Quantitative Techniques Of Mitsui Sumitomo And Asahi Insurance Companies Term Paper Writing Essay Help

Introduction Objective

The research seeks to establish the impacts of group variables, performance variables, and independent variables on the performance and profitability of Mitsui Sumitomo and Asahi insurance companies.

Overview of the companies under study

Mitsuisumitomo insurance company is involved in domestic non life insurance. Moreover, it participates in global life insurance, risk cover, and finance generating activities or businesses.

It has over time countered hindrances to growth with anticipation of becoming one of the leading companies in non life insurance industry. It has endeavored to commit itself in offering one of the highest quality services with the main target of establishing a sure breakthrough to growth as an insurance company meeting anticipated global standards.

Asahi mutual life insurance company is also another player in the insurance industry in Japan. It currently stands as one of the largest life insurance companies in Japan.

It has extended its services to countries like China to sell it life insurance policies. In addition, it offers group operations to China. This has greatly increased demand of it services in China. However, the company involves in, performance appraisal to meet global standards.

Conceptual model The profitability and performance of insurance company is determined by the following factors, (Embley 134):

Operation factors

claim settlement with minimal disputes

companies infrastructure such as buildings, road

information dissemination through agents and brokers

customer satisfaction

Organizational factors

staff qualifications

adaptability to market trends

involvement in community projects

rates of return on investments


government policies

legality of the practices


sampling variability

Conceptual model on the effects of staff qualification on claim settlement in insurance companies.

Literature review

Independent variable is a characteristic which is manipulated by a researcher in case of an experiment or case study in order to identify its effects in another variable mostly dependent variable(Embley 134).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A dependent variable or orientation variable is the characteristic which the researcher studies to record the effects of the independent variable on the conceptual model; (McArdle at al 279) staff qualification is the independent variable since the researcher seeks to establish the effects of staff qualification on time, service evaluation, and amount of settlement to be made in case of a claim by the insured.

Therefore claim settlement is dependent on staff qualification or competence level (Willer 79).

Figure 1

Qualified staff is the independent variable; the researcher manipulates staff competences to find out the impacts on the dependent variables. Qualified staff enables the brokers and agents to get relevant and factual information regarding the company. Therefore, they are able to influence the potential customers to the companies (Willer 79).

Moreover, the information disseminated by brokers and agents is thoroughly scrutinized. Availability of adequate information regarding a company to customers boosts the customers awareness this in turn increases customer confidence. The customers are able to sell companies policies to other potential customers. This results to the increased number of the customer to the company.

Regression analyses The above questionnaire was issued to the respondents who are either customers or potential customers to the two insurance companies. That is Asahi and Mutsui insurance companies. There were twenty respondents on the study.3.2 data collected (Chatterjee and Hadi 8).

questions X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 1 4 3 6 5 2 2 3 5 2 7 3 3 0 4 2 8 6 4 1 7 2 3 6 5 6 3 2 5 4 6 6 0 4 8 2 7 2 6 5 3 4 8 1 9 3 5 2 9 5 3 1 6 8 10 4 5 5 2 The above data represent the study results of company one (Mutsui life insurance)

We will write a custom Term Paper on Quantitative Techniques of Mitsui Sumitomo and Asahi Insurance Companies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Summation = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 =Ʃ55

Number of observations = 10

Mean Ʃ55/10 =5.5

PF1 =F1(X1, X2, X3, X4, X5) (Cameron and Trivedi l 239).

r=Ʃ(x1-5.5) (x2-5.5) …….. (x5-5.5)/√Ʃ(x1-5.5)2 ………. (x5-5.5)2

Ʃ =(x1-5.5) x2-5.5) (x3-5.5) (x4-5.5) x5-5.5)

=-23-9.5 23 3-14


Not sure if you can write a paper on Quantitative Techniques of Mitsui Sumitomo and Asahi Insurance Companies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More ( x1-5.5)2 (x2-5.5)2 (x3-5.5)2 (x4-5.5)2 (x5-5.5)2(Yan and Su 267).

=90.25 529 529 9 196



R =20.5/36.79


This is a positive relationship between the variables. The goodness of fit on the observed (O) results and expected (E) results are good. Since (O-E) 2 is low (Cameron and Trivedi 239). The statistical results obtained give a positive relationship between variables hence it is significant in giving the performance and their relationship (.Babbie 56).

The below data represents the responses from the questionnaire in regards to company two (Asahi)

questions X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 1 4 3 1 6 6 2 6 5 0 7 2 3 5 2 4 3 6 4 3 7 2 4 4 5 4 5 3 1 7 6 8 2 1 4 5 7 7 4 1 5 3 8 9 3 0 2 6 9 2 1 4 7 6 10 5 6 0 3 6 PF2=F2(X1, X2, X3, X4, X5) (Cameron and Trivedi 239).

Summation = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 =Ʃ55

Number of observations = 10

Mean Ʃ55/10 =5.5

r=Ʃ(x1-5.5) (x2-5.5) …….. (x5-5.5)/√Ʃ(x1-5.5)2 ………. (x5-5.5)2

Ʃ =(x1-5.5 ) (x2-5.5) (x3-5.5) (x4-5.5) (x5-5.5)

=2 17-39 10 8


√( x1-5.5)2 (x2-5.5)2 (x3-5.5)2 (x4-5.5)2 (x5-5.5)2

=4 289 1521 64 100





The additive, linear model shows a linear connection between variables. The goodness of fit for the company is poor since the observed (O) results are higher the expected(E) results(O-E) (Yan and Su 267).however, the regression analyses of the statistics above gives the relationship between the variables under study. The analysis gives an impression of the negative relationship between the values.

Linear additive model of the entire sector (Yan and Su 267).




From the values obtained r ranges from -1 to 1 signifying that r is greater than 0.99 the correlation is considered linear and when r is less than 0.99 the connection has an error (Yan and Su 267).

The additive, linear model essentially takes a simple connection between independent and dependent variables.it therefore gives quick facial impression of the data analysis (Yan and Su 267).

Regression analysis is a tool that measures the relationship between variables. Incase r=0 it means that there is no correlation among variables in question when r=positive value imply a positive relationship and r=negative imply a (-ve) correlation, an increase in one variable leads to decrease in another set of variables.

Regression analysis aid statisticians to identify whether two variables are related or not (Yan and Su 267). These variables are:

Correlation which describes merely the presences or absence of relation

Correlation which shows the degree of magnitude of relationship between two measures

Conclusion and recommendations In a nutshell, all variables including dependent, independent, quantitive or qualitative variables impact on individual performance and profitability. A regression analysis gives the relationship between variables and enables companies to analyze the effects of independent on dependent variables. Companies should always perform regression analysis to improve and assess its continuity in the market.

Appendices A questionnaire

Indicate your responses by either a tick or a cross (×) alongside the response options in the questionnaire (Chatterjee and Hadi 8).

The responses will be: Strongly Agree (SA),Agree(A),Neither(N),Disagree(D),and Strongly Disagree(SD)


The old people are charged higher premiums than the young people.

SA A N D SD The females take the life insurance cover than the male counterparts.

SA A N D SD Economic status of people is a key motivator to taking life insurance cover.

SA A N D SD Life insurance cover is taken by individuals with life threatening illness such as stroke, diabetes, cancer among others.

SA A N D SD The rate of return on investment to a life insurance company depends on the number of the assured.

SA A N D SD Do life insurance company performance and profitability solely depend on physical infrastructure?

SA A N D SD Have information communication technology trends today impacted positively on insurance market trends?

SA A N D SD Undue competition in insurance industry compromises the service delivery to customers?

SA A N D SD Do brokers and agents influence potential customer’s decisions?

SA A N D SD Location of insurance significantly influence the number of people who use it services?

SA A N D SD Works Cited Babbie, Earl R. The Basics of Social Research. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2008. Print.

Cameron, Adrian C, and P K. Trivedi. Regression Analysis of Count Data. 2nd edn. Econometric Society Monograph No.53, Cambridge University Press, 1998. Print.

Chatterjee, Samprit, and Ali S. Hadi. Regression Analysis by Example. Hoboken: Wiley, 2012. Web.

Embley, David W. Handbook of Conceptual Modeling: Theory, Practice, and Research Challenges. Berlin: Springer, 2011. Print.

Lane, Jan-Erik. The Public Sector: Concepts, Models and Approaches. London [u.a.: SAGE, 2000. Print.

McArdle, William D, Frank I. Katch, and Victor L. Katch. Essentials of Exercise Physiology.Baltimore, Mar: Lippincott Williams


Rationale and Team Responsibilities: A Brief Overview Report college application essay help: college application essay help

Defining a structure of an organization is not an easy task, since it involves a thorough analysis of the company’s goals, mission and vision, as well as careful consideration of the roles and responsibilities that the company members are going to take within the given structure.

Because of the focus of the Mobile Headset Company, as well as the fact that the company consists of comparatively few people, it will be most reasonable to adopt the Functional Structure (Daft, 2010) and make sure that the chosen structure should provide the best opportunities for information management and contribute to an efficient knowledge sharing process.

The choice of the Functional Structure Model as the basis for the organizational structure was predetermined by the fact that the given model allows for a reasonable distribution of roles and responsibilities to each of the company members, as well as defining the tasks that each department is supposed to accomplish.

Therefore, the Functional Structure model helps solve one of the basic problems haunting large companies, i.e., the means to introduce cohesion and cooperation into the work of different departments within a company.

To start with, the delegation of responsibilities within the company in question is going to be carried out in the following manner:

Table 1. Roles and Responsibilities of the Company Members

One of the key peculiarities of the structure provided above is that the delegation of responsibilities is strictly hierarchical, i.e., the corresponding tasks can be assignment to a corresponding staff member of a department by a superior staff member or a department; however, the given rule presupposes that the task cannot be assigned to a Discount Manager by the CEO of the company; instead, the Finance Department manager is supposed to handle the given task.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the suggested system admittedly lacks flexibility (Daft


Innovation Planning and Design Process Report writing essay help

Introduction The process of innovation planning and designing plays a significant role in making an organization gain a competitive advantage. This process requires creative and competitive ideas from many individuals. It is employed in different functions such as production, inventory, and marketing. Organizations need employees with diverse sets of competencies.

They enable organizations to develop, test, as well as commercialize new products. Managers provide employees with resources that are necessary for a company to accomplish its objectives. Innovation does not only involve taking products and services to the market, but also emphasizing on quality products and services. A good plan ensures high quality products and services, as well as enhanced employee performance.

This paper addresses the innovative planning and design process within an organization. It analyzes the internal and external factors related to designing innovation strategies. It also discusses he importance of innovation systems, as well as the steps involved in the process of innovation planning and design.

Internal and external factors related to innovation planning and design There are various internal and external factors that determine organization’s innovation strategies. The internal factors include the creativity of individuals in an organization, communication, relationships between employees and managements, and employee motivation (Rowe, 2008).

In addition, employee perceptions of organizational change, innovation plan efficiency, and organizational assumptions determine the innovation strategies used by an organization.

Communication is a significant factor that determines the success of designing innovation strategies. Organizations that set up and nurture efficient communication channels excel in their innovation strategies. Efficient communication ensures effective coordination of different business units in the organization.

Furthermore, it ensures that products and services are made available at the right place and time. Good employee-management relationships also contribute largely to efficient designing of innovation strategies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Employee relationships enhance sharing of an organization’s goals and eliminates constraints to organizational performance. It is also easy to influence employees to perceive organizational change positively, and hence accept and implement innovations in an organization without pausing barriers.

Employee motivation also contributes to efficient designing of innovation strategies (White


Walt Whitman Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Works Cited

Introduction Walt Whitman was an American journalist and poet born in 1819 in West Hills, New York and who died in1892 in Camden, New Jersey. During his life, Whitman served the community in numerous ways, for example, he was working as a teacher, volunteer nurse, journalist, essayist, and a government clerk (Bloom 16).

Whitman was a classical scholar who influenced the development of poetry through his numerous works that are relevant even today. He started writing and publishing his poems at a time when people did not enjoy the freedom of expressing their thoughts freely.

Nearly all of Whitman’s literary works evoked different reactions of social masses which caused Whitman to be given some of his famous nicknames such as the “Father of Free Verse” and “The Bard of Democracy”. The author’s life was stained by numerous disputes regarding his sexuality (Symonds 43). This issue provoked so much interest that biographers analyzed his poems as a way of understand his feelings.

They still continue to describe his sexuality as bisexual, although there is no clear evidence that Whitman had any sexual experiences with men. Whitman’s life was dominated by poetry and politics, especially during the industrialization era when he strongly opposed slavery. He was a staunch campaigner of democracy, as he used his influence to advocate for abolishment of slavery (Bloom 21).

Discussion Walt Whitman hailed from a family with eight children and it faced numerous economic challenges. The poor economic background of the family resulted from poor investment decisions made by the parents. The author described his upbringing as one characterized by ceaseless motion, worry, and lack of happiness.

The economic situation in Whitman’s family meant that there were limited life opportunities for him and his siblings (Bloom 26). Thus, he had to look for a job after finishing school. He worked in various places including his job as a trainee and printer at a local newspaper called Patriot. This job helped to shape Whitman’s career as a poet and journalist.

While working for the newspaper, Whitman had learnt how to use a typesetter, and gained a lot of knowledge about the printing press. He did not stay with this employer for long, and moved to another newspaper in Brooklyn called Long-Island Star. While in Brooklyn, Whitman visited the local library on a regular basis to read, as well as participate in debate and theatre performances (Meltzer 100).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Aspiring poets respected Whitman a lot for his lifestyle and beliefs, for example, in his youth, Whitman chose not to consume alcohol (Meltzer 109). Through his poems, Whitman encouraged readers to stay away from the temptations of alcohol, as it had serious effects. Whitman admitted to have written The Inebriate under the influence of alcohol.

He felt embarrassed by the poem because of the numerous contradictory phrases it contained (Symonds 48). Since then, Whitman decided to consume only alcohol free drinks. Whitman was a religious man, and believed in God. Through his works, Whitman advocated for equality among all believers. He believed that all religions were equal and none should feel superior over the other.

Some of the poems that emphasized his belief in God include Song of Myself, and With Antecedents (Symonds 53). However, it was hard for Whitman to avoid skepticism, as he did not believe in any religion despite accepting all of them.

One of the characteristic features of Whitman’s poems was the use of an expressive style, images and symbols. Ordinary poems did not have these elements. Although there were poets who used expressive style in their writings before Whitman, many people consider him as the one responsible for popularization of this style (Meltzer 126).

Whitman believed that the ideal recipe for a poet to succeed was a shared passion for poetry between poets and the readers. He expressed his thoughts about the success of poets in his collection of poems called the Leaves of Grass. According to Whitman, there is a dependent relationship between poetry and society.

The society helps influence the development of poetry by providing an audience, while poetry helps instilling positive ideals in society through information and knowledge (Bloom 30). Whitman underlined this concept in one of his poems called the Song of Myself.

His writing style also incorporated first person recitation. Whitman had a strong ability to create poems in singular form. This earned him a title among the American readers of the “Poet of Democracy”.

We will write a custom Essay on Walt Whitman specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The writer used Leaves of Grass to divulge the character and identity the American people. Through his poems, Whitman gave a detailed account of the civilization era in the United States of America. Leaves of Grass is one of the most important reference resources for history students, who study events that marked the civilization of America (Meltzer 132). Despite his success as a poet, Whitman was not much into poetry.

He realized that he had the ability to bring change in the society by pursuing a different dream. Thus, he started his career as a poet. Whitman used a variety of themes in his poems to discuss various issues that affected the society. One the themes that he used in his poems was sexuality. This theme resulted in widespread criticism from readers over the offensive topics discussed by this theme.

The manner in which Whitman discussed human feelings elicited questions about his sexuality that remains a mystery to date. Many people believe that his controversial themes helped a lot in shaping a realist society that accepts everyone despite their perfections and imperfections (Symonds 61).

Whitman helped to create a positive mentality about diversity through his poems. Readers of these poems have managed to carry on his teachings into the modern society.

Conclusion Walt Whitman was one of the most influential people in the field of fictional writing. His legacy still lives on many years after he passed on. According to Whitman, there is a dependent relationship between poetry and society. Whitman is remembered for his role in introducing a new style of writing poems, and his fight for democracy in the United States of America.

Whitman also inspired many people with his lifestyle and beliefs. Most of Whitman’s admirers believe that he is the best poet that America had at that time. Many modern poets still promote the legacy that Walt Whitman left through their poems. Throughout his life, Whitman served his community in numerous roles, and through his work, he advocated for equality among all religions and all people. He believed that all were equal.

Works Cited Bloom, Harold. Walt Whitman. New York: Info Base Publishing, 2009. Print.

Meltzer, Milton. Walt Whitman: A Biography. New Jersey: Twenty-First Century Books, 2002. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Walt Whitman by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Symonds, John. Walt Whitman: A Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Print.


Michel Foucault’s Subject of Power Essay college admissions essay help

Power is present in all spheres of life. Michel Foucault has enormously shaped the idea of power present in institutions. According to Foucault, power is often used as a means of coercion. The main philosophy that he delineates is that power is everywhere and it gains eminence through regimes of discourse (Foucault 778). This paper is an exercise to understand the presence of power within a university campus.

The first part of the paper will discuss the philosophy of power as presented by Foucault. Power is defined by Foucault as a relation between groups and forces within a social institution:

The term “power” designates relationships between partners (and by that I am not thinking of a zero-sum game but simply, and for the moment staying in the most general terms, of an ensemble of actions which induce others and follow from one another) (Foucault 786).

The power as Foucault defines is not imposed from within the structure of the institution. Instead, it arises from relations in the society. Foucault states that there are different modes of power – disciplinary modes of power and social power (Foucault 53). Power is not related to any institution nor does it arise out of force. Power does not exist individually.

It is present with other powers institutionalized by other bodies. According to Foucault, power is passes through the institutions and does not belong to individuals. Furthermore, Foucault also demonstrates that the concept of modern discipline has developed through this new understanding of power within institutions.

The panopticon system is the way power is institutionalized within a modern setting (Foucault, Power/Knowedlge 155). Foucault states that there is no “exercise of power without a certain economy of discourses of truth” (Foucault 93). The concept of power as delineated by Foucault has certain facets:

Power is found in relation to the social body and these two things co-exist,

Power relations are interlinked with other forms of relations,

These relations do not dictate the nature of “prohibitions and punishments”,

These discourses are unified into a unitary form of domination. (Foucault 142)

Power can be used for establishment of power, knowledge, and competency (Foucault 781). Further, these struggles can be used against the group of “domination and exploration” (Foucault 782). The question that arises is that how the power is exercised. Foucault presents the answer to this question:

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Power relations, relationships of communication, and objective capacities should not therefore be confused. This is not to say that there is a question of three separate domains.

Nor that there is, on the one hand, the field of things, of perfected technique, work, and the transformation of the real; on the other that of signs, communication, reciprocity, and the production of meaning; and finally, that of the domination of the means of constraint, of inequality, and the action of men upon other men (Foucault 786-787).

The presence of power within institutions requires obedience through recognition of power relations. The discipline of apprenticeship is necessary for appropriate communication of power, according to Foucault. The next section of the paper will discuss how power is structured within universities.

This section will delineate the issues of power that is evident within a university campus. Universities are structured in three broad groups. The first group of people is the educators or the professors. They are the ones who are in possession of knowledge and therefore, due to their abundance of knowledge, they hold a specific power over others in the institution.

This group also has an institutionalized superiority in the mind of the other groups in the university. For instance, students realize the power that the professors have through popular discourse of teacher’s superiority. The second group is that of the students. This the largest group within the educational institution.

They are the ones who are present in the university to gain knowledge and therefore, they hold a position of submissiveness. Further, the third group includes other people associated with the university. These may include the accounting staff, people at the library, and so on. These three are the broad groups; however, there are many other subgroups within these broader groups.

Who has power in the universities? In any educational institution, considering that they are the institutions of knowledge, power is present among the people who have more knowledge. According to Foucault, individual professors do not have the power.

We will write a custom Essay on Michel Foucault’s Subject of Power specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The power they have does not come from their individual knowledge or positions. It is the institution of the professors. In other words, the group of people who control the dissemination of knowledge in an educational institution is the group that probably holds the maximum power within a university.

Foucault states “power exists only when it put to action” (789). In case of the group of students, the power originates from the groups that are formed. For instance, a student’s body, which has been elected to represent to the administrators, holds the power. The members of this body instantly hold the greater power than the other members of the students’ body.

Further, these people hold greater power because it is discoursed by the institutional machinery that they are the ones who represent the others to the administration, and therefore possess the greater power. Therefore, even the others within the students’ body feel that these students are important. The power of the students in the university is almost similar to that of papal power, which they hold over other students.

The others consider the students’ body almost as a group of priests who have remarkable power to transfer the wishes of the students to the administrators. Therefore, the belief that they are the only people who can transport the ideas to the others is a possible way in which the students’ body derives power.

The other possible source of power within the educational institution is observable in the student-teacher interaction. Students are the subjects and the objects of submission, while the teachers are the source of power.

The teachers’ body, due to greater knowledge available to them, holds a higher position and is the one who watches over the students through instruments such as projects, presentations, and examinations.

The power that the teachers hold is again the one that is discoursed to them, rather than the ones which arise out of position. Hence, Foucault rejects the concept of positional power, and fosters the belief that power is one that is created through the confrontation of the two bodies, in this case , the students and the teachers’ body. Foucault has explained the existence of power in relation to civil authorities and the criminals as:

Basically, power is less a confrontation between two adversaries or the linking of one to the other than a question of government. … “Government” did not refer only to political structures or to the management of states; … to govern, in this sense, is to structure the possible field of action of others. (Foucault 786)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Michel Foucault’s Subject of Power by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hence, the power one attains within the government is also the one that the others should abide. Had there been no discourse of the existence and the perceived superiority of the government, power would not have become such an important tool (Fanon 176).

The power that the governing bodies assumed, or any other bodies within the universities, was not derived from the structure of the institution, but from the mode of actions of the people.

The main issue is that the groups in the university provide that power emerges as a game of freedom. The process in which one group or the other within the university seeks freedom is a method in which power is created within the organization. As one tries to attain freedom, the other tries to bind it using the rules and regulations of the institution.

In this way, the governing bodies of the universities again hold power over the students as well as the teachers’ body. This is a spiral chain of power and the effect of it extends to all the bodies within the institution. The presence of the power within the organization, be it an educational intuition or any other, power arises from the beliefs and perception of people and through the hierarchical machinery.

Power is a system that is enforced through ages of discourse. Thus, the case study of a university shows that power, as Foucault asserted, arises not from the structure of the organization but through various methods of interaction and actions.

Works Cited Fanon, Frantz. The Wretched of the Earth. Paris: Grove Press, 1963. Print.

Foucault, Michel. Discipline


Social Construction of Race and Gender Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The Problem of Social Construction of Race and Gender





Introduction Race and gender have been considered socially constructed in our society, and despite the efforts that have been put by several human rights groups it, this perception is yet to change.

According to Haslanger (2012: 43), “The term socially constructed, means that the society and culture has created specific roles, and that these roles are what is generally considered ideal or appropriate behavior for a person of that specific race or gender.” This means that the society expects men to behave in a way that is different from the way women do.

There are some activities that women are not supposed to do simply because they are women. Similarly, construction of race is exhibited when one race is expected to behave in a way that is different from other races. For instance, before many of the African nations gained independence, the Blacks were considered as slaves, and the Whites were seen as of superior race.

There might not be a scientific proof that Whites could be superior in any way to the Blacks. However, because the society had developed a perception that Blacks are inferior to the Whites, following a long period of slavery, this perception still remain. Social constriction of gender and race has been seen as the main reason why social segregation based on these two demographical factors are common in our society.

The Problem of Social Construction of Race and Gender The society has been fighting social construction of gender and race because of the call made by several human rights group for equality in the society. Social construction of race and gender has been seen as an impediment to development, and a reason why some social injustice are still common in our society. It is a scientific fact that men have greater physical strength than women.

However, this should not make women a weaker sex in the social spectrum. Women should not be denied positions of leadership in the society just because they are women. As Ferber (1999) says, the society has discriminated against women for a very long time.

Although women are currently getting liberated, the social construction that existed in the minds of people still linger, and many societies still believe that women are inferior to men, and are treated as such.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Social constructionism theory holds that some demographic groups of people are expected to behave in a given manner within the society (Karambayya 1997). For instance, women would not be expected to assume roles that have largely been associated with men.

Careers in engineering, medicine, law, architect or any other well-paying technical jobs are expected to be a preserve for men. Women should get to such profession as nursing, teaching, and any other less technical unattractive jobs in the society. This is a social injustice.

If women have the capacity to do what men are doing, then gender should not be the reason why she should be denied the opportunity to do that job. Women have proven that they have the capacity to assume roles that were considered as meant for men. In leadership, women have proven that they can excel. Margret Thatcher remains one of the most celebrated prime minister of the United Kingdom.

Other notable women leaders around the world include Indira Gandhi of India, Hilary Clinton and Condoleezza Rice of the United States, and the current German Chancellor, Angela Merkel. These are women who have gone beyond social construction that women are considered a weaker race before men.

Social constriction of race has caused a lot of injustice in this society. As Obach (1999) notes, the United States has witnessed a long period of racial discrimination. When the country gained independence in 1776, the statesmen and women of this country promised that slavery and slave trade will be abolished.

When the country became independent, the Blacks, Whites, Indians, and all other races that were residing in the United States during that time were granted citizenship of this country. However, the perception that the Whites were superior to all other races still remained. The Blacks were considered an inferior race, and there were restricted to some social services.

Ferber (1999) by nineteenth century, there were still some posts written, ‘Whites Only.’ This is a clear indication that the Whites segregated other races, and there were some services that they could not share with the Whites.

We will write a custom Essay on Social Construction of Race and Gender specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The recent election of a Black president of this nation was seen as a positive move by this society towards racial justice. The society has come to realize that it is important to avoid any prejudice against a section of the society because of their race.

The main problem with social construction of race and gender is that the society has been trying to justify why a given group of people is considered superior to others. This justification has even made the discriminated group believe that they are inferior group. As Obach (1999) puts it, the discriminated group have come to accept their unfortunate condition.

They have come to believe that they below to the inferior race or gender. This makes the fight against all forms of social construction a little more challenging. However, the recent moves by human rights groups have helped change this perception. People have come to accept that human being, regardless of race, gender, or any other demographic differences, are equal, and should therefore, be treated as such.

Racism Browne (2003: 37) defines racism as, “Actions, beliefs or practices, which consider the human beings to be divided into races with shared qualities, traits, or abilities, such as intellect, personality, and morality, and the belief that races can be ranked as inherently superior or inferior to others.”

As described in this definition, racism is a stereotype that holds that some members of the society are superior to others and deserve being treated as such. A good example of racism was witnessed in the United States, where Whites regarded Blacks and other races as being inferior to them.

They treated them as second class citizens who were not expected to use the same facilities as those used by Whites. The Whites had their own schools, hospitals, and other social amenities. The Blacks also had their own social facilities. South Africa also experienced Apartheid rule that was fought and brought to an end by the late Nelson Mandela.

Sexism Sexism refers to discrimination prejudice that is based on an individual’s gender (Karambayya 1997). It is the perception that men are superior to women, and should be treated as such. In the current society, sexism still persists in many ways. As Obach (1999) notes, the American society has generally failed to appreciate that it can be led by a woman.

This was not only shown by the failure of Hillary Clinton to win the primaries against Obama in the 2008 race to Whitehouse, but also by the limited number of women who vie for these seats. As was mentioned before, social construction of gender becomes even worse when those who are discriminated against come to accept that they are a weaker group.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Construction of Race and Gender by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The American women have believed that they are inferior to men, and therefore, have avoided vying from the country’s top post. In 2008, Sarah Palin was nominated by the Republican Party to vie alongside the Arizona Senator John McCain as the Vice President of this country.

McCain thought that the society would accept her as a female vice president. However, this was not the case. She failed to appeal to the society due to a number of reasons, top of which was that she was a woman.

Conclusion Social construction of race and gender has been very common in our society for a very long time. Women have been considered inferior to men, and the Whites, the most superior race.

As demonstrated in the above discussion, social construction in itself is an injustice. Every human being should be treated equally. Gender or race should not be the reason why some members of the society are denied opportunities within the society.

It is wrong to treat others as second class citizens because of their race or gender. Human rights groups have been fighting this vice for a long time now. Although their efforts have transformed the society positively, social construction of race and gender is still common in this society.

References Haslanger, Sally. 2012. Resisting Reality: Social Construction and Social Critique. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ferber, Abby. 1999. “The Construction of Race, Gender, and Class in White Supremacist Discourse.” Interdisciplinary Issues On Race, Gender


Employee Selection, Retention and Motivation Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

The Process of Management “ Management is the art of getting things done through people. It also implies the process of accomplishing results with and through the efforts of others. It involves the development of the necessary actions for achieving the objectives of an organisation.

Many organisations have policies, procedures and guidelines that govern the decisions made. The manager must understand how to get people do what he or she wants them to do, as well as know what they are doing, the results to be achieved and how best the results can be achieved efficiently (Fox 145).

Management involves making decisions such as hiring and firing, adopting new market strategies and new personnel policies. A manager therefore should be a person who exercises authority and leadership over other people.

In organisations, people are seen as a resource that is relatively inflexible and can be controlled for organisational gain. Human resource management therefore centers on articulating the needs and aspirations of the workers and, meeting their needs, giving them challenges and helping them towards self actualization (Fox 154).

The management functions include planning, organising, selection or staffing, directing, controlling or coordination, recruitment, budgeting and reporting. For the personnel manager, planning means the determination in advance of a personnel program that will contribute to the goals established for the enterprise.

To do this, the manager must focus on the economic, social and political environment in which the organisation will be operating in. He or she must also establish the resources needed to make the plans work (Fox 167).

After a course of action has been determined, the organisation must establish how to carry it out. Since organisations are a means to an end, organising involves designing the structure of the relationships among jobs to ensure that they are well coordinated. In organising, a manager decides on a position to be filled and duties and responsibilities attached to the position.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The manager also has to establish positions to make decisions about how work will be done on a day to day basis. The organising function also entail taking into account organisational changes which may be occasioned by things like demise of workers, firing of workers and how to compensate for such changes (Fox 170).

The directing aspect of management is the actual doing of work by looking for appropriate ways of motivating or getting people to do work willingly and effectively. The manger must provide directives to the staff members. They should know the results the manager expects and thrive to meet those results. Managers should also help the staff by explaining and communicating effectively his or her expectations to the staff (Fox 199).

After controlling, the manager determines how well jobs have been done and what progress has been made towards attaining the goals. He or she must know what’s happening so as to take steps in making changes to ensure the attainment of goals and objectives. Control is concerned with regulating activities in accordance to the set goals (Fox 211).

Managers are also supposed to plan to meet current objectives of the organisation, both short term and long term as well as make the best use of resources for the benefit of the organisation. They should be in a position to oversee problems and investing to be self reliant.

Manpower Recruitment, Selection and Orientation The manpower planning approach to the recruitment or selection of individuals for promotion moves considerably beyond the traditional personnel ‘mechanics’. Recruitment refers to the identification of appropriate personnel in internal labor markets, while selection suggests a choice among alternate people of applicants either internal or external to an organization (French 13).

The man power planning perspective emphasizes career planning, human values and up to date tools and techniques for scrutinizing candidates and applicants. All of these focus on the long run objectives and emergent development of an organization (French 18).

The main aim of some managers is to place all persons on jobs perfectly suited to them and society, the assumption being that each person should use his abilities, temperament and motivations in all the best way possible for him or her. The other assumption is that the society will make the best possible use of its total manpower resources (French 19).

We will write a custom Essay on Employee Selection, Retention and Motivation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Clearly, these observations are broadly conceived and seek to bring about union of individual, company and society interest against a backdrop of change and shifting needs. Thus man power planning for recruitment and selection witnesses the shift from a static base to the dynamics of change. The servicing of current problems remains a continuing need, but increasing attention is devoted to forward looking programs.

The manpower planning perspective demands ‘total’ pictures of current and future manpower needs and avoids the disjointed functional approach of past years. Reliance on short-run, purely economic criteria for determining manpower needs is viewed with disfavor (French 39).

Recruitment and Good Management Practices The satisfaction of management obligation or the ‘goodness’ of management practice develops through carefully planned effort in sales, production, manpower and fiscal management, and through research and innovation in each area. Careful planning and operation in these areas demands knowledge-both accumulated and assimilated. That knowledge must be pertinent to the jobs and the problems typical of the given concern (Aquinas 18).

Recruitment programs exist as means of seeking out those individuals possessing the required knowledge, the physical and mental competency and the psychological compatibility. These programs exist as part of a larger effort (Aquinas 18).

If total staffing effort of an organisation is haphazard, the results, from even the most technically correct recruitment program will be relatively poor. One can therefore summarise that good management practice requires competent selection and induction as well as competent recruitment. This, in turn, re-emphasizes the need for a sound over-all management philosophy (Aquinas 19).

Selection and Good Management Practice The staffing effort becomes to the manpower manager what vendor analysis is to the purchasing agent. Staffing includes the determination of manpower needed, the determination of the best source of supply, and the development of the best means of acquiring and assuring quality selection from chosen sources. It also includes consideration of the best way to put man into his new environment (Aquinas 22).

Recruitment serves to locate the proper sources and to interest potential employees in the possibility of employment. Selection serves to identify and promise the desired quality. Selection thus facilitates good management practice by isolating the required knowledge and compatibility necessary to that and making it available to the organization (Aquinas 23).

It is the positive counterpart of selection. Many management thinkers indicate that finding recruits is a positive action, whereas the act of eliminating all but the most desirable from group of candidates makes the selection function negative.Recruitment is continuing effort involving daily application. It requires special knowledge and effort. One must know where to look for desirable recruits for no longer are they available at the gate (Aquinas 28).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Employee Selection, Retention and Motivation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Recruitment is therefore both a selling job and a problem analysis. It involves a long range-planning which includes manpower forecasting, in terms of manpower quantity and quality. To be effective, both the planning and the operational phases of the system require excellent communication with all segments of the company. The manpower division should develop a well coordinated flow of information and to and from their manpower sources (Aquinas 31).

Though recruiting is important, it merely succeeds in bringing potentially effective personnel to the organisation. Distinguishing between the most and least desirable recruits and detecting and eliminating people with non-obvious deficiencies are the problems of selection.

Selection techniques seeks to determine the probable effectiveness of those made available through recruitment efforts. This evaluation provides personal data basic not only to the hiring decision but also to decisions regarding promotion and transfer, training and compensation, and concerning the prevention or handling of operational manpower problems (Aquinas 38).

Selection is the ‘core’ of the staffing effort. Truly, effective selection goes beyond the traditional idea of finding the right man for the current vacancy. It embraces the concept of hiring persons potentially suited for the next job in the hierarchy.

Effective selection procedure requires careful attention to system, and must be adjusted to fit the specific needs of an organisation. A carefully conceived selection procedure is just as important to the small firm as to the large. After all, the smaller the universe, the larger the errors appear. Loses from unnecessary turnover become uncomfortably significant in the small organisation.

However, such loses can be prevented in part by good manpower selection. In large organisations, equal care is needed in apportioning funds, and effective man power selection can minimize the risks of loss associated with poor personnel department. The amount of money available should not be the deciding factor in determining the steps taken. The known needs of the organisation are the correct criteria (Aquinas 54).

Systems design depends on the organisation’s job and administrative requirements and the care taken in adjusting theory to practice. The systems approach has four theoretical requirements namely assurance of order, consideration of situational variation, adjustment for administrative needs and recognition of the functional needs of the organization (Aquinas 56).

The selection of manpower is therefore fundamental in the staffing effort. As a process it seeks to determine, the most qualified persons for given vacancies and future growth from among many applicants made available by the recruitment procedure. Modern-day selection is based upon a system of complete selectivity where-in the total competence of applicants is evaluated.

The system, for both rank-file, and managerial selection, is based upon standard or uniform steps. Although uniformity is necessary and order is a promise requirement, the system must be flexible or else the job-job variations in requirements cannot be met effectively. Furthermore, the tools used to facilitate the living decision must be scientific as possible or the system will provide little better results than the hit-or-miss practices of the past years (Aquinas 58).

After recruitment, an orientation should be given to the new recruit as well as to a person who moves up. The objectives of a good orientation include making clear to the employee the terms of his employment, communicating to him or her all the job requirements and inspiring in him or her confidence in the organisation he or she has joined as well as in his own ability to learn and perform on the job (Aquinas 81).

Fair Employee Practice Organisations and managers must be fair to their employees. Bias may be imminent during the selection process; however, many countries have put in place legislations to ensure fair selection. Such legislations include those which advocate for the rights of such groups as the disabled, expectant mothers, among others.

Discrimination throughout the selection process should therefore be avoided. Organisations and managers should ensure that men and women have equal opportunities for employment, enjoy equal pay for similar jobs and same working environment (Aquinas 82).

Another way to retain employees is through employee training and development. Through training, the employees learn skills to perform various tasks. They also re-learn when they change jobs within an organisation. Training entails learning, which involve acquisition of new patterns of behavior (Aquinas 89).

Employee Motivation Motivation is the process of encouraging or influencing people to behave in a particular manner, which they would have otherwise not behaved without the encouragement or the influence. Employees need to be motivated so that they may work hard towards the achievement of organisational objectives.

Employees may be motivated either by internal or external sources. Internal motivation comes from an individual and is also known as intrinsic motivation while external motivation comes from outside sources and is also known as extrinsic motivation (Sims 67).

Organisational culture refers to shared beliefs, values, norms and practices which characterize an organisation. Organisational culture is a very important aspect in any organisation which aspires to realize its vision through the mission (Sims 67).

Organisational culture is closely related to organisational structure, which refers to how the organisation is structured, how power and authority to make decisions are distributed along the structure of the organisation, and who should take what direction or instructions from whom and when (Sims 67).

Organisational culture is a very important aspect in any organisation which aspires to realize its vision and mission. This is because organisational culture determines whether the organisation is able to work together towards the realization of the vision (Sims 67).

Organisational culture is learned implicitly through interaction within the organisational setting. The employees learn it through imitating others who they find in the organisation.

This imitation happens unconsciously due to the human instinct to adopt behaviors which make him or her fit in the social environment which he or she finds himself or herself in. Through communication and interaction with each other, employees may coin some terms or codes which are unique to the organisation.

Employees also learn organisational culture through conditioning and reinforcement. For instance, if certain behavior is rewarded by the management of an organisation, the employees will tend to perfect that behavior which eventually becomes part of their culture. Likewise, if certain behavior is negatively sanctioned by the management, then the employees will tend to avoid it, thus becoming one of the don’ts in the organisation.

A strong organisational culture is found in organisations in which the employees are committed to their work and discharge their duties with little or no supervision while a weak organisational culture is found in organisations in which the employees have little commitment to their duties and are closely supervised so as to discharge their duties effectively (Sims 76).

There are various models of organisational culture. One such model is the power culture which is characterized by centralization of power to some few people within the organisation. These persons are usually very influential in the organisation and therefore everybody else tends to foster a good relationship with them. In this culture, employees are motivated to the degrees into which they emulate those central persons.

In this type of culture, decisions are made easily because there are no many hierarchical positions in the structure of the organisation (Sims 79).There is also role culture, which is characterized by doing things as per ones position, meaning that an employee only cares for what is of concern to him or her or what lies under his or her docket.

This culture is also characterized by rigidity in decision making because of the bureaucratic nature of the organisational structure which leads to inefficiency (Sims 85).Task culture is characterized by the formation of groups which are composed of people with some expertise or knowledge to perform some specific tasks.

In this type of culture therefore, group work is very important and authority as well as supervision play little or no role because the teams are trusted by the management with their tasks (Sims 85).Lastly, there is person’s culture which is characterized by a feeling of superiority among the employees, who think that they are very valuable to the organisation.

In such a culture, unity and cooperation among the employees may be rare because each employee thinks that he or she is the best and therefore not ready to share what he or she knows with others without extra remuneration by the organisation for the same (Sims 90).

Organisational Learning Learning is the process of acquiring new knowledge and understanding regarding a particular subject. It can take various forms and may be acquired from various sources which may include imitation, observation, listening, brainstorming, doing and learning through mistakes, trainings, seminars, and from cultural practices (Sims 95).

The concept of organisational learning has its origin from Argyris and Schön, who in 1978 came out to express their views on the concept. Their view has been referred to as the technical classical approach to organisational learning. Their model of organisational learning comprises the single and double loop learning(Sims 95).

Single loop learning entails the detection and correction of mistakes or errors made in organisations which makes organisations perceive change as an incremental process. Double loop learning entails changing of strategies by organisations due to either internal or external forces.

Argyris and Schön model of change can be viewed as a technical approach to organisational learning because it involves the use of individuals and systems or strategies by organisation to meet their objectives (Sims 95).

Organisational learning enables organisations to prepare employees for any change which may come as a result of organisational restructuring or mergers or due to adoption of a certain technology. It also enables organisations to have in place very competent and reliable employees, who are flexible and open- minded to handle any situation which may come along their way in their lines of duty.

Organisational learning keeps organisations in a strategic position for increasing their competitiveness as well as coming up with best practices which not only improve organisations’ productivity but also the image of organisations to their customers (Sims 98).

For example, an organisation which deals with provision of electricity may engage itself in what is referred to as corporate social responsibility by undertaking activities like conservation of the environment, fighting poverty through provision of scholarships to needy students or training communities on entrepreneurship (Sims 110).

Knowledge Management Knowledge management entails the development of strategies which make an organisation more competitive. Its major tenets are innovation, research and development. These aims at making the organisation have in place a good stock of knowledge resources, which can easily be transformed into inventions in form of introduction of new and unique products in the market.

Knowledge management also helps organisations differentiate their products and position themselves in a strategic position in the market such that they may have a good share of the customers.

Knowledge management also involves the sharing of the lessons learned through the process of organisational learning. It can therefore be argued that organisational learning is an aspect of knowledge management. The two focuses on the improvement of organisational performance and the attainment of its long term and short term goals.

Organizational Culture Many organisational researchers agree that a cohesive organisational culture is the one in which all members of an organisation hold to similar beliefs and values which glue the organisation together. These beliefs and values may be implicit or explicit to the organisation, meaning that they may be or not be publicly declared in the organisational core values.

In this kind of a culture, it does not matter the organisational structure but what matters most is the commitment of each and every member of the organisation to these believes and values. For example, an organisation may value hard work, honesty and team work and believe in transparency, utmost good faith, ethics and morality. A cohesive organisational culture has got many benefits.

One benefit is that it leads to high motivation among the employees because they share common believes and values. When employees are highly motivated, there is minimal use of resources in their supervision which in turn increases their productivity because to them, what matters most is the good of the organisation as a whole but not personal good.

Another benefit of cohesive organisational culture is that it facilitates the alignment of organisations for the achievement of their objectives, mission and vision without much difficulty. This is because the employees are not only fully aware of the mission, vision and objectives, but have also internalised them thus making them to work hard to achieve them. This makes them more motivated to accomplish the set organisational gaols, targets or objectives.

Strong organisational culture also boosts organisational efficiency because of the internalisation of what is required of each and every employee when and where. The sharing of values and beliefs creates a good working environment free from any kind of confusion, ambiguity or lack of understanding among the employees, which apart from increasing efficiency also saves on time wasted when things seem not to move in the right direction because the employees are able and free to consult each other without the fear of victimisation or intimidation especially by the senior managers. Employees also portray good behaviour at work because they know what is right to be done and what is not right.

Furthermore, strong organisational culture leads to cohesion among various departments of an organisation which leads to harmonisation of all organisational procedures, policies and practices in each and every department.

This cohesion leads to proper utilisation of organisational resources without sabotage as well as sound, logical and relevant polices on how to coordinate organisational activities in a manner that would maximise the organisations’ chances of realizing their mission and vision.

Cohesion among various organisational departments also leads to the sharing of information by various departments which increases the employees’ levels of understanding of how various departments work. This is very important because it enables employees to multitask especially in times when staffs in some departments are not available.

For example, the understanding of administrative issues in the organisation by the head of accounting departmental may make him or her work on behalf of the head of the administration department when he or she is not present.

Strong organisational culture enhances control, good coordination and consistency within an organisation. This is because the employees and the management are in good terms and thus are able to agree informally on various procedures and practices without compromising the quality of the organisational practices and objectives.

This saves on time because employees implement the changes which they find necessary without having to wait for bureaucratic board meetings and discussion to approve even the slightest change in procedures or practices.

Lastly not the least, cohesive organisational culture enhances team work, group leadership and collaboration of the employees in various tasks. This is of crucial importance to organisations because it opens the room for employees’ creativity, innovativeness and openness to positive criticism which makes work not only enjoyable, but also enriched with a multiplicity of ideas.

This in turn leads to increased achievement levels by the organisation as opposed to situations in which employees’ creativity and innovativeness are not entertained by the management of the organisations.

Works Cited Aquinas. Organizational behaviour : concepts realities applications and challenges. New Delhi : Excel Books, 2006. 18-89. Print.

Fox, William, M.The management process : an integrated functional approach. Charlotte, N.C. : Information Age Publishing, 2009.145-211. Print.

French, Ray.Organizational behavior. 2nd ed. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley, 2011.13-39.Print.

Sims, Ronald, R.Human resource management : contemporary issues, challenges and opportunities. Greenwich, Conn. : Information Age Publishers, 2007. 67-110. Print.


Comparative study of three children literature books Report (Assessment) a level english language essay help

Introduction There are many literature methods that are used to enable the student understand the meaning of the story or what the author wants to convey. When writing children books, it is imperative that these literal devices as well as the language be carefully formulated so as to enable the children understand the message be conveyed and also for the reader to learn the lesson that the author wants to convey.

The plot of the story must be carefully organized such that it is coherent and the children understand the story. Various authors use different literal devices so as to convey the message to the child and also ensure that he enjoys reading the book as well as in deriving meaningful teaching from the stories (Zile


Thomas Paine Quotes Essay (Critical Writing) essay help: essay help

Quotes on religion Ideas of Deity

Paine’s idea of deity is that the first cause a man can attribute to God is the cause of all things. He rejects the traditional conception that there is a time that a man would have eternal duration. He saw the idea of conceiving and believing that there is no end as outrageous (Paine, The Age of Reason, 2008).

The quote clearly depicts Thomas Paine as a deist but not a theist. He uses the model of enlightenment to purvey his issues on the logic of religion. Thomas Paine criticizes conservative views of religion. Strong in his texts is the belief that the traditional church is a mere creation of humankind and therefore false.

Also, he describes the church as a setup not only to chain but also to frighten them. It aims at monopolizing yield and dominance. Paine was extremely sentimental about how religion maintains things as they are.

It was a way of ensuring that the social structure remains the same. He dismisses the beliefs of the church as an established entity with a single God. His quotes on the duties of the church were insensible (Lucci, 2008).

Traditional Christian values and virtues of justice, mercy and other creeds of the church were an invention according to him (Dolbeare, 2009).

Paine discusses the inconsistencies that are present in the biblical texts. A good example he noted was that the first five books in the Old Testament were quite contradicting. The traditional view that Moses was the author of the books in his view did not hold. He reasons that Moses died before the era of the Pentateuch and contents in these books were irrelevant.

He questions the value of morality in the bible. The descriptions of war and punishment that befall people in the Bible are his base line of argument. God’s morality is in question here as he allows his people to suffer. A French philosopher by the name Voltaire agrees with Paine that this kind of traditional religion could eventually lead to atheism.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Christianity, he says, is a religion that is irrational and would result in immorality. Benjamin Franklin, unlike the two, maintains his conservative views on God and his beliefs in religion. He writes about thanksgiving, loyalty and service to God. All of them, however, agreed on some dogmas about religion (Hentz, 2010).

According to Paine, the nature speaks a universal language that is original and every man can understand it. The language cannot be neither counterfeited nor altered since it is based on original truth confirmed through the senses. Empirically, it is true since there is enough evidence. On this view, Thomas refutes faith to know the world (Paine, The Age of Reason, 2008).

Paine (2008) notes, “To argue with a person who has renounced the use of reason is like administering medicine to the dead” (p.84).

He believes that through reasoning man could discover God. Nature spoke a clear language to him that is free from manipulation and contradictions from men. The religious texts were open to exaggeration and forged information since man writes them as God dictates. He argues that science is able to discover phenomena through the senses and therefore offer rational judgement (Corfe, 2007).

Thomas’ ideas are more radical than those of other philosophers mainly due to their presentation, the way he captures his audience and includes all classes. His ideas, as he projects, are exclusive. His inclusion of the less privileged including farmers makes his unique work of other philosophers. Other philosophers were particularly specific to their target audience. That is why he is the most radical liberal of his time (Lucci, 2008).

Political Quotes Paine. (2009). “These are the times that try men’s souls” (p. 102).

Thomas Paine is particularly radical on the political spectrum. He advocates for true democracy and revolution. Different from the likes of Burke who were conservative valued the meaning of revolution. Burke sees any worth in the French and American Revolutions; in fact, he shows sympathy to the colonists.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Thomas Paine Quotes specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He supported the existing tradition as well as the things as they are unlike Paine. Thomas Paine rejects Burke’s ideas on maintaining the social order. He campaigned against the existing social order calling the forming new social order (Paine, The American Crisis, 2006).

Paine continues and notes that the constituents of monarchy exclude a man from empowerment and information that would change him. He sees this as a hindrance against the highest form of judgement. Once this comes to reality, man is likely to rebel against the traditional system of governance (Dolbeare, 2009).

Thomas Paine Revolutionary ideas went a long way in influencing the common’s man’s rights, freedoms and responsibilities. He is famous for enlightening people of their civic tasks and dignity in Europe, America and England. He plays a significant revolutionary role in these continents. He receives credit for naming The United States of America. Napoleon suggests the erecting a gold effigy to honour him (Dolbeare, 2009).

References Corfe, R. (2007). Deism and Social Ethics. Suffolk: Arena Books.

Dolbeare, K. M. (2009). American Political Thought. Washington: CQ Press.

Hentz, J. M. (2010). The Real Thomas Paine. Mexico: Inverse.

Lucci, D. (2008). Scripture and Deism. Bern: Peter Lang.

Paine, T. (2006). The American Crisis. Fairford: Echo Library.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Thomas Paine Quotes by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Paine, T. (2008). The Age of Reason. Sioux Falls: NuVision Publications.


Data Warehousing at REI Case Study essay help free: essay help free

This paper looks into several aspects related to the acquisition of a data warehouse by Recreational Equipment Inc. (REI).

REI’s Data Warehouse The term ‘data warehouse’ has two components. The first component is the term ‘data’ which refers to the record. There have been little efforts among IT academic circles to distinguish the use of the word data from the use of the word information. In a broader sense, data refer to unprocessed records, while information is the product of data analysis.

The second component of the term ‘data warehouse’ is the word ‘warehouse’. In this case, warehouse is a store or a place used for storage. These two components bring about a special meaning used in IT circles.

A data warehouse is a physical or virtual storehouse of electronic information. In the past, organizations used physical warehouses to store files and folders used for their business activities. After the advent of IT tools for business, companies started building large storage facilities known as data warehouses to store electronic information.

REI is building a warehouse for the following reasons. First, the company’s data storage requirements have been on the rise because of the growth in its membership. In this regard, the quantity of records the company stores grows with time. The second reason is that the company wants to increase the accuracy of the information in its hands regarding the outdoor activities of its members.

The company needs this information for planning and for increasing its value for the members. Third, the company needs to increase the overall efficiency of its services using information-based approaches to business management.

A data warehouse will make it easy for the company to manage information in its hands and to execute data mining activities efficiently. Consequently, the company wants to build a data warehouse to increase its business efficiency.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Disadvantages of Consumer Cooperatives Compared to Traditional Firms The disadvantages of consumer cooperatives in comparison to traditional firms are as follow. First, consumer cooperatives reduce the choices that an individual member enjoys. As opposed to them, traditional firms usually strive to give consumers the widest range of products. Their intention is to maximize the chances that all consumers who come to the store find what they want.

However, consumer cooperatives focus on giving their members the best value. This usually means that the members cannot access the full range of products within a specified category. Secondly, consumer cooperatives are driven by the need to give members the best value for their money.

The result is that they are not as efficient as traditional firms, which usually do their best to maximize profits. Companies that operate based on the profit motive tend to be more efficient because operational inefficiencies reduce their margins.

The third disadvantage of consumer cooperatives compared to traditional firms is that they depend on long-term supply contracts with suppliers. While these contracts guarantee the availability of products, it exposes the consumer cooperatives to dumping of the products.

A company holding a long-term supply contract with a consumer cooperative will tend to prioritize business from customers who do not have contracts to secure the income from these customers. Consumer cooperative can end up with poor quality goods and services from such suppliers. This increases the costs of quality control incurred by consumer cooperatives.

Marketing Strategies Made Possible by REI’s Data Warehouse A data warehouse is a critical component of the IT infrastructure that every organization needs for the implementation of online marketing strategies. The types of marketing strategies that a data warehouse would support include the ones that follow.

Firstly, a data warehouse gives an organization the capacity to gather and understand tastes and preferences of individual customers. This allows the organization to implement target marketing activities. Online marketing companies such as Google use this approach.

We will write a custom Case Study on Data Warehousing at REI specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, the company can carry out email marketing based on the data contained in the data warehouse. Since all the customers register willingly, the company can expect a good reception of its email marketing campaigns. E-mail marketing includes sending newsletters, special offers and other marketing materials to all registered users.

The data warehouse will also be an essential tool for planning during the formulation of the company’s marketing strategy. The data warehouse will give the company the capacity to analyse information from a cross section of customers.

This will enable it to pick out trends in consumer preferences. It is very important to remain ahead of the curve when it comes to uncovering changes in consumer preferences.

The fourth aspect of marketing that the data warehouse will enable the company to handle is the development and management of loyalty programs. The company must do everything in its power to ensure that all its customers remain loyal. One of the ways of doing this is by running loyalty programs that reward customers based on the cost of purchases.

Finally, the company can use this data warehouse to keep track of its customer base. The data warehouse will make it possible to know whether its customer base is expanding or shrinking. At the same time, the database will make it possible for the company to develop targeted marketing campaigns for market segments that have the greatest growth potential.

Most of these marketing strategies would have been possible to implement regardless of the presence of the data warehouse. However, their scope would be very limited. In this regard, the data warehouse will make it possible for the company to carry out more effective marketing campaigns because of increased data processing and management capabilities.

Risks and Concerns Surrounding the Creation of a Data Warehouse The risks associated with the creation of a data warehouse are as follows. First, data warehouses are prone to cyber attacks. For a data warehouse to be effective, it must be accessible online. However, the internet makes the data warehouse accessible to anyone with the skills needed to get around security barriers. This increases the potential for security breaches.

The second risk that the data warehouse must deal with is computer viruses, which, in this paper, account for all unwanted software. Viruses can corrupt the files stored in the warehouse, making them inaccessible or useless. Viruses can get to the warehouse through the internet, or via portable storage devices.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Data Warehousing at REI by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More One of the most serious risks associated with the proposed data warehouse is identity theft. The data warehouse will host personal information from millions of the company’s customers.

Such information is very attractive to fraudsters. Online fraudsters work very hard to get access to people’s personal information stored online. Some of the fraudsters also sell this information to third parties who have criminal intentions.

The fourth risk that the data warehouse will have is the risk of physical damage. Many companies usually concentrate on dealing with cyber threats against their information systems but fail to take sufficient action to protect these facilities from physical damage. The entire system can malfunction if there is a physical damage to the data warehouse hardware.

The fifth risk associated with the proposed data warehouse relates to the handling of data by the company. Company employees can misuse the data by sending unsolicited emails, or by giving unauthorized persons access to the information in the warehouse.

Reasons for REI Decision to Acquire IBM’s Data Warehouse Technology The choice of IBM as the provider of the warehouse technology is hardly surprising. Several reasons must have played a part in this decision. These reasons are as follows.

First, IBM is a very experienced company when it comes to providing IT-based solutions for businesses. The company specializes in providing technological tools for businesses. The decision to develop a data warehouse is a very significant one for any company. Therefore, it is understandable for a company to decide working with a reputed IT solutions supplier.

The second reason that must have informed the company’s decision to work with IBM is the desire to get technical support once the system is operational. IBM has the capacity to provide technical support to the company after the installation of the systems.

REI does not have the expertise needed to handle all the issues associated with the operations of a data warehouse. The association with IBM will ensure that REI gets the best skills needed to run its warehouse.

The third reason underlying the choice of IBM by REI is the need to create customer confidence. The data warehouse will store personal information given by the company’s customers. Therefore, the choice of IBM will give the customers confidence in that their information is in safe custody. This will make it easy for the company to acquire data from the customers.

References Haddon, L. (2004). Information and Communication Technologies in Everyday Life: A Concise Introduction and Research Guide. New York, NY: Berg.

Laudon, K.,


Burning: Poetry Explication Essay argumentative essay help

The poem Burning can be regarded as an example of free verse; this means that the author does adhere to a certain rhyming pattern or meter (Cushman and Cavanagh 524). Furthermore, one can say that this literary work allows different interpretations and responses of the readers.

Overall, it is possible to say that this poem explores the feelings of profound loss; it depicts the downfall of something that has been an inseparable part of people’s life. This is the most important issue that should be discussed in this paper.

One of the details that attract the attention of the readers is that the writer does not following a specific musical pattern while writing this poem. The lines of this poem differ in terms such criteria as the number of syllables and meter. Moreover, one cannot speak about any distinct rhyme scheme that the writer adheres to. The following lines eloquently illustrate this argument,

“They take it into their arms,


as they squeeze out its last warm

breath of life” (Anonymous 1-4).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is difficult to say if this approach to musical devices can be linked to the theme of a poem. Nevertheless, it indicates that the author is more concerned with the expressive power of the literary work, rather than its formal elements. This approach often gives more opportunities to the author.

This poem also contains sensory images that are related to touch, sight, and sound. In this way, the writer wants to emphasize the experiences of an individual who witnesses the demise of something that could be a symbol of power or beauty. It is possible to give several examples illustrating the use of sensory images.

For instance, one can look at the following sentence, “the last time a dying bell calls, its voice choked on maroon smoke” (Anonymous 15-16). Furthermore, the writer creates a powerful image of fire with the help of the following line, ‘’their fiery tongues spray high blood-red, golden red” (Anonymous 5-6). In this way, the author portrays a certain building that is consumed by fire.

Nevertheless, this poem contains very unusual sensory images. For example, when speaking about a wooden frame, the writer asks a question, “Can you hear it aching?” (Anonymous 9). On the whole, sensory images help the author explore the experiences of a person who observes the destruction of something valuable or beautiful. This is one of the main arguments that can be put forward.

Furthermore, the writer relies on figurative language that is supposed to intensify the feeling of loss. For instance, one can mention that the author relies on personification while describing physical objects. Such a technique as personification means that inanimate things acquire the attributes of a living being (Moen 62).

In particular, one can refer to the cases as “dying bell” or “the fiery tongues” (Anonymous 15, 5). Furthermore, this poem contains powerful epithets that help to create a vivid picture of fire consumes a building. For instance, one can mention such an epithet as “ferocious meal” (Anonymous 17). These examples show that figurative language makes this poem more potent or impressive.

On the whole, the poem Burning can give rise to various interpretations; still, it seems that the author mostly focuses on the feelings and emotions of a person at the time when he/she sees the annihilation of beautiful things. With the help of sensory images, figurative language, the author is able to produce a long-lasting impression on the reader. These are the most important aspects that one can identify.

We will write a custom Essay on Burning: Poetry Explication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More List of Selected Literary Items Free verse

Sensory images


Works Cited Anonymous. Burning. 2008. Print.

Cushman, Stephen, and C. Cavanagh. The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics: Fourth Edition, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012. Print.

Moen, Christine. Sensational Sentences, New York: Lorenz Educational Press, 2003. Print.


Is TV advertising dying as mass media in the EU? Term Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

TV Advertisement versus Online Advertisement in Europe

Drivers of the Transition


Works Cited

Introduction Advertising is a vital aspect in any business and thus firms choose to incur the costs associated with it because through it, they establish links with their customers and consequently capture their share of the market. Huge sums of money are spent on advertisement as firms endeavor to reach out to consumers.

With the advent of globalization and the ongoing fast-paced technological advancements, it is imperative for firms to ensure that their advertisement campaigns are effective. This assertion holds as the contemporary consumers are exposed to a plethora of products and services from all over the world. As such, only the best or most appealing form of advertisement can win the consumers’ hearts.

Consequently, firms carry out their advertisement campaigns via a myriad of media platforms including radio, TV, the Internet, and print media such as newspapers and magazines among others. The Internet, which is a relatively new technological development, is rapidly emerging as a major medium through which firms can advertise and reach large numbers of consumers effectively.

Global Internet usage statistics keep on growing. As of 2011, two billion people regularly used the Internet globally (Global Editor Par.5). This percentage represents about 30% of the total global population. However, it should be noted that some parts of the world are more advanced in the Internet usage as compared to others. For instance, Europe is one of the world’s most established Internet markets.

By the year 2009, already over 50% of European households had access to the Internet (Internet Advertising Bureau 2). This aspect means that the number of individuals who access the Internet on a daily basis transcends half the population of Europe as individuals from non-connected households may still access the Internet at the workplace or via connected devices such as smartphones and tablets among others.

In effect, advertisers are increasingly paying attention to the Internet as a potent advertisement medium. According to Digital Europe, online advertising has done much to alter the marketing landscape in Europe (2). From the onset of the new millennium, the Internet is emerging as a major consumer media channel albeit with notable disparities between countries across the continent (Digital Europe 2).

In the UK, statistics indicate that the amount of money spent on online advertising surpassed the amount spent on TV advertising in 2009 (Sweney 45). In the light of this background, this paper seeks to respond to a fundamental question, which Europe’s TV industry needs to pay close attention to, viz. is TV advertising, as a medium of reaching the masses, dying on the European continent?

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In an effort to address this question, the paper examines literature that shows the dynamics of TV advertisement over the past several years alongside a similar examination of the growth of Internet advertising. Such an approach is anticipated to give a clear picture of the increase in popularity of the Internet advertising and its entrenchment in the field of marketing.

At the same time, it will show how TV advertising has fared on since the emergence of the Internet as a mainstream media channel.

The paper will serve to disambiguate the confusion that exists concerning the dynamics of TV and the Internet advertising because currently, some reports propagate the idea that despite the exponential rise in the popularity of the Internet as an advertisement medium, it has not affected TV advertisement.

Proponents of this line of argument include Gervet and de Chanville who assert, “Contrary to the fears of many, the Internet hasn’t yet cannibalized TV advertising” (4). According to such proponents, the Internet may be enhancing the TV experience.

TV Advertisement versus Online Advertisement in Europe TV advertising has been a dominant medium of advertising in Europe for many years and it remains a favorite to date. It was the leading channel through which marketers sought to reach consumers until 2011 when it was surpassed by online advertising (which includes Internet based advertising accessible through both computers and mobile phones) in terms of the money spent on advertising (WSI 4).

Therefore, the UK became the first major economy in which money spent on online advertisement surpassed that spent on TV advertisement ($6.4 billion against $5.3 billion respectively) (WSI 4). This development marked a watershed in the UK’s advertisement landscape.

Although the figures belong to the UK, most other European countries are moving towards a similar phenomenon insofar as TV versus online advertising is concerned, but Denmark and the Czech Republic have already posted that online advertising expenditure exceeds that of TV advertising (WSI 34).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Is TV advertising dying as mass media in the EU? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These three countries are pioneers in this transition, but it should be noted that countries such as Germany, France, the Netherlands, and Spain are almost making the transition as well. Probably by the end of 2014, all of them will have made the transition for online advertising closely trails or is at par with TV advertising in almost all of them (WSI 33).

Denmark’s online advertising industry was the first to overtake TV advertising followed by the UK, but since it is not one of the major European economies, the UK received more attention as the first major economy to make the transition (Sweney 45). These patterns show that although TV is still one of the favorite channels of advertisement for marketers in the European context, it is fast being overtaken by online advertising.

In the year 2005, total European online advertising expenditure stood at €4.5 (Digital Europe 1). This figure was close to 5% of the total money spent on advertising in Europe. At individual country levels, some countries spent up to 8% of their advertising money online (Digital Europe 2).

Either way, both percentages are above 2%, which is considered the threshold at which online advertising starts being considered as a mainstream advertising media. Many European countries, by the year 2005, had gone beyond the threshold level of 2% in terms of money spent on online advertisement.

These countries include Finland, Denmark, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, France, and the UK (Digital Europe 2). In essence, Europe as a continent reached this level earlier than 2005 because on average, its total spending on online advertising was about 5%, as noted above. Considering the fast-paced nature of Internet access expansion in Europe, almost one decade later much has changed.

The UK, Germany, and France are Europe’s digital giants. In effect, they accounted for over 85% of the money spent on online advertising in Europe in 2005. The UK alone is reported to have accounted for about 42% of Europe’s online ad expenditure the same year.

Over the years, tremendous growth has been realized in the European online advertising industry and as noted earlier; Denmark, Czech Republic, and the UK have already recorded online advertising budgets that are larger than TV advertising budgets. Clearly, there is a very strong growth towards preference of online advertising over TV advertising across the European continent.

Recent studies indicate that in the UK, which is considered the pioneer economy to make the transition towards the dominance of online advertising over TV advertising, online advertising currently accounts for about 23.5% of the total advertising money. This figure in comparison to the 21.9% of money spent on TV advertising shows a disparity of over 1.5%.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Is TV advertising dying as mass media in the EU? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, considering the rapid growth of online advertising and the view that TV advertising has exhibited a 17% decline on a year-by-year basis, within a short duration of time, the disparity is likely to grow exponentially (Sweney 45).

The UK only spent £19.4 million on online advertising in the year 1998, but currently the figure stands at £1.75 billion (Sweney 45). This aspect shows a clear-cut trend of strong growth that is increasingly pitching the Internet as the future medium of advertising.

The emergence of the Internet as the dominant channel of advertisement has not been an overnight development. Rather it took many years for the Internet to entrench itself as a mainstream medium that can substitute some of the roles that were exclusively played by traditional media such as radio and TV.

This steady growth shows that even though there may still be confusion about which form of advertising is dominant (because in some countries TV advertising is still dominant over online advertising while in others online advertising has overtaken TV advertising), the confusion will not last long. Internet advertisement will eventually emerge at the top in countries where it is still trailing TV advertisement.

Meanwhile, there is a reason for the TV advertising industry to worry because clearly, the growth of online advertising is not guaranteed to stop once it overtakes TV advertising, as indicators show that it is bound to continue growing (Henningsen et al. 194).

Its current growth patterns are very strong and are likely to stay so for many years to come. If these growth patterns persist, TV advertising is likely to continue ceding ground for online advertising.

According WSI, on average, most European countries have Internet usage statistics of about 70% of the total population (2). Even so, the figures are still steadily growing and within a short time, they are likely to reach over 80%. The same case applies to mobile connectivity.

On average, over 50% of the European people own smartphones, which enable them to access online adverts. These figures show that there is a room for growth in the online advertising industry because as more people are connected to the Internet, a larger share of the advertising pie continues to be targeted at them.

Drivers of the Transition These trends evoke an important question on whether the Internet has become more enticing or whether people simply do not watch TV across Europe anymore. In an attempt to answer this question, several arguments have been advanced. One of such arguments is that linear TV audiences have massively declined in the last decade (IBM 1).

This observation does not imply that fewer people watch TV today than ten years ago; rather, it means that over the years, the entertainment landscape has transformed tremendously (IBM 2). Technological advancement has placed numerous options at the disposal of TV viewers such that today, an individual only watches what he/she wants and how he/she wants it.

In other words, numerous TV stations are available to viewers today and due to technological advancement, people opt for thematic TV content, which they can manipulate as they please (IBM 3). In effect, though there is a bigger audience today than a decade ago, the audience is spread across numerous TV channels, thus making it difficult to reach a substantial portion of the population as easily as was the case ten years back.

For instance, in 1977, a marketer in the UK only needed 3 spots on a major television channel to reach up to 80% of the population, but today, up to 65 spots are necessary to achieve the same goal (IBM 9). This realization means that it may be necessary to spread an advertisement across a larger number of channels or keep it running on a major channel for longer to increase its chances of reaching more people.

However, it is worth noting that if a marketer chooses either of the two options, it comes with huge cost implications that many may decide to shy away. The cost of running an advert on TV as compared to placing a banner across a web page or incorporating a few words about a product alongside the search results on the Internet is far much higher (Digital Europe 6).

The implication of this aspect on TV advertisement is that it is likely to cause TV advertisement to decline because as the Internet usage increases, marketers become more confident of reaching larger numbers of people.

The UK, whose Internet usage and online advertisement statistics are well documented, is among the European countries that have already reported a larger portion of advertisement funds going to online advertisement rather than TV advertisement. This trend is not without a substantial reason behind it.

Statistics show that Internet usage in the UK is extrapolated to rise to about 80% of the population by 2016 from its current 75.7% (WSI 3).

Based on these figures, it becomes apparent that advertising on the Internet is far much affordable and has the potential of reaching many more people than advertising on a major TV channel today. This assertion underscores the impression of why the European countries, which are among the most entrenched Internet users across the globe, are already exhibiting a shaky future for TV advertising.

The European countries that have not yet crossed over to the Internet advertising dominance over TV advertising are already on the verge of doing the same.

Another argument that has been advanced to respond to the concerns over the decline of TV advertising in Europe is that even for the viewers who are exposed to television, the ability of TV advertisement to influence them effectively is limited by a number of factors brought about by technological advancement. According to TAM Ireland, about 49% of households in the country have PVR (personal video recorders) (IBM 13).

These devices allow a viewer to pause or fast forward live TV while watching. In effect, about 85% of the households that own PVRs reportedly assert that they watch TV via PVR for in doing so, they can easily skip the commercial breaks that are often embedded in popular programs (IBM 4). The implication of this state of affairs is that over three quarters of Irish homes with PVRs are likely to be unexposed to TV advertising.

The element of uncertainty in the preceding sentence is contributed to by the view that about 75% of those who reported that they fast-forward through commercial breaks occasionally stop the fast forwarding when something in the advertisements captures their attention (IBM 13). Therefore, they are partially unexposed to TV advertisement.

However, going by the percentages, it becomes apparent that TV advertisements are increasingly reaching a shrinking audience across Europe. Marketers who use TV advertisement may not be aware of this scenario because conventionally, they base their choices on the TV usage statistics.

Yet such statistics fail to capture the actual behavior of TV viewers who for example, fast forward through commercial breaks because technology has made it possible. The actual effectiveness of TV advertising can then be determined through the return on investment (ROI).

This aspect means that marketers can determine the effectiveness of a TV advertisement campaign based on the results in terms of the sales realized due to the influence of a particular advertisement campaign. Unfortunately, Gervet and De Chanville note that TV advertisement campaigns have been increasingly disappointing (9).

Reports indicate that even the most acclaimed TV adverts still register dismal results. For instance, in Australia, Carlton’s multi-award winning advertisement that was touted as the ‘biggest ad’ failed to deliver expected results in terms of sales (IBM 11).

In TV advertising, although still considered by some as among the most endearing form of advertisement that exists to date, the departure from linear TV viewing occasioned by technological advancement has done much to alter its ability to reach large audiences.

However, despite these changes, Gervet and De Chanville (2) note that TV remains the favorite medium through which marketers can reach the largest number of consumers at the same time. Favorite programs such as The X Factor can place up to 10 million consumers at the disposal of advertisers at ago (Gervet and De Chanville 3).

With such numbers of consumers exposed to advertisement at the same time, TV advertising could still achieve tremendous results. Therefore, it is upon TV advertisers to ensure that the adverts they make are creative and endearing.

Traditional TV viewing where viewers had no option, but watch what was brought on their screens is a phenomenon of the past (IBM 2). The advent of digital technology has brought numerous possibilities in the realm of television broadcasting and viewing.

Digital technology has made it possible for viewers to pause or fast-forward live TV; access TV stations from the world over, and due to the rise of pay-TV, viewers increasingly have access to personalized TV programming (IBM 2). With these options at the disposal of the viewers, traditional TV stations that were mostly free-to-air have lost a big portion of their audience.

This loss is also aggravated by the rise of on-demand TV programming that is accessible through Netflix and Hulu (Gervet and De Chanville 2). Netflix has particularly grown in popularity in the US and a large part of the European continent. It is important to note that this type of TV technology is Internet supported.

In this sense, it is arguable that the Internet is supporting the TV viewing experience for audiences as noted by Gervet and De Chanville (2). On-demand TV programming not only allows viewers to access content at their own convenience, but also it offers options for accessing ad-free content.

In the light of such developments, it becomes apparent that though TV may still be viewed by many, it is becoming increasingly difficult for TV advertisers to forecast the size of the audiences they are likely to reach through advertising on TV. This assertion holds as reports indicate that like in the US, many Europeans assert that they consult a website before making a purchase (Gervet and De Chanville 4).

Conclusion This paper sought to investigate whether TV advertising is dying among the European countries (EU) and much has been established to this effect. The confusion that existed about the medium of advertisement, which is dominant between online advertising and TV advertising, has been disambiguated. Apparently, online advertising is on the rise with very strong growth rates.

TV advertising on the other hand is on a steady decline despite the view that TV audiences may have grown due to population increases. Countries such as Denmark, Czech Republic, and the UK have already made the transition to spend more money on online advertising than TV advertising.

Denmark and the rest of the Scandinavian world have not released much information concerning their extent of digital prowess, but it was the first European country whose online advertising industry surpassed the TV advertising industry. For other European countries such as Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and France, whose digital statistical data is available, the transition is in the vicinity.

Several other European countries are also moving towards this transition. These patterns clearly indicate that TV advertising is on a decline in Europe. A careful analysis of the TV viewing behavior across Europe supports this view by revealing several factors, which connive to aggravate the decline of TV advertising.

TV may remain a major medium of entertainment for long, but advertising through it is quickly becoming ineffective across the European continent.

Works Cited Digital Europe. Tracking the growth of online marketing spend, London: Digital Strategy Consulting Limited, 2006. Print.

Gervet, Eric, and Matthieu De Chanville. Does Advertising still need Television? Seoul: A.T. Keaney Inc., 2012. Print.

Global Editor. Whitepaper: Outlook on European Display Advertising Trends, by Clipperton Finance 2013. Web. .

Henningsen, Sina, Rebecca Heuke, and Michel Clement. “Determinants of advertising effectiveness: The development of an international advertising elasticity database and a meta-analysis.” Business Research Journal 4. 2 (2011): 193-239. Print.

IBM. The Death of TV as we know it: A future Industry Perspective, New York: IBM Corporation, 2006. Print.

Internet Advertising Bureau. Brand advertising and digital, Karlsruhe: AIB, 2010. Print.

Sweney, Mark. “Internet overtakes television to become biggest advertising sector in the UK.” The Guardian 30 Sept. 2009: 45. Print.

WSI. Internet Marketing Trends Report 2013: UK


Tobacco Industry Advertising in the EU Term Paper essay help

Introduction Tobacco consumption is the leading avoidable cause of death in Europe. Traditionally, the tobacco industry in Europe was left to regulate itself since tobacco use was viewed as a matter of personal choice and government regulation was weak. The tobacco industry argued that intense government regulation was unnecessary for a legal product that was used by individuals on their own volition.

However, this attitude changed rapidly in the EU starting from the late 1990s. The EU and its Member States singled out tobacco use as a vital area that needed significant government intervention and control. The Union recognized the significant health and economic burden that tobacco use caused to its constituent States and their citizens.

Statistics indicate that 650,000 people in the EU die because of smoke related health issues each year. Berger-Walliser and Bird reveal that tobacco consumption kills up to half of its users (1016). In addition to this, smoking costs the EU about $100 billion annually in health care costs and other indirect costs including premature disability and lost productivity.

For this reason, the member states agree that preventing smoking is good for the health and economic outcomes of the countries. With these considerations, the EU has implemented a series of directives and recommendations aimed at reducing tobacco use within the EU. One area that has been targeted in the aim to encourage a decline in tobacco use is advertisement.

This paper will endeavor to provide an informative image of the situation with tobacco advertising and sponsorships in the EU considering the legal obligation of EU member states to implement the Directive 2003/33/EC, which effectively banned the advertisement of tobacco products.

Advertising and Tobacco in the EU The EU and its Member States have recognized the many adverse effects that tobacco use causes. To reduce the tobacco consumption levels within the region, the EU has concentrated on advertisement.

In spite of persistent claims by the tobacco industry that advertisement does not have any impact in the overall tobacco consumption among member states, the EU has consistently suggested that advertising does indeed affect tobacco consumption. Advertising is regarded as one of the most visible business activities and it aims at attracting people to use the advertised product and increases its market share of the product.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Advertising therefore plays a significant role in promoting sales and attracting new consumers. According to the European Health Forum, there is a positive relationship between aggregate cigarette advertising and aggregate cigarette consumption (Smith et al. 3). In addition to this, the EU contends that advertising is responsible for the favorable assessment of people who smoke by the rest of society.

This social acceptability contributes to the promotion of new smokers therefore increasing the number of tobacco users. The strategies and policies aimed at reducing tobacco use have therefore targeted multiple forms of tobacco advertising within the EU.

EU Regulations From its early years, the EU had grand ambitions of reducing tobacco consumption among its member states. One area that has been particularly targeted by the European Commission is tobacco advertisement.

In 1998, the European Council issued directive 89/552/EEC, which required member states to impose a mandatory bad on all tobacco advertising and prohibit brand name sponsorship and promotion at public events (Gruning et al. 4). In response to this directive, the EU enacted ambitions legislation that sought to gradually phase out all forms of tobacco advertising and sponsorships within the EU region in a span of 9 years.

This was the first EU directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship. The complete ban on tobacco advertising was supposed to begin with a ban on billboards and in cinemas, followed by a ban on newspaper and magazine advertising, and finally a ban on advertising in sports venues. The total EU ban was expected to be in place by 2006.

However, the ambitious directive failed to get unanimous support as major tobacco companies and some member states contested against it. This eventually led to the legislation being reviewed by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) after contention by players in the tobacco industry.

The first EU directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship was annulled on October 2000 following the successful challenge by the tobacco industry (Gruning et al. 5). The judges in the European Court of Justice decided that the legislation was unlawful and therefore struck it down.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Tobacco Industry Advertising in the EU specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Council Recommendation 2003/ 54/ EC A significant policy in the effort to prevent smoking in the EU is the Council Recommendation 2003/54/EC of 2 December 2002. This recommendation was aimed at encouraging EU member states to increase tobacco control. Emphasis was made on adopting strategies aimed at preventing tobacco use among the young population.

This emphasis was made due to the revelations that up to 90% of individuals started smoking before they reached the age of 18 (Giuseppe 48). This recommendation urges the EU member states to implement laws and measures aimed at preventing access of tobacco products to individuals under the age o18. In addition to this, the recommendation calls for greater restrictions to all forms of advertising of tobacco products.

Directive 2003/ 33/ EC The new tobacco product directive implemented to replace the annulled directive 89/552/EEC was the Directive 2003/33/EC of 26 May 2003. This directive imposed an EU wide ban on the advertisement of tobacco products (Smith et al. 7). Specifically, the directive prohibited tobacco advertising in the press and printed media, and on the internet or by email.

The only form of advertisement permitted was publications intended exclusively for the tobacco trade. The directive also imposed restrictions on sponsorship and according to the directive, radio advertising of tobacco products is prohibited, and radio programmes may not be sponsored by tobacco companies.

Sponsorship of events involving several EU member states by tobacco companies was also prohibited and the distribution of free tobacco or promotional material during national sponsored events banned. All member states were required to comply with the directive by 2005 (Smith et al. 8). All members were expected to come up with penalties that would dissuade the tobacco industry from violating the terms of the directive.

The effectiveness of Directive 2003/33/EC was hampered since it failed to regulate indirect advertising. Specifically, the regulation did not regulate the use of non-tobacco products to promote tobacco brands. This weakness was exploited by tobacco companies, which replaced direct advertising with indirect advertising (Smith et al. 10).

In addition to this, this directive was week since it did not result in a complete ban on tobacco advertising. The industry is still able to advertise in cinemas and on billboards. In addition to this, tobacco advertisement can occur using merchandising. Tobacco companies are also permitted to sponsor events with participants coming from only one EU member state.

Directive 2010/ 13/ EU This “Audiovisual Media Services Directive” imposes some regulations on the manner in which advertisements may occur through audiovisual products. This directive addresses a major setback in Directive 2003/33/EC namely indirect advertisement. The Directive prohibits audiovisual commercial communication that promotes tobacco usage by the viewers.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Tobacco Industry Advertising in the EU by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Following the implementation of Directive 2003/33/EC, the tobacco industry had used indirect forms of audiovisual commercial communication to circumvent the ban and therefore promote their product (Smith et al. 10).

The Directive closes this loophole by banning the use of indirect advertisement by the tobacco industry. The directive prohibits product placement of tobacco products in all audiovisual material circulated within the EU zone.

The Effect of Regulation in EU The EU has recognized that tobacco products are exceptional and required additional regulation. The various directives and initiatives implemented by the EU to deal with tobacco consumption have had tremendous impact. The various policies and directives implemented have had significant positive outcomes in Europe. The trend in the EU has by the large been towards the achievement of a smoke-free Europe.

The European Commissioner for Health and Consumer Policy in 2011 declared that over the past decade, a clear trend towards smoke-free environments has been noted in some of the EU member states. In spite of the annulment of the directive 89/552/EEC, some countries still implemented their own legislation stimulated by this directive.

Supporters of the phased ban proposed by this directive such as the UK initiated their ban in December 1999. The UK government expedited the ban on print and billboard advertising on December 1999, which was two years before the EU ban would have come into effect (Giuseppe 45).

Increasing legislation by the EU has effectively discouraged new entrants in the European market. MarketLine Industry Profile reveals that due to advertising restrictions within EU member states, new entrants would find it increasingly difficult to establish a brand (14).

Due to advertising restriction, brand awareness is difficult to generate in the European tobacco market. The tobacco market has therefore continued to be dominated by the large players such as British American Tobacco, Philip Morris International and Imperial Tobacco Group.

The EU environment has taken significant steps to reduce the number of new smokers. Research indicates that most people begin smoking before reaching the age of 18. The EU has made significant steps towards preventing smoking among children and young people. Targeting this group is important for a number of reasons.

To the tobacco industry, the young market represents the future consumers of tobacco products (Berger-Walliser and Bird 1020). Introducing this group to tobacco ensures that the future growth in tobacco consumption is assured. For the European Health Forum, preventing this group from taking up smoking presents the most effective strategy of reducing tobacco use.

A number of strategies have been employed to discourage underage smoking. To begin with, Directive 2003/33/EC imposed a ban on the sale of tobacco to minors in all EU member states. Stiff penalties are imposed on any retailer who violates this legislation.

In addition to this, advertising to children is prohibited. In the latest move to discourage tobacco use, the European Parliament has approved a ban on flavored and menthol cigarettes. This ban, imposed in July 2013, aims to limit the appeal that cigarettes have to children and young people (MarketLine Industry Profile 17).

The EU has made use of health warnings to dissuade individuals from taking up smoking. Evidence reveals that health warnings can promote smoking cessation and discourage youth uptake (Giuseppe 210). The EU adheres to the “Framework Convention on Tobacco Control” (FCTC) which is an international treaty devoted to public health. The union has therefore revised its labeling policies to meet the guidelines stipulated by the FCTC.

In response to the EU policies informed by the FCTC, Member States have imposed regulations on the mandatory health warnings to be displayed on each cigarette packet. There are laws that require tobacco packaging to describe the harmful effects of tobacco in large and clear print.

The effectiveness of package warning depends on factors such as size and the position of the warning text or image. The EU requires warnings to cover at least 30% of the principal display areas on each package.

Recommendations have also been made for pictorial warnings to be included. While it is not a mandatory requirement, the EU allows countries to use pictorial health warnings and actually has a list of recommended images that might be used for this purpose.

Research indicates that pictorial health warnings are highly effective in reducing consumption levels of tobacco products (Berger-Walliser and Bird 1020). This warnings increase motivation to quit and help former smokers to remain abstinent. They also have a discouraging effect on youth to start smoking.

The EU has been engaged in moves aimed at implementing plane-packaging regulations in Europe. This is in response to the proposals made by Article 11 of the FCTC. The FCTC encourages the adoption of plain packaging to achieve the desirable outcomes of reduced tobacco use. Plain packaging has the potential to encourage a less favorable assessment of people who smoke.

Berger-Walliser and Bird reveal that packaging leads to significant image factors with smokers who consume certain brands being rated as trendy, stylish and outgoing (1043). These positive attributes contribute to the favorable assessment of people who smoke. With the introduction of plain packaging, the brand elements and brand imagery will be removed.

Individual governments have played a major role in the implementation of the policies against tobacco advertisement. The reason for this is that bans on tobacco advertisement are considered a health and safety issue meaning that they fall within the realm of individual national governments in the EU.

The commitment of most EU states has led to the positive trend towards the achievement of a smoke-free Europe. However, there is still opposition from countries where the influence of the tobacco industry is still strong. Germany stands out as one of the few EU member states with strong opposition to stringent policies against tobacco.

Gruning et al. document that Germany has consistently employed weak tobacco control policies (6). The country also demonstrates strong opposed to the EU tobacco control legislation. This negative influence of Germany has slowed down the rate of change in tobacco control legislation. Even so, most governments have shown support for anti-tobacco legislations.

Opposition to EU Regulations The tobacco industry has been the strongest opponent to any comprehensive ban on advertising. The industry asserts that advertising does not have any effect on aggregate consumption but rather affects the share of customers a particular brand is able to win over in the cigarette market. The tobacco industry has seen EU regulations as a major threat to the future growth and productivity of the industry.

The major companies in this industry have therefore engaged in activities aimed at preventing policies that are detrimental to the tobacco industry. Research by Smith et al. reveals that tobacco companies such as BAT have engaged in the promotion of IA in Europe as a measure to undermine anti-tobacco policies (3).

Secret tobacco industry documents made public through court orders have shown how transnational tobacco corporations have joined forces to counter policies that inhibit the industry. The strategies used by the tobacco corporations include influencing specific countries to undermine strong conventions against the tobacco industry.

Smith et al. observe that Germany was earmarked by the transnational tobacco corporations as one of the countries that would play a big role in undermining the effect of anti-tobacco policies including the strong Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (7). Gruning et al. confirm that the tobacco industry has made use of some EU member states to limit the EU mandate and therefore weaken the anti-tobacco legislation (21).

Germany has been lobbied by the tobacco industry to push against a comprehensive mandate on the issue of tobacco advertising. The country has played a part in the refusal to grant the EU more competences and therefore expand its mandate. Germany has been able to achieve some measurable success in this because of its considerable economic and political influence in the EU.

The European environment has witnessed a greater push for risk assessment and impact assessment. Before a major EU policy can be made, an impact assessment (IA) must be made. Ideally, IA as a tool for evaluating potential legislative changes ensures that policy decisions are more transparent, scientific, democratic, and rational.

Tobacco companies have pushed for more business-oriented impact assessments before policies can be implemented. This has benefited the companies since the IA often favor corporations. Smith et al. state, “The tobacco industry has already used IA commitments and the requirement for stakeholder consultation to actively challenge EU tobacco control legislation” (6).

The tobacco industry has overemphasized on the negative economic costs associated with anti-tobacco laws and used this argument as the grounds for weaker legislation. The tobacco industry has attempted to underplay the health impacts of its products while prioritizing business interests. This suggests that IA has been used to advance the interests of major corporation even at the expense of health.

Discussion and Conclusion The European Union has established itself as a global frontrunner in tobacco control. This union has imposed some of the most stringent policies to deter tobacco use and therefore citizens in the member states from the harmful effects of tobacco use. From the information provided in this paper, it is clear that the EU has made significant strides against tobacco advertising.

There has been a marked reduction in advertisement and the tobacco industry’s growth has been protracted. The EU tobacco market has not witnessed any new entrant due to the advertising limitations imposed though the EU. The EU has therefore experienced a decline in consumption of tobacco over the years.

Even so, tobacco use is still a pressing concern for EU member states since tobacco consumption remains to be the leading contributor to disease and other chronic health problems. The EU environment has been characterized by intense opposition by the tobacco industry to some policies meant to reduce tobacco consumption in the EU region.

The paper has noted how tobacco lobbyists have influenced some member states to make their case against stringent measures. The opposition by the tobacco industry continues to be a challenge that must be addressed for a smoke-free Europe to be achieved.

Works Cited Berger-Walliser, Gerlinde and Bird Robert. “The Impact of Plain Packaging Regulation on Illicit and Non-Illicit Tobacco Products in the European Union.” North Carolina Journal of International Law


Policies in Canada to Enhance Economics Essay custom essay help

For some time, during and after Canada’s financial crisis in 2008, it was considered fashionable to refer to the country as a regulatory and fiscal prudence paragon. In the years preceding the crisis, the government in Canada involved in budget surpluses. This enabled the country to grow the economy, while avoiding huge debt loads.

Extremely high debt loads are experienced in Spain and Greece. Moreover, the banking system in Canada underwent critical capital requirements. It is also worth noting that they were more averse to risks, as opposed to the counterparts in Europe and America (Von Hagen, Schuknecht


Why Scientology is not a Religion Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction In the recent past, conflicting arguments seeking to define and create a clear understanding of what religion is have been circulating all over the mass media. Compared to the ancient days, the modern society has assumed an open-minded approach concerning religion. This has led to the rise of the numerous religious systems hence creating a conflicting understanding of the real religious setting.

In addition, freedom of worship is wrongly being used to create many beliefs that have been taken in as religious systems. This paper seeks to define and elaborate the original meaning of religion in comparison to some modern beliefs that can be classified as cults. In this paper, the religion in question is the Scientology church, which in my opinion should not be considered as one.

The history of Scientology Scientology was developed to replace an existing self–help system called Dianetics created by L. Ron Hubbard. Hubbard’s Dianetics system was created and intended to be a psychotherapy that would later became a fundamental foundation for developing his religious principles (Kant, 2001). In its psychotherapy function, this system induced a memory of traumatic events in an individual’s life in the past.

This, according to Hubbard, would free individuals from being victims of their experiences (Kant, 2001). The church of Scientology is accepted in a number of countries as a religion and it has been rejected in some. Every authority has its own argument to defend their approach towards the church.


The church is a product of a science fiction writer known as Ron Hubbard. He lived from 1911-1986 when he died aged 75. In 1953, Hubbard incorporated the first church of Scientology in New Jersey, Camden (Monaghan


Stereotyping Heroes in Cinema Research Paper college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Barthes Theory of Representation

Stuart Hall representation theory

Heroes’ Stereotypes in Movies and Cinemas



Introduction Representation can be defined as the action of speaking on behalf of someone else or the use of signs to stand for something else. It involves construction that occurs in the mass media to change aspects of reality, including the people being represented, places, and even cultural identities. Using mass media, representation has witnessed changes over time despite appearing natural (Behm-Morawitz and Mastro, 2008).

In most cases, representation depends on an individual’s interpretation, since it usually involves selective aspects. In mass media, representation usually involves the use of art and signs to change the concept of concrete reality, hence leading to stereotyping of characters and heroes in movies and other non-fiction programs from a specific point of view.

In this view, representation provides a means and way through which ideologies and concepts of reality are created in such a way that the texts or movies characters including the heroes resembles something else (Martinec and Salway, 2005).

This paper will discuss how movies and cinemas usually use representation to stereotype heroes represented in the movies. Again, the paper will discuss representation theory of Barthes in explaining these stereotypes of characters, such as heroes in movies and films (Murray, 2013a).

Barthes Theory of Representation To begin with, Barthes representation theory talks about denotation and connotation (Flynn, 2011), and argues that photography connotation, which involves the socio cultural and ideological and emotional personal associations of signs, can be distinguished from aspect of denotation. The aspect of denotation usually involves the literal meaning of signs.

Therefore, he argued that these connotations and denotations are usually related to the individuals’ gender, class, age, cultural beliefs, and even ethnicity in their interpretation (Hartman, 2006). Again, signs are more easily interpreted through their connotation than through the use of their denotation.

In addition, in most cases, connotation deals with how images and signs are photographed while denotation involves what is photographed (Behm-Morawitz and Mastro, 2008). Furthermore, connotation is more related to myths that are usually associated with classical stories about heroes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indeed, myths can be used in making sense of the cultural experiences in most cases, especially considering that they are just the most dominant ideologies and values of our time. Moreover, most media representation usually associates our experiences to cultural myths and beliefs that reflect our true realities, including values, attitudes, and beliefs (Felton, Dimnik, and Bay, 2008).

Stuart Hall representation theory In terms of non-fiction, Stuart Hall argued that there are three ways of understanding reading texts, which involve encoding and decoding a text. Firstly, texts can be read through the reader’s own values and experiences, hence allowing a chance to recognize and interpret the text according to the writer’s intended purpose.

Secondly, there is the use of negotiated reading, which involves decoding the text in a different way from what the writer encoded in the text. Lastly, there is the oppositional reading where the reader interprets a text in far much different way from which the writer intended (Martin, 2012).

There are various ways through which stereotyping of heroes is used in the movies. For example, although movies are meant to enhance communication, in most cases, the communication process becomes more complex, leading to meanings that are contradictory and inaccurately represented, hence stereotypes is seen (Murray, 2013a).

Heroes’ Stereotypes in Movies and Cinemas According to Barthes theory of representation, there are signs and images that usually function in relation to the society’s cultural beliefs. Therefore, in these movies, meanings are expressed in terms of myths, rituals, and even one’s social class in the society (Behm-Morawitz and Mastro, 2008).

For example, in movies, prominent heroes like Billy Blank and the late Paul Walker, among many other heroes in movies are usually represented as having good and extra ordinary qualities and characteristics such as, physical strength, through the use of connotation and denotation (Murray, 2013b).

Even though these stereotypes depend on the societal beliefs, their meaning changes when denotation and connotation are added (Shaffer and Casey, 2013).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Stereotyping Heroes in Cinema specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, Barthes argued that the way black people are represented in the mass media might be due to stereotypes that create the blacks as being more associated with crimes and criminal activities. This usually makes the viewers of movies and cinemas to associate the blacks with violent criminals and associate the whites with characters involved in restoring peace and solving conflicts and disputes (Atilola and Olayiwola, 2013).

In addition, most heroes in movies and films are usually associated with good qualities such as great physical strength, ability to fight many people and even ability to use knowledge to challenge tricky situations.

From this perspective, the social media such as movies create stereotypes by providing information and images that viewers, readers and audiences usually interprets and recall mostly with association to the existing beliefs and experiences that they have found from the movies.

This implies that association involves connotation, while denotation provides and produces long-lasting meanings that install stereotypes in the minds of viewers and readers (Barthes, 1977).

This idea of connotation and denotation can also be used in politics where opponents associate their rivals with criminal activities and lack of ideologies. Again, it can be used in texts and newspaper captions to provide conflicting meanings and qualities of others, hence providing stereotypes on other rivals (Mircea, 2013).

Perception can also be a form of connotation where an individual only categorizes and classifies things depending on his or her existing knowledge. Ideological and ethical form of connotation can also be used in movies where individuals recognize values according to their cultural beliefs (Cardon, 2010).

Other examples of this theory include some African leadership that have been associated with dictatorship and abuse of power. Therefore, most African leadership movies also are represented through dictatorship and abuse of power.

Again, in most movies and cinemas, women are stereotyped as weak characters; however, women who are heroes are usually given strong qualities including physical strength (Martinec and Salway, 2005).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Stereotyping Heroes in Cinema by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, Roland Barthes theory of representation is important in analysing heroes stereotyping in movies since it give various myths about people and places. This theory talks about how the media represents people and heroes in movies using myths.

For example, in various Hollywood movies, heroes are usually unrealistically represented with extra-ordinary qualities, leading to stereotypes in the mainstream societal view. Specifically, in the White House Down movie, we see the white guy being the one who ends up being the hero at the end of the movie while Jamie Foxx could not save himself (Behm-Morawitz and Mastro, 2008).

Again, in this movie, we see the policeman struggling to save his daughter, and although there is terrorist attack in the white house, it is only the white guy policeman that manages to save the president. This movie also depicts Cale (white policeman) as the man with ability to save the president from the terrorist attack while Raphelson (who is black) is taken into custody.

This shows us that whites are given qualities that are more heroic in movies, thus providing enough evidence about the use of stereotypes in movies. Here, a mere policeman, Cale, saves not only the president, but also country and the president’s daughter.

On the other hand, in the movie of Hancock, Will Smith (who is black) is depicted as the bad guy in the beginning, and this is even made worse when the white guy comes in and ends up being civilised and the good guy (Murray, 2013b).

Therefore, in these two movies and other movies, the Whites are usually stereotyped as having good qualities while other races, especially the blacks, are associated with bad qualities. In addition, most movies associate women with weak qualities, thereby stereotyping them as weak characters in the society (Oliver and Fonash, 2002).

In most Holly wood movies, black characters are given the roles of athletes, gang members, or police officers. In addition, Arabs are associated with terrorist characters while Asians are given character roles associated with factory workers or physicians.

In contrast, the whites usually take the leadership roles and other good roles in movies (Shaffer and Casey, 2013). These movies and films usually show racial stereotypes, with heroes usually depicted as having good characters. Another good example is in Superman movies, where the Batman is represented with good qualities including extra physical strength and good voice that attract women (Oliver and Fonash, 2002).

Conclusion This paper has discussed how heroes are mostly stereotypes in movies and other mass media as having good qualities such as physical strength. Again, there are also gender stereotypes where women are usually associated with weak and soft qualities, despite that being not the reality on the ground.

In addition, in most movies and cinemas, we have found out that there are racial stereotypes where whites are usually associated with good qualities while other races are associated with inferior qualities. This is evidenced in some movies like the Hancock, White House Down movie and the Superman where white characters are given the hero roles while other races are given roles that are less glamorous.

Besides, from the paper, it is clear that heroes are usually depicted to have good qualities while other characters may be associated with some abnormally weak qualities. Finally, the paper has discussed how Barthes theory of representation has successful used connotation and denotation to show how the media uses cultural values and myths in order to portray media stereotypes of heroes.

References Atilola, O.,


Effective Human Resource Management Report a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Introduction Numerous changes in personnel management over the past two decades have necessitated the need for HR managers to come up with strategies of addressing the constant and dynamic market needs. Effective human resource management considers the changes in market trend, customers’ needs, and employees’ desires in applying an inclusive and effective leadership style (Odusina, 1977, p. 11).

From the global perspective, globalisation has turned the world into a ‘global village’ where businesses interact easily with their clients. Additionally, businesses find themselves competing for one globalised market, which is already crowded. Therefore, organisations have to put in different strategies on how to attract and retain their competent employees in order to provide services and products that outshine those of their competitors.

From this dimension, organisations are applying strategies that enable them gain competitive advantage over their competitors. The dynamism in the current market implies that tastes and preferences of customers change at high rates.

Therefore, for companies to comprehend the changes in customers’ preferences so that they can satisfy the needs of their customers, they need to absorb or hire creative staff (Lewis, 2000, p. 14).

Hiring of competent and creative staff is not the final requirement, but conducting continuous training in order to update them on the changes in the market, as well as listen to their demands helps in implementing strategic business objectives.

In addition, effective human resource management has to ensure that employees meet their set targets within the firm, as well as create appropriate performance appraisal systems in which motivation becomes the key aspect in making employees work and yearn to work for the same organisation.

Recruitment and selection of the right personnel, development of an effective training program, and creation of appropriate performance appraisal systems make a complete cycle for effective HRM (Kushal, Ravishankar,


Planning for Growth Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Growth Strategy

Business Form

Financial Assistance

Organizational Structure and Staffing Needs

Customers and Promotion

Ethical Issues and Social Responsibility

Concluding Summary

Reference List

Introduction Kelly has established a successful business in a period of five years. This is a clear indication that she has some of the best entrepreneurial skills and abilities. As well, Kelly has unique entrepreneurial goals thus making it easier for her to achieve most of her targeted goals.

With such skills and dreams, Kelly plans to expand her business and develop a competitive enterprise. This discussion explains some of the critical issues for Kelly to consider as she looks forward to expand her small business.

Growth Strategy The case study explains how Kelly has managed to establish a successful business. She has been selling foods and sandwiches to her customers for the last five years. Now it is the time for Kelly to expand her business. That being the case, it is necessary for Kelly to have the best strategy for her new business (Bovee


Public budgeting Research Paper college application essay help

Public sector finance is a branch of finance, which looks into the allocation and distribution of government revenues and its fiscal and monetary policies. Public finance has three fundamental attributes: public revenues, public expenditures and public debt.

Public revenue deals with sourcing by government for money to fund its activities through means such as taxation. Public expenditure concerns with the utilization of public revenue, while public debt refers to government borrowings to fund government expenditure deficits.

With this in mind, public sector accounting involves recording of financial transactions within a public sector organization. Key issues will be sources of revenue for the public institution from internal sources, and from the government, allocation of the institutions revenue in a budget and actual use of the funds received. Difference between public sector and private sector accounting is primarily: accounting principles, profit motive, operations decision making and consensus building.

First, accounting principles used in the private sector are quite different to those used in the public sector. Each country sets its own accounting principles through adapting international set standards. Given, the international accounting standards is common for both government and nongovernmental organizations, it is the financial reporting standards differ.

The non-governmental sector financial reporting accounting falls under international financial reporting standards. However, the government sector follows a different set of financial reporting accounting principles: the international public sector accounting standards, which, adapt international financial reporting standards to suit financial accounting for public sector. Accounting items such as accrual basis of accounting and the form of financial accounting statements are different.

Public sector finance is a branch of finance, which looks into the allocation and distribution of government revenues and its fiscal and monetary policies. Public finance has three fundamental attributes: public revenues, public expenditures and public debt.

Public revenue deals with sourcing by government for money to fund its activities through means such as taxation. Public expenditure concerns with the utilization of public revenue, while public debt refers to government borrowings to fund government expenditure deficits.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With this in mind, public sector accounting involves recording of financial transactions within a public sector organization. Key issues will be sources of revenue for the public institution from internal sources, and from the government, allocation of the institutions revenue in a budget and actual use of the funds received (Johnson, Et al, 2008).

Difference between public sector and private sector accounting is mainly: accounting principles, profit motive, operations and consensus building. First, accounting principles used in the private sector are quite different to those used in the public sector. The non-governmental sector accounting falls under regulation of the country’s accounting body, which sets the accounting principles such as accounting principles.

However, the government sector follows a different set of accounting principles: the international public sector accounting standards that adapt international financial reporting standards to suit financial accounting for public sector. Countries use the international public sector accounting standards as their basis for setting their individual country’s public sector accounting standards (Jones, 2011).

Private business, goal is to gain profit while the government sector goals are service delivery to the citizens. Therefore, while private sector firms seek to maximize profitability, public sector organizations seek more funding to achieve their purpose. This poses a challenge in the public sector especially in providing management incentives for productivity.

Given public sector institutions receive greater revenue share from central government when the institutions fully use prior funds allocated, this creates the tendency of managers to increase bureaucracy instead of focusing on fulfilling the goal of the organization through allocation of funds efficiently and effectively.

Management of private firms, with guidance from the board of directors, carry out their duties in line with the company’s operational plans, strategic plans basing on the firm’s mission and vision. Public sector institutions apart from their operational plans, strategic plans, mission and vision; receive additional organizational control from stipulated government regulations, policy and legislation. Thus, the public sector organizations have limitations in their management decisions options, which inhibit the growth of the organization (Jones, 2011).

In the private sector, once management has outlined its course of action; this may require consensus building depending on leadership style such as dictatorial leadership style requires little consensus building for decision making. In the public sector, consensus building operates at an accelerated level, given the highly political nature of the public sector.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Public budgeting specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It requires all parties to be on board before management undertakes critical management decision; the daunting number of consultations from its board of director, ministry, citizens, employees and third parties of interest. This is a barrier against efficiency and speed of decision making due to the consideration of many diverse factors. The bureaucratic land mine alienates creative and highly motivated staff in charge who may resign citing work frustrations.

In the public sector institutions, the budget drives funds that the institution will receive from the government depending on how the government approves its budget along with internal sources of revenue. Finally, during financial reporting, it accounts for budgeting, receiving, distribution and subsequent use.

Therefore, unlike private sector where financial reports drive the next financial period activities, in the public sector it is the financial budgeting that drives the next financial period activities. Thus the financial budget importance should not face underestimation (Johnson, Et al, 2008).

References Johnson, W., Joyce, G.,


The collision of electronic information systems in transition with patients in transition Report scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Executive summary Josephine McMurray, Elizabeth Hicks, Helen Johnson, Jacobi Elliott, Kerry Byrne, and Paul Stolee authored the article, Trying to find information is like hating yourself every day: The collision of electronic information systems in transition with patients in transition, which was published in the Journal of Health Informatics.

The article examines the implication of electronic medical records (EMR) coupled with parallel paper medical records on continuity of information in healthcare facilities. In conducting the research, ethnographic field study was deployed as the main methodology for gathering data.

The article draws its inferences from results of three main case studies involving older patients having hip fracture and transitioning within healthcare settings (McMurray et al., 2012, p.218).

The focus of the article is on the implication of the electronic information systems (EIS) interoperability on the capacity of healthcare providers to communicate amongst themselves and the implication of digital records on transformation of information handling and processing systems within healthcare facilities.

According to the article, enhancement of continuity is an important outcome for healthcare information system. In this context, healthcare records are pivotal in enabling care providers to exchange patients’ clinical coupled with demographic information, which is necessary to effect appropriate treatment (McMurray et al., 2012, p.218).

Records also aid in accountability transfers, regulatory compliance, and provide means for following up quality of the healthcare delivered. While the authors find documentation important in this extent, they argue that documentation culture consumes 25 percent of the caregivers’ time in a healthcare facility (McMurray et al., 2012, p.218).

Improving the documentation process can aid in improvising of more accurate, better quality, secure, and speedy, and even well coordinated healthcare.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the authors, the above qualities cannot be achieved via paper-based approaches to documentation of healthcare information. This assertion underlines the importance of transitioning to EMR healthcare information systems.

However, the authors report low adoption rates of the EMRs in clinical settings in Canada. They also argue that care providers encounter challenges in sending and receiving information that has been digitized. Consequently, “the adoption of digitized documentation is inconsistent across healthcare sectors and interoperability between information systems is limited” (McMurray et al., 2012, p.220).

Based on this realization, the researchers found it sound to conduct a research to investigate the effects of electronic and paper information parallel system in fostering efforts of communication exchange during the process of transitioning of patient within the healthcare continuum.

The authors present two main viewpoints. First, “partial interoperability between electronic information systems has complicated not eased the ability to communicate across settings and disciplines” (McMurray et al., 2012, p.223).

The authors note that during the period, which the research was conducted, Canada had strategically focused on investment in EMRs. Nevertheless, most cases studied showed that transitional information was transferred through paper-based means of communication.

Despite the availability of EMRs in the three cases considered in the research, healthcare providers exchanged transitional information through fax or transportation of paper-based information during transferring of the patient across the care continuum. In particular, the authors exemplify this view point by claiming that in the case involving Mrs.

Robertson, two facilities sharing ownership cared for her, but even though EMR was available to the two care facilities, “staff continued to fax requests for admission and discharge documentation to each other and maintained separate paper charts” (McMurray et al., 2012, p.224).

We will write a custom Report on The collision of electronic information systems in transition with patients in transition specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Indeed, clinical care workers entered Mrs. Robertson’s information manually to an external database in each of the care facilities. For long-term care facilities, none of them deployed EMRs.

Documentation of information is meant to ensure ease of accessibility and retrieval of information. However, in the second viewpoint of the authors, “while some information is more accessible and communications streamlined, parallel paper and electronic systems have added to the front line providers burden, not eased it” (McMurray et al., 2012, p.224).

In this context, the article findings indicate that even if information were recorded previously in the EMR system, front care providers raised concerns that they encountered challenges in accessing and retrieving the information. These challenges were attributed to poor user interfaces and unavailability of records’ summaries.

However, physicians argued that although it was difficult to retrieve and access information from their places of residence in the EMR system, when such information was retrieved, it helped them in cross communication.

As part of analysis of the article, it is important to note that transition from one information system to another involves organizational change. Before people can learn and acquire experience in the use of new information system, confusions and problems are anticipated. Therefore, it is not surprising that people would deploy paper-based approaches in the documentation process while EMRs were available.

From the context of the second viewpoint of the authors, any digital information system has challenges articulated to its design. Some of these challenges include poor design of user interfaces and interactivity. When such challenges are encountered, the solution encompasses system redesign and improvement to meet user requirements, but not scraping it.

In my opinion, the article is relevant to management information systems for Public and Health Administration. It provides possible area of improving EMRs to meet the needs of the users and deliver the outcomes for which the system is installed within a healthcare facility.

Reference McMurray, J., Hicks, E., Johnson, H., Elliott, J., Byrne, K.,


The motif of alienation in Tennessee Williams’s play The Glass Menagerie Essay scholarship essay help

One of the reasons why Tennessee Williams’s play The Glass Menagerie continues to be referred, as such that represents a particularly high literary value, is that the themes and motifs, contained in it, are discursively relevant. That is, by being exposed to how the play’s characters address life-challenges, viewers do recognize these characters’ innermost psychological anxieties, as such that relate to the ones of their own.

In my paper, I will explore the validity of this suggestion at length, while focusing on the significance of the motif of an existential alienation, which I believe is being prominently featured, throughout the play’s entirety.

Even though that there are a number of clearly defined modernist overtones to how the play’s plot unravels out on the stage, due to the plot’s structural simplicity, grasping it mentally does not represent much of a challenge. In essence, it can be outlined as follows. The character of Amanda Wingfield, who shares a household with her son Tom and her daughter Laura, tries her best to help Laura to find a man who would be willing to marry her.

This, however, is not easily accomplishable, due to both: Laura’s physical deficiency (she limps) and the fact that she happened to be an unnaturally shy individual, afraid of socializing with ‘strangers’. The character of Tom (narrator) temporarily works at a shoe-warehouse, while striving to support his mother and sister.

However, being endowed with artistic aspirations, he finds the routine of addressing his professional duties increasingly unbearable – hence, Tom’s tendency to overindulge in drinking. Being emotionally involved with Laura, Tom also tries to set her up with a potential husband – he invites his coworker Jim to a family-dinner, so that he would be able to get to know Laura better, and eventually to decide to marry her.

Despite her shyness, Laura does become relaxed in Jim’s presence and begins to experience the sensation of being romantically attached to him. However, it does not take too long for her to find out that Jim plans to marry another woman, which results in Laura having sustained yet another emotional blow. The play’s ending implies that Laura effectively gives up on her hope of being able to lead a conventional lifestyle, and becomes socially-withdrawn for the rest of her life.

Thus, it will only be appropriate to suggest that the very subtleties of the plot create objective preconditions for viewers to perceive the play’s characters, as such that do not quite ‘fit’ into the reality that surrounds them. This simply could not be otherwise, because, as the earlier provided outline of Williams’s play implies – these characters never ceased experiencing the sensation of an existential alienation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The manner, in which the character of Amanda goes about trying to exercise a parental authority within the family, illustrates the legitimacy of this statement perfectly well. For example, in her conversations with Tom and Laura, Amanda never ceases to promote the so-called ‘traditional values’, deeply imbedded in the notion of religion.

Hence, Amanda’s insistence that it is not only that people must utter a prayer, before they have a dinner, but that neither of the household members may skip attending this ritual: “Amanda: We can’t say grace until you (Tom) come to the table!” (Williams 753). Apparently, it never occurred to Amanda that the very realities of living in the early 20th century’s America were exposing the sheer erroneousness of Biblical fables.

This is why the Amanda’s traditionalist approach to parenting could not prove effective, by definition. As a result, Amanda was becoming increasingly frustrated with her inability to instill Laura and Tom with ‘proper morals’, which in turn was causing her to suspect that she probably was not a ‘good mother’, after all.

It is needless to mention, of course, that this could not result in anything else, but in making Amanda ever more psychological uncomfortable with the surrounding socio-cultural environment.

This is exactly the reason why Amanda would never skip an opportunity to reflect upon how things used to be back in the past: “Amanda: One Sunday afternoon in Blue Mountain – your mother received – seventeen gentlemen-callers! We had to send the nigger over to bring in folding chairs from the parish house” (754).

The very delight, with which Amanda expounds on her memories of the past, leaves no doubts as to the fact that, psychologically speaking, Amanda was growing increasingly tempted to submerge into the ‘reality’ of the past, while ignoring the actual reality of the present (Bluefarb 513).

Essentially the same thesis applies to the character of Laura, even though that, unlike her mother, she was not overly fascinated with the ‘good ole’ days’. Being an emotionally sensitive girl, who used to experience the sensation of inferiority (due to having to wear braces on her leg), Laura could not help creating her own ‘world’ of little figurines of exotic animals, made out of glass, among which she felt thoroughly comfortable.

We will write a custom Essay on The motif of alienation in Tennessee Williams’s play The Glass Menagerie specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As time went on, Laura was becoming progressively withdrawn, while preoccupying herself with taking care of her beloved figurines. This, of course, used to cause Amanda a great deal of worry: “Now all she (Laura) does is fool with those pieces of glass and play those worn-out records. What kind of a life is that for a girl to lead?” (758).

Nevertheless, contrary to what Amanda used to believe, her daughter’s mental condition could hardly be remedied by the mean of encouraging Laura to socialize more. Apparently, Laura’s obsession with the ‘glass menagerie’ extrapolated her cognitive and emotional incompatibility with the functioning of the American materialistic society.

Hence, the symbolical significance of Jim’s rhetorical question: “Unicorns, aren’t they extinct in the modern world?” (774) – without intending to do it rationally, Jim did hint that individuals like Laura (the ones that indulge in a socially withdrawn daydreaming) will never be able to adjust to the real world.

Therefore, there is nothing utterly surprising about the fact that, throughout the course of the play’s entirety, Laura is being represented as an individual, whose biological vitality has been irrevocably undermined. In its turn, this explains why, as opposed to what it happened to be the case with her mother, the Laura’s sense of existential alienation has strongly defined tragic undertones to it.

Even though that, formally speaking, the play’s narrator (Jim) does not appear to experience the sensation of a societal alienation, this is far from being the actual case. This is because, despite the fact that Jim does tend to indulge in a number of different socialization-related activities, without seeming to suffer any emotional damage, as a result, he finds it increasingly difficult adjusting to his social role of a warehouse-worker.

There is a memorable scene in the play, where Jim comes up with the emotionally-charged speech, on the subject of his deep-seated incompatibility with the idea that working at a warehouse accounts for his ‘true calling’: “You think I’m crazy about the warehouse? You think I’m in love with the Continental Shoemakers?

You think I want to spend fifty-five years down there in that – celotex interior! with – fluorescent – tubes! Look! I’d rather somebody picked up a crowbar and battered out my brains – than go back mornings!” (757). Apparently, being an idealistically-minded young man, Tom could never adjust to the prospect of spending the rest of his life, working as a manual laborer.

This is the reason why, throughout the play, Tom acts as a socially alienated individual, who strives to overcome the sensation of being ‘unfit’ to lead the conventional lifestyle of a laborer by the mean of uttering sarcastic remarks, every time he finds it appropriate.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The motif of alienation in Tennessee Williams’s play The Glass Menagerie by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As King (1973) noted: “Tom toys with the same madness in which his sister Laura is trapped but saves himself with irony” (209). Therefore, just as it happened to be the case with the earlier mentioned characters, Tom appears to have suffered from his deep-seated suspicion of himself being not quite ‘normal’ – hence, the clearly defined motif of alienation to the manner, in which this particular character addresses life-challenges.

Even the play’s most conventional character Jim, also seems to be affected by his realization of the fact that he is not quite as successful, as he hoped he would be: “I hoped when I was going to high-school that I would be further along at this time, six years later, than I am now” (778).

In fact, this appears to be the actual reason why he was able to get along with Laura right away – apparently, Jim was no stranger to the sensation of being a ‘loser’, which is why he could well relate to the Laura’s emotional state of being. However, unlike what it was the case with Tom, Jim never had any aspirations of grandeur, which is why he was able to successfully deal with his alienation-related anxieties (Cluck 87).

The deployed line of argumentation does substantiate the idea that, in The Glass Menagerie, it was specifically the main characters’ subtle understanding that they do not quite belong to this world, which prevented them from being able to enjoy their lives to the fullest. Therefore, it would only be logical to assume that in Williams’s play, the theme of alienation affects plot’s developments more than anything else does.

Given the fact that, it was implied earlier, the realities of a post-industrial living do cause more and more Americans to grow increasingly detached from the classical (euro-centric) conventions of what should be considered one’s ‘purposeful life’, there is nothing too surprising about the cult-status of this particular Williams’s play.

After all, just as it was the case with the characters of Amanda, Tom and Laura, many contemporary Americans (particularly Whites) do realize themselves being in no position to be able to keep up with the pace of a social progress – hence, their tendency to choose in favor of socially-withdrawn lifestyles. I believe that this conclusion fully correlates with the paper’s initial thesis.

Works Cited Bluefarb, Sam. “The Glass Menagerie: Three Visions of Time.” College English 24.7 (1963): 513-518. Print.

Cluck, Nancy. “Showing or Telling: Narrators in the Drama of Tennessee Williams.” American Literature 51.1 (1979): 84-93. Print.

King, Thomas. “Irony and Distance in ‘The Glass Menagerie’.” Educational Theatre Journal 25.2 (1973): 207-214. Print.

Williams, Tennessee 1945, The Glass Menagerie. Web.


“8 Is Not Hate: The Meaning of a Proposition” and “Prop 8 Hurt My Family—Ask Me How; Marriage Equality USA” Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help near me

The modern day and age offers rights and freedoms that people have not experienced some time before and the majority of official rulings have acknowledged that people have a right to marry whomever they want, as it is their personal and private choice.

While both authors address the issue of Proposition 8 and challenges that LGBTI face due to its criteria, author of “8 Is Not Hate: The Meaning of a Proposition” focuses more on the reasons why people support the proposition, while author of “Prop 8 Hurt My Family—Ask Me How; Marriage Equality USA” is more concerned with the fact that either way proposition 8 is immoral and discriminatory towards LGBTI.

The laws and government must unite society and differences between people and not divide. The two articles have valid points but the end result is clear—it is not up to the government to decide whom a person wants to marry but at the same time, educational and other public institutions should take extreme care in voicing opinions and changing policies according to personal views of people, keeping a lawful and moral balance.

Jennifer Roback Morse has written an article to explain and clarify the proposition and true reasons for it. The article focuses on the facts of why people support the proposition. It does not explain how people are affected, their feelings and outcomes they face. It illustrates why it is morally correct to choose laws and regulations that divide people through court orders, instead of finding ways to look for common ground and reach a mutually beneficial solution.

She gives specific points and views of people who are not agreeing with the courts passing laws that would make same sex marriages official and thus, give people same rights and freedoms as everyone else. She also argues that it is not particularly fair for children to be educated about same sex marriages and unions, as children are too young to understand the true reasons and circumstances of such marriages.

Jennifer Morse explains that people who are against these rulings are not against people who are homosexual but that they oppose the court’s decisions because courts are taking their authority too far. Her points are made very clear but there are some issues that can be raised.

Marriage is a union of two people and it is not up to other individuals to decide who these people are and what qualities they have. A union is defined by feelings that are mutual and if two people want to be together, they should not be denied that right. The majority of society has the right to form a bond and has the privileges under law to receive benefits and protection that such union entitles them to.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More So, it would be unfair to deny others this right because someone is unable to understand the reasons people are together, even though they can understand themselves. The fact that people are anti-laws that give LGBTI people same rights and freedoms extends towards people themselves and the explanation that the courts are given too much power to grant people these rights is also a movement against people receiving these rights.

The point that parents should be the ones deciding the type of education their children should be receiving is valid but, to a certain degree. Children should not be denied the truth but the matter of private relationships between people should not be a part of educational curriculum, no matter if it is heterosexual or homosexual. Education should be impartial and neutral, leaving emotions and love for everyone to decide on their own. But the fact that such unions do exist, should not be denied, as it is the undoubted reality of the world.

If young and older children can take a family class, which they choose under their own want and if they are educated about heterosexual marriages, they should also be educated about other types of marriages. But education should in no way be forced onto anyone. Even though Morse in not against LGBTI people, she does show some fear of what will happen to people if they are suscepted to laws and freedoms that are changed in LGBTI favor.

This comes from a long standing argument that people choose to be gay or not and it might make someone LGBTI. This has been proven to be untrue. But even if it is assumed that it is true and a person can choose, it is still no one’s business because a person wants and needs that on their own accord. LGBTI people are not asking for extra privileges and freedoms, they want to have same rights and protection under law as everyone else and it is only fair.

“Prop 8 Hurt My Family—Ask Me How; Marriage Equality USA” reinforces the view that due to changes in laws and governments giving people an opportunity to decide laws for someone else is morally wrong. The fact that anti-LGBTI discrimination exists cannot be denied. People do truly face violence, stereotypical behavior and threats towards them if they are LGBTI or support policies that are in favor.

The article shows how the proposition is having a hard emotional or psychological influence on people. It is very depressing, especially for children who face discrimination in schools and neighborhoods they live in. People are afraid that their marriages will be no longer valid and those who support LGBTI are also concerned that their views and beliefs will be jeopardized by the proposition.

There are a number of examples of how the stereotypical behavior manifests itself, affecting families, friends and everyone involved in the matter. Anxiety and depression are the result of differential treatment and people are always in the state of fear that they will be the target of violence and other threatening verbal or physical behavior.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on “8 Is Not Hate: The Meaning of a Proposition” and “Prop 8 Hurt My Family—Ask Me How; Marriage Equality USA” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The general atmosphere in the society is now at a peak point where everyone has a very negative attitude and this has a significant effect on people’s lives. The actions of the government and society are taking a wrong direction.

They are finding ways to separate people even further when the focus should be the unity and finding of common ground. The laws being made must forbid further discrimination and stereotypical treatment, which will in turn lead to equal rights and freedoms.

The authors of two articles have shown different perspectives on the way society and government view people with different sexual preferences. The laws of the country dictate order in society but people’s private life is personal business.

Even though the majority of population respects others there are still people with hurtful and prejudiced opinions. In the end, it is everyone’s duty to respect others and provide hate free environment to live and enjoy justice.


Concept of Managing Teams at the Workplace Report custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Concept of Teams

Conditions That Determine Team Success

Building a Cohesive Team


Introduction The concept of teamwork at the workplace is practiced in many organizations. A team can be described as a group of people who depend on each other for skills and resources to enable them achieve a specific objective. Managers need special skills to manage various employees in the organization to enable them collaborate on specific tasks to achieve positive results. Managers need to make all their employees resourceful to ensure their output brings positive returns to the organization.

Concept of Teams Managers should realize that teams are formed to achieve a collective objective where all members depend on each other to achieve it. Team members need to be given freedom to make their own decisions. This approach makes all members of a team to tolerate different opinions put forward by their colleagues.

All employees in an organization have different personalities and this has an impact on the way they share ideas (Burke and Cooper 57). Managers should structure their teams to accommodate all types of personality profiles to make them diverse and competent.

Teamwork helps organizations to achieve key goals which are part of their long term strategies. Effective team managemen helps business organizations to come up with new ideas which make them stay competitive in their chosen industries. Employees who are skilled in a variety of disciplines enable firm stay ahead of its competitors because they share their knowledge and skills with each other.

Managers need to monitor their teams to ensure their activities are in line with the firm’s strategic goals (Heneman and Greenberger). A manager should not interfere needlessly in team operations as this will affect the ability of members to think on their own.

Conditions That Determine Team Success Managers need to know that there are several conditions which determine the success of workplace teams. The design of work place teams should conform to the overall context in which the organization transacts to make team members’ contributions valid and beneficial. The organizational culture should make team members more open to acquire new skills and information from each other to enable them move forward in a positive direction.

The knowledge acquired through collaboration between team members improves their ability to make decisions which have a bearing on the firm’s operations (Evans and Lindsay 97). Therefore, managers need to encourage team members to learn from one another to enable them stay focused on their objectives. Team members need to be open with each other to build strong relationships to make their team cohesive and progressive.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Team members need to learn conflict resolution and problem solving skills for them to be well prepared to deal with any challenges which may come their way. All members within a team should be willing to compromise so as to build consensus when making crucial decisions. Open communication between members enables them to set clear goals and how they are to be achieved.

Team members should share tasks between them so that everyone is allocated a specific responsibility to ensure that each individual acquires crucial knowledge on what needs to be done. Team leaders should help members set goals and monitor their performance (Jackson, Schuler and Werner 83). Therefore, this enables members to develop standards which guide their partipation within the team.

Building a Cohesive Team It is important for activities which are done by work teams to be well coordinated. A workplace team needs to be productive to make it achieve its goals within stipulated time limits. Members should work well with each other to achieve their expectations. Tasks to be performed by each member should be well defined and aligned to strategic goals in the organization.

It is necessary for managers to decide how much decision making power teams should have in the beginning before they begin working on specific tasks. This will ensure that decisions made by team members are practical to make them easy to implement (Parker 45). Work place teams need to accommodate different employees and their skills to make them effective.

Members of work place teams need to come up with common codes of conduct, which they all must abide by. Codes of conduct help to maintain discipline in all procedures members are involved in to ensure they are in line with organizational expectations. Workplace teams need to do tasks which are well defined to make members more focused on what they need to achieve.

Members need to prioritize on the most important issues that need to be addressed which impact on internal operations within the organization (Sims 104). It is necessary for team members to make decisions which are only influenced by facts and not personal opinions.

In conclusion, workplace teams need to have creative members to ensure that they generate new ideas which impact positively on internal operations in the firm. All members should be assessed on their abilities to determine their contribution to the team. They should also be encouraged to participate in team work as this is the only they can learn new ideas.

We will write a custom Report on Concept of Managing Teams at the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Burke, Ronald J., and Cary L. Cooper. Reinventing Human Resources Management: Challenges And New Directions. New York: Routledge, 2005. Print.

Evans, James Robert, and William M. Lindsay. Managing for Quality and Performance Excellence. Mason: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.

Heneman, Robert L., and David B. Greenberger. Human Resource Management in Virtual Organizations. London: Information Age Publishing, 2002.Print

Jackson, Susan E., Randall S. Schuler, and Steve Werner. Managing Human Resources. Mason: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.

Parker, Glenn M. Team Players and Teamwork: New Strategies for Developing Successful Collaboration. New York, NY: Wiley, 2011. Print.

Sims, Ronald. Organizational Success Through Effective Human Resources Management. New York : Greenwood, 2002. Print.


Environmental public health Essay essay help

Introduction Public health is a major concern in the world today. The welfare of human beings has been put in the spotlight of major scientific research. As such, the research has emphasized on the need for public health ethics so as to ensure that people’s health is put into consideration. Professionalism within the public health sector has, therefore gained some renewed attention from various agencies.

The need to have professionals who are well equipped with skills and knowledge in environmental health is thus of paramount importance to any nation. The following essay focuses on professionalism in environmental public health raging from the code of ethics, standards of practice, to ethical decision making among other core values.

Code of ethics The code of ethics refers to the manner in which environmental health professionals are expected to conduct themselves while delivering their services to the public. These include the upholding of the rule of law through promotion of justice, accountability, maintaining confidentiality of the public and ensuring competent practice among health professionals (Dawson, 2011).

In Canada, The Canadian Institute of Public Health Inspectors (CIPHI) concerned with environmental public health is the only body that usually regulates and outlines the ethical conduct of health professionals in Canada. As such, the body usually deals with the welfare of people’s health by ensuring that the concerns are put into consideration while still engaging in the diverse world of knowledge and research.

Promotion of Justice

The promotion of justice among health professionals in Canada requires from every health professional to recognize the fact that every person has a right to fundamental rights of health regardless of their race or any other social distinction.

Additionally, Environmental Public Health Professionals (EPHPs) are obliged to promote fairness and equity as well as respect human rights in their different areas of research. With these attributes in mind, the welfare of the public is thus given priority by health agencies.


Accountability is a requirement among health professionals so as to ensure that they are held accountable and responsible for their actions. As such, a high degree of loyalty to CIPHI is paramount in ensuring that health professionals safeguard the interests of the public. These obligations have no exceptions or compromise as ignoring them would pose dire consequences to the public. Consequently, the impact on people’s health would be dire consequences.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Maintenance of confidentiality

Maintenance of confidentiality among health experts is another requirement within the code of ethics of the environmental public health. This requirement compels all health professionals within the public sector to safeguard the health secrets of any family or community through the privacy laws that have been established (Dawson, 2011). This ensures that people’s life secrets are protected and their privacy is respected by all health professionals within the country.

Competency is a key requirement among health professionals in ensuring that their knowledge and skills remain relevant to people’s health. As such, EPHPs strive to remain competent and up to date with the various developments in the world of environmental public health.

Competent knowledge and skills are vital in ensuring that their work and service to the public remain competitive and up to date with technological advancements.

The scope of practice has, therefore, been put in place to ensure that every health professional conforms to the standards of quality and competency in the field. The need to keep people fully informed with regard to health issues is paramount so as to ensure competency and delivery of professional services to the public.

Standards of practice A Professional Standard of Practice can be defined as a specific level of performance where an individual must perform various professional tasks and responsibilities while maintaining some minimal standards below which the quality of work is unacceptable (Canada, 2008). As such, any professional activity or task must be performed at a minimum threshold so as to ensure that quality of the work is not compromised at all costs.

Standards will always provide values and a set of principles that must be observed while engaging in research. These standards ensure that professionals in the field of public health remain competitive and knowledgeable in handling pertinent issues within the field. They usually enlighten the public on what is expected of health professionals and also inform the latter of their responsibility and accountability.

These standards of practice serve to achieve the vision of health professionals enabling the professionals to make informed decisions with regard to the welfare of the public, ensure cohesion and conformity of all health professionals with the universally agreed requirements as well as provide a legal framework of understanding the code of conduct of these professionals. The standards include accountability, competency, ethics, application of knowledge, leadership as well as relationships standard.

We will write a custom Essay on Environmental public health specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Accountability standards aim at ensuring that the health professionals conform to the legislative requirements by taking responsibility with regard to their actions (Frumkin, 2010). Additionally, health professionals are also obliged to assist in the development of rules and policies to govern their field and ensure consistent practice of all stakeholders.

With regard to competency standards, EPHPs maintain their proficiency and competency through advancements in research as well as taking regular training programs to advance their knowledge and skills. Additionally, health professionals are obliged to dedicate their time and resources in order to meet certain requirements that are set by the regulatory authority (Frumkin, 2010). These rules are aimed at ensuring delivery of quality services to the public which are in line with universal standards.

EPHPs must maintain their ethical standards which outline their responsibilities to the public as well as inform the public and other health professionals of their ethical commitments to environmental public health concerns. The professionals should also maintain and safeguard the information pertaining to the health of their clients.

Leadership standards compel health professionals to be role models with regard to their professional etiquette and participation in various community development projects. These requirements ensure that there is sharing and dispensation of knowledge and skills to the community and other groups of interest.

Development of adequate conflict resolution skills that are highly effective is paramount to any health professional within the public health sector. This portrays their ability to find effective and workable solutions in the event of a conflict.

Ethical decision making Decision making within the environmental public health sector can be defined as the identification of conflicting values within a particular society which can be solved through the employment of a legal moral framework (Frumkin, 2010).

For instance, a law might be formulated by health professionals requiring all children within public institutions to wear leg guards while playing football. However, the parents might oppose the move by arguing that they reserve the rights to make rightful decision regarding the interests of their children.

The ability to recognize and acknowledge an ethical concern is paramount to any health professional who is equipped with knowledge and understanding of pertinent issues that a particular society faces. These decisions are made in steps which include recognition of the ethical problem or concern, identification of conflicting values and putting into consideration the ethical support towards the health program from the society. As such, improvement of the public health is an essential consideration while making decisions pertaining to the public welfare.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Environmental public health by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion From the above discussion, professionalism in environmental public health is paramount to all health professionals, which is due to the fact that the public heavily relies on their services for a healthy life. As such, ethics and various standards of practice cannot be overlooked by the professionals. Should these factors be put into consideration, the results will be visible to everyone, and thus will ensure a healthy and productive nation.

References American Public Health Association. (1971). American journal of public health: JPH. New York, N.Y: American Public Health Association.

Benatar, S. R.,


Transmission and Reception of Television Signals Report (Assessment) essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Transmission of television signals

Reception of television signals



The books, Electronic signals and systems: television, stereo, satellite TV, and automotive by Stan Prentiss, and Digital video and audio broadcasting technology a particle engineering guide by Walter Fischer provide sufficient information that is relevant to the research question. Stan Prentiss is one of the leading writers in the field of engineering.

In his book Electronic signals and systems: television, stereo, satellite TV, and automotive, he explains to the reader the process of signal transmission and reception. He targets students and anyone who interested in learning the basics of signal transmission from a broadcaster to the screen of a television.

Prentiss has writer several books on the topic of signal transmission and reception. These have been augmented by research that he has conducted on the same topic. In addition, it has been published by TAB books, a publishing company that publishes academic books.

On the other hand, Walter Fischer is a prolific writer who has authored several books in the field of engineering. In his book Digital video and audio broadcasting technology a particle engineering guide, he takes a similar approach to that of Prentiss to explicate the process of signal transmission and reception. The book is published by TAB books, a publisher with a positive reputation for publishing educational books.

Fischer uses a language that is simple to understand. Therefore, he targets both professionals and non-professionals who are interested in engineering as a scientific discipline. This source is authentic and relevant because it has been cited by many professionals in many leading universities around the world when writing their dissertations.

Transmission of television signals Fischer (1961, p.87) gives an overview of signal transmission by stating that a transmitter tower transmits signals in form of audio and video components that are relayed in form of a carrier wave. The transmitter tower modulates the two components into one unit for ease of transmission. He further explains what modulation involves.

Modulation is the addition or removal of certain components in the signal in order to facilitate transmission. Prentiss (1991, p.193) adds to this by stating that modulation is carried out to eliminate any chance of interference between the video and audio component. Amplitude modulation is used to modulate the video component while frequency modulation is used to modulate the audio component.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Prentiss (1991, p.193) discusses modulation in digital televisions by stating that phase modulation is utilized. When two signals share the same timing when they are transmitted, they are said to be in phase. If not, they are out of phase. Transmission is done at very high frequencies (VHF) and ultra high frequencies (UHF) because at these frequencies, TV signals can travel long distances (Fischer, 1961, p.91).

In addition, signals can easily penetrate structures thus improving reception. Before transmission, several requirements are fulfilled. The video line resolution of the video signal is set and the cycling speed is determined (Fischer, 1961, p.96).

In addition, the speed of frame display is set in order to enhance reception. An important aspect of transmission is signal compression. Signals are compressed in order to improve transmission and to avoid loss of integrity during transmission.

First, a video camera takes a picture of a certain object at a certain recommended frame rate (Fischer, 1961, p.98). Secondly, the camera turns the object into pixels of different intensity and color. Thirdly, the pixels are paired with synchronisation signals to improve reception and display (Prentiss, 1991, p.145). This results in a generation of a composite video signal that is then transmitted.

Transmitters possess gadgets that convert transport stream into signals that are conveyed in both the audio and video format. Transmitter towers convey three main types of signals depending on type and frequency of transmission. These include antenna signals, satellite signals, and cable signals (Prentiss, 1991, p.147). Antenna signals are conveyed from radio transmitters.

They are significantly weak and a television antenna must be close enough to a broadcast tower in order for it to receive a signal that is strong enough to display images and produce sound.

Satellite signals are transmitted from a broadcaster to a satellite in space, and then to a dish that acts as a receiver. The dishes must be in line with a conveying satellite in order to receive signals without interference. Transmission of satellite signals usually occurs at very high frequencies.

We will write a custom Assessment on Transmission and Reception of Television Signals specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As such, satellite signals behave like light waves. They can travel long distances without losing their integrity (Prentiss, 1991, p.99). On the other hand, certain signals are converted to electrical signals to improve the speed of transmission. The main advantage of antenna signals is that they do not lose their integrity during transmission unlike cable signals that do.

Reception of television signals After signals are transmitted over air, the antenna or receiver mounted a television set receives them (Prentiss, 1991, p.134). Antennas perform two main functions. These include reception and amplification of signals. TVs contain special gadgets that convert received signals into a form that enables them to be displayed on a screen.

Quality of signal reception depends on the type of television set that receives it. For example, a satellite TV uses a receiver to convert signals into video and sound (Prentiss, 1991, p.137). On the other hand, modern TVs have inbuilt receiving units that eradicate the need for special receiving units. After a signal is received, it is decoded by the receiving unit and separated into video and sound components for display.

The receiver converts the received TV programs that are in form of waves into signals that are displayed as images (Prentiss, 1991, p.142). TVs possess display devices that are referred to as Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs).

CRTs convert television signals into visible light for enhanced display. According to Prentiss (1991, p.107), a CRT contains steering coils that transmit the signal that is converted into an electron beam to the screen. TVs also contain sound devices that turn electrical signals into sound.

Conclusion Transmission of television signals involves transmission of both audio and video components from a transmitter. The transmitter modulates the two components into one unit for ease of transmission. The signal is conveyed to the atmosphere in form of a carrier wave that is conveyed over air and received by an antenna or receiver mounted on a TV. TVs have inbuilt receiving units that eradicate the need for a special receiving unit.

After a signal is received, it is decoded by the receiving unit and separated into two components: video and sound. The video component is displayed on the screen while the sound component is transmitted to the sound device. The two books used in the research provide sufficient information that covers the research topic satisfactorily.

References Fischer, W 1961, Digital Video and Audio Broadcasting Technology a Particle Engineering Guide, TBA Books, New York.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Transmission and Reception of Television Signals by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Prentiss, S 1991, Electronic Signals and Systems: Television, Stereo, Satellite TV, and Automotive, TBA Books, New York.


DuPont Environmental Corporation Case Study argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction Winkler asserts that the safety, health, and environmental (SHE) organizational units have often undergone reforms that are run through defaults (p.36). This implies that such organizational restructuring are determined through extensive financial considerations and business reorganization instead of self-instigated SHE managerial efforts.

Up to late 1990, the SHE institutions experienced tumultuous moments. In fact, the business management observed the SHE organizations as overhead or service sources over-involved in various reformation waves, which either merged or subcontracted such activities to the joint service sectors.

Recently, the restructuring zeal lessened and in the past ten years, environmental organizations executives polished up their institutions in order to fix the most appalling labels that occurred during the insistent service reformation periods. However, the SHE departments experienced intensified pressure that required such environmental units to accomplish various objectives with minimal resources (Winkler 37).

As the most excellent SHE corporations found in the industry, DuPont Corporation had to adopt the unsurpassed practices in designing the organizational safety, health, and environmental measures.

DuPont Corporation Case Study The environmental invention center has consistently assessed the features possessed by the safety, health, and environmental corporations that record higher performances. Also dubbed as the ‘evolving corporations,’ this research focuses on a large environmental corporation called DuPont since the institution has somewhat established environmental management practices. Besides, DuPont has structured layers, including facility, business units, and corporate levels that enable the company to acquire the preeminent SMEs practices (Winkler 37).

The case study assesses whether the typical managerial aspects and capacity, namely the communications linkages, structure, and the size of the organization can assist the company to offer valued business services proficiently while adhering to environmental concerns and laws. That is, in case DuPont realizes the correct mixtures of clients’ desires at minimal outlay.

The topic is significant given that the clients’ identities fluctuate very much depending on the type of the plant managers, marketing directors, as well as the board of directors’ requirements and requests. Besides, the conception of realizing the requirements of the clients materialize to have followed another dimension, including the capacity to manage the ensuing stakeholder concerns (Bradley and O’Neal 3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The case study report provides the organizational background of DuPont SHE, the devotion to environmental safety, the implications of DuPont organizational culture namely the advantages and prospective drawbacks, as well as the right balance.

Background The culture and history of DuPont Corporation

In the fiscal 1802, DuPont Corp was initiated for the production of black-powder. During the nineteenth century, the black-power operations materialized to be environmentally and naturally hazardous. The DuPont Corporation family unit passed away in the untimely years despite the fact the company used the high-tech environmental safety practices.

However, whatever emerged from such incidents appeared to be the profoundly entrenched culture maturing after a while to the central values which most people alleged to be inimitable in their respective depths.

Over the past thirty-five years, the embraced internal practices attained a sophisticated point that was outwardly recognized to the levels, which made DuPont Corp to form the consulting businesses and safety or environmental trainings. DuPont emerged as a detached company called the DuPont Safety Resources in the fiscal 1998 (Bradley and O’Neal 2).

It was however, reported that the cultural safety had a spill out consequence on the interrelated areas, namely health and environment. A case illustration occurred in the financial year 1920s and 1880s when DuPont manufactured dyestuffs and dynamites, which considerably generated occupational and environmental health concerns.

In financial year 1935, DuPont Corporation therefore proposed and set up the Haskell manufacturing medication, ecological, and toxicological lab in order to enlarge the scientific and technological statuses.

Regarding environmental matters, DuPont Corp created reputation for initially adopting the high-tech ecological practices (MacLean 16). The DuPont Corporation for instance, was amongst the initial adopters of the prescribed 1971 SHE policies besides creating the official SHE deputy president rank in the fiscal 1989.

We will write a custom Case Study on DuPont Environmental Corporation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Whereas the SHE administration systems assumed by DuPont Corp were known and saleable, the corporate structure for this corporation appeared to be somewhat characteristic of the big companies that existed in those periods. In fact, the DuPont corporate groups comprised of the environmental, occupational health, safety, and medical directors as well as trade level and small supporting personnel, including the entrenched plants consultants. From 1980s to early 1990s, DuPont Corp utilized the dispersed formation of safety, health, and environmental structures to keep the general trade philosophies.

DuPont Corp experienced the key reformation in the fiscal 1993 when twenty-three extremely independent, but planned trade entities substituted the five key commerce units. The number of DuPont Corp workers was reduced by one third while other organizational units namely the IT, finance, EHS, and HR had to be commercial service sources (Winkler 37). DuPont was primarily staffed with SHE commercial entities, but the company expanded to incorporate specialists employed from the external sources.

The manufacturing and production sectors reinstated the departmental units in the financial year 1996 yet the management clues were to be given by the deputy leaders. The groups functioned founded on the placed orders, although independent planned commercial units issued or settled the incurred total expenses.

DuPont Corp equally incorporated additional minute factions such as the original commercial units, which concentrated on control and peripheral ecological affair topics besides catering for the outstanding outlays. DuPont Corp stipulates the sustainable ecological development topic as well as the zilch green flaws aims and reputation beliefs.

DuPont Environmental protection Research Findings

DuPont Corporation brings outstanding engineering and science to the universal markets via groundbreaking services, materials, as well as products. For over two hundred years, DuPont Corp has built environmental legacy through cooperating with various organizations in tackling the unprecedented environmental protection, safety, energy, and food challenges that presently face the globe.

DuPont Corp works jointly with world leaders, NGOs, governments, and clients in discovering the current toughest environmental challenges and their respective solutions. In fact, DuPont Corporation protects the environment and people, reduces over-reliance on fossil energy, and offers adequate healthy foodstuff to all groups across the globe (Bradley and O’Neal 6).

Given the situation of the global environment, DuPont strategies intended to protect worldwide niche was rather imprudent as the corporation intended to shun the ensuing penalties and comply with the environmental regulations. For instance, DuPont Corp established the corporate environmentalism strategy in the earlier years that compelled the company to accomplish the expectations of the community and not merely to meet the law provisions.

DuPont Corporation environmental managers and operators are obliged to share and learn the emerging environmental issues athwart departments. This corporation usually meets with community members, environmentalists, and regulators to deliberate on the novel ecological protection strategies (Nohria et al. 42).

Not sure if you can write a paper on DuPont Environmental Corporation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to tackle various environmental and economic challenges currently encountered, DuPont Corporation welcomes practical measures and inventive thoughts from individuals and employees who are concerned. The company constructed the DuPont Corporation Chamber Works meant to enhance the regulatory procedures and design supple and smarter control systems.

DuPont works closely with the environmental protection department and EPA to ensure that unsafe wastes are neutralized and properly discharged to avoid environmental pollution and degradations (Bradley and O’Neal 7). To realize these goals, DuPont Corporation has structured its environmental, safety, and health sectors to cater for various environmental protection needs.

The environmental safety commitment

The culture of safety has a superseding effect on environmental issues according to DuPont Corporation ecological management. The influence is in regard to how matters of control, exterior affairs, and strategies are addressed. However, few corporations have made this changeover despite the fact that several other environmental companies initially exhibit safety measures as their core values.

The dedication to the ecological wellbeing at DuPont Corporation ensues due to the existing board’s policies entrenched in the individual ideals, each day’s predicaments, as well as yearly zest.

In fact, all these approaches are the sets of environmental symptoms that affect a number of ecological companies these days (MacLean and Nalinakumari 120). Hence, quite countless corporations find this prod unreservedly pervasive when pursuing and implementing environmental protection measures.

Conversely, environmental safety is part of the DNA composition in the DuPont Company operations. Foreigners draw the environmental safety training observation program into attention when considering the origin of DuPont environmental protection triumph. Conversely, in the direction of environmental safety there is completely no-nonsense policy as understood by DuPont Corporation workers.

This generates a milieu bordering the unswerving uncertainties in missing the numbers as is evidenced in other environmental protection corporations (Yang and MacLean 14).

The inferences of DuPont’s Organizational culture

Initially, extra tasks carried out by an individual employee and the SHE greater concerns about ecological possession led to the expansion of the size of SHE corporate staff. In order to look after issues relating to environmental control and compliances only few individuals were required by this company. Secondly, the shared environmental service administrations could probably fail in case they did not meet the consumers’ quality demands.

However, the shared service administration remained prosperous, given that specialists manned them. Moreover, the improvement in the environmental protection communication and cooperation augmented when employees were encouraged to work. Workforces are required to undertake ecological issues that receive the slightest interest of the managers as well as the shared value.

Lastly, the department of SHE does not turn into a dumping place for the non-performing labor force and this is quoted in the DuPont business customs. Such situation causes adverse influences on the SHE capability to manage the environment (MacLean 19).

Potential drawbacks at DuPont

The company’s non-deliberate consequences emerge from the focus based on the safety, health, and environmental issues. DuPont latterly had voluntary and inner company perflurooctanoic acid threshold that was established below the risk-based rules. This made the corporation to be perceived to be violating the environmental regulations stipulated under the Toxic Substances Control bylaw.

Sometimes business executives use instances such as the PFOA controversy to resource their commercial accomplishments. Such corporations employ such examples to streamline and shun going further than the environmental compliance bylaws. The controversy like that of perflurooctanoic acid is extensively enclosed in the Environmental Protection and Quality Management bylaws (Bradley and O’Neal 12).

Finding the right balance

In the determination of every company’s business objectives and culture, it is necessary to find the right sense of balance. The corporation gives an impression of achieving high-performance level that offers quantifiable environmental protection proceeds. Through piling the devoted EHS resources, DuPont environmental protection level could be reached by other dedicated ecological corporations (Winkler 42).

The contemporary reorganization

DuPont readjusted the undertaken businesses into five platforms and retailed Conoco in the fiscal 1999. This envisioned a reflection of the fresh farming, dietary, communication, and electronic business ventures. Hitherto, each organizational personnel was defined to be economically viable. Besides, the SHE distinction commercial hub had developed and employed not more than forty workers. These employees focused on ecological control, policies formulations and discharge, and peripheral green affairs.

Actually, the workers are remunerated by the business found in their small core factions (Chandler and Salsbury 34). The bigger amenities had almost twenty ecological professionals. The environmental plants are classical and have six implanted SHE connoisseurs compensated by the sites where the experts work. In fact, the SHE experts exist in the business units to back various environmental protection sites inside the corporations.

The corporation’s reorganization originated from a number of events and issues, among them the superannuation of Tebo Paul over the past years. DuPont environmental protection team grew in the face of SHE Corporation and other minor experts. At present, the lineup comprises of fifteen affiliates as it was rationalized to reveal the 5 podiums of commerce.

Definitely, the allotment of business prospects was limited despite the fact that specialized regional SHE resources inside the SBUs advanced (Karan and MacLean 67). Thus, the repositioning of various SHE consultants often materialized inside the distinctive ecological, protection and health organization.

The remediation of SHE services was not affected given that the services were located in the original regional administrative centers. Actually, the engineers oversee services even though they remain in the ecological fortification services. The product stewardship is in receipt of the augmented scrutiny at the time of recent recognition when the issue of perflurooctanoic acid was developing.

With the purpose of enhancing fine ecological control, a sophisticated artifact stewardship board became molded. Moreover, an establishment of the networks and a direction-finding team made certain the harmonization of environmental protection technical allotment and the growth of the strategy (MacLean 12).

The issue of perflurooctanoic acid

DuPont’s position of deputy head has been filled within the premises. Contrariwise, the outside hiring of Linder Fisher echoed the wish of seeking for the fresh planned views. Fisher has distanced herself from interfering with any individual at EPA in regard to the issue of perflurooctanoic acid (Winkler 37). The background of Linder armors the specified position at DuPont on this subject.

Fisher’s background work at EPA when compared with the present day situation is much far-reaching. Linder carried out various duties on the biotechnical issues that are tactically pertinent to the DuPont’s day-to-day ecological operations.

Splitting of EHS functions

Operational firefighting is dominant in countless corporate civil services. Splitting the functions of SHE enable the company to evade the difficulty of a solitary leader over engagement in the daily operations. In essence, the split could generate latent glitches clashing with the synchronization of the SHE aims.

Thus, DuPont Corporation employs a range of set-ups, lineups, and commissions in the ecological administration and protection strategy (Bradley and O’Neal 4).

The DuPont’s decentralized and centralized resources

There is need to avoid the difficulties that companies run into when they go to dissipations of centralization and decentralization. Despite the fact that the centralized resources offer economies of scale, the site implanted and local-rheostat resources are essential to accomplish the responsibility and possession (D’Alessandro 1). Interestingly, DuPont reorganization stripped resources out of the trade level factions and made them obtainable to a wider client base.

DuPont accomplished the ecological protection goals through ensuring that the corporate group hardly reports as employee functions but as operators. Secondly, the corporation handpicked and permitted five frontrunners of the SHE platform to remain inside the enterprises and report to their own managers.

Conversely, DuPont never placed the site-embedded resources into use. Indeed, several dimensions ascend from the systems for changing the cost allocation of SHE quality center. To encourage larger environmental performance, DuPont has a set-up of internal service groups that are on demand and operate like outside consultants.

The comprehensive allocation systems favor and allow the under-performing environmental workforces to continue in service. However, the environmental scheme can save costs related to categorization.

Subsequent to the provision of group determination, a number of shared service factions have moved in the direction of the environmental allocation technique. DuPont is following this tendency as it appears. In recent times, certain corporations have relocated their environmental auditing services (MacLean 16).

Their ecological audit range within financial audit services to the impartial protuberant groups. In general, the environmental culture of DuPont is in support of ecological protection. Thus, DuPont has more disseminated ecological protection services managed by the audit program director, regional networks, and corporate teams.

Conclusion Various topical researches investigated the attributes of environmental corporations that generated sustainable and high fiscal performances. The study outcomes revealed that the environmental organizational matters significantly contributed to such positive results.

However, it is apparent that hardly any specific organizational structure will exclusively define the best environmental corporation. The following study outcomes outlines some of the attributes deemed imperative for an environmental organization like the DuPont Corp.

Streamlined environmental regulations and rules

Attention to the environmental personnel strategic direction, roles, and competencies

Trimmed environmental management layers and shunning hierarchies

Environmental cultural discipline, responsibilities and freedom within the instituted frameworks

Improved degrees in sharing environmental technology information

Whereas hardly any environmental organization structures characterize triumph, the best environmental corporations assume structured blends including matrixes, decentralized and centralized to realize the business, environmental, safety, and health objectives at minimal costs. DuPont Corporation is amongst the environmental organizations that have realized such ecological protection and performance blends.

However, the environmental model blend adopted by DuPont Corp may not be suitable for all other ecological companies though cultural discipline is necessary. DuPont Corporation has environmental checkers and auditing staffs responsible for monitoring and maintaining the safety, environmental and health standards. The company ensures the SHE objectives are accomplished by employing the right staffs intended to protect the environment.

Most environmental organizations have the culture of maintaining the underperforming employees and are not eager to restructure the SHE departments. In fact, such environmental organizations tend to concentrate on personnel headcount standards without comprehending the impacts of the emerging environmental, health, safety, legacy, and regulatory issues.

Despite not mentioning and detailing all factors that must be taken into account when reorganizing the SHE divisions, this research report highlights the spot on choices that DuPont Corp adopted to ensure environmental as well as personnel health and safety protection.

The case study research report is important given that it highlights the DuPont Corp devotion to safety, the implications of DuPont organizational culture namely the advantages and prospective drawbacks, the SHE departments restructuring, as well as the right balance.

Works Cited Bradley, Martin, and O’Neal, Elizabeth. “DuPont Chambers Works.” Chemical Engineering, 104.11(1997): EC-14. Print.

Chandler, Alfred, and Salsbury, Stephen. Pierre S. DuPont and the Making of the Modern Corporation. Frederick, MD: Beard Books, 2000. Print.

D’Alessandro, Wilson. “DuPont Stands and Fights for its Cause.” Cross-Lands Bulletin, Amherst, NH: Victor House News, 2004. Print.

Karan, Elizabeth, and MacLean Richard. “Corporate Environmental Organizations: Evolving Business Management Strategies and Corporate Environmental Strategy,” International Journal of Corporate Sustainability, 10.8(2003): 2-153. Print.

MacLean, Richard and Nalinakumari, Brijesh. “The New Rule Makers: The Paradigm Shift in Environmental, Health, Safety, and Social Responsibility “Regulations” Now Underway. Corporate Environmental Strategy.” International Journal for Sustainable Business, 11.8(2004): 2-198. Print.

MacLean, Richard. “Superior Environmental, Health, and Safety Performance: What is it?” Environmental Quality Management, 13.2(2003): 13-20. Print.

MacLean, Richard. “Better Bench-Marking: How to Derive More Value and Insight in a Survey Weary World.” Environmental Protection, 15.7(2004): 12-14. Print.

Nohria, Nitin, Joyce, William,


Women Liberation during the Socialist Era Research Paper custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction


Historical Background

Analysis of the scenes in film and ballet version

Gender norms at the time

Women and Masculinity

Women soldiers under political influence


Works Cited

Introduction This lecture is a close examination of women liberation during the Cultural Revolution in China. Despite the great suppression that women were subjected to, they stood up against all odds to defend their rights. Rising from the lows of an abused slave, Wu Qiong Hua showed a great spirit of a soldier.

She had a strong will to stand up for her rights and that will led her into joining the army and finally became an army leader. She had a great personality and great determination to fight for what was right.

Considering the male dominated society and era that Wu Qiong Hua lived in, it is hard to imagine the feat she was able to accomplish. She was more than a fighter; she had the personality to fight women suppression.

Thesis Women in China had been chained up by the traditional feminine role for thousands of years. They were coerced to obey the three obedience and four virtues. Mao introduced a new perspective of viewing women thus redefining the woman theory in a more liberal perspective.

This was during the Cultural Revolution and women gracefully enjoyed a new status they had never experienced before. The new era in womanhood witnessed deep transformations spanning from the external appearance to the internal perceptions which had been deep seated during the class struggle era.

The woman soldier is squarely a product of the actions of Mao, and thus of the socialist China. She is a witness and a proof of the transformation that took place during the socialist era. Women of this era were the contradictory mixture. They were the modifiers and were also the ones that were modified.

The Red Detachment of Women, both in 1961 film version and 1964 ballet version, presented the enormous transformation of the female figure and their social status during the era of socialist China. The Red Detachment of Women, which had been assumed as the “model work” in Cultural Revolution, also reflects the life, politic, ideology and social values at the time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Historical Background The pre-socialist era was oppressive towards women. There were very many oppressive practices that the society embraced and which greatly burdened women. Fulton discusses these practices in great details. The first practice she highlights is that of foot-binding.

This is an eleventh century practice introduced to the society by the wealthy class. Foot binding was very painful, but unfortunately very significant because it determined whether a woman could get married or not. This practice started at a very tender age of three years (Fulton 35).

Another way that women were oppressed was in the manner in which the society allowed men to relate to them. Wives were treated with a lot off disrespect. A wife was a subject to the family she was married to.

She did not have any powers but always had to be submissive to the family of her husband. Women also fostered oppression against themselves. A first wife had more power than the other wives and using this power she could cruelly treat the other wives.

Concubines were used by men for sexual pleasure as well as for children siring. Wives had more power than concubines and as result concubines were also cruelly treated by wives. If a wife was barren she could take the children of a concubine.

If a husband died, his wife took charge of the concubines and would do anything with them including selling them to a brothel. Prostitution was even worse. There were times when peasants resorted to sell their girls to prostitution (Fulton 35).

On the question of women liberation from the above snapshot, Mao did a revolutionary work. Laws were instituted that gave protection to women, and consequently gave then a leeway from oppression. One such law was the right to get a divorce.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Women Liberation during the Socialist Era specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A wife could request for a divorce from her husband. This gave a great chance for wives to divorce husbands who abused them. Foot binding was also becoming a past act by 1949 as result of intentional advances by Mao to liberate women.

Arranged marriages were banned – men and women had to choose each other for marriage. This gave great freedom to women to settle into marriage with men they were comfortable with. Marriage contracts and associated sales were also banned. This gave some dignity to women not to be viewed as goods for sale.

Prostitution was outlawed and concubines were freed. A federation was started, Women’s Federation, to better the status of women in the society. Women were encouraged to join schools and the workforce (Fulton 35).

Analysis of the scenes in film and ballet version Both the film and ballet version of The Red Detachment of Women reflects the status of women during the pre-socialist era. Wu Qiong Hua best illustrates this as she moves from being a slave into being a woman soldier. At the start of the film and the ballet, we get introduced to a slave girl who has been trying to escape from abuse in vain.

She is subjected to beatings and torture every time she tries to escape. It seems she cannot do anything to free herself. The implication that is shed as at this level is that women were oppressed by forces above them and which they could not control (Xie 1).

This was a true depiction of the events of the time because women were always under the control of their husbands and their mothers in law and if they were not married they were under their fathers’ and mothers’ control. As already discussed above, there was a time when families could sell their girls to get cash for food.

Fulton also notes that at this time, food was so scarce that parents had to choose among the children who was to eat and who to starve and more often than not girls were forced to go hungry (Fulton 36).

The statement is simple, girls/women had nowhere to escape to for freedom whether they were married or not; oppression was right on their necks. This is exactly what is depicted at the opening moments of the film and ballet versions (Xie 1).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Women Liberation during the Socialist Era by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is worth noting that it is only the initial moments of the film and ballet versions that represent the status of women in the pre-socialist era. The depiction is that women were completely hopeless and they had nowhere to run.

When Changqing gets attracted to the situation of Wu Qiong Hua, this marks the beginning of the desire by the Communist Party to liberate women and the whole of China indeed from oppression.

The director used music and light to show the situation between good (socialist era) and bad (pre-socialist era). Changqing represents the good side which is bent on helping Wu Qiong Hua from the oppressive side Nan Batian (Xie 1).

Gender norms at the time During the socialist era, women experienced great changes in their societal status. One change which greatly changed the position of women in the society was the increase in their duties and especially the things they could do.

Women were allowed to join the labor force in the factories. They learned how to run the factories. They were also allowed to go to school and gain academic competency.

The call for education was even among the peasants and thus generally women gained education, and consequently were more informed.

Education and empowerment from gains earned by joining the workforce raised women to a new level confidence; women gained some sort of independence which gave them some self-confidence. With this sort of confidence and the backup of the law, women were empowered to bargain even at the household level (Fulton 37).

The role of the Women’s Federation cannot be assumed. This organization worked hard to see that women were given an opportunity to progress in the society. Some of the functions that the federation undertook was closing down of brothels and ensuring that all concubines were freed.

The federation organized for the employment of women and did all it could to ensure that those who wanted to join school did that. Women were also informed of their rights concerning the various issues which touched their lives such as being married against their wish (Fulton 37).

The empowerment of women did one great thing – it reduced the gender gap which had existed before. Women were no longer viewed as doormats but were accorded some respect. The mixture of women and men in the workplace made it possible for the notion of male gender superiority to melt.

This era therefore uplifted the female gender, and as a result helped to wither masculinity dominance in the society. In other words, this time helped greatly in fostering equality. There was a great change in ideology on the role of women in the society. The society was turned round to respect and support women whom they had so much scorned.

Women and Masculinity Despite the stated above facts that the status of women changed under the socialist era, some critics have observed that the change in gender roles and the uplifting of women status was not as high as it has been said to be. According to Evans, women still played the roles of taking care of their families especially children.

She argues that the fact that women were allowed to enter the workforce did not mean they neglected their primary role of taking care of their children, husbands and often parents-in-law. This was their customary domestic division of tasks (Evans 1).

It is further noted that there was a violation of very basic issues that relate to women. The manner in which they were integrated into the workforce left much to be desired. The phrase “Whatever men can do, women can do too” was popularized in China at this time. Unfortunately, this led to rendering women masculine. Women were pushed into being like men – some sources refer to women of this age as ‘iron girls’ (Wang 136).

For instance, they to wear the same uniforms as men and they made to appear as men. Men were being used as the yardstick for evaluating women (Li 1). This meant that women were losing their womanhood and were being transformed to be like me. This was degrading to women.

Women soldiers under political influence As already noted above, women gained from the recognition they received from the political sector during the socialist era. It has been noted that the Communist Party had the interest of liberating women way before it was in power. This desire started among the founders of the party before it was even formed.

As time progressed, much development unfolded and led to including women in the movement of the party after it was formed. Women issues were discussed in the first, second and third congress of the party back in 1923 (Evans 1).

When the communist Party ascended to power, it had a clear picture of the need to liberate women. This is because women liberation was an issue which had been discussed at length way from the very beginning of the formation of the party.

However, Evans argues that women liberation and politics, especially party politics, have been mixed up in issues to do with the definition of some terms.

It has further been argued that depending on a term picked, the definition and perspective of liberation would take a different course. It is noted that the term given to liberation of women could change in definition depending on the party priorities (Xie, Lily, and Barry 1).

Conclusion To conclude this lecture, we must note that the study of Chinese women warriors is very important. This is because they have made an important contribution in history of China. They stood up against barbaric traditions and fought their way to freedom.

They therefore made a great contribution to the progress of the reformation of China. Asian women warriors in general have also made great contribution to their specific homelands in ensuring women rights are uplifted.

The studies of women warriors in general therefore help us to appreciate the vital role that women play in the society to ensure that all society members are treated equally.

Works Cited Evans, Harriet. “The Language of Liberation: Gender and Jiefang in early Chinese Communist Party.” Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context 1 (1998): 1. Print.

Fulton, Jessica. Holding up Half the Heavens: The Effect of Communist Rule on China’s Women. Class Article, 2013. Print.

Li, Yuhui. “Women’s Movement and Change of Women’s Status in China.” Bridge, 2013. Web.

Wang, Zheng. “Maoism, Feminism, and the UN Conference On Women: Women’s Studies Research In Contemporary China.” Journal of Women’s History 8.4 (1997): 126. Print.

Xie, Bingying, Lily C. Brissman, and Barry Brissman. A Woman Soldier’s Own Story: The Autobiography of Xie Bingying. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. Print.

Xie, Jin. The Red Detachment of Women. Shanghai Tianma Film Studio production, 1961. Film.


Leadership aspect at Chris company Case Study cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Many descriptions for leadership exist in the present society but a general explanation for this concept means a process in which a person leads while others follow. A leader ensures the organization of his team to achieve certain goals.

Some of these goals include profit maximization, increase sales volume, and improve customer satisfaction as well as employee satisfaction. A myriad group of leaders prevail from the industrial to the domesticated level and they comprise the following entities:

Charismatic, democratic and autocratic leaders are just a few types of leaders. The democratic leadership style is seen to be the widely applied leadership style.

Notably, no company endeavored into the sports equipment business except Chris Company thus an advantage on its side.

However, the rising levels of competitors in the same market pose as an enormous competition for Chris Company. Alternatively, the fact that the competitors are producing low quality products is an opportunity and an advantage to the company.

In an attempt to restore confidence and trust in the organization, the CEO should first disband the whole finance team and employ a new CFO. The management should transfer all employees in the department to other departments within the organization in order to ensure productivity.

The departments incorporate logistics, the sales department as well as the human resource sector. The CEO should also ensure that there is an assurance department in the organization responsible for auditing all the departments.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lack of an assurance department raises tension within the employability realm hence calling for the creation of one. The employment of a new CFO will eventually restore confidence and trust in the organization.

Chris Company is the single group manufacturing the sports equipment hence posing as an advantage to it. In order to take advantage of the popularity of the sport, Chris Company needs to improve its marketing plan.

This means that Chris Company will have to increase its advertising campaigns whilst basing this to quality assurance and efficiency in production. In addition, Chris Company should also hire sales representatives responsible for promoting it products in various parts of the world.

In accumulation to the above, the sales representatives should ensure that they attend the Olympic Games to market the equipment and to learn better IMC techniques. This will not only increase the popularity of the company but increase the sales and eventually the profits.

Marketing parse is not the only channel to success rather the CEO should also look for alternative means to finance its working capital. After remaining with an operating capital of 70%, the company requires more finances to reach the 100% mark of the operating capital.

The management and leadership process is in a continuum and the CEO should give directions to the HR department to increase the workforce in the factory. This means that the requisite labor force should have the capacity to work efficiently in a cost effective manner in order to reduce the work backlog and increase profits.

In designing a plan in order to stay at the top of the market, all departments will need representation. The CEO should ensure a strategic plan formulation and ensure that all departments take part in this process. From an overview of the organizational structure, it desires a restructure.

We will write a custom Case Study on Leadership aspect at Chris company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This necessitates the inclusion of new departments within the same structure to make it robust but manageable. The most appropriate departments for inclusion engross the audit and assurance department as well as the procurement department.

Finally, the plan should ensure that each department is functional and relevant. As such, they should create targets that the management reviews periodically depending on the different strengths they possess including finances and the social structures.

In conclusion, leadership in management especially during the formulation of a new company is extremely important. This is because it has the team building capacity that fosters the need for unity and making rational decisions through popular participation and liaison.


George Fitzhugh’s Classical Conservative Arguments Essay (Critical Writing) writing essay help

Cannibal All was published and was received with a lot of contempt from the North. Its publication was at a time when the abolitionist theory on slavery was at full roll. The conflict between conservatives and the abolitionist was at its peak.

George Fitzhugh was true radical crusader of the continuation of slavery. His attack on abolition of slavery was fierce and stinging in many respects. He particularly hated the concept of a free society, leisser-faire economy and the organized wage slavery.

The first classical conservatism argument placed by George Fitzhugh was the idea that no man is ever free. That slavery is the only constant. That we are always a slave to some degree and all that we may do is simply to be able to choose which type of slavery.

In his opinion the slavery of the South provided the best alternative. At least the slavery as practiced by the South, encouraged the care and love of the slaves by their masters. The masters provided for their protection safety and family wellbeing.

On the other hand according to George Fitzhugh, the Free State being advocated by the North was tantamount to a form of slavery in which the slave owners have no moral obligation for their slaves (Dolbeare