’s wife. This depicts the network of pretence and lies incorporated in the marriage institution.

Marriage is an institution that lacks freedom as seen in the manner that the character Louise in Kate Chopin’s “The Story of an hour” reacts to the news of the death of her husband (Chopin, A Story of an hour” Para.10). She whispers to herself that she is free at last only to die when she discovers that her husband is not actually dead.

Conclusion Most critics of the 19th century marriage norms base their arguments on the organization and formulations that shaped the then marriages. This is in the sense that to them marriages meant that a person had to lose his/her freedom absolutely to the other and that however dissatisfied one felt, there was no way out.

Works Cited Cather, Willa. Paul’s Case: A Study in Temperament. London: MacMillan Publishing, 1906.

Chopin, Kate. The Story of an Hour. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1894.

The Storm. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1898.

We will write a custom Essay on 19th Century Norms of Marriage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wilkins, Mary. A New England Nun. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1912.


The Libyan Conflict Essay (Article) custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Parties in the Libyan Conflict


Reference List

Introduction The Libyan conflict pits the supporters of the Libyan leader, Muammar Gaddafi, on one side and the anti-Gaddafi forces backed by the international community. It began as peaceful protests that later degenerated into a rebellion after use of excessive force on the protesters by the supporters of the government opposed to the revolution. Both sides of the Libyan conflict struggle to gain control of the country’s leadership.

What began as peaceful protests against the autocratic regime, degenerated into a full-blown conflict that has even attracted involvement from the international community. The perception of the citizens that the regime is oppressive and dictatorial encouraged the mass protests. The pro-government forces on the other hand are opposed to the perceived involvement of the international community and the Western countries to impose regime change in their country.

Parties in the Libyan Conflict The conflict started with low-level protests against the government, which retaliated with violence against its citizens. The protesters gradually gained support even from within the “pro-Gaddafi community leading to the establishment of the Transition National Council based in Benghazi” (Cimmino, 2011).

The main interest of staging the revolt was to topple the oppressive regime and establish a democratic rule. The response of the Libyan leader and his supporters opposed to this revolt involved use of excessive force to quell the violence. However, the protesters have gradually continued to gain support from the citizens and the international community. The international community’s involvement is to protect the civilians and establish a peaceful environment to settle the conflict.

The incompatible goals in this conflict lie in the opposition to Gaddafi’s oppressive rule. The government’s counteroffensive response characterized by heavy use of military weapons and threats by the pro-government forces against the rebels show the government’s determination to remain in power moreover; the government also censored communication media including the social media for fuelling the conflict. The protesters want to end the oppressive and corrupt regime that is accused of infringement of human rights.

The conflict was fueled by poor economic theories coupled with corruption and tribalism, which have contributed to low living standards of the citizens despite the country’s rich oil reserves.

The conflict underwent an escalatory spiral from a peaceful protest to violent conflict attracting the involvement of the international community (Folger, Poole,


Russian Icons in Religion Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction The major religion in Russia is the Russian orthodoxy, though Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, and Islam are part of the religious legacy in Russia. In Russia, religion and political systems are very much interrelated in that, since time in memorial, religion especially the Orthodoxy and its icons have been shaping politics and the government through their influence on the Russian people.

These important roles of the icons led the Soviets to order their destruction during the revolution, highlighting their relevance in the history of Russia. From more than one thousand year since Prince Vladimir introduced the Orthodoxy to the people of Russia, icons have influenced a significant part of the history of Russia[1].

The first icons were introduced in the country from Constantinople, through the Byzantines the Greek icon painters and were able to work in Russia, eventually leading to emergence of groups of Russian icon painters.

It is believed that Prince Vladimir emissaries were very impressed by Constantinople’s Hagia Sophia icon, importing it together with the Byzantium’s artistic traditions of fine arts and Christianity[2]. With time, the Russia icon painter, following Byzantine art modules and styles modified the art and style, thus producing their own unique identity as icon painters.

Background of Russia icons Andrei Rublev, one the most recognized “15th century Russian icon painters, brought a new style to Russian icon painting”[3]. His paintings including the icon Spas, or the Savior that brought a new style of painting characterized by “use of color and the attitude of serenity and humanity portrayed in the faces of the figures depicted”[4].

Rublev lived in a monastery with other monks with whom he developed this new style. Although new style developed the traditional Russia, icons mostly lacked individual pictorial taste and creativity that was found in the Western European countries. With the Western influence sweeping through Russia during the 17th century, the Russian Orthodox Church separated into the Conservatives (Old Believers) and the States Church (New Believers).

The Conservatives adhered to the traditional styles while the new believers accepted the Western art forms, leading to paintings reflecting personal feelings and reality and a mixture of Russia styled and Western styled icons. This development liberated the art of icon painting to some extent in Russia. From this point on, painters were able to include personal expression, add value, and modify the standard traditional styles, producing new icons but still being within the biblical references and the laid down tradition for the icon paintings.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the era of Peter the Great in the 18th century, reverence to icons remained but there was sudden reduction in the art of icon painting due to influence of western arts. In the second half of the 20th century, interest in icons and icon painting increased and currently, there are several painters using the traditional styles of the old icon masters[5].

Majority of Russia icons are small wooden paintings with a few being made of copper; however, there are also bigger forms that are mainly found in churches and monasteries. Generally, the Russian icon tradition is more spiritual rather than the pictorial tradition of the Western Europe. In Russia, icons are intended to help in contemplative prayer by implying meditative harmony, inspiring reflection and self-examination, rather than emphasizing on the aesthetic value[6].

The role of Russia icons in religion and culture Russia population consists of several minority ethnic groups spread all over the country. Around 79 percent of Russians identify themselves as Orthodox, with religion and ethnicity being well connected[7].

In addition, there persists a consensus among the traditional religions in Russia in that the Tartars are Muslim, the Burjaats are Buddhist, and Jews are Judaist[8]. Icons form a central part in the practices of the Russian Orthodox consequently influencing culture of the minority ethnics.

With religion influencing the community way of life, norms, and structures, the icons are destined to make much contribution towards the culture of these people. The Orthodoxy calendar controls major events of the people of Russia such as marriage, birth ceremonies, family relationships, and burial ceremonies.

In the Russian Orthodoxy, the material aspects of religion such as altars, icons, and relics are very valued over the theological aspects that are sometimes difficulty to grasp[9]. In creating of the icons, the icon painters are very keen to create icons that will impart religious aspects and theological ideas to people reflective of the scripture messages.

Generally, the Orthodoxy services involve use of ‘the beauty of God’s Creation, the beauty of the Uncreated Light, the beauty of the choir, the liturgy, the icons and the incense to communicate the religious lessons in similar fashion the sermon or word based services preach the gospel’[10]. This practice of Orthodox venerating the spiritual and visible aspects of icons as always has been a subject of criticism from other Protestants and other religions.

We will write a custom Essay on Russian Icons in Religion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Homes are essential parts of communities and human life. In the Russian tradition, icons have a special designated place in the house for home rituals: ‘newborn were touched to them, people were blessed with icon before a wedding, a journey, becoming a soldier, and before the icons people swore blood-brotherhood oaths or made vows to God’s name’[11].

At home, people prayed standing facing the special place called the red corner or beautiful corner (krasnyi ugol) which is the eastern or southeastern corner of the hut or house[12]. Sometimes, they were placed facing the closest church and in this place, were two wooden shelves or a cabinet. The icons could never be hanged on a wall; they have to be placed on a shelf in observance of the Orthodox traditions.

The shelves were decorated with embroidered clothes without covering the face of the saints on the icons. In addition, the icons were placed in a defined order on the shelf that sometimes reflected the event or purpose for which the icons will be venerated. For example, an icon of Holy Spirit is kept at the centre of Christ on the right, that of Mother of God on the left and those of apostles behind them. A lamp or a candle is also placed in the red corner to illuminate the icon(s).

The icons displayed at home were sometimes customized for personal use by including picture of a specific saint, the owner is named after, or a relative is named after, besides the main icon figure. Due to presence of icons, a Christian home served as a form of a church blessed by the sacred icons. In the churches, icons are kept in special palaces called iconostasis.

One of the traditions of the Russian Orthodox is the consecration of icons. The consecration involves performing special prayers and blessing the icon with the holy water. The icons are consecrated to become holy, thus possessing power that is more spiritual. The consecrated icons are highly regarded and that is why they are kept in the special places.

The consecrated icons are believed to possess spiritual power and some are associated with special miracle works. For example, the miraculous case involving the Passion icon of the Mother of God that occurred in Moscow on 20 February 1547 in which houses were burning in Kitai-Gorod and only a single wooden house containing the passion icon was left intact in the entire region[13].

The Russian icons are worshipped through kissing them, bowing in front of them, and saying special prayers. It is believed that, in worshipping them, you are worshiping the figure painted on them for intercession. These figures are mostly saints, apostles, and exalted Russian priest. In addition, these figures are associated with unique powers to intercede in specific instances and are prayed for specific needs. For example, St. Nicholas the Wonderworker icon is prayed to offer protection and surveillance to people who are traveling.

In the soviet era, when religion was prohibited in Russia icons, most icons were hidden in the safety of peoples’ homes and the famous Russian Orthodox icons regarded as artifacts were kept in the historical museums. After this period, people uncovered their icons and currently, there are numerous Russian icons and Orthodoxy paintings in the churches and cathedrals.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Russian Icons in Religion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Russian icons form essential part of the Russian culture, so people visiting Russian churches and museums have an opportunity to enjoy the beauty of the Russian culture. In summation, the Russian icons are mainly for religious purposes but they also form part of the Russian culture and they are regarded as unique artistic works and historical relics[14].

The role of Russian icons during the revolution In the history of Russia, there have been two major revolutions: the 1905 revolution and the 1917 revolution. Since religion and the politics were very much integrated in the Russian set up, the role of the Russian icons in the revolution can be clearly understood by first understanding the causes and the outcomes of these revolutions.

The 1905 revolution

The 1905 Russian Revolution began with a peaceful protest on January 22 “led by a Russian Orthodox priest, Father Gapon, 150,000 people took to the cold and snow covered streets of St Petersburg to protest about their lifestyle”[15]. Through the protest, they were petitioning the tsar Nicholas II to help them regarding their condition. Surprisingly, Nicholas ordered the soldiers and the police to shoot the unarmed masses and eventually hundreds were killed or wounded, and the day was named the Black Sunday[16].

What ensued from these events was series of workers strikes and public protests throughout the country. In October 1905, a general strike took place paralyzing all activities in Russia; consequently, Nicholas yield to pressure and agreed to form Duma (parliament). Indeed, Formation of Duma cooled the situation for some but Nicholas continued gradually limiting the powers of Duma leading to the events of the next revolution.

The push to the 1905 revolution was due to rapid socio-economic changes, suffering witnessed during tsar monarchy and craving for more freedom, religion played a major role in enhancing the success of the cause. First, the protest was led by a Russian Orthodox pries, signifying religion was at forefront in advocating for change.

Secondly, the Russian icons formed a crucial portion in the petition protest and the resulting strikes as witnessed during that period ‘… a great demonstration for Sunday, January 9, 1905; workers would march to the Winter Palace, carrying religious icons, and portraits of Nicholas, to present a petition asking for redress of grievances’[17].

Lastly, with religion being intertwined with the protests, people would express their religion through prayer for their grievances and by kissing and bowing to Russian icons to seek help from the saints.

The 1917 revolution

After the 1905 revolution, the economy of Russia continued to deteriorate, with famine striking the country and Russia was losing the battle with Germans. The tsar was making wrong decisions such as firing several prominent leaders from the Duma and replacing them with unsuitable ones.

People believed that the tsar decisions were very much influenced by a mysterious Siberian monk named Grigory Rasputin[18]. In December 1916, people within the Palace murdered Rasputin in order to stop revolution from occurring. In late February 1917, the Russian people revolted, and following the revolt in March 15, a provisional government was established with Prince George Lvov as the leader.

Several soviets held a meeting to discuss the government’s progress; however, prior to this meeting, the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin were gaining popularity especially among the workers and during the meeting, they advocated for the power to be added over to the soviets[19].

In July 1917, an uprising failed, with the revolutionaries being arrested. Lenin, a Marxist, fled the country to Finland and Alexander Kerensky replaced Lvov as the prime minister. From that time, the push for revolution continued and in October 25, another revolt was staged[20]. Kerensky fled the palace and Lenin ascended to power. Unlike other revolts, the Lenin October revolution was well planned and there was no bloodshed or destructions.

In period following Lenin October revolution, the Russian Civil War began between the communists and other groups opposed to communism. The communists won in 1922 founding the Soviet Union and Lenin died in 1923. The Communist Party continued to rule up to 1991, marking the disintegration of the USSR.

The Lenin October Revolution marked the beginning of the communism in Russia. The communist government was much based on the Karl Marx principles and it immediately banned religion, as it believed religion was opium for the poor. From this point onwards, Soviets declared war on religion, with many icons set for destruction, others were lost forever, and others were saved or spared like the Rublev’s Spas[21]. Moreover, the Lenin faces become the face of communism replacing the place for the icons.

Marxism played a crucial role in banning of religion as it was characterized with aggressive commitment to atheism and scientific materialism, rejecting all religions[22]. During the period of revolution, the Bolsheviks ensured that Russia’s spiritual underground did not play a crucial part to Lenin’s revolutionary cause. Later, the government changed its policy on religion and icons became public through personal displays and museums.

Bibliography Anon. Russian Art


Rationale and Interactivity Design Essay online essay help

Introduction The propagation of wireless technology has brought in a variety of mobile devices such as the Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) and the wireless handheld phones that have a wide range of applications such as video messaging, three-dimensional games and other software. A mobile device such as an iPhones or a tablet PC incorporates various programming languages such as a Java program.

The program is familiar due to its ability to manage virtual machines by allowing some reasonable amount of accessibility to underlying functions of the devices. The Unified Modelling Language (UML) and wireless Java toolkits provides both user-friendly interfaces for easy manipulation and object oriented designs for easy development of mobile applications (Gookin, 51).

Current Mobile Interfaces Current mobile interfaces are able to offer clear audio as well as video contents and the formats make these devices more applicable for various portals. They are also able to handle deeper or wider multimedia contents. The multimedia contents are presented in three main categories namely, downloadable applications, virtual streamed content, which is transferable in real-time and immediate content that is transferable on demand.

Mobile downloads come in various codes and applications for current mobile devices such as tablet PCs, ipads and iphones support majority of these formats. Currently, the packaging formats for both audio and video codec, depending on the application-developing program or team.

The most common form of video or audio compatibility option for the hand-held devices include the MPEG-4 (MP4), Flash Video, MIDI, WAV,MP3, 3GP2, Real Audio, MOV, AVI and 3GP. Some of the format names originate from the manufacturers’ identity for instance the 3G companies. The current applications such as the Windows Micro-media player on personal computers are able to incorporate majority of these formats, at high qualities (O’Reilly, 3).

Designs of mobile Information Devices There are new set of challenges for User Interface (UI) designers and software developers, especially when developing software for new Internet-enabled wireless mobile phones or the two-way pagers.

In accordance with Fling (89), when designing a consumer product or developing a software application, various aspects ought to be considered. First is the ability to supports a Graphical User Interface (GUI), which will make it friendlier to the consumer. The GUI should accommodate multiple windows simultaneously. Secondly, the input functions must handle data in a fast and easy way. This does not mean that the product should be very complicated, because not all consumers feel at ease with complicated interfaces.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lastly, the most important aspect during development of a mobile application is to ensure use of the right applications and features, which must suite purpose of the device. Various designers have been able to produce a simple and realistic application suite to guide them when coming up with Mobile Information Device (MID) applications:

The minimum MID profile should be 96 pixels wide and 56 pixels high and 1-bit in depth(black and white)

The device should support a one handed or two-handed input mechanism.

A one handed keyboard has the numbers 1-9, an asterisk (*) and a pound sign (#).

A two handed keyboard is elaborated by a QWERTY keyboard style like the personal computers.

The MID profiles made of User Interface (UI) or Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) are divided into two parts; high and low level APIs (O’Reilly, 82). High-level APIs are designed for writing an application or service that a network provider needs to deploy during high-level abstraction.

The use also helps to different products by shape, colour or font. “Low level APIs are designed for applications that need precise placement and control over graphics. This is because they provide very little abstraction” (O’Reilly, 37). Games are programmed using the low level API since the screen must interact freely with the user through its GUI. The four types of screen used in MID profile include list, alert, text box and a form (O’Reilly, 37).

The designing of the System application is initiated by the Manufacturer. Many products like the Microsoft applications have command buttons that send a certain signal when pressed. A keyboard is mainly used as a device for providing shortcut options, but in cases of mobile devices such as iphones, the command buttons send certain signals to the operating system, which includes camera, Music player, radio and the internet.

The operating system of current mobile devices prioritizes some commands and sets others to be performed later. This indicates that manufacturers have to decide and test their devices before marketing them, in order to determine their functionality. Developers use high-level abstract commands when programming applications that use programs like Java Language, in order to develop products that offer competitive market value (Books Llc, 7). Mobile applications are thus designed with a lot of creativity and uniqueness to satisfy the UI requirements.

Common rationale behind mobile multimedia designs WURFL Technology The ability to deliver multimedia content through a mobile device depends on properties or file formats. The capability of the mobile devise determines its capacity to hold complex capabilities such as full-file downloads or capacity to play file features as they download using HTTP streaming. According to Pernici (34), majority of the mobile applications fail to work with the multimedia files because they are generally huge. The incompatibility therefore determines the sellers’ decision to include such files that may slow down traffic of data flow. Downloads that take too long to load may be of high costs for the client, who may end up unsatisfied due to the streaming delays. Direct downloading techniques is almost compatible with all the mobile devices especially the iphones and the tablet PCs that utilize the android setups.

Web Technology

Not all the mobile devices have embedded multimedia setting; therefore, their display units constrain some features and only allow audio outputs (Fling, 89). Various applications such as the flash players or flash-Lite are compatible with mobile devices and the flash video formats (FLV) mainly used in recent technological mobile devices such as ipods, iphone, tablet PCs as well as palmtops.

We will write a custom Essay on Rationale and Interactivity Design specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At present, it is possible to compile the flash player 8 for a mobile device and retrieve information with different formats for instance the YouTube version. Desktop applications works well with devices with enabled Flash-Lite 3 (Fling, 89). Mobile applications are also able to play videos or show images using different programs such as the QuickTime Player that opens on its own without being embedded in a browser like the YouTube.


Reference video clips are created in special applications such as iOS and safari, which work well with various applications such as QuickTime. Streaming highly depends on the strength of the signal since the receiver continues to use the file while it runs from the provider’s end. Mobile devices mainly working on the wireless technology suffers from delays (the satellite hops), therefore application developers have difficulties in implementing the concept of streaming video and audio in mobile devices (Setchi, 261).

The compatibility of streaming into various mobile devices therefore requires use of different or special platforms along with strong technologies. Currently, devices such as the blackberry or window mobile have a strong support for real-time streaming of files including video files.

The applications use the Real-Time Streaming Protocols (RTSP) that assists in launching of a default player such as Real Player or Window Media Player whenever a streaming link is accessed. This application enables the live broadcasts to occur, for instance reality TV shows, discussion forums or sporting events. The protocol is standardized to provide and control establishments between linked workstations (Setchi, 261).

The Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) also allows video or audio streaming for delivery of live events or other multimedia content as per users’ demands. There is lack of streaming services on various mobile devices due to lack of functional application in support of the provision, for instance special flash player for the mobile technologies (Setchi, 262).

The Flash Lite 3.0 devices and different recently manufactured iphones are compatible with various applications that support streaming such as the Adobe Flash server, Red5, Helix Media and the QuickTime streaming server. The apple company has also come up with the Darwin Streaming server for its mobile devices (Setchi, 262).

The use of UDP or TCP protocols for mobile devices streaming causes some proxies problems associable with redirecting to or from the HTTP setting. Direct streaming from the HTTP setting therefore has an advantage. During live streaming, HTTP also suffers some overhead problems compared to the other protocols, therefore if the mobile device uses the direct HTTP streaming, the device might have to download the entire file before playing as opposed to download and play simultaneously.

Apple has been able to bypass the internet protocol and produce a live HTTP streaming application for its mobile devices. iOS 3.0 supports this Apple streaming application on iphones. The iphone applications also get accelerated live streaming services from Akamai and influxis.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Rationale and Interactivity Design by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The procedure requires repackaging and buffering of the data into smaller packets for transmission to clients. The switching of bandwidth to accommodate different qualities over HTTP setting provides a great advantage of ability to pass through various proxies setting and firewalls without suspicious blocks (McNamara, 219). The current mobile device applications also allow users to upload files including video files to the internet, to steaming websites like YouTube through use of an internal flash player application.

Comparison between Mobile and Computer Applications

Mobile devices such as the tablet personal computer are an evolution of the computer technology, which have various technical applications for better performance levels. Majority of today’s devices are controlled trough touch screens, digital light pens or finger calibration.

This means that some of the earlier applications of the computer systems have been rendered obsolete. The main aim of establishing new applications is to enhance the concept of mobility. When every need is catered for through a hand-held device, there is ease of operability as well as mobility. Common mobile devices today include the iphones, convertible tablets, booklet tablet, slate, and hybrid tablet PCs (Setchi, 263).

Common Application on Various Mobile Devices

Advanced data entry systems such as touch or voice recognition system means that currently, applications are catering for intelligent systems. The ability to enhance connectivity such as the universal connectors, Bluetooth, infrared and other wireless connection to various peripheral devices is a clear induction that technology of application is on a steep modification procedure (Jacko, 34).

Mobile devices especially the communication devices like computers or phones have similar appearances that often offer preferences of usage attributable to support for advancing technology such as internet television or video broadcasting. The importance of having internet on a mobile device also requires a special form of applications for easier interpretation (Jacko, 34).

Conclusion Mobile devices are emerging day-in-day-out, and the applications are under a constant revolution to cater for high technological functions anticipated by users. The devises are hybrid because they cater for various features of related products as well as features on some of the earlier devices. The application support adaptable features and this is evident from current usage such as the use of iPad that was launched in mid 2010. The applications therefore have various features borrowed from both personal computer and earlier phone models.

Works Cited Books Llc. Tablet Pc: Ipad, Joojoo, Comparison of Tablet Pcs, Microsoft Courier, Hp Touchsmart, Itablet, Adam Tablet, Hp Compaq Tc1100. New York, NY: General Books LLC, 2010. Press

Fling, Brian, Mobile Design and Development: Practical Concepts and Techniques for creating mobile sites and web applications. California, CA: O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2009. Press.

Gookin, Dan. Laptops for Dummies. Indiana, IN: Wiley Publishing, Inc. 2010. Press

Jacko, Julie. Human-Computer Interaction. Interacting in Various Applications Domains. Germany: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 2009. Press

O’Reilly, Tim. Web 2.0: A Strategy Guide. California, CA: O’Reilly media Inc. 2008. Press

McNamara, Joel. Netbooks for Dummies. Indiana, IN: Wiley Publishing, Inc. 2009. Press

Pernici, Barbara. Mobile information systems: infrastructure and design for adaptivity and flexibility. New York, NY: Springer, 2006

Setchi, Rossitza. Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems. Berlin, Germany: Springer. 2010.


Utilitarianism Theory Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

What is utilitarianism? Utilitarianism is a theory used to explain consequentialism. The consequentialism theory states that one has to determine what is “intrinsically valuable” in an action.

The good in the action is what is focused on and not what it leads to. In regards to this theory, founded by Jeremy Bentham (18th century), and further developed by his protégé, John Stuart Mill (19th century), the morality of an action is determinant with the benefit of hindsight. Bentham argues that the outcomes of an action are what determine whether it is good/bad or right/wrong. Bentham strongly believes that the “ends justify the means”. However, to this perception a question is posed, what is the end?

Both Bentham and Mill agree that there is one intrinsic good (pleasure according to Bentham or happiness according to Mill) and one intrinsic bad (pain) according to Bentham or misery/unhappiness according to Mill. However, their agreeing on principle ends there as Bentham states that terming or referring to an action as good, has to have arisen from receiving pleasure from that action, and is mostly experienced in the physical sense.

This is just an echo of Socrates’ sentiments in Plato’s “Protagoras”. Mill disagrees with this perception that it turns utilitarianism into a “pig philosophy” and argues that quality of the action matters a lot. This is in disregard of Bentham’s thought that pleasure is the same qualitatively and the only thing that matters or is vital is quantity.

Utilitarianism tends to assume that happiness or pleasures found in humanity are equal across all people, for example: that one person’s well-being is not more important than any other one person’s. Consequently, its quest is to creating “the greatest good for the greatest number”. The theory thrives and succeeds on the actions that are able to create a balance between happiness and misery and this is therefore taken as the morally correct action.

Strengths and weaknesses Utilitarianism gets its strength from its perception of actions and their impact on an individual. The ‘expected’ result of a specific action is the principle of measure and not the actual result itself. Utilitarianism has other strengths which include: impartiality- the theory asserts that everyone is equal and their happiness counts equally, it does not allow room for egoism and provides insight into Bentham’s notion. The theory also justifies most of our moral conventions. It is flexible, and offers for a larger moral community.

This theory falls short along the way, as questions come up to try and find an answer to the issue on morality. According to the theory of utilitarianism, if the morality of an action depends on its results, how do we know when the “results” are done? How can we thus know the answer? This ends up being a weakness in the whole theory and perception of utilitarians.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It could be simply explained that “expected” result of a particular action is the criteria, and not the “actual” result, but the followers of this theory are not in agreement with this. For that reason, this brings out a weakness where its own believers do not agree with it fully. It does not answer the question on morality, and as it is known, morality is a very vital aspect of the society and an individual.

A notable weakness of this theory is its assumption that the happiness or pleasure of each human being is equal to every other individual’s. Utilitarianism does not really address the issue of morality and what determines actions as good or bad. The ease at which Kantianism opposed Utilitarianism thinking in ethics and morality issues shows a huge weakness and lack of faith in this theory. Both this two theories form the two major “rules-based” approaches to ethical theory in the modern era.

In spite of this, Kant emphasizes on the form of an individual’s ethical reasoning, and argues that it must follow a certain rationality to ensure its rightness. On the other hand, according to utilitarians, the measure of the rightness or wrongness of an action could only be determined by the consequences of the action (greatest good for greatest number).

This greatly shows where the Utilitarianism theory falls short of adequately addressing ethics and morality within an individual. The theory leaves the determining of good or bad to the majority and the outcome of an action. Therefore the individual has no control of reasoning out what is good or bad.

Bentham/Mill debate: what/why The theory of utilitarianism founded by Jeremy Bentham and further developed by his protégé, John Stuart Mill comes across as the morality of an action is determinant with the benefit of hindsight and that reaction to an action determines whether it is good/bad or right/wrong. Although they both agree on the contextual basis of it, they have come out in disagreement on principle of what really is utilitarianism.

According to Bentham, the ends justify the means. On the other hand, Mill disagrees with Bentham and terms his philosophy on utilitarianism as a “pig philosophy”, according to him he prefers a state where an individual is “better to be a Socrates dissatisfied than a pig satisfied”. His argument on this matter is driven by the fact that the level and intensity of happiness (referred to as pleasure by Bentham) is wholly driven by quality.

A disagreement occurs in this as Bentham is utterly convinced that what matters to an individual’s pleasure is only quantity and these pleasures are the same qualitatively in all individuals. The degree of measuring extent of pain or pleasure, happiness or misery and so forth is still indefinite and Bentham’s answer to this whether plausible or not does not shed any more light to the issue.

We will write a custom Essay on Utilitarianism Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The disagreement between the two proponents of this theory leaves a question in our minds, is utilitarianism even practically feasible? Does the amount of deliberation on its impact, the problem of egoism and self-sacrifice and so forth answer the question on morality?

How then do we know that “happiness” or “pleasure” is the ultimate good? Mill tries to give insight to this by attesting that when an individual is asked what he/she wants in/out of life, it constantly comes down to happiness/pleasure, for that reason since every individual says that is what they want then they ought to get exactly that.

This puts into disrepute Bentham’s notion that happiness/pleasure is equal across all human beings and that the outcome of the action determines whether it is good/bad or right/wrong. Mill’s position on the theory of utilitarianism comes more superior to Bentham’s as he provides more explanation on what the intrinsic good is and morality within an individual.

Gene Hackman’s challenge: response Is it justifiable killing one person to save others from suffering from cancer/find a cure?

Gene Hackman’s challenge on whether killing one person to save others from suffering from cancer and find a cure for them plays with what is right and what is bad. Bentham’s assertion that the outcome determines the right of deciding good or bad can be used to try and justify this. It is a question that tries to find a balance between ethics and morality within an individual, in the society.

Killing is out rightly wrong within the society and is not morally accepted. But the question is, does saving the lives of many justify sacrificing the life of one? Kant tries to offer insight into this debate by saying that the actions of an individual should be left to the individual’s own reasoning. Utilitarianism argues that the “ends justify the means”. But is it right?

The question of taking another person’s life is not justifiable in any way or form even if it is to save others. Laws have been put in place to put a check on the taking of life (killing), but there are instances where it is acceptable but still under very cautious circumstances. Hackman is faced with a question on his professionalism. Do professionalism and the oath sworn to uphold the ethical conduct of an individual have a play in reasoning and determining what is good or bad?

This leaves us asking ourselves whether the good of the many gives an individual the right to make choices on behalf of the group. In my opinion killing one to save many is not justifiable and goes against ethical and morality aspect in the society. But yet again all this is left to the reasoning of the individual to decide what is good and what is bad.

Many people argue that saving the lives of many innocent people justifies the act of taking life, but yet again the life being taken is innocent and they have a choice of whether to give into the cause or hold onto their life.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Utilitarianism Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The choice of taking a life should not be given to someone to decide for an individual but rather to the individual it belongs to. In this way the good and feeling of pleasure is obtained by an individual as he/she has been left to reason on the impact of their worth to the society. Consequentialism tries to justify the taking of life but Kantianism argues against this and puts the decision solely in the hands of an individual.


The “Banking” Concept of Education: An Analysis Analytical Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Paulo Freire made an astute observation when he said that the teacher-student relationship has a narrative characteristic and therefore in the process of teaching: “The contents, whether values or empirical dimensions of reality, tend in the process of being narrated to become lifeless and petrified” (Freire, p.318). This is the reason why the author contended that a conventional teaching style is ineffective and downright boring.

However, the actual use of narration is not the main culprit; Freire pointed out that it is the “banking” style of teaching that explains the ineffective and lifeless teaching outcome. But when pressed for an alternative Freire’s response cannot be considered as the best solution to the problem. Thus, it is best for teachers to learn to adapt between the “banking” type of teaching and the “problem-posing education” methodology that was proposed by Freire.

In almost every classroom in the world today one can see a teacher speaking to a classroom full of students. The classroom can be “virtual” but still there is one single voice of authority that the students listen to as if under the influence of maestro conducting a symphony.

They nod their head in agreement to every word that comes out of the mouth of the teachers and seldom can one hear a dissenting voice that challenges the ideas thrown to the class. According to Freire, “This is the ‘banking” concept of education, in which the scope of action allowed to the students extends only as far as receiving, filing, and storing the deposit” (Freire, p.318). There is very limited interaction between students and teachers.

In reaction Freire said, “Education must begin with the solution of the teacher-student contradiction, by reconciling the poles of the contradiction so that both are simultaneously teachers and students” (Freire, p.319). In other words equality must also be demonstrated in the classroom and not just in the political realms.

However, Freire made it clear that “Knowledge emerges only through invention and re-invention, through the restless, impatient, continuing, hopeful inquiry human beings pursue in the world, with the world, and with each other” (Freire, p.320). Aside from the lack of creativity and the inability to inspire the students to go beyond the syllabus, this type of teaching sends a negative message. Freire contends that this system mirrors the inner-workings of an oppressive society (Freire, p.320).

This means using techniques to develop docile minds and perpetuate an environment of conformity and mediocrity. Think of North Korea, Taliban controlled Afghanistan and it is evident that authority figures can produce students that cannot learn beyond what was taught within the four walls of the classroom.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In societies wherein democratic ideals are not part of the norm then this problem is multiplied in a significant manner and produces a society that cannot break free from the shackles of poverty and backward thinking. If Freire is absolutely correct then he can prove that the conventional method of teaching is not productive.

There are many writers and educators who support this view. This is especially true in Third World societies were the evidence of oppression requires no imagination to understand. According to one scathing remark, “Perhaps we should not be surprised that education end up like banking … after all, once the IMF (International Monetary Fund) has squeezed national education budgets across Africa, Asia, and Latin America, it is the World Bank that steps in and offer loans to help fill the gap” (Archer, p.29).

It is a cycle of defeat because money that was loaned to these countries were not put to good use. It seems that the World Bank is part of a scheme to make these countries utterly dependent on loans.

Freire was correct when he said that students must not be viewed as mere repositories of information. If students are treated this way then they will behave like a banking institution, meaning that they are like inanimate objects unable to interact and understand concepts taught them and appreciate them to the point that they can use it to enhance their lives and the people around them.

Freire added, “The banking approach to adult education, for example will never propose to students that they critically consider reality” (Freire, p.320). The most important thing is that no new knowledge is created and obviously this is not good.

The evolution of mankind as a species requires breakthroughs in the science and the arts. There is indeed a need to develop a kind of system that allow students be more creative, to help them develop the skills for problem solving and not just a mode of behaviour adept in the art of memorising data without even knowing how to utilise it to create a better world.

The alternative solution is labelled “problem-posing education” (Freire, p.323). In this system students are made more aware, making them more conscious about the issues and the problems that surround them. According to one commentary, “Through critical, dialogical investigation, participants begin to understand their world in a depth hitherto unknown to them: that which was once hidden, submerged or only superficially perceived begins to ‘stand out’ in sharp relief from other elements of awareness” (Roberts, p.295).

We will write a custom Essay on The “Banking” Concept of Education: An Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is in sharp contrast to the teaching style that was criticised by Freire. More importantly, learning is facilitated through dialogue characterised by a symbiotic relationship wherein teachers and students learn from each other.

The only problem of this view is that there are fundamental truths that has to be learned before one can develop the higher cognitive abilities personified by philosophers, inventors, scientists, and creative designers. Moreover, there is the need to establish a learning environment for the purpose of learning fundamental skills and not necessarily the discovery of new knowledge. In this context the narration and “banking” type of teaching methodology has found its purpose.

This can be seen in learning basic skills such as carpentry, typing, baking, weaving etc. It is foolish to let students learn on their own when it is obvious that knowledge had been sifted and clarified through the ages so that no one has to go back to the drawing board and learn how to make a chocolate cake once again. The teacher simply has to make a deposit into the hearts and minds of students or the apprentices willing to learn the basics of a particular trade.

Another problematic issue when it comes to Freire’s ideas can be understood in the context of the recipient. The application of the “problem-posing education” methodology seems only practical when it is used on adult literacy education (Gottesman, p.391). The problem comes to the fore when scholars applied Freire’s theory to K-12 schooling systems (Gottesman, p.391). This simply reinforces the previous discussion that revealed the impracticality of the “problem-posing” technique when used in certain learning environments.

Nevertheless, it must be made clear that Freire tried to delve into issues much bigger than education, “One should certainly look to Friere for guidance and inspiration in thinking about how society can build movements for radical social change” (Gottesman, p.393). This is one of the most important lessons that can be gleaned from Freire’s writings.

The importance of adopting a middle-ground approach between these two types of teaching system can be seen in the study of very complex ideas and concepts. There is a need to have a “banking” system for the sake of having a voice of authority that serves as a useful guide to learning.

On the other hand the “problem-posing” method is also important because in studying complex ideas the learning process has to be left open and not made rigid by those who believe that they are the only “authority” when it comes to a particular subject matter.

Take for example the study of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. This is a topic that requires a great deal of mastery and dedication in the study of physics, astronomy, and mathematics. It would be senseless for a teacher to allow a student with zero knowledge about astrophysics give a lecture in front of a class full of physics majors. With this kind of topic, there is a need for an authoritative voice to lay down the foundation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The “Banking” Concept of Education: An Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If this is not done then the student will waste time chasing after non-related ideas. In other words useless experimentation and duplicate research is eliminated. A competent teacher can therefore guide the students to areas of study that requires further investigation and increases their knowledge by carefully depositing ideas relevant to the topic.

However, allowing the teacher to dominate the discussion is not the best way to go all the way in attempting to learn more about Einstein’s theory. Thus, the teacher has to maintain an open mind and after depositing a great deal of information about the subject, the teacher must then use the “problem-posing” technique proposed by Freire. There must be a two-way communication between student and teacher in order to facilitate learning and more importantly to initiate an action that will hopefully lead to the discovery of new knowledge.

Freire has a point in his criticism of conventional modes of teaching. He was quick to point out the link between oppressive societies and the teaching techniques used in most schools. He said that students have to be more aware about the world and the significance of the concepts and ideas that were taught them.

However, his ideas have limitations because it seems only applicable to adult literacy education and not in learning environment suited for primary schools. It is therefore important to learn how to navigate between the two streams of thought.

Works Cited Archer, David. “Education for liberation.” Adults Learning 18.9 (2007): 28-29. EBSCO. Web.

Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group, 2006.

Gottesman, Isaac. “Sitting in the Waiting Room: Paulo Freire and the Critical Turn in the Field of Education.” Educational Studies 46.4 (2010): 376-399. EBSCO. Web.

Roberts, Peter. “Structure, direction and rigour in liberating education.” Oxford Review of Education 22.3 (1996): 295-316. EBSCO. Web.


The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh: A Woman in World History Book Report online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Brief History of Elizabeth Marsh

Region Where Elizabeth Marsh Travelled


Works Cited

Introduction To comprehend history, a person has to go beyond the timeliness of trade, names and periods of wars and other significant events, for people who make history are the ones who lived it. Hence, Elizabeth Marsh in her book, The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh, gives any enthusiastic reader a moving history of colonialism, trade and transnational during the 18th century.

The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh links the story with a universal curve of history and illustrates the forces shaping it. For instance, she illustrates how common belief of royal Morocco and Britain wedged the nature of Marsh internment and the ability of British women to engage native womenfolk as domestic workers underwrote the former achieving broader autonomies in India than back home in their native lands.

Brief History of Elizabeth Marsh Elizabeth was born in 1735 in England to mixed-race parents. During her teenage years, she made extensive travels across the world. Her first trip was to England, her father’s birthplace. According to Colley (2008), her father was a prominent ship carpenter whereas her mother was from Creole ancestry widow. Through these travels, she was enthused by growths than the cosmic popularity of men.

Elizabeth Was betrothed to James Crisp, an apt business person of indeterminate affluences, she used a considerably longer time travelling and living independently. During 1756 on her way to Morocco, a ship she had boarded was attacked by Moroccan seafarers. She was forcefully taken to Marrakesh, and imprisoned by the Sidi Muhammad, the acting Sultan. Elizabeth’s arrest was motivated by political interests. Besides, it appears the element of sexual lust was a determination of the then Sultan, Sidi Mohamed to take her as a hostage.

However, Elizabeth was set free; physically unscathed. However, her honor was compromised, prompting marriage to her fellow expedition colleague. Colley (2008) asserts that, Elizabeth’s details of her involvements made a pioneer woman to write and produce about Maghreb in English. Consequently, she is the first pioneer woman to have made extensive trip in Southern and Eastern India. As a woman of diverse frontiers, she spends much of her life in Cape Town, Rio de Janeiro, Menorca and London.

Region Where Elizabeth Marsh Travelled The marriage of Elizabeth was made up of many challenges. Though her husband was a risk taker, this either did not solve anything. Thus, travelling was envisioned as an option to calm her from her marriage. One of the most places she travelled was India. Colley (2008) illustrates that Elizabeth arrived in Madras in 1771 with two children.

Travelling to India was necessitated by various factors. The first was bankruptcy. Her husband’s businesses had gone down hence what they had saved was too little to put up with life. Secondly, Elizabeth loved travelling thus; going to India was a sign of fulfilling her obligations. Lastly, Elizabeth was interested in land deals, India being a British colony, it was easy for her to acquire land and sell it to potential and wealthy buyers from Britain and other interested parties.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nechtman (2010) alleges that, India was an important region during this time. It was a trading center for British trader’s en-route the Middle East and larger part of Asia. They securely erected go-downs to protect their trading wares. To protect the go-downs, building of forts was enhanced,thus creating armies.

This chapter also made the British to disorganize the already established kingdoms with a view to securing an opportunity for colonization. Thus, this proved possible because the British accrued more power and wealth. The British to improve their security in the region, they trained the local Indians and offered them opportunities in the army.

The British colony also practiced slavery whereby they would seize Indians and forcefully supply them to other British colonies across the world. The slaves worked in rice, sugar and tobacco plantations. Moreover, trading activities in India were centered on East India Company; this was a large scale combined company with offices in India. The ships owned by this company primarily traded in textiles, tea and bullion with Bengal (Nechtman, 2010).

Besides trading activities, this region was a typical British colony. The British acquired raw materials such as cotton, foodstuffs and others and transported them to Britain where they were manufactured and returned back to India for sale. The British enjoyed these valuable undertakings thus they became a formidable power in Asia where they launched physical and economic threat to China during the opium wars. Besides, the senior Indian caste was compelled to embrace British culture and Christian way of life.

Elizabeth was one of the few women pioneers of Europeans descent to arrive in Madrasa. Her husband was an astute businessman who dealt in diverse business interests; however, his businesses slowly began to crumple. Thus, after a mortifying insolvency, there was urgency for a new life in Bengal, India.

In India, life began on a good note, however, along the way, things started to go awry. James Crisp, her husband, got a job with East India Company as a salt agent in 1777 after docking in India (Colley, 2008). He also increased his involvement in illegal business i.e. liquor, dried fish, and maritime trade of tea and anything which could earn money.

James had international business contacts which he and her spouse had overtime gathered during their travels across the world. James was a hard worker and thus in India, by the help of his wife, he strengthened his illegal trade. His business, however, did not last long because of global snags beyond his predictions, hence in 1767, he was a bankrupt man.

We will write a custom Report on The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh: A Woman in World History Book specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Trouble did not forgive him either he was dismissed from his regular employment with East India Company after absconding his workresponsibilities. Marsh recognized the financial constraints they faced were engulfed in and thus to salvage her husband and family financial condition, she cleverly delivered a remark of a senior company official archived in an Indian office Library located in London (Colley, 2008). This was to indicate the notion of racial supremacy.

The note read that “a white European on Indian subcontinent, with no employment”. This was a terrible extremity to Elizabeth and her husband. However, the intervention design Elizabeth does not produce results as her husband dies in 1779 with much debt as asserted by (Colley, 2008).

According to Nechtman (2010), long before her husband death, their marriage had grown apart. This was as a result of exploration nature of Elizabeth. She had on several occasions left him and sort leisurely tours in eastern India with the unmarried men. Marsh’s analogy with the East India Company, and global trade allowed defining new dimension in India and wherever she explored.

Elizabeth highlights a streamlined design of Western supremacy and overseas belligerence. The instantaneous onset of globalization stirring her exploration in India guaranteed her evolution connections thus her philosophies were repetitively fashioned and refracted by the society and actions outside Europe as affirmed by Nechtman (2010).

According to Colley (2008), Elizabeth encompassed romanticism in her journeys across the world. She had a habit of having multiple affairs wherever she travelled. In Asia, Nechtman (2010) asserts that Elizabeth left her husband in Dhaka, and began a long journey in Southern part of India. She toured Palanquin, accompanied with an entourage of more than 40 coolies.

Elizabeth was also accompanied by a cryptic acquaintance with whom she is alleged to be a cousin. But in real sense this man was undoubtedly her lover. Consequently, Elizabeth was a flawed woman. To achieve fame and world recognition, she engaged her daughter in an unhappy marriage. She did less to help end the British illegal trade and slavery while in India. Her travel and exploration of India elucidates embracing the society diversity, geography, gender and class.

Conclusion The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh helps to bring out an amazing re-establishment of the 18th century of woman’s unbelievable and turbulent life. It is not only the history of Elizabeth, but to similar travelers of her time. The book also underwrites the pace in which the world is transforming.

Marsh experiences in places such as India, London, Menorca, Cape Town, Morocco and Gibraltar among the many places she travelled brought about developments in terms of economic, social and political well- being. Moreover, her lifetime led to the creation of new links being established across the countries, continents, empires, slavery, trade and navies; all these developments transformed and distorted her progress towards the people who happened to be close to her.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh: A Woman in World History Book by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Colley, Linda. The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh: A Woman in World History, New York: Anchor Books, 2008

Nechtman, Tillman W. Nabobs: Empire and Identity in Eighteenth-Century Britain, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010


Implications for Professionals Involved in Strategic Management Essay (Article) college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Article Summary Written by Kazaz and Serdar, Strategic Management Practices in Turkish Construction Firms seeks to establish the policies that Turkish construction companies employ in strategic management. The research uses a questionnaire to collect relevant information from the companies. The research established many ideas that professionals need in strategic management.

The researchers define strategic management as the use of systematic approaches to lay down a course that an organization should follow and outlines benefits gained by managers for using it as a management tool. Besides, the researchers touch on crisis and risk management as well as Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis and its usefulness in strategic management.

The research also compares construction companies based on planning. Finally, the research endeavors to distinguish between two interrelated management policies: project management and strategic management

Implications for Professionals Involved in Strategic Management The researchers identify crisis and risk management as an important tool in strategic management. The measures managers should take during and after crisis include expenditure reduction; avoidance of credit debts and bank debts after one has paid beyond the interest; “shrinkage through retrenchments, avoidance of new projects and departmental closures; growth control and diversity in business” (Kazaz and Serdar, 192).

The SWOT analysis, which is a summary of key business issues and strategic position of the company, is an important tool for planning future actions.

Private companies are quick in planning since fund releases are quicker, unlike their counterparts in the public sector. For professionals to prosper in their work, they distinguish between project management and strategic management. Project management is a functional strategy that uses projects to implement the strategies while strategic planning involves use of preventive measures to avoid crises.

Works Cited Kazaz, Aynur, and Serdar, Ulubeyli. “Strategic Management Practices in Turkish Construction Firms.” Journal of Management in Engineering 25.4 (2009):185-193.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More


Regression analysis Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Types of regression

Simple regression

Multiple regression

Other applications of regression

Introduction Regression analysis refers to a tool that is used in statistics to establish a relationship between variables, two or more. The aforementioned variables are quantitative, and they include the explanatory variable, also known as the independent variable, and the dependent variable. This relationship between the aforementioned variables is usually represented in form of an equation, or it can even be represented graphically.

The function of regression analysis is thus to establish a relationship between the variables using information available about the explanatory variable, and predict values of the dependent variable for decision making. It is therefore apparent that regression analysis is a very useful forecasting tool.

Types of regression There are two main types of regression. These are simple regression and multiple regression. In both simple and multiple regression, a regression model is constructed which is presumed to follow a certain distribution. Therefore, regression models can be developed with linear, exponential, or even logarithmic equations.

Simple regression This is the type of regression in which there is only one dependent variable and one independent variable. That is, the regression relationship is based on only tow variables. In this case, the explanatory variable is the only unknown in the right side of the regression equation. An example of a linear regression model for simple regression is:

Y ^ = bo b1X

Where Y is the dependent variable, X is the explanatory variable, and bo and b1 are constants. The constant bo and b1 are determined by using historical values of X and Y. This gives them values, and therefore, future values of Y can be determined if one has the value of X. To exemplify the applicability of simple regression, consider a case in which population is assumed to have a linear relationship with time. In this case, population can be represented by the variable Y, and time can be represented by the variable X.

Historical values of population can be used to get values for the constants, making predictions of future population possible. If the stated historical values are plotted, bo is given by the y-intercept of the graph, while the constant b1 is given by the gradient of the resultant line.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Multiple regression Multiple regression is the regression in which there is more than one explanatory variable. An example of a linear regression model for multiple regression is:

Y = bo b1X1 b2X2

Where Y is the dependent variable, X1 and X2 are explanatory variables/predictor variables, and bo, b1 and b2 are constants. The aforementioned constants are determined as in the case of linear regression above, although in multiple regression, multiple predictor variables are used.

An example is a case in which population in a given year is assumed to be predicted by time, and number of births in the previous year. In such a case, Y will be the population, and either X1 or X2 will represent time or number of births in the previous year.

Such a variable, like the year, that make data to change, are known as dummy variables. Another example of a dummy variable is gender. Standard deviation, which is denoted by Syx, is calculated using the historical values of Y and X, and it represents the error of the regression equation, which is measured with a specific confidence level. Theoretically, it is wise to take large samples as they have less error. R 2, known as the true coefficient, is used to check the variability of the sample data with the regression line.

Other applications of regression Regression can be applied in a myriad of other situations. For instance, it is very common in businesses, where business indicators are predicted using business drivers. A good example of this is a case in which the sales of a business enterprise can be predicted using the amount of money invested in advertising. This is just a simple example. A real situation will have the sales volume being predicted by multiple variables by the use of the principles of multiple regression.


Death, Loss, and Grieving Research Paper cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Human Experiences

Grieving Process



Introduction Death of a loved one within the family, a distant relative or someone in the society is an irreversible loss that leads to grieving. Due to the diversity of cultural religious beliefs, different people respond uniquely to death, which causes loss and subsequent grieving. Although death has been occurring since the creation of the world, it has confounded the meaning and the purpose of living, and it still scares everybody even today.

Death is a mystery that human beings strive to unravel because; unfortunately no one can predict or control its occurrence in humanity. The death of loved one is a great loss that one can experience in life and it takes the process of grieving to accept the fact that loss has actually occurred.

Attig argues that, “…human experiences of bereavement and grieving … recur throughout our lifetimes and serve as lenses through which we can see many meanings of death, human existence, suffering, the life of the deceased, the life of mourner, and the love” (2004, p.342). Human experiences due to the death and loss of loved ones have different perceptions and responses in the society; nevertheless, Elisabeth Kubler-Ross gave a typical model that explains five stages of grieving.

Human Experiences Death and loss are constant human experiences that people encounter in the course of life. The experiences surrounding death and loss of loved one depend on religious and cultural beliefs, which define the nature of life and death in the society. Without religious and cultural beliefs in the society, the death would still be a remote and mysterious incident that strikes human beings obliviously.

Research findings revealed that there is “…ethnic differences in the character of death attitudes, with American whites reporting greater fears of a protracted and painful dying process, whereas American blacks were more fearful about what transpired after death itself, including fears of being buried alive” (Neimeyer, 2004, p.10). Such disparity in ethnicity and beliefs determines the perception and understanding of death in the society. Death is a scary reality in that people are struggling to deny and run away from it.

Human beings face great challenges in understanding the nature of death and accepting its occurrence. Since death is a mystery that has instilled fears into humanity across all ages, discussions regarding death or news about death are scary for they remind people that they are going to die.

According to Attig, death has diverse meanings and “…an expansion of focus within the field to encompass consciousness of death across the lifespan and to foster a vision of our place in the universe to guide us in facing and integrating the certainty of death” (2004, p. 341). Therefore, expanding death phenomenon for people to understand its psychological intricacies would help humanity to attain meanings of life, suffering, and loss associated with death.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When death occurs in the society, there are varied psychological and emotional reactions that the bereaved experience. These responses depend on the cultural and religious assumptions that form part of the grieving process.

Given that there are beliefs and assumptions regarding the process of grieving, Wortman and Silver argue that, “…depression is inevitable following loss; that distress is necessary, and failure to experience it is indicative of pathology; that it is necessary to ‘work through’ or process a loss; and that recovery and resolution are to be expected following loss” (1989, p. 349).

Therefore, for people to accept the reality of death and the loss that occur therein, they must pass through the process of grieving to receive psychological and emotional healing.

Grieving Process Grieving is the process of accepting and acknowledging the reality of death and the loss that has occurred due to death of a loved one in the society. This occurrence is the most crucial process that an individual must undergo for effective resolution of psychological and emotional conflicts associated with the loss.

Attig argues that, “…our lives are woven together with the lives of those we care about and love and we cannot change the event when one of them dies, bereavement challenges us to take constructive action in response” (2004, p.242).

The process of grieving is constructive response that enables the bereaved to come into terms with the loss and accept that the loss is real and irreversible, hence must continue with their normal lives in spite of the challenges. According to Kubler-Ross Model, denial precedes anger before someone enters into bargaining which leads to depression, but finally one accepts the truth and these are the five stages of grief that the bereaved must undergo during the grieving process.

Denying the fact that death of a loved one has occurred is the first stage of grieving that people experience. Friedman and James argue that, “in cases of sudden, unexpected deaths, it’s possible that upon receiving the news, a surviving family member may go into emotional shock, during which time they are in a suspended state, totally removed from events in the real world” (2008, p.39). At this stage, the shocking news of death triggers emotional and psychological responses that throw the bereaved family and friends in a state of disbelief.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Death, Loss, and Grieving specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Due to the shocking news of death, the bereaved become defensive against reality of death by denying that they have lost the loved one. They perceive that they are in a dream and what they are experiencing is not reality. The experiences of denial and unbelief are short-lived after which reality dawns on the bereaved.

When the reality of death dawns on the bereaved, they become angry about the cause of death; this is the second stage of grieving. At this stage, individuals direct their anger to people who appear to be responsible for the death of their loved one. For example, if death occurred due to accident, the bereaved direct their blame to driver for careless driving, or if death occurred in hospital, they blame the doctors for medical negligence.

Grieving is not a passive response to death as Morrow argues that “…we don’t simply react passively or automatically to death and bereavement, …we engage with the loss, come to terms with our reactions to it, reshape our daily life patterns, and redirect our life stories in the light of what has happened” (2009, p.16). Thus, anger is an active response that tries to attribute and justify the cause of death.

The third stage of grieving involves bargaining where the bereaved consult the Supreme Being to bless the deceased and give them hope and strength to cope with the challenging times ahead.

At this stage, the bereaved come to terms with the reality of death, and since they are helpless about the loss of loved one, they only look upon the Supreme Being for comfort and encouragement. After bargaining, the bereaved enter the stage of depression where they experience loss of concentration, weakness, loss of appetite and irregular sleep patterns.

Wortman and Silver argue that, “it is widely assumed that a period of depression will occur once the person confronts the reality of his or her loss and that the person must ‘work through’ or process what has happened in order to recover successfully” (1989, p.351). In this the stage, resolution of psychological conflicts pertaining to death occurs and proper resolution is critical for healing to be successful.

Acceptance of the loss and reality of death is the fifth and the last stage of grieving. Grievers at this stage have undergone denial, anger, bargaining and depression stages, and have finally realized that death and the loss of loved one is a reality that happens in life. The bereaved at this stage begin to perceive death as part of humanity and develop positive perspective about life, which make them to live normal lives despite the great loss they have suffered.

Concerning acceptance, Attig argues that, “it is about opening ourselves to and making ourselves ready to welcome unexpected possibilities and to pursue meaning down unanticipated pathways” (2004, p.355). Thus, acceptance is about realizing the meaning of death as an inherent part of life that needs endurance as life goes on in the world.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Death, Loss, and Grieving by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Death is a mystery that still scares people because no one has ever unraveled its nature and occurrence in the society. Different cultures and religious beliefs have helped people in ascertaining the meaning of life and death, therefore shedding some light to the purpose of life and living. The diversity of beliefs concerning death determines the perception of life and subsequent grieving as a way of defining the nature of life.

Thus, life is very complex because death of the loved ones makes people undergo a long period of grieving in a bid to unravel the mystery of death, which causes irreversible loss. According to Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, grievers undergo five stage process of grieving in order to attain psychological and emotional healing.

References Attig, T. (2004). Meanings of Death Seen Through The Lens of Grieving. Death Studies, 28, 341-360.

Friedman, R.,


Henry David Thoreau Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Works Cited

Introduction Henry David Thoreau was born in the year 1817 in Concord Massachusetts where he grew up. He graduated from Harvard University in 1837. Between 1835 and 1836, he was a teacher in Canton a school in Massachusetts. He contracted tuberculosis in 1835 and which finally caused his death in 1862.

David’s writings have contributed a lot to today’s literature. His works provided people with knowledge in some aspects of life, which are still valuable in today’s society. Based on the works that he did, Thoreau should be included in the modern literature. This is because his works are closely related to that of modern writers since he used the same styles that are being applied in today’s writings.

Discussion Thoreau wrote his first book “A week on the Concord and Merrimack rivers” in 1849.The book was about a journey he had taken with his brother john from Massachusetts to New Hampshire. Unfortunately, the book failed to sell as he had anticipated and therefore in the end, he remained with many copies, which were a great loss to him both in terms of money used in printing and time he had put in to write.

The journey was divided into eight sections, the concord river and other seven sections showing activities of the week. The first section describes the flora, fauna and the location of the river. In his trip, they made use of a hand made boat, which they had designed. He gave description of the marine and plant life that he had came across in the sea. He carefully thought about matters of religion, nature and poetry.

He compared ancient gods in traditional religion with the modern religion based in the belief of Christ. In his book, he compared eastern and western ways of life. This work is important in modern literature because it makes use of metaphor an important stylistic device in writing modern literary works.

The book is actually not about a journey. The story is used to show changes in aspects such s region, which took place in England because of industrial revolution. Thoreau is against the occurrence of those changes because they contributed to changes in societal values (Thoreau 45).

In 1849, he wrote another essay entitled Civil disobedience. This book is about a particular night in 1849 when Thoreau was taken to jail because of his refusal to tax. He wanted the Mexican war to be ended as well as slavery and that is why he rejected to pay taxes. He taught people and wrote articles about the disadvantages of slavery as well as organizing for the release of then slaves.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Many people were leading desperate lives because of slavery. He praised himself for being able to stand against negative changes in his life. One of his principles was that, individuals should reject the desires of the government if they are against their own desires. According to him, people should follow their interests.

His message inspired Mahatma Gandhi who mobilized Indians to fight against the Britain population, which had already occupied their land forcefully. Ideas of this book are still important in modern literature because they acted as an inspiration to the people, that they should not allow the government to oppress them. If people do not agree with the policies that the government passes, they should feel free to demonstrate.

The book teaches about individuals rights. Issues like high taxation rates and slavery should be abolished in societies. In addition to this, people should be ready to achieve their rights under whatever situation. Being jailed did not stop Thoreau since he did not surrender. Through his writings and teachings, his ideas influenced people. In them it way, works of modern literature should contain information, which passes important ideas to the people (Thoreau 145).

Walden an American book written by Thoreau was about declaration of his personal independence, the experiments that he did and spiritual discovery journey. The use of irony as a stylistic device is common in this book. The book contains his details over 2 years, between1845 and 1847.

He stayed alone in a cabin, which he had constructed near a Walden Pond in Concord owned by Ralph Waldo Emerson his friend and a teacher. He did not want to seclude himself from other people because he was oftenly visited and he too visited them. What he wanted was to isolate himself to get a better chance of learning and understanding the society. He wanted to live a simple life and be in a position to satisfy his own needs. He took two years, two, months and two days staying in a simple house (Thoreau 90).

He wanted to demonstrate the importance of living a simple life. He was in a position to cater for the four basic needs including food, clothing, shelter and fuel through the help of friends. Mr. Ralph and his wife employed him, which made it possible for him to build a small house.

He also planted crops in a small garden he had cleared. He managed his income well and he was in a position to cater for his expenses. This book is helpful for societies and people who do like the idea of civilization. Civilization involves adoption of modern changes (Krutch 60).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Henry David Thoreau specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example in the civilized nations, traditional religious systems have been replaced by modern religions like Christianity. Thoreau was very ironical because there is no way, in which he could have learned about the society, and yet he was living alone. In order to learn the society well, he should have stayed closely with the society he intended to study and interacted with people. Staying alone makes it hard for him to be self-sufficient.

He has to be assisted in some issues by other people. On the contrary, Thoreau disagrees with the notion that poverty makes people inferior. Poor people should make use of available resources, which will boost them economically. One does not need to be employed to be in a position to get his basic needs. This work is important in modern literature where unemployment cases are high. It is not a must that people get employed since self-employment is very useful in modern societies (Thoreau 106).

The Bedford hand written by Diana Hacker provides literature writers with the knowledge in writing good grammar in essays, citing documents and analyzing texts. The book is divided into several where samples of essays are given. The book contains samples of essays, which make use of the main citation styles in writing. These include MLA, APA, and Chicago. This book is of help in essay writing as it teaches people on good use of grammatical words.

For example, where and when to use “a” which is usually confused with the article “an’”, the first section teaches about the processes of writing. It highlights the process of exploring a topic effectively and creating a draft before the final, presentation of work. It is also about composition of good sentences and paragraphs. The design of the document depends on the style it uses. For example, the format of a letter is different from that of a resume. Ideas on how to write different essays are clearly elaborated.

Sentence structure is very important in writing (Krutch 66). For example, different ideas are joined together with a conjunction. Sentences should be neither too long nor too short. Phrases should be used properly in a sentence so as not to lose the meaning of the sentence. The largest part of the book is covered by grammatical usage in sentences. Verbs and pronouns, conjunctions should be properly used in a sentence.

The subject should agree with the verb in a good structured sentence .Other important sections include proper use of abbreviations, punctuation, numbers and capital letters. Knowledge of writing argumentative papers as well as evaluating arguments is conveyed in the book. Finally, the book has examples of citing articles, magazines and books in APA, MLA and Chicago (Hacker and Sommers 25).

Conclusion This book is very useful in writing modern literary works. Henry David Thoreau based his works on the above aspects. This made his works influential and famous. Based on the principles he used in writing, he should be included in the modern literary canon. Most of these topics are in use in the modern world. His works are interesting and they carry with them meaningful information just like any other literary work (Hacker and Sommers 25;Krutch 66).

Works Cited Hacker, Diana and Sommers, Nancy. The Bedford handbook. London: Bedford Books, 1998.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Henry David Thoreau by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Krutch, Wood. The modern temper: A study and a confession. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1956.

Thoreau, David. Civil disobedience. Washington: Hayes Barton Press, 1964.

Thoreau, David. Walden. New York: Houghton, Mifflin, 1854.

Thoreau, David. A week on the Concord and Merrimack rivers. London: Ticknor and Fields, 1868.


The Importance of Choosing the Right Way of Communicating Your Ideas Essay best college essay help

Communication plays an important role in people’s lives. For instance, Japanese people who suffered from the quake were terrified because they felt isolated without any communication (Fackler 2011, p.A11). Reportedly, people who were deprived of electronic means of communication relied on such means as announcements from loudspeakers, or sirens.

Admittedly, verbal and non-verbal communication is essential for every individual. It goes without saying that every situation requires specific ways of communication, otherwise the major aim of communication will not be achieved. Thus, even informal private communication should be effective, and this can be achieved if the major principles of effective communication are taken into account.

In the first place, it is necessary to point out the major communication objective. Basically, communication objectives “include the effective exchange of ideas and opinions” (Tonn 2010). People are sharing ideas in the workplace and in their personal life. For instance, the conversation between David Carr and A.O. Scott who commented upon Oscars ceremony can be regarded as a private conversation (Oscars: Youthful Audience n.d.). The interlocutors feel free.

It is important to note that both of them pertain to one culture (they are Americans) which simplifies their communication since no cultural barriers exist between them. In fact, culture plays a very important role in communication since culture shapes individuals’ values and beliefs which influence greatly people’s behavior, which in its turn is essential when communicating.

Witsel (2009, p. 170) also stresses that cultural differences influence the effectiveness of communication greatly and it is essential to take into account these cultural peculiarities when sending and receiving messages. The present conversation is free from issues concerning cultural differences.

The communication between Carr and Scott is effective since the interlocutors manage to share their ideas. They send their messages waiting for the feedback, and they get the feedback since the interlocutor is an active listener. Both, Carr and Scott, support or refute arguments of each other, which is a very effective technique when communicating (Ulrich 2009, p.583). It is necessary to point out that sometimes the interlocutors interrupt each other, so certain barriers or, so-called noise appear.

They do not listen to the speaker attentively because they start talking and articulating their ideas (Oscars: Youthful Audience n.d.). The noise can lead to miscomprehension and it can also lead to less effective communication (Witsel 2009, p.135). However, there are only two cases of interruption, so it does not prevent interlocutors from communicating their ideas.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The present dialogue is a valuable example of the significance of non-verbal communication. For instance, the interlocutors use illustrators, “gestures that go along with” speech (Witsel 2009, p.170).

Carr and Scott laugh and nod, they make direct eye contact and these non-verbal means of communication (which are “very positive messages in US culture”) create a friendly atmosphere which is favorable for communication (Witsel 2009, p.163). Thus, it is possible to state that the dialogue can be characterized by effective communication since the interlocutors share their ideas on certain topic in a friendly atmosphere.

In my opinion, the dialogue is effective because the interlocutors had an idea about certain peculiarities of effective communication. It does not necessarily mean that they were studying those effective means of communication, but the majority of verbal and non-verbal means they used are determined by culture.

Thus, as far as non-verbal communication is concerned, smiles, nods and laugh are signs of active listening in American culture. Both speakers make use of these non-verbal means. As for verbal communication the interlocutors conveyed their ideas in explicit way so that their receiver could easily understand the message and provide his feedback.

It is necessary to point out that the work of Witsel (2009) was a very valuable source of knowledge which enabled me to learn about communication theories and, what is more important about their application in the real life.

For example, found out about the importance of paying attention to such four factors as feedback, channel, type of communication, language source (Witsel 2009, p.135). The right choice of each element is beneficial for reaching the major aim of communication. Thus, it is essential not to confuse formal or informal communication since every type has certain rules to follow.

Nevertheless, I believe that information about non-verbal communication, revealed in Witsel’s work (2009) was of primary importance for me. I acknowledged that this type of communication plays a very important (and sometimes crucial) role when sharing ideas. Many non-verbal signs can lead to misunderstanding and failing communication.

We will write a custom Essay on The Importance of Choosing the Right Way of Communicating Your Ideas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, I now understand that before communication your ideas to some person or people it is essential to find out more about their cultural background. This is extremely important in the modern globalized world.

In conclusion, it is necessary to point out that communication theories help understand the major principles of communication and what is more important to reach communication aims. For instance, analyzing an example of informal conversation between two Americans, it is possible to identify the main principles of effective communication.

The example is quite valuable in terms of communication analysis since the dialogue reveals effective means of communicating ideas, used by the interlocutors and their drawbacks. Basically, I learnt much about verbal and non-verbal means of communication. Now I should admit that non-verbal communication have become essential in the modern globalized world since people from different countries should share ideas effectively and cultural differences can negatively influence communication.

Reference List Fackler, M 2011, “Quake Area Residents Turn to Old Means of Communication to Keep Informed”, The New York Times, 28 Mar. 2011, p. A11.

Oscars: Youthful Audience. The New York Times Video, video, The New York Times, .

Tonn, VL 2010, “Meanings, Images of Interpersonal Communication, and The Iching.” China Media Research vol. 6, iss. 2, pp. 94-103, Expanded Academic ASAP.

Ulrich, B 2009, “Engaging in Crucial Conversations.” Nephrology Nursing Journal vol.35, iss.6 (2009): 583. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web.

Witsel, M (ed.) 2009, Communication in Organisations, 5th edn, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Importance of Choosing the Right Way of Communicating Your Ideas by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More


George Orwell’s 1984: Winston custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Winston and Julia’s Relationship


Reference List

Introduction Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984) is a compelling novel regarding science fiction in the twentieth century. It is written by George Orwell, a renowned writer, and reflects on various aspects of the society at that time. It outlines some elements of how the state could use its power to dominate or influence the lives of people primarily through the aspect of cultural conditioning as the Party can manipulate and control the people through totalitarianism policies.

This can be seen clearly by how Winston Smith’s personality is manipulated to the extent that he is not only integrated into the Party’s image but also comes to adore Big Brother though involuntarily. According to the author, the novel is intended to enlighten society on the kind of society they should desire. This critical essay gives an insight into Winston and Julia’s relationship and its credibility.

Winston Smith and Julia’s Relationship Winston Smith belonged to the outside Party from Oceania, which represented America and England in reality. He, for an extended period, kept his feelings to himself until the latter due to fear of being punished as the state was ruthless. His rebellion against Big Brother results in his arrest and mistreatment. Julia, on the other hand, is a young, beautiful, and strong woman, a kind which does not in any way attract or interest Winston, and this makes him hate her so much.

However, Julia seems interested in Winston through her acts. At the end of it all, we find Winston and Julia being in love , though they were quite different regarding various aspects of life, most specifically the intellectual capabilities, although they were both rebellious of the Party. Their reasoning, perspectives, and inspirations were entirely parallel due to some differences in age, among other factors.

For example, Winston thought of how the future generations could have a much better life free from the influence of the Party as it was before the Party took over leadership, but Julia could not think of this since she did not know of life before the Party. Julia’s reasons for rebelling against Big Brother were different. She was rebellious just for the sake of being against the Party but nothing much. Their love story started in a very peculiar manner where Julia falls, and Winston offers to assist her just as he would do to any other person.

It was at this moment that Julia gets the advantage of airing what she had longed for a considerable time by giving him a note in which she had written that she loved him. Although Winston had been unreceptive towards women and particularly Julia, he was touched by the words in the note, and their love affair kicked off, although they kept the affair secret for a long time (Brodeur and Orwell 1995).

The love relationship between Winston and Julia in 1984 does not seem genuine and credible due to the circumstances that surround it. There appear that there is no complete love between them, and there is a lack of emotional connection, although they both have the desire to love one another, as one can see through their desire to stay together.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Winston and Julia being in love was founded much on the idea of companionship, absent in the Party’s society, rather than love. The political act of rebellion was the foundation of their affair, and passionate love was lacking.

The existence of the common idea of being against the Party is also a contributing factor towards their togetherness as they can easily confide in each other in their struggle to rebel against the Party and in so doing, avoid being lonely. The love relationship between Julia and Winston did not go far, and they eventually departed as they both betrayed each other, which could have been avoided if they truly loved one another.

They could even end up marrying each other (Katifer 2008). Winston Smith and Julia’s relationship is a good one and makes the novel fulfill its purpose. In the relationship, Julia teaches Winston the idea of love, and the love feeling is then manipulated and directed towards Big Brother.

The connection also brings out the human nature where there is usually a mixture of love, relationship, and betrayal. Loyalty and commitment are aspects that can be linked to the relationship between them, and this differentiates Winston and Julia’s relationship from those that have been influenced by the totalitarian state that was in power during their timeline (Amadae 2003).

Conclusion Winston Smith and Julia are the main characters of Nineteen Eighty-Four. The plot of the novel, aimed to demonstrate large-scale social contradictions, unfolds around a private story of Winston and Julia’s relationship. The essay makes an analysis of the credibility of this relationship. It is questionable due to the basis on which it is founded. Political rebellion is, however, clearly shown through their relationship, and the society at that time is well depicted. We find the two actors betraying each other even with the knowledge that their staying together would play a significant role in freeing themselves from Big Brother hence proving their rationale.

Reference List Amadae, S. M, 2003. Rationalizing Capitalist Democracy: The Cold War Origins of Rational Choice Liberalism. The USA, University of Chicago Press.

Brodeur, K, and Orwell, G. 1995. George Orwell’s 1984. USA, Research


Shakespeare’s Othello, the Moor of Venice Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

“Is Iago purely evil, or is Othello incredibly gullible? How does such a strong (or gullible) man become trapped in such plotting?”

Othello, the Moor of Venice is a tragic play written at around 1603 by William Shakespeare, which addresses the encounters of Othello, the protagonist. Othello is a Venetian military general and who falls prey of Iago’s devious schemes, which are triggered by jealousy, deceit and quest for power (Hundley 4).

Shakespeare’s Iago is amoral character who drafts devious plans to lure others into his vengeance mission. Equivocally, I ago is a significant character who participates greatly in Othello’s misfortune. He is also accountable for Emilia, Roderigo and protagonist deaths. He contributes to plot development in the play in that he relates to other characters significantly.

His most important role is to accomplish the tragedy of Othello, which brings out the themes of hatred, envy and vengeance. In addition, he distinguishes Othello’s character and that of Desdemona to expose dramatic irony for the audience to be occupied (Kolin 8).

Is Iago purely evil? Yes. His inherent evilness is seen when Iago makes friends to hate each other by taking advantage of their trust toward him. To attain his mission, he uses their worries and anxieties to “make the net that shall emesh them all” (Shakespeare II. iii. 321-2). His evil motives are mostly a soliloquy that are never attained and becomes forgotten entirely. His scheme is initiated when he desires Cassio’s position of lieutenancy, which he wanted to be his.

He is envious of him and claims that he deserves and will fit into that position. Therefore, he plots a scheme to deceive, rob and eventually kill Cassio to fit in his lieutenant position. He aspires to replace Cassio’s work as a lieutenant by taking advantage of Desdemona’s naivety. He dishonors Cassio by inciting him to finish Roderigo and free him the lieutenant position when he states that “Cassio, I love thee, But nevermore be officer of mine” (Shakespeare II.iii.242-244). As a result Cassio was become unaware of the outcome.

Iago’s devious plans persist when he tactfully makes Othello to believe that his wife, Desdemona, is cheating on him with Cassio even without any evidence to show for it. Iago accomplishes this mission by ensuring that Othello’s thoughts concentrates on the fact that he is being cheated on, an aspect that leads to his tragedy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Othello instead fall into his scheme and his furry makes him hate his wife whom she doesn’t believe. Significantly, Iago awards Othello with the evil thought that he could kill his wife Desdemona, which will accomplish Iago’s vengeance mission (Hankey 5).

His devious plan is manifested when he claims that Iago had had an affair with Emilia, Iago’s life. To ascertain this fact, Othello points out that “And it is thought abroad that t’wixt my sheets/ He’s done my office” I know not if’t be true/ But I, for mere suspicion in that kind; / Will do as if for surety”(Shakespeare I.iii.381-385). Iago’s paranoia is tremendous to an extent that his insanity is portrayed when he deludes Othello to kill his own wife.

As if that is not enough, Iago robs his friend Roderigo. He uses the funds awarded to him by Roderigo to entice Desdemona. On noticing that Iago kept the money for himself, Roderigo makes threats to Iago and becomes furious about his actions. Unexpectedly, when Roderigo is informed of the scheme to entice Desdemona, his mind is eroded to forget about the money and instead, kill Cassio, whom Iago is envious of and is supposedly having an affair with Desdemona (Hankey 8).

These instances show that Iago has no conscious and therefore amoral, as depicted through his actions. He is deceptive to his wife and friends, which emphasize his evilness. He is tactful in carrying out his schemes, which however portrays his diabolical capability allowing him to erode his friends and his fife’s thoughts.

His intellectual ability is astonishing to the reader since he achieves and gets away with his devious schemes. He is able to win over other’s thoughts by targeting their desires through twisting, playing and eventually brainwashing their psychological power. These instances clearly portray Iago as having no conscience therefore, purely evil (Hundley 5).

Is Othello incredibly gullible? Yes. Othello on the other hand is a gullible character unlike Iago, who falls into the trap of Iago and falls into prey of his evil tactics. Othello’s character is dynamic having been a villain in the beginning and.

His jealousness is exposed after Iago deceives him to become vengeful and kill his wife. Othello angrily point out that “`Damn her, lewd minx! O, damn her, damn her! Come go with me part. I will withdraw To furnish me with some swift means of death. For the fair devil. Now are the my lieutenant’” (Shakespeare I. iii. 122).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Shakespeare’s Othello, the Moor of Venice specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This susceptibility and jealousness causes his tragedy. Othello’s weaknesses is exposed by the allegedly wife’s infidelity which he takes as being unclean and disgusting. This is because he observes sex as a unifying force which bloats his paranoia. Iago’s quest to become powerful is manifest as he pursues to destroy Othello who is a Venetian military general since he is envious of his status. Iago in disbelieve wonders how easy it is to brainwash Othello and even appreciates how easy it was to do so (Kolin 203).

How does such a strong (or gullible) man become trapped in such plotting? To start with, Othello falls short of knowledge on brewing power and is therefore doomed to fail. He is in the military as a general and therefore has authority over war such as the Turkish fleet, an aspect which should be reflected in his life but fails to (Vaughan 35).

Othello’s faults indicate that his tragic end is justifiable although he did not deserve it. Being a ‘god of war’ he should have done better than having his several flaws dictates his tragic end. By doing this Shakespeare achieves the reader’s sympathy towards the protagonist.

In addition, Othello lives in his own world since he has distinct race and culture since he is not conversant with traditions in Venetian women and even marries Desdemona irrespective of her father’s disapproval. Besides, He takes women as being holy or as being filthy based on their degree of fidelity. His naivety is reflected as he does not believe his wife since he has witnessed her deceive her father before, a deception that she allegedly transfers to the matrimonial bed.

Moreover, Othello has immature communication skills leave alone his expression of personal thoughts, aspects which exaggerate his inadequacy. He says to Brabantio and Duke that “Rude am I in my speech and little blessed with the soft phrase of peace (Shakespeare 1.ll. 81-82)….. And little of this great world can I speak, More than pertains to feats of broil and battle (Shakespeare 1. ll. 86-87).

He uses violence instead of persuasion when addressing women and murders his wife for a single unproved reason of infidelity. This indicate Othello is unable to multitask and has no flexibility of reason as he trusts Iago, since he has proven to be sincere and friendly as well as being loyal to Emilia His wife.

He does not conduct introspection to evaluate his inner self but believes Iago’s incitement and insinuations blindly, becomes emotional, which leads to his irrational thinking. His gullibility ignites jealous which overwhelms him and controls his actions. Eventually, Iago accomplishes his evil schemes of destroying Othello and his wife who were deeply in love.

In conclusion, Othello’s imperfections justifies his tragic end an aspect that Shakespeare implants in the reader to depict that Othello and his like are not the best people to lead the world due to their inherent imperfections. Although he defends the residents of Venice in war, through his victories and abilities, he emerges a tragic hero since he lacks a sound reason and falls into Iago’s plot. This guilt haunts him and ultimately drives him to commit suicide as he sees it as a means of sacrifice to pay for the death of his beloved wife.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Shakespeare’s Othello, the Moor of Venice by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Iago’s quest for power, vengeance is accelerated by jealousy and this does not benefit him in any way. As a result, Intellectual power is necessary to enable one to have a rational and an independent thought before carrying out an action. Othello’s predicament awards sympathy to the reader, which appears more real than fiction (Vaughan 5). Therefore, Iago is purely evil while Othello incredibly gullible since he falls prey of Iago’s devious plot.

Works Cited Hankey, Julie. Othello. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2005. Print.

Hundley, Sterling. Othello. New York: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. 2005. Print.

Kolin, Phillip. Othello: New Critical Essays. New York: Routledge. 2002. Print.

Shakespeare, William. Othello: By William Shakespeare. New York: MobileReference. 2008. Print.

Vaughan, Virginia. Othello: A Contextual History. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1996. Print.


Knowledge as perception or opinion Essay online essay help

Socrates was a Greek Athenian philosopher who was known for his contribution to western philosophy. His students, Xenophon and Plato, accounted for most of his work in some of their dialogues and writings.

He is credited for his contributions in ethics. In the dialogue, ‘Theaetetus’, Socrates gets into a serious discussion with a student of Protagoras on knowledge. A similar discussion is witnessed in Russell’s book ‘The Problem of Philosophy’. Protagoras defines his statement that ‘man is the measure of all things’ by arguing that truth is relative and depends on an individual.

To illustrate this he gives an example of a blowing wind where an individual can only feel the warmth in the wind if he or she has a temperature which is lower than that of the wind and vice versa (Burnyeat , 12). Similarly he uses this argument to defend his opinion on knowledge. According to Theaetetus, knowledge is perception, an opinion that is disputed by Socrates. Socrates puts it clear that knowledge is an opinion that is beyond stimulation of the senses.

Theaetetus, being a student of Protagoras, must have shared the same definition of knowledge with Protagoras. At the same time the theory of Protagoras has implications of perception being true. A large part of the conversation is about setting up definitions of knowledge and science.

The conversations move from lower to higher stages with three main clear issues of discussion. These issues are reasoning, opinion and perception and they are thoroughly examined. Socrates first removes the doubt and confusion that exists between types of knowledge and the idea of knowledge. Theaetetus defines knowledge by giving an example of knowledge. This quickly finds rejection by Socrates with the argument that it is not sufficient enough to define something by giving an example of that thing

He compares two sensations and argues that this has implications of a higher principle beyond knowledge. This principle resides in the mind meaning that knowledge is a true opinion. It is possible for an individual to be able to sense something that he or she does not know. While at the same time one can have the knowledge of something that he or she cannot feel or sense in any way.

For instance, according to Socrates’ arguments, you can know that a friend or anybody you recognize is standing next to you when you see them there. If you close your eyes immediately you cannot see them but you are able to know that they are still there meaning that knowledge is a mere opinion that is viable and true at the same time it is beyond sensation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Socrates expounds further on his position by asking Theaetetus if it is true that whenever we see or hear things we already know them. It is impossible to assume that someone can know a foreign language he has never heard before by hearing somebody else speaking it. Yes it is true that it is possible to hear the words but one cannot know what is being said (Burnyeat , 162b).

Socrates clearly disputes the definition of knowledge as perception. Since perception is as a result of stimulation of the senses, and the senses only give us the appearance of objects not there reality (Russell , 7), then it is wrong to consider perception to define knowledge. Similarly knowledge cannot be derived from our daily experiences because we experience through perception and feelings.

But however it has been agreed that experience to some sense can derive knowledge and at the same time, perception is not only the sensory stimulation or awareness of things (Russell , 4). Sometimes we could perceive divine things. There are several deceptions that can come as result of perception.

Russell in his book uses an example of a table and critically analyzes it in terms of the change in appearance as a result of change in condition. If the lighting condition is changed, the table changes its color. This creates distrust in what our perception, in this case the eye, tells us. All these changes in appearance with changes in condition may claim to be the reality. So we are uncertain of what exactly is real.

Protagoras explains knowledge as perception and expresses it alternatively as man being the measure of things meaning that all men judge what is. Knowledge depends with the individual and he explains his definition with an illustration of a cold wind that blows on an individual’s face.

The difference in perception of the coldness of the wind depends with the internal temperature of the individual. If Protagoras admits that all opinion judged by man to be true then any opinion against his own is also true. But however Socrates refuses to agree that the opinion of Protagoras to be true

He disputes the claim by saying that the word ‘is’ used in this statement implies ‘appears’ and ‘appears’ implies feeling. It is incorrect to refer to perception, appearance and feeling as being. Being is a phenomenon that exists beyond the natural sensation.

We will write a custom Essay on Knowledge as perception or opinion specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It involves the mental and mind and knowledge is more than perception meaning there is no way that we could have a true opinion by relying on our feelings. We can only perceive using one means or instrument at a time. We cannot use our ears to see a color neither can we use our eyes to hear any sound. Perception is limited to the power used for perceiving but knowledge is beyond these instruments of perceiving.

The only sure thing that we can know we know is nothing, according to Socrates. He says that his wisdom is limited by his ignorance. He was of the opinion that wrong doing is as a result of ignorance and the people who do wrong are only doing it from ignorance. Personally such an opinion is incorrect.

Every action of human beings is not as a result of ignorance but choice. People make choice to do what they want whether wrong or good. Wrong actions are defined wrong because they are deficient of love. According to Socrates love seems to be that one thing that he consistently knows. He refers to love as the concept of loving wisdom. Socrates loved wisdom because he linked wisdom to philosophy.

Still on the dialogue of Protagoras, Socrates explains that all is motion and motions takes part in two forms: passion and action. From these two forms, infinite concepts and ideas are created and sense is given birth. The eye is designed to sense whiteness while objects are filled with the sense of whiteness.

The object gives birth to sensation of whiteness while the eye gives birth to whiteness. There is no other element that can produce a similar effect meaning that things are not, but instead they become. Hence there is no name that can really define something.

Socrates never used to refer to himself as a wise man in fact he says that he has no wisdom of his own and he is only offering the wisdom of men. His intention in the dialogue is to deliver Theodorus and Theaetetus of something. Personally, his explanation on the falseness of perception is very true and has a strong ground. Madness and dreaming are cases where perception does not hold. We spend a huge part of our lives a sleep and dreaming.

Dreaming not only occurs when we sleep but it is possible to day dream in full consciousness. It is also not verifiable if at this very instant we are dreaming or not dreaming. Mad men when they fantasize, do they having a true opinion or false opinion? There are different perceptions produced in every patient. Socrates explains this by illustrating that he may be sick or well. When he drinks his favorite wine when sick, it tastes different from the moment he drinks the wine when he is well. It actually tastes better when he is well.

To criticize Socrates’ arguments, it seems that he relies mostly on dispute rather than reason to put across his points. He seems to be attempting to trip opinions that he does not agree with. He fails to recognize that dispute and reasoning are not the same thing and there is a distinction between the tow.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Knowledge as perception or opinion by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With reasoning, some one makes an effort to understand an opinion before beginning to identify errors made in that argument. Most of his explanations to dispute Protagoras were based on one aspect of sensation which is the sense of sight. Other critics of Socrates identified him as not as a proponent of philosophy but some one with bad intentions of undermining the society of Athens.

Socrates also had some good virtues that personally I tend to identify with. He believed that people should spend more time trying to develop their lives rather than accumulating material wealth which is absolutely useless. He always encouraged people to be focused on building friendship and truth in their communities. He ended up becoming a philosophical martyr because of sticking to his believes. In most of his teachings, he emphasized that virtue is the most expensive of everything.

Works Cited Burnyeat, Myles. The Teaetetus of Plato. Trans. Jane Levett. Hackett: Indianapolis, 1990.

Russell, Bertrand. The Problem of Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambrigde University Press, 1912.


“Never Marry a Mexican”: Theme Analysis cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents How It Began

Sandra Cisneros: “Never Marry a Mexican” History of Creation

Long Way to the Insight

“Never Marry a Mexican”: Summary

Negative Mexican Stereotypes and Consequences

Never Marry a Mexican: Analysis

Critics’ Assessments



Sandra Cisneros’s women reflect the Mexican immigrant’s struggle to assimilate the parts of themselves that negative cultural stereotypes have taught them to hate. “Never Marry a Mexican” analysis shall be provided in this paper.

How It Began In 1954 author Sandra Cisneros was born in a low-income family of seven children, based in Chicago, Illinois. Her mother was Mexican American, and her father, a full Mexican. Cisneros grew up the only girl among six brothers and has described this experience as “being similar to having seven fathers” (Yudin


Should We Allow Gay Marriages as Civil Unions? Research Paper online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Gay Marriage


The origin of a Marriage Institution

Improper Family Set up

The Need for Correction


Works Cited

Introduction The issue of gay marriages and gay institutions has attracted much attention and arguments with each passing day strengthening and intensifying the arguments.With modernity and civilisation creeping in to the contemporary society,the current stance seems to be taking a new perspective.

Should we or should we not allow gay marriages as civil unions? This is the question that many people would like to get an answer for. This essay gives an argumentative approach to this question by discussing the current stance on the issue as well as reasons as to why gay marriages and unions should never be legalized.

Gay Marriage Gay marriage refers to the marital union between two males. Traditionally, the marriage institution consisted of only heterosexual unions but things have changed and with modernity and civilisation the issue of what constitutes a marriage has been questioned as more people strive to have the interpretation allow for marriage between people of the same sex.This issue carriesa lot of weight and significance in the society.

Statistics Diverse societies all over the world take this issue differently with some societies opting to fully support gay marriages as civil unions.Others have decided to remain neutral while others have taken a strong stand against the issue. A recent report by NCSL indicated the diversity of the issue of gay marriages and unions. The report presented the following conclusions:

States which license gay marriages areMassachusetts, Connecticut, California, Iowa, Vermont, New Hampshire, District of Columbia; states which acknowledge gay unions include Rhode Island, New York, Maryland; states which support gaycivil unions include Hawaii, Illinois, New Jersey; states which allow full spousal rights to domestic gay partnerships include California, Oregon, Nevada, Washington and states which allow limited spousal rights to domestic gay partnershipsinclude Hawaii, Maine, District of Columbia, Wisconsin. (NCSL 1)

These statistics are a clear indicator of what the society thinks about gay marriages and unions.It may be justified to respect the thoughts and feelings of other people based on the fact that we are all different and we view issues from different perspectives.A critical look at all the facts and perspectives of the marriage institution makes it apparent that gay marriage legalizationneed to be questioned or better still be discouraged and banned altogether.

The origin of a Marriage Institution The first question that we need to ask ourselves is, where exactly did marriage institution begin? Come to think of it, all the theories of creation, be it evolution or creation all depend on the structure of heterosexual relationships. Evolution would not have brought us to where we are withoutheterosexual concept.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Creation theory from all religions and cultures began with male and female including animal and the plant kingdoms and through heterosexual relationships the world came to be what it is today. Why did creation or revolution not start with two men or two women? Glenn put it straight and strongly opposes this opinion (Glenn 4). The answer is simple; nature does not recognize gay marriages or unions, a fact indicating how unnatural gay marriages are and why they should never be legalized.

Do gay marriage supporters fully support the whole idea? Surprisingly they don’t. Suppose we all woke up one day and agreed in unison that all people get into gay marriages. Definitely that would mark the end of mankind and that is why gay marriage supporters want to have adoption rights; to adopt children from those who obey natural laws of nature or have multi sexual relationships.

Dulle has a strong argument against homosexual relationships “homosexual ‘families’ of whatever type are always and necessarily parasitic on heterosexual ones” (Dulle 1). And since they are parasitic, who would certainly want to be the victim of such parasitism? Definitely not me, and that is the reason why I will not support such parasitic gay unions (Dulle 1).

Improper Family Set up Imagine yourself being brought up in a gay set up where both parents are men.Seeing other kids cling passionately with love to their sweet mothers while all you have is two men in your life. How would you go through puberty and adolescent issues as a girl without having a natural motherly love to lean on during those trying moments?

The fact is that it would be a traumatic experience for children to grow up in such a family set up. It is argued that“the marital family is also the foremost setting for the education and socialization of children; children learn about the world and their place in it primarily from those who raise them” (Dulle 1). This is one big reason anyone should agree with me as to why gay marriages should never be legalized.

Proponents argue that the society defines marriage and as such its definition should change with the changes with time. What is wrong with such an argument? Logically speaking marriage is not defined by the societybut rather acknowledged as the basic building block of the society.

Marriageought to build a family intofamilies and the families in turn make a society. That is the reason why cultures, religions and legal structures do not recognize gay relationships. Ever seen a building made of stones alone or cement alone? Society made of men alone or women alone would not certainly be the best for you and that’s the reason why gay institutions should not be legalized (Newton 50).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Should We Allow Gay Marriages as Civil Unions? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is argued that legalizing the act will only bring to light what is usually done in the darkness. But does legalization make things right? I don’t think so. Just because you can now eat ash doesn’t make ash a new wonderful type of a delicacy. Ash will still remain ash however legal it might be and it will never benefit the body.

Likewise legalizing gay marriages will never make them right and on contrary it will only make matters worse by opening up avenues for experimentation which is so detrimental for the well-being of any society. Legal systems are societal protective mechanisms against any threats to its existence by encouraging good ethical behaviors and discouraging potential unethical behaviors such as gay marriages. That is the reason why legal systems should desist from supporting gay relationships (Newton 51).

Proponents argue that gay marriages promotes faithfulness by fulfilling ones desires the best way one may see appropriate. But we all have our own desires to do things some of which are not moral. It then becomes a moral question, whereby we have to exercise high degree of self-control for moral purposes.

If we allow gay marriages because they have that kind of sexual orientation then we should as well allow man animal,grownups versus children, brother sister marriages or more still legalize things that we feel in ourselves as good to us irrespective of whether they harm the society or not. We all have feelings some of which might not be the best for the social fabric but we suppress them and we still remain human and happy. To make the point even clear, the legal system ensures that we stick to that which is moral.

Hargrave shared the same sentiments “I don’t deny the reality of those desires, or their strength – heterosexuals feel them as well;for the social good, they should either control their desires, or satisfy them discreetly” (Hargrave 1). From this argument gay marriages then depict weakness and lack of goodwill to exercise self-control at least for the sake of respect of nature. You agree with me that legal systems should help them exercise self-control just like the rest of us by prohibiting gay unions.

The Need for Correction Proponents of gay marriages claim that gay people are born that way and that it is genetically entrenched in them. Research done to find proof of this claims concluded there is no such gene. To make it clear we all know there is no gene for killing, stealing, bestiality, pedophiles, rapists let alone gay people.

Same sex attraction is not genetic but rather a social behavior which according to Hargrave “is the behavior of persons with child and adolescent Gender Identity Disorder” (Hargrave 1).If a child develops rickets,it is not because of her own making or genetics do we then satisfy her need for quality life by implementing rickets sports and rickets lifestyle? Certainly not but on the contrary control the rickets and make the society rickets free. The same argument applies to gay people.

By understanding the root cause of this contentious issue and finding a permanent cure would be a celebrated achievement rather than trying effortlessly to accommodate this unnatural, unethical and uncultured behavior that we ourselves as a society have created by poor upbringing of our kids.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Should We Allow Gay Marriages as Civil Unions? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It has been argued that prevention is better than cure and as such we should never legalize gay marriages instead use the energy resources to treat the root cause by of course letting our children grow in the best society possible. It is evident that by a gay union cannot make up a family.

Gay marriages by default cannot have children that can be claimed to belong to the family biologically. As argued from above therefore such kind of marriages cannot sustain a society. It is worth noting that if suchkinds of practices are allowed to take gain strength in the society then there is a likelihood that after some considerate period of time the society will likely be affected with an issue of under population.

Conclusion Much debate, campaigns and arguments have taken sides. A closer look indicates that the society is divided across the board on whether to agree or disagree and to what extent. By a critical look at the issue and calculated argumentative thought it has become clear that gay marriage and unions should be phased out of the society and such acts should never be legalized.

Some of the reasons that were evident in the arguments were that gay relationships are against laws of nature, gay institutions are unnatural and parasitic hence only work to complicate family institution and furthermore gay marriage institutions were never the plan of God, nature or even evolution. Root cause of gay affiliations hasbeen attributed to adolescent gender identity disorder which needs to be addressed. These and other facts clearly validate the argument why gay marriage and gay unions should never be legalized.

Works Cited Dulle, Jason. An Argument against Same-Sex Marriage. Plain Site,2011. Web.

Glenn, Stanton. Marriage on Trial: The Case Against Same-sex Marriage and Parenting. London, U.K., 2010. Print.

Hargrave, Joe. A Secular Argument against Gay Marriage. American Catholic, 2010. Web.

NCSL. Same-Sex Marriage, Civil Unions and Domestic Partnerships. NCSL, 2011. Web.

Newton, David. Same-Sex Marriage: A Reference Handbook. New York, NY: ABC-CLIO, 2010. Print.