Table of Contents Issue addressed in the article
Economic model used to study the issue
Advantages of using the models
Data used in the article
Statistical test applied in the models
Summary of the conclusions
Issue addressed in the article According to the article under consideration, increase in price of cigarettes can positively or negatively affect the rate of smoking among the youth. Imposing high taxes on tobacco increases the price of cigarettes. Consequently, this will reduce the rate of smoking among the youth.
The issue is vital as it addresses a problem that affects a number of young people across the world. Over the past years, the rate of smoking among the twelfth grade students has been steadily increasing.
Economic model used to study the issue Economic model of an individual’s behavior in the article studies the effect of increasing cigarette tax on smokers. According to this model, consumers make decisions by evaluating the alleged marginal benefits against alleged marginal costs.
Additionally, financial cost of cigarette plays a trivial part in the choices made by youth who smoke. According to theoretical economic model, the rate of smoking among the youth does not depend on the price of cigarettes. Consequently, this makes their demand flexible.
Advantages of using the models The models discussed above are more superior to earlier models since they validate quantitative predictions and translate them into accurate numerical outcomes. For instance, theoretical models of consumer behavior imply a constructive association between expenditure and income.
In addition, they contain numerical equations that illustrate an assumption of economic behavior. The models are easy to interpret compared to the earlier models. For instance, imposing high taxes on cigarettes causes the price increase. As a result, many smokers will reduce their rate of smoking.
Data used in the article Cross-sectional and longitudinal data used in the article serve to look at how increased tax on tobacco negatively or positively affects the rate of smoking among the youth. Moreover, longitudinal data provides relevant information regarding the eighth grade students and the rate at which they smoke.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the models, the collected data should be translated into three different cross sections. Empirical model examines the onset of smoking by considering the number of the eighth grade students who are not smoking.
Statistical test applied in the models To test the models, the percentage increase in smoking among the youth should be compared with percentage decrease. Moreover, the test should be conducted after increasing taxes on cigarettes. From the results, conclusions regarding the effect of increasing cigarette prices on the rate of smoking should be made.
Summary of the conclusions Previous statistics shows that price flexibility has not contributed to the reduced or increased rate of smoking among the youth. Nonetheless, the results ignore the notion that the current rate of smoking should be related to the previous decision to start smoking. According to statistics, increased rate of cigarette taxation does not affect the onset of smoking.
The conclusions are not only made from statistics, but also the prevalence of a number of evidences provided. A number of high school students could still smoke despite increasing the price of cigarettes. Additionally, high rate of smoking among the youth comes as a result of peer influence, but not the price of cigarettes.
According to results reported in the article, learners who quit their studies tend to smoke for a longer time before dropping it. Additionally, students who perform poorly in their exams also tend to smoke more that those performing well.
Media Change Triggering Social and Cultural Change – Foundations, Thinkers, Ideas Essay scholarship essay help
Living in the XXI century means being ready to the most drastic changes within the social, economical of financial sphere within the shortest amounts of time.
However, it is important to realize that the change in media also allows for more opportunities for economical, social and cultural development. A fresh look at the changes that media triggers will help define its purpose and possibly define the pattern of future changes that new media will trigger in society.
To embrace the significance of the problem, it is necessary to define such phenomena as change, media, culture and society. While change is a relatively easy concept that presupposes certain progress/regress, i.e., improvements or, on the contrary, deterioration, media is a more complex issue to define.
Typically considered a means to convey certain piece of information, media comes in large varieties, starting from print media, e.g., newspapers and magazines, up to online media, e.g., YouTube channels (visual media) or social networks, such as Facebook.
As for culture, it can be defined as the ways in which the people of a specific nation envision the world around them. Finally, society is a group of people who are related to each other in some aspect (e.g., social, economical, political, or all of the above-mentioned) and form an entity.
With that in mind, the impact of media on society becomes more obvious. A change in media, which practically means establishing a new and more progressive way of delivering certain information from one member of the society to another one, triggers a social change.
Every member of society starts treating information as something extremely accessible and, therefore, tends to consume information in large portions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, media, culture, society and technology spur each other; as long as there are new technological inventions, there will be new forms of media, which will enhance the consumption of information and, thus, change the society gradually. Thus, the assemblage of culture, society, information and technology is formed.
It is also important to differentiate between technology, technique and technical systems. While technique is a manner in which the technological advances progress, technology is the sum of progressive knowledge concerning certain technical aspects, e.g., machinery, information, etc., and the ability to apply this knowledge to practice. In their turn, technical systems represent the sum of the existing technologies.
No matter how sweet and enthralling the word “progress” might sound, a new step forward brings certain threats closer. For instance, in the present-day world with its technological advances, it can be expected that new forms of media will make people plunge into the joys of virtual reality forgetting about real life.
Supported by a number of theories, such as the ones developed by William Bogard, Bruno Latour and Brian Massumi, the idea of introducing media as a part and parcel of virtual reality is becoming increasingly more popular (Foundations. Thinkers and ideas).
Therefore, it is clear that media is not a monster that shapes the lives of people the way it wants to ruin them later on; on the contrary, the use of media defines the future of business, entertainment, social life and art.
Using new technologies wisely and not allowing them to turn into a thing in itself, people can possibly expect that the recently created media serves peaceful purposes and even offers certain means to correct the flaws of society, e.g., help the people from different corners of the world communicate. When used responsibly, new media opens a whole new world to the humankind.
Works Cited Foundations. Thinkers and ideas 2013. PDF file. 28 March 2013. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on Media Change Triggering Social and Cultural Change – Foundations, Thinkers, Ideas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
The Critical Journal: Scotts’s “The Onondaga Madonna” and Veracini’s “Settler Colonialism and Decolonization” Essay (Critical Writing) best essay help: best essay help
The problem of vanishing Indians at the territories of the North America does not lose its urgent character and remains to be one of the most controversial questions in relation to the concepts of settler colonialism and decolonization.
To analyze the situation from the modern perspective and relate to the historical context, it is necessary to concentrate on the poem “The Onondaga Madonna” by Duncan Campbell Scott written in 1898 and on the research article “Settler Colonialism and Decolonization” by Lorenzo Veracini written in 2007.
These two works are helpful to discuss the issue of vanishing Indians in North America from several points of view. In spite of the fact the poem and the article provide contrasting approaches to discussing the question related to different periods of time, these works are important to conclude about the current situation and complex picture regarding the issue.
In his poem “The Onondaga Madonna”, Scott presents the image of the Onondaga woman who is described according to the widespread opinions on the Indians. Thus, this woman is “of a weird and waning race” who has the “tragic savage” in her face, and she behaves according to “her pagan passion” (Scott).
Portraying the woman as belonging to the rebellion and violent nation, Scott stresses on the opposition between the civilized and religious Christian world of the Westerners and the pagan and violent world of the Indians. From this point, the usage of the image of Madonna is rather ironical and draws the audience’s attention to the opposition between these two worlds.
Following the structure of the Italian sonnet, Scott also describes the image of Madonna’s child. The Onondaga woman’s child is “paler than she” (Scott). Moreover, living at their “nation’s doom”, the child “will not rest” in the future (Scott). These details help understand Scott’s message that the nation of Onondaga people declines because of the assimilation processes, and children of the Onondaga women are paler than their parents.
There can also be further protests of the Indians against the situation because of their violent and “pagan” nature (Scott). Thus, according to Scott, assimilation and the process of vanishing the nation can be the only way for the Indians. This position is correlated with the situation in 1898.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The phenomenon of assimilation on which Scott hints in his poem is the characteristic feature of settler colonialism. Foreign nations settle at the territories of the native people to create mixed families and make the native people live according to the foreign nations’ laws. This process is also common for the North American territories and for the situation with the Indians.
Although settler colonialism and the process of decolonization are characterized for the second part of the nineteenth century and first part of the twentieth century, the consequences of these processes can be observed even today.
According to Veracini, settler colonialism and decolonization should be discussed and analyzed in their mutual connection. However, it is important to note that Veracini in his article pays more attention to the trends in discussing the problem in the literature than to the problem itself (Veracini).
Settler colonialism is the reflection of the idea that the definite nation is weird and lower in its position than the other developed nations, and it should be vanished with the help of assimilation. Decolonization is the process of rejecting the principles of settler colonialism.
Veracini states that these two processes are equally traumatic for the native people, and his vision is supported with references to the historiographical data (Veracini).
It is rather difficult to decolonize “settler colonial forms” that is why it is possible to suggest that even modern societies of the native people, including the North American territories, suffer from the misbalanced combination of definite “settler colonial forms”, consequences of decolonization, and accentuation of the native traditions in organization and development (Veracini).
The author pays attention to the fact that the processes of decolonization were not really stopped because settler polities were not replaced effectively, and it is necessary to return to the certain approaches used by the colonizers during the period of intensive settler colonialism (Veracini).
We will write a custom Critical Writing on The Critical Journal: Scotts’s “The Onondaga Madonna” and Veracini’s “Settler Colonialism and Decolonization” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Today, the North American territories are the home for the Canadians, Americans, and Indians. However, during a long period of time the Indians, belonging to different communities, were discussed as the pagan nation which should be assimilated by force in order to be civilized.
These visions are reflected in the poem written by Duncan Campbell Scott. In spite of the fact the era of colonization was ceased, it is possible to refer to the definite examples of colonization today. In his article, Lorenzo Veracini explains this fact with references to the idea of connection between the concepts of settler colonialism and decolonization.
These processes depend on each other significantly, preventing the territories from the complete decolonization. Veracini uses the evidences in relation to different nations, but his conclusions are also relevant for the discussion of the current situation in the North America where the outcomes of the processes are observed nowadays.
Works Cited Scott, Duncan Campbell. The Onondaga Madonna. n.d. Web.
Veracini, Lorenzo. Settler Colonialism and Decolonization. 2007. Web.
I need help writing a paper on cyber security. With the explosion of the Internet of Things (IoT) devices (including smart home and office appliances), a significant amount of data is being transmitte college admissions essay help
With the explosion of the Internet of Things (IoT) devices (including smart home and office appliances), a significant amount of data is being transmitted to and stored on the cloud. In addition to malicious activity, data stored in the cloud can be lost due to accidental deletion or a physical catastrophe, such as a fire or earthquake, and lead to the permanent loss of customer data. In 8-10 pages (double spaced, font 12, including graphics and references as appropriate using APA formatting), highlight the most-recent top 10 cybersecurity risks to data that is processed on, stored on, and/or transmitted through the cloud. Address the following for each: What is the impact (financial and otherwise) of each risk? What is the best mitigation strategy to address each risk?
What does Heilbroner mean in advocating a ‘soft’ form of technological determinism? Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Technological determinism is a theory that assumes that technology drives the cultural and social development in society. Heilbroner believed that the interactions between technology and the sociopolitical status of a society are passive. He held that technology affects how societal evolution takes place. However, the society still has a chance to adjust the effects of technology in the evolutionary history (Heilbroner, 1994).
Technological development assumes a certain sequence. This sequence is ordered in such a way that a more advanced form of technology precedes a simpler version of the same technology (Heilbroner, 1994).
The hand mill had to be invented and used before advancing to the steam mill. Therefore, technological advancements are usually propelled by societal advancements and increased pressure that require enhanced efficiency in order to sustain humanity.
Technological discoveries often follow a systematic accumulation of knowledge (Heilbroner, 1994). It is not an accidental or abrupt process. Furthermore, all available technological discoveries are based on the advancement of previous crude forms of the technology. There is no new technology that has arisen without continued scientific understanding of a given phenomenon.
Moreover, technological advancements have always been predictable. Technology will never exceed the social conditions that exist in society. There is no way massive production of goods and services can exist without a large consumer market for the finished products (Heilbroner, 1994).
Therefore, technology is a display of the knowledge and the understanding of scientific phenomenon in society. Technological advancements depend on the natural evolutionary forces.
As human beings become more intelligent, their ability to develop sophisticated machinery increases. Hence, technological development is a historical process that is controlled by capacity and knowledge (Heilbroner, 1994). It is therefore a predictable historical process.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Technology does not impose a determinate model of social affairs in society. In terms of labor, different technologies require various levels of labor forces. As technology advances, labor also experiences the same effect that eventually results into specialization. Hierarchical systems of organizations came into being as technology continued to advance.
Several orders of coordination and supervision were required for effective management of machines. This resulted into the development of more powerful individuals who were placed at the top management positions (Heilbroner, 1994). These are normal economic processes that are sometimes confused with the development of capitalism.
Technology was also available in the communism society as well. Naturally, human beings are developers of monopoly. Therefore, the technology never resulted into capitalism. It largely fueled the process (Heilbroner, 1994). Social political changes witnessed in the evolutionary history were not triggered by technology.
In fact, capitalism was one of the ways in which technological advancements were fueled. Competition between nations led to increase investments in technological advancements.
Technological advancement is primarily one of the major activities undertaken in society (Heilbroner, 1994). The society controls how technology is advancing.
Some African societies have managed to maintain what they achieved in the prehistoric times to present day. If technology was a determinant in the evolutionary process, then all the locations across the world could be at the same level. Therefore, the society controls the direction of technological changes (Heilbroner, 1994).
The fact that technology has shaped up the society cannot be ruled out. It is obvious that the current lifestyles are depended on technological advancements. However, from the above illustrations, it is true to say that technology is part of the evolutionary history of man and not the major determinant of the social, economical, and political changes in humanity.
We will write a custom Essay on What does Heilbroner mean in advocating a ‘soft’ form of technological determinism? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference Heilbroner, R.L. (1994). Do Machines Make History? (Eds). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Asian Financial Crisis Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Throughout 1970s and 1980s, Japan was considered to be a good example of the most vibrant and emerging economy in the world. In fact, the rate at which the economy of Japan was growing was quite alarming. Analysts argued that the nation was headed towards being the world’s largest economy.
Many scholars used Japanese economic growth as a case study to determine how emergent economies were headed towards replacing the western nations to global capitalisms (Metzler 657). However, within years, the situation in Japan took a completely new direction. Towards the end of 1980s, the Japanese economy experienced its first crisis.
The economic development in Japan, which was looked at as a good example of effective approach to economic and social development in 1970s and 1980s, abruptly started to face problems that affected the country for more than 20 years. First, the real estate bubble declined, followed by the banking sector.
Throughout 1990s, the country faced a prolonged economic recession triggered by a bubble burst in real estate and equity markets as well as an ensuring crisis in the banking system. To make matters worse, the East Asian economic crisis of 1997-2000 deepened the economy of a number of countries in the region, further affecting the situation in Japan.
It has been argued that if one needs to understand the inherent flaws and problems affecting the approach to economic and social development taken by nations in the East Asian region, it is important to consider the example of Japan and its long-standing economic crisis and the East Asian financial recession.
Analysts have argued that the inherent problem with the approach in the region, especially in Japan, was primarily due to much involvement of the government in guiding the free economy.
The long-term result of this, witnessed in Japan, is a saturation of the regional and global export market, distortion of market forces, excessive investment, excessive debt taking by companies and saturation of the regional and global export markets. In addition, policization and crony capitalism affect the decision making process.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, it has been argued that the situation in Japan was made worse by the approach taken by East Asian nations, including authoritarianism and environmental degradation. In fact, Japan is yet to recover from the crisis- 20 years since it experienced the first effect of a bursting bubble.
Arguably, the economic crisis in Japan and the East Asian region should provide enough proof that newly developing nations should be warned away from taking the same approach, lest they face the same problems faced by Japan and other nations in the region.
First, emerging and newly developing economics should take note of the situation in Japan prior to and during the economic crisis. In fiscal policy, the Japanese example shows a failed stimulus package initiative in addition to the less effective as a rationale for marking these packages.
It is worth noting that the fiscal stimulus, taken as an approach to economic development in Japan, had the desired economic effect in a country where the industrial development was the main force behind economic growth. However, this approach only worked as a substitute to the lending by banks and consumer spending, both of which were under depression.
Noteworthy, the Bank of Japan focused on “zero-rating” of interest as a monetary policy to aid development. It was argued that this was an attempt to “push a string” into the nation’s economic and social development. In the initial stages, the approach demonstrated its ability to strengthen the balance sheets of the Japanese banks.
The purpose was to aid the lending to recover as well as to aid the role of the deposit insurance corporation of Japan in helping to get rid of the toxicity of bank assets. Arguably, this approach could be an important initiative by the emerging and newly developing economies in the modern world, especially as they seek to steer economic growth through stimulus programs.
However, this approach made some deadly errors that would affect Japan in the coming decades. For instance, it encouraged the creation of “Zombie corporations”. These corporations were bankrupt, but the government loaning approach and other financial support kept them alive, despite having collapsed financially.
We will write a custom Essay on Asian Financial Crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This means that the government had to spend much of its resources in keeping these corporations alive at the expense of taxpayers and other socioeconomic projects. The rationale behind the creation of “Zombie” corporations was to ensure that the problems of nationalization and subsequent privatization of banks were dealt with and the problem of deflation was solved (Metzler 659).
The fact that Japanese government financed its fiscal stimuli through providing new debts is the major problem. This caused the government debt to increase by more than 167% of the GDP (Wade 32).
Clearly, these problems provide an indication that the stimulus program taken by Japan as an approach to stimulate growth is a failure. To the emerging and newly developing economies that seek to sustain economic growth through economic stimulus programs and government financing of corporate, the case of Japan should actually act as a warning (Metzler 657).
In the traditional setting, economic analysts have always perceived the causes of the Great Depression and the East Asian crisis in macroeconomic terms. The focus has especially been on the monetary as well as fiscal policies taken by Japan and other nations prior to, during and after the crisis.
By applying a balance sheet approach to the situation in Japan, the scholars have argued that the same problems that affected America and Europe during the recent depression are relatively applicable in determining the problems the Japanese economy is facing.
Therefore, it has been argued that the fiscal crisis in the Japanese economy generates massive losses in the national wealth. This wealth is specifically in terms of financial assets. According to Wade (4), it has an impact on the corporate and the households in a country because they tend to lay emphasis on efforts aimed at repairing their balance sheets.
On the other hand, households attempt to increase their savings rather than consumption. This is primarily because both firms and households do not seek to add more debt until they balance their debts and liabilities with lower asset levels. According to Wade (42), once the zero interest rate has been reached, it becomes possible to stabilize the balance sheet for corporations and households.
Since balance sheet crisis are long and recoveries eventually follow them after becoming feeble, it is clear that the situation in Japan did not take place because of the economic approach taken by the government. It was a result of a wide range of issues in both households and firms.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Asian Financial Crisis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This suggests that the argument that newly emerging and developing economies should be wary of taking the same steps undertaken by Japan as well as other nations in the East Asian region holds true. Otherwise, they face the same economic crisis these nations have faced over the last two decades.
On the other hand, this argument could be supported by an analysis of the origin and trend of Japanese economic crisis in the late 1980s. It is worth to mention that the crisis in Japan was first seen in two critical areas, they are the stock market and the real estate sectors. In case of Japan, the authorities erroneously flooded the market through liquidity.
This was actually an attempt to encourage businesses to cope with the rising value of the national currency against the international currencies. This created a number of business opportunities, which in turn encouraged businesses to invest in new capital in an attempt to increase their competitiveness on the international front.
However, it is clear that the authorities did not consider the impact of this approach on the stock market, real estate and foreign investments. In fact, investors failed to consider the risks involved. Owing to their quest to invest in a vibrant economy, investors made a mistake by investing in the Japanese market after failing to predict its future (Wade 27).
I disagree Despite the existence of evidence showing that that the crunch of the Japanese economy was fuelled by an excessive focus on reducing lending rates, focus on real estate and behavior of rogue banks, this does not mean that focus on reduced rates of lending is the overall cause of the problem. Arguably, developing nations should not consider the situation of Japan as a warning as they attain growth.
First, it is correct to argue that the principal cause of the problems facing the Japanese economy prior to and during the recession may have been the authoritarianism democracy that Japan assumed after the Second World War. Theoretically and practically, authoritarian democracy allows for a centralized concentration of power.
In the case of Japan, devolution of power was generally lacking, while a small group of leaders, especially the parliament and the executive, assumed political and economic powers. With this kind of economic system allowed the government to collaborate with commercial banks that were now running rogue.
For instance, the excessive funding of commercial banks by the government can be attributed to the authoritarian system that gave the government the absolute powers over the control of the national finances. Consequently, there were few institutions to control the government as well as the financial institutions.
The banks’ ability to concentrate on real estate was actually a product of this system, which eventually led to the credit crunch. Japanese banks focused more on lending in real estate, which was arguably insecure way of investing.
The bubble burst, leading to the long period of economic crisis in a country that was first thought to be the next world economic powerhouse. With this argument, it is clear that the problem the Japanese economy is facing was inherent to the economic approach taken by the government.
Secondly, the approach to solving the crisis was actually faulty, especially as far as the initiatives taken by both the government and the international monetary fund are concerned. For example, the Bank of Japan took too long to respond to the situation, especially by failing to control the rogue behavior of commercial banks that were heavily investing in real estates.
Moreover, the Bank of Japan was involved in bailing out a number of banks that were on the process of collapsing due to their rogue behavior. For instance, the bailout of Nippon Credit Bank and the Long Term Credit Bank of Japan received massive criticism from commercial experts, the media and the public in general.
Rather than investing in controlling the behaviors of banks, the Bank of Japan was involved in clearing their debts by bailing them, which implies that they were encouraged to continue with their rogue behaviors. From this perspective, it is clear that the problems facing Japanese financial sector at the time could be controlled, but the IMF and the Bank of Japan failed to act accordingly.
According to macroeconomic analysts, this argument could be rendered ineffective in determining the causes of economic growth, and may actually not provide a warning to the emergent and newly developing economies in the modern world.
For instance, scholars argue that the situation in Japan should not be attributed to the economic approach the government took in the 1970s and 1980s as argued by some. In fact, it is evident that the problem in Japan was a result of a number of inherent issues rather than the stimulus programs the government initiated.
It should not, therefore, act as a warning to the emergent nations (Metzler 660). For instance, scholars argue that the economy in Japan was suffering from a recession in balance sheet.
Thirdly, it is clear that manufacturing industry, in which the Japanese economy heavily relied, had been booming since 1970s. In fact, the overreliance on this sector proved risky when the banks started feeling the impact of the crisis.
Most industries were actually affected, making the crisis yield a similar effect on the entire economy. Developing economies do not have to operate under the Japanese model, especially because most of them do not rely on steel as the principal raw material.
It is also worth noting that capitalism was an important factor that influenced the credit crunch, but developing economies may not necessarily be affected as they are cautious when dealing with capitalism.
Works Cited Wade, Robert. “The Asian debt-and-development crisis of 1997-?: Causes and Consequences.” World Development, 2.3 (1998): 23-46. Print.
Metzler, Mark. “Japan: Toward a Financial History of Japan’s Long Stagnation, 1990–2003.” The Journal of Asian Studies, 67.2 (2008): 653–674. Print
African American Vernacular English Study Essay college essay help near me
African American Vernacular English (AAVE) belongs to one of the dialects in the English language. This linguistic variety is also called Vernacular Black English, Black Vernacular English, or African American English. The dialect is also known Ebonics outside the professional linguistics community.
AAVE is mostly spread in the United States and in the Caribbean region and premises on grammar, vocabulary, and structure peculiarities originating from West African and Vernacular English. The language dialect gains momentum in discussing social, historical, and political controversies.
The current debates relate specifically to the number of people speaking this language because there are no strict rules defining the fact that an individual makes use of the variety.
Some of the linguists are inclined to think that AAVE speakers should employ specific grammar structures whereas others believe that applying a combination of lexical, stylistic, and grammar peculiarities features the African American language-speaking group.
To define the origins and current characteristics of the African Vernacular language, analysis of historical perspective is required. The historic controversy particularly refers to the fact that AAVE developed beyond the interaction between West African groups and Vernacular English groups (Sidnell n. p.).
Within this perspective, West African speakers borrowed the English language structures while working on plantation in the southern regions, including South Caroline and Georgia. They learnt from small number of Native Americans, predominantly the indentured laborers.
There is also an assumption that these historical events led to the emergence of a rudimentary pidgin that later influenced the development of the Creole language (Sidnell n. p.). The second side of debate focuses on the scenario that suggests the development of contact language, an early version of African Vernacular English through the second language acquisition.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Under these circumstances, West Africans who migrated to plantations supposed to have a restricted access to genuine grammatical structures and models because the percentage of native speakers they communicated with was extremely law.
According to this hypothesis, the second language community might borrow English vocabulary garnered from rare encounters and adjust them to the grammatical pattern that existed in the dialects of West Africa. At this point, the theory of universal grammar would have had a potent impact in the above-described processes.
The above-presented assumption is not accepted by a number of scholars who insist that demographic conditions in the Caribbean and US regions differed much. As a result, these conditions required for development of Creole were never met.
The evidence illustrates that a number of similar features belong to those of AAVE. They can also be found in varies of UK and US English. Both hypotheses are partially reasonable and, therefore, it can be suggested that African Vernacular English developed through restructuring borrowed and native elements; at the same time, the language possesses distinctive features from older dialects of English.
A number of research studies have been dedicated to the analysis of phonology and pronunciation that influence the perception and understanding among speakers of both Africana and English ancestry.
In this respect, Treiman has presented the scientific analysis of devoicing that is heavily used by AAVE speakers to define whether it affects adults’ spelling, including African American and White speakers at college (338).
The scholar has chosen the words rigid and ballot that pronounced by the identified groups using their dialect variety (Treiman 338). It has been discovered that African Americans devoice the final /d/ at the end of the word rigid and they are more likely to confuse between /d/ and /t/ in comparison with White speakers.
We will write a custom Essay on African American Vernacular English Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, both groups mispronounce the sounds when spoken by African American teacher participating in the research rather than by native speaking teachers. As a result, the diverse phonological characteristics of AAVE and native speakers can create a number of challenges in terms of spelling the worlds.
The emphasis placed on phonology and syntax provides a wider picture on the issue. According to Treiman, “the degree of ambiguity in the spelling of a segmenrt may differ from one variety of English to another, resulting in dialect differences in spelling” (341). Such an assumption has social implications.
In particular, African Americans are reported to have lower level of literacy skills due to the extensive use of AAVE. Although the influence of dialect is implicit, specific features of AAVE can have a direct impact on spelling and reading (Treiman 342). Therefore, the social perspective of using the variety should not be underestimated.
Deeper examination of African American language traditions is closely associated with such social aspects as creating identities, stereotypes and prejudices, and power relations.
At this point, Ball and Lardner focus on “developing an appreciation for the power of language as …established positions of power and prestige through uses of “the word” in the African American rhetoric tradition” (11).
Therefore, the African American variety of English language refers not only to grammar and vocabulary attributes that make the differences, but also to social and cultural dimension they form in society.
Apart from social and historical controversies, African American variety of the English language influence educational sphere as well. The necessity to start exploring AAVE can help most teachers understand deviations that AAVE speakers resort while learning the Standard English language.
In fact, differences in speaking and pronouncing words are often disregarded in society until it comes to the classroom setting. Therefore, the significance of recognizing unique grammatical structures and forms that are used in communication is enormous.
Not sure if you can write a paper on African American Vernacular English Study by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, the verb be is frequently employed in African American vernacular speech to refer to a constantly repeating action. Such phrases as “He be early” or “He be late” denotes that a person used to coming early or late. Such peculiarity harbors many negative perceptions and responses on the part of the users of standard English who shape prejudiced assumption about these individuals.
In particular, Compton-Lilly explains “many native speakers of standards English assume that nonstandard speakers are ignorant, laze, and less capable intellectually” (46). The commonly accepted prejudice is that AAVE speakers could speak appropriately once they make efforts.
In fact, failure to learn the differences is mostly linked to collective and personal identities, the idea of membership, as well as adherence to African culture. Therefore, the educators should take language differences as a source of negative perceptions into deeper consideration to define new strategies for alleviating the challenge.
In particular, Compton-Lilly enumerates a number of specific pronunciations and sounds that could be unfamiliar to non-native speakers, including sounds [ð] and [θ], as well as such word ending as –er that is mistakenly pronounced as ah (48). Despite the evidence discrepancies in background knowledge, there is no ground to assert that African American variety is a serious obstacle to a learning process.
Demanding the AAVE speakers to use Standard English points to the educators’ preference that encourages the principles accepted in dominating culture. Standard English, however, is not communicatively superior to Ebonics, but this culturally predetermined phenomenon closely relates to the way power relations are shaped in our society.
Due to the fact that the dominating society expect minority groups to be able to speak standard English and that general public has failed to develop appropriation for dialect forms of the language, our task it to help student to gain knowledge and resources to have an equal access to power institutions.
The above-presented position requires the researchers to rethink their stereotypes concerning the origins of African American community to define new educational strategies that could improve their spelling and reading skills.
Moreover, they should withdraw the longstanding Eurocentric view on education. According to Madhloum, “the sense of community is an explanation for the evolution of AAVE. Many Americans did not belong to the community of the white people…and where driven into ghettos” (n. p.).
Therefore, although considering cultural and social aspects is important, its influence on the learning process should not be prioritized.
In conclusion, an extensive overview of historical, social, and educational constrains that AAVE speakers face relates to stereotypes and prejudiced outlook on their origins and history.
In particular, history of slavery in the United States, ghetto culture, and existence of marginal cultures are among the main reasons why educators are reluctant to understand the challenges that African Americans confront while learning standard English.
In order to improve educational opportunities for students, the teachers should change their strategies and delve into the study of cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
References Ball, Arnetha and Ted Lardner. African American Literacies Unleashed: Vernacular English and the Composition Classroom. US: SIU Press. 2005, Print.
Compton-Lilly, Catherine. “Nuances of Error: Considerations Relevant to African American Vernacular English and Learning to Read.” Literacy, Teaching and Learning 10.1 (2005): 43-58. ProQuest. Web.
Madhloum, Haider. African American Vernacular English – Origins and Features. US: GRIN Verlag, 2011. Print.
Sidnell, Jack. “African American Vernacular English (Ebonic)”. Language Varieties. n. d. Web. http://www.hawaii.edu/satocenter/langnet/definitions/aave.html
Treiman, Rebecca. “Spelling and Dialect: Comparisons between Speakers of African American vernacular English and White Speakers”. Psychonomic Bulletin
Rural Poverty in Indonesia Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Rural Poverty in Indonesia
Introduction In spite of the recent occurrence of global economic recession, the economy of Indonesia has been going on growing at a steady rate, making the country to be classified among the middle-class countries.
Due to Indonesia realizing constant economic growth, there has been a steady decrease in the overall poverty level in the country: the level has dropped from 17%, witnessed in the year 2004, to about 12.5% in the year 2011 (IFAD 1).
However, even if Indonesia has realized a reduction in the overall poverty level, the poor people, especially those living in the rural areas in this country, are currently worse off and the gap between the wealthy people and the poor is getting wider and wider (IFAD 1).
In this paper, I am going to support my viewpoint that; despite Indonesia realizing substantial economic growth, rural poverty in the country remains to be a big problem that needs to be addressed with urgent need. The conclusion section of the paper will present a summary of discussion.
Rural Poverty in Indonesia Suryahadi and Hadiwidjaja point out the idea that Indonesia’s power to bring down the level of poverty became stronger after the occurrence of the Asian financial crisis (Suryahadi and Hadiwidjaja 20). However, they also offer an explanation that there is a slower rate of poverty reduction among the rural poor (Suryahadi and Hadiwidjaja 20).
They point out that the growth of Indonesia’s economy does not benefit individuals who need to be greatly attended to (Suryahadi and Hadiwidjaja 20). As on one hand a larger number of people living in poverty are found in the rural areas, on the other hand, there exists “a division in which the pace of poverty reduction slows down in rural areas and speeds up in urban areas after the crisis” (Suryahadi and Hadiwidjaja 20).
Moreover, these researchers observe that, the contribution made by the “urban services sector growth”, which is found to be very much effectual in poverty reduction, reduced for the rural regions after the occurrence of the Asian financial crisis (Suryahadi and Hadiwidjaja 20).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Following this, the impact of the “urban services sector” is not currently felt in the rural areas in the same way it used to be before the occurrence of the Asian financial crisis. As a result, it is not a big surprise that the overall rate of reduction of poverty level in Indonesia decreases (Suryahadi and Hadiwidjaja 20).
Approximately fifty percent of the Indonesian population lives only slightly above the poverty line (IFAD 1). This population that is near to poverty is prone to such unfavorable conditions as increases in the food prices, poor health, natural calamities among other factors, which can easily take them back to poverty (Hasan, Rana and Quibria 261).
In spite of the country taking appropriate measures, in the recent times, to bring improvements in the health as well as education sectors, the quality of health care and public services cannot measure up to the same standards as those of other middle-income nations but remains behind (Loayza and Raddatz 141).
It is also reported that high levels of undernourishment among the young kids, higher levels of deaths among mothers, lack of clean drinking water and poor quality of education for children, are found to be the most common problems affecting the poor people living in rural areas in Indonesia (IFAD 1).
An example of a fluctuation in food prices causing an increase in the poverty levels among the near-poor people can be given of a situation that occurred during the years 2005 and 2006. During that time, the Indonesian government banned imports and this led to an increase in domestic rice price (Suryahadi, Hadiwidjaja and Sumarto 7).
This was considered by a number of researchers as being among the main causes of the increase in the poverty levels (McCulloch 45; Warr 14; World Bank 1). It is pointed out that, even if there was introducing of “the UCT and an expansion of Raskin benefits around the same time, near poor households were unable to cope with the rising price of their single most important consumption good” (Suryahadi, Hadiwidjaja and Sumarto 7).
About 70% of the total number of the people in Indonesia lives in the rural areas and their major source of income is farming (IFAD 1). Research shows that poverty in these rural areas is on the increase and it has been reported that about 16.5% of the people in the rural areas live in poverty as compared to about 9.9% of those who live in urban areas (IFAD 1).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Rural Poverty in Indonesia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wetterberg, Sumarto and Pritchett point out that in Indonesia, the difference in the rates of poverty in the urban and rural areas always stands at above 6%, apart from the case of the year 1998, in the course of the Asian financial crisis which adversely affected the people living in the urban centers more than those living in the rural areas (Wetterberg, Sumarto and Pritchett 145).
A very large number of small-scale farmers are not able to capitalize on the available opportunities that economic growth offers (IFAD 1). The farmers are mostly not in a position to have access to the financial and agricultural extension services and they also do not have good and reliable markets for their farm products (IFAD 1).
Moreover, production of food by the rural population greatly puts focus on satisfying the subsistence needs (de Janvry and Sadoulet 13).
Even if this country engages in the production of the crops that have a high market value such coffee, cloves and cocoa among others, the government has not invested much in the processing, marketing and management systems which are required in the expansion of production and “take full advantage of this demand” (de Janvry and Sadoulet 13).
Poverty in Indonesia is more prevalent in the isolated eastern islands than other areas and in this region, about 95% of the people in the rural areas live in poverty (IFAD 1). In most parts of this region, people engage in subsistence farming.
The native people that have always been marginalized and have not been able to benefit from the development programs put in place by the government are in these areas. The areas in the coastal region have been environmentally degraded and the villages can only be accessed with much difficulty.
People living in these areas find that the only way they can overcome the problem of poverty is to migrate to the urban areas (IFAD 1). Some research findings have shown that migration to urban areas from the rural areas plays a big role in poverty reduction.
For instance, Abuzar Asra, following his research on poverty levels among the people who live in urban areas and rural areas, found out that in the period between 1987 and 1996, there was significant decline in poverty levels as a result of rural to urban migration in Indonesia (Asra 1).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Rural Poverty in Indonesia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, the women, especially those living in rural areas in Indonesia, are very susceptible to poverty. They have limited access to quality education, receive less pay as compared to men and they are often discriminated against in their communities as well as their households and may be excluded in decision making (Miranti 80).
Conclusion The argument in this paper has been that: despite Indonesia realizing substantial economic growth, rural poverty in the country remains to be a big problem that needs to be addressed with urgent need. It has been found out that the country became even stronger in working towards bringing down the level of poverty after the recent Asian financial crisis.
However, poverty reduction has been found to be slower in the rural population than in the urban one. Over 70% of Indonesians live in rural areas and basically depend on agriculture for their livelihood.
But there is no adequate government support for agricultural production and marketing and the people who live in the rural areas mainly focus on subsistence farming.
In addition, women and people living in remote areas have been marginalized and discriminated against and they do not have sufficient access to the government services.
Moreover, the people in rural areas in Indonesia are also vulnerable to some unfavorable conditions such as changing food prices and poor health conditions among others. Such conditions may not make it possible for these people to evade poverty completely.
It is important that the Indonesian government take necessary measures to ensure all its people receive equal benefits from the economic growth that is being realized by the country.
Works Cited Asra, Abuzar. Urban-rural differences in costs of living and their impact on poverty measures. n.d. Web.
de Janvry, Alain and Sadoulet Elisabeth. “Agricultural Growth and Poverty Reduction: Additional Evidence.” World Bank Research Observer 9.25 (2009): 1-20. Print.
Hasan, Rana and Quibria George. “Industry Matters for Poverty: A Critique of Agricultural Fundamentalism.” Kyklos, 57.2 (2004): 253-64. Print.
IFAD. Rural poverty in Indonesia, 2012. Web.
Loayza, Norman and Raddatz Claudio. “The Composition of Growth Matters for Poverty Alleviation.” Journal of Development Economics 93.1 (2010): 137-151. Print.
McCulloch, Neil. “Rice prices and poverty in Indonesia.” Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 44.1(2008): 45-63. Print.
Miranti, Riyana. “Poverty in Indonesia 1984-2002: The Impact of Growth and Changes in Inequality.” Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 46.1 (2010): 79-97. Print.
Suryahadi, Asep and Hadiwidjaja Gracia 2011, The role of agriculture in poverty a Poverty, food prices and economic growth in Southeast Asian perspective. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011. Print.
Wetterberg, Anna, Sumarto Sudarno and Pritchett Lant. “A national snapshot of the social impact of Indonesia’s.” Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies 35.3(1999): 145-152. Print.
World Bank. Managing through a global downturn: East Asia Update. Washington DC: World Bank East Asia and Pacific Region, 2006. Print.
The Characteristic Features of the New Age Movement Essay best essay help
The period of the 1970s-1980s in the USA is characterized by the awakening of the great interest to the spiritual practices which can lead to the individual’s spiritual growth as a result of the strong connection with God and cosmic energy. The New Age movement in the USA begins to develop in the 1970s with references to the expanding Eastern practices and works by David Spangler as the ideologist of the New Age.
However, it is impossible to speak about Spangler as the founder of the movement because the New Age cannot be discussed as the church or organization, and the notion includes a variety of the associated movements developing during different periods of time.
The number of the movement’s adherents in the USA and over the world is unknown, there is no founder, but there are a lot of leaders who organize rather different movements combined under the label of the New Age.
Although there is no clear definition of the New Age movement typical for the USA, it is necessary to focus on the variety of the movement’s characteristic features the analysis of which allows speaking about the definite unity of the movement because of the adherents’ following the same principles.
The flexibility in defining the New Age influences the possibilities to discuss the movement as the complex organization. One of the ways to define the New Age movement is the concentration on its features and principles which help determine the followers of the movement and separate it from the other popular spiritual practices.
The New Age is not only the multi-branch movement based on the definite religious and spiritual practices, but it is also a way of living (Hemeyer, 2010).
Thus, the movement also includes “a preference for clothing made from natural fibers such as cotton and wool over synthetics, natural cosmetics and household products, organic food and growing food at home, and limitation of participation in America’s consumer-based culture” as well as the orientation to the developing and meditative practices (Corbett
Relationship between Policy and Carbon Footprint Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Problem and Policy Description
Relationship between Policy and Carbon Footprint
Eightfold Path Analysis
Problem and Policy Description Environmental degradation is one of the major problems that threaten the existence of humanity. Environmental degradation has led to the increase in greenhouse gases (GHG). Global warming is one of the effects of environmental degradation. This has necessitated countries to devise strategies on how to reduce their GHG emission.
The Kyoto Protocol is one of the boldest moves by countries around the world to reduce pollution. Kyoto protocol strives to reduce the carbon footprint of various countries. However, the United States, which is the largest air pollutant in the world, did not ratify the Kyoto Protocol.
Politicians claimed that the Kyoto protocol would have a negative effect on the American economy. However, this has not prevented various states in the U.S. from passing laws that strive to reduce their carbon footprint. California is one of the states that have a carbon tax.
California uses an auction to determine the carbon tax. The results of the first action put the price of carbon dioxide emission at $10.09 per metric ton. The first auction led to the sale of 23.1 million allowances that covered 2013 emissions. In addition, the bids in the auction were three times the number allowances available for sale.
Due to the sale of all allowances covering 2013, polluters do not have to submit their emission allowances for 2013 (Barringer para 3). However, traders and regulators expected the market to be undersubscribed. Therefore, there was a sigh of relief when there was oversubscription of the allowances by a factor of 3 to 1.
Analysts expect that in future the carbon tax would increase to between $11 and $12 per metric ton of carbon dioxide. In addition, analysts expect the market of the allowances become more robust in the future. This would be due to the entry of financial firms.
Compliance entities accounted for approximately 97% of all the allowances sold in California’s first auction. Compliance entities refer to companies that need to account for their GHG emissions (Barringer para 8).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relationship between Policy and Carbon Footprint California requires businesses to pay $10.09 for each metric ton of carbon dioxide that they emit. By setting a price on the amount of carbon dioxide that businesses emit, California expects businesses to reduce their overdependence on fossil fuels.
This would reduce the carbon footprint of businesses. The carbon tax would also motivate businesses to reduce their carbon emissions by investing in pollution control equipment or install energy efficient equipment. In addition, the carbon tax may motivate businesses to undertake alterations in their production processes to reduce the carbon emissions.
However, it is vital for California to ensure that the carbon tax would encourage businesses to reduce their carbon emissions. A very low carbon tax would not have the desired effect. On the other hand, a very high carbon tax would reduce the profitability of businesses.
This may create an unfavorable business environment. High carbon taxes would increase the operational costs of companies in California. Companies may pass the increased costs of production to their customers by increasing the price of their products.
This may reduce the competitiveness of products from companies in California. Therefore, it is vital for relevant agencies to ensure that the carbon tax is higher than the cost of installing pollution control equipment (Daianu and Vranceanu 207). This would encourage companies to invest in pollution control equipment.
Eightfold Path Analysis Pollution is one of the major problems that the world faces. Therefore, it is vital for relevant parties to take measures that would help in reducing the carbon footprint. California’s carbon tax strives to reduce carbon emissions of businesses. Pollution is one of the major problems that California faces.
According to evidence from the American Lung Association, California is home to some of the most polluted cities. These cities include Los Angeles and Fresno. Therefore, it is vital for California to pass legislation that would help in reducing pollution in these cities.
We will write a custom Essay on Relationship between Policy and Carbon Footprint specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Carbon tax is one of the major methods that California may use to reduce pollution. California may also use carbon credit to reduce pollution. California decided to use carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions by businesses. It uses the free market to set the rate of carbon tax.
California facilitated the sale of emission allowances to determine the rate of carbon tax. Carbon tax would help in reducing the carbon emission of businesses. In addition, it is evident that the federal government may in future put in place legislation that ensures that all businesses pay carbon tax. Therefore, California may alter it legislation to conform to the legislation.
However, the policy does not have a defined project outcome. California does not have a specific target for reduction of emission of carbon dioxide due to the policy. Carbon tax would reduce the profitability of businesses.
However, it would ensure that businesses reduce the environmental impact of their activities. This would help in protecting the environment. Environmental protection would ensure the long-term stability of the businesses. Therefore, the benefits of carbon tax outweigh its costs.
Works Cited Barringer, Felicity. “California’s CO2 now has a price, but a low one.” The New York Times, 2012. Web.
Dăianu, Daniel and Radu Vranceanu. Ethical boundaries of capitalism, Hants: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2005. Print.
Technology – Security Policy, Ethics, and the Legal Environment Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Abstract In today’s technologically advanced and progressively more network-connected world, information technology security management backs economic and organizational technological arrangement, and also guards its IT operations and assets against internal and external threats, planned or otherwise (Peltier, 2001; Thomas, 2002; Dhilon, 2007).
The principle function of IT security management is to guarantee confidentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA) of IT systems (Perrin, 2008). Primarily, security management is part of the risk management procedure and business continuity strategy in an organization.
Introduction The Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) changed what has been generally classified as the Government Information Security Reform Act (GISRA), which was terminated at the end of the 107th Congress (Sebastian, 2010). On the other hand, Congress passed two versions of FISMA at the conclusion of the 107th Congress (Layton, 2007).
The first version approved as part of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (P.I. 107-296, Title X; 116 Stat. 2135, at 2259). The second version takes an established status the order of its importance. The act concerns government wide, as well as small and independent agencies of the federal government. Many of these prerequisites are now found in the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002.
Federal Information Security Management Act The economic and national security significance is acknowledged by the federal information security management act (NIST, 2012). However, FISMA is the primary law controlling information security program.
Title III of the E-Government Act of 2002, and the federal Information Security Management Act of 2002, obliges federal government agencies to present information security protections for economy and business information and information systems (Moteff, 2004; Smedinghoff, 2008; Dacey
The Public Budget Cycle Research Paper cheap essay help
Table of Contents Definition of the public budget cycle
Audit and evaluation
How the budget cycle relates to the overall mission of the FBI
Definition of the public budget cycle Generally, a budget is a statement that apportions resources so as to achieve the objectives of an organization, entity or an institution within a given period of time. A budget focuses on a financial plan. It shows the amount which an entity expects to receive and draws a plan on how to spend the expected revenue. Thus, the role of a budget is fundamental in an institution.
It creates a connection between resources available and human behavior so as to achieve specific objectives. A budget is required for two basic reasons. The first reason is to apportion resources based on priorities and secondly to create responsibility among employees of an organization. A public budget comprises of two components these are revenue and expenditure.
The major sources of revenue for a government agency are taxes, user charges, borrowings, special allocations, and internal transfers among others. Key public spendings are on public programs, capital expenditures, administrative expenses, and debt servicing. Just like a budget for any other institution, preparation of a public budget goes through a cycle.
A public budget cycle is the process from the start of developing a budget to the final execution of the budget. Ordinarily, a public budget cycle covers a whole year commonly known as a fiscal year. Fiscal year various across various nations. Some run from October 1 to September 30 of the succeeding year while other between July 1 to June 31.
A public budget is quite comprehensive and it contains various activities. The activities can be grouped into four phases these are formulation stage, approval, execution, audit, and evaluation. These stages are discussed below (Lee, Johnson
Paradigm Shift from Modernism to Postmodernism Ways of Thinking Essay (Critical Writing) college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Modernism is a school of thought that is believed to have begun during the period of Renaissance. This movement marked the age of Enlightenment in the early 20th century, as it led to rejection of traditional ideals and principles. This philosophical term looked for new perspectives to act as foundation for their knowledge, that is, it aimed at disapproving the irrational and subjective mind of man.
It supported personal ideologies on issues like religious beliefs; for instance, one does not have to accept an idea because it is religious. Self consciousness was meant to assist in criticizing an idea, then arriving at a conclusion at last.
In modernism, one has to identify, evaluate, criticize, and understand a concept, then, choose without external interference. The need for premises/ reasons to attain truth remained fundamental during this time (Johnson, 2007).
Notably, Karl Marx (1818-1883), Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) were influential thinkers during the modern era. Specifically, Freud invented the subconscious part of the mind, the superego, which helps in analyzing how one thinks, in other words, evaluating the correctness of the thinking.
Together with the superego, were the Id and the ego. In addition, this concept of the subconscious mind dimension analyzes how people think about realistic situations/ideas and how we view our selves. Our thinking starts with the Id, where we do anything necessary to satisfy the impending need for survival (Sigmund Freud n.d.).
The next level is the ego, which keeps us with the reality of external world, that is, the world consists of others and, therefore, we are not alone. The ego helps us to adapt to the physical environment and store our experiences. The above theory that analyzes the human consciousness was called the Psycho-Analysis.
From these dimensions, Freud insisted that things should not be construed to be true as they appear, the reality lies beyond what we can physically see. Therefore, to unearth the truth we have to conduct some complex and perverted actions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Clearly, modernism tried to eliminate subjectivity as a means of thinking and arriving at conclusions. Modernism tried to eliminate fixed concepts and ideas on varied issues; therefore, one has to have reasons to support his/her claims.
Moreover, in Freud’s Interpretation of Dreams 1900, he reveals that dreams have displaced meanings and abstract symbols that calls for an in depth analysis and recollection in order to find the true meanings or complete validity. His proclamation that one only dreams whatever he/she encounters in life shows that a human being is largely a product of his/her environment and experience.
Freud links how the brain functions with the nature of dreams. Therefore, one should reflexively be aware of these biases in order to free himself/herself from them and aim to be objective in his/her decisions. In general, the society becomes increasingly more reflective and self-aware of new ideas.
Markedly, modernism movement instituted inquisitive minds in people. It begins with self-doubt, which reveals the methodology of justifying mind consciousness in accepting truth (Johnson, 2007). However, the control of unconscious and irrational desires of human beings is contradictive to the enlightenment philosophy that supports man’s reasoning as guidance to truth, yet human beings are essentially irrational beings.
This weakness of Freud’s assertion led to criticism of some philosophers like Anouchka Grose. He disagreed with Freud’s Oedipus complex of socialization claiming that it was quite embarrassing as this act increases immoral behaviours and it is universally forbidden.
The French scholar Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) supported the existentialism themes in the middle of the 20th century through his pieces of work that touched on nothingness, freedom, alienation and boredom (Mastin, 2008). His cornerstones were the self and ethical interests. Therefore, he reflected on understanding the existence of man by using phenomenological methods.
He characterised the human condition with drastic freedom and groundlessness (Mastin, 2008). In his book, Being Nothingness, he outlines various forms of consciousness that lie beyond people’s experience, which involves investigating what is meant to be human. To be conscious means that one must be conscious of something; therefore, the definition depends on another thing.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Paradigm Shift from Modernism to Postmodernism Ways of Thinking specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In an in depth study of human, he comes up with two types of beings, which are ‘for-itself’ and ‘in-itself’. The later signifies autonomy and non-relational manner. This methodology gives one the power to create an extrinsic self identity. Sartre’s work gave people freedom of creating values for their own lives. On the part of the ego, Sartre acknowledges the existence of consciousness of the world and the ego.
Sartre proposes a high levelled procedure of understanding human consciousness, involving pre-reflective and reflective level. He further agrees that people tend to construe that the self is never present prior to a reflective consciousness (Mastin, 2008).
When a person thinks of anything, he/she forms a picture in the mind. In case the picture does not exist, then, there does not exist a universal structure thus the intention to be conscious is still unsuccessful.
Ethically, Sartre noted that conscious proceedings are spontaneous; therefore, emotional consciousness is pre-reflective consciousness. As a result, voluntary act is different from the pre-reflective act; it has the will, which exists in the reflective act.
This complex way of thinking discloses the key to understanding of the self, which has negating powers in it. Upon reflection, instability within the self is created, leading to the lack of self identity. Surely, the methodology supported a complex and valid distinction between two transcendence phenomena of beings (Mastin, 2008).
The two analyses of ‘for-itself’ and ‘in-itself’ reveal what is meant by being a human. Sartre’s philosophical methods give people an unlimited freedom of making varied choices, which are not due to their bad faith. But, the freedom has limitations, social and physical constraints. The life of an individual is similar to a project that is unfolding as one makes choices amidst the challenges that constrain the freedom.
In the end, a proper coordination of facts and transcendences help disclose an authentic man. One has to avoid pitfalls like bad faith and exercise his/her freedom diligently to continue understanding the nature of consciousness.
Man is what he makes of himself; he then realizes his existence first before using his ‘will’ in making choices that he/she can be held responsible for (Existentialism is a Humanism, n.d.). Since man cannot change everything, that is, power to change things is limited, despair arises. In addition, the future is fully controlled by someone else.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Paradigm Shift from Modernism to Postmodernism Ways of Thinking by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Postmodernism is a recent school of thought that claims that there is no clear reality that can be known objectively; it a relativistic approach that does not depend on absolute truth and objectivity. However, its way of thinking proved that reality can be experienced through objectivity. Manifestly, modernism highly objected subjectivity in arriving at decisions.
However, postmodernism does not agree with most of modernity aspects. Postmodernism believes in New Age thinking in arriving at truth (Introduction to Postmodern Philosophy, n.d.). Notably, after the renaissance, the use of scientific method changed the perception of understanding the world.
Then enlightenment (modernism) followed. The doubts on the ability to understand reality objectively by David Hume led to some instability in modernism. This in turn led to transition from modernism to postmodernism.
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) was instrumental in this transition, as he out rightly rejected Kant’s theory that believed that all people perceive the world (reality) similarly; he supported the objective truth. Philosophers had to first grapple with textual interpretation.
On interpretation, the postmodernism philosophers agreed that objectivity cannot be applied in understanding the correct meaning of any written script. Therefore, meaning comes out through engagement in a dialogue with the original author.
Again, there was a problem on whether language could objectively reveal the truth. Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951) concluded that this could not happen as language development is socially habituated; therefore, the truth is socially constructed, just like language.
Modernism recognised humans’ capabilities to find solutions that had been perennial since the medieval times. In addition, it respected human rights of expression. It did not also define the limits of objectivism and reasoning.
Postmodernism, on the other hand, came up to correct the already existing imbalance; for instance, by convincing us that we have a limited potential to comprehend and change the universe. In essence, postmodernism corrects the problems, but it over-corrects the problems (Introduction to Postmodern Philosophy, n.d.).
In the 20th century Michel Foucault (1926-1984) was among the great philosophical figures who defined the key issues of postmodernism. For example, a close scrutiny of the correspondence theory of truth that made people believe that scientific truths were equal to absolute truths was altered by removing the equivalency since no scientific researcher made an unlimited number of observations to show that such exceptions exist.
Postmodernism, actually, helps man in knowing that knowledge acquisition and explanations have limits. This reveals the cause for the drastic shift from modernism to postmodernism. Further, it holds on the coherence theory of truth, which supports that an idea remains true to man if it also coheres with other internal perceptions that man holds about the world (Introduction to Postmodern Philosophy, n.d.).
Nonetheless, scientists can still invent new methods of making people understand how the world works. For example, just as the discovery of the spherical nature of the earth was disapproved, early scientists believed that the earth is flat.
Although postmodernism overreacts on the coherence theory, the philosophers were correct in summing up that correspondence theory has its boundaries, being contrary to what modernism held.
Postmodernism promoted the willingness to borrow information from earlier movements and openness to diverse ideas from all places. It did not hold fixed definition to all terms. This movement promotes self-thinking, which can make people rebel following a defined curriculum and divert to their own understandings.
Social epoch affects one’s way of thinking. For example, sociologists make assumptions that humans have room to make their own choices and that social forces can shape the behaviour of people within a society. Clearly, social environments influence the way one thinks and possible course of action.
In the 18th century, Western Europe underwent social and technical changes that forever changed the whole world. For example, the invention of steam engine by James Watt in the year 1769 and invention of antiseptic barrier by Joseph Lister in 1865 impelled social changes in the entire world with the aim of solving some social and economic problems (Epochs in Philosophy and Socio-Economic Epochs, 2010).
Remarkably, this social group altered people’s thinking towards looking for solutions to the then world problems since massive inventions took place during the 18th and 19th centuries. Later, industrial revolution took centre stage in Britain, which prompted rural urban migration of people to secure jobs in the newly created industries.
This shows how social epoch affects the way of thinking of human beings in the entire world. From the historical perspective of the epoch, the global problems seem to be similar. A historical problem/issue will divert people’s attention in order to find solutions to it.
For example, researchers on HIV/AIDS have been receiving support from other new researchers who aim at discovering the new drug that can cure the disease (Epochs in Philosophy and Socio-Economic Epochs, 2010). The research has influenced the thinking of doctors, medical lecturers and their students from a historical perspective.
Both the social and historical epoch increases the thinking perspectives in the philosophical aspect, since every research has to be doubted, tested, understood, and then approved/verified for application in its respective field. Lastly, philosophical theories also base their assumptions on the culture or history of any given group.
References Epochs in Philosophy and Socio-Economic Epochs 2010, Problems of the History of Philosophy. Web.
Existentialism is a Humanism, alexvermeer.com — understanding and mastering our brains to do cool stuff. Web.
Introduction to Postmodern Philosophy, Postmodern preaching. Web.
Johnson, L, 2007, The Enlightenment to Modernism: A Brief Examination of this Revolution in Thought and Society, Socyberty. Web.
Mastin, L, 2008, Existentialism: By Movement / School, The Basics of Philosophy: A huge subject broken down into manageable chunks. Web.
Postmodernism: Philosophy, Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web.
Sigmund Freud, Letters, Arts
Boycotting American Goods Movement Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
The boycotting American goods movement happened after immigrants of Chinese origin were mistreated while in the United States of America. The boycott led to nationalism in the modern China as well as immigration of Sino-Americans.
The immigrants who were in the United States of America suffered from the discrimination due to their race through harassment, massacres as well as attacks. The federal government of the United States had laws that prohibited labourers from China to go to America. The Chinese who had access to the United States of America included journalists, businessmen as well as teachers (Judge 50).
When the mistreatment of Chinese continued especially on the law to be followed, there emerged protests by the Chinese who were living in America. They used legal means to seek justice in order to find solution to their problems.
When they failed to be protected by the United States courts, they went to Beijing for negotiations of the treaty of Sino-Americans. The merchants from China in America communicated through telegrams to the government of China requesting a treaty to be signed that would restrict immigration of Chinese.
When the board meeting was held in May 1905, it marked the beginning of boycott, which affected the sale of American goods. The mode of communication that was commonly used was telegrams in order to inform people to come together and work as a team.
The students, entertainers, as well as writers were agitated on boycott where they informed people that they were suffering illegally.
The boycott was peaceful where Chinese participated through stopping ordering as well as selling goods that originated from America, such as petroleum, cigarettes, stationary and cosmetics. The artists presented songs and plays in order to describe how the Chinese in America were suffering and the need for freedom.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The climax of boycott movement was in September, 1905 and later lost momentum when merchants withdrew especially those dealing with goods from America. This was because the government of China sympathised due to the hostility and suspicion.
The government of China feared that the boycott would turn against it, which led to its end in early 1906. This movement united people who were in China and America where all of them worked together in finding solution to the problems that they encountered while in the United States of America.
During the end of the year 1904 due to the demand from Chinese, the treaty was abolished. The government of Qing told the government of United States to change the requirements of the contract. The proposal was rejected by the United States government, which led to boycott movement that broke out in the year 1905.
The main cause of this movement was the persecution of labourers from China. Qing dynasty provided steps to the boycott where the rally was held in Shanghai with a number of people involved. The teachers as well as students either left school or were suspended. The owners of businesses in America urged the government to help in changing the situation.
The boycott of the year 1905 is significant because it transformed China politically. The Chinese sympathised with immigrants who spent many months detained in sheds that were wooded. The immigrants were deported after they were examined with diseases that affected their decent livelihood.
This personalised how foreign powers impacted the people of China and the merchants could no longer buy or sell products from America as a result of pressure from the boycott committee.
The officials could not help the Chinese, who were suffering due to mistreatment because they had no authority to end the problems. The boycott movement was criticised by Chinese as well as American government due to public opinion and ability of Chinese to resist abuse (Gries 43).
We will write a custom Essay on Boycotting American Goods Movement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When the boycott began people thought that the Chinese were weakened by imperialism in America because China was strong and able to protect the people who were overseas. The negotiations that were held in 1905 did not help the Chinese who were in the United States of America because the government of China was weak.
The Qing court was not willing to accept the treaty and sign it but the vice president told them to boycott American goods. The boycott was taken as a good opportunity to deliver political messages where leaders participated in revolutionary as well as political movements. For example, Baohuang introduced popular sovereignty that marked the beginning in transformation of politics (Armentrout 126-127).
What Were the Media of Communication Used? Public lectures helped to communicate about the boycott together with drama as well as songs. Boycott societies had the committee who acted as volunteers to address people on the street who included journalists, teachers as well as students.
When the committee failed to communicate effectively professional speakers were employed. Lecture corps went on the road side where they stopped pedestrians to listen to them. Promoters of boycott movement went to temples where worshippers were crowded to speak to them but there was no plan to be followed (Rhoads 137).
Countrywide lectures were conducted where mass meetings were held by lecturers when people from the local community could not offer good speech. Drama and performance acted as means of communication to the people who were illiterate for them to see the need of supporting the movement.
Stories on the suffering in America conveyed boycott messages, which helped the boycott movement to be supported by many people. The play entitled the “bitter journey” showed painful experiences of the Chinese who lived in America.
Pictorial presentations after every ten days on current affairs in September 1905 had scenes that were related to boycott. Pictures were painted on kites to show ill-treatment of Chinese by Americans and the difficult situations they went through.
In addition, the pictures showed people who were worried about the negative effects of the boycott. Pamphlets and slogans written in brief and simple language helped Chinese understand the meaning of the movement and support it.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Boycotting American Goods Movement by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The newspapers in China helped to communicate about the tactics of boycotting laws and condemned discrimination of immigrants in America. The newspapers emphasised on boycotting the goods from America in order to retaliate the Chinese harsh treatment by the Americans.
In addition, they showed reports on how the boycott was progressing and all the activities that were involved. Shanghai news had extensive coverage on boycott activities in America and was circulating to people who paid special attention to it.
Periodicals as media of communication helped to legitimise the movement and all those who were able to read and understand obtained the relevant information. The maltreatment of the Chinese who tried to enter America was revealed in order to show their grievances (Ming 34).
Works Cited Armentrout, Eve. Revolutionaries, Monarchists, and Chinatowns: Chinese Politics in the Americas and the 1911 Revolution, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990. Print.
Gries, Peter. China’s New Nationalism: Pride, Politics, and Diplomacy, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. Print.
Judge, Joan. Print and Politics: Shibao and the Culture of Reform in Late Qing China, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996. Print.
Ming, Wei. Cultural China: The Periphery as the Centre in The Living Tree: The Changing Meaning of Being Chinese Today, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994. Print.
Rhoads, Edward. China’s Republican Revolution: The Case of Kwangtung, 1895-1913, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1975. Print.
Discussion: Tenth Chapter of “The Bhagavad Gita” by Ramanand Prasad Essay college essay help
The tenth chapter of Bhagavad Gita is referred to as manifestation of the absolute. In this chapter, the main theme is an attempt by the Supreme Lord to explain his identity which is not known to most people. He says that the Devas and the great sages do not know his origin because he is in fact their origin.
This implies that unless the Supreme Lord clearly explains his origin, nobody would be able to understand anything about him. Many people live in bondage under Karma and it is only the acknowledgement that the Supreme Lord is in control of the whole universe that would liberate them.
There are many qualities that human beings possess and although they might not be aware of the origin of the qualities, they all emanate from the Supreme Lord. As a result, everybody is supposed to respect and acknowledge him as the source of every good thing and all powers.
It is important to understand the manifestations of the Supreme Lord because it is only after this understanding that one can worship him with full devotion. The Supreme Lord liberates those who worship him with devotion and makes them delighted.
Arjuna acknowledges that the Supreme Lord is the origin of everything and has immense powers. However, it is difficult for him to understand all his manifestations. This calls for a detailed explanation in order for him to understand the glory and yogic powers of the Supreme Lord.
In a bid to make Arjuna understand his different manifestations, the Supreme Lord systematically explains his divine manifestations. The explanation shows how difficult it is to understand him and how he manifests himself to all human beings.
He is the beginning, middle and the end of all human beings and abides in the hearts of all of them. All human beings are controlled by an invisible power that helps them to act rationally and make sense of things that happen around them. This is evidently a manifestation of the Supreme Lord in the form of Atma (Prasad, 4).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Arjuna is clearly not able to understand the manifestations of the Supreme Lord and that is why he requests him to explain his manifestations in detail. This apparently implies that the Supreme Lord is not explicitly manifested. The most important thing that Arjuna should realize is that the Supreme Lord is manifested in everything that exists.
As a result, every time Arjuna tries to look for manifestation of the Supreme Lord, he should expect to see it everywhere. For instance, the Supreme Lord is manifested in animals, trees, alphabetical letters, the armies and bodies of water. In addition, he is manifested in the power of death and procreators.
These are just but a few of the divine manifestations of the Supreme Lord. The most important point that the Supreme Lord makes is that his powers are unlimited and that he is the controller of the whole universe. Arjuna finds it difficult to understand his manifestations because they have no end.
Everything that has glory, power and brilliance is a manifestation of the Supreme Lord. The Lord insists that his power is so great that he only uses a small portion of it to control the universe. The conclusion is that he is all powerful and controls everything in the universe (Prasad, 5).
Works Cited Prasad, Ramanand. 1988. The Bhagavad Gita. Web.
Relationship Between Public Relations And Crisis Management Essay online essay help: online essay help
Introduction In the course of their operation, organizations in different economic sectors experience crisis emanating from various sources.
Some of aspects that can lead to organizations experiencing crisis includes global economic recession, regulatory investigations by relevant authorities, occurrence of employee disputes and hostile takeover attempts. Crisis can adversely affect organizations’ performance and hence their long term survival if they are not adequately addressed (Coombs 2012).
In an effort to deal with crisis, one of the elements that organizations have integrated is crisis management. Coombs (2012) defines crisis management as the efforts undertaken by organizations’ management teams in mitigating the adverse effects arising from crisis.
Public relations is one of the most important elements in crisis management. Galloway and Kwanash-Aidoo (2005) asserts that the role of public relations is fundamental in supporting crisis managers’ deal with the crisis faced.
To gain sufficient understanding on the relationship between public relations and crisis management, this paper evaluates the role of that public relation plays in crisis management.
Crisis management stages Heath (2005) asserts that crisis management is one of the essential elements in public relations. In the course of executing their duties, firms’ management teams should appreciate the fact that their organizations are susceptible to crisis. Consequently, it is imperative to ensure that they possess sufficient knowledge and skills in order to prepare for any eventuality.
To effectively undertake crisis management, it is essential for firms’ management team to understand what constitutes a crisis. Heath (2005) defines a crisis as ‘an unpredictable major threat that can have negative effects on the organization, stakeholders and industry’ (p. 218).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Crisis managers should be proactive in preventing disruptive effects arising from crisis. There are a number of steps that crisis managers should take into account in their crisis management processes. These steps include prevention, preparation and provision (Reid 2000).
Prevention The prevention stage is aimed at identifying the various risks that an organization faces. One of the techniques that organizations can integrate in their quest to identify the risks faced is conducting a comprehensive internal and external environmental analysis (Cutlip, Center
Online Research and References Research Paper college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Unisoft Datatech
The University Of Illinois Online Library
Information Research Management Network (IRMN)
Wharton Research Data Services (WRDS)
Today, many people are doing almost all their researches through the internet. Whether it is school work, business research, strategic organization information search, education or social enlightenment, people are virtually searching for all kinds of information through the web (Lippincott 206).
Therefore, this means that one can search for virtually any kind of information using internet search tools such as Google and Yahoo search.
There are many great research and reference sites available online today. However, it is vital to exercise reservations on adopting most of these services. In most instances, people use these research and reference services when searching for academic data or business related information (Baker 12; Lippincott 206).
The reports that they create after doing their research require proper citation and references to acknowledge the sources of the information. As such, it is important to make sure that every research service you use also doubles up as a reference service. There are plenty of research services that can be used, especially when searching for information on the internet. They include:
Unisoft Datatech This service is recommended for people who are in need of business data for purposes of coming up with a proper competitive strategy, product catalogues, pricing, and marketing lists. The services offered by Unisoft Datatech are not only deep, but broad and thus cover various business aspects (Poynter 45).
For many people using the internet today, this service has become like the preeminent supplier of all back office services such as internet research, data research, and web research. Unisoft Datatech’s services are also relatively affordable. Therefore, for researchers who need data processing, data entry and data conversion service, this is best bet.
The University Of Illinois Online Library This is another great resource to adopt, especially when one is looking for scholarly research services. Since this is a university portal, it is best suited for student research purposes. Therefore, it is best suited for university students and anybody who want to do in-depth research in different subjects or contents (Dochartaigh 56).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Information Research Management Network (IRMN) Information Research Management Network is among the top rated business related research and reference services that you would ever come across on the internet. It is basically a private intranet that was originally created for the customers related to system material handling company (Dochartaigh 56). The main aim of this service is to aid the process of ordering and provision of machine and automobile parts.
IRMN covers information related to over 100 makes and 20000 models of industrial equipment. It also comes with an online total source catalog featuring monthly specials. Specifications of different types of car parts are also encompassed in this database.
Mindspot Inc This one is more than just a basic global research company. It mainly specializes in online research. Other services that are offered by Mindspot Inc. include; Quantitative research, qualitative research, research designs, marketing proposals, and marketing plans among others.
Mindspot is a company that one can count on at all times to deliver the best quality results. These experts been in business for quite some time and therefore you have all reason to count on their services (Gaiser and Schreiner 49). For people who want quality results faster and within the right timelines, this is one service that should not be overlooked.
Market Tools For the best custom market research, this service often provides the best results. Therefore, for students who want fast delivery of cost effective results at their desk or computers, Market Tools are up to the task to offer what they need.
For the best services ranging from basic sampling and statistical analysis, the experts at Market Tools are truly up to the task and have always been dedicated to ensure that their clients get nothing rather than the best (Dochartaigh 57).
Wharton Research Data Services (WRDS) This is essentially a web based business information research service created by the Wharton school in the University of Pennsylvania. Originally developed in 1993, this service has largely evolved to the level of becoming one of the most preferred research tools for well over 290 institutions worldwide (Dochartaigh 57; Poynter 46).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Online Research and References specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is also worth noting that WRDS is the de-facto standard for business information and thus provides researchers all over the world with instant access to economic, financial and marketing data through a web based platform or interface. This same hosted data service has become like the hub for searching for quantitative data.
Conclusion By and large, these are just some of the notable research and reference services that one can adopt in business and academic projects today. There are many more companies that can be added to the list. However, one needs to understand how each of these services enables him or her to find quality and quantity information.
This will also ensure that one ends with the right company that will provide him or her with the services that he/she is looking for.
Works Cited Baker, Reg. “Research synthesis AAPOR report on online panels”. Public Opinion Quarterly, 74.4(2010): 711-781. Print.
Dochartaigh, Niall O. Internet Research Skills : How to Do Your Literature Search and Find Research Information Online. London : Sage Publications, 2007. Print.
Gaiser, Ted J and Anthony E Schreiner. A guide to conducting online research. Los Angeles : SAGE, 2009. Print.
Lippincott, Joan. “A mobile future for academic libraries.”Reference Services Review, 38. 2 (2010): 205 – 213. Print.
Poynter, Ray. The handbook of online and social media research : tools and techniques for market researchers. Chichester: Wiley, 2010. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Online Research and References by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Poverty Effects on Child Development and Schooling Research Paper online essay help
Table of Contents Effects of Poverty on Children
Effects of Poverty on Children’s Development and Education
Policies Enacted to Help Children Cope with Poverty
Unintended Consequences of the Policies
Effects of Poverty on Children Poverty is a major challenge that children from various backgrounds across the world experience. In various communities and societies, the word poverty takes different connotation and meanings. However, scholars agree that poverty results from social and economic processes that deny or deprive people their resources and assets they are entitled to.
In addition, poverty results from social exclusion and inequality, which encourages impunity and social injustice during the distribution of resources. Today, poverty is a big challenge to children affecting their social, physical, psychological, and economic lives. This essay discusses the effects of poverty on the children’s social, education/schooling, and psychological lives.
It also addresses policies that societies and governments have instituted to enable children cope with poverty. Moreover, the essay highlights unintended consequences resulting from the highlighted policies. Information on the effects of poverty on children is obtained from public media sources to validate the arguments provided in the essay. Poverty affects children’s development and academic achievement negatively.
Effects of Poverty on Children’s Development and Education Despite healthcare professionals providing that children should take a balanced diet breakfast, children from low-income families may sometimes miss it. This negatively affects their health, well-being, and physical development.
Poverty makes children to suffer socially and psychologically, especially when they are living in a wealthy neighborhood to see their age mates enjoy some privileges that they cannot afford (Ferguson, Bovaird,
Ambulance personnel and critical incidents: Impact of accident and emergency work on mental health and emotional well-being Essay (Critical Writing) writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
What the researchers are studying
The method used by the researchers to conduct the study
The results discovered
Introduction The United States healthcare secretary in the fiscal 1992 stated that workforce expressive and material welfare are elementary issues. In fact, specific apprehensions have been articulated concerning the mounting levels of both psychosomatic and physical fatigue and signs amongst healthcare employees.
In the United Kingdom for example, employees working in the paramedic departments displayed high degrees of untimely retirement based on the physical and poor cerebral conditions or ill health compared to people working in other healthcare units.
However, the feasible correlations amid workers health statuses and the demands at work are inadequately assessed amongst the suffering groups. Scholars in paramedic research studies mentioned the prospective injurious effects that paramedic undergo when the crucial healthcare events occurred, yet hardly any investigations are conducted (Alexander
Crisis Management Analytical Essay essay help
Introduction Crisis is a symbol of an important business interruption that motivates the widespread coverage of mass-media news. The administration of crisis should be put in place to guarantee the well-being of an organization. This ought to be done by the Public Relations department whose starring role in crisis management must be clearly elaborated (Regester
Funding for Social Services in Canada Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
The National Survey of Nonprofit and Voluntary Organization (2003) reports that “Canada has 19,000 Social Services Organizations, which account for 12 % of the nation’s 161,000 nonprofit and voluntary organizations” (p. 1).In total, their annual revenues amount to $ 11 billion which is10 % of the total revenues receive by all organization in Canada. In this respect, funding this organizations
The evolution and origins of social programs and services date back to the beginning of the twentieth century, during the period of Great Depression. At this time, the social policy was associated with the difficulties that people had to overcome in a post-war period, including the high unemployment rates, industrial injuries, and poor health state.
Earlier references to the rise of Canadian social policy were highlighted in sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the time when poverty and unemployment was also on the rise (Prince, 2008). In 1930, the depression time made the citizens to think over the concept of idealization, the main idea that was adapted to recognize the existing problems and focus on the equal opportunities for all the Canadians.
The depression period in the 1930s follows the concept of equalization that was introduced by the Diefendbaker government in the 1950. This conceptualization was recognized by the Constitution Act in 1982, Part III, section 36 (Prince, 2008).
According to this provision, the Parliament and provincial authorities should promote equal opportunities for Canadian citizens, advance economic development to minimize the disparities in possibilities, and provide essential public services (Prince, 2008).
Additionally, the section stipulates that the Canadian government should adhere to the principle of equal payment to ensure that local governments have sufficient financial support to reach “reasonable comparably levels of public services at reasonable comparable levels of taxation” (Prince, 2008, p. 6).
Such a decision provided government with the potential to create laws and establish peace and order in the country. In two days, the Canada Health Act 1984 was adopted to set out main provisions for federal funding of health care in provincial regions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, the development of Canada Pension Plan introduced in the 1960 was introduced after the amendments made to the Canadian Constitutions, according to which all province should accept the constitutional change that supported the federal government in policy development.
There are many organizations that strive to support and finance social programs in Canada and provide a new level of services and care.
Ontario Trillium Foundation (2011) is among such organizations whose main mission is to create flexible and healthy communities throughout the city by enhancing the capacity of voluntary ventures and encouraging them to invest into community-based initiatives (Ontario Trillium Foundation, 2011).
The Foundation also invests in not-for-profit and charitable organizations that operate in the sphere of environmental protection, cultural development, human services, and recreation. All these initiatives are possible to achieve through active collaboration, civic engagement, innovation, and capacity building.
The Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control has also provided its initiative in addressing HIV/AIDS in Canada. These programs are presented under the Federal Initiative that supports a voluntary sector and focuses on leadership and coordination to react to the HIV/AIDS challenges (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2012).
The funding venture also engages in meaningful catering for people who are under the highest risk of HIV/AIDS exposure, as well as encourages partnership and collaboration to tackle the risk factors of the disease and shape the integrated approach to HIV/AID prevention (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2012).
The National Funding Organization in Canada embraces a wider response to epidemic and underpinnings for the development of the disease.
We will write a custom Essay on Funding for Social Services in Canada specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There is a certain procedure to obtain funding for a specific social program. Canadian Heritage, another funding organization, provides financial assistance to the First Nations Canadians. The organization introduces a series of steps for organizations and corporations to become the candidatures for participating in funding process.
The Canada Heritage introduces documentation and information, application guide, and application form for all programs and event that organization can introduce (Canadian Heritage, 2012). The first step for funding process to start includes the analysis of service standards and delivery of program information.
The organization should also describe the objectives and eligible recipients that can benefit from the program. The application requirements should premised on complete, signed and accurate application template that involve balanced budget. In case of failure to fill out the application form can result in rejection to finance the project.
The program proposal should correlate with the achievement of Program objectives (Canadian Heritage, 2012). In addition, submitting final activity report must be introduced as soon as the money is invested in regional office. In case the report is not submitted, the program will be withdrawn by the funding organization.
While applying for dunging, the organization should be able to conform to all the requirements and responsibilities imposed on them as soon as they receive money for their project.
In particular, Canadian Heritage (2012) recognizes that funding initiative will be satisfied as soon as their requirements are met. In particular, the organization should appreciate cultural, linguistic, geographic, and ethnic diversity in Canada, as well as take part in celebrating the traditions and customs of indigenous population.
Through the Federal Initiative, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Public Health Agency of Canada, and Correctional Service Canada correlate with other federal, territorial, and provincial governments, researchers, and health care professionals who address the issue of HIV/AIDS (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2012).
Program interventions, constant communication, planning, coordination, and social marketing are also among the leading processes that shape the core responsibilities of the funded organization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Funding for Social Services in Canada by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Each of the above-identified departments have particular obligations and duties that promote further collaboration, which can include joint planning, evaluation, monitoring, policy development, laboratory research, and global engagement.
Health Canada is another non-for profit organization whose primary responsibility entails HIV/AIDS prevention, education and global coordination (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2012). With regard to the above-presented responsibilities, specific emphasis should be placed on the analysis of the connection between local and global institutions.
The Canadian Institutes conducting laboratory and health research take responsibility for establishing priorities and controlling the Federal Initiative’s research programs, in collaboration with the Public Health Agency of Canada.
Although the above-presented responsibilities refer to the initiative conducted by a narrow-focused objective, its responsibilities are similar to those that other funded organizations and corporations should take to receive financial support.
Funding for various organizations is predetermined by various goals that contribute to improvement of a certain social sphere. In particular, the Mental Health Commission of Canada is one of the pioneers in advancing the mental health system and shifting perceptions and attitudes of Canadian citizens concerning mental health problems (Mental Health Commission of Canada, n. d.).
The commission is funded by the Health Canada and seeks to create Canadian first mental health strategic framework that will help reduce stigma and examine possible alternatives for help homeless and disabled people.
The Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse is also funded by Health Canada to handle the issue of alcohol and drug dependence. The Nunavut Department of Culture and Heritage also invest money into developing and publishing the resource that help the centre educate the population and introduce effective prevention programs.
The main purpose of the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse lies in brining in knowledge to people and reducing the consequences of alcohol and drugs consumption for society (Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, 2013). Engaging private, public, and non-governmental organizations is also a priority for the social program.
The Health Canada also encourages funding of the National Aboriginal Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy Program that supports the welfare of children and their families by using a community-based strategy for preventing suicide. Increasing awareness and understanding reasons for suicide prevention among youth are among the leading priorities in which Nunavummiut can thrive (Health and Social Services, 2010).
The main aspects of the strategy funding involve programs premised on Inuit tradition and culture, long-term suicide prevention programming through increased awareness, training and education for health care professionals, and crisis response management. Finally, Service Canada is another organization, which promotes funding for people with disabilities who seek employment and professional growth.
By widening their opportunities, the organization strives to provide equal employment opportunities and possible alternative for disabled people irrespective of their ethnicity, gender, and social status (Service Canada, 2012). Legal and income assistance is also an important factor that provides social schemes and bonus plans.
Aboriginal programs funding plays a tangible role in developing and enhancing the First Nations culture and identity, as well as in preserving the development of such spheres as education, social communication, employment and culture.
Revitalizing culture and languages is an important characteristic of Aboriginal People’s program which differs much from the programs that are dedicated to improving quality of social services for the non-native Canadian citizens (Canadian Heritage, 2011).
Specific attention requires the emergence of aboriginal women’s programming elements that introduce Family Violence Initiative, Women’s Community Initiatives, and Women’s Self Government Participation Initiatives. All these programs are oriented on addressing the role of aboriginal women in society and in family. These programs are much more object-oriented as compared to other programs devoted to women’s welfare.
Focus on culture, ethnicity, and gender in Aboriginal programs is a historically and socially predetermined phenomenon because it provides an overview of the challenges that Aboriginal people should overcome to integrate into Canadian society and achieve the necessary employment rate.
What is more important, the funding of health-related programs is more associated with Aboriginal people who face significant problems with their physical and mental health. According to the statistics provided by CUPE (2012), “Aboriginal people suffer high rates of diabetes, tuberculosis, infant mortality, alcoholism, and teen pregnancy.
Rates of suicide in Nunavut …are 12 times higher than the rest of the country” (n. p.). Therefore, the Canadian government has decided to increase funding by millions of dollars to tackle the problem. The numerical data proves the critical situation in the sphere of Aboriginal social welfare, which leads to further need for financial support.
References Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. (2013). Meeka Wellness Manuals Now Available in Inuktitut. Web.
Canadian Heritage. (2010). Aboriginal Peoples’ Program – Funding Opportunities. Web.
Canadian Heritage. (2012). Celebrate Canadian Funding. Web.
CUPE (2012). Federal Budget 2012: Systemic Underfunding for Aboriginal Peoples. Web.
Health and Social Services. (2010). National Aboriginal Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy (NAYSPS) Program. Web.
Mental Health Commission of Canada.. Vision and Mission of the MHCC. Web.
Ontario Trillium Foundation. (2011). Strategic Framework. Web.
Prince, M. J. (2008). The Evolution of Social Policy in Canada and the Expression of Canada in Social Policy. Social Policy University of Victoria. Web.
Public Health Agency of Canada. (2012). Federal Initiative to Address HIV/AIDS in Canada: National Funding. Web.
Service Canada. (2012). People with Disability. Web.
The National Survey of Nonprofit and Voluntary Organizations (2003). Social Services Organizations in Canada. Web.
Nietzsche’s Zarathustra is a Camusian Absurd Hero, That’s to Say He Has No Hope Term Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Problem of Suicide
Life Affirming Suicide
Counter Ideal of Zarathustra
Introduction As an attempt to address some phenomenon in human life, some philosophers have contradicted or dismissed claims of other philosophers. Concern of human suicide is a philosophical problem that has elicited different claims among philosophers. Many philosophers have provided diverse explanations for this event in human life. In their claim, they have used existing philosophy to build their own or conceive a fresh.
Being a philosopher, Nietzsche provides an in-depth view of suicide in his various works, which delineate suicidal motive. He uses a supernatural character, Zarathustra, to explain the concept of suicide in humankind. Additionally, Camus developed a different perspective of suicide.
Hence, this paper focuses on the interpretation of Nietzsche Zarathustra in terms of the relationship between absurdity and suicide as described by Camus.
The Problem of Suicide Camus methods of resolving the Nietzsche’s problem of suicide, and absurd reasoning, might have seemed very surprising to Nietzsche (Camus 3). This may be the case since Camus feels honored to presuppose and confront the complete deficiency of meaning in entire human life.
Consequently, after posing his concern of suicide and life value, he notes that the voluntary death process indicates acknowledgement of the importance of suffering, and the lack of a weighty reason for living. Therefore, Camus (6) asserts that the relationship between the absurd and suicide, the actual extent to which suicide serves as an answer to the absurd, represents the true subject of his essay.
Camus does not seek refuge in any perspective of the ascetic ideal, which Nietzsche has added meaning in every life of human up to the present. As Camus works his path towards the answer, he emphasizes on the question whether it is achievable to appreciate life as worth living without invoking a single ascetic concept that undervalue life.
These ascetic concepts include God, guilt, sin, morality, eternal freedom, soul, ideal worlds, and afterlife. He argues that all such ascetic concepts appeal to the concern of a sacrificial mind.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Life Affirming Suicide Nietzsche focuses on reversing Schopenhauer’s appraisal, and thus keen on reviewing the problem of suicide from the viewpoint of life-affirmation. Thus, he had expressed the perspective that people should accept the wishes of others, who prefer to be deceased, in the Zarathustra speech on the death preachers.
Zarathustra in response to those of the view that life is typical suffering says that, “see to it, then, that you cease … and let this be the doctrine of your virtue … thou shalt kill thyself!” (Loeb 168). Later in the Twilight of the Idols, Nietzsche gives the same advice to Schopenhauer, which Loeb feels can extend to Camus.
Nietzsche argues that it is not under the control of a person to thwart their birth although humans can correct this error, because it is in other cases an error. Thus, when one commits suicide, he or she does the most worthy possible alternative.
Life itself gets more benefit from this course than from life of anemia, renunciation, and many other virtues. The victim has freed others from sight of him or her, and has freed life from hostility. Pessimism first ascertains through the self-refutation by the pessimist. He or she must advance the logic, rather than negate life simply by illustration and will.
Nietzsche argues that the pessimist who desires death conducts a life-affirming and life-enhancing action by killing him/herself. This view aligns with those of Camus and Schopenhauer (Loeb 166).
Life itself gains an advantage from the suicide of pessimism, and the suicide frees life from hostility. Even though the pessimist does not deserve to live, he or she earns the right to live through his or her life-affirming and life-supporting suicide.
If an observer compares life-affirmation with life- and self-preservation, one comes to believe in the strangeness and contradiction of Nietzsche’s reference of the suicide of a decadent. However, this perspective ignores his differentiation of the things, which benefit life from those that benefit specific creatures.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Nietzsche’s Zarathustra is a Camusian Absurd Hero, That’s to Say He Has No Hope specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nietzsche would agree, for sure, that there are life instincts in the degenerate that sustain his live against his or her wish to die. Nevertheless, such forces are lasting and partial for the benefit of people at large. Despite their efforts to keep the degenerate alive, they are helpless with respect to the underlying disease, misery, and fatigue, which make him or her constitutionally incapable of affirming life.
To transcend his or her death wish, the degenerate does not have an option but to live in rebellion against the unsuitable life he or she does not fit. Since the lasting forces that sustain the life of a specific living decadent work against the profits of life, they have overwhelming influence of human life (Loeb 167).
Generally, these forces keep alive a person who tends to oppose life and whose existence represents opposition to life. The decadent has only one option of affirming life in general, which is to deny by ending his or her own life
Nietzsche draws some fundamental conclusions from this course of thinking, which contradicts the usual and the innocuous understanding of his insistence on life-affirmation. The subsequent paragraphs will pivot on three of the conclusions he drew. First, he argued that the decadent has just two alternatives of life-affirming suicide or life-depriving survival that hinders the decadent to live in a manner that affirms life.
Philosophers perceive Nietzsche as upholding the life-affirming life for all, besides counseling pessimist to alter or enhance the life-denying perspective of their lives. Nonetheless, despite his intent to promote life-affirmation of decadents, Zarathustra appears to propagate and intensify the decadents’ innate drive to self-destruction.
Thus, he emphasizes in the Twilight of the Idols that the optimal life interest of ascending life requires that the decadent should push down and away degenerating life. In addition, he later writes in the Antichrist that, “the weak and ill-constituted shall perish: first principle of our philanthropy.
And one shall help them to do so” (Loeb 169). This is absurd as in mainstream public, a person who encounters a decadent anticipating to commit suicide should help the decadent in reversing negative thoughts of suicide.
The second conclusion concerns his quest for a counter-ideal to the ascetic-ideal. In support of this conclusion, he asserts that the decadent is unable to affirm life despite ascetic ideal conferring meaning to his or her life. This implies that meaning is a survival precondition, although it does not ensure life-affirmation.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Nietzsche’s Zarathustra is a Camusian Absurd Hero, That’s to Say He Has No Hope by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, a counter-ideal must offer the form of meaning that sustains life-affirmation. Nonetheless, because Nietzsche views suicide as the only life-affirming alternative for decadents, the counter-ideal must symbolize a new meaning that will overpower any lasting life-preserving forces and facilitate the decadent to succumb to their prevailing suicidal instincts.
This implies that the mainstream understanding of the counter-ideal cannot be proper. The optional non-ascetic ideal “must be able to bear the burden of answering the question, ‘Suffering for what?’ Thereby, impeding suicidal nihilism, because that is the existential task the ascetic ideal discharges” (Leiter 287).
However, counter-ideal hinders the capacity of the ascetic ideal to prevent the occurrence of suicide among decadents. In other words, the counter ideal must object the ability of the ascetic ideal to preserve the blank life of decadents who make up a destitute and opposition to life.
While the ascetic ideal represented a trick life played during its struggle against the imperative death wish of a decadent, the counter-ideal must reveal that trick and simultaneously enhance and justify the appropriate desire of the decadents to commit suicide.
Counter Ideal of Zarathustra In his third essay, Nietzsche used most of his time disintegrating and reviewing the dominant ascetic ideal while dismissing plausible candidates for a novice counter-ideal. However, he did not propose his idea of the construct of the new counter-ideal (Loeb 172).
As a result, many scholars have found his conclusion as unconvincing, evasive, or a depiction of his character as the best at disintegrating than advancing a hypothesis. Nevertheless, scholars should consider Ecce Homo argument, which is in post-Zarathustra books, as presumed to be wholly critical and preliminary to the positive solutions, which Zarathustra had proposed in advance in Thus Spoke Zarathustra.
The reason for this attention is his testimony at the end of the essay of Genealogy that he belonged to his decadent age, and thus, is not healthy, strong, courageous, or free enough to speak with conviction on behalf of the requisite counter-ideal to object the ascetic ideal.
Conversely, he argues that he had to visualize a prospect man with the requisite inspiring wickedness and self-convinced intellectual malice. In this context, Nietzsche recognizes the immoralism of the counter-ideal and confesses to be less courageous or free to advocate it.
According to him, it will take a man belonging in the future era to liberate his contemporaries from the past ideal such as intense nausea, the will to oblivion, and the nihilism. Since Nietzsche argues that the decadence of humankind induces the great nihilism that represents humankind weariness over its own decadence. Hence, the life-affirming aspect is necessary in the facilitation of suicide in humans.
In Ecce Homo analysis of the Genealogy, Nietzsche states that ascetic ideal has immense influence due to ideal independence in spite of the harm associated with it. Noteworthy, counter-ideal was nonexistent until Zarathustra was conceived. Nietzsche attested that the counter-ideal did not originate from him, thus, he did not explain it in the range of work that projected his perspective, not even in the Genealogy.
In light of his conclusion of the second essay, he asserts that it is proper for him to keep silent to avoid interfering with the ascetic ideal than be an atheistic Zarathustra (Loeb 172). Presumably, he could interfere because by writing in his perspective, he would be too afraid to express the sublimely evil and rationally malicious perspective of the desired counter-ideal.
Thus Spoke Zarathustra portrays Nietzsche’s imaginary man of the future compelling human to transcend itself and to determine its own demise. In an introductory exhortation reechoed at various key instances throughout the book, Zarathustra urges humans to accomplish their biggest experience finally, one that will allow them to overcome self.
This symbolizes the hour of intensive disdain towards self when humans appreciate all that they highly treasure concerning self, such as a rationale for existence, poverty, grime, and distorted contentment.
Speaking from a position of a redeemer of grand love and alluding to the beatitudes in the Gospel, Zarathustra declares his love for the overall self-destructive humans desiring to kill themselves and those who can access means to achieve that objective.
Speaking as a preacher of repentance, a position that does not suit him, Zarathustra cautions humans about the consequences of preserving self, disgraceful insignificance, sterility, and hardships that accompany lasting survival.
Criticism of Nietzsche by Camus is rather different from criticisms of other critics. Camus does not deny the importance of transmutation of principles and virtues.
Although in the aspect of nihilism and Nietzsche’s methods for attaining it, Camus creates another transmutation in his writing, which maintains awareness of contemporary and cultural relevance. Camus has the conviction of Zarathustra moving from the cave to the society with a view of provoking it to continue with the rebellion for the cause of a genuine self.
Conclusion Evidently, scholars do not accept most of the initial public speeches of Zarathustra, for they refuse to see or hear, but they use much of their time and efforts in attempting to explain opening command of Zarathustra. Certain philosophers question the meaning of the terms that Nietzsche uses, such as Untergang.
Moreover, other philosophers argue that the Zarathustra’s domination is simply psychological, spiritual, or metaphorical. Yet, some philosophers also claim that retraction and deconstruction of Zarathustra’s initial domination occur as the book advances.
Yet still, some dismiss the whole book as forsaken by Nietzsche when he translated it into the optimal phase of his real masterpieces including the Genealogy. Thus, Nietzsche Zarathustra is a hero who has no hope in life.
Works Cited Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus and Other Essays. New York: Vintage International, 1991. Print.
Leiter, Brian. Nietzsche on Morality. New York: Routledge, 2002. Print.
Loeb, Paul. Nietzsche on Time and History: Suicide, Meaning and Redemption. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2008. Print.
Managerial Issues in Organisations – Fine Coating Inc Case Study custom essay help
Introduction Management and organisational performance are two imperative issues in the executive business management literature. Different studies emphasize that the two aspects are correlative to each other and equally coherent to organisations.
The achievement and drawbacks of several companies have always unswervingly associated with the forms of management with the urge and ability to handle managerial issues tactfully remaining a contested subject. Management in any organisation must consider all aspects related to organisational achievement, including all input and output attributes to the organisation.
Managers are always apt with the task of ensuring that organisations run smoothly by guarantying maximum policy development and implementation to enhance productivity. Policies and strategic planning must always reflect the interest of the organisations with loss control and profit maximisation being integral issues.
Customary care and public relations are among the obligatory factors that management must consider. Central to this reason, this study reviews the case study of Fine Coating Inc.
Problem statement In the Fine Coating Inc., there are several problems underlying within the organisational paradigm. However, one major issue remains the focus to the case of Fine Coating Inc where the President or the chief executive of the organisation is in the states of mystery. Don Perucci is the Chief Executive Officer in of Fine Coating Inc, which is a coating company in Troy, Michigan.
The main issue becoming a contention in Fine Coating Inc is the idea of implementing the Electronic Data Interchange device that would reduce the service costs incurred by the clients.
Apart from the customary demands, the Fine Coating Inc cost of operation was as well increasing at an alarming rate as the process of receiving orders and completing deliveries was becoming increasingly expensive due to intensive manual operations.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Central to this matter, Perucci needs to identify strategic and operational information systems urgently in order to respond effectively to various corporate, market and environmental demands.
Customers are feeling that the process of ordering for services in the company is becoming hectic and costly. The service consumers are urging the company to integrate the Electronic Data Interchange device without considering the present circumstances unfolding within the organisation.
Two integral issues are, however causing a dilemma with Perucci and Smith unable to make informed decisions in implementing the two aspects. Purchasing the sophisticated Electronic Data Interchange device will obligate the company to incur more production costs at the advent of integration of EDI venture in the sense that some employees, especially the supervisors will require in-service training before its implementation.
The company will also require skilled network engineers and software technicians to manage all computers operations. The company also wants to acquire another coating plant in Mexico to expand their services and any investment in EDI device, would postpone their plans towards acquisition of this plant. Both issues are fundamental concerns and Perucci as the CEO has to make informed decisions.
Immediate issues affecting decision making in Fine Coating Inc The contextual factor is the idea of identifying an apposite operational information system in order to respond effectively to various corporate, market and environmental demands. However, achievement of this aspect remains an uphill as the organisation has several issues that need immediate consideration as they are affecting the organisation instantaneously.
As postulated before, there are several organisational, environmental and market pressures that need immediate attention to enable the organisation conclude the objective of fixing the problem.
Organisational matters have largely influenced the basic organisational operations that have affected the customers directly, especially the procedures of order acquisition, delivery, documentation, preparations and the entire coating process as well.
We will write a custom Case Study on Managerial Issues in Organisations – Fine Coating Inc specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Organisational issues stretch from the management of human resource available, technology integration and even customer issues that pose frequent challenges in handing procedures in Fine Coating Inc. Central to this issue, this analysis provides the organisational issues highlighted as pressure-factors to the management.
Before Perucci reaches a conclusion on the necessary solutions that the company needs in a bid to address the problem, they must deem some immediate issues in the organisation. Customer or clientele care is a prerequisite in any organisation and forms an integral part in organisational development.
Perucci must consider the grievances articulated by the customers on the escalating cost in service delivery and way the impact of integrating technological devices, including the implementation of the Electronic Data Interchange. Customer’s satisfaction is always a priority for many organisations since at all cost they depend on them for commercial growth.
Decision making in any organisation must also consider the correlation between idea implantation and financial or economic position of the organisation.
Perucci must consider the availability of finance before deciding on the implementation of the desired project. Another significant aspect of consideration in integration the Electronic Data Interchange in FCI is the availability of skilled human resource to operate this technology.
All the above-mentioned are terms of strategic importance to the firm, but each need different attention basing on the context of the existing problem. Integration of the new technology, including the Electronic Data Interchange seems an integral matter of immediate concern as the weakness seems noticed by the customers.
It is constantly an embarrassment for clients or customers to identify the innermost challenges affecting the organisation, especially the ones that affect them directly. Perucci and the other managers had to make sure that they continue maintaining the quality at an acceptable price to the clients while the competition was intensifying from thousands of developing companies surrounding their coating companies.
However, the competition on prices also escalated with the quality of services depending on technological advancement. Organisational pressures forced to ignore inventory records leading to overstocking and under-stocking with reports containing inaccurate inventory information. Based on such reasons, Perucci must consider integration of Electronic Data Interchange.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Managerial Issues in Organisations – Fine Coating Inc by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Case study analysis (Quantitative causal factors) The case of the problem surrounding the Fine coating Inc is twofold with the causal factors being qualitative and quantitative in nature. Centralisation is one of the probable quantitative causes of the problem with the company requiring extra labour force to executive its duties effectively.
Most of the FCI branches this coating company were small in capacity and thus, could not accommodate several activities pertaining to the organisation. Due to this problem, FCI had decided to centralise most of its activities to the plant in Troy, Michigan, due to complexities in the procedures of coating and the small sizes of other plants that could not supports all services.
FCI centralised important procedural activities, including sales, billing, procurement, sales quotations, receipt of payments, accounting operations and even the vendor payment activities to the bigger Troy plant in Michigan. Based on such circumstances, the company had to employ extra labour to handle ordering and transport activities from the smaller plants to the plant in Troy for other basic services.
Another quantitative causal factor in the context of the FCI case is inadequacy of integral equipment. FCI was growing rapidly while intensifying its operations across several areas, but the major issue rested upon availability of sophisticated material.
The company was underequipped in several ways, including materials necessary for coating process itself as well as other indispensable organisational paraphernalia.
The company lacked technological devices, including the Electronic Data Interchange device that would effectively enable the organisation to undertake clerical duties including data sharing, storage and inventory control in a sophisticated manner than the tedious manual paperwork.
Integrated machinery to control and estimate the amount of chemical consumption was missing and records of chemical output into environment remained underestimated with calculation not revealing the actual emitted pollutants.
Lack of proper integration of these materials remained a challenge as several other coating companies seemed more technologically proficient than FCI, posing competitive challenges to this organisation.
Qualitative Causal Factors As postulated before, the problem causal factors were twofold, with some qualitative factors being of important consideration in FCI. The clients request for Integration of the Electronic Data interchange device to enable consumers to place their purchase orders, request for bids, provide delivery schedules, rerouting information and make payments remained compromised.
The issue might not be necessarily the aspect of financial capital, but in some cases linked to the human capital. In fact, as demonstrated in the case study, FCI had enough financial capital to acquire the technological device with the dilemma in managers being what to consider most between the two integrals issues: purchasing EDI device or acquiring a new plant in Mexico.
At the advent of this quest, none of the managers or even the workers in FCI had prerequisite knowledge on how to handle EDI devices and therefore becoming a confrontation. Since none between Perucci and Smith had operational ideas over EDI software, they had to hire a network engineer and a technician to manage all computer operations at considerably high cost.
Constraints Perucci and Smith have a critical decision making role to execute and tactfully balance between the constraints and opportunities that would determine the providence of the company at that given juncture. One of the greatest constraints that were limiting the implementation of the EDI was the lack of skilled workforce coupled with limitation in production over chemical consumption.
The company lacked appropriate labour force that acted as a hindrance to the entire development and implementation of the Electronic Data Interchange device in the organisation. Another important consideration as part of constraint is the augmenting competition from other competitive coating companies around Michigan.
For Perucci to provide a critical decision on the implementation of the EDI, must consider crucial factors like the prevailing market and customer demands as well as the availability of skilled human capital that would allow smooth integration of the sophisticated device.
Availability of experts to control and provide necessary operational skills and foreseen future ramifications of the EDI is also necessary to avoid unforeseen drawbacks in the sophisticated technology.
Opportunities The environment in which the FCI operated was quite unsettled with intensifying competition and technological concerns overwhelming the industrial realm of Michigan and its environs.
Despite the growing concern over the integration of modern technologies useful in advanced record maintenance in companies, much of which management in FCI had little knowledge about it, the company had its unique opportunities compared to others.
FCI was among the oldest coating companies around Michigan with greater public reputation and customer loyalty that any other coating company in this region. Despite the increasing competition from other coating companies across Michigan, most customers remained contented with FCI’s service quality and the prising strategies used.
Their goodwill and good reputation of FCI was enough to continue expanding their services as well as integrating the new technology that would improve the existing rapport with consumers. The financial stamina of FCI was capable of accommodating the expenses incurred in implementing and the use of Electronic Data Interchange device.
Alternatives to address the problem Creating an alternative in addressing the problem in FCI seems to be a complicated matter since one has to consider the current workforce employed by the company to handle manual paperwork and other sensitive activities.
Definitely, incorporating Electronic Data Interchange devices in data processing and management will reduce the workforce required to handle manual paperwork and imposing employee retrenchment might be an alternative. However, considering the prevailing life circumstances, the manager has to consider the impact of such cutbacks might affect individuals in the organisation.
Based on the opportunities affiliated with the organisation, the rapport between the organisation and its customers is still strong and the customers’ will is of necessary consideration.
Restructuring the organisation to accommodate the prevailing workforce is among the most apposite solution to consider before implementing the EDI device. Therefore, training all staff to handle the EDI and other sophisticated technological devices that may arise within the demand of the competition will be appropriate.
FCI has a greater financial capacity that might enable them to explore other services in the coating industry as well as expanding their competitive advantage by investing in other regions within Michigan and U.S.A.
However, since integration of the EDI was increasing becoming a prerequisite in the organisations to assist the business in controlling sales, undertaking financial accounting, procurement, and controlling inventory, FCI was in a position to manage this implementation.
The greatest opportunity in the company is the fact that FCI had initially not invested in the ERP technology that customers continuously criticised. Customers considered the low-end ERP products useless and that the consumption of such products remained considerably low.
Several coating companies, which formed the competitive environment to FCI have extensively invested in ERP products, which remained critical to the consumption sphere. The FCI had an opportunity, therefore to explore the use of sophisticated EDI in their services, as the technology seemed modernised and of high demand.
Decision Criteria For Perucci and Smith to make well-versed decisions in the uphill task against them, they must consider important quantitative and qualitative factors before reaching a decision between the two alternatives.
Decision making in any organisation must consider qualitative criteria, including aspects of competitive advantage, strategic positioning, customer satisfaction, and business ethics governing the operations of the companies.
On the other hand, Perucci and Smith must consider quantitative factors, including profit margins, operational costs, market share, and the material capacity. In addressing a situation through critical decision-making, it is always imperative for the management to consider both qualitative and quantitative to allow balance and impartial policy formulation.
Quantitative principles For the decision made by the two principals to remain impartial and enable the organisation continue operating with ease and stability, they must consider the relationship between implementation of Electronic Interchange Data device and the expected impact of profitability of FCI. Since the EDI device will offload the paperwork to single technological operators, the device becomes significant in that matter.
Ostensibly, one has to consider the relative cost associating with the integration and implementation of this device and the current financial capacity. If the current financial position of the company cannot accommodate the expenses, the implementation becomes a compromise. However, based on this case, finances were available and thus Perucci should implement the EDI.
Despite the intensifying market competition over coating services, the market share for the organisation at that juncture was adequate to accommodate the existing competition. For such reasons, implementing the EDI device would allow the company to have greater competitive advantage that will further broad its market share through customer satisfaction.
Qualitative Principles The responsiveness of Perucci and Smith in handling the problem at FCI will have to consider numerous qualitative principles before determining the most apposite decision to make. Determining the prevailing competitive advantage in the organisation that associates with the rapport between FCI and customers is paramount.
They only competitive advantage affiliated with FCI include the existing goodwill and reputation that ranks it best among the existing companies, having greater customer loyalty. Since the implementation of the EDI device integration resulted from persistence from customers, it would be important for them to consider the use of EDI to enhance the existing relationship.
The strategic position of FCI will be a matter of great concern before reaching the desired consensus. The closer the company to the economic hubs and developed urban centres, the greater the urge to implement the use of EDI to withstand the technological competence.
Customer satisfaction should be a priority while making decisions on the two alternatives, since service delivery must meet customer’s needs. The purported alternative must fulfil unswerving business ethics governing the operational zones.
Assessing Alternatives and appropriate recommendations Based on the critical assessment of the given alternatives, the above description of the decision criteria intended for use in making the decision is suitable considering the prevailing conditions in FCI. This criterion does not in anyway claim that its perfect, however, the most appropriate for the prevailing situation.
The customers are the livelihood of corporate development and managers cannot in any given circumstances, ignore their concerns. Nonetheless, the growing demand for FCI coating services among its consumers is an important factor and the expansion of the company is essentially imperative for the outreach of its customers.
Based on the contemporary issues influencing the company’s welfare, implementation of the EDI serves the desired urgency as the acquisition of the plant in Mexico waits.
Action and Implementation plan The most suitable action to take is to implement the use of Electronic Data Interchange device that will have several influences on data planning and management as well as the entire production process. Perucci as the President and the Chief Executive of PCI should spearhead efforts in the implementation process.
First step is to establish an extensive investigation and research on companies that have already acquired experience in the use of EDI devices and identify its related significance and ramification. Development of an oversight committee to oversee the critical decision-making and its implementation is necessary.
Perucci and Smith should finally seek external advisory team to offer intellectual support towards the project. After finding appropriate procedures to follow, Perucci and Smith must come up with strategies of identifying skilled labour force necessary for proper handling and training the staff over the sophisticated devices.
Protection of Inventors Ideas Research Paper essay help free: essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Purpose and significance of study
Case 1: Sony Corp vs. Universal City Studio
Patent case: Apple vs. HTC
Introduction The product that comes from the mind of inventors is commonly referred to as intellectual property. Intellectual property is a distinct creation of the human mind or something which someone has invented and has exclusive rights to make or sell, especially something that cannot legally be copied by other people. The rights are a legal protection of the creator’s concerns.
They give the creator full rights over the entirety of his or her creation. Intellectual property may be an idea but it can be translated into tangible object and infinite number of copies be distributed in several parts of the world. The tangible objects may not have the property but the idea of the property reflected in the copies. The biggest limitation with intellectual property is the duration of protection of the property.
Despite its intangible nature, it is considered an asset which currently has replaced tangible substance as the ultimate economic resource. The climate of inventing and coming up with new ideas is overshadowed by the need to protect these ideas. Many inventors have seen their ideas taken over by others without their consent or permission.
And other inventors, even after patenting the ideas, have seen their inventions being accessed and used without their permission. According to statistical data, most ideas are highly unlikely to become successful inventions in the market. In fact, the success rate of inventions depends on how they are marketed.
Studies have found out that only 2 percent of inventions become successful after launching. However, in spite of the little success rate, the need to protect ideas and inventions from unauthorized use is crucial to inventors.
Purpose and significance of study Cases of copyright infringement and stolen start up ideas have been very common. But scholars argue that unless one does some valuable with an idea, the idea still remain worthless. Inventors have to engage in order to learn more about the nature of impact their ideas will have. A lot of fear is associated with an idea especially at an early stage of development.
Inventors worry whether their ideas are worthwhile and whether they will lead to a greater impact. However, an inventor can begin to own an idea once it becomes worthwhile to the people it targets or to customers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is perhaps no doubt that there are several similar ideas in people’s minds elsewhere. But the person who begins using his or her idea to create value to customers can then claim ownership of the idea and protects it from being misused.
An inventor will definitely have to consult others in order to further understand the viability of his or her idea. In the process of engaging and conversing, the inventor shares the idea. At this point of engagement, ideas are usually far from perfect and the need to engage helps the inventor to get more insight on how to execute the idea.
This is a crucial point because many ideas have been stolen through such engagements. The first approach in protecting one’s idea is protection during these engagements. An inventor is more likely to create something tangible, the faster he or she begins executing the idea.
Case 1: Sony Corp vs. Universal City Studio In this case, Universal City Studio filed a suit against Sony for making cassette players which come with ability of recording music. Some of the music produced by Universal City Studios has been recorded by users without the permission of the company. The music is protected under copyright laws which prevent users from recording the music for any purpose.
Even though Sony does not participate in infringement of copyright, the company contributes to further infringement of the law, according to the suit. From this case, copyright laws are seen to be one of the ways in which an individual can protect his or her idea from companies and other users. The two recommended steps for one to take are discussed below.
The best way to defend an invention is by being offensive. The faster an inventor can begin to execute his or her idea, the faster it becomes to protect it through patent laws. However, even if one is able to protect every single bit of the idea, there is a considerable large amount of planning, money, and time needed.
In the process, rival companies and individuals may be in seeking to know what the idea is all about. It is therefore critical for one to know when to discuss invention ideas and with whom to discuss them with. The following are four safe instances available for an inventor to discuss his or her invention. Outside these instances, any discussion may not be considered safe for the idea.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Protection of Inventors Ideas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An inventor can discuss invention ideas once he or she has a pending patent status or has already obtained a patent. Secondly, when the execution of the idea requires some sort of partnership, the inventor can go ahead to discuss the idea with the party required.
Thirdly, after signing a non disclosure agreement (NDA) an inventor can freely speak about the idea because NDA bounds the other person from disclosing any information regarding the idea. Lastly, an inventor can discuss invention idea when explaining every detail to a patent attorney.
If an idea is not discussed under these conditions, then most likely its prospects for success can easily be sabotaged. The unfortunate thing is that many inventors are either unaware of these conditions or simply act oblivious to them. They engage in informal conversations with outsiders who end up executing or patenting the ideas before the original owner does.
Patent case: Apple vs. HTC Apple Inc, a US based smart phone company, has patented many of its products and ideas. However, due to the intense competitions existing in the smart phone industry today, it is likely to find a few infringements of the patents by rival companies.
In 2010, Apple sued HTC for infringing some of its patented intellectual properties. The case came to an end in 2012 with a licensing agreement between the two companies. However, the content of the agreement was never disclosed. This case therefore is the second way by which one can protect his or her idea.
Intellectual property is usually protected from the time it is translated into tangible objects. This however varies with different nations. Protection of intellectual property is valid only within the period that the creator is alive. The original creator usually has a successor. The successor would claim all the economic rights of the property once the original creator dies.
There are also instances where an individual is employed by a company or an organization to invent and create things. Such forms of intellectual property are usually owned by the organization or the employer. The employer would receive all the economic benefits that arise from sales and distribution of the property while the original creator would only gain the moral rights.
The original owner also reserves the right to allow a third party to gain from the economic benefits of his or her property. The third party may be a company that markets and distributes the tangible objects containing the intellectual property however they have to make payments to the original owner in the form of royalties.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Protection of Inventors Ideas by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Transferability takes two forms, licensing and assignment. In assignment, the third party whom the rights are assigned to becomes the rightful owner of the property and can perform certain acts with it. In the case of licensing, the third party whom the rights are transferred to does not get full ownership of the property.
Conclusion In conclusion, it is evident that intellectual property has replaced tangible substance as the ultimate economic resource. This has made it an essential asset for inventors to protect from unauthorized use and access through trademarks, patents, and copyright. The need to protect ideas and intellectual property is also important for development of innovation.
Inventors therefore need to be aware of the appropriate mechanism for ensuring that their ideas are not stolen by anyone. This paper has highlighted the various ways in which an inventor can protect his or her idea using two approaches. Copyright, patent, and trademarks are among the ways in which inventors should use to protect their intellectual properties.
Works Cited Adamson, John E. and Amanda Morrison. Law for Business and Personal Use. New York: McGraw Hill, 2011. Document.
Cheeseman, Henry. Business law, Legal environment, Online commerce, Business ethics and International issues. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2010. Document.
Coase, Williams. The Aims of the Law of Tort”, Current Legal Problems. 2nd. Oxford: Hurt Publishing, 2003. Document.
Deakin, T., H. Johnston and N Markesinis. Markesinis
Blendworth Brand Development Strategies Report essay help site:edu
Introduction Blendworth is one of the international companies that deal with the production and sale of fabrics. The company is in the business of selling high quality fabrics and wall coverings which match the current fashion trends.
The company sells products such as; skills, velvet and wall papers (Blendworth 2012). A brand can be regarded as a promise by the company to the consumer that the product will perform as per the customer’s expectations. Branding is imperative as it gives information about the superiority and quality of a given product as opposed to the competitor’s products.
To the customer, branding entails quality, less time wastage during buying, a symbol and lower risk as one knows the product performance. Proper branding means that customers spend less time making purchasing decisions and they remain loyal to the brand as it satisfies their needs.
To the company, branding is the basis for competitive advantage, a sign of high quality, increased financial returns and a means of developing unique connections with the customers.
Brand Goal The overall goal of this project is to increase the profile and reputation of Blendworth Company (Holt 2004). The project hopes to create awareness among the consumers of the company’s products, improve the company’s competitive advantages, differentiate a company’s product from others and create a connection between the company and the customer.
Situational Analysis The development and enhancement of the Breadworth Brand is mainly geared towards increasing awareness, differentiating the company’s products and creating a competitive edge for this company (Kotler 2003).
Through the previous research, it was found out that Blendworth has a good reputations and brand that is slowly eroding due to increased competition and lack of proper marketing strategies. The SWOT (strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats) analysis revealed that the company has a strong brand, experience, good capital base, highly experienced workers and excellent corporate culture.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Its main weaknesses are few products, lack of adequate marketing strategies and failure to introduce new products. The main opportunities are the high demand for fashionable fabrics, a large international market and company’s positions. The main threats are increased competition by incumbent companies as well as new entrants, substitute products and customer tastes and preferences (Aaker 2005).
Most of the Blendworth company customers are both local and international. The domestic market has 2500 customers and the foreign market having 3000 customers in 40 countries. The main customers are individuals, designers and retailers.
The company faces stiff competition from local and international companies that are slowly eroding the brand and reputation of the company.
Brand vision strategy The brand vision strategy is an expression of the future that the company wants to take based on deep understanding of the consumers wants and the ability of the company to fulfill these wants.
Blendworth Brand vision: Blendworth, prides itself in the productions and sale of high quality fabrics and wall coverings that exceed the customer’s wants and provide unsurpassed comfort.
The company will strive to lead in providing fashionable and aesthetic fabrics, wall papers, silks, velvet and other fabric related products. The company will ensure proper evaluations on quality, price, employee and customer satisfaction so as to ensure that continued growth of the business (Clifton 2009).
Brand promise: Blendworth will ensure the provision of high quality fabrics at reasonable prices
We will write a custom Report on Blendworth Brand Development Strategies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Target Audience Blendworth branding campaigns are intended to target three different kinds of audiences as represented by the target market analysis. The target audience can be classified into two main groups and further, these two groups are subdivided into three main parts. These are indicated below
The local audience comprise of all the local customers found in United Kingdom. Currently, the company has 2500 local customers who can further be classified in a hierarchical manner such that the most important client is given the highest priority.
The other class of customers is located outside the UK. Currently the company has 3000 international clients working across 40 nations. Again, the organization of audience in terms of priority is shown below
Branding objectives Blendworth will launch a three year branding campaign. The main objectives of this branding campaign are:
To develop a three year promotion and advertisement campaign aimed at strengthening the Brendworth company image
To redesign the web and other brand element
To increase the Blendworth company customers by 20 percent every year for the next three years (this applies to both international and local customers)
To increase the brand loyalty, company prestige and status
Branding Strategies Branding is a holistic process where the company’s products are promoted as being effective, of high quality and of a competitive price (Aaker, 2004).
For Blendworth Company to brand their product, the change process should be holistic and should improve the product quality, price, promotion, the distribution channels and the communication between the client and the company (Aaker 1995). In this regard, the branding process will focus on these major issues. The branding strategies are:
Product improvement: The first step will be study the company’s product in relation to the competitors. The company’s fabric will also be compared to the best quality fabric worldwide. This will enable the company to improve their products based on existing standards. The production department will work closely with the sales department and ensure that continuous improvement of the products based on the current fashion trends.
Promotions and advertisements: the company will create a two year advertisement and sales plan that will be rolled out locally and internationally. The company will prepare a two year marketing plan to help in branding (Caples 1998). Locally, Blendworth will market its products through the use televisions, broadcast messages and through the print media.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Blendworth Brand Development Strategies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The use of these media will ensure that the message reach the targeted customer. Other marketing strategies to be used locally are the social media and the internet (Hooley 2012). These will enable the company capture the young people who will be drawn to buy the products. Internationally, the company will prepare advertisement materials and work closely with the retailers and designers.
The promotional messages will then be transmitted to these middlemen who will then market the products on behalf of Blendworth.
To prepare adverts for the international customers, Blendworth will work with designers and retailers in those countries so that the advertisements are tailor made for a given target market (Kaser 2012). It is important that the advertisements be made so as to target a particular region Yeshin 2006).
Product branding: The entire product from the Blendworth will be branded with the companies name and a promotional statement. These two items will be redesigned so that there are more appealing and they artistically represent the company’s main theme.
Website redesign: Blendworth website will be redesigned so as to make it more appealing and flashy. This process will transform the website into a creative, user centered site that integrates the company’s missions and vision with the brand that is being developed.
The website will have additional features such as linkages with the social media where feedback from customers can be accessed. The development of this website is imperative as it will serve as a communication link between the customers and the company.
Product launch: One of the best methods to show continuous improvement is the use of product launch. As aforementioned, the company will develop new fabrics in line with the changing fashion trends.
When new improved products are brought into the market, the company will organize for product launch to be aired on televisions, print media and through the internet (Doyle 2001). These launching events will ensure that the company gets media attention as well as involvement by top designers and retailers who will in turn buy the products (Lynn 1995).
Sponsoring events: The Company will sponsor events dealing with interior decorations and trade fairs. These events will be held in the major towns around the world. These events will bring designers, retailers and the public into viewing our products and this will enhance the brand (Kapferer 2012).
Success stories from top designers: the company will collaborate with successful people in the fashion, music, movie and athletics industry. Using these people, the company will show their homes having blendworth fabrics and other products. This will enhance the brand image (Mullin 2012).
Price discrimination and differentiation: For Blendworth to succeed in international market, prices and quality should be differentiated regionally. High class markets should get high quality fabrics at a very high cost. This is because these customers link high cost to quality.
On the other hand, medium and loss class residents should get fabrics at a lower price and of a reasonable quality. In this way the company will become a market leader in terms of pricing (Nagle
“Reconstruction: The Second Civil War, Parts I and II”: Revealing Narratives and Lesser-known Lives Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help online
In the documentary Reconstruction: The Second Civil War, Parts I and II, the personal stories shared are intriguing because they have not been told in detail for most students. This era of US history had as much impact on subsequent events as did the Civil War itself. It was largely the result of the actions of small numbers of people, rather than the masses of men involved in the Civil War itself.
Among the most compelling personal narratives were those of Tunis Campbell and the white people with whom he clashes; Jacob Waldburg and Fan Butler. Another compelling story is that of Marshall Harvey Twitchell. These are all names that are not as well-known as some others in civil rights history, and their efforts intriguingly foreshadow many of the conflicts and advances later on.
The story of Tunis Campbell is fascinating because the settlement on St. Catherine’s Island represents the actual aspirations of freed former slaves. Campbell had many detractors at the time, frightened and offended by the idea of his leadership (PBS Episode I, 00:40). After St. Catherine’s Island properties were taken back at the point of guns wielded by black soldiers, he ran successfully for political office.
Threatened by white politicians when he tried to enter the legislature, he was eventually charged with malfeasance in office, and sent to a convict labor camp. He died in Boston in 1891, having written several books, met with the great and mighty, been elected to public office, and established a self-governing colony of formerly enslaved persons, albeit briefly (PBS Episode II, 1:19).
Accounts of his life and accomplishments vary widely, with some observers attesting that he actually raked off most of the income that his settlers made, or that the settlers subsisted on the largesse of the Freedman’s Bureau (LIberty County Historical Society), while move quickly past his settlement efforts (New Georgia Encyclopedia).
This makes his tale all the more intriguing. The strivings of Tunis Campbell and the formerly enslaved persons he led prove that neither the condition of slavery nor post-emancipation racism was enough to stamp out their initiative.
Jacob Waldburg’s protest of the taking of those coastal Georgia lands represents another interesting story in the documentary (PBS Episode I, 00:42). He had ownership of those lands, insofar as anyone of European ancestry could be said to have ownership of lands that were originally used in common by Native Americans and First Nation peoples.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He resented the way that his lands were given to others, especially to former slaves. This Waldburg’s outrage foreshadows the outrage of more recent landowners when they feel that their property is taken at government order, without appropriate remuneration, for whatever reason. Waldburg got his property back, apparently, because the black settlers would not fight black soldiers.
The story of another white landowner who was dealing with the problem of freed slaves in new roles was Fan Butler (PBS Episode II, 00:12). She was less successful in the long term even than Waldburg. She was from a prominent family, with a history of abolition-based conflict between her actress mother and her planter father. Thus, she must have been more than usually informed about the issues involved.
She came back to her family’s coastal island properties to restart rice production, and found the process of negotiating with former slaves as paid labor too difficult. The suspicions of the former slaves and the racist assumptions of the planter ended up sending her to England to start over with her British husband.
Harvey Twitchell, a white Union veteran assigned to run the Freedmen’s Bureau, is intriguing because he literally gave his body to trying to help freedmen claim their rights in the Red River area of Louisiana (PBS Episode II, 00:20).
He served as judge, labor negotiator and school board for a fractious and dangerous area (Tunnell). This instance of white commitment to the redress of the wrongs of slavery reminds the viewer of how complex the situation was. He ended up as a double amputee, but serving his nation as consul to Canada.
All of the stories illuminate areas of Reconstruction that are less than exhaustively well known. Those discussed above provide a more detailed view of the complicated process that led us to our racial situation today.
Works Cited LIberty County Historical Society. “Tunis G. Campbell.” 2013. LIberty County Historical Society. Web.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on “Reconstruction: The Second Civil War, Parts I and II”: Revealing Narratives and Lesser-known Lives specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More New Georgia Encyclopedia. Tunis Campbell (1812-1891). 2013. Web.
Reconstruction: The Second Civil War. PBS. 2003. Web.
Reconstruction: The Second Civil War, Part II. PBS. 2003. Web.
Tunnell, Ted. “Marshall Harvey Twitchell and the Freedmen’s Bureau of Bienville Parish.” Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association Publication Info 33. 3 (1992). Web.
Chinese Novellas: The Role of Memory and Perception Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents My Old Home by Lu Xun
When I was in Xia Village by Ding Ling
My Old Home by Lu Xun “As I remembered it, it was nothing like this; it was a much better place. But when I tried to recall or articulate its beauty, I discovered I held no mental image of it – no words to describe it. Maybe it had always been like this, I told myself. Even though time had been kind to it, it was surely not as bleak as it now struck me. It was I who had changed, I reasoned; grown melancholy (Xun 70).
The passage is uttered by person who comes back to the house of his parents. Judging from the plot, the readers can deduce that the protagonist has not been in this place for a long time, and he expects to see the images that are extremely dear to him. However, his expectations are bitterly disappointed.
The main character cannot understand whether he has become too melancholy or his home has become so bleak (Xun 70). It is possible to argue that Lu Xun attempts to show how individual can create artificial memories in order to shield themselves from traumatic experiences and create a different version of the past.
Overall, in this short story, the author attempts to emphasize the inaccuracy of memory and perception. The descriptions provided by the writer show that an individual can convince oneself of something and this idea can become engraved in his/her memory. This is one of the points that can be made.
Such experiences are familiar to the narrator. Nevertheless, this person can easily become disillusioned. This phenomenon is depicted in the selected passage. The story-teller attempts to discover the mental images of his home in order to recollect the beauty and the joy of his childhood years (Xun 70).
Nevertheless, his memory fails him because he can find nothing that may confirm his convictions about the past. This is the moment when he begins to re-evaluate his perception of the past. One should take into consideration that Lu Xun relies on the literary technique that is very popular among writers.
In particular, he adopts such a method as stream of consciousness when the narrator combines his/her memories of the past with present-day experiences (Middleton
Killing the Innocence in War, Justified or Murder? Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Abstract
Arguments for and Against Killing the Innocent in War
Defenses against Killing
Abstract The debate surrounding the justification of deaths of innocent people caused by warring soldiers during war is a complicated issue to deal with. For fear of being attacked by disguised enemies, soldiers have ended up killing innocent civilians including older men, women, and children. While some people have argued that this may be acceptable, others think otherwise.
To a large extent, this is linked to the belief that human beings are mostly reasonable. Generally, killing of civilians during war time is regarded as a serious offence that should be dealt with carefully if the innocent have to receive protection.
On the other hand, however, it is possible for warring soldiers to find themselves in difficult situations requiring them to act fast to protect themselves from attackers unknown to them. This is especially true whenever a soldier is fighting on the enemy’s soil.
While it is ordinarily believed that most civilians especially women and children are the innocent ones, there are instances where they have been used by soldiers to ferry dangerous weapons to be used against the opponents.
This has led to situations where a soldier ignores the fact a civilian may be innocent and goes ahead to kill in self defense. This is based on the fact that it may be difficult to determine the innocence of the civilian. To be on the safe side, soldiers generally regard every person as a potential threat.
Introduction The appeal to what would cause outrage in the general sentiments of humanity is a common way to think about the elements of normal moral perception of which each person is thought to be capable. Certain things are thought to be so heinous that any person would be outraged when perceiving them. The killing of civilians during war time is one of the commonly cited examples of this kind of monstrous act (May, 2005).
But consider, for a moment, the conditions of war fare when one is acting in enemy territory. In some war time situations, every person, soldier or civilian, is a potential threat. If the civilians seem to be unarmed, and the soldiers are armed, then the idea of the civilians as potential threats is only partially blunted, because the soldiers often do not know which civilians are members of the enemy forces.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Arguments for and Against Killing the Innocent in War It is clearly an outrage against the sentiments of humanity for soldiers to kill civilian men, women, and children? Initially, it seems that the answer would be clearly yes, as was held by the American military tribunal that convicted Lieutenant Calley. The shooting of seemingly unarmed civilians, especially children, at point blank range, appeared to be morally outrageous.
Virtually, all societies have had strong moral prohibitions against the taking of innocent life (McMahan, 2009). The standard morally acceptable bases for justified killings, whether in self defense or in defense of others, can not be seen to justify killing those who do not have the capacity to harm or kill a well armed, typically male, adult soldier. Ordinarily, soldiers are trained to kill.
When soldiers follow their training, and kill, it is not as much of an outrage as it would be for a non soldier to engage in such killing. But when a soldier or non soldier kills an innocent person, especially a child, this is considered to be enough of an outrage to our civilized instincts to think that it should be heavily sanctioned so as to prevent future acts of this sort at almost any cost (Buhk, 2012).
In My Lai massacre, it is uncontested that Lieutenant Calley and his men killed more than 100 unarmed civilian men, women, and children. However, as one reads through the various court opinions in the case, there is quite a lot of disagreement of how best to characterize these killings.
As pointed out earlier, the military tribunal found Calley guilty of war crimes, and the Court of Military Review upheld the conviction. But the first civilian court to consider the case took a very different position. Here is how the U.S. District Court characterized some of the facts:
The petitioner was 25 years of age and had been an enlisted man for approximately 14 years. The petitioner’s first assignment in Vietnam was at Doc Pho. This was the first indoctrination about the character of the potential enemy. He was told that women were as dangerous as men, and that children were even more dangerous because they were unsuspected.
He was also informed that women were frequently better shots than the men and that the children were used to plant mines and booby traps. During Calley’s earlier limited missions, the unit was continually subject to fire from unknown and unseen individuals.
We will write a custom Essay on Killing the Innocence in War, Justified or Murder? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A number of men in the company had been killed or wounded and prior to the operation at My Lai, they had never seen the persons responsible for the death or injuries of their buddies. Consequently, the formed the opinion that civilians were in part responsible.
When Calley was supposedly to go to My Lai and kill everyone there, his background assumption seems to have been that all the people in the village, including men, women, and children, were enemies and potential threats.
The U.S. District Court, therefore, granted Calley’s petition for habeas corpus relief in part because of how it understood the facts. On the other hand, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit reversed the U.S.
District, also at least in part because of its very different construal of the factual record. In reversing the U.S. District Court, the Circuit Court of Appeals seemed to see the My Lai incident as nothing other than a slaughter of unarmed, unresisting old men, women, and children.
What complicated the picture in My Lai was that the distinction between civilian and combatant had become blurred, with even fairly small children being used to transport weapons.
So while there may be strong sentiments against the killing of civilians, especially children, there was a possible defense in the case of My Lai that might have been an exception to the moral judgment about what was normally acceptable or appropriate behavior.
For there was reason, according to the US District Court, to believe that some civilians, and even some children, could be trying to inflict injury or death on the American soldiers in this Vietnamese hamlet.
At Calley’s military trial, and also in the US Circuit Court of Appeals, such reasons were indeed considered and rejected, after much discussion and debate. However, the US District Court seemed to believe that some of the civilians who were killed might have been thought to be threats to the soldiers in Lieutenant Calley’s unit.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Killing the Innocence in War, Justified or Murder? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In retrospect, it seems that the District Court opinion was seriously flawed. For even if Calley had feared that the civilians in the My Lai hamlet might be enemy soldiers in disguise, they gave no indication that they were armed or that they were posing an immediate threat to Calley and his men.
According to McMahan (2009), the moralized notion of a combatant as anyone who poses a threat in war is different from the legal notion. In law, combatant status is accorded to persons who satisfy certain criteria, such as disguising themselves visibly at a distance by some conventional sign, carrying their arms openly, subordinating themselves to a hierarchy of authority and command, and obeying the laws of war.
Failure to satisfy such criteria can result in the forfeiture of combatant status under the law. While combatants in this legal sense are all presumed to pose a threat, not all of those who pose a threat in war are combatants in this sense.
While all those who pose a threat in war are combatants in the moral sense, a major problem in war theory is that there are many people who pose a threat in war who would not be considered combatants by anyone (McMahan, 2009).
In partial defense of the District Court, I would point out that we do not always require soldiers to prove that enemy soldiers pose an immediate threat before it is considered justifiable to kill them. It may be too late by the time it discovered that suspected enemy soldiers are concealing not only their identities but also their weapons.
The point here is not to argue that Calley should have been relieved of responsibility, but only to indicate that even in this seemingly clear case, two courts came to different conclusions about how to regard the My Lai massacre based on how they reconstructed the threat faced by Calley and his men in Vietnam.
This discussion does not call into question the normal sentiment that innocent life should be preserved. Rather, what is uncertain is the very judgment that a certain adult or even a child is to be seen as an innocent person.
And yet it is this judgment, really a matter of moral perception, which is crucial to the determination of whether it was indeed an outrage for Lieutenant Calley’s unit to kill civilians in the hamlet of My Lai in Vietnam.
Defenses against Killing In the US tort law, one way to make sense of whether one is liable for a given harm that he or she did not intend to cause is to ask whether one violated a duty of care owed to the person armed (May, 2005). To ascertain if one had such a duty, one looks, among other things, at what the burden would have been to the agent if he or she had conformed to the duty.
If the crucial issue before us concerns the possible culpable ignorance or moral negligence of soldiers, then the tort analysis of duty and negligence becomes relevant. What makes many battlefield situations so tragic is that the cost of acting with due care toward civilians is often that the soldiers risk death to themselves.
In non battlefield situations, one is hardly ever faced with imminent death if he or she exercises due care towards others in his or her life. It is for this reason that the superior orders defense shows up most commonly in the battlefield situations, and not very often off the battlefield.
It may be helpful to think of conspiracy as a model of most types of shared or collective responsibility. If Susan, Smith, and Alex recruit Peter to drive a gateway car in a bank robbery scheme cooked up by Susan, then it makes sense to think of all four as collectively responsible for the resulting bank robbery.
This is especially apparent if Peter is paid well for his contribution and understands perfectly, how her contribution to this joint venture will aid in its successful completion. The driver, Peter, is a cog in a machine like enterprise that will make the robbery possible in ways that would not be true if any of the four people involved were acting on their own or in only a loosely connected manner.
For this reason, they are collectively responsible for the results of their joint undertaking. Their individual responsibility will depend on the role that each plays in the joint venture.
Suppose that while Peter is driving away from the scene of the crime pedestrian steps off a curb in the path of the gang’s fleeing car. Peter, generally a compassionate person begins to apply the brake, but Susan, the insensitive ring leader puts a gun to Peter’s head and urges him to drive on to avoid being court.
Should Peter be held responsible for the injuries of the pedestrian as well as for the robbery? On the assumption that one held a gun to Peter’s head to get him to join the conspiracy in the first place, Peter seems to be in a different moral position with respect to the pedestrian’s injuries than with respect to the robbery itself.
Certainly, Peter appeared to have a choice of whether to join the robbery conspiracy, but not much of a choice about whether to run down the pedestrian. Was it a moral choice of Peter to ignore the order given by Susan?
There are many parallel cases in international law, such as when a soldier or subordinate feels that his or her life is threatened if he or she does not follow orders. The same consideration should be operative, making us reluctant to say that in such situations, there is a moral choice available to the soldier (Kurtz
Loury, Douglass, and King Jr. Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Glen Loury is an American author and a champion of civil rights movement. He is widely recognized for his role on the attempts to re-focus the civil rights movement. Martin Luther king Jr. is an American activist, leader, and a clergyman. He is widely recognized for his African-American Civil Rights Movement (King, 2010).
Douglass (1852) is an American writer, social reformer, and orator. Together with King (2010), Douglass pressed the grievances and demands of blacks to the American Nation. In this paper, Loury’s argument is different from those of Douglas and King when they all pushed for civil America (Douglass, 1852; King, 2010).
Loury addressed the challenge to liberals and conservatives that was in the spirit of Martin Luther King, Jr. He focused on the struggle for freedom and equality among the Central Americans.
Some of the issues that Loury championed for include the unfulfilled hopes, social pathologies, competing visions, ideological barrier, political quagmire, needed commitment, one ingredient for progress, permanent victims, double standards, wrong of the past, self fulfilling prophecy, societal paradox, and profound tragedy (Loury, 2010).
Loury (2010) found it difficult to sell the idea of self help and reliance among the black because of the opposition he received within the black community, his black critics claimed that his arguments were instrumental in serving the interest of those who were plotting for ways of marginalizing the poor blacks.
Lorry was limited and greatly agonized the wastage of human potential in the ghetto (Loury, 2010). He only had ideologies that were not enough to be put into action without the government’s implementation (Lorry, 2010).
Douglass rhetorical strategy was similar to Martin Luther King’s. He focused on ways of pricking the conscience of the White Americans for their tolerance of slavery and the racial cast in America. Among the problems Douglass faced in his quest for liberation was slavery (Douglass, 1852).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He managed to escape from slavery in Maryland to Massachusetts where he became one of the most popular orators of the North Abolitionist Movement. Through oratory, he managed to concur the minds of blacks to the realization of equity and fair treatment (Douglass, 1852).
Martin Luther King Jr. was best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights, being a clergyman he passed his message on abolition of slave trade, racism, and eradication of racial segregation and slavery through preaching and crusades. He also wrote manuscripts (King, 2010).
It is also worth noting that at one time King experienced great difficulty in completing the manuscript of Stride Towards Freedom: The Montgomery Story. In writing this book King had to rely upon assistant from many other people. The people boycotted working on the book because of boycott movement that was currently going on. Martin Luther also experienced opposition from the black press.
He greatly faced opposition from some black leaders who felt threatened by his ascent to power and the constant threat king posed on the white race (King, 2010). These Afro-American who were patriotic in achieving civil rights encountered lots of problems which included slavery, warrants of arrests, and civil war.
In conclusion, Glen Loury, Douglass, and Martin Luther Jr. were spearheading freedom and justice to their people. This has resulted in the equality that the blacks are currently enjoying in the Central America and the whole world.
References Douglass, F. (1852, July 5). What to the Slave is the Fourth of July? Retrieved from https://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/what-to-the-slave-is-the-fourth-of-july/
King, M.L. (2010). Letter from a Birmingham Jail. In K.M. Dolbeare
Skills of Management: Summary Report college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Summary In the book by Rees and Porter, management has been described as the process by which individuals (leaders) make things happen through the use of other individuals (Graham, 1988). It usually involves organising, coordinating and controlling. Rees and Porter (2008) argue that managers usually have an escalator-type progression into their managerial positions.
A specialist is that individual who is usually involved in a particular activity within the organization. Many organizations are structured in such a way that employees perform specific (specialized) activities. Managers in such organizations also manage specialized activities.
The journey of a manager is seen as one that begins with the individual having worked in an organization or department that involved the use of a specialised skill. When getting into a managerial position, the individual is most likely advancing specialist skills acquired through training and experience. The terms managerial escalator define the process by which such specialists develop into managers.
A specialist in a particular field may become competent with time and get the opportunity to do minor supervisory roles. For example, an engineer may advance into a section head. This way, the individual acquires certain managerial responsibilities but still maintains the same (junior) position.
After a certain period of time, the individual may get an actual promotion within the same organization or in another organization. At this point, the individual may have informally accumulated certain managerial responsibilities. This movement from a specialist into a manager describes the escalator-type progression into particular position.
However, these managers (former specialists) may not engage in specialist activities. They would only be mainly involved in the management of other specialists within the organization (Mead, 2005).
They may need to combine their specializations with managerial duties. This way, they become managerial hybrids. However, managers are required to put the organization’s priorities before their own in order to avoid conflicting with the interests of the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Management positions usually require the manager to have some level of specialist knowledge in order for the individual to be sensible and to be respected by his subjects. Such specialist skills are useful since they enable the manager to have an understanding of the environment in which they work.
However, the aspect of being a specialist may act as a handicap to the managers. This is mainly due to the fact that the manager may not get the right balance between managerial and specialist activities. One of the problems associated with specialists is that they may acquire specialist skills over a long time but be less able to use them over time.
The managerial side of certain specialist skills may also be considered low for the managerial job. This is due to the fact that managers with specialist skills may have worked for many years but actually acquired limited managerial skills.
In situations where specialists are forced into acquiring managerial positions, there is a need for an alternative career progression. However, such dual structures may not be available in practice. If available, it might be difficult to separate the specialist duties from the managerial ones. Top management positions (such as the chief executive officer) are usually occupied by individuals without specialist knowledge.
However, such managers also require a good understanding of their organization in order to manage its operations. Another conflict that may arise between specialist and managerial responsibilities is the job titles. Other job titles in specialised positions do not sound like management positions in any aspect.
The position of ‘site engineer’, for example, may not be compared to the position of ‘site manager’ since one sounds like a management position while the other does not and yet both represent the same position.
One of the key questions that the authors (Rees and Porter) are trying to answer includes the major process that is involved in the management of employees. They were also seeking to explain how individuals become managers. They explained this using the concept of the managerial escalator.
We will write a custom Report on Skills of Management: Summary specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The authors also examined some of the drawbacks associated with specialist career structures and one of them included the fact that specialists are less likely to be recruited for top management positions in the organizations.
One of the basic concepts used by the authors is the concept of managerial escalator that explains how managers are developed from specialists. The authors’ point of view with respect to the issue is that most organizations have employees and managers who are involved in specialised activities.
They are also of the view that managers are usually the specialists who have climbed the ranks within the organization or in other organisations. However, they believe that such managers may not be very good in managing a diversified organization. They may also cause problems in the organizations in various ways.
The authors also argue that having high level of technical knowledge in particular areas does not necessarily mean that the individual would make a good manager. The individual might actually lack managerial aspirations.
One of the assumptions that the authors have made is that a good manager is one that has found the balance between being a specialist and being involved in managerial activity. One fundamental conclusion made by the authors is that managers should not only have quality training but also quantity training.
References Graham, P 1988, Dynamic Managing – The Follett Way, Professional Publishing, Guardian.
Mead, R 2005, International Management: Cross Cultural Dimensions, 3rd ed., Blackwell Publishers, New York.
Is Social Loafing an Inevitable Consequence of Working on A Collective Task? Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Reasons for Social Loafing when working on collective tasks
Is social loafing inevitable or not?
Introduction Over the recent times, several scholarly debates have been increasingly conducted regarding social loafing; its effect on group work, methods in which the phenomenon can be reduced and the current progress that has been made in regards to dealing with this issue.
On one hand, there are psychologists who are of the opinion that social loafing at any given workplace is inevitable and beyond control. On the other hand, however, some psychologists opine that, as much as social loafing is a reality when working on collective tasks, there are certain measures that can be taken to reduce or even stem out this issue. So, which side of this debate is true?
Well, in order for us to have an objective and clear bearing on social loafing and its effect on collective tasks at work places; it is inherently important that we delve on the issues that cause it. Once that is done, we will then be able to identify if there are any methods in which this social phenomenon can be reduced or ultimately avoided. But before doing all that, what really is social loafing?
In general, yet representatively inclusive terms, social loafing simply refers to a commonly observed social trend where people tend to exert less effort when working in a group in comparison to when these people work individually on the same given task. This, essentially, is the reason groups are sometimes viewed by some scholars as being ineffective when measured in terms of the overall strength of the group members.
Ever since the initial rope-pulling experiment on social loafing done by Max Ringelmann in 1913, many other scholars have been able to find new information and dynamics on this issue. It is upon these findings that the discussions below are conducted.
Reasons for Social Loafing when working on collective tasks It is worth beginning by noting that collective tasks are jobs or work done cooperatively or communally by a given group of people. The completion and success of collective tasks, therefore, call for the input and efficiency of each member of the group.
In the instance that social loafing takes place during a collective task, the overall effectiveness of the group is limited. Some of the theory-based reasons that have been given to explain the occurrence of social loafing when working on collective tasks include (but are not limited to):
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Lack of goals and goal setting: According to Guzzo and Dickson (314), having goals and setting goals in collective tasks greatly helps in keeping a group in focus.
In addition, these goals motivate members of the group to work towards a joint objective thus encouraging success. It is based on such reasons that the lack of goals and goal settings encourage social loafing since most of the group members lose focus and decide to exert less effort when working on a task.
Lack of Cohesiveness: Often, a group of people working on a given task is usually as good as the bond that holds them together (Guzzo and Dickson 310). When there is no unity or cohesion in the group, members of that group tend to only focus on their own success or their “friends” thus encouraging social loafing.
Poor Leadership: Leaders, in a group, usually play important roles such as motivating individuals, championing the group’s goals, guiding and correcting the members and offering a sense of direction. When these leaders are ineffective, group members are left to decide for themselves which, in most cases, leads to disjointed ideas and lack of consensus. In turn, social loafing is encouraged.
Types of Groups and Group Composition: As far as collective tasks are concerned, there are several types of groups. For example, there are task groups which are specifically formed to perform a particular task then are disbanded as soon as the task is completed.
Other groups, however, are formed to perform several different tasks. In most cases, the type of a group, and the composition that results thereof, hugely dictates the commitment and motivation of the members towards their tasks. Depending on the composition and type of the group, members can be easily swayed towards social loafing.
Motivation: As glimpsed by most of the reasons given above, motivation plays an irreplaceable role in the success or failure of a group. As an observed rule, highly motivated members of a group are less drawn towards social loafing when compared to those who are lowly motivated.
We will write a custom Essay on Is Social Loafing an Inevitable Consequence of Working on A Collective Task? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Negative competition: According to William and Karau (572-574), negative competition among members of a group and the need to be “equals” when conducting tasks often leads to social loafing.
This is based on the fact that when an individual does not perform as is expected of him/her, other group members tend to feel like doing the same since they do not see the need of doing well when others are doing the exact opposite.
Is social loafing inevitable or not? If we are to answer the question of the inevitability of social loafing as a consequence of working on a collective task; a consideration of the reasons for social loafing (which have already been highlighted) is paramount.
Remarkably, some reasons such as group composition (especially in instances that the selection of the members is beyond our control) are largely inevitable.
Also, in instances that groups are unavoidably composed of so many people, social psychology theorists state that there is a high tendency of deindividuation; a situation in which personal accountability and individual motivation towards achievement is inescapably diminished.
However, to a large extent, most of the reasons for social loafing when working on a collective task can be greatly dealt with thus going against the argument of inevitability. Some of the scholarly methods that have successfully been used to reduce or eliminate social loafing in groups are given below.
To begin with, Williams and Karau (570) state that “social loafing can be reduced or eliminated by increasing the identifiability or evaluability of the individual members’ contributions.”
To support this point, the two scholars argue that when members of a group often evaluate the individual input of everyone in the group, members are usually encouraged towards being the best thus facilitating overall efficiency in collective tasks.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is Social Loafing an Inevitable Consequence of Working on A Collective Task? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Also, Williams and Karau state that behavioral theorists often opine that people usually desire a positive evaluation (579). In order to facilitate success and discourage loafing, periodic evaluation can be very instrumental.
Closely related to the above method is the psychological theory of social compensation. In line with this theory, Williams and Karau (571) assert that most group members tend to feel compelled to contribute more to a task if they feel or expect that other members are inadequately contributing towards the task.
Another factor that has been repeatedly employed to discourage social loafing is enhancing personal involvement by motivation the group members through a reward or compensation scheme if the task at hand is successfully completed.
This argument is in accordance with the renowned expectancy value and self validation theories of psychology which state that, in most cases, individuals are usually willing to exert more effort in a task if they expect that their efforts will result into valuable outcomes (William and Karau 570-571).
According to Guzzo and Dickson (324-325), encouraging autonomy and self management of individuals in groups while intermittently having objective and skillful leaders can also be of invaluable importance in reducing or eliminating social loafing.
This, they say, is based on the fact that self management and good leadership are mutually coexisting factors that encourage responsibility by all group members which, in effect, discourages social loafing.
Other general factors that have been proposed to combat social loafing include:
Establishing team boundaries: Guzzo and Dickson (332) argue that team boundaries help to prevent outside influence on the group thus limiting lack of focus which often leads to social loafing.
Establishing clear-cut goals, agendas, performance standards and objectives which encourage group members towards a specific target.
Encouraging open communication among members of the group. This will not only help in facilitating cohesion, but it will also go a long way in helping the group members to identify problems within the group and how to solve them.
Works Cited Guzzo, Richard, and Dickson Marcus. “Teams in Organizations: Recent Research on Performance and Effectiveness.” Annu. Rev. Psychol 47 (1996): 307-338. Print.
Williams, Kipling, and Karau Steven. “Social Loafing and Social Compensation: The Effects of Expectations of Co-Worker Performance.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 61.4 (1991): 570-581. Print.
Life Cycle for a plastic bottle Report (Assessment) best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Plastic bottles
Plastic bottles Plastic bottles have become a popular packing option for many soft drinks manufacturers, including soda drinks (Hill, 2010). The increased environmental awareness among many consumers has resulted to an increase in concern for plastic bottles’ product life cycles.
Curran (2012) asserts that the product life cycle for a plastic bottle commences with the manufacture of the plastic material, which will be used to make the bottle. Plastics are mainly manufactured from petroleum. Therefore, the environmental impacts of petroleum extraction, such as oil spills, are also associated with the manufacture of plastics (O’Neil, 2002).
In addition to social spills, there has been a lot of human conflict in most of the regions associated with oil extraction, such as Nigeria and the Middle East. Hence, plastic manufacturing in a way, contributes to these conflicts (O’Neil, 2002). However, the increased use of bioplastics, which are manufactured from plant materials, has managed to limit the negative impacts that plastic manufacturing has had on the environment.
Coles and Kirwan (2011) explain that this is because the manufacture of bioplastics does not involve the use of crude oil, and thus environmental degradation associated with crude oil extraction and refining, does not come to play.
On a positive note however, plastic bottles can easily be recycled and reused many times. (Hill, 2010) points out that the data on plastic bottle usage indicates that the annual amount of plastic bottles recycled each year is approximately 2.5 billion pounds.
This represents almost a third of the total number of plastic bottles used. In addition to that, the number of businesses involved in the recycling of plastic bottles in the US is more than 1500. Despite their high recycling rate, plastic bottles have an extremely low decaying rate, resulting to a negative environmental impact.
Glass bottles The second option that can be used for packing soda drink is glass bottles. Ravindra and Limbachiya (2001) point out that glass bottles packaging accounts for more that 25 percent of all the packaging materials used in the country.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A survey conducted by EcoFocus indicate that 37 percent of Americans are concerned about the health risk that might be posed by plastic bottle use and perhaps this is why more people are now opting for glass bottles.
The product life cycle for a glass bottle, just like its plastic counterpart, commences with the manufacture of the glass material itself. Ravindra and Limbachiya (2001) assert that glass can be made from a variety of raw materials including sand, limestone, soda ash, and cullet.
As much as the extraction of these raw materials has some negative environmental impact, its impact cannot be compared to that of oil extraction. In order to make the glass itself, Ravindra and Limbachiya (2001) explain that the raw materials are usually subjected to extremely high temperatures in a furnace setting, where they are melted to attain plastic like qualities.
This molten raw material is then easily shaped into desirable shapes, before being allowed to dry. The melting process consumes a lot of energy and this impact negatively on the environment.
Glass is however very easy to recycle and most of the glass bottles used are usually recycled. Crawford (2011) asserts that the entire product life cycle involved in glass manufacturing has the lowest carbon footprint and, therefore, it might be the best choice for soda packaging.
Aluminum cans The third and final option is aluminum cans. These cans are usually made from aluminum metal. Therefore, an integral part of the aluminum can product life cycle is the extraction of aluminum ores. The raw material used in the extraction of aluminum metal is bauxite, which Green (2007) explains is usually a combination of aluminum element itself and other compounds.
Extraction, therefore, separates the pure aluminum from other elements that are contained in the bauxite. Starting with the raw material extraction, the extraction of bauxite usually involves several mining techniques, which employ the use of explosives to extract the bauxite from the ground. This process usually results in immense environmental degradation in terms of noise and destruction of the earth’s crust.
We will write a custom Assessment on Life Cycle for a plastic bottle specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aluminum extraction normally involves subjecting the bauxite to extremely high temperatures, much higher than those for glass extraction, in a process referred to as electrolysis (Green, 2007). This process consumes a lot of energy and, thus, impacts negatively on the environment.
According to Green (2007) more that 30 percent of all aluminum used in the country is obtained through recycling of scrap metal. Green (2007) explains that recycling aluminum is more efficient than manufacturing the metal from scratch since the energy used in recycling represents only 5 percent of the energy used in manufacturing.
References Coles, R.
A Critical Analysis of la Zola Essay (Movie Review) essay help free
Introduction Contemporary residential premises are characterized by enclosed structures. Housing architecture is replete with security features differentiating it from other forms of urban architecture. In addition, contemporary architecture pays attention to entrances, which are used to control outsiders’ access to the premises (Harvey 2005, 14).
The gated community and other issues in contemporary society elicit different reactions from different individuals. One such individual is director Rodrigo Pla. The director expresses his views regarding these developments through the film La Zona. The movie is a reflection of the gated community and other contemporary phenomena in Mexican cities.
The rate of crime in Mexican cities is high and a gated community is perceived to be the only solution to the problem (Mullings 2012, 421). The gated community phenomenon emerged in early 1970s. According to Caldeira (2007), a gated community is “a residential premise that has its entrance strictly controlled to protect the insiders from the outside violence” (p.17).
The author of this paper will provide a critical analysis of the movie La Zona with regard to the contemporary issues described above. The author will first provide a synopsis of the movie to give the reader an idea of what the movie is about. The illustration of the gated community and other contemporary issues in the movie will be critically analyzed.
A Critical Analysis of the Movie Synopsis
La Zona is a depiction of events that took place in La Zona, a residential community. The movie illustrates the security measures taken by members of this residential community. In addition to the concrete wall surrounding the residential premises, barbed wires were used to increase security.
The residential premises are fitted with security cameras, which monitor the area for any suspicious activities (Judd 2009, 18). However, these extreme security measures were compromised one windy day. On this particular day, a billboard fell on the walls and demolished them.
The demolished walls exposed the gated community to the surrounding poverty-stricken community (Berman 2007, 29).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Three robbers from the slums took advantage of the security breach to rob residents of the La Zona community. Individuals from the surrounding community felt that the fortified homes contained valuable items, which they could steal. Members of the la Zona community felt that their properties are protected from members of the surrounding poor community (Susser 2009, 14).
Many anthropologists contend that gated communities negatively affect the whole community (Stack 2004, 24). Such scholars as Susser (2009) use the term ‘enclave’ (p.14) to describe this phenomenon. The poor are separated from the ‘others’ by fortified homes owned by the rich people. The segregation is based on the perception that the poor are a threat to the property and life of the rich people (Vincentia 2003, 41).
Under the direction of Rodrigo Pla, la Zona addressed various issues characterizing the social aspect of urban life across the world. Mexico is one of the countries in the world where gated communities are used to separate the rich people from the poor (Holston 2009, 51).
The segregation in the city is one of the reasons why Rodrigo used Mexico City to depict these contemporary phenomena in his movie. The various issues characterizing urban life are critically analyzed in subsequent sections of this paper.
A Critical Analysis of the Urban Issues Addressed in the Movie
Neo-Liberalism and Privatization
The surrounding slums are occupied by poor people struggling to make ends meet. The existence of the poor brings to fore an important aspect of contemporary urban life, which is neo-liberalism and privatization. The movement started in USA in the early 90s.
It later spread to other parts of the world (Wilsons 2007, 37). Most urban problems are brought about by neo-liberalism and privatization (Neckerman 2007, 49). Neo-liberalism holds that “anything that is not privatized is unpromising” (Caldeira 2007, p.91).
We will write a custom Essay on A Critical Analysis of la Zola specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such public utilities as education, healthcare, and security are privatized. In la Zona, neo-liberalism and privatization are vividly captured when the three robbers access the private premises. Two of them are killed and dumped into the city garbage truck. What this implies is that the poor are not protected by the law. On the contrary, the law appears to protect only the rich people (Caldeira 2006, 72).
In the 1980s, neo-liberalism policy in the US favored the rich people at the expense of the poor. 90% of the citizens lost a considerable amount of their income. At the same time, the income of the remaining 10% increased by more than 50%.
Inequality, which is closely related to neo-liberalism, has encroached into contemporary society. Inequality is clearly evident in the movie. Slum dwellers languish in poverty as the rich people continue to accumulate wealth (Marcuse 2011, 702).
The rich people are not aware of the problems faced by the poor. For instance, when the two thieves are killed, the police are bribed to drop the charges against the killers.
The rich people are only interested in their property and safety. The poor are left to take care of themselves. Inequality leads to job scarcity, which pushes the poor into crime (Dobriner 2008, 19).
The Rise of Homeowners’ Associations
As a result of insecurity, home owners’ associations have established communities favoring individuals from a particular socio-economic class in the society. In the movie, gates protect the rich people from the outside world. There is no interaction between the rich people and the poor.
The residents have to abide by the rules and regulations set by the associations. The segregation is illustrated in the film by a golf park from where the residents view the slums surrounding the secured premises (Caldeira 2007, p.95).
Not sure if you can write a paper on A Critical Analysis of la Zola by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Rodrigo Pla uses characters to express grievances of the poor in the community. For instance, Alejandro’s family does not understand what made the three robbers to steal. They kill two of the thieves, leading to a heated argument between the family members. Alejandro’s father killed the two thieves with the help of a guard. The family does not agree with the action the father has taken (Caldeira 2007, p.99).
In the film, everyone needs to control the security of their home. For instance, panic buttons, cameras, as well as barbed wires are used for control. The homes reflect the situation in the third world countries where the rich people live in houses that are besieged by the slum dwellers (Saskia 2011, 21).
Gated Communities in Mexico
The rate of crime has increased in many Mexican cities. There is fear that the situation is getting out of control. Several options are proposed to address the situation. Gated communities appear to be the most preferred option compared to other proposed solutions. Members of the rich community are afraid of the outside world. They opt to fortify their premises to protect them from the increasing rate of crime (Marshalls 2005, 29).
Addressing the insecurity problem is difficult for the rich people. They believe that the only way out is to establish fortified residential premises (Saskia 2011, 31). The ‘jail-like’ homes are equipped with sophisticated security features, such as panic buttons, uniformed guards, and surveillance cameras (Holston 2009, 42).
The phenomenon is vividly captured in La Zona. For instance, the collapsed walls made it possible for the three thieves to access la Zona. The gated community phenomenon poses several challenges to urban life in general (Sennett 2004, 59). The challenges are clearly captured in the movie.
Problems Arising from Gated Communities
Fragmentation occurs when low earning individuals come together to reside in such cheap places as slums where social amenities are inadequate. New home owners opt to acquire a home within a gated community. Home owners’ associations have come up with such homes, which are targeted at individuals with a considerable amount of income.
The associations have nothing to offer the low income earners, which leads to fragmentation of public resources (Saskia 2011, 42). Such fragmentation is evident in la Zona. The rich people are separated from the poor.
Social interaction is considerably low within the gated communities compared to the slums. In the film, one of the residents in La Zona accidently shoots a guard. The shooting indicates that members of the gated community are less concerned with the welfare of their neighbors compared to slum dwellers.
The guard was patrolling the premises to keep the intruders at bay (Marshalls 2005, 72). However, the situation in both the gated community and the slums is similar. Residents from both localities have violated the law.
The thieves trespassed on private property while the members of the gated community killed them. Members of the gated community behaved like the slum dwellers, indicating that both parties are the same. Their similarities are separated by a thick wall, as well as wealth and poverty.
Studies conducted in this field found that residents in gated communities would rather ask a guard to ask children to stop playing in the lawn than initiate the act themselves (Stack 2004, 81). Such findings show that members of the gated communities are afraid of other people within their own community (Marcuse 2011, 22).
The situation poses a challenge to the community given that whenever an issue arises, the members are unable to tackle it together. In the film, residents killed the thieves and bribed the police officers (Stack 2004, 81).
Policing the Gated Communities
Police officers patrolling the gated communities are meant to protect the interests of the residents. For instance, they have guns to intimidate robbers. Additionally, they have their own laws, which give them the freedom to do whatever they want. However, the safety of the perceived ‘safe community’ was compromised when the perimeter wall collapsed in la Zona.
What this means is that the issue of insecurity can only be tackled effectively by bringing together all members of the community (Clark 2006, 28). The poor and the rich people should come together to address the issue (Certeau 2004, 24).
Conclusion The author of the paper critically analyzed the film la Zona in relation to the gated community and other issues in contemporary urban society. The gated community is a threat to urban life with regard to safety and development.
Measures put in place to boost security cannot be fully relied on. As a result, urbanization should be accompanied by equality to prevent crime, which in most cases results from segregation.
Reference List Berman, Marshall. All that is Solid Melts into Air. New York: Penguin Books, 2007.
Caldeira, Teresa. “Building up Walls: The New Pattern of Spatial Segregation.” International Social Science Journal 10, no 147 (2006): 55-59.
Caldeira, Teresa. City of Walls: Crime Segregation and Citizenship. Berkley: University of California Press, 2007.
Certeau, Michael. The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.
Clark, Titus. The Painting of the Modern Man. Princeton. N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2006.
Dobriner, William. The Suburban Community. New York: Putman’s Sons, 2008.
Harvey, David. Consciousness and the Urban Experience: Studies in History and Theory of Capitalist Urbanization. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 2005.
Holston, James. The Modernist City: An Anthropological Critique of Brasilia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.
Judd, Dennis. The Rise of the New Walled Cities. London: Sage Publications, 2009.
Marcuse, Paul. “Dial City: A Muddy Metaphor for Quartered City.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 1, no. 13 (2011): 697-708.
Marshalls, Hulk. Citizenship and Social Class: In Class, Citizenship, and Social Development. New York: Doubleday, 2005.
Mullings, Benard. “Investing in Public Housing and Racial Discrimination: Implications in the 1990s.” Journal of the Urban Studies 3, no. 18 (2012): 415-25.
Neckerman, Kelvin. Poverty and Family Structure: The Widening Gap between Evidence and Public Policy Issues. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007.
Saskia, Sassen. The Global City. London: Princeton University Press, 2011.
Sennett, Richard. The Fall of Public Man: On the Social Psychology of Capitalism. New York: Vintage Books, 2004.
Stack, Caleb. All Our Kin. New York: Harper Torchbooks, 2004.
Susser, Irene. Norman Street: Poverty and Politics in the Urban Neighborhood. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Vincentia, Joan. “Framing the Underclass: A Critique of Anthropology.” American Journal of Urban Studies 13, no. 3 (2003): 215-231.
Wilsons, Wycliffe. The Truly Disadvantaged. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Intelligence agency Essay college essay help online
The formation of a powerful intelligence agency to take care of the matters of military intelligence did not include a plan for coordination of intelligence activities between security agencies (Truman 4). Several decades later, the structure of the office of the DNI was instituted to control the various intelligence authorities that had emerged.
However, this office has been consistently unable to perform its duties as expected. The office of the director of national intelligence has failed to perform its duties to the expected level in its capacity. There was speculation that inadequate finance was the cause of the failures of the office.
An increase in the annual funding for the office has failed to improve the condition. However, there are several measures involving organisational change that can streamline and co-ordinate duties at the office of DNI (Stuart 52).
The first necessary solution is to have a unified leadership that will make decisions, rather than have separate authorities delegate similar duties (Stuart 23). One of the major problems facing the office of DNI is the lack of a well-coordinated leadership.
Assignment of duties at the office has been erratic with leaders overseeing intelligence work in various regions lacking coordination. Separate plans by different levels of leadership have resulted to duplication of duties and improper handling of matters of intelligence due to the separate approaches of different offices.
A new channel for reporting will make sure that the proper chain of command is used for reporting matters of intelligence. The current organisation does not assign duties to intelligence officers with due responsibility. This has left the intelligence officers to handle their duties in a manner that one chooses (DoD 5).
Thus, the duties of the intelligence community do not present as obligations, but appear as missions that the intelligence community embark on at will (Stuart 16).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although significant will is needed for the intelligence community to go about its duties, a clear framework outlining the responsibility of each section or office in the intelligence work will improve efficiency. All these objectives can only be achieved by establishing a decisive leadership, which can outline the duties of the members of the intelligence community.
The second necessary action is the unification of the whole of intelligence community so that the office of DNI can monitor all activities and plans. Although the office of the DNI is expected to control the whole intelligence community, it is not possible to accomplish this for all members of the intelligence community in the country in the prevailing situation.
There is no proper law that brings the control of all members of the intelligence community that are concerned with major intelligence issues under the control of the office of DNI (DoD 11). In addition, there are efforts by some agencies to undermine the office of the DNI by preferring to isolate their activities.
The isolation of these sections of the intelligence community makes it impossible for the office of DNI to draw a realistic and accurate budget plan. Procedures of procurement and other projects that affect the budget of the intelligence community are executed separately making the planning for the allocated resources a difficult task (DoD 13).
It is important to ensure that all the sections of the intelligence community are obligated to cooperate under the office of DNI. This can be achieved by bringing institutions such as the DIA and the CIA under the authority of DNI
The third reason the office of DNI is not able to offer effective leadership to the intelligence community is the lack of constitutional law to put it in a position to deal with all the issues arising in the whole of the intelligence community.
Major intelligence bodies such as the CIA and DIA, which are considered major arms of intelligence, are finding it difficult to report to the office of the DNI since the constitution does not explicitly express that the intelligence agencies should report to that office.
We will write a custom Essay on Intelligence agency specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, CIA, the major member of the intelligence community, has traditionally reported to other offices, which are thought to be of a higher authority. In a more simplistic interpretation, all sections of the intelligence community need to report to the office of the DNI, which should then report to the president.
Intelligence deals with gathering of information of significance to security. It is important to ensure that the members of the intelligence community are able to pool the information gathered in their separate intelligence activities in order to provide security for the nation. Currently, the DNI oversees the operations of the members of the intelligence community as completely separate entities with no proper platform for sharing information (DoD 17).
There is need for enactment of a law that obligates the members of the intelligence community to share information without any restriction. This will establish the intelligence community as one intelligence body that works in unity to combat security problems. In addition, there should be a clear policy that governs the manner in which the intelligence is shared.
A plan on how to avert the danger of having information leaked to the public or to those who intend to compromise security is necessary in the implementation of a policy to lay foundation for information sharing.
With an elaborate system, it is easier to establish security for the country’s citizens and interests. The current reluctance of the members of the intelligence community to share information is partly due to the danger presented by knowledge of classified information by many people. Moreover, the state of information in the intelligence community is limited, with the members sharing information regarding terrorist threats alone.
Works Cited DoD, DTIC. The National Intelligence Strategy of the United States of America. Ft. Belvoir: Defense Technical Information Center, 2009. Print.
Stuart, Douglas T.. Creating the national security state: a history of the law that transformed America. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2008. Print.
Truman, Harry S.. National Security Act of 1947: communication from the President of the United States
Not sure if you can write a paper on Intelligence agency by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
Ethical Responsibilities in Engineering Report essay help free: essay help free
According to Martin and Schinzinger (10), the lifelong learning of ethical responsibilities in engineering contributes to the development of the values of honesty, fidelity, and integrity. That is in addition to the respect for others, fairness, and the pursuit of excellence and accountability (Martin and Schinzinger 12).
Engineers undergo lifelong learning to adapt to the changes in the working environment, compliance requirements, standards governing acceptable behavior, and to address the potential dangers and potential risks involved in the discipline (Harris, Pritchard and Rabins 5).
Lifelong ethical learning of ethical responsibilities enables engineers to develop practical methods and acceptable techniques to document professional growth and competence.
In addition to that, professional responsibility equips one with the ability to apply the knowledge and skills acquired in the engineering profession to protect the reputation of the client and other stakeholders (Martin and Schinzinger 20).
The critical importance of lifelong learning of ethical responsibilities in the engineering profession is based on the need to demonstrate professional competence to reflect the changing needs and constant demand for quality education to address the changing technological needs and challenges and to ensure that acceptable assignments are done in accordance with engineering standards.
According to Martin and Schinzinger (26), the learning process enables one to identify and comply with the scope of practice in the profession and to sign and seal documents according to the prescribed engineering practices and the professional code of conduct (Martin and Schinzinger 26).
The lifelong learning of ethical responsibilities is critical because the engineer has the opportunity to be objective and truthful in context of the issuance of public statements, expression of technical opinion, freely disclose information to interested parties, and the ability to express a technical opinion without any reservations (Harris, Pritchard and Rabins 3).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is essential as an engineer to learn and develop the ability to address the conflict of interest that arises during the execution of the duties and responsibilities assigned the engineer. The engineer becomes a faithful agent and trustee and is able to resist the temptation to accept compensation from more than one party, which can be interpreted as a bribe and to preserve the required confidentiality.
Here, the engineer develops the ability to disclose unavoidable conflicts that arise in the workplace and to make the client aware of the professional position concerning the client’s project and the ultimate consequences engineering decisions have on the project (Harris, Pritchard and Rabins 12).
Typically, the lifelong learning of ethical responsibilities imparts the skills and knowledge required by an engineer to advance the engineering knowledge and skills required in the profession, engineering commitments, the ethics, and the underlying responsibilities.
Typically, the engineer needs lifelong learning ethical responsibilities to protect the public health, improve the safety and welfare of others, and the ability to address emerging problems and challenges in engineering.
Lifelong learning enables one to understand and practice the principles of social responsibility, which includes respect for the international norms, ensure accountability, improve ethical behavior, practice the respect of law and the respect for the stakeholder’s interests (Harris, Pritchard and Rabins 12).
In conclusion, the lifelong learning on ethical responsibilities in engineering enables engineers to ensure integrity, competence, and accountability for the present and the future and to adhere to the obligations, standards, and practices in engineering.
Works Cited Harris, Charles, Edwin , Michael S. Pritchard, Michael Jerome Rabins, Engineering Ethics: Concepts and Cases: Concepts and Cases. New York: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
We will write a custom Report on Ethical Responsibilities in Engineering specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Martin, Mike, W, and Ronald Schinzinger, Ethics in Engineering. New York: McGraw Hill, 2005. Print
The Situation Analysis Term Project of T-Mobile Essay essay help online free
Economy Analysis The U.S. economic performance gets greatly influenced by mobile technology. Mobile influence is an economic engine across the U.S. business and marketing landscape. The U.S. generated $139 billion from the mobile marketing ecosystem, an incremental output in 2012, a significant surge from $48 billion in net sales reported in 2010.
Over the next few years, the economy can be projected to grow by 52%, which represents a $400 billion growth. The measured total United State sales in 2012 were $33 trillion. This was measured through consumer and business sales. Mobile is an economic stimulator that according to research by Mobile Marketing Association. The U.S. customers are optimistic people.
People are able to control both content and context of brand experience through inventiveness in the marketing process. As mobile is a money-making engine, T-Mobile will continue to fuel nationwide growth, and vibrant customer growth in their target market.
This is because T-Mobile can move closer to consumers as there is value added by their mobile. T-Mobile offers a high potential of innovation and growth, thus impacting on the growth and strength of the united state economy.
Regulatory Analysis The government came up with a law that prohibits cell phone users from unlocking their devices so that they can be used with another carrier. The law is applicable to all new purchased mobiles. Users are not allowed to unlock their cellular phone when they travel to different destinations.
The new law forbids one from using new tools or codes to unlock phones without authorization from T-Mobile. Through the said law T-Mobile, it not auger well with the mobile manufacturer as the law will reduce consumer choice and reduce the resale of T-Mobile devices that consumers have paid for in full.
Social Analysis Even with the expanded political divisions over the last quarter century, gaps remained relatively unchanged. Since 1987, values such as gender, average, race, age, income, education and religious differences remained stable. The above demographics characteristics have not shown substantial change over time.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Differences between college graduates, non-college graduate, blacks, white, young, older people, high, low-income people are more substantial. Although they exist, the divisions get dwarfed by partisan differences.
With the changing demographics and values T-Mobile can still penetrate the market through targeting the various divisions. This is though creating products that are acceptable across all the demographic e.g. creating advertisement and promotions for targeted groups. The U.S. market is still vibrant and responsive for T-Mobile products.
Technology Analysis Technology is changing so fast, and in many directions that it becomes challenging, to pay attention. Technology continues to spur economic growth and, in some cases bringing disruptive change. The emerging technologies can offer immense opportunities for T-Mobile if seized with the right innovations.
Economically disruptive technologies e.g. internet, semiconductor microchip, or steam power transform the way we work and live and also provided an opening for new players to join the market. T-Mobile should invest in education and infrastructure, and figure how disruptive economic changes affect comparative advantage.
Technology can still have a profound impact on T-Mobile products. T-Mobile agree that significant challenges lie ahead, but their lies optimism about the potential of emerging technologies to provide widespread benefits and raise productivity across the targeted market.
Competitor Analysis T-Mobile main competitor is the Apple. Apple is the manufacturer of smart phones, which account to 56% of U.S. market. Apple alone takes a share of 25% of all the smart phones in U.S. making it the leader of all other devices among smart phone owners. Apple’s iPhones are too far away to threaten the T-Mobile projected customer base.
They target people of high income range.
High-end technological advancement.
Excellent product image.
Very narrow target market.
Very narrow product line.
T-Mobile embarked on a progressive marketing campaign in hip commercials and also appeared in various television commercials. This is in comparison to Apple’s marketing campaigns through the media and online marketing. Apple has made its presence felt in social media as a crucial tool in its marketing strategy.
We will write a custom Essay on The Situation Analysis Term Project of T-Mobile specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More SWOT Analysis A SWOT (Potential internal strength, Potential weaknesses, Potential external opportunities, and Potential external threats) for T-Mobile provides useful information for the business. It will be a useful tool for T-Mobile marketing strategy.
T-Mobile Potential internal strength
T-Mobile Brand/product is the market leader.
T-Mobile has excellent brand/product image.
T-Mobile has a distinctive competence, e.g. customer service;
Its outstanding product quality;
The patented technology.
T-Mobile Potential Weaknesses
T-Mobile has a very narrow product line.
T-Mobile has limited distribution.
T-Mobile has out-of-date products.
T-Mobile has a weak brand/product image.
Lack of strategic direction.
T-Mobile poor marketing skills.
Lack of track record in business.
T-Mobile Potential external opportunities
Rapid market growth.
The competitors are complacent.
Its new technology.
Changing customer needs/tastes.
New uses discovered for product.
Its demographic shifts.
T-Mobile Potential External Threats
Entry of foreign competitors.
Introduction of new substitutes.
Product life-cycle on decline.
The changing customer needs/tastes.
Possible government regulation.
The competitors are adopting new strategies.
The emerging technology.
The U.S. economic recession.
Primary objective of management Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
More than shareholder wealth
Introduction Milton Friedman’s claim that management’s main objective should be to expand shareholder wealth is misleading. It does not fully embrace certain business dynamics such as shareholder roles, obligations to other stakeholders, the moral minimum, effectiveness of the legal system, as well as sustainability of nonfinancial interests.
The essay will discuss shareholder roles, the legal system, existence of other stakeholders, morality and plausibility of other objectives.
More than shareholder wealth Scholars know Milton Friedman for believing in free enterprise; consequently, it is not a surprise that he advocated for the primacy of shareholder wealth (Wilcke 2004). He believed that such a goal was symptomatic of the freedoms and rights that cause voluntary exchange and economic success.
However, Milton and his supporters may have ignored certain crucial elements of business that do not relate directly to shareholder wealth. First, Milton assumed that managers and shareholders are entirely separate entities (Husted
Concept and Theories of Sociology as a Social Science Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Definition of Sociology
Social and personal problems/issues
Structural Functionalism Theory of sociology
Definition of Sociology Sociology is a social science that studies human beings in their social setting including their descent, institutions, systems, organisations and their influence on societal development.
It is concerned with understanding the structure and functioning of human society, how it changes over time and the forces that account for the changes. Sociologists thus study human beings in relation to the society and how human conduct, shapes the society and its structures and vice versa.
Sociological imagination Sociological imagination is a critical field of criminology concerned with the relationship that exists between the beliefs of the society and the life as experienced in the society. It is the critical examination of issues against the contemporary views of the society. Individuals engaged in sociological imagination, find it pleasant to ask questions in order to get answers to what they observe.
They do not rely entirely on what the society holds as true or false rather, they question the basis of its truthfulness or falsehood. Therefore, sociological imagination is concerned with the causes and outcomes of the interaction between various components of the society such as norms, motives and current occurrences in the society.
Proponents of sociological thinking do not agree with the facts that are passed on in the society from one generation to another without testing the truth of these facts.
Social and personal problems/issues Personal problems concern individuals and most often have no effect on the society as a whole. Social problems on the other hand, are issues affecting several people in a social setting.
The difference between the two kinds of problems is that, a personal problem affects an individual’s living style and one is supposed to deal with it for instance, incidences of obesity and unemployment among others. The social problem is one which cannot be avoided by the larger group since, all or most of the individuals are affected by it.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the two forms of problems originate from the same bases most of the time. Both social and personal issues might originate from both the social setting and individual mistakes. For instance, lack of employment may be caused by lack of supportive institutions such as schools in the society or alternatively, an individual’s failure to capitalize on opportunities in the society. Some of the problems are very difficult to classify such as abortion.
Structural Functionalism Theory of sociology Structural functionalism is the sociological theory which holds that the society is a system made up of very many components or parts which interact to foster stability. Each of these parts, has its important function that cannot be ignored since, it contributes to the successful operation of the society as a system.
The major components of the societal system are; customs, traditions, norms, institutions and belief systems. These are social processes and structures which define the society by giving it form and distinctiveness.
Analysis of Female Employability in the Events Industry in Hong Kong Report best essay help
Abstract Hong Kong is one of the developing countries in the world, with high prospects of opportunities. However, the main problem facing many youths, particularly those graduating from colleges, is unemployment. In the events industry, competition is very stiff implying that each company must come up with strategies that would help in boosting profits.
Employing skilled workforce is one of the strategies that would help an events company outsmart competitors. Students graduating from Swiss Hotel management school have high chances of being employed in the events industry because of the skills they possess (Tepeci
Leadership in the 21st Century Report essay help online: essay help online
Executive Summary Many authors on leadership cite that conventional leaders and leaderships of the past are inadequate in addressing the needs of the 21st century. This is because, presently, the world is characterised by paradox, unpredictability and unprecedented events brought about by change.
Hence, most modern leaders faces tremendous demands, than ever before. Similarly, conventional leadership styles that were once embraced have become a liability to modern leaders. Thus, the 21st century leaders need to unlearn conventional wisdom associated with conventional leadership and shift to a new paradigm of leading.
This report highlights the definition of leadership. In achieving this goal, the writer, through literature review, gives different definitions of leadership and leadership styles.
Further, the writer illustrates; market forces, people issues and leadership incompetency among others, as some of the challenges facing leadership in the 21st century. Similarly, the writer singles out transformational and charistic leadership as the contemporary leadership styles practices by leaders in the 21st century.
Introduction The conflict of talent acquisition, societal changes, globalisation and the ever shifting size of organisations are contributing to the realignment of leadership styles in the 21st century. Consequently, the yearning for an ethical and sustainable organisation, ignited by business scandals, and the increasing realism that people should be steadfast in preserving global natural resources for future sustainability is also taking a toll on present leaders.
Thus, leaders are required to perform on ethical and moral standards aimed at preserving a balance between the eco-system and the societal needs to guarantee business success. Therefore, unlike in the past, the measure of leadership success in the 21st century is increasingly being tied on aspects such as ethical and global responsibilities among others.
Cegarra-Navarro and Moya (2005) points out that for leaders to be competitive in the 21st century, they need to wield influence, embrace a vision that inspires people and dispel their doubts, they need to possess abilities to enhance connections, and they need to redefine the way they address the tasks at hand. Hence, without influence, leaders are finding it difficult to assert power and control in their respective areas of command.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Consequently, leaders need to attain assent in addition to obedience, and embrace imitators and subordinates. Cegarra-Navarro and Moya (2005) illustrates that the 21st leader is not satisfied by getting people to do the right thing his way, he/she also need them to perceive things his/her way too.
Warren Buffet and His Take-a-Chance Theory: Where Recklessness Leads Essay argumentative essay help
Introduction: Warren Buffett Begins It is weird to think that there were the times when the name of Warren Buffet did not ring any bell. In the modern business world where the slightest change can possibly reinvent the whole world’s perception of what management and leadership is, such incredible instances of success as Warren Buffett’s one are truly worth taking a closer look at.
When talking about the accomplishments of Buffett, it is necessary to mention that the man is one of those people who have redefined the whole perspective of a business theory. Understanding the way in which Buffett managed to reach for the top of his leadership career and achieved such tremendous success, one can see the impact that a single ma can have on the developing field of management and learn about new approaches towards unconventional entrepreneurial situations.
Looking for the Pearls of Low Price: Below the Intrinsic Value. Buffett’s Organizational Situation To start with, Buffett’s situation was quite one of a kind. Instead of starting out as a clerk in a second-rate place, slowly moving to the position of the head of the company and then safely resuming the policy of the previous leader, with a lump sum of money to back him up in the case of a failure, Warren Buffett started with buying the stocks of the companies below their intrinsic value (Ryan, 2005).
Further on, Buffett found the proper application for his revenues, buying out the Berkshire Hathaway Co. and becoming its leader for the rest of his career. It is the amazing strategy, the incredibly quick start and the unbelievable income brought by Warren Buffett’s strategy that are in the limelight of the given paper.
From 105,000 to 105,000,000: The Legend of King Midas Has Been Proven Right Among the rest of Buffett’s achievements, the fact that he managed to multiply his income by $1000 is worth mentioning. After purchasing the shares beneath their nominal value, as it has been mentioned previously, he sold them right in the time when their price rose several times, thus, increasing his investment into the Berkshire Hathaway from the initial $105,000 to $105,000,000 (Ryan, 2005, 35).
Warren Buffett and His Leadership Qualities: Watch the Legend Being Born However, it was not only the incredible luck and the amazing business skills that helped Warren Buffett out in his incredible venture with the Berkshire Hathaway.
Apart from the talent to operate a truly great enterprise, the ability to organize the work of several hundreds of people and the rest of the amazing leadership and business skills that Warren Buffett possesses, the newly appointed leader of the Berkshire Hathaway was supposed to have a number of personal qualities that could help him survive in the fast-changing lane of the Berkshire business life (Ryan, 2005).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, listing and assessing the key qualities which predetermined his triumph and made him the leader in a matter of fifteen minutes, as the company’s then vice president would recall further on, one will be able not only to understand Buffett’s approaches and his incredible personality better, but also to see what makes a true leader who is capable of making groundbreaking changes.
Humility: only the modest survive
If there is such a thing in the world as the ability to run the business in a completely modest and honest way, Warren Buffett must be the king of it. Neither has he written any autobiographies (yet), nor has he ever been boastful or self-sufficient.
Although it is widely accepted that the leader must be sled-assured and even somewhat arrogant when dealing with his business (thus, supposedly, establishing his one and only means of control – the power of fear), Buffett disregards any of the above-mentioned ways to trigger the public’s attention.
Instead, he has won the admiration of millions of people by portraying himself as an honest and modest entrepreneur, allowing people to judge him by his accomplishments. It must be admitted that the given technique works perfectly in his case.
Influence on people: listen to the chief
Partially because of the above-mentioned modesty, partially because of his success, Buffett has an immense influence on every single person whom he works with. Another impressive leadership quality, the ability to shape the others’ behavior by merely offering an example of an impeccable office worker is what Buffest is best at.
It seems that Buffett’s behavior is incredibly catchy – as most sources claim, the entrepreneur has never exercised any specific policy on the way people should act in his company, yet Berkshire Hathaway still remains one of those places where every single employee provides a perfect performance, and where every single process goes like clockwork.
According to Ann Miller, there are only three people whose influence can literally turn the world upside down, and Buffett is among them: “Bill Gates, Warren Buffet and Oprah Winfrey are the people with enough influence and social capital that they are amongst the most likely people to cause the balance of public opinion to tip” (Miller, 2011, 140).
We will write a custom Essay on Warren Buffet and His Take-a-Chance Theory: Where Recklessness Leads specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, it is obvious that Buffett has the charisma one needs to persuade people to follow the example. A truly impressive quality, such skill is basically the essence of a real leader.
Learning from mistakes
Another important quality that Buffett doubtfully possess is the ability to drive conclusions even from his failures. Though it seems rather obvious skill for a business leader, it is necessary to admit that few people are able to analyze their failures and, which is even more humiliating for their dignity, to get valuable lessons learnt from these unfortunate experiences.
However, with Buffett, this is not the case – the entrepreneur eagerly analyzes every single experience which he has ever had, including both the negative and the positive ones to come to certain conclusions and perfect his leadership style to the nth degree. As Buffett himself sad, “We all make mistakes.
If you can’t make mistakes, you can’t make decisions” (Tucker, 2008, 307). Thus, whether Buffett loses or wins, he always has something to get from e4very situation he gets in, which has had the greatest impact on the Berkshire Hathaway Co.
Strengths and Weaknesses: Forced to Admit His Mortality However, considering Buffett a human reincarnation of a kind of a financial god would be incorrect as well; like any other human being, he does make a mistake one in a while, and his career in Berkshire Hathaway is no exception to the rules of the wheel of fortune. Therefore, considering the strengths and especially the weaknesses of a business titan is bound to be quite an entertainment.
Despite the fact that Buffett is an extraordinary person and must be considered the financial genius of the XXI century, it is still necessary to add that his own weaknesses and strengths do not exceed the ones of a typical businessman. What makes Buffet so special is not a particular asset, but the way he makes use of it, as well as of any weakness of his.
Unable to bear the bureaucracy
According to Warren’s own confession, his key weakness is the lack of patience when it comes to bureaucratic issues. Quite understandable and often recurring, the inability to handle emotions when things start to slacken because of immense paperwork is truly something that everyone can relate to. Creating the famous Buffett proviso (Waltzek, 2010, 69), he made an attempt to get rid of bureaucracy within his own company once and for all.
However, the given weakness could have caused serious complexities when it came to restructuring the Berkshire Hathaway company. Since the entire redevelopment of the enterprise involved a lot of bureaucratic issues to tackle, the whole process could have gone wrong because of Buffett’s weakness.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Warren Buffet and His Take-a-Chance Theory: Where Recklessness Leads by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the given issue must have also been used as a push for the Berkshire Hathaway Co. rapid development. Indeed, since Buffett hates so much any bureaucratic issues, he must have done everything to avoid them when rebuilding the company.
Allocating the capital the correct way
As for the greatest asset of one of the greatest businessmen on the Earth, the ability to handle the largest amounts of money in the most reasonable way must take the first prize.
Since business is not only about earning considerable revenue, but also about knowing how to distribute the money and where to invest them, every leader must know what to do eventually with the obtained income: “[…] he became not a manager, steel executive, or insurance man, but an allocator of capital” (O’Loughlin, 2003, 58).
Thus, with his ability to place the capital in the right venture and on the right time, Buffett has all the rights to be called a true leader.
Blazing One’s Own Track: When a Leader Creates a Theory It goes without saying that a suitable theory defines the success of a venture to a considerable extent. When knowing in what manner, according to what plan and, which is the most important, for the sake of what purpose the actions are carried out, the leader will definitely take the company to its ultimate success.
However, choosing an efficient theory is quite a complicated task as well, since the choice defines the outcome. Creating his own fundament for the venture to base on, Buffett managed to comprise several theories into a single entity and, thus, develop the most efficient method to raise the company from the ashes.
Addressing the situation: when there is only one way
It seems that Buffett’s personality as a leader, as well as his manner of tackling business situations, stems from a blend of various leadership theories; indeed, why settling with one single manner of reaching for success, when one can go for a whole bunch of them? For instance, in Buffett’s manner of leading, there are evident features of transactional leadership.
According to the definition of the situational leadership provided by Martin, Buffett possesses the exact same qualities which the given leadership strategy requires:
Transactional leadership applies to leaders who are task oriented and able to direct their groups in specific ways to accomplish finite goals. Transactional leaders work to gain their group’s compliance through various approaches: offering rewards, threatening punishment, appealing to group members’ sense of altruism, or appealing to followers’ rational judgment. (Martin, 2006, 47)
Indeed, as it has been mentioned previously, Buffett did use certain means to encourage his employees for a better performance. However, it is also essential to mention that Buffett did not resort to a single style of leadership; Warren’s strategy was also based on situational leadership. Since Buffet faced the company almost falling to pieces, he had to take immediate actions.
Taking into account that the company situation was rather unique, it was also obvious that Buffet was supposed to come up with a unique plan. Thus, if following Martin’s definition, Buffett’s style was also a representation of a situational leadership:
Situational leadership theory accounts for two ideas: 1) any situation plays a large part in determining leadership qualities and the leader for that situation, and 2) the leadership qualities of an individual are themselves the products of a previous leadership situation that have molded the individual. (Martin, 2006, 46)
Another leadership theory which made Buffett’s strategy complete was the trait leadership. “Trait theory describes a leader as one who exhibit a certain set of physical, intellectual, and interpersonal characteristics.
This traditional leader would show good posture, be attractive, speak firmly, act confidently, be task oriented, and be assertive” (Martin, 2006, 44). As it has been mentioned before, Buffett has contributed a lot to building an image of an ideal manager, which means that he also uses the trait leadership theory.
The servant of the customers: another prospect
The last, but not the least, the servant leadership theory deserves a special mentioning. It is essential that Buffet not only poses himself as a perfect leader, but also tries to address the employees, influencing them and helping them improve. Thus, it can be considered that Buffett also uses a touch of servant leadership theory to add to his general strategy.
Although Buffett does not take it to the same extreme as Martin does, there are still some elements of servant leadership in Buffett’s strategy: “You can approach your leadership role form a perspective of a servant first,” (50) Martin (2006) says, which Buffett seems to follow.
Conclusion: Waiting for the Sequel Therefore, it is obvious that the effect which Buffett has had on the contemporary business management and leadership theory development is truly priceless; with all the valuable lessons learnt from Buffett’s experience of establishing his own business, one can possibly see that in the modern world, the key to success is the ability to adapt to the rapidly changing situation.
Buffett’s experience is not only a peculiar story worth knowing – this is a model of a leader’s behavior which must be analyzed to understand what kind of qualities suffice for becoming a real entrepreneur.
As it has turned out, in the modern world, triumph depends on one’s own personal qualities rather than on the initial capital. Of course, there are a lot of factors which are to be taken into account when entering the business world, like the level of competition and the clientele, as well as the demand and supply ratio of the goods in question.
However, the key to business success is the leader’s personality – once the leader takes his/her place, the rest of the puzzle pieces fall into their places, which Buffett’s example is a perfect proof for.
Reference List Martin, B. (2006). Outdoor relationship: Theory and practice. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Miller, A. (2011). Life’s lessons: Working together to transform education, business and government. Bloomington, IA: iUniverse.
O’Loughlin, J. (2003). The real Warren Buffett: Managing capital, leading people. Yarmouth, ME: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
Ryan, B. (2005). Warren Buffett: Financier. New York City, NY: Infobase Publishing.
Tucker, D. E. (2008). Using the power of purpose: How to overcome bureaucracy and achieve extraordinary business success! Bloomington, IA: Author House.
Waltzek, C. (2010). Wealth building strategies in energy, metals and other markets. New York, NY: John Wiley
Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
The origins of CSR and business ethics
Beneficiary role of companies and its limitations
Specific applications of business ethics and CSR
Introduction Scholars and business administrators agree that the activities of companies should be based on some moral judgment. Mere pursuit of profits is no longer acceptable for organizations that claim to be good corporate citizens. It is believed that business ethics and corporate social ethics should ensure that companies are managed in ways that benefit the whole of society.
This essay is aimed at examining this claim. In particular, it is possible to argue that this requirement should be specified and limited. Businesses can benefit the entire community by offering excellent services or good. Moreover, they should eliminate or minimize possible risks to the wellbeing of the community.
However, managers cannot possibly predict the effects of business activities on the whole of society since such effects may be difficult to trace. The main task of CSR and business ethics is to eliminate various malpractices that can harm the interests of various stakeholders such as clients, employees, or community.
Certainly, for-profit organizations can bring some improvements into the live of the community, by creating jobs or participating in charity; however, the capabilities of companies are limited and managers should also think about the profitability and the interests of the shareholders.
On the whole, one can say that business ethics and CSR should act as safeguards against various dangers, but people should not think that businesses should responsible for the wellbeing of the entire community.
In this paper I would like to illustrate how corporate social responsibility and business ethics can be applied by modern businesses. The first section will examine the reasons why many companies chose to follow to the principles of CSR and business ethics. I will also speak about the stakeholder theory that explains how enterprises interact with the community.
The second section will discuss the role of business as beneficiaries. In particular, it is necessary to show that companies cannot always benefit the whole of society, because they should also think about their organizational performance and profitability. Finally, I will discuss more specific applications of business ethics and CSR.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The origins of CSR and business ethics First, it should be noted that such concepts as corporate social responsibility and business ethics emerged as a response to the criticism to which businesses have often been subjected by journalists, political activists or lawyers. They were supposed to reconcile the needs of businesses and the communities in which they operated.
Their goal was to make companies more accountable to the community. More importantly, business ethics and CSR had to eradicate various malpractices of for-profit organizations. In particular, one can mention such issues as failure to ensure the safety of workers or low wages (Morgan 2006, p. 306).
Moreover, businesses are often blamed for the failure to support the needs of workers, for instance, one can mention female workers who must care about their children (Pocock 2005, p. 32). Furthermore, modern companies are obliged to think about the work-life balance of workers (Pocock 2005b, p. 198). Thus, business ethics and CSR enable businesses and employees to reach some kind of a compromise.
Apart from that, companies have to respond to the pressure of governmental institutions. They are forced to respond to such issues as corporate fraud, environmental pollution, or dishonest financial reporting. Many societies have raised the performance standards for modern enterprises. Some malpractice like wage discrimination or environmental pollution are no longer acceptable either for the government or the community.
Therefore, the principles of CSR and business ethics are supposed to eliminate such malpractices that can harm the interest of various stakeholders. They have to shield businesses from public criticism, law suits or governmental action. This is one of the reasons why many business leaders are favorable of CSR. Yet, it would be an exaggeration to say that they are concerned about the benefit of the whole community.
Even the most ardent critics of corporations do not say that they have to bring improvements to the entire society. The problem is that the society is a very comprehensive term that includes every person living within a certain geographical area as well as institutions that have been created by the members of the community. Thus, one can ask how exactly companies are obliged to benefit the whole of society.
The thing is that there is no ethical imperative requiring business to think about the wellbeing of every person. Such a task is hardly possible for individuals or organizations. Certainly, one can say that companies can benefit these people mostly by providing good products or services or minimizing hypothetical dangers of their activities. Moreover, they can donate to various construction projects and even give money to the construction of roads or bridges (Banerjee 2009, p. 1555).
We will write a custom Essay on Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Yet, it is difficult to argue that business administrators have to think only about the benefit of the community. They should also be concerned with the profitability of the enterprise and the interests of stockholders. Provided that they do not cope with this task, the very sustainability of many companies can be at risk. This is another argument that should not be overlooked.
It should be noted that such notions as corporate social responsibility and business ethics take their origins in the stakeholder theory. According to this approach companies should not be seen only as isolated agents that merely deliver goods or services to clients. More likely, they should be regarded as entities that can impact a variety of stakeholders, for instance, buyers, workers, or community.
It is possible to refer to such an author as Joel Bakan (2005) who believes that corporations are probably the most important institutions in the world since they shape practically every area of human life (p. 5). Furthermore, business administrators should also take into account that these stakeholders can significantly affect the performance of any organization.
For instance, clients, who believe that a company neglects their safety needs, may simply use the products or services a different company. This is why corporate executives should understand that unethical practices can eventually result in the loss of profits.
Corporate social responsibility and business ethics are importance because they show how companies should interact with various stakeholders. However, CSR or business ethics do not eliminate the idea that companies have to make profits.
More importantly, the promotion of public welfare must not harm the financial aspects of performance. This is why people should not assume that companies will act as social beneficiaries. This is the main issues that should be taken into account.
Admittedly, managers should not regard themselves as “morally neutral characters” (Roberts 1984, p. 288). They cannot exclude ethical consideration from the decision-making process (Watson 2003, p. 169). The thing is that they can gain the trust of other employees by showing that they adhere to certain ethical principles such as integrity.
Similarly, companies can gain the trust of customers by demonstrating that they genuinely care about their needs. Nonetheless, one cannot oblige them to think only about the welfare of the welfare of the community. Such a requirement will not be feasible. Thus, people should not put rely on those corporate executives who argue that they are concerned only with the benefit of the public since such claims are not always substantiated.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Beneficiary role of companies and its limitations At this point, it is important to discuss some limitations of CSR and business ethics. Special attention should be paid to the ability of businesses to bring improvements to the community. However, firms have responsibilities to their stockholders who want organizations to be run effectively. The general premise is companies are obliged to create certain benefits for the community.
Thus, the question arises how they should do it. First of all, they are supposed to provide goods and services that can create some value for people. This is probably the most important requirement and the sustainability of every company depends on its ability to create this value. Nevertheless, this requirement is a necessity, rather than a moral obligation. Businesses do not CSR or business ethics in order to remember about it.
Secondly, it is possible the creation of jobs. This is one of the most important benefits that firms can bring to the society. In this way, they can improve the welfare of the population by increasing their purchasing power. However, there is a significant limitation of this requirement. The thing is that the development of technologies enables businesses to reduce the number of workers and eventually improve their cost-efficiency.
In many cases, they no longer need to hire more workers. The performance of a company is assessed according to its cost-efficiency, and many organizations try to reduce their labor force and employ only those people who can best contribute to organizational success. Thus, business administrators are not morally obliged to think about the creation of jobs, since they should also think about the productivity.
Therefore, there is some conflict between the needs of for-profit organizations and the needs of the society. In some cases, the most efficient business practices can harm some members of the community. This is the critical issue that people should take into account. If managers take business ethics and CSR to their extreme, they may endanger the interests of shareholders.
Additionally, it is assumed that businesses are obliged to promote diversity and empower those people who were previously discriminated, for instance, on the basis of race, gender or disability (Strachan, French,
The Use of Social Networking by Organizations Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Modern working generation aged 20-30 was born and brought up while the development of the innovative technologies. Being called generation Y, these people are considered to be born with a mouse in hands. The development of the innovative technologies has impacted these people greatly. Living in the world of computers, modern generation uses those for many purposes, and business has also been affected.
Using social networking in business, companies move in the correct direction as there are a lot of advantages in computer technologies and different social platforms. Having conducted a literature review, it was concluded that social networking positively affects business, increases satisfaction from the working process, and improves working productivity that leads to the increase of the income of the company.
Social networking is defined as “a popular term referring to all kinds of social software tools” (Shah, 2010, p. 348). Many business companies are using the advantages of the Internet and social networking successfully assists them. The involvement of the employees, customers and partners online is a good opportunity to remain always in touch.
However, applying to the social networking, the company should be ready to change the corporate culture. Searching for the examples of the social networking sites, the following ones may be enumerated, Facebook, StumbleUpon, LinkedIn, Zoominfo, Hi5, Delicious, Bliztime, Digg, Spoke, Plaxo, YouTube, Xanga, MySpace, Bebo, Friendster, Twitter, Xing, Yelp, and Flickr. These are the most famous English-speaking social network sites used in the USA and the world, however, there are much more social networking sites if to refer to the national and local ones.
There are a lot of opportunities these sites offer for business. Companies can always keep in contact with the present clients and search for other clients in the database. Sharing news and being the voice in the industry are more advantages for the company. The company leaders can manage their reputation, communicate with the employees and build a client list.
All these actions may be completed on one of the social networking sites offered above depending on the opportunities of the site and company needs (Shah, 2010). The behavior of many employees may be changed as well. It is essential to consider the advantages and disadvantages of using social networking in business before applying to the issue.
Applying to the social networking, the companies should use the advantages of the issue and pay attention to the challenges which this service creates. Dwelling upon the opportunities created by the social networking in the business sphere, the following aspects are to be considered. Applying to social networking, the corporation may change the means of communication delivering information faster among the employees with the minimum attempt.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The vision of the company may be changed as having too much data online, employees may become confused, that is why they are going to rely more of the corporate culture and the principles delivered there. The company organization may change due to the social networking and the opportunities it presents.
Various innovations can enter the company and its staff as various training programs may be completed without leaving the working place. Therefore, social networking promotes professional development of the employees.
The increase of the employee mobility is one more advantages for the company. Additionally, the motivation career development systems can be improved along with the mutation of the IT applications (The business impacts of social networking, 2008).
The discussed above aspects may be applied in the company and they are going to increase the business development. However, there are several aspects which may be considered as challenging or even negative for the business development. First of all, it will be difficult to perform the traditional return on investment method, therefore, new ways for ROI concept should be considered.
Second, the security of the data is the main problem people face while social networking. The right for the intellectual property is the third challenge on the way for successful utilization of the social networking. This issue is closely connected with the security challenge. The necessity of the company to adopt the plan for using social networking for the business benefit is important.
The company should have the technical opportunities for storing the necessary data considered from the social networking. Interoperability and speed are other issues the companies are to face. Applying to the use of the social networking in the corporation, the employer should give the employees an opportunity to manage their working time personally.
Moreover, the increased mobility of the employees may lead to the loss of the important staff (The business impacts of social networking, 2008). Therefore, having many advantages, there are a number of disadvantages social networking creates for business and the corporations are o be ready to face those and solve them successfully.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Use of Social Networking by Organizations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Trying to summarize positive and negative aspects of the social networking, the following basic issues may be considered. Social networking is a free way of communication, it presents the employees with the new interests, enlarges their scope of knowledge and helps share the information; social networking offers many opportunities for business purposes (e.g. advertising) and it is really easy to use.
However, there are a number of negative effects from social networking, such as addiction, danger, absence of privacy, the possibility to receive wrong information and use it incorrectly; moreover., social networking is not profitable in a big way. However, looking at the advantages of the social networking, the disadvantages seem not that great.
Thus, applying to the social networking services, the company may create a blog and share the necessary information about itself with the useful contact. This is much easier, faster, and cheaper than refer to the creation of a traditional web site (Ishak, 2010).
It is difficult to imagine the company without IT professionals. Being computerized, company business is led through the Internet and by means of the computer devices. Most of the financial operations are held through the Internet. Big corporations have personal social platforms for such purposes and information sharing, fast notification and control of the employees’ etc.
The social networking is really important for IT professionals as this is a source of information for them, the opportunity to communicate on the professional themes and get the pieces of advice, if necessary (Burton, Wu,
The concept of emotional intelligence: A critical analysis Essay custom essay help
Introduction Organisational behaviour is an important concept that entails understanding the character and behaviour patterns of people in an organization. Organisational behaviour entails the understanding of behaviour patterns of employees. Employees are the most important assets in organisations. Understanding people is critical to the management of organisations and shapes the behaviour of people.
Organisational behaviour and the behaviour of individuals can be understood through the adoption and practice of emotional intelligence in organisations (Krishnakumar, 2008). Emotional intelligence has become an essential concept in managing the behaviour of employees in organisations. Emotional intelligence is a way of understanding and controlling employee behaviour to enhance performance.
This paper critically discusses the concept of emotional intelligence in organisations. The paper explores the concept and its relevance to management. The paper also discusses the benefits or essence of withholding this managerial practice within organisations. In addition, the paper looks at the arguments that are against this concept and their justifications.
Overview of the concept of emotional intelligence in management Krishnakumar (2008) noted that emotional intelligence is a new concept to be directly applied in business management. This concept has been applied in behavioural sciences such as psychology during the study of human emotions. Emotional intelligence began gaining prominence among organisations since the early years of the 20th century, where organisational development was critical in transforming economies.
Organisations have discovered that emotional inclinations of their employees, which are generated at the workplace and out of the workplace, have a significant influence on the input of employees. In return, this affects the output of organisations.
Therefore, organisational behaviour has coded this concept and included it in management. This is because there are many generative factors of emotions that prevail in external and internal environment of organisations.
Emotional intelligence aims at understanding employees from two critical perspectives. These include the organisational perspective, which is also the internal perspective, and the external perspective that includes the home environment and the general society in which the employees reside (Ghuman, 2011). This is supported by the argument that behaviours are highly influenced by the environment of an individual.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This understanding gives organisational leaders a chance to predict behaviours and actions of employees. Thus, organisations have an easy time to control the behaviour of employees by launching programs that help in attending to the emotional needs of employees.
Emotional intelligence has to resonate from the management of organisation and entail the training of the organisational managers on how to manage emotions within the organisation. Organisational leaders then set and provide emotional intelligence programs to help employees in the organisation (Krishnakumar, 2008).
The relevance of emotional intelligence in organisational management Goleman (1998) observed that emotional intelligence has huge implications for organisational leadership and management. Researches on the effectiveness of organisational management have come up with findings establishing that organisational managers have a huge impact on entire organisational processes (Jordan and Troth, 2011).
Management skills are essential because managers carry organisational visions and missions as portrayed in organisational strategies. Emotional intelligence is among the notable abilities that are needed by organisational managers. This is because they are required to propel organisations through different situations. The concept of emotional intelligence in organisational behaviours resonates from this point.
Emotional intelligence has been an on-going practice in organisational management. It begins with organisational leadership and trickles down to organisational staff. It is something that cannot be ignored at all in organisations because organisational leadership is moulded by emotional intelligence (Carmeli, 2003).
Krishnakumar (2008) observed that emotional intelligence brings about cohesiveness in creating the strategies of organisations by organisational leaders. Acceptance of varied opinions in organisations denotes emotional intelligence (Carmeli, 2003). Emotional intelligence is seen as a tool that encourages the development of positive behaviours and attitudes on organisational tasks that promote growth and development in organisations.
Emotional intelligence directly or indirectly affects the abilities and personal traits of organisational leaders and their subordinates. When looked at from the outset, emotional intelligence is a competency that guides the development of positive attitudes amongst organisational members. In addition, good behaviours that prevail in the organisation are largely shaped by this competency (George, 2000).
We will write a custom Essay on The concept of emotional intelligence: A critical analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Emotional intelligence and organisational performance When fully applied in organisations, emotional intelligence raises the productivity of employees in different ways. It boosts interpersonal relations in organisations by helping employees to understand how to control their emotions, as well as the emotions of other employees within the organisation.
This works well for employees who work on dependent tasks in different organisations and organisational sectors where the behaviour of a single employee has an elusive impact on the entire industry (Thi and Kirby, 2002). The implementation of emotional intelligence in organisations equips employees with skills that help them in distinguishing their feelings and feelings of others.
Therefore, positive work relations are quickly developed in organisations because of the continued use and enforcement of emotional intelligence (Sahdat, Sajjad, Farooq and Ur Rehman, 2011). With emotional intelligence, employees become quite diversified in the sense they develop quick adaptability to diverse organisational environments.
This is helpful because of the dynamic nature of organisations due to organisational change and other external and internal pressures (Rahim, and Malik, 2010).
The pressures that are generated from these forces bring about stress amongst the stakeholders of an organization. When stakeholders become increasingly stressed, they lose track in the performance of their respective tasks within organisations, thus lowering productivity. Emotional intelligence has increased the rate and the ability of organisational members to adapt to stressful conditions common in organisations (Goleman, 1998).
O’Boyle, Humphrey, Pollack, Hawver and Story (2011) observed that emotional intelligence is a comprehensive management exercise that has to be implemented on a continuous or sustainable basis. Thus, organisational sustainability requires the implementation of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence entails the ability of managers to control their emotions.
It also entails the detection and control of the emotions of employees. In addition, it assists in implementing appropriate strategies. Emotional intelligence is dependent on many other actions in the organisations, which determine its worthiness. This process includes the desire of an organisation to embrace change, self-reflection of managers, and the willingness to understand the feelings of other people.
Other steps in the process are the development of emotional control and the urge to learn in order to understand emotions. Thus, emotional intelligence is not an easy practice to achieve in management. It bases on the wish and the entire process can be derailed by emotions (Goleman, 1998).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The concept of emotional intelligence: A critical analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The concept of emotional intelligence has received several criticisms. In some scenarios, emotional intelligence fails to auger well with organisational management. This often happens in small and immature organisations. In such organisations, the application of emotional intelligence results in serious drifts that threaten the existence of organisations.
Emotional intelligence is misconceived in such organisations, thus barring its workability (Goleman, 1998). In addition, emotions cannot be easily quantified and can be manipulated in different ways by individuals in organisations. In this case, organisational leaders have trouble while implementing emotional intelligence within organisations (Jordan and Troth, 2011).
Emotional intelligence is dependent on the level of personal character development in organizations. This level of development in organizations is dependent on individuals meaning that it is hard to fully achieve the goals of using emotional intelligence in organization. This is one of the most debated criticisms of emotional intelligence as a concept.
Also, organizations seem to centre much on emotional intelligence at the expense of developing technical skills. Technical skills are very important in organizational outcomes and emotional intelligence is only a facilitative factor of technical skills application (Sahdat, Sajjad, Farooq and Ur Rehman, 2011).
Emotional intelligence and employee retention As earlier noted, the employees are the most vital assets in organisations. They are the propellers and controllers of organisational activities. Performance in organisations squarely lies with organisational employees. Therefore, there is a need to understand employees should be a priority for organisational managers.
Understanding employees entail the understanding of their behaviours and the motivators of such behaviours, thus the relevance of emotional intelligence (Côté and Miners, 2006). Research shows that organisations that have embraced emotional intelligence in their management often record positive outcomes. Such organisations are also argued to reduce the rate of employee turnover in organisations.
They are able to attract and retain talents and skills hence enhancing the performance of organisations (Jordan and Troth, 2011). Employees feel good when they know that the managers are listening to them and specifically when they feel that their emotional needs are being addressed (Griffeth, Hom and Gaertner, 2000).
Emotional intelligence and sustenance of relationships in-group tasks Relationships in organisations are becoming vital because of increased integration of organisational functions. However, building and sustaining work relationships is not an easy exercise because of human behaviours. Organisational inventions and innovations are used in increasing the competitiveness of organisations in economies.
Therefore, organisational leaders are forced to establish and ensure that they have established working teams in organisations (O’Boyle, Humphrey, Pollack, Hawver and Story, 2011). Groups work best depending on the physical and emotional orientation of group members. Managing these groups involves managing the emotions of members that form these groups so that cohesiveness is attained for enhanced group outcomes (Jordan, Ashkanasy, Ha¨rtel and Hooper, 2002).
According to Rapisarda (2002), group relationships in organisational projects are sustained by virtue of applying emotional intelligence within the group and project management in organisations. Emotional intelligence promotes the existence and survival of teams or groups in organisations by encouraging what is known as pro-social tendencies in groups.
Emotional intelligence enables group members to cope with the personal characters and behaviour of individual members in groups enabling group members to work together (Rapisarda, 2002). Emotional intelligence also encourages interpersonal sensitivity in-group tasks. Organisational members become responsive and receptive to differing opinions and behaviours.
All these aspects of emotional intelligence have been found to favour organisational effectiveness, thus leading to positive organisational outcomes. Apart from individual projects, teams, groups, or organisational members perform many organisational tasks. The aspect of integration in organisations can hardly be attained without leaning through emotional intelligence.
Emotional intelligence is thus a big factor in team performance within organisations. Therefore, organisational leaders have to factor this aspect in organisational leadership. This is meant to form positive outcomes in group tasks within organisations (Lopes, Salovey, Coˆte’ and Beers, 2005).
Gender as a barrier to emotional intelligence in shaping organisational behaviour Hsu, Chen, Wang, and Lin (2010) observed that organisations are becoming engendered. Many organisations are working on modalities of balancing gender rations in organisations because of laws governing gender. As of today, the number of women in organisations is increasing steadily. This is regarded to be a positive sign to gender inclined management that is encouraged by many organisations.
However, these bars the practice of emotional intelligence in organisations (Hsu, Chen, Wang, and Lin, 2010).
From psychology, it is observed that the needs of men and women vary and shape the behaviours of both genders. It is easy to achieve a common ground on issues resonating from a problem of a given gender in organisations. With the variations of needs in organisations resulting from the different behaviours and needs of different genders in the organisation, the applicability of emotional intelligence becomes a misnomer.
However, this is debatable as experts in organisational behaviour have devised numerous models of applying emotional intelligence in such setups (Lewis, 2000).
Evaluation of literature backing and literature negating emotional intelligence Arguments that back the concept of emotional intelligence observe it from the outset and are backed by the benefits of the concept as it is applied to organisational performance. Many people support the application of emotional intelligence by arguing that it shapes the behaviour of people in organisations, thereby enhancing positive behaviours and performance. On the other hand, the literature that negates the concept base on the difficulties in applicability and workability of the concept.
Critics of emotional intelligence in organisational behaviour base on psychology to explain the difficulties of controlling emotions amidst many challenges like gender parity at the workplace. However, opponents of the concept do not gain substantive arguments to dismiss the concept. This is because it has gained wide acceptance and usage in organisational management.
Conclusion Emotional intelligence remains to be an important concept and component of organisational leadership and management as has been found in the paper. Emotional intelligence helps in the positive shaping of behaviours of both organisational leaders and subordinates.
This enhances positive relations, thus a healthy organisation leading to positive performance. Issues of applicability in different organisational setups mainly affect emotional intelligence.
References Carmeli, Abraham. “The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behaviour and outcomes: An examination among senior managers.” Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18, no. 8 (2003): 788-813.
Côté, Stéphane and Christopher T. H. Miners. “Emotional Intelligence, Cognitive Intelligence, and Job Performance.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 51 no. 1(2006): 1-28.
George, Jennifer M. “Emotions and leadership: the role of emotional intelligence.” Human Relations, 53, no. 8 (2000): 1027-55.
Ghuman, Umar. “Building a model of group emotional intelligence.” Team Performance Management, 17 no. 7 (2011): 418 – 439.
Goleman, Daniel. Working with Emotional Intelligence. London: Bloomsbury, 1998.
Griffeth, Rodger W, Peter W. Hom and Stefan Gaertner. “A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: update, moderator test, and research implications for the next millennium.” Journal of Management, 26 no. 3 (2000): 463-88.
Hsu, Bi-Fen, Wan-Yu Chen, Mei-Ling Wang, Yen-Yu Lin. “Explaining supervisory support to work-family conflict: The perspectives of guanxi, LMX, and emotional intelligence.” Journal of Technology Management in China, 5 no. 1 (2010): 40 – 54.
Jordan, Peter J and Ashlea Troth. “Emotional intelligence and leader member exchange: The relationship with employee turnover intentions and job satisfaction.” Leadership
Bipolar Illness and Creativity Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
In his article, Albert Rothenberg (2001) focuses on the relationship between such variables as creativity and bipolar illness. Overall, I find this work very informing and thought-provoking. The author argues that bipolar disorder does not increase creative abilities of an individual (Rothenberg, 2001, p. 144). He demonstrates that there is little or no dependence between these variables.
This article can be very useful to therapists and patients. People should remember that bipolar disorder can be a very dangerous illness that is more likely to harm the creative capacity of an individual, rather than promote it. In my opinion, Albert Rothenberg provides very convincing and interesting examples in order to illustrate his viewpoint.
On the whole, this article raises many questions that researchers and therapists should consider. First of all, the author believes that the connection between bipolar disorder and creativity may be very difficult to determine (Rothenberg, 2001, p. 131). Therefore, researchers should understand how the connection between these two phenomena can be best examined or measured.
They have to choose the methods that ensure the validity of results; otherwise their studies may be of very little use. Secondly, Albert Rothenberg says that people, who are engaged in creative activities can be more vulnerable to mood disorders (2001, p. 132). Therefore, therapists should think of how they can best help such patients. Probably, there is an approach that works most effectively for such people.
Finally, the author mentions various famous artists or writers like Van Gogh or Virginia Woolf (Rothenberg, 2001, p. 132). In many cases, their psychological problems were diagnosed on the basis of their diaries or other autobiographical records. The question arises whether such records can used for the purposes of psychiatric diagnosis. One should determine the extent to which they are reliable.
This article can have significant implications mostly for the field of psychology. Overall, this work can raise higher standards for psychologists who study the relationship between mood disorders and creativity or intelligence. As it has been said before, they have to develop more complex methods that can either prove or disprove the relation between bipolar illness and creative talents.
The development of such methods can be a very challenging task. Secondly, people, who are not professional psychologists or psychiatrists, will have to be more aware of about the dangers of mood disorders. The author eloquently illustrates the point that psychological disorders can and should be treated.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is no reason to associate creativity or improved performance with mood disorders. Such an approach is hardly permissible from ethical and scientific standpoints. Patients should reject the stereotype according to which bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are conducive to intelligence or creativity.
On the whole, patients should be encouraged to seek treatment even if they do not want to. First of all, therapists should explain patient’s creative skills have nothing to with bipolar disorder or illness. Secondly, without treatment their emotional state can only deteriorate. In their long term, their career and relations with other people can be threatened (Rybakowski, Klonowska,
Important Management Practices in Service Competition Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Introduction Today, more than ever before, the global economy is transitioning from a products-oriented economy to one of value creation, employment generation, and economic prosperity dependent on services. As demonstrated by Bardhan et al., globalization, technology advancements, and shifts in the global economic environment has generated a triple convergence of new organizations, operating in a new economic environment, and developing new procedures and processes for horizontal collaboration (17).
This has resulted in a potentially impulsive opportunity for organizations all over the world to participate and compete in global value chains, where the provision of services as opposed to manufacturing of products is becoming increasingly essential.
This new approach of conducting business in the global economy has necessitated researchers and other theorists to give special attention to the managerial practices, techniques, and knowledge that can effectively be used to create an enabling environment for the enterprises to configure service competition and relationships that ingeniously generate extraordinary new value for their own existence and profit motives (Brody 28).
Aim/Purpose of Research Paper The present paper aims to critically discuss the most important management practices in service competition. The rationale behind this broad objective is derived from the fact that it is important for interested parties to comprehensively understand all facets of managing service organizations and service competition since economies across the world are not only becoming more service-oriented, but technology convergence, globalization, and shifting customer needs are increasing the prospects to come up with fundamentally new services that have ultimately transformed the traditional way of conducting business (Prahalad
Brisbane Savings and Investment Bank Report college admissions essay help
Introduction Brisbane Savings and Investment Bank (BSIB) have developed to be a major player in banking industry in Australia. Although relatively new having been established ten years ago, the bank has experienced a fast growth rate. Due to good business environment, the bank was able to expand its domestic operation by increasing the number of branches.
The bank currently has branches in all major towns and cities in Australia. BSIB still maintains its Head Office in Brisbane major operations are based. Among the major operations at the Head Office include Retail Banking, Internet Banking and Business Banking. Retail Banking focuses on management of branches, customer accounts, loan and mortgage and cards.
On the other hand, internet banking sector deals with managing online customers and online banking products. Business banking focuses on managing business based accounts, loans and mortgages and overdrafts. Apart from the Head Office, BSIB has another major office in Adelaide.
The major operations based at Adelaide office include Institution Banking, Superannuation Products and Insurance Products. Operations in foreign exchange, hedge funds, share trading and bonds are managed from this office under Institution Banking. The office is responsible for management of insurance products such as life insurance, land protection, home and contents insurance.
BSIB has experience rapid growth over the last ten years. When it started ten years ago, the bank had 1000 employees. The number of employees has increased with increased operations and it currently stands at about 17000.
Computers and computer based information systems are integral part of every organization in modern days. Information system in an important resource in any organization and has significant contribution to an organization’s productivity. In order to integrate the use computers and computer based systems effectively, an organization must exercise control over these important resources (Hall
New Service Development and Customer Involvement Dissertation a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Categories of customer involvement
Service design and customer involvement
Innovation and customer involvement
Examples of companies
In the 21st century organizations are mainly concerned with how to improve their market position. The main objective is to cope with the competitiveness characterizing the business environment.
As a result, firm’s management teams are under increased pressure to develop new services in order to satisfy customer needs. Intervention of customers in the process of developing new services is important. This arises from the fact that it result into development of effective services. For example, the customers may contribute ideas which may aid in the development of the service.
Categories of customer involvement There are two types of customer involvement in the process of developing a service (Edvardsson
Learning Styles Inventories (LSI) in Nursing Study Term Paper best essay help
Within the recent decades, the principles of learning styles theories have been implemented in a number of academic disciplines, and nursing is among them. With the shift to the student-centered nursing education, the curriculum is adapted to the results of the learning styles inventories (LSI) for the purpose of creating the appropriate clinical and classroom settings and enhancing the effectiveness of the teaching-learning process.
Knowledge of various learning styles and one’s own strengths and weaknesses is helpful for optimization of the learning process and becoming a confident professional nurse. The fact is that abilities as well as learning preferences vary, and any assignment cannot be equally effective for developing the practical skills of the students of the group. Flexibility of the curriculum and individual approach is required for meeting the learners’ demands.
On the one hand, choosing a method of instruction that is the most appropriate for the student’s preferred learning style, an educator maximizes the student learning. On the other hand, learners should develop their skills that are necessary for using the styles besides their preferred one.
Billings and Halstead (2009) noted that “students who habitually use only their preferred learning style are disadvantaged when the situation demands that they use a different style” (p. 32). In other words, the results of LSI can be beneficial not only for adapting the curriculum to the learners’ personal needs, but for improving their skills that are required for using various learning styles.
Researching the learning style provides significant insights as to the effectiveness of particular strategies and approaches for students, giving preference to certain styles. Various contextual characteristics, such as cultural heritage, learning experience and the student’s age category have impact on defining the learning style and need to be taken into consideration while developing the programs and curricula.
However, constant lack of time and peculiarities of one’s own learning style might become hindrances preventing preceptors from implementing the results of the surveys in clinical and classroom settings. The first difficulty consists in realities of clinical practice depriving instructors of opportunities to devote much time to thinking their strategies over and choosing individual assignments for each learner.
Due to the necessity to act quickly, they often choose the approaches which they know best and which were effective previously. Another problem is that most instructors are inclined to use their own preferred leaning styles choosing approaches for training their students. Doing it almost unconsciously, instructors incorporate their own preferences into the learning programs.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even coming to realization of benefits of implementing the result of LSIs, preceptors have to meet the challenges of finding time for implementing them into practice and overcoming the temptation to use their own preferred learning styles for meeting the objective of enhancing the effectiveness of the learning process.
Young and Paterson (2009) noted that “the concept of learning style provides an opportunity for nurse educators to reflect on how open they have been to alternative styles in their teaching and in their own learning” (p. 92). Considering the principles of leaning styles theories is beneficial for both increasing confidence of students and professional growth of preceptors.
Learning style research tools are helpful for creating the awareness of one’s preferences, strengths and weaknesses and increasing the effectiveness of one’s learning efforts. Critical analysis of the LSI results is required for appropriate practical application of this useful information.
The problem is that going to extreme, each strong point might have devastating effects on the development of other skills. Myrick and Yonge (2004) noted that “it is important that you be aware of the effect that the unit has on the preceptees’ abilities to function and think” (p. 79) For example, according to the LSI results, I have got the highest score in intrapersonal strength. This means that I would feel comfortable working on case studies and problem-based assignments.
It would be beneficial for diagnosing patients and developing the health care plans considering every detail of the case. However, the score of interpersonal and verbal strengths are much lower and might cause problems with establishing the personal rapport with the patients and collaborating with one’s colleagues.
Being aimed at balancing various learning styles and enhancing my competence, I should put more emphasis on group projects, requiring cooperation with peer, improvement of communicative skills and effective communicative exchange. The high score of kinesthetic strength means that I writing the information with my fingers and touching the visual aids would be the most effective way for acquiring information.
At the same time, the score of the visual strength is much lower. Using the approaches aimed at taking advantages of my kinesthetic preferences, it is important to pay attention to development of visual memory. Logical and naturalist strengths are required for becoming a competent nurse and I managed to consider peculiarities of my learning style choosing the profession. The results of LSI provided me with food for thought and influenced my learning behavior and preferences.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Learning Styles Inventories (LSI) in Nursing Study specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Implementation of the learning style theories is beneficial for enhancing the effectiveness of the student-centered nursing education and improving skills required for becoming a competent preceptor and successful preceptee.
Reference List Billings, D.
Trade imbalance between USA and China Essay custom essay help
Introduction Barry Eichengreen, commenting in his article titled, ‘Will global imbalances return?’ notes that, “future history books, depending on where they are written, will take one of two approaches to assigning blame for the world’s current financial and economic crisis” (Eichengreen 2009). According to the author, one of the two approaches will put a lot of blame on sloppy regulation, compliant monetary policy and derisory savings in the United States.
The second approach which is being pushed by former and current USA officials will boldly heap much blame on the enormous pool of liquidity generated by high-savings nations specifically in East Asia and also the Middle East (Eichengreen 2009).
To this second group, their argument will rest on the fact that the massive liquidity would have been channeled somewhere and that the place for such liquidity would have been in the country with the deepest financial markets and that is USA, which unfortunately accelerated its asset prices to unsound heights (Eichengreen 2009).
Peter Morici observes that there is a serious dissatisfaction on the part of governments starting from Berlin to Bangkok and the reason for dissatisfaction is that, the dollar is falling since there is no assurance or reliance on American consumers who have been vital in powering the economies of many countries (Morici 2009).
According to the author, “deregulation and new technologies powered USA growth, and Americans flush with success bought whatever the world had to sell; however, when the imports substantially exceed exports, Americans must consume more than they earn producing good and services, or demand for what they make is inadequate, inventories pile up and layoffs and recession follow” (Morici, 2009).
The observation made is that the global savings imbalance which has witnessed low savings in the USA and high savings in China and in other growing markets has greatly contributed to the crisis where it resulted in Americans spending more by living beyond their means, while at the same time encouraging desperate financiers to earn return on massive funds by putting them largely on speculative use.
Nevertheless, other discussions especially emanating from Washington have framed China as villain whereby, through its policy of holding its exchange rate unnaturally low, China has been seen as stealing jobs and in the process forcing USA to run a huge trade deficit. Indeed, it is from such observations that Washington operatives are convinced that China should be forced to revalue its currency, the Yuan (Ktetaichinh, 2009).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the current debate over the exchange rate between the Yuan and the dollar is framed in terms of global imbalances where it is seen that USA is consuming beyond its savings on one hand, and on the other hand China is producing excessively and at the same time saving beyond its own spending (Alford, 2010).
Moreover, numerous corrective suggestions have been put forward such as, USA should export and save more while China import and spend more. To this extent, the debate is more concerned on the issue of how to achieve this rebalancing.
Analysis of factors behind the US trade deficit with China Enormous literature shows that trade between United States and China has been waxing and weakening (Morrison 2010, p.5) and in this trading relationship, it is only between 1949 and 1972 when there wasn’t any trade relation between USA and China as a result of frost relationship between Washington and Mao’s Communist policies (Asian American Studies Center, N.d). But after economic reforms that were initiated in late 1970s, China increased its global trade share to almost ten times.
Basically, trade deficit between USA and China started to be experienced since the late 1980s whereby annual deficits went up during the 1990s (Morrison, 2010, p.5) and skyrocketed during the first half of the 21st century (The USA-China Business Council, N.d, p.1). Today, USA and China form each other’s second biggest trading partners while at the same time China has toppled Canada as the main exporter to USA by becoming America’s third largest export market (The USA-China Business Council, 2008, p.1).
In the year 2007, USA exported commodities worth $65.2 billion to China market and imported commodities worth $321.5 billion from China, leading to USA realizing a trade deficit of $256.3 billion and which constituted USA’s largest trade deficit ever to any single country (Asian American Studies Center, N.d). This particular circumstance has irritated USA lawmakers who have threatened to strike tariffs and import duties on Chinese goods if China remains reluctant and adamant in reducing its massive trade surplus with USA.
One question that should be asked and investigated is what accounts for the current massive USA-China trade imbalance. Many critics and other policy makers have given varying reasons as the key causes of these imbalances.
For instance, China has been viewed to put more restrictions in accessing its market while ironically at the same time engaging in aggressive activities and programmes to support and enhance exports by its domestic firms (Asian American Studies Center, N.d; Dow, 2009); secondly, China is seen to enjoy low-wage/low-cost advantage (Economic 2008); and thirdly, China is viewed to artificially undervalue its currency (Asian American Studies Center N.d).
We will write a custom Essay on Trade imbalance between USA and China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Other factors that also account to the imbalance of trade between USA and China has been cited as:
Americans as nation is seen to be involved in consumption with no saving, where America imports much more than it exports for many years now (Gang, 2010). What is evident is the fact that USA has been on a long-running spending fling that has resulted into increased imports and this scenario has been catalyzed by USA long housing boom whereby Americans borrowed heavily against the rising property values and in the process their consumption exceeded their saving (Asian American Studies Center, N.d). Today, consumer spending accounts for almost 65 per cent of the USA economy.
Relocation of exports from other Asian countries to China, whereby China has become the final point of assembly for numerous products that are manufactured in other Asian countries like Japan, Taiwan and Hong Kong (Dow 2009) and this particular reason has seen China-USA trade deficit increase from 27 per cent in the year 1997 to 28 per cent in the year 2006 while that of other Asian countries went down from 43 per cent to 17 per cent in the same period of time (Asian American Studies Center, N.d). These statistics clearly indicate that USA, in a way, is importing more from China and less from other Asian countries.
Over-counting China exports as a result of China relaxing most of its foreign investment policies, many of China’s exports are believed to be produced by foreign firms that have invested in China which also constitute firms owned by Americans who in turn export their products back to USA market. Statistics indicate that 60 per cent of China’s exports are products that have been produced by foreign investors but in sense have been regarded and counted as China’s exports.
Undercounting USA sales; many USA sales of goods to China by US foreign investors who operate in China are not counted as USA exports to China (Wellen 2004). In 2005, it was estimated that the sale by these USA investors in China totaled $86.5 billion and was 70 per cent larger than USA exports in the same year and if such sales were counted as USA exports probably the trade deficit between the two countries would not be enormous as it is today.
China’s stand and the concerns of the USA The existence of trade imbalance between China and USA is a fact that most people of the two countries continue to accept but many concerns have continued to bewilder USA on most trade issues with China (Bivens and Scott, 2006).
For example, despite the two countries working to enhance and better their commercial relations, tensions continue to rise on key issues: America’s concern over China emanates from the issue of China’s continued resistance to adopt a market-based currency. China, unlike other advanced economies, does not maintain a market-based floating exchange rate (Kimberly, 2010) and between the years 1994 and 2005, China largely pegged its Yuan to the USA dollar at about 8.28 Yuan to the dollar (Morrison, 2010, p.18).
In July 2005, China appreciated the Yuan to the dollar by 2.1 per cent and, “moved to managed float based on a basket of major foreign currencies including the USA dollar” (Morrison, 2010, p.19; Kimberly, 2010).
And in an attempt to maintain a target rate of exchange with the dollar, Beijing government has fostered restrictions and controls over capital transactions while at the same time making large-scale purchase of USA dollars.
Many USA policy makers and business groups have been irritated by China despite its minor reforms where they note that Beijing government continue to manipulate its currency with an aim of keeping the value of its currency artificially low against the dollar (Morrison, 2010, p.19) and to them, this particular policy by China is composed of subsidy for Chinese exports to USA markets and acts as tariff on Chinese imported USA products.
The complaint is that this particular policy has continued to hurt USA manufacturing sectors (Rushing, 2010) that in turn is forced to compete against low-cost Chinese products, thus leading to loss of many USA jobs.
Many concerns and claims have soared about this China’s exchange and even there has been increasing pressure to name China as currency manipulator and hence institute trade sanctions on part of China (Sanhati, 2010). When evaluated and analyzed, this exchange policy by China has benefited the country greatly since it saw China weather the storms of recession and recorded growth rate of 9 per cent in 2010; however, IMF has projected that China’s economy in 2011 will grow by 10 per cent (Sanhati 2010).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Trade imbalance between USA and China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At the same time in 2009, China had reserve accumulation of about $400 billion whereby the reserve accumulation holding went up by $2.4 trillion in January 2010. These figures indicate that China’s reserve holding has gone up from 1 per cent in year 2000 to almost 12 per cent of GDP by the start of 2010.
In addition, as China grew and benefited from its exchange policy, America experienced unemployment rate of 10 per cent and as a result, many USA policymakers heaped the blame on Chinese exchange rate claiming it was the source of problems America was experiencing and as a result, USA Congress has been at forefront demanding the government to institute a strong stand on China’s exchange rate (Sanhati, 2010).
In response, China has continued to insist that its current policy is not intended to favor exports over imports, instead, is meant to enhance domestic economic stability (Morrison, 2010, p.19). China further claims that doing away with the current currency policy would jeopardize and weaken its export industries and hence cause wide-scale layoffs.
Chinese officials’ content that, economic stability is essentially important in ensuring there is political stability. Further, China has reacted by claiming that “exports are an important part of the Chinese economy, and any global market fluctuation or external shock will certainly have an impact on overall growth;” and like any other economies of the world, China’s economy largely depends on consumption and investment (Gang 2010).
Moreover, Yuan exchange rate is actually secondary contributory factor in China’s external trade. In other words, China’s current global trade imbalance can be rectified by addressing other related factors that dwell on Yuan exchange rate.
Why the gap exists between the views of China and the US on trade imbalance China has viewed its export to Europe and USA as “part of global structural change” which in turn has given China “leverage comparative advantage” (Freytag 2008). Studies have indicated that China’s comparative advantage is rooted in China’s exploit of low-tech and medium-tech products and as a result, China has obtained trade surplus with most Europe countries and USA (Freytag 2008).
Due to this, China has continued to refute claims by USA that it manipulates its currency for own advantage by noting that comparative advantage viewed in the context of the soaring deficit and currency undervaluation is that China is able to export to Europe countries and USA in key sectors; thus it is able to derive comparative advantages and therefore difficult to claim that its increase in export is largely determined and dependent on currency undervaluation (Freytag, 2008).
Another disagreement in views originates from the fact that liberalization of international markets has enabled countries to create vital mutual benefits for domestic industries and also its trading partners (The Free Library, N.d) and as a result, countries are encouraged to put much focus on the activities they are able to derive comparative advantage.
In addition, the existence of international trade bodies enables China to exploit its trade agreements by citing clauses such as, ‘free international exchange of goods and services’ and therefore institute ‘domestic favorable policy’ with aim to leverage advantage over its trading partners.
Due to China’s demographic advantage and its subsequent low spending, it becomes difficulty to solely claim that China’s policy is aimed at external market.
More often than not, China has expressed that its policy was intended for domestic market and trade, and that USA problem emanates from large fiscal deficits compounded by low household savings and this is due to excessive financial leverage. Lastly, China has made it clear that it is willing to spearhead currency reforms in its own way and pace without any outside interference (Somerville, 2010).
Policy alternatives to resolve the conflicts between USA and China As overriding issue concerning USA-China trade deficit remain a plain fact it is imperative to explore the possible policy alternatives that can be employed in order to resolve the conflict.
First, Marcus Noland together with Peterson Institute suggests that USA should first acknowledge that China is not the sole source to its economic problems although much needs to done on China’s economic policy and that China is not a vital source of job displacement in United States of America. The authors pose that, “If US is worried about the trade deficit; it should first reduce its own government budget deficit to close the saving-investment gap” (Noland and Peterson Institute, n.d, p.1).
Proposing a grand bargain for the two countries, Eswar Prasad provides key policy framework that can be adopted by two nations to enhance their trade relations.
According to the author, the proposed grand bargain should have the following elements:
The two trade partners should commit to using fiscal and monetary policy that has capacity to encourage domestic demand in their individual economies in the short run;
China should allow its currency to be more flexible and possess ability to be more responsive to market forces while at the same time USA should formulate a plan to reduce its budget deficit as economy starts to pick up;
USA should assume and offer supportive role to China’s multilateral financial institutions;
There should be continued high-level engagement and cooperation between USA and China on economic affairs; and lastly
There is need for sustained shared interests between policymakers in China and United States of America in order to realize enduring reforms that support and enhance sustained balanced growth between China and USA (Prasad, 2010, p.1).
Conclusion The obvious and undisputed fact is that there exists trade imbalance between USA and China, but this should not be the main issue to mourn about. What is evident is the fact that USA-China trade relations has been beneficial in a greater way whereby China has become one of the USA fastest growing export markets and at the same time, USA consumers continue to reap benefits from the ability to purchase low-cost imports from China.
In addressing the existing trade deficit, two countries should not forget the mutual benefits they derive from each other and that the most important thing for the two trade partners is to initiate sustainable policy framework that address their trade issues in a diplomatic way.
The two countries should embrace cooperation and mutual engagement on key economic issues affecting their trade relation and also there should be sustained shared interests among the key policymakers of the two countries to realize enduring key reforms as far as trade relations between the two countries continue to increase.
Reference List Alford, R., 2010. Structural Remedies Necessary to Tame Global Imbalances. Web.
Asian American Studies Center. U.S.-China Trade Imbalance. Web.
Bivens, L. J. and Scott, R. E., 2006. China Manipulates its Currency-A response is needed. Economic Policy Institute. Web.
Dow, M., 2009. Chinese Handcuffs? No, Chinese trade deficit. Council on Foreign Relations. Web.
Economics. 2008. USA Trade Deficit with China. Web.
Eichengreen, B., 2009. Will Global Imbalances Return? Web.
Freytag, A., 2008. Should Europe really worry about its trade deficit with China? Web.
Gang, F., 2010. Behind China’s trade deficit. Directory of Investment in China. Web.
Kimberly, A., 2010. U.S. Deficit with China. Web.
Ktetaichinh. 2009. Economics: If China sharply revalued Yuan as American politicians are demanding it could actually hurt United States and help China. Web.
Morici, P., 2009. The Great Debate: China’s Yuan, not the dollar, is too cheap. Web.
Morrison, W. M., 2010. China-U.S. Trade Issues. CRS Report for Congress. Web.
Noland, M. and Peterson Institute. US-China Economic Relations. Peterson Institute for International Economics. Web.
Prasad, E., 2010. The Effect of the Crisis on the U.S.-China Economic Relationship. Web.
Rushing, J. T., 2010. Trade deficit adds to pressure on China. The Hillsdale News Alert. Web.
Sanhati, R. V., 2010. The US-China Trade and Currency dispute: A red herring? Web.
Somerville, G., 2010. China and U.S. each claim gains on Yuan in talk. Reuters News. Web.
The Free Library. The U.S. Trade deficits: made in China? Web.
The US-China Business Council. 2008. USCBC Reports: US Exports to China by State, 2000-07. Web.
Wellen, P., 2004. The Trade deficit with China: a case study in corporate America’s successful global marketing. Web.
Conflict in Organisations Term Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
What is organisational conflict?
Causes of conflict in organisations
Functions of conflict in an organisation
Dysfunctional conflicts in organisations
Introduction The opposition or occurrence of differences between individuals or a group of persons is what is known as conflict. Conflict is a term that has been in the past perceived to be bringing about negative effects between or among a group of individuals. In the recent past, research has shown that despite its negativity conflict is also very important especially in organisations.
However, this depends on how you view it once it has occurred. Conflict is thus inevitable in any society whether between individuals or organisations (Jensen, 2009, p.1). Conflict may also occur between nations thus it can occur everywhere. This paper is a summary of conflicts that are in organisations and how they should be managed. If not well handled, conflict may bring about permanent differences which may not be desirable.
What is organisational conflict? An organisation is made up of a group of people working together so as to achieve the set goals and objectives of the organisation. Each person in a group of people usually has their own way of thinking and behaviour hence the need to pool all the differences to be union. Organisational conflict arises when the members of the organisation fail to agree on certain issues and decisions.
The differences may be on matters concerning financial resources, interests and values of the organisations (DiGirolamo, 2006, p.2). It is said that not all conflict is bad though some may bring bad results, others are essential for the progress of the organisation. In an organisation the managers are therefore responsible for making sure that all its members are working as a team despite their differences so as to ensure smooth running of the organisation.
Causes of conflict in organisations As mentioned above conflict is inevitable in organisations and thus is bound to occur because of the following reasons.
A major cause of conflict is the different ways of thinking among individuals and the way they perceive issues. The fact that people have different morals, values and ethics they handle issues differently.
The different motivation among people also causes conflict. People have different levels of satisfaction and motivation. Therefore, in a group of people each individual will be aiming to achieve a certain objective or goal which may not be similar hence causing conflict in the group.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another cause of conflict is the difference in myths and philosophy. Each individual believe that their way of solving issues is the best and are usually not ready to face opposition and accept any corrections thereby bringing about conflict in the organisation.
Individual stress is another common cause of conflict whereby due to an individual’s internal pressure one is forced to take actions and decisions that are not worth making this in the end leads to opposition from the other members hence causing conflict.
Inadequate resources available to meet the objectives of the organization also may bring about conflict in the organisation. This occurs especially when the top management dispatches less resources be it raw materials, time, wages or any other resource to be involved in production and yet expects the output to be of the desired quality. This cannot happen as the employees may have some shortfalls and fail to achieve the set objectives hence not satisfying the management and at last causing conflict in the organisation.
Lastly the struggle of power in the organisation may also be a cause of conflict in the organisation. Individuals who are competing for a certain post within the organisation may always be at logger heads since each wants to fit in a certain position. This struggle creates enmity among the competing individuals and hence conflicting in everything.
Functions of conflict in an organisation Conflict is not necessarily a bad thing if it occurs in an organisation, in fact it should be well received and instead be used as a stepping stone to the betterment of the organisation. Functional conflict is one that leads to improvement of the organisation. The conflict that occurs in such a manner is always welcomed by the organisation.
Functional conflicts lead to uncovering of matters that could be detrimental to the organisation if left hidden for longer time. Once there is a conflict in an organisation the affected members tend to disclose all that they have been hiding and hence the management is in a position to unravel the information from them. This is a very strategic tool that helps the top management of an organisation to be able to know what is happening behind their backs and take preventive measures or full control of the situation (Jensen, 2009, p.1).
Secondly, conflicts in an organisation helps the individuals to gain the knowledge and experience of solving problems as they arise. The lessons learnt from managing and coping with conflicts within the organisation gives them the power and strength in handling other problems that may arise in the organisation.
We will write a custom Term Paper on Conflict in Organisations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conflicts also assist an individual to learn to be concerned with matters outside his or her personal scope as well. The individual learns the virtues to have so to comfortably live and work with the other people.
Dysfunctional conflicts in organisations These are the disadvantages or negative outcomes that arise as a result of occurrence of a conflict.
The major problem that comes about upon occurrence of a conflict within the organisation is the renunciation of the people to work together as a team or group. In other words people now prefer working as an individual rather than working in groups where it is prone to occurrence of conflicts.
Others who fear conflict also opt to work on their own instead of having to disagree with the other members of a group. In such a case the organisation loses excellence performance which in most cases is brought about by pooling together of ideas and efforts.
Mediation is usually a difficult thing once conflict has occurred. Despite efforts by the seniors or top management to reunite members who have conflicted the affected members if stubborn on their stand and opinion then this becomes difficult and hence a problem in the organisation.
Sometimes members who have conflicted usually fail to tell the initial cause of the problem and how it can be solved if possible. Due to this the problem is not solved and the organisational operations and processes continue to be affected
Another major dysfunction of conflict is that of putting to a stop to all the processes and efforts been put so as to accomplish the goals and objectives of the organisation. Once a conflict occurs and the top management discover that it obstructs their means of achieving their goals they then halt everything to solve conflict at hand first. This in turn causes delay and at other times failure of goal achievement (DiGirolamo, 2006, p.5).
Managing conflict When either of the aforementioned conflicts occurs in organisation the management should be in a position to deal with them simultaneously so that the functional conflict may not end up being dysfunctional conflict hence being a problem. There is however no defined formula to follow when dealing with either of the conflicts, it only depends on the mangers own intuition and way of thinking.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Conflict in Organisations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In some instances the decision to take no action or do nothing becomes the best option. At other times the decision to involve the affected parties becomes the best decision. This gives a clear indication that the whole issue of managing conflict will only depend on matters at hand.
Communication should be effective if at all conflict is to be properly dealt with. It is through communication that important details of any conflict is gathered and used to solve the problem. Inadequacy of information in an organisation is very detrimental as it leads to hiding of vital information which may only erupt with the fall of the organisation.
Therefore a very unique method of dealing with conflicts is mingling the conflicting individuals in one group. As a result the people will communicate with each other while in the group and hence end the conflict on their own without involving the management (Jensen, 2009, p.1). This is very simple and effective way of solving conflicts because it is less cumbersome and less involving while at the same time creating good relationship in the long-run.
Conclusion The above discussion clearly indicates that conflict is present in every corner of the society thus inevitable. As to whether conflict is good or bad depends on how one perceives the whole issue. Therefore organisations are required to maintain a comfortable and desirable environment for both of them and the employees.
This reduces the possibility of occurrence of conflicts within the organisation. Each and every organisation should have an idea of the root causes of conflicts in the organisation which may include either one or a combination of the following: insufficient communication within and without the organisation, competition for resources and posts in the organisation, policies that are not well defined just to mention but a few.
Apart from the functional and dysfunctional conflict we have another conflict that is the ugly conflict. This type of conflict arises when the top management and at other times the employees try to stamp down conflicts without solving them. They in other words try to hide or eliminate the conflict.
Ugly conflicts can be indicated by the having conflicts that take a very long period of time before they lapse. Also when as manager you are not getting any incidences of conflicts in your organisation it gives an indication of ugly conflicts.
The fact that conflicts are healthy and common it will be abnormal for any organisation to function without conflicts. An organisation that lacks conflicts is questionable and is therefore an indication of ugly conflict. Occurrence of ugly conflicts in most cases depicts failure of the top management and are thus said to be responsible for it.
Reference List DiGirolamo, J. (2006). Conflicts in Organisations. Retrieved from http://turbochargedleadership.com/docs/Conflict_in_Organizations.pdf
Jensen, M. (2009). Functional Vs, Dysfunctional Conflict. Web.
Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) and its ability to create change Research Paper essay help
TMC’s ability to create change is evident in the established principles that guide management as well as, production. Their key principles are based on respect for others and the need to improve incessantly. It is noteworthy that TMC has improved significantly over the years through the establishment of a long-term goals and continuous innovation.
This is possible due to TMC’s ability to deal with challenges, further increasing its ability to initiate and maintain change. The entity has also developed a culture of exploring the causal concepts of problems that arise rather than merely eliminating them. This eventually aids in countering the obstacles to change. Respect for authority and change is crucial since it enables people to work as a coherent team. It entails the ability to understand each other thus fostering trust (TOYOTA, N.D).
The culture of TMC Evidently, TMC has implemented change productively by carefully following its inherent principles. These principles are divisible into four categories. First, an organization should establish a long-term goal even if this could affect the short-term fiscal targets. A long-term target provides stimulus towards accomplishing what initially seemed difficult to attain (Liker, 2004).
Secondly, following the correct procedure leads to the acquisition of the desired outcomes. This entails the creation of a process that is continuous thus getting to the core of problems that arise. It is crucial to follow the correct processes in order to reduce overproduction. It also creates a leveled out workload for employees and machines.
Application of correct procedures has enabled TMC to build a culture of recognizing problems as they arise and solving the problem in order to attain the right quality during the initial stages thus avoiding redundancy. Every employee at TMC has the mandate to interrupt production whenever a problem arises. TMC only uses the finest know-how available to serve its people as well as, production (Morgan
Organizational Diagnostic Models: Congruence Model Report online essay help: online essay help
Table of Contents Congruence Model
McKinsey 7S Framework
Burke Litwin Model
Organizational Intelligence Model
Force Field Analysis
Issues affecting Palm Company
Congruence Model The congruence model developed by Nadler and Tushman is an organizational diagnostic model that is seen to be similar to the open systems theory which stipulates that organizations are social systems that depend on the environment for their inputs. Nadler and Tushman (1980) described congruence as “the degree to which the goals, objectives, needs and demands of one organizational component are consistent with the goals, needs and demands of another component” (p.16).
Inputs within the congruence model include factors such as the organizational resources, the internal and external environment, history of past organizational behavior and organizational strategies. Nadler and Tushman (1980) describe the resources of an organization to be capital, technology and employees.
Organizational strategies are the inputs that will be used in the model while the organizational environment is made up of the individuals, groups and institutions outside the organization that will be analyzed. History of past behavior involves looking at previous performance and whether it will affect the organizations present activity while inputs are viewed to be the most important strategies an organization incorporates.
The system components in the Congruence model that will be used in the transformation model include factors such as formal and informal arrangements, individual components, tasks which will be performed by the organization and the informal organization.
The outputs include individual behavior and how this behavior affects the organizational tasks, group and inter-group behavior and system functioning. The weakness of this model is that the congruence or fit between the internal variables at times presented a challenge to the organization.
McKinsey 7S Framework The McKinsey framework was developed by Pascale, Athos, Peters and Waterman in the 1980’s. They worked as consultants for the McKinsey Consulting Company. The 7s model was developed around seven factors that created an awareness on the basis that when the seven factors are used together they are able to assist in the formation of a better organization. The seven factors or components of the 7s model are structure, systems, strategy, shared values, skills, style and staff.
Strategy involves determining the proper course of action that will be used to achieve a desired goal or objective. Structure highlights the relationship between an organizations process and human resources that are used to fulfill objectives and goals. Systems are the infrastructures that are used by the organization such as machinery, or technology while staff is the human resources of a company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Skills are the unique characteristics that each staff member possess while shared values are concepts that an organization uses to achieve a common purpose through common goals and objectives.
The weakness of this model is that most companies focused mostly on the strategy, structure and system components of an organization neglecting staff, staff skills, shared values and style. Also most organizations saw changing one variable would change all the other variables which was a false misconception (Falleta, 2008).
Burke Litwin Model This causal model was developed by Litwin, Stringer and Tagiuri in 1968 for the purpose of organizational change and performance and was later refined by Burke in 1980.
The model is made up of twelve organizational variables, distinctions between culture and climate of an organization as well as transformational and transactional dynamics, and specifications on the nature and direction of the organizational variables. The twelve variables include mission, external environment, strategy, culture, work climate, leadership, organizational structure, systems, individual skills, motivation, needs and values, individual and organizational performance (Falletta, 2008).
The external environment is considered to be the input of the model while individual and organizational performance is considered to be the outputs in this organizational diagnosis model. The remaining variables represent throughputs in the open systems theory.
The strengths of this model are that it represents the reality of organizations in a more accurate way; the relationships between the variables represent an accurate picture of what goes on in the organization. The weakness of the model is that the relationships between the variables keep changing with time and the model has to be refined to adapt to the changing organization.
Organizational Intelligence Model This model is a more recent diagnostic tool developed by Falletta in 2004. The intelligence model includes several elements that are similar to the Burke Litwin model as well as additional elements that define employee performance.
We will write a custom Report on Organizational Diagnostic Models: Congruence Model specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This model is made up of eleven variables which are environmental inputs, leadership, strategy, culture, organizational structure and adaptability, information technology and systems of the organization, the direct manager or supervisors effectiveness, measures and rewards, employee engagement, growth and development and performance outcomes.
The environmental inputs affect the organization from the outside while the strategic factors such as strategy, culture and leadership, structure and adaptability, direct manager effectiveness, rewards, growth and development affect the inside.
While this model is viewed to be similar to the Burke Litwin model, there are several notable differences which are that the intelligence model emphasizes the concept of employee engagement, and it depicts and emphasizes on growth and development as a key feature of recruiting and retaining employees (Falletta, 2008).
Force Field Analysis This model was developed by Kurt Lewin in 1951 as an analytical model for managing organizational problems. The model is simplistic in that it represents few factors within the organization which are the driving and restraining factors. The driving forces are the environmental factors that push for change in the organization while the restraining factors which act as barriers to change are found within the organization.
The model relies on organizational change with the main goal being to shift the organization to a more desirable state by adding driving forces and eliminating restraining forces. These changes are thought to occur simultaneously within the organization. The major strength of this model is that it offers a simplistic view of diagnosing an organizational situation. A major weakness is that a case of disequilibrium might occur during the transformational process (Falletta, 2008).
Leavitt’s Model Fourteen years after Lewin developed the force field analysis model, Leavitt designed another simple model in 1965 with similar concepts. The model specified particular forces or factors within an organization which were task variables, human variables, technological variables and structural variables.
The major weakness of this model was that even though Lewin described the four variables to be interdependent and dynamic, the model was too simplistic to make any causal statements regarding the variables. The model suggested that making changes to one variable would result in a retaliatory change in the other three variables. This was seen to oppose the driving and restraining forces in Lewin’s model. The Leavitt model did not address the role of the external environment in bringing about change.
Issues affecting Palm Company Palm has been facing various issues mostly related with its finances and products; it was facing financial difficulties which saw it being bought by Hewlett Packard for $1.2 billion dollars (Patel, 2010). Some of its products such as the Palm Pre and handheld devices have features that are similar to Nokia’s smart phone products and Microsoft’s pocket PC’s. Nokia and Microsoft are viewed to be the major competitors of Palm because of the similarity of products. This has created a challenge for Palm to differentiate itself from its rivals.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Organizational Diagnostic Models: Congruence Model by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another issue affecting Palm Company is the ever changing technology industry which sees new innovations coming out everyday. Companies such as Nokia have introduced the PDA feature into some of their phones which has given them a competitive advantage over Palm. Customers will most likely go for the Nokia phone that has PDA function rather than opt to buy separate Palm devices that have smart phone and PDA devices (Palm Inc. 2010).
Recommendations To deal with the issues faced by Palm, the management executives should use the organizational intelligence model for the organizational diagnosis of Palm. This is because this model portrays an accurate representation of the modern day organization which is one of its major strengths.
The close similarity of the variables found in this model with the Burke-Litwin model gives it a stronger basis to be used in solving Palm’s problems. This model considers variables such as the structure and adaptability of the organization, information and technology, growth and development as part of its components which are not evident in the other organizational diagnostic models. Such variables are important to deal with Palm’s current problems.
The technology issue experienced by Palm especially with its products being similar to those of Microsoft and Nokia will be solved by carrying out diagnostics on the throughputs of information and technology and also the structure of the organization to enable it to adapt to the changing technological climate.
The intelligence model will allow for diagnostic operations to be done on the IT infrastructure of the Company as well as the business systems that are in place. The structure and adaptability variables will allow for the diagnosticians to see whether the current organizational structure is working for Palm or not.
After the acquisition, the organizational structure should change to reflect new levels and responsibilities that will see the development of new and unique product lines. Growth and development will see employee skills in technology being developed and improved to meet the changing market.
References Falletta, S.V. (2008). Organizational diagnostic models: a review and synthesis. HR Intelligence Report. Web.
Nadler, D. A.
Mercury International Limited Report college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Introduction Mercury International Limited is a global company that engages in the design and marketing of sports and fitness products with its history dating back to 1974. The products include apparel, footwear and accessories. Mercury is the established brand name for the company which serves the product lines of Boost, Sweatless Apparel and Trailstep.
Mercury also engages in the licensing of its trademark and its intellectual property to third parties for use on apparel, sporting goods, equipment, accessories, health clubs and other fitness products and services for the reinforcement and capitalization of the brand’s reputation. The company has major competitors although it has established a substantive market share.
The issues of concern for the company include mainly its products and services due to the need for innovation, the value discipline based on the recommendable organizational structure, concern for the drop in the quarterly earnings, financial risks, competition in the industry, the expected trends in the industry and the process of realignment.
Analysis of key issues in footwear and apparel industries The identification of the key issues facing Mercury Limited involves the macro environmental and micro environmental issues, the state and changes in the economy as well as their influence on spending, lifestyles, manufacturing and income levels.
Description of the Key Issues facing Mercury International Limited Products and Services
Mercury Ltd holds the fourth position in market share in the worldwide apparel and footwear industries. The design and performance of the products form part of the competition base. The products and services also represent the brand strength. The analysis shows that following the rising of the quotas and tariffs, the prices are likely to rise and the apparel inventory reduce at the retail store.
This calls for increased new product development and brand strengthening through maintaining and improving the value and quality of the already existing products and services. The new product development will require substantial increase in research and development through assessment of the market, customer needs and use of updated technologies to improve production and marketing.
Further, as reports show, the industry is faced with the issues of quotas and thus there is need for product cycle reduction to reduce the durations of product delivery to the market. This is to meet the needs of the customers within stipulated time and maintain their loyalty (Schramm, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The redevelopment of proprietary exchangeable sole technology in 2009 needs reconsideration due to the fact that the insoles and apparel businesses have fallen short of the expectations of management. Further, the redevelopment of Boost in the current year is recommendable. As analysis shows, the manufacturers in low end cost countries such as China are likely to benefit from economies of scale and being able to increase product and service distribution (Shane, 2008).
The Value Discipline
Mercury Company has manufacturing plants in other countries and manufactures products for the market in the specific country thus saving on shipping costs. The organizational structure is the standard one whereby leadership and management are based on geographical location, product line and market.
Accordingly, the structure of the organization needs to be based on the strategy used (Wiersema
Strategy Formulation and Implementation Essay online essay help
Strategy Many definitions of strategy have been given by different scholars over the past few decades. According to Johnson and Scholes, “strategy is the direction and scope of an organization over the long-term: which achieves advantage for the organization through its configuration of resources within a challenging environment, to meet the needs of markets and to fulfil stakeholder expectations” (Johnson
Program Evaluation Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction In recent years, it is becoming increasingly clear that programs or projects hardly survive in the absence of an evaluation. A program evaluation, among other things, provides formative feedback that inarguably assists to guide the program during the implementation phase.
Among the deliverables, an evaluation provides summative information that evidently demonstrates the effectiveness of the program towards achieving its stated goals and objectives (Royse et al., 2010). More importantly, this information can be used to optimize the program’s results, efficiency, and quality (Fink, 1995). Below, this paper addresses some questions relating to an evaluation of Teacher Education Training (TEP).
Evaluation Questions According to Fink (1995), evaluation questions are mainly posed primarily to judge the program’s merits, that is, if goals were met, benefits achieved, and standards of achievement, among others. As such, the following are the evaluation questions:
To what extent did the TEP achieve its goals and objectives in terms of enhancing your teaching methods?
Has the TEP impacted you in any way in terms of imparting knowledge to the students you teach?
Have there been any changes in the way you comprehend the subject you teach after undergoing the TEP?
In your opinion, do you think the TEP is worth been replicated in other curriculums of other universities?
Do you still employ the TEP techniques you learned?
How has the TEP changed your general perspective in teaching your subject?
According to Fink (1997), “setting the standards means deciding on the information needed to provide convincing evidence of a program…” The standards that are decided upon must be appropriate, measurable, and credible. In the case example, the following are the standards:
Testimonials from teachers who have undergone or are in the process of undergoing the TEP about trends of improvement
Observations by the evaluators on teaching methods between those in the proposed curriculum (TEP program) and past graduates
Comparison of student achievement records, i.e., those taught by TEP trainees and those taught by past graduates
Observation for possible differences in performance for teachers on TEP in terms of age, interest, and experience
The evaluation design is the structure or backbone of any project evaluation process since it does not only document outcomes that can conclusively be linked to the intervention, but it also gives direction on how the subjects will be compared to record possible differences.
The design selected by the evaluators has far-reaching ramifications on the project final outcomes (Fink, 1995; Creswell, 2003). In the case study, the design employed is to compare teachers who have undergone TEP with previous graduates in terms of changes in teaching methods, knowledge of subject taught, and student performance. The measures employed include:
Testing and surveying all subjects in the proposed two year TEP and internship program
Observing subjects on an yearly basis from entry into TEP until two years after graduation
Data Collection Measures
A data collection measure is basically a tool or instrument that has been designed, tested, and validated for purposes of collecting data from the field (Sekaran, 2006). In the case example, the following data collection measures are used:
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To successfully complete the evaluation, you need to know how to analyze the data received from the participants. Here, the methods of analysis are dependent on aspects of the evaluation items, how the variables are determined, and issues of reliability and validity, among others. In the case study, all the variables – categorical, ordinal, and numerical – have to be used. Finally you also need to know how to objectively report the results that must include:
Purpose of evaluation
How evaluation was done (methods)
The evaluation reports can either be orally read or in written form. In the case study, a written report will be ready in six months
Reference List Creswell, J.W. (2003). Research Design: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc
Fink, A. (1995). Evaluation for Education and Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc
Royse, D., Thyer, B.A.,
360-degree feedback Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
360-degree Feedback Concept
360-degree feedback model
360 degree feedback: Pros and Cons
Introduction 360-degree feedback is an assessment evaluation tool that is focused on employee job performance from a multisource perspective. It is also referred as a multisource assessment or a multi-rater feedback since it relies on information from various actors. Ideally a 360 degree feedback assessment is done by evaluating an employee job performance through a comprehensive investigation of their working relationship, from both an internal and external perspective.
The idea is to generate an accurate assessment of an employee job skills, quality of work output and team work abilities that can be relied for employee assessment and job evaluation (Hazucha, Hezlett and Schneider, 1993). In this paper we are going to analyze the 360-degree feedback by discussing it process, pros and cons as well as investigate the effect of culture and ethnicity on it outcome.
360-degree Feedback Concept The 360-degree framework of evaluation revolves around the employee on whom the assessment is being conducted plus four other key actors that complete the evaluation cycle; peers, customers, superiors and subordinates (Linman, 2006).
In some other instances, the 360-degree feedback evaluation is more comprehensive and incorporates a variety of other external factors besides the customer as is the case in the model shown below. A well implemented 360-degree feedback is very valuable both to the organization and to the employee since it is a valuable tool of determining an employee potential value which needs to be tapped.
While at the same time informs the employee on the areas that they need to improve on in order to advance their career (Linman, 2006).
Perhaps, the most important actor in the process of 360-degree evaluation is the feedback information obtained from peers who can accurately rate the employee work quality and habits since they are at the same work level (Vinson, 2010).
Superiors and subordinates are also important actors of 360-degree feedback evaluation since they determine the effectiveness of an employee from two other opposite perspectives. Finally, external actor’s such as customers are valuable as source of information only when they are reliable (Vinson, 2010). Indicated below is a theoretical and simplified 360 degree evaluation model.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More 360-degree feedback model The importance of 360 degree feedback in organizations is one of valuable importance; the main objective is to generate reliable information that would enable employee to achieve self-development that would advance their career and in the process benefit the organization as well (Sullivan, 1998). As such 360 degree feedback tool is primarily used as a personal development tool rather than as an organizational evaluation tool.
360 degree feedback: Pros and Cons The effectiveness of 360 degree feedback in any type of organization largely depends on the nature of working environment. While 360 degree feedback can be an accurate and reliable tool, it can also be abused to advance personal interest in work environments where office politics are very much polarized (Hazucha et al, 1993).
Hence, it is crucial for the management to assess and determine the suitability of using 360-degree feedback evaluation based on the unique circumstances of the organization by ensuring that it application cannot be sabotaged for personal gains.
More often and almost always the case, use of 360 degree feedback is seen to be ideal in organizations where employee support each other career growth within a productive work environment (Linman, 2006).
In such organizations employees do not take criticism negatively or personally, in addition the organization trains their personnel on proper method of giving feedback, enforces confidentiality code and customizes the 360 degree feedback approach to fit the particular organization goals (Linman, 2006). More importantly, the organization should not entirely rely or indeed peg this type of evaluation approach to employee promotion or as a basis of determining pay rise.
On the other hand 360-degree feedback evaluation process has been determined to be least effective in organizations that rely on it as a tool for employee promotions and pay rise (Linman, 2006). This is because under such conditions of employee evaluation the stakes are high enough to motivate malice that is intended to sabotage fellow employee career rise since the element of competition has now been created. In addition, lack of confidentiality on given feedback only serves to fuel the distrust and even heighten the office politics.
If the whole process is not customized to evaluate on the goals and objectives of the particular organization, and where no other evaluation approach is used to substantiate the 360-degree assessment, you can be sure that the whole process would be a big failure (Linman, 2006).
We will write a custom Essay on 360-degree feedback specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The effect of ethnicity and culture on 360 degree feedback evaluation can either have negative impact or no influence at all, again depending on organizational work environment (Heathfield, 2001). Most often, ethnicity breeds distrust in people when racial profiling is directed against particular communities, it is therefore obvious that peer review evaluation under such circumstances cannot be objective.
Conclusion As such, it is important that a 360 degree feedback evaluation process be undertaken only in organizations where mutual trust exists among employee work relationships, and where work environment is generally respectful without the elements of competition. The aim of organizational leaders would therefore be to determine if the application of 360-degree feedback evaluation process would be suitable to their organization setup, and whether it would enable them to achieve an objective evaluation of their employees.
References Hazucha, F., Hezlett, A.