Purchase And Sales Management Research Paper College Admission Essay Help

Table of Contents Introduction

Purchase Management

Sales Management Process

Literature review


Works Cited

Introduction Purchase and Sales management represents one of the considerable sources of competitive advantage amongst companies within the global market. Stiff competition amongst industries characterizes the current market environment and such considerable event could be traced back to improvement in technology and rise in the sources of demand and supply. Capital existence in many organizations and individual creative business designs all contributes towards the distinctive nature of purchase and sales chain management.

There is always significant power shift downstream within the management chain, whereby the focus is on the consumers of products and services. This makes it necessary for companies to consider active and passive role their products play towards consumers, whereby every process is undertaken with satisfaction of consumers as the prime objective (Zhao et al, 2007, pp 40-80).

Purchase Management Purchase management refers to the process of directing the flow of goods and services within a company set-up. The process involves handling of data relating to supplier contact.

Knowledge on specific areas is required for the purposes of effective handling of the whole chain, such knowledge include; supply chain, inventory procedures, business and tax laws, logistics within transportation as well as business and laws on taxes.

Purchasing officer is required to have adequate knowledge on the products and services, planning, execution of the whole process, identifying purchasing strategies capable of profiting the company (Godsell et al).

One of the crucial stages in purchase management is sourcing and identifying reliable suppliers. Such ideas and knowledge could well be learnt from the internet and various occasions such as trade shows and conferences.

Dealing with potential customers within the international market requires the knowledge of foreign languages. However, potential suppliers can always be assessed in-terms of their ability to deliver quality merchandise at affordable prices and within scheduled time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Purchasing management requires professionals having good negotiating abilities, those who understand well technical product information, have excellent mathematical abilities, knowledge on spreadsheet, marketing and capable of making superb decisions. The responsibilities associated with purchase management always require excellent leadership skills.

There is need for the buyers to have abilities enabling them to select quality products that will attract consumers. Such activity requires understanding on economic conditions affecting consumer-buyer decisions. Merchandise managers are required to work closely with those concerned with public relations for the purposes of creating appropriate campaigns concerning the goods purchased.

Purchasing management goes as far as checking the nature of display done for the goods; this ensures maximum attraction of customers towards the products. They have sole responsibility of ensuring that customer demands are met as well as determining the level of sales (Godsell et al).

Sales Management Process Sales management process helps in the provision of potential business opportunities. Differences in company performance are determined by deep understanding of the sales management process. The process is utilized in the effective management of executive-level sales initiatives hence minimizes the number of sales cycles.

Improvement in Opportunities as well as productivity levels could be realized through effective sales management. Better results are realized including increased revenues (Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals).

Literature review Initial trends within the purchase and sales management focuses on time and quality, encouraging minimization and elimination of wastes. Quality of products and services are given lots of emphasis within the management chain (Mary and Vidyaranya 149-161).

Purchase and sales management considers professionalism which helps in the development of various standard processes used during procurement of goods and services. John Storey et al, in their critical analysis of Supply Chain Management consider developments taking place within theoretical and practical dimensions of Supply Chain Management.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Purchase and sales management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is normally done through critical assessment of possible barriers as well as important trends within the market. According to the authors supply chain management operates within the boundaries of theory and practice. Omera and Bernard, analyses the various kinds of risks encountered within the supply chain management. They are more so concerned with identification of several quantitative and qualitative approaches towards risk and management of purchase and sales chain.

The outcome of their research helps in the operation and management of supply chains based on risk theory. On the same note, they pay much attention on the use of empirical testing on risk theory before incorporating productive ideas within supply chains. This is attributed to the fact that risk theory models are still considered to be in their preliminary stages (Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals).

Mary and Vidyaranya, discusses issues surrounding the designs of purchase and sales supply chain. They major focus is on decisions supporting various models used in assessing the conditions within purchase and sales management. There is intense comparison given by the authors on various researches done concerning the purchase and sales management processes giving practical examples within the international market.

The conclusive review they give considers the fact that various models could be used to explicitly address problems within purchase and sales management processes. The model used within global supply chain comprises of domains within market environment, nature of suppliers, buyers and the various business components (Cooper et al). Coordination and integration within purchase and supply management should be considered for competitive purposes.

However, it requires better knowledge on overall management processes and necessary skills on record keeping and inventory management. This determines the level of success attained within the market by specific companies since supply chain management holds the core of any business company. The authors come into a conclusion that different challenges and overall performances could be improved within the competitive market environment (Elliott and Powell).

Effective management of purchase and sales chain prove to be a complex and challenging task due to increasing market demands. These include continuing trends on expansion of product varieties, short product lifecycles, and improvement in the level of information technology, increased outsourcing and globalization of businesses.

Previously the area on supply chain management was considered of less importance by managers but is currently considered as the heartbeat of business operations within companies. Continued level of competitiveness of a firm within the market is determined by logistics managers and supply chain managers. Logistics involve the planning and management of the flow of information within and through organizations.

The nature of the purchase and sales management within market is well evaluated through the use of value stream mapping. It comprises of the various processes products follow from conversion from raw materials to final products available for sale and also included are the various channels followed to ensure the products reach consumers.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Purchase and sales management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Value stream mapping helps in assessing the effectiveness of the various steps within the management of purchase and sales processes. Analyzing information and product flow processes within the supply chain is necessary since this assists in putting right vital aspects identified in the marketplace. The mapping processes helps in visualizing events hence revealing specific non-valuable tools as well as improved management activities.

The process of visualizing purchase and sales management process assists in giving appropriate picture on the purchasing process through to delivery process. The distribution processes adopted within the supply chain may at times seem out-dated with respect to technological improvement. This raises eyebrows concerning the value of the system used (ISM).

Management relationship between suppliers and buyers is greatly impacted by the various cultures existing within the market place. Certain markets are known to have collective cultures which are focused and highly powered.

Population’s cultural characteristics determine the effects on the management of the buyer supplier relationships. This calls for various businesses within the supply chain to adjust to their respective purchases and sales for the purposes of accommodating partnerships (Chow, Deng and Ho).

At the same time national cultures have an indirect effect on the level of negotiation behaviors amongst the management team members. This shows that culture plays key role in the management and control of purchase and sales owing to the fact that most countries from different regions uses rules and regulations on local and central governments based on prevailing culture hence affecting supply chains.

Companies need to make necessary readjustments within their supply chain structures for the purposes of accommodating major changes within global market (Ellis et al 205-221).

Conclusion Business Companies need to pay much attention towards service and product delivery aimed at satisfying consumer needs and desires. This could well be attended to when suppliers pay much consideration towards issues such as customer complaints and appropriate product avenues. Such processes have the capability of enhancing Company’s image amongst consumers because of their high profiled image within the market.

For improvement to be realized within the purchase and sales chains business companies should learn to focus most importantly on the quality, cost, performance and issues on prices at which goods and services are sold. Focus should also be placed on the level of supply of consumer goods at different locations. Companies should learn to analyze consumers in relation to their potential and also pay much attention to the processes through which products and services are administered to specific consumer groups.

Usually company’s efforts in evaluating the performance from the consumer’s point of view contribute largely towards positive performance of the company. The processes through which they developed products are defined by quality measures, cost of production and time which contribute a lot towards customer satisfaction (Godsell et al).

Besides focusing on quality of their products based on consumer standards, business companies should expand their concern to include cost of production and appropriate chain of delivery. High level of revenue which is as a result of high sales is often good indicator on consumer satisfaction level. Customers are always drawn to buy more of a product based on the overall benefits they get from the commodities which include pricing and quality.

Companies operating within the regional and international markets operate under central management system which helps in effective management of purchases and sales based on level of expansion. Purchases and sales management usually involves various activities taking place within organization’s business operations.

Works Cited Cooper, Martha, Lambert, Douglas,


Kafka’s Stories “A Hunger Artist”, “Jackals and Arabs” and “The Metamorphosis” Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

A Hunger Artist

Jackals and Arabs

The Metamorphosis


Introduction One of the reasons why Franz Kafka was able to gain the fame of one of 20th century’s most prominent writers is that his literary works contain many motifs/themes, closely associated with a number of people’s subconscious anxieties.

In this paper, I will aim to substantiate the validly of an earlier suggestion in regards to Kafka’s short stories A Hunger Artist, Jackals and Arabs and The Metamorphosis, as literary works that are being concerned with exploring the themes of alienation, surrealism and self-sacrifice, which in turn explains these stories’ an essentially subliminal appeal to the reading audiences.

A Hunger Artist The most striking characteristic of Kafka’s short story A Hunger Artist is that in it, the author had shown that socially alienated introverts might nevertheless pass for being nothing short of extraverts. As it appears from this particular story, the actual reason why the character of a hunger artist was growing ever bitterer is that he sensed that the viewing audiences did not appreciate real motivations behind his public performances.

Whereas; Kafka’s hunger artist strived to be recognized as someone who had a plenty of will power to derive pleasure out of suppressing its own animalistic instincts, spectators never ceased thinking of his performances as having been solely motivated by the artist’s essentially animalistic hunger for fame and money.

The soundness of this suggestion can be well illustrated in relation to the story’s scene in which butchers (hired to observe artist at night, so that he would not have a chance of eating any sneaked out food) preoccupy themselves with playing cards – hence, allowing the hunger artist to have a bite.

Apparently, it never even occurred to them that the artist was a perfectly honest individual, totally incapable of cheating: “During the period of fasting the hunger artist would never, under any circumstances, have eaten the slightest thing, not even if compelled by force. The honour of his art forbade it”. It was namely due to the artist’s continuous exposure to people’s arrogance that he started to yield to depression.

However, being utterly unable to recognize artist’s existential nobleness, as the actual driving force behind his act, spectators could not help worsening the situation with artist’s mental state even further, because they arrogantly thought that the deterioration of his physical condition was brought about by his fasting as ‘thing in itself’.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Yet, this was far from being the case. As it appears from the story, nothing could satisfy the hunger-artist’s longing for self-realization better than being provided with an opportunity to do what he used to do the best – practicing an extreme form of fasting. Therefore, it would only be logical, on our part, to suggest that the artist’s ultimate demise came as a result of him never ceasing to remain strongly alienated from the rest of society.

Jackals and Arabs The reading of a short story Jackals and Arabs leaves no doubt as to the fact that this story’s foremost thematic element is being of clearly surreal nature.

The reason for this is simple – it is not only that the characters of jackals, featured in the story, are shown as being endowed with perfectly human psychological traits (they experience hate, fear, hope), but they can also speak human language: “I’m the oldest jackal for miles around. I’m happy I’m still able to welcome you here”. Jackals approach the narrator and begin to elaborate on how much they hate Arabs, as utterly filthy people, whose religious practices undermine the cleanliness of a surrounding environment.

This, however, is not only the single aspect to story’s clearly defined surrealist sounding. After all, it is not the encounter with jackals that can speak human voices, which amazes narrator as something rather impossible, but the fact that jackals appear to have been anticipating his arrival.

Such narrator’s reaction, of course, cannot be referred to as anything but strongly surreal, because it only makes logical sense within the framework of a story’s semantic content. The same can be said about story’s setting, which provide a surreal authenticity to plot’s unraveling.

There is also a surreal quality to the image of rusty scissors, which jackals used to carry along with them. Even though, when it comes to slashing people’s throats, one would be so much better off using a knife, the author made a deliberate point in representing scissors, as the intended instrument of Arabs’ punishment. Apparently, Kafka wanted to increase the story’s surreal appeal even further.

Just as it is being the case with the motifs in Salvador Dali’s paintings, which despite their seeming oddness make a perfectly good sense to those aware of the essence of Dali’s worldviews, clearly surreal undertones to Jackals and Arabs also appear fully explainable to those who have been introduced to Kafka’s biography.

We will write a custom Essay on Kafka’s Stories “A Hunger Artist”, “Jackals and Arabs” and “The Metamorphosis” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Metamorphosis One of the foremost thematic elements in Kafka’s The Metamorphosis is self-sacrifice. Even throughout story’s introductory part the theme of self-sacrifice is being featured rather prominently. After having been turned into a bug, the story’s main character Gregor Samsa does not think of his metamorphosis in terms of a personal tragedy, but solely in terms of how it may affect the members of his family.

This alone portrays Gregor as an individual endowed with an acute sense of social responsibleness, who does not think of ensuring of its personal well-being as such that represents his foremost priority. Therefore, it does not come as a particular surprise that, throughout story’s consequential phases, Gregor continues to act in a strongly defined sacrificial manner.

For example, while being perfectly aware of the fact that his family members find his new appearance utterly appalling, Gregor tries not to come out of his room, even though not being to socialize with his loved ones does hurt him rather immensely. Gregor also does not protest when his sister Grete rearranges furniture in his room, simply because he does not want her to be getting upset even more. This again portrays Gregor as an individual with strong self-sacrificial anxieties.

Nevertheless, Gregor’s ultimate sacrificial act was his decision to die – hence, relieving his relatives of a burden of taking care of him: “He remembered his family with deep feelings of love. In this business, his own thought that he had to disappear was, if possible, even more decisive than his sister’s”.

Apparently, despite the fact that, after having been turned into a bug Gregor never ceased being abused by the members of his family, he nevertheless continued to love them with a deep passion. Therefore, Gregor did not resist dying, as he felt that his relatives really did want him to disappear. Such Gregor’s final act, of course, cannot be referred to as anything but highly sacrificial.

More about This Topic What are The Metamorphosis themes? 5 97 What are the literary devices in The Metamorphosis? 4.5 1499 What are the symbols in The Metamorphosis? 5 128 What obstacles does Gregor face in The Metamorphosis? 5 96 Bibliography Kafka, Franz “The Metamorphosis.” Vancouver Island University. 2009. 3 Oct. 2011 http://johnstoniatexts.x10host.com/kafka/metamorphosishtml.html

Kafka, Franz “A Hunger Artist.” Vancouver Island University. 2009. 3 Oct. 2011 http://johnstoniatexts.x10host.com/kafka/hungerartisthtml.html

Kafka, Franz “Jackals and Arabs.” Vancouver Island University. 2009. 3 Oct. 2011 http://johnstoniatexts.x10host.com/kafka/jackalsandarabshtml.html

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The Operations of Apple Inc in the United States of America and China Qualitative Research Essay essay help free

Apple Inc. is an American multinational corporation that designs, develops and markets consumer electronics, computer software and personal computers. It has a wide range of products both software and hardware; the hardware include, iPod, iPhone and the iPad while software includes; iTune, iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software and iWork suite of productivity software.

Owing to its emphasis on the philosophy of comprehensive aesthetic design and its distinctive advertising campaigns, the company not only endeared itself to consumers globally but also confirmed its status as a major player in the consumer electronics industry. The fact that the Apple App store can be found in 96 countries globally underpins its scope (Chesbrough


Google Qualitative Research Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Introduction The internet bubble occurred from mid 1990’s to 2000. During this period, stock markets in the developed world saw a sharp rise in value of technology and internet stocks. As a result, people believed that the internet would be the major driver of future business, people would not need to physically go to the retail store and we could shop our groceries online and order our meals from a dot com site.

Unfortunately, this did not last as the stock market suddenly crashed. Despite the crash, most internet companies are still registering significant growth and it is clear that there are here to stay. For the purpose of this study, the paper will focus on Google Corporation.

Discussion Google has registered significant success since its inception in 1998. The Company’s success is attributed to factors such as Google’s design to suit the final user and its simplicity in terms of design that has attracted many internet users over the years. Reuters (2009) reports that Google uses an excellent search engine that produces products that exactly fit into customer’s needs.

Google Corporation provides a software technology that is capable of continuous calculations that are performed simultaneously compared to traditional search engines that perform calculations one at a time. Due to the engine’s speed, the engine was able to perform over 85% of the search requests in 2004 on the World Wide Web.

Another key factor in Google’s success is the superb organizational culture. The working conditions for the company’s employees are conducive as they feel at ease at the work place. Moreover, the company’s top management is comprised of highly qualified MBA and PhD graduates from various fields that are important in the fulfilment of the objectives of the vision of Google Corporation.

They work together as a team to accomplish the goals of the company. In addition the employees are encouraged to be innovative. For instance, engineers are free to spend up to 20% of their work time in any interesting project that they believe can add value to Google, this has led to creation of innovative products like Ad sense, Google news and Google mail. Furthermore, the Google business model also explains its success.

This model makes it almost impossible for its rivals to catch up. Chaffey (2007) asserts that Google’s business model is summarised by the following phrase “to make the world’s information universally accessible and useful “(p.2). As noted by Chaffey, the firm has positioned itself well in the market in order to offer high quality products that cannot be compared to any competitor in the industry, thereby leaving its users satisfied and promoting the company through the word of mouth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Strategic alliances also explain Google’s success. Google has acquired and in some cases formed alliances with several other companies such as YouTube, E-bay, Yahoo and Amazon. Through such alliances, Google has a better position to tackle its competitors.

Dwivedi (2008) further notes that Google has largely changed its core business to a variety of businesses in the field of marketing such as Picasa, blogger, keyhole, Gmail and Google news among others. It is estimated that 90% of Google’s revenues are from advertising therefore suggesting that Google is majorly an advertising firm (Dwivedi, 2008).

Google Corporation offers its consumers high quality products that enable its clients such as corporate organizations to make online advertisements for their products without hiring advertisement consultants. Largely, Google is the most recognized brand outperforming even household brands like Coca-Cola and McDonalds because of its excellent search engine (Google, 2009).

Conclusion The evidence above shows that the business strategy pursued by Google is realistic. The company is better positioned to denominate internet associated business and activities. Unless something dramatic happens, Google will continue to be a going concern. In the search engine industry, one can deduce several lessons from Google`s success.

International internet retailers need competent and committed staffs that are creative and innovative. Furthermore, these organizations should give the professionals an opportunity to innovate by offering a free and favourable work environment. Internet retailers equally need financial and human resources in large scale. Without resources, Google could not have acquired companies such as You Tube.

It is estimated that Google has over 31,353 employees as at 30 September 2011. Gather (2009) notes that many people around the world will continue to “Google” things, not “Yahoo” or “Bing” them. This emphasizes the fact that Google has become a common household name more than any other search engine.

References Chaffey, D. (2007). Google case study-covering Google business strategy and technology case. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Google specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Dwivedi, J. (2008). Google’s robust strategy and business model. Web.

Gather, (2009). Microsoft and Yahoo in a war against Google. Web.

Google, (2009). Technology overview. Web.

Reuters. (2009). Google quietly declares email war on Yahoo. Web.


Operations Management Strategy and Functions Essay (Article) a level english language essay help

Operations management is about efficiency in every operational activity in an organization. The operational activities of organizations include, purchasing of inputs, raw materials, and capital goods, hiring of labor, processing of the goods and final distribution to customers.

Operations management is involved in all the above processes in different ways but with one mission, ensuring efficiency. The scope of operations management is thus very wide. From the point of starting an organization or firm, to its days of glory, operations management is involved.

During the purchasing of raw materials and capital goods, operations professionals ensure efficiency and cost minimization by comparing prices and quality from different suppliers before signing of a supply contract. When allocating resources, operations management professionals consider several factors such as importance of the project to be funded, its viability, whether it is in line with business objectives, the return on investment and availability of funds. This helps the organization to make wise decisions.

Operations management function in distribution services is vital. Product distribution function ensures that the product reaches the final consumer. Since the profitability of any organization depends on how much of its products are sold, distribution function becomes the backbone of every organization.

The operations management professionals help here by determining the cheapest and most convenient channel of distribution to use. Finally, the operations management’s role in quality assurance is equally helpful in determining the sales and therefore success of the organization. By initiating research aimed at improving the quality of products, operations management increases the consumption of products to the advantage of the firm.

Operations management strategy involves the development of customer needs to help in developing products that satisfy them, developing corporate strategy to help in positioning the firm, operations strategy to help reduce cost while ensuring the production of goods of high quality, and continuous market scanning to react appropriately to environmental changes.


Digital Technology in Modern Society Essay college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Digital technology analysis


Works Cited

Introduction Technology has definitely become an important aspect of our daily lives. Whether directly or indirectly, people interact with technology on their daily basis and get affected differently. The manner in which individuals get affected further varies from one person to the other.

This essay focuses on the impact of digital technology on our culture with special emphasis on how youths have been affected by various aspects of digital technology. To achieve this objective, views from three authors have been considered through comparative analysis. These authors are: Charles McGrath, Lakshmi Chaundhry and Will Wright.

Digital technology analysis In his article, The Pleasures of the text, McGrath analyzes how digital technology has affected the manner in which young people communicate especially using mobile phones. With affordability of mobile phones having risen, messaging has gained preference among young people. He notes that the language of text messaging encompasses a wide range of elements like shorthand contractions, emoticons, acronyms and letter-number homophones (McGrath 1).

He argues that this preference is based on the limited number of characters that a text message can accommodate and the less versatility nature of cell phone screens. He says “But because the typical cell phone screen can accommodate no more than 160 characters, and because the cell phone touchpad is far less versatile than the computer keyboard, text-messaging puts an even greater premium on concision” (McGrath 1).

Because of the emerging texting trends, books have been written for acronyms like CWOT (complete waste of time) (McGrath 1). He further notes that text-messaging has mimicked hip hop so much that most commonly used characteristics are used by hip hoppers say, “a” for “er”. As a result, this form of texting that is common among young people is “lateral” and encourages mindlessness among users.

It is a rude way of expressions especially in Britain where relationships are terminated using such messages. He further affirms that excessive use of this messaging style is common in developing countries where messages are more affordable than voice calls. This has also been promoted by culture like in China where voice messages symbolize rudeness among users (McGrath 1).

On the other hand, Chaundhry argues that technology has created a new era of celebrities as people have endless opportunities to celebrate their heroes online. In his article, Mirror, Mirror on the Web, he notes that becoming a celebrity is no longer an honor in the digital world and that ordinary citizens have significantly grabbed these opportunities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With the existence of mammoth technological ideas, the world is likely to change in several ways. He refers to this as progressive fantasy which is interlaced with collaboration, change and community (Chaundhry 1).

Furthermore, Web 2.0 allows people to be worshipped, admired and idolized as majority of people derive pleasure in being considered as heroes and heroines. This notion has promoted self-promotion in the digital society as individuals aim at establishing personal fame on the web through countless links and accounts with different social websites. Unlike previous generations when celebs commanded honor and respect for their achievements, digital technology has eliminated the honor of being a celeb.

Due to the public hunger for fame, the media always introduces programs that allow individuals to woo the public as their celebs. Additionally, Chaundhry argues that digital technology has reduced fame to public attention and separated it from the traditional achievements and wealth. As a result, fame has become a commodity that is only acquired through media publicity.

This has its core roots in the young generation that some consider being famous as the definition of American dream. According to Chaundhry, “Since a key component of narcissism is the need to be admired and to be the center of attention, Generation Me’s attraction to fame is inevitable.”You teach kids they’re special” (1).

It therefore suffices to mention that digital technology has promoted the desire for self-promotion and the need to seek public approval. As such, the cultural approach of becoming famous has been replaced with virtual personas among the youths. This obsession augmented by digital technology negates the need for achievement and success that traditionally characterized celebs.

With regard to digital technology and its impact on our culture, Will Wright discusses how computer imaging and videogames have tremendously affected young people in the current generation.

Unlike other forms of games, Wright notes that computer games are played through trial and error method as players rarely go through the manual in order to master rules and directions. However, he reiterates that videogames make young people to believe that the world is a place for creation and not consumption as perceived in olden days of structured learning.

We will write a custom Essay on Digital Technology in Modern Society specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This can therefore be regarded as the impact of videogames on our culture even as we embrace digital technology. In his article, Dream Machines, Wright views videogames from a two-dimensional point of view as he describes the impact of this technology in the society. The negative side of videogames emphasizes the fact that these games are violent and affect the personality of young people who play them (Wright 1).

Children who continuously play videogames usually end up becoming bullies at school or demonstrate some level of violence in their daily interactions. Additionally, videogames are addictive and time wasters. Many young people have replaced healthy and constructive leisure activities like excising with endless videogames which end up eating their time and rendering them into sedentary lifestyles.

As stated by Wright, “Games have the potential to subsume almost all other forms of entertainment media. They can tell us stories, offer us music, give us challenges, allow us to communicate and interact with others, encourage us to make things, connect us to new communities, and let us play” (1).

In other words, they can offer almost everything that a young person would look for in terms of music, tell stories and allow connection and communication among players. With the evolution of technology, videogames are likely to allow development of models to mimic what we like and do (Wright 1).

Conclusion From the above analysis, it is more evident that digital technology has a wide range of effects to our culture and to the young generation. Chaundhry and McGrath agree with Wright that digital technology has negatively affected our culture. According to the three, this technology affects youths positively and negatively. McGrath discusses how message texting has changed by use of shorthand contractions, emoticons and acronyms.

Similarly, Chaundhry concurs that social networks like YouTube have promoted self-promotion in the society and eliminated the role of achievements and success in defining ones fame. The same stance is taken by Wright who affirms that videogames have negatively affected youths by promoting violence, addiction and wastage of time.

Works Cited Chaundhry, Lakshmi. “Mirror, Mirror on the Web.” The Nation. 2007. Web.

McGrath, Charles. “The Pleasures of the Text”. The New York Times. 2006. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Digital Technology in Modern Society by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Wright, Will. “Dream Machines.” Wired. 2006. Web.


The Saga as Old as Time: Romeo and Juliet, Vampire Style Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Love conquers all, an old byword says, and the recent novel adaptation, the famous Twilight Saga is a perfect proof for the fact that true love cannot be defeated. Rendering a number of ideas and topics, the movie offers a plethora of food for thoughts and provides a detailed description of a completely different world – the world of vampires.

Even though the movie balances between a fairytale and a real-life story, there can be no possible doubt that the Twilight Saga offers a modern interpretation of the famous Shakespearean play; however, taking less time, timeless classics proves to be doubtlessly deeper and more complex.

Basing partially on the plot of Romeo and Juliet story and partially on the problems that modern teenagers face, The Twilight Saga offers a number of issues that are quite topical nowadays, such as the hardships of being different, and dwells upon the great Everlasting Love and the famous Happily Ever After, yet is seemingly shallow in dealing with each of the issues.

The movie sends the audience into a typical American setting, where a typical American teenage girl meets a mysterious young man of her age. The latter turns out to be a vampire, yet belonging to the family of “vegetarian” ones, consuming the blood of animals only. Naturally, the young people fall in love, yet the gang of “bad” cannibal vampires arrive to kill Bella and her family. However, the young people save the day, and the movie ends with the couple dancing and one of the enemy vampire girls casts an envious look at Bella.

Telling the story of the touching relationships between a young girl, Bella, and her new acquaintance, mysterious Edward, who further on proves to be an incarnation of Count Dracula, a dreadful vampire, is quite enticing.

However, one must admit that the idea of mixing the incompatible beings into a love story is already dead at the arrival, since the idea of comprising the incompatible presupposes certain element of motion and activity, which the movie lacks, thus, making the plot more narrowed.

Does being a vampire presuppose being a dawdling silent dummy? Edward is suffering, but he does nothing. Bella is suffering, but she does nothing. Edward’s family sees the threat that the main characters are facing – but they do nothing. It seems that the movie will reach its climax as the entire world follows the lead characters and will be sitting twiddling their thumbs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the numerous flaws in showing the development of the characters, it is impossible to deny the obvious advantages of the movie. One of the major points about the simple and rather sentimental story is the fact that it deals with the detailed descriptions of the daily life of teenagers.

The scene involving the bullies is, sadly enough, quite a widespread situation that any child studying in public educational establishments has to face sooner or later. In addition, the portrayal of Bella’s and Edward’s falling in love for the first time in their life arrests the attention of the teenagers who have faced the same complexities – or, would it be better to say, moments of happiness?

In addition, the movie touches upon the issue that troubles most young people as they are about to cross the threshold between the childhood and the adult life, which is the problem of being different; however, the issues are mentioned far too briefly.

Though the problem could have been told in a more subtle way, depicting the hardships and the ordeals of being a vampire – moreover, a vegetarian vampire! – comes quite close to discussing the problems of being an outcast among the classmates, or any other social group which teenagers are so dependent on.

You are a vampire, and that is what makes you different. You are a vampire, and that makes you guilty. You are a vampire, and you do not deserve to be a part of the society. No matter how hard you will be lurking in the shadow, people will see you. You see, people do not like those who are different from the rest. The movie captures the very essence of the problem and develops it until it becomes grotesquely huge.

With the two topic intertwined, the movie cannot help causing contradictory reactions; however, the romantic relationships between a girl and a vampire, as well as the problem of being different, are never considered close enough.

The story of Romeo and Juliet, sugared with the grotesquely happy ending, is intertwined with the fears of an average teenager, which makes the movie attractive for the latter. This is a seemingly sweet sentimental story with several subplots, simple and strange. Altogether, these features make the movie enticing for the target audience.

We will write a custom Essay on The Saga as Old as Time: Romeo and Juliet, Vampire Style specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The plot of the story is quite complex; however, the charming chant of cheerful angels at the end of each episode of the saga seems somewhat out of place, which makes the story less cohesive.

In addition, the attempt to break the plot of the Shakespearean tragedy seems quite forced, which makes the movie weaker and less credible. Though the meaningful look that one of the vampire girls casts on the leading characters dancing in complete delight does send shivers down the spectators’ spines, there is still a tangible lack of the thrill in the way the movie ends.

Allowing people to feel the atmosphere of the fairytale come true for a change, the movie, thus, obtains an unrealistic hue, which distorts the overall impression. However, it should be marked that there can hardly be anything realistic about a movie that tells the story of a vampire.

Offering a peculiar interpretation of Romeo and Juliet Story and incorporating the elements of the Count Dracula, the movie still follows its own, teenager-friendly topics, which makes it genuine and new, yet makes the movie linger between drama and fantasy. Though Twilight Saga cannot be considered as classic read, read classic Romeo and Juliet, and you will feel that the interpretation is worth taking a look at.


How to Determine Reliable and Relevant Sources Essay essay help

With the presence of so much information at the disposal of students, including information from the internet, it becomes relevant that they exercise necessary choices to access academic source material that is reliable, relevant and unbiased. This should be done in close association with their academic instructors who evaluate and re-evaluate their choices or annotated bibliographies and guide them through these choices (Ellis 2006).

To determine reliable and relevant source materials, students should pre-evaluate the requirements and purpose of the essay i.e. whether it requires facts or opinion. They should compare with other sources to determine those that best suit the purpose of the essay and not settle on first choice on perception of credibility. Comparison enhances the determination of biased and suspicious source materials. In addition, the student should be open-minded and unbiased when selecting source materials for writing (Ellis 2006).

Students should evaluate sources and their quality of information to provide information which serves as a basis for beliefs, decisions and knowledge. Unreliable and biased sources are not used in decision making because they compromise the information’s reliability and relevance hence weakening the essay.

Source evaluation is an art with no perfect marker of source reliability. However, source reliability can be determined by comparison with other sources and objectives of the essay. For example, if one needs reliable facts, he is likely to select high quality and reliable sources (Harris 2010).

Other approaches a person can use include use of Credibility-Accuracy-Reasonableness-Support checklist (CARS checklist). Though minimal sources are likely to meet requirements on this checklist, the writer should choose reliable sources and perform an in-depth analysis of the author’s credentials including his/her education, training, biography, reputation and position.

This gives a picture of the author’s level of knowledge, reliability and truthfulness. For example, if internet sources are selected, the evidence of quality control should exist, for example peer-review (Harris 2010).

Students should also compare meta-information for example abstracts summary, conclusion, reviews and ratings of various sources which give an overview of the author’s writings without having to read them completely. The student should be aware of the indicators of bias or lack of credibility such as anonymity, negative meta-information, and grammatical or spelling errors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Determination of source accuracy is necessary because a source may be credible but outdated, hence the information it contains may not be palatable at a particular time. Therefore the student should ensure information is factual, up to date, comprehensive and detailed (Ellis 2006).

Furthermore, one should have the knowledge of the target group and purpose of source material. This helps to determine whether the material is comprehensive or biased. For example, source materials which target children tend to be less comprehensive unlike those of adults.

Unbiased sources strengthen essays and make information contained in them to be fair, reasoned, balanced and objective with no fallacies or conflicting interests. In addition, the chosen source should have listed sources, convincing evidence, and corroboration to support it, otherwise it will be biased, unreliable or irrelevant (Harris 2010).

In conclusion, students should perform regular evaluation and re-evaluation of their sources to enhance accuracy of information which may be brought about by changes. This can be enhanced with the help of academic instructors who evaluate sources in the students’ essay or annotated bibliography (Ellis 2006).

References Ellis, D. B. (2006). Becoming a Masters Student. 4th ed. Rapid City, SD: College Survival.

Harris, R. (2010). Evaluating Internet Research Sources. Retrieved from https://www.virtualsalt.com/evalu8it.htm


Upstate South Carolina Research Paper essay help online free: essay help online free

The growth rate of the economy of Upstate South Carolina has been among those ranked as the fastest in the United States of America. The region has grown expansively from a traditionally textile-manufacturing region to a diverse and vast economic region endowed with almost each and every industry in the United States.

A number of reasons are responsible for this growth. These reasons include the availability of skilled workers, considerably low costs of conducting business and excellent educational and training institutions that yield high qualified workers. These are some of the reasons that made BMW and Michelin establish their North American headquarters in Greenville. This research paper will look at the economic history of Upstate South Carolina and its towns.

Agriculture was the main economic activity in Upstate South Carolina before the onset of the industrialization period that saw the introduction of other industries in the region (Weir 67). Although tourism is the current leading source of income to the Upstate South Carolina, agriculture still contributes a substantial amount of income to the region.

Upstate South Carolina is richly endowed with fertile soils that facilitate extensive mechanized cultivation of the cotton crop (South Carolina Department of Agriculture 13). The availability of this crop, coupled with the easy accessibility of water power, has led to the establishment of large textile and clothing industries which are centered in the piedmont.

In the recent past, crop farmers in Upstate South Carolina have realized the need to diversify the range of crops grown and break away from the traditional cotton farming (Wallace 34). This has led to the cultivation of crops such as tobacco, sweet potatoes, peaches, soybeans and pecans. The growth of these crops has led to food sufficiency in the region.

The fertile soils of Upstate South Carolina have also led to the emergence of lumbering activities and the manufacture of paper and pulp. These three economic activities derive their raw materials from the large forestland that covers a significant portion of the state. It is estimated that the size of land that is under tree cultivation is about five million hectares (Barry 98). The main species of trees grown are the loblolly pine and the longleaf which are ideal for paper manufacturing.

A few decades after Greenville was termed as the “Textile Capital of the World,” it is amazing that it is now among the leading towns in Upstate South Carolina in terms of the developments of the automobile industry. The town is now home to leading international automobile industries such as Michelin, BMW, General Electric Company, Honeywell, 3M and the Lockhead Martin Aircraft and Logistics Center (Bainbridge 145).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The towns of Spartanburg and Anderson have also advanced greatly in their economic status. For instance, Spartanburg is the headquarters of huge companies such as the QS/1 Data systems, Extended Stay Hotels, Advance America and Milliken and Company.

Anderson is home to over two hundred and thirty manufacturers which include twenty two international companies. It is widely known for the plastic and automotive industries. Like the rest of the York counties, the towns of Spartanburg and Anderson are known for their extensive supply of BMW vehicles.

It is evident from the foregoing discussion that Upstate South Carolina has gone through various stages of development in its economic history. The region has moved from its tradition of textile manufacturing to the development of other industries such as the automobile industry. The towns of Greenville, Anderson, Spartanburg and the York Counties have been at the center of this transformation.

Works Cited Bainbridge, Judith. Historic Greenville: The Story of Greenville and Greenville

County. Texas: Historical Publishing Network, 2008. Print.

Barry, John. Natural Vegetation of South Carolina. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1970. Print.

South Carolina Department of Agriculture. Cotton Mills of South Carolina: Their Names, Location, Capacity, and History. New York: Charleston, 1880. Print.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Upstate South Carolina specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wallace, David. History of South Carolina. New York: American Historical Society, 1934. Print.

Weir, Robert. Colonial South Carolina: A History. Millwood, New York: KTO Press, 1983. Print.


“Sula” by Tony Morrison Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Morrison’s contribution to the literary world is made evident by the production of “Sula,” an interesting novel highlighting various issues that affected the American society in the 70s. This novel brings out significant scenes within the carefully crafted story that gives the readers an opportunity to grasp the lifestyle of the residents of Ohio at the time the novel was written.

Having chosen Ohio as the setting for the story, it becomes clear that the author’s intention was to highlight the issues affecting the entire American society at that time. In a bid to achieve his goals, Morrison has done well to highlight various significant themes in the earlier part of the novel that are important in terms of gaining knowledge concerning the issues that affected the American society at that time.

The first theme that comes out clearly in the early part of the novel is slavery and racism in America. It should be noted that the novel was written in 1973 when the issue of slavery and racism were prominent in the American society. The theme of slavery is indicated clearly by the author through the mentioning of the origin of the two communities- The Bottom (consisting of poor but vibrant black citizens) and Medallion (consisting of the wealthy whites).

The author indicates that “the bottom” community originated as a result of a master tricking a slave into occupying the hilly location as form of a “gift” to the slave. At this point, it can be noticed that the author is suggesting to the readers that slavery was an issue that existed in the society.

On the other hand, Morrison depicts the existence of racism in the American society in the 1970s. This can be seen through the description of the population distribution of the communities that reside in Ohio.

The set-up is based along racial lines. Morrison indicates that “The bottom” was situated on the upper side of the region and consisted of the poor but vibrant black people. In contrast, “Medallion” was situated on the lower side and mainly consisted of the wealthier whites. This is a sign that racism was prevalent in the American society at the time the novel was produced (Morrison 1-10).

The second theme is deceit and exploitation. Morrison has attempted to educate the readers concerning the existence of deceit in the American society. Through the highlighting of events that led to the black community occupying “the bottom,” it becomes clear to the readers that deceit was prevalent in the American society at that time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a matter of fact, the author indicates that events were triggered by a decision to trick a black slave by a white master that the hilly side of the region was close to heaven. It was clear to the master that the hilly side was unfavorable for living. This shows deceit. Later, the white community realizes that the hilly side has developed and suddenly their interests for golf arise.

The desire to construct a golf course becomes intense to the white community and this makes them determined to destroy a large portion of the land occupied by the blacks in order to accomplish their dreams. The white community lacks regard for the safety and welfare of the black community. They care about their interests above the security and livelihood of the black community. This shows selfishness and exploitation.

In conclusion, it can be deduced that Morrison has done well to highlight various significant themes in the earlier part of the novel that are important in terms of gaining knowledge concerning the issues that affected the American society in the 1970s. These include: slavery and racism; as well as; deceit and exploitation.

Works Cited Morrison, Tony. Sula. New York: Vintage, 2004.


Exploring the Human Culture Essay essay help online

Table of Contents Economics

Social Organization

Art and Science



Works Cited

Culture can be defined as the acquired behavior of a group of people. Examples of human cultural aspects include religion, traditions, economy, and relationship with the environment, music, art, hierarchies, mythology, social structures, and government systems. The study of the human culture creates an understanding of various cultures.

It also tries to lessen the barriers that divide different cultures in order to appreciate and care for all the members of the human community. In order to achieve this, one should engross himself/herself in a given culture, reside with the inhabitants, participate and learn their way of living in the best way possible.

When studying culture, we explore an individual’s mind, its contents, and the source of the contents. This is because culture is directly influenced by the mind (Siegel134). While carrying out research, cultural anthropologists use of their eyes and minds to survey and make the appropriate analysis.

Nevertheless, other instruments such as recording and videotaping devices as well as computers are also vital in this analysis. Indeed, the mind is the most crucial tool in anthropology. Thus, when studying the behavior of people, we should learn to separate our feelings from the facts. This should ensure that our feelings do not interfere with our factual observations.

There are various aspects of culture including religion, geography, family structures, economical background, social differences, science, aesthetics, and religion. For that reason, all anthropologists should ensure that they learn the given aspects of culture. Some of these aspects are elaborated below;

Economics The economics of a given people is a very important aspect of culture. When studying a given culture, it is vital to learn what the people do to eke a living. Anthropologists should always endeavor to find a people’s economic activities in a particular culture.

For instance, do the people produce farm products? If they do, what are the products and who are the people doing the work? What happens to the products? Are they consumed and if so who are the people who provide the market? The economic activities in a particular society enhance the people’s lifestyles.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The world provides the resources and individuals make use of them in various ways. Case in point, one may plant cotton on a piece of land and another person may mine coal, or even hunt bush meat. Some cultures as seen in New Guinea require every individual to share some part of their daily income with others.

However, there arises a moral concern when one has to decide on what percentage of his/her income should be given out. Even though most cultures appreciate one’s ability to give and take care of one’s self, a person who offers to give too much is considered to be imprudent while the one gives too little is considered to be egocentric (Boas 188).

Social Organization In many cultures, societies are organized in terms of political lines and family structures. As a matter of fact, every society is composed of smaller structures which make up the entire society. For instance, every individual in a society belongs to a particular sub-group be it a family, a house of worship, school, town, nation, continent and ultimately, the world.

Precisely, the nuclear family that consists of father, mother and children is considered to be the smallest group in every society. On the other hand, the nuclear family forms the extended family which consists of several nuclear families. Several extended families form a clan while several associated clans form a phratry. Several related phratries compose a tribe.

Herbert Spencer, a great anthropologist, compares the society with the human body. He argues that, just like the human body, a society is a single unit that is composed of several parts that help each other, and while in conflict, they make the whole body sick. All the constituent sub-groups within a society have got a specific purpose as in social organizations. The groups ought to meet the needs of individual members while the individual members should meet the needs of their groups for effective growth.

Art and Science The study of the human culture also involves examining the people’s scientific know-how as well as the things they make. In any society, ethnoscience is of great importance. This refers to tribal science where people study their environment and collect knowledge on food sources, curative plants and soil.

Just as science involves practical and dynamic procedures, so does the study of culture form judgments based on factual knowledge. While science involves the use cognition to deduce factual information, art is affective. As much as we fancy the world facts, we also desire to feel the world. For instance, the splendor of the sunset is highly treasured in most parts of the world. Through the use of art, people are able to convey their feelings in various ways. This may be through the use of drawings dances poems as well as songs.

We will write a custom Essay on Exploring the Human Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More We always encounter art in our day to day endeavors. For instance, we use well festooned utensils such as gourds, plates or even cups. According to Franz Boas, a valuable item is converted into an object of art only when form is added to it making it more effective. For example, one can curve a bowl of soup in an uneven and rough manner, and find that the bowl can also be made to hold a fish in a very functional way.

Even though it can be used for its main purpose, the bowl can hold the fish in a more striking and effective manner. Such a bowl is said to gain a significant form and creates an artistic feeling to a wide range of people. A people’s work of art should also be seen to bring resolution to individual as well as societal conflicts (Boas 189). This can be achieved by bringing in the element of fusion of various styles and opposites into art.

Religion Generally, every culture in this world conforms to a given religion. The belief that the world is controlled by a responsive and supernatural force is universal. The supernatural forces can either be annoyed or delighted by the actions of human beings. Different cultures associate different things with this supernatural being which may be in the form of sun, animals, clouds or even nature. One cannot examine a culture’s religion without considering the spirits or gods, which are often believed to be unapproachable.

For instance, in regards to the Southern Pacific culture, the ghosts of the Ifaluk atoll are known to be good and equally dreadful. The Malevolent spirits, often known as alus, are said to derive pleasure from doing harm to human beings. In most cultures, the view that gods have a two-sided nature matches to humanity’s two sided view of the world as good and bad. Ideally, there are two ways in which religion brings contentment to people.

First, by experiencing something good that we believe represents the world such as the, sun, or a good poem, we become happy. That way, we achieve aesthetic conquest. This is the most rational form of success.

The other success involves negative thinking about everything that exists in the world. This is where we perceive everything to be bad. A good number of people in many cultures find themselves in this category which makes them feel contented to some extent. In most cultures, the existence of harmful ghosts is attributed to two major sources.

The first source is the people’s perception of the world as hostile towards us and the other source is the general sentiment that people have annoyed the gods. This feeling comes as a result of our guilt from the sins we may have committed. In reality, these two views provoke individuals to have a fair outlook of life (Miller 503). They represent our unconscious mind in a spiritual way.

On the other hand, every culture in the world performs rituals. For instance, in the American culture, rituals such as the Easter celebrations are practiced every year.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Exploring the Human Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is more so with the Christian religion. Another common but simple ritual that is performed in many cultures throughout the world is that of shaking hands with acquaintances. Even though every individual learns the rituals in the process of life, they always create a new emotion within us. Among several cultures, Rituals are said to appease the spirits and digressions from the rituals are disciplined. This creates a desire in every individual to conform to the values of a given culture.

Geography In order to explain about a people’s way of living, it is important to describe their environment first. One should take note of where the people live and how this affects their mind and their way of living. As a matter of fact, there is always some relationship between our environment and how we are at present. For instance, farmer living in America may lead a very different life from a farmer living in Africa. The difference in their lifestyles may be attributed to the different weather patterns experienced in the two continents (Miller 503).

In conclusion, different cultures can be said to have some common aspects which are unique in every culture. These aspects include social structures, religion, traditions, their relationship to the environment, art, hierarchies, mythology, as well as government systems. All these aspects play important roles in terms of aesthetics as well as social economic functions.

Exploring the human culture creates an understanding and appreciation of various cultures. Thus, in order to achieve this, we should learn to detach our emotions and preconceived perceptions from the facts as we study human behavior.

Works Cited Boas, Franz. Race, Language, and Culture. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 1995. Print.

Miller, Barbara. Culture Anthropology. Fifth edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/McGraw Hill, 2009. Print.

Spradley, James and McCurdy, David. Conformity and Conflict. 13th Edition. New York: Prentice Hall, 2008. Print.


The Moral and Ethical Reasons Why Marijuana should be legal Research Paper essay help: essay help

When we hear the word “Marijuana”, a very negative feeling about it gets into our nerves. We think about how dangerous and harmful it is and how it should be avoided at all costs. News around us paints a very grim picture of cannabis. Unfortunately, this is not the case. There is more exposed lie than truth surrounding the control and use of marijuana.

This paper explores some of the reasons why Marijuana should be made a legal drug. In real sense, the drug should be made available to its users. This drug has more benefits than harm both to individuals who use it and authorities. It is my opinion that its open usage be encouraged due to the following facts:

Freedom: Need for free will The most important reason why marijuana needs legality is that it enhances people’s ability to exercise their free will and freedom. It is pointless to lock the potential of people to think and act their own way. The liberty of the mind creates great pleasure and leads to ultimate achievement in life.

Some of the greatest inventions and technological advances that have been made in the past and present world are as a result of personal liberty. From a philosophical point of view, people have the right to choose what is right for themselves. Authorities can only regulate such choices when it negatively impacts others. The use of marijuana does not even affect an immediate person because it is all about free will and not a communal undertaking.

The government may also decide to watch an individual’s action if the latter may threaten personal safety. However this argument does not apply to marijuana bearing in mind that we have other drugs that are more lethal such as tobacco and alcohol. I strongly assert that governments should allow people to have the freedom of choice as far as the use of marijuana is concerned.

Increased crime rate Think of this situation of a young impressible man who is eager to earn some cash and pay for his college tuition fees. He is being underpaid and overworked and therefore he can sufficiently cater living costs. To make matters worse, he cannot even afford decent housing and he is compelled to live in a ghetto. Then an opportunity strikes. He is offered a short errand to transport marijuana from one point to another in return for a good pay.

Unfortunately he is busted by authorities, arrested, prosecuted and sentenced in a long term jail. While in prison he is hardened up when he has to defend himself against rude inmates. After serving his sentence, he emerges out there as a hard core criminal now that he is strapped out of cash. Legalizing marijuana would eliminate such temptation of initiating good characters into real crime.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cost: Illegalizing marijuana is expensive The other vital argument why this drug should be legalized is that governments would save huge sums of money which is usually spent on the war and campaign against it. Peaceful people who are just exercising their character are hunted down by governments through arrests and prosecutions.

Above that, sensitizing people through awareness campaigns only equates to heavy spending and overloading the tax payer. It is my humble opinion that the billions of dollars being spent on the war against marijuana should be diverted to more useful projects like feeding the less fortunate in the society.

Failed project Banning the use of marijuana has never helped its eradication. The control, usage and domestic production of this harmless drug is a long process. For instance, it is widely accepted for use by most age groups ranging from teenagers to older adults. It is now used by over twenty five million people annually (Drug reporter, 2007).

Cannabis is currently the largest cash crop in the United States and marijuana is grown all over the planet. Those who purports that it will soon be faced out from consumption are ridiculing themselves. Prohibition has been an exercise in futility; users can only be educated and treated where necessary.

Hemp This plant is a useful naturally occurring resource that can be made utilized in industry or for agricultural purposes. It is not the same as marijuana (Mikos, 2009). Therefore the myth surrounding hemp plant would be eliminated if cannabis was legally recognized. Billions of dollars have been lost for ages because the hemp plant has been thought to be marijuana.

Religious attachment It is well understood that different religions have their unique practices. For example, Christianity and Judaism instruct their followers to take wine on certain occasions. Hindus, Buddhists, Rastafarians among others use this drug as part of their religious ceremonies. All these religious groups practice their freedom of conscience which according to me is justified. Why then should we not just legalize marijuana instead ignoring the reality and facts about it?

Controlling drug traffickers Legalizing marijuana can help control hundreds of gangs who form cartels to traffic drugs. Such illegal groupings would be put out of business and instead the incumbent governments would channel money lost through drug cartels to public coffers. This would translate to a big economic gain.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Moral and Ethical Reasons Why Marijuana should be legal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There was a lot of wrongly propagated information in the 1930’s about cannabis sativa as it is scientifically known. A famous film called “Reefer Madness” aired from 1937 which showed “violent narcotic’s … soul destroying effects on unwary teens” (Reefer Madness).The continued negative news on marijuana compelled the United States Congress to pass a Marijuana Tax Act in 1938.However, this was just a federal law passed and would have no global consequence on its use.

Moreover, many are still reluctant towards legalizing marijuana .On the contrary, the overwhelming research done on health impacts of this drug does not give a thorough conclusion and any bad effects resulting from it is considered negligible. I suppose the authorities should put in place similar if not the same regulations as those of alcohol or tobacco regarding control and usage of cannabis.

Some reason out that the drug is addictive. This is misleading. A report from Addiction Research Centre and another one from the University of California compared the following drugs addiction level: heroin, cocaine, nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, and marijuana (Dubner, 2007). Nicotine was found to be most addictive of the drugs under study while marijuana had the lowest addictive level. This further confirms the ill-propagated information about marijuana.

Other critics who are still against this move of legalizing marijuana point out that it is an entry point to more harmful and life-endangering drugs. I do not agree with this. A research study in 2002 in United States revealed that an up surging seventy seven per cent of students had attempted to smoke marijuana but seventy four per cent had not consumed it the previous year and that this did not lead to the use of the so called dangerous drug, marijuana.

Legalizing it seems to be a difficult step to undertake but those reasons outweighs by far the fear behind making it legal. Proquest’s article “Marijuana Legalization Timeline” states that the United States Government Accountability Office reports that drug cartels from Mexico earned up to twenty three billion dollars from selling drugs just in the year 2008.If this and many other governments would legalize marijuana, then such huge amounts of money would not go to waste.

Decimalization Another worthy benefit why it should be legalized would be the returns accrued from decimalization. Most countries in the world today suffer from huge cost in prosecuting and penalizing drug related offenders. James Gray, a presiding judge in Orange County Superior Court asserted that the California state would save up to one billion dollars a year if offenders who do not cause violence are not prosecuted and imprisoned.

Back in 2005, Jeffrey Allen Miron carried out a study which showed that about six billion and two hundred million dollars would be realized annually if marijuana were taxed equally as alcohol and tobacco (Budgetary implications of marijuana, 2009).

The article “Budgetary implications of Marijuana in the United States,” stated that the economic rewards from making marijuana legal led to increasing call by over five hundred economists including Nobel prize winner Milton Friedman to legalize marijuana (Budgetary implications of marijuana, 2009)

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Moral and Ethical Reasons Why Marijuana should be legal by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As the world is facing a harsh economic downturn, individual governments should strive to look for any means to boost their economies. I believe one way of achieving this is by legalizing cannabis.

Curative purposes The medical benefits of marijuana are numerous and cannot be exhausted. The “Legalization of Marijuana Info” article affirms that no one has ever passed away from marijuana usage. Tobacco is more dangerous. Cannabis can replace ten to twenty per cent of recommended drugs currently in use (Growing Marijuana Seeds).

A paper written by National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) explains that THC is the active ingredient in marijuana. It enhances appetite, glaucoma and pain, spastic muscles from MS, nausea and wasting from AIDS. These are medical advantages that cannot be obtained from any other plant. Even as scientists strive to research on better drugs for prescriptions, marijuana is a vital herb that can be put into use (Robins, 1995).

The American Academy of Family Physicians, American Public Health association, New England Journal of Medicine and American Medical Association (Prohibitioncosts.org) support legalizing of marijuana. All these accredited organizations cannot be wrong. At present, some American states permit the buying of marijuana by prescription. However, the Federal law overrides that of the states and one can still be arrested for consuming medicinal marijuana (Clements, Lan


The Confessions of St. Augustine Critical Essay essay help free

According to Augustine, the place where God’s mind touches people’s mind is full of light. Saint Augustine argues that God is something greater than people’s intellect, and his true nature is difficult to understand because he is peace and harmony. This keeps people hearts and mind in him.

The author further argues that peace is not inferior to humans’ mind, that is why it should be visible to peoples bodily eyes, although the mind itself is invisible (Augustine 34). Augustine reflects upon himself and enters in the innermost place of his being with the vision of his spirit. He sees a light, which is great and far above his spiritual ken, thus it transcends into his mind. Charity surpassing knowledge is God, and we all can fill his fullness (Augustine 18).

This is inferior to the light of people’s minds, which were bestowed by his illumination. According to Augustine, this light is superior and inaccessible to the bodily eyes since the body is visible, and the interior man is invisible. The mind and intelligence are the best parts of us that are invisible to bodily eyes, thus the higher part of us cannot be visible to the lower part (Augustine 14).

Augustine refers to God as a light. According to him, this light is the one which made him, so it is higher than his mind in the sense that the sky is above the earth, and it is exalted. According to Plato, the light is the son of the healthful. The light produced by sun makes all the physical objects visible and generates life on earth. In his philosophical writings, Plato argues that the sun generates light which makes the earth alive and differentiates day and night.

Basically, what Plato tries to bring out is that light is very important in life. The philosopher generally puts great emphasis on the importance of light on earth. This agrees with Augustine statement that the light is the one which made him. Many living beings require light for them to go on well with their life. Plants do need it for germination, and human beings for seeing (Augustine 23).

The light is referred to as the truth, and Augustine explains his experience of meeting with that light in the following way. When he enters the place where it is, he sees it with the eye of his soul, but the thing he watches surpasses all his expectations because it is beyond the perception of the eye of his soul and his mind. That light is unchangeable.

Moreover, it is not the ordinary light that we were used to. The light is greater and shines more brightly, thus Augustine states that it is the light that has made him. The light must turn inward and look upward, making a person shift his/her attention from the bottom to the top (Augustine 34). Augustine turns away from the external world of bodily things to the spiritual world. He enters the inner world of his own soul and gazes above his soul at the light of truth. He refers to this as to “unchanging creator.”

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More His mind vision releases him from the problem of conceiving God’s nature. He tries to imagine something that takes no space though it really exists. Augustine tries to ponder on whether the truth is nothing because it is not spread out through finite or infinite shape. This concept plays a crucial role in Augustine’s opening meditation on the nature of God. The explanation is that God does not stretch out through space, no matter whether he is infinite or finite, but he is present everywhere like truth (Vaught 47).

Augustine just like the ancient Christians says that God or light is unchangeable. He states that the light is unchangeable because it helps him to get into the inward soul of himself. Many Christians also believe that God is invariable, that is why this means in some sense that God cannot change for the worse but only for the best (Augustine 48).

Augustine has no ontology to explain how something can be unchangeable, and therefore, the conception of God’s constancy is inadequate. God, soul and body are put in a hierarchy from the highest to the lowest, so God is the highest and rules over the body and soul (Vaught 47).

Augustine’s statement of charity means a lot to the Christians. In such statement of Augustine as “Love knows it”, “Eternal Truth”, “True Love and Beloved Eternity”, the word “eternity” is the name for the father, God. He goes on to mentioning that truth and charity are the names for the Son and Holy Spirit respectively.

It can intrigue people’s mind, so they try to understand the whole conception of God, yet his true nature is also beyond us and our comprehension. This turns minds away from outward things to things we can only see within. This means if God is different from me and external to me, so according to Paffenroth, to seek God within is like looking for one’s own self (14).

Works Cited Augustine, Saint. Augustine of Hippo, selected writings Issue 43 of Classics of Western spirituality. Manhattan: Paulist Press, 1984. Print.

Augustine, Saint. The Confessions of St. Augustine: Modern English Version. New York: Revell, 2008. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on The Confessions of St. Augustine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Paffenroth, Kennedy. A reader’s companion to Augustine’s Confessions. Geneva: Westminster John Knox Press, 2003. Print.

Vaught, Carl. Access to God in Augustine’s Confessions, Books 10-13. New York: SUNY Press, 2006. Print.


Sports Shop Organization Structure Report online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Organization Structure



Planning Skills

Coordination Skills

Introduction Small businesses form majority of the businesses world-wide. They contribute to the success of most world economies greatly. In developing countries, they are drivers of the economy. Therefore, they are a very critical part of the business society.

Despite their critical importance to our society, small businesses are not as complex as they may sound. Individuals, who in most cases are the owners, run a majority of those businesses. Consequently, their Organizational Structures are quite simple. In the Case under analysis (Sports Shop), the owner performs all the managerial duties whereas the employee tackles the mechanical activities of the business.

Organization Structure Organization Structure is the process that enables allocation of tasks and responsibilities to different departments in the organization. It influences division of labor to a great extent. This is because Organizational Structure sets clear guidelines as to what role each employee of the organization plays.

In this case, it helps to avoid conflicts in the work place. Therefore, it provides a peaceful working environment. A wrong Organization Structure may mean the end of business for the organization in question. This is because Organization Structure helps to specify who makes what decision and the reason for that.

The Sports Shop Structure is simple as there are only two workers involved. It employs a centralized structure. Hence, the owner makes all the managerial decisions. He (the owner) is responsible for the running of the shop. He only delegates the mechanical part to his employee.

This structure ensures that the owner has full control and responsibility over the business. By making all the important managerial decisions, the owner remains sure that things will go right. The assumption is that the owner undertakes only those activities that benefit the business and help it to grow.

Productivity As stated previously, small businesses are critical in most world economies, especially in developing countries. This is because they are productive in their areas of business. Since most small businesses sell proprietorships, their productivity heavily depends on the determination and diligence of their owners.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the recent past, small businesses have recorded high levels of productivity. This is because of the Governments’ efforts in encouraging entrepreneurship to create jobs. The cost of lending money has reduced greatly to enable Small-Scale Investors to invest more. Depressions in economies across the globe have led to massive job losses. As a last resort, economies dedicate their time to small businesses.

Accountability Because of their manageable nature, small businesses have highly centralized and flat structures. In the Case above (Sports Shop), the employee has to be accountable to the owner. The owner has to be accountable to itself and to the customers. The owner has to be accountable to the employee to give him motivation for doing a good job.

As much as it is the owner’s business, he also has to employ professionalism and to avoid subjectivity in the business. This will help him to avoid conflicts with his employee. This is another type of accountability.

The employee has to be accountable to the owner for any business carried out in his (the owner’s) absentia. The owner has to be accountable to the employee in terms of salary increment/payment. This means that the owner has to be considerate of the welfare of the employee in terms of safety and monetary security.

Planning Skills Planning is a major part of the organization. This is because, planning helps in the formulation of budgets, monitoring of operations and directing the future of the organization as whole. Planning skills enable managers to visualize the future of the organization and set achievable goals.

The owners of the small businesses do the planning. They decide what they intend to achieve in the short-run and the long run. They may involve the other employees as a source of information but they make the final planning decisions. In most small businesses, the owner’s experience in doing business affects planning. In addition, the environment in which business operates heavily affects it. As the business grows, it employs complex planning skills.

Coordination Skills Business activities in small businesses follow a regular if not repetitive pattern. Consequently, their coordination requires less effort as the parties involved are accustomed to operating in the pattern.

We will write a custom Report on Sports Shop Organization Structure specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Coordination is also easy because of the small number of employee/parties involved in performing the various tasks. In this case, there are only two parties involved in the operations of the Sports Shop. However, the owner naturally supervises the operations of the business. Furthermore, the owner performs most of the activities, which makes coordination easier.

Coordination is paramount in ensuring that operations are successful in an organization. It helps to keep operations in line with the Vision and Mission of the organization. It also helps to marry operations with other related operations in order to complete projects successfully. In addition, coordination helps in controlling operations to ensure operations’ completion in time or as required. Finally, coordination ensures efficiency both in terms of time and cost.


Plato and Descartes on Confusion or the sense of not knowing Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Table of Contents Introduction



Works Cited

Introduction Plato and Descartes contributed immensely to the subject of knowledge. Today, the epistemological themes derived by Descartes continue to drive the modern education. On the other hand, Plato’s thinking has influenced many modern philosophers in respect of the concept of knowledge and ignorance (Wilson 135).

Plato approached the concept of ignorance with an authoritative tone. He was categorical that the only good thing is knowledge whereas the evil one is ignorance. He asserted that the characteristic element of ignorance is self-satisfaction, wherein he who upholds it is neither wise nor good and has no discerning for that which he does not have or need.

Discussion In his first meditations, Rene Descartes ventures to explain his doubtfulness of the world around him. He argues that his believes have sharply deceived him before. He presupposes that perhaps he is currently dreaming or God is a deceiver. He asserted that for an individual to be knowledgeable, the subject under review must possess within itself absolute certainty (Wilson 135).

He shared a common thought with Plato that there is universal and objective truth that human beings should discern. In his argument, Descartes suggested that to get the requisite sample that demonstrated absolute truth and, which results in being knowledgeable, eternal doubt is necessary. This brings in the concept of his desire for not knowing.

According to him, Descartes asserts that the need to know enables him to find something free of doubt and, which constitutes knowledge (Wilson 155). This state converges to the idea f knowing through establishing absolute truth. Fundamentally, the idea of not knowing brings about a belief, which must be held in order to sustain the gap created by ignorance or confusion (Garber 58).

He suggested that doubting everything paves the way for one to clear all possible beliefs. In his methodological doubt, Descartes sought to establish a single truth that could be used as the basis for testing all beliefs with a view to determine the ultimate truth.

Descartes held that the more knowledgeable one is, the more he or she discerns to know extensively. Using this statement, Descartes implies that not knowing is beneficial in letting a truth-seeking individual to obtain much knowledge of the single truth (Garber 58). Therefore, in his experience, Descartes believed that confusion or absolute lack of knowledge is necessary to spearhead the search for truth about objects within the context of the world.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He reflects that people are beings existing only as thinking things. This process takes place within the inner most worlds of senses and thoughts (Hall 35). The methodological doubt espoused by Descartes renders individuals to question their beliefs about their physical world. His argument has preoccupied the modern epistemological thought that yields informed inquiry into the objects and subjects within our interactive environment.

Plato’s conception of the world led to his distrust of its changing nature. He argued that no one could understand or know anything concerning the world (Garber 58).

In his quest to explore the notion of ignorance, he sought to distinguish different types of ignorance. Plato defined simple ignorance as the sheer lack of sufficient knowledge or information and double ignorance, which amounted to both lack of knowledge and delusion of beholding genuine knowledge.

However, Platonic philosophy holds that those who do not know, but have a genuine and deep desire for the lasting truth are capable of protesting the limiting features of ignorance. In his submission about knowledge, belief and ignorance, Plato posited that we could not know that which is not true since truth is a necessary condition for knowledge.

Knowledge according to Plato has elements of permanence and certainty as contrasted to relativity and transience. Plato treated knowledge as that which relates to real and infallible, and that one cannot know a falsehood (Hall 26). To be certain that one is knowledgeable, he or she must be void of opinion since an opinion is always mistaken.

Plato’s conceptualization of knowledge is that to know, one should be able to give a logical account of the object in question. In other words, the idea relating to knowledge must be able to identify the elements of nature and elevate them from the rest in all respects. This contrasts with Descartes’ notion, which relies on the idea that to be knowledgeable means to possess a clear and unique idea that forms the basis for gauging all other ideas that come thereafter (Hall 23).

Although Descartes begins with doubt to seek the ultimate truth about the existence of things, he abandons this particular world to embrace the self. Self-doubting and questioning enables one to discover himself in the same way Descartes did. Therefore, not knowing has the capacity to enlighten an ignorant person.

We will write a custom Essay on Plato and Descartes on Confusion or the sense of not knowing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, it is important to state that from an individual to overcome his state of ignorance he or she must have the will to seek the eternal truth (Descartes 156). He continued to expand his methodology to conclude that if you doubt or question, you develop the tendencies of shaking off the remnants of belief, which do not account for knowledge.

In his popular sentiment, Descartes asserted that, “I think, therefore I am.” This statement has the implication of priori-knowledge in which Descartes “beliefs” in the capacity of empirical forms to result in genuine knowledge. To doubt is an equivalent or connotes lack of pure knowledge about a given phenomenon (Descartes 156). The process of engaging one’s mind in constructive doubt ensures that he unearths the loose truths in order to gain the concrete rock or clay that defines truth.

Descartes believed in the omniscience of God. The epistemological discourses of Descartes have far-reaching elements of confusion. For instance, he supposes that had he without the knowledge about the truth of the existence of God, he would be subject to ignorance and not knowing (Falzon 22). This statement challenges his proof of the existence of God in his claim that there is a deceitful or God or being that endeavors to deceive him.

Since god denotes truth that is undoubted, it cannot be true that this set of truths purportedly deceives his mind. This confusion is somewhat a blessing in disguise since it calls upon him to begin imagining and actively thinking in order to arrive at a conclusive remark about knowledge.

He, in his methodological doubt presents the two sides of the coin by demonstrating the distinguished importance of having knowledge as contrasted to ignorance. In general, Plato contends that ignorance is born of a foolish man who cannot attain any good since goodness is the result of true knowledge held and practiced by an individual (Falzon 22).

Conclusion The notion of not knowing in both Plato’s suppositions and Descartes’ converge to lay emphasis on the significant role played by ignorance to enlighten as well presenting its limiting sense to mankind. According to Plato, belief exhibited a lack of truth and the knowledge by the believer. Plato utilizes the posteriori –knowledge in understanding the elements of truth as contrasted to Descartes, who believed in the experimental truth.

Works Cited Descartes, Rene. Meditations on First Philosophy. New York: NuVision Publications, LLC, 2007. Print.

Falzon, Christopher. Philosophy goes to the movies: an introduction to philosophy. New York: Routledge, 2002. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Plato and Descartes on Confusion or the sense of not knowing by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Garber, Daniel. Descartes’ metaphysical physics. University of Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1992. Print.

Hall, Robert. Plato. New York: Routledge, 2004. Print.

Wilson, Dauler. Descartes. New York: Routledge, 1982. Print.


Italian Renaissance Research Paper essay help online

Renaissance period is understood to have been a period of rebirth. It was a period of rebirth in virtually every aspect of the society. It was then an initial stage in history that artistic expressions were becoming popular in Europe and artists at this period were not just mere craftspeople but people with unique talents who were in positions to redefine their talents and their views towards nature and humanity.

Consequently, mathematical innovations had an impact on renaissance art since it allowed the artists to redesign and portray objects and other human forms in real perspective and proportions. Renaissance in Italy began in the year 1400 and ended in the year 1600. During this period various ideas regarding to the ways of life were spread through Europe in dissimilar ways but during the similar period. There were several reasons as to why renaissance began in Italy. These reasons are:

City States: The strategic location of Italy and particularly, the Mediterranean Sea factor which boosted Italian trade in the production of textiles and luxury goods. This trade was spurred by crusades, which facilitated the development of large city states in the northern part of Italy. During this period, the northern part of Italy was urban while the rest of Europe was still rural and since cities are home to information and exchange of ideas, the Italian city states became ideal ground for intellectual revolution.

Prior to renaissance, the northern cities had been struck by Bubonic plague, which killed approximately 60 percent of the population. This had an impact on the economy, and since there were few laborers, they demanded higher wages. The plague also led to the reduction of business opportunities and this prompted merchants to pursue other ventures like art (Mantin 10).

Merchants and the Medici: Wealthiest cities of trade at that time only existed in Italy, and they included Naples, Venice and Genoa. These cities had survived the economic crises which had befallen most parts of Europe during the late middle age period. There also existed a wealthy class of merchants who cropped up in the cities.

Cities like Milan and Florence, due to their small geographical area made it easy for citizens to actively involve themselves in politics. Merchants dominated politics in these cities but unlike the nobility class, those merchants did not inherit a social rank, and they used their wits to succeed in business. Wealthy merchants developed the belief that they deserved leadership primarily because of their merit. This belief on personal achievement became instrumental during the period of renaissance.

Trade: Trade brought new ideas, and Italy was at that time a renowned trading machine. Consequently, Italy was special because it was the centre of ancient Roman history; its architectural remnants, statues and amphitheaters were considered to be the Glory of Rome. These factors were a recipe for the renaissance (Mantin 12).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During renaissance, man began thinking more of worldly things contrary to life after death. It was characterized by the ability of man to splendidly dress himself with jewels; man surrounding himself with paintings and statuary, indulging himself with several pleasures and growth of obsession towards objects of art.

During the renaissance period, people concentrated on the activities and matters of life contrary to seeking fame, wealthy, honor or glory in their lives. Italy considered herself as the foundation of renaissance due to her assumption of Rome and Greece, which involved adoption of ancient Greek life and art, politics and literature. Renaissance was characterized by innovations in arts and sciences, and the rejuvenated interest in history, literature and arts revolutionized thinking (Plumb 32).

In Italy, renaissance was considered to be a period of artistic and cultural realizations. The period was characterized by various distinct ideas concerning life and particularly secularism, individualism, humanism and materialism. Renaissance period influenced the European society for several generations making the period a golden age in history of Europe.

Florence was considered as a symbol of renaissance because, just like other ancient states like Athens, it attracted various people of different talents from all the Italian city states. Florence developed well when Medici, which was a strong family in Florence, exercised power and influence over the city. Medici family provided Florence with strong political and artistic leadership (Gundersheimer 4).

The most conspicuous changes during the period of renaissance were evidenced in paintings and sculpture, though there were some few elements of medieval tradition, which involved the use of religious subjects.

Renaissance combined this and the classical ideals of human form, which enhanced the depiction of nature. During the period, secular objects were prominent, and they were inspired by the Greek and Roman mythology. It was at this period that artists started using oil-based paints while also utilizing the fresco technique (Paoletti and Radke 87).

The period of renaissance began in the city of Florence, Italy, and it was characterized by numerous innovations, particularly in art, which, was the main concern regarding perspective, composition and the subject matter. During this period, emphasis was placed on depiction of nature in landscape design while moving towards the portrayal of religious figures in dissimilar light (Essortment 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Italian Renaissance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The renaissance period led to enhanced creativity on art and writing. In Italy, it referred to the rebirth of learning and art. The educated elite of Italy had desired to bring to active life the ancient culture of Greece and Rome but renaissance had new things for them.

It was in Florence that intellectual and artistic flowering took place hence making it to serve as a perfect example in Italy that was worth emulating. During the period, Florence had grown exceedingly rich due to its woolen industry. It was the Medici family that controlled the guild that produced wool. Money is also considered to be the foundation of Florentine greatness. The city was considered to be the greatest banking centre at that time, and it was under the control of the leading families (Osman 12).

Renaissance took place first in Italy since the rejuvenation of commerce and constructions of towns was deeper in Italy. It was also due to the fact that feudalism had taken a toll in Italy; consequently, there was a presence of antiquity, which was stronger in Italy as compared to other parts of Europe. Renaissance was a period of rebirth in various sectors, including economy, society, arts and literature (Hartt and Wilkins 4).

Concerning renaissance economics, church doctrines were being superseded in the primacy by profit making activities. These profit-oriented people used their wealth to activate philanthropy to guise their guilt. The high profit in Italy led to the diversification of the economy. During the period of renaissance economics, arts and art works were used as a medium to advertise their economic success.

On renaissance society, elitists dominated this period. This was due to the nature of Italy where the northern part was urban and commercial while the southern part was not. The period of renaissance was also characterized by a family-oriented society where marriages were in several occasions arranged to strengthen business ties.

In the Italian renaissance, it was the father who had overall authority over his own family but there were rare circumstances where wealthy women played critical roles particularly in the Italian city states, this was evidenced by Isabella d’Este of Mantua. Wealth was more concentrated in few great families, a phenomenon referred as “Populo grosso”.

The renaissance society in Italy was characterized by strong social stratification, which was divided into factions along the lines of wealthiest families.

The cult of the individual and the ability of the poor to improve their status was the order of the day, and this phenomenon was referred as Ciompi Revolt, which was considered as the fight by the poor. The cult of the individual during this period was called Populo minuto.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Italian Renaissance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The societal portraits that were created and painted during the period of Italian renaissance illustrated focus of individual who was a true nobleman. Italian renaissance also witnessed the emergence of humanism and secularism in the context of Christianity, which stressed on the free will of an individual. This kind of life had some efforts of strongly rewarding life in an excellent manner.

Renaissance Politics: The Italian cities followed a pattern similar to that of Greek city states whereby there were infighting and warfare among the city states; this led to the advancement of diplomacy that was aimed at achieving balance of power. 1300 republicanism later developed to be 1400 despotism in the states and cities with an exception Venice.

During this period, Niccolo Machiavelli emerged as the classical philosopher and critical thinker. According to Machiavelli, the prince must be driven by the desire to amass power; he explained the cynical and immoral view of human nature that is often driven by fear and not affection. The politics during the period of Italian renaissance was considered as the art of deception. Henry VIII emerged as the prince of the renaissance period (Italian Renaissance 29).

There were also renaissance art and architecture; these were characterized by the proliferation of portraits, portraiture and its importance. Most of the portraits depicted nudes or were a reflection of nudity. The artists were interested in the imitation of nature.

There were also pagan scenes and pagan myths, which were portrayed in the image of popular subjects without making apologies to the church. The status and portrait of individuals were elevated to the level of cultural heroes. Italian renaissance art placed emphasis on proportion, balance and harmony and ignored other aspects. Matters of perspective that often emerged as artistic problems were solved by stressing on the mathematical aspect of painting.

This was depicted in the Brunelleschi’s principle of linear perspective. Rome developed as the heart of high renaissance while Leonardo Da Vinci is regarded to be the true face of renaissance. The building of renaissance projects was achieved using Romanesque architecture as reflected in the Brunelleschi’s church of San Lorenzo (Italian Renaissance 37).

Regarding renaissance education and philosophy, there were various kinds of humanisms. An overwhelming fervor was evidenced in the finding and the collection of documents. Education was used as moral instruments. The education at this period was a true liberal one that was typified by the love for history.

The introduction of education led to the disappearance of the Greek language. The father of Italian renaissance humanism was Petrarch. Education in the renaissance period influenced the development of secondary education and stressed the relevance and importance of law, and rhetoric characterized renaissance education. It was through education that classical political ideals were created and nurtured because there was a need for a useful knowledge.

During the period of Italian renaissance, papacy lost influence over nation-states, this impacted on the moral prestige and leadership of the popes. This, however, could not stop the pope to be considered as the patron of renaissance art. Nepotism was widely widespread, and it was applied in the promotion of family interest (Italian Renaissance 45).

During the renaissance period, Italy was subdivided into city states with officials who performed both government and public duties. During the period, constitutions existed with full time elected officials. The city states were under the control of merchants who were rich. The Medici family was the prominent one during the period, and it controlled the state of Florence.

The Medici family consisted of established entrepreneurs, bankers and merchants; they also believed in education and were understood for their art and poetry. It was their money that assisted in driving arts as well as a starting renaissance. During the renaissance, there existed powerful merchants who used their wealth to achieve economic and political leadership. Bankers, for example, achieved fame and prestige by making loans available for expansion of business activities across Europe.

Humanism was the defining moment of renaissance. Humanism was a literary movement which started in Italy at the period of renaissance, but it was distinct since it broke from the tradition of medieval age where the creation of art or literature was only a product of moral religious motivations.

Humanist writers and artists moved away from religious themes to worldly or secular subjects, this was driven by their materialistic perspective about the world. Humanist artists and writers glorified individuals due to their belief that man was a measure of all things. The emergence of humanism marked the end of the influence and dominance of the church. Examples of humanists who lived during the age of Italian renaissance were: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, Francesco Petrarca and Leonardo Bruni (Bloom 118).

There also existed renaissance popes. Popes were stationed in Rome, which was considered the cultural centre of Italy. People of talent traveled from all corners of the world to Italy at the request of the pope. Popes had several ambitions, and they were rich politically with determination to make Rome centre of spiritual, cultural and political activities of the world. Renaissance popes were sensual, self-indulgent but excellent administrators and generous patrons of arts.

Michelangelo was considered as the supreme artist of the renaissance period. He belonged to an aristocratic family, but their wealthy had declined and that is when he started developing ability in imitating classical styles of sculpture. Michelangelo created David, which was Florence’s symbol of strength.

Michelangelo was contracted by pope to design and construct the greatest tomb in the Christian world. Michelangelo also developed the ceiling of the Sistine chapel which took him four years to complete. To date, Michelangelo is considered as an epitome of arts and painting that is still used today (Chase 4).

Works Cited Bloom, Harold. The Italian Renaissance. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing, 2004. Print.

Chase, Marilyn. Italian Renaissance. Dayton, OH: Lorenz Educational Press, 1971. Print.

Essortment. What Is The Italian Renaissance? Essortment, 2011. Web.

Gundersheimer, Werner. The Italian Renaissance. Canada, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993. Print.

Hartt, Frederick and Wilkins, David. History of Italian Renaissance art: painting, sculpture, architecture (7th ed). New York, NY: Prentice Hall, 2010. Print.

Italian Renaissance. Key concepts. Italian Renaissance, 2005. Web.

Mantin, Peter. The Italian renaissance. London, UK: Heinemann, 1992. Print.

Osman, Karen. The Italian Renaissance. New York, NY: Lucent Books, 1996. Print.

Paoletti, John and Radke, Gary. Art in Renaissance Italy (3rd ed). London, UK: Laurence King Publishing, 2005. Print.

Plumb, John. The Italian Renaissance. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin, 1986. Print.


The augmentation of scientific knowledge of Europe over the world Essay essay help online: essay help online

How European begun to move ahead of the rest of the world in the scientific knowledge Europe has a very strong base in scientific knowledge, which it utilizes at a very important asset over other continents in the world. Due to this scientific base, Europe has become a world class in various researches. Europe has well-improved scientific knowledge transfer in its institutions. The scientific knowledge in Europe has had its history.

During the middle ages, Europe had a lot of difficulties that affected its intellectual production. However, there were the medieval scientific texts available to be read leading to the understanding that nature functions under laws that when there is reason, comprehension can be achieved very fast.

The phenomena of the universe were approached through scientific study through elaboration of texts. It was possible for the European to question the doctrines of science, and do research to find new answers in science leading to developments in science in Europe.

Europe had many learned and thoughtful people who even when there were problems in royal absolutism had better vision for the future, and anticipated for a community that was very happy. Scientists in the world have been looking for order, and more specifically this was the ultimate goal for the European scientists.

This vision for order in Europe let to the discoveries in astronomy, physics and all other sciences such as chemistry and biology. These advances in science showed that nature was constituted by different parts that worked harmoniously; from the particles to the stars (Yasmeen 391–396).

Through scientific knowledge, it was easy to formulate explanations for the realities in nature. This led the scientists to under look the religious stories to new ways of thinking and explaining nature. In the late seventeen century, science had been accepted in Europe and almost every European was dominated by it.

The European bit the odd of religious and traditional theories, and took science to find answers to the many problems in nature. Many advances were made in medicine and astronomy even though this work was considered irreligious and inconsequential.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even though many of the scientists who took seriously their work were killed, Europeans did not give up on science and continued to develop more advances in various sciences. For example, the work of Copernicus was disregarded as a description of reality to a mathematical exercise. However, with more advances in science, Isaac Newton changed the perception of people when he developed experiments to support his universal law in mathematics.

Science in Europe formed conceptual and methodological approaches to find answers and facts about the natural world. This started as a revolution in the human thoughts thereby bringing about the modern science as it is now called. There were various reasons as to why science came into being in Europe, and the knowledge overcame the entire world.

Its growth in Europe and not other parts of the world is until today a debate in many people’s minds. However, science is thought to have been conceived as a rebirth of people’s thoughts as they tried to understand nature. The change in attitude towards knowledge led to the discoveries of wisdom.

According to the Europeans, facts were all that mattered. According to the scientists, it was impossible to have supernatural processes, and stand to the grounds that everything needs to be rationally explained mathematically. The study of science in Europe was therefore popularized by various mathematical discoveries.

The Europe scientific methodology was also advanced by other scientists who set a program that extolled human reason in its application to the sensory experiences of humans. Through this approach, hypothesis could be formulated and tested in experiments thereby coming up with fundamental laws of nature

Science instruments were improved through the inductive approach, and at the beginning of the seventeen century, the microscope and the telescope were developed and used. Other than the telescope and the microscope, thermometers barometers air pumps and pendulum clocks were also invented. These inventions gave scientists easier time in studying the physical environment of the universe.

From the scientific knowledge, findings of research are applied in policy making in Europe, and not only rely on the politicians decisions. The policies are based on the scientific findings thereby making scientist go much deep into scientific research. This has made the European policy makers to take science very seriously thereby basing their decisions on it (Joseph 253-57).

We will write a custom Essay on The augmentation of scientific knowledge of Europe over the world specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The importance of the role of European advances in astronomy during the early and modern period Even if there were difficulties at first to the advancements in astronomy by the Europeans due to lack of readable texts, the available texts were copied. The texts brought the interests to describe the planet motions, and determine their significance astrologically.

Astronomers were the notable scientific pioneers in Europe, which employed two approaches that depended on human reasoning leading to different applications. There was the deductive approach that based on the truths that were self-evidenced leading to complex plans to be applied in problems practically.

This approach emphasized on the relationship between mathematics and logic. The other approach used was inductive and employed facts objectively. The proponents of induction were used to come up with conclusions from the facts presented. The reasoning of the early European astronomers depended on the two approaches.

The early astronomers used both observations and mathematics to pave way for revolution in science in Europe. Before his death, Copernicus had published a book, which opposed the traditional theory on passing days and how heavenly bodies moved.

In general, astronomers had achieved a lot, and scientists were encouraged to have interests in related scientific fields. It was astronomy that gave birth to all other sciences such as physics and chemistry. Science was respected in Europe and scientific institutions began to gain a lot of public support through out Europe.

This was very important in scientific growth in Europe unlike other continents where there were no scientific advances. It was possible for scientists to carry correspondence that developed communities with scientific values, beliefs and language. The European community was ready to endorse science through support to the scientific communities. Scientists were the important heroes with support from the women, kings and city councils who built museums.

In the early modern Europe, there was protestant reformation, wars of religion, discoveries and colonization. During this time, centralized government came into being followed by a period of enlightenment, and then later industrialization that was brought by advances in the scientific knowledge.

Astrology was widely practiced by the learned class. In natural astrology, stars were thought to influence the natural world and were readily accepted. Judicial astrology focused on the personalities of people and detailed on future thoughts, and several people refuted it since it interfered with free will.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The augmentation of scientific knowledge of Europe over the world by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In Europe astronomy resulted during renaissance when studying humanism. It is believed that astrology declined in the early days due to modern scientific thinking that was purely based on facts and scientific findings supported by experiments (Moyer 228).

Due to advance in science and development of telescope, stars were seen as moving and not fixed, and views from people changed since they saw stars as equivalent to the earth. When astrology was defeated by science, astrologers went into astronomy; an area they thought was scientific. Astronomy advanced into theoretical and observational branches. Celestial objects could be observed and data collected for physical analysis through basic principles. Computers are theoretically used to describe objects and phenomena.

The renaissance is used to describe the early modern when Europe was reborn and culture developed. Though Europe advanced in scientific knowledge than any other part in the world, the advancements were thought to be unjustifiable since they were thought to e guesses.

Though there were various critics to this scientific knowledge, scientific knowledge survived them. When Copernicus proposed heliocentric model, Galileo expanded the work, and later on telescopes were used to enhance the made observations. Motion around the sun was described by Kepler where the sun was at the center. Further developments followed when Newton invented the reflecting telescope.

Wherever there were discoveries about a thing in the planet, further work followed to find out more about the same. This allowed proper examination of the masses of the moon and the planet. When new technology was introduced, there was a significant advancement in astronomy, which brought about spectroscopes. Through the technology, astronomists proved that the stars were similar to the sun but with a wider range of temperatures and sizes (Bruce 868-7).

Works Cited Bruce, Eastwood. “The Revival of Planetary Astronomy in Carolingian and Post-Carolingian Europe”Variorum Collected Studies Series CS 279, (2002): 868-7

Joseph, Agassi. “Science and Its History: A Reassessment of the Historiography of Science”, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, (2008): 253-57.

Moyer, Ann. ‘The Astronomer’s Game: Astrology and University Culture in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries’, Early Science and Medicine, 4 (1999): 228.

Yasmeen, Faruqi. “Contributions of Islamic scholars to the scientific enterprise”. International Education Journal 7, 4 (2006): 391–396.


The Committee on the Armed Services in the US Report essay help free: essay help free

The committee in question throughout the course of this paper is the committee on the armed services. This paper is going to talk about the number of subcommittees under this committee.

The committee is made up of 62 members.

The members are divided into Republicans and Democrats.

The ratio of Republicans to Democrats is 35 to 27. (Congress, 2006).

The subcommittees under this committee include emerging threats and capabilities subcommittee, military personnel subcommittee, oversight and investigation subcommittee, readiness subcommittee, sea power and projection forces subcommittee, strategic forces subcommittee, and tactical air and land forces committee. The emerging threats and capabilities committee has 18 members. These members are divided into 10 republicans and 8 democrats.

The military committee is comprised of 14 members. These are divided into 8 Republican members and 6 Democrats. The oversight and investigations committee is comprised of 10 members. These are divided into 6 Republicans and 4 Democrats. The readiness committee is comprised of 21 members. These are divided into 12 Republicans and 9 Democrats. The sea power and projection forces committee has 20 members. These are divided into 11 Republican members and 9 Democrat members.

The strategic forces committee contains 16 members. These are divided into 9 republican members and 7 democrat members. The tactical air and land forces committee is made up of 25 members. These are divided into 14 republican members and 11 democrat members. (United States Congress, 1866).

The emerging threats and capabilities committee is chaired by Mac Thornberry from Texas. The chairman is a republican. Other republicans in the party include Jeff Miller (FL), John Kline (MN), Bill Shuster (PA), K. Michael Conaway (TX), Christopher P. Gibson (NY), Robert T. Schilling (IL), Allen B. West (FL), Trent Franks (AZ), and Duncan Hunter (CA). The Democrat constitutes 8 members of the 18 members in the committee.

These are James R. Langevin (RI), Loretta Sanchez (CA), Robert E. Andrews (NJ), Susan A. Davis (CA), Tim Ryan (OH), C. A. Dutch Ruppersberger (MD), Henry C. “Hank” Johnson, Jr. (GA), and Kathleen C. Hochul (NY).

The military personnel committee is made up chaired by Joe Wilson. He is one of the 8 republicans in the committee. Other members are Walter B. Jones (NC), Mike Coffman (CO), Thomas J. Rooney (FL), Joseph J. Heck (NV), Allen B. West (FL), Austin Scott (GA), and Vicky Hartzler (MO).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The democrats are Susan A. Davis (CA), Robert A. Brady (PA), Madeleine Z. Bordallo (GU), David Loebsack (IA), Niki Tsongas (MA), and Chellie Pingree (ME). The oversight and investigations committee is chaired by Robert J. Wittman (VA). He controls a part of the 6 members making up the committee. Other members are K. Michael Conaway (TX), Mo Brooks (AL), Todd C. Young (IN), Thomas J. Rooney (FL), and Mike Coffman (CO).

Group 1 represents the emerging threats and capabilities of the committee, and this is represented by the blue color. Group 2 presents the military personnel committee and is shown by the green color. Group 3 represents the oversight and investigation and is marked by the red color. Group 4 features the readiness committee and is presented by the med blue color.

Group 5 represents the sea power and projection forces and is colored in orange. Group 6 is the strategic forces subcommittee which is presented by the yellow color. Group 7 is meant to be the tactical air and land forces which is represented by the brown color. (Jewell, 1982).

References Congress (U.S.). (2006). Congressional Record, V. 148, Pt. 13, September 20, 2002 to October 1, 2002. New York: United States Congress.

Jewell, M.E. (1982). Representation in state legislatures. Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky.

United States. Congress. (1866). Congressional edition. Washington: U.S. G.P.O.


China. Economic Analysis Research Paper college essay help near me

Table of Contents Population

Economic Statistics and Activity

Currency system

Science and Technology

Channels of Distribution


Works Cited


Population With nearly 1.5 billion people, China has the biggest percentage of the world population based on country terms. The vast majority of the country’s citizens is largely rural as around eight hundred million people reside in rural areas while the rest, roughly 35 percent reside in urban areas.

Since the introduction of new family planning laws took effect, the population growth rate considerably slowed down (Murphey 10). The Chinese population continues to grow disproportionately as the number of girls born is less than the number of boys, for example, in 2000, for every 100 girls born; one hundred nineteen boys were born. The total imbalance stood at 128: 100 (Murphey 10).

China falls in the eastern part of Asia. The country stretches around three thousand four hundred miles from the North to the South while stretching approximately three thousand two hundred miles from the East to West. A bigger percentage of the population resides in the rural areas while few reside in the urban coastal towns of the country (Yu 28).

Economic Statistics and Activity In the recent past, China has been registering between eight and ten percent GDP growth. The country has managed to maintain GNI and per capita GDP at around one thousand seven hundred from the year 2005. The trade volumes between China and the rest of the world continue to increase.

However, it is notable that trade outflow has increased at a higher rate than the trade inflow. Another notable occurrence in China rests on the notion that inflation is under control. In the recent times, it is only in 2004 that inflation was high, as it stood at seven percent. In 2007 and 2008, China recorded around seven percent inflation. In the latter part of 2008, inflation rose to 8.7 percent (Guo 200-9).

The accession of the Chinese economy into the world stage took an interestingly turn in 2001 when China got admission into the WTO. After this admission, China became more open in terms of trade. As a direct result of the opening up, the trade volumes between countries such as the ASEAN countries and Japan on the one hand and China on the other hand, grew rapidly. At the same time, China lowered its tariffs (Guo 200-9).

According to Ilan and McIntyre (45), the opening up of the Chinese market also allowed for an increase in the levels of Direct Foreign Investments in the country. A year after the accession of the country to WTO, Foreign Direct Investment rose from forty-four to fifty three billion dollars. The Chinese trade volumes in 2010 was roughly 3 trillion Us dollars, making it the second largest trading country after the United States.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Despite the recent successes being witnessed in the Chinese economy, one problem has emerged. The country’s employable work force has declined over the years. This is likely to force the country into further problems based on the notion that pension and associated benefits would put the economy under pressure (Guo 200).

Another problem that affects the country is based on the idea that China solely relies on a fixed exchange rate. The effect of using a fixed exchange rate rests on the belief that the system adversely affects inflation since counter-inflationary policies are comparatively less flexible. This system may benefit if some reforms are carried out.The other aspect that characterizes the Chinese economy is inequality.

The coastal cities of the country keep on registering unprecedented growth levels while the rural areas continue facing various hardships. China is thus among the most unequal societies. In the period between 1980’s and 1996, China registered the highest income inequality. At the same time, per-capita incomes were 2.3 times higher in urban areas in 1990. This rate increased to 2.7 in 1999 before rising to around 2.9 in 2000.

Thus, it is rightly alleged that China is split into two countries, the rich coastal megalopolis and the rest made up of poor interior regions. In the coastal megalopolis, per capita incomes are as high as $1,000 while in the interior regions, per capita incomes are as low as less than $200 per year (Guo 2009).

Table 1 proves that average disposable income and the consumption levels in the Chinese republic are relatively low when compared to other developed nations. Another aspect that springs up centers on the expenditure patterns of the Chinese people. Unlike other people from different parts of the world, the Chinese people prefer saving their money than spending. This is based on the Chinese tradition, which lays emphasis on saving for the future generations.

Urban families (Yuan/person)

Rural families (Yuan/person) Disposable income 3934.94 1280.5 Consumption expenditure 2619.55 1072.2 Table 1 showing consumption rates in 2007

China’s nominal GDP between 1952 and 2005

We will write a custom Research Paper on China. Economic Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Mainland China GDP distribution in 2007

The transportation system in China is an important sector in the country’s economy. However, the transport system remains highly unequal (Donnithorne 252). This is coupled with variations in human and natural resources that have affected the development of the country.

The development in infrastructure remains inadequate in China. However, the country is working towards improving this state of affairs as it seeks to link its major economic centers. In order to achieve this goal, the country is reworking its road network. By 2000, the country had planned to have eight hundred thousand miles of roadway, of which, five thousand was to be highways.

In the same vein, the country aspired to put in place about nine hundred thousand miles of roadway, of which twelve thousand was to be highways by 2010. Despite the planned improvements, this would only present around 15 KM highway density. This is way behind the densities of leading countries such as the US and Germany which have 64 and 177 respectively. It is worth to note that road transport account for almost ninety percent of the country’s transportation services (Donnithorne 252).

From 2005, questions regarding labor emerged in China. This was because the country’s demand for labor was becoming stronger. Such a scenario enabled workers to select work that paid well and offered better working conditions. This forced companies to adjust the minimum wage upwards in order to keep hold of their employees. The fall in the number of workers may be connected to the idea that the family planning policy was taking its toll in the country.

Currency system RMB to the US dollar from 1981

Exchange rates

Chinese yuan per US$1)

Not sure if you can write a paper on China. Economic Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More July 31, 2008 – RMB 6.846

Mid 2007 – RMB 7.45

Early 2006 – RMB 8.07

January 2000 – RMB 8.2793

1999 – RMB 8.2783

1998 – RMB 8.2790

1997 – RMB 8.2898

1996 – RMB 8.3142

1995 – RMB 8.3514

Oil and natural gas are the major minerals available in the Chinese republic. In 2005 the production levels of oil stand at 47.87 km3, consumption was at 44.92 km3, imports were 0 m3, exports were 2.943 km3 while proved reserves were 1,448k m3 in 2006. Regarding oil, the following statistics were available

Production levels: 3,631,001 bbl/d (600, 000 m3/d) in 2005

Consumption levels: 6,535,000 bbl/d (1,000,800 m3/d) in 2005

Export levels: 444,300 bbl/d (70,470 m3/d) in 2005

Import levels: 3,182,000 bbl/d (505,676 m3/d) in 2005

Net import levels: 2,750,000 barrels @ day (435,000 m3/d) in 2005

Reserves: 16.4 Gbbl (2.589×10^9 m3) in 2006

Oil and natural gas

Science and Technology China is among the top countries in the world on the technological advancement front. China has made much progress in the area of technology. The most recent case is the breakthrough made in fuel reprocessing technology. However, China is accused by other countries as abusing patent and copyright rules because of non-adherence.

Spending on research and development in China has doubled over the last 15 years. In 1995, China spent roughly 0.6 percent of GDP ON research and development while the country used 1.2 percent in 2005.

Using the current exchange rates, this represents an increase from seventeen billion to ninety four billion US dollars. Surprisingly, investment in research and development is growing at a faster rate than that of the economy. Despite these developments, the percentage of the Chinese labor force posses technological skills remain relatively small.

Channels of Distribution The supply and retail industries play a valuable role in the Chinese republic. However, a number of restrictions that limit the extent to which foreigners participate in the industries. The following table clearly illustrates ownership in both supply and retail outlets. In reference to channels of distribution, the Chinese republic also has two faces.

Most Chinese are small-scale distributors while a minority group operates as large-scale distributors. Due to the high number of restrictions, only five percent of retailers are foreigners. This accounts for two thousand four hundred foreign retailers who have invested around five billion US dollars in the business (Gattorna 575).

Table 1: China’s Retail Market Structure, 2008 Sector Enterprises (10,000) Employees (10,000) Revenue (¥ billion) Total 54.9 836.9 4,335.3 Autos, motorcycles, fuel, and auto parts 8.0 122.9 1,693.3 Integrated retail 6.4 285.9 1,141.6 Household electric appliances and electronics 9.1 97.3 475.6 Textiles, garments, and daily consumer products 6.0 74.9 219.0 Medicine and medical devices 4.9 62.5 199.9 Hardware, furniture, and decoration materials 7.2 56.9 182.9 Source: Communiqué on Major Data of the Second National Economic Census (No. 3), PRC National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)

Sales plus Operating Revenues: 2000-2009

China, Glassware, Crockery and Pottery Wholesaler-Distributors(NAICS 41431)

Source: Statistics Canada, special tabulation, unpublished data, Annual Wholesale Trade Survey.

Net Revenues: 2000-2009 China, Glassware, Crockery and Pottery Wholesaler-Distributors(NAICS 41431)

Source: Statistics Canada, special tabulation, unpublished data, Annual Wholesale Trade Survey.

Media Primarily, the Chinese media is made up of magazines, newspapers, radio and television. However, in the recent times, the emergence of the internet has brought a new dimension to the media as it continues to gain prominence.

Access to the media has remained limited since the State controlled the communication channels. However, access has improved especially after the introduction of the economic reforms. Nevertheless, State run media agencies such as People’s Daily, Xinhua and CCTV continue to hold considerable market share in the country (Shirk 1-23).

Shirk (1-23) observes that television revenues have been on the rise in the recent times. As an illustration, in 1995, the earnings totaled two billion US dollars, by 2005, the income was expected to rise to around six billion US dollars. At the same time, television advertising generated one fifty million US dollars.

The income covered roughly ninety percent of the television revenues. In contrast, radio advertising ranks way behind television in terms of earnings. However, print media earnings continue to rise at very high rates. The developments being made in the print media poses serious concerns to the other forms of communication.

An issue in Renmin Ribao in Hangzhou

Based on a World Bank report there were about thirty-five TV sets per hundred people in China. It was also indicated that on average each household had access to radios since the report established that eight out of ten people had radio access. The report also indicated that China has over one thousand radio stations.

Although radio has the largest coverage in terms of the ability to reach the biggest number of people, the other forms of communication are also progressing. Television continues to advance although not at the same pace with the print media. The resurgence in the use of print media is mostly attributable to the developments in the internet (Shirk 1-23).

Works Cited Donnithorne, Audrey. China’s Economic System. London: Routledge, 2008.

Gattorna, John. Gower handbook of supply chain management. Farnham: Gower Publishing, Ltd., 2003

Guo, Rongxing. An Introduction to the Chinese Economy: The Driving Forces Behind Modern Day China. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2011.

Ilan, Alon and McIntyre, John. The Globalization of Chinese Enterprises. New York: Palgrave McMillan, 2008.

Murphey, Robert. East Asia: A New History. Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1996.

Shirk, Susan. Changing media, changing China. London: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Yu, Keping Globalization and changes in China’s governance. Boston: BRILL, 2008.

Appendix Table showing the volumes of world trade

China rank by population

Map of China Location in the World, Map of China


Assumptions of Herbert Spencer and Karl Marx Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Difference and similarity in Ontological view by Spencer and Herbert Ontology is the study of objects and their ties. It gives criteria on how to differentiate objects which are real or non real, abstract or concrete with their ties. In short it is the study of reality. Marx idea on how human’s perception suggests that humans believe they see but they do not see (Allan, 2010). He says human nature is expressed in the work produced or created. The aftermath of the work should act as a mirror to the human being.

Marx ontological work is based on human’s material dialect. To Marx, reality is perceived in two ways; by idealism and materialism. He says that the world only exists in our idea. Marx believes that what exists to man in the world is only man’s idea. In his materialism aspect he argues that reality is similar to physical properties which are the simple reflections structured by the innate physical properties. Marx disregarded the idea of materialism but was in at least support of idealism (Allan, 2010).

Ontology in other words can be seen as what exactly occurs. Herbert on the other hand demonstrates the evolutionary theory to explain various phenomena. Herbert explains the aspect of organic and inorganic evolution. This he projects on human society, animal and the physical world at large. His work completely disregards the issue of idealism (Allan, 2010).In addition Herbert elaborates the issue of human liberty and moral rights.

To him a life projected by these two issues means an amazingly free and enjoyable life. Also in his discussions he reveals that, progress in a free environment enables man to use all his faculties. This implies that the government’s sole work is to protect man. Moral sentiments and social condition are inextricably connected, constantly interact. For Herbert moral habits are the primary motivators of man (Elwick, 2003).

Difference and similarity in Epistemological view by Spencer and Herbert Epistemology is the study of knowledge and justified beliefs. Knowledge here includes; sufficient conditions, sources, structure and limits. It focuses on knowledge production and dissemination of that knowledge to areas that need clarification. Epistemology can be combined with ontology to form metaphysics.

To Karl Marx who is an idealist, knowledge is a product of the mind (Allan, 2010). The main concept of knowledge to him is to reason. On the other hand Spencer tries to inquire the basis of scientific study of education, psychology, sociology, and ethics of man from an evolutionary point of view (Alston, 1989).

His work although not valued in the present time brought out the distinguishing factor between sociology and social science. His work on evolutionary progress from a single unit of matter was justified. Spencer social philosophy dominated in the 19th century (Craig, 2002). The main ideas he coined were of free existence or laissez-faire and survival for the fittest. His work was against reform because this affected the balance between nature and human society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Difference and similarity in Human nature view by Spencer and Herbert Karl Marx idea on human nature is based on society as a key survival tactic of different species. His thoughts linked how the human species survive with human consciousness. In addition is survival by creative production. The human conscious therefore has evolved by economical changes.

Marx illustrates that through production and creation of products, man did form an intimate relation with his/her environment. Hence, products made by other human being were as if they were made by him, hence man viewed himself as a creative producer (Allan, 2010). This depicted a form of social relation since every human identified with the product made by other human beings. They did communicate by the world they created.

Marx believes in communism. He says the world has dictated the current attributes of man. He adds that for man to be a communist again, he will have to undergo a social restructuring process. Marx argues that every species is defined by the mode of its survival or existence. Marx says to understand a human being is to understand his alienation, ideology and false consciousness.

On the other hand Spencer argues that human nature is flexible and is in the process of advancement (Elwick, 2003). He says ancient man was very primitive, aggressive and irrational. He envisioned human beings to be perfect at the end of evolution, hence completely adapted to social life. This was due to the adaptations to the requirements of the society in future. His notion was based on generations passing quality trait mantles to the next generation.

He saw a society that would be living in balance, harmony, and peace because of the calm nature of environment they would live in (Allan, 2010). Hence, no one would inflict pain on the other. This of course would be from the idea of natural selection as new adaptation would create a perfect human being (Craig, 2002) .Spencer last years of writing depicted him as a pessisimst regarding human’s future.

Reference List Allan, K. (2010). Exploration in classical sociological theory. Seeing the social: London: Pine Forge Press. (2nd Edition).

Alston, W (1989). Epistimitic justification; Essays in the theory of knowledge. Ithaca: Conwell University Press.

We will write a custom Essay on Assumptions of Herbert Spencer and Karl Marx specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Craig, J. (2002).Classical Sociological theory. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Elwick, J. (2003). Herbert Spencer and the disunity of the social organism. History of science journal. 41, (pp, 35-72).


Nuclear Power Advantages and Disadvantages Essay essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Nuclear Power and Fuel Cost

Global warming and nuclear power

Article Annotation


Works Cited

Introduction Nuclear power is the energy generated by use of Uranium. The energy is produced via complex chemical processes in the nuclear power stations. Major chemical reactions that involve the splitting of atom’s nucleus take place in the reactors. This process is known as fission (Klug and Davies 31-32). The first nuclear power station was established in 1956 in Cumbira, England. Nuclear energy provides about sixteen percent of the total earth’s energy requirements (Cohen ch. 2).

Nuclear Power and Fuel Cost Nuclear plants take years to be built.The cost of buying, and building the reactors is way too high (Klug and Davies 31-32). The kinds of security installations done around the power plant are of high technology which is extremely costly. Managers of nuclear power plants would prefer claiming their returns at the commencement of the plants activities which describes the high cost of fuel. The claim is thought to include cost of installations and time taken to construct the nuclear plants.

Other reasons that could lead to high cost of fuel namely, Security measures, installation factors and safety measures (Klug and Davies 36). The safety measure gadgets are very expensive and are made by great technological experts. Another form of safety measure is availability of machine spare parts. This ensures frequent renewal and upgrading of the plant’s mechanical equipment and this is again very costly.

The main reason for such security is due to the danger that could be caused by exposure to the products of radioactivity. The main equipment that needs close check up is the reactor. Its installation is quite costly hence appropriate renewal of worn out parts is an option that should not to be overlooked.

In addition to these costs, the costs of containing the waste matter is also quite high (Cohen ch.11). Although many people think that investing in nuclear power is a costly event, I do not feel so because it is a worthy venture and one of the cleanest sources of energy.

Though it is not renewable, its establishment and good management could provide a perfect source of energy to the world at large. Nuclear energy production requires low fuel and once the plant is built the cost variables are minor. The Cost of doubling fuel or uranium cost in nuclear plants will only increase fuel cost by 9%. For other sources like coal and gas, doubling fuel prices will increase the fuel prices by 31% and 66% respectively (Cohen ch.9).

Global warming and nuclear power Global warming is caused by the effect of green house gases. These gases are carbon dioxide, methane, vapor and ozone. They are produced by burning fossil fuel. When the gases accumulate in the atmosphere they serve as a mirror in reflecting heat energy back to earth. The accumulation of these gases leads to increased temperature on earth’s atmosphere resulting into global warming (Klug and Davies 31-37).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nuclear power should not at any instance be regarded as one of the causative effects of global warming. This is because it consumes carbon dioxide which is of the green house gases during energy production. Carbon dioxide is a major gas among the green house gases. Hence nuclear energy has provided a solution point for its disposal.

Nuclear energy should therefore be referred to as a cleaner rather than destroyer. It has also boosted the economy by creating a market for sale of carbon dioxide gas. Industries producing this gas can as well trade with nuclear power plants. When serious action is taken in trading this gas from various outlets to various nuclear plants, then a solution would be made on how to regulate global warming using nuclear power generation.

In addition to nuclear power generation, use of renewable energy would also help in countering global warming. Due to the increased need for electricity, more nuclear power plants should be built. These will provide enough market for carbon dioxide waste from other manufacturing industries.

Nuclear energy should be adopted in place of fossil fuel. This is because fossil fuels position’s the earth at a higher risk of global warming. The only task that would justify the use of nuclear energy is when the purpose of Uranium metal is not shifted to bomb production or nuclear weapon production. New adoptions and policies on how to prevent global warming should be implemented.

Article Annotation Barkan, Steven. Nuclear Power and Protest Movements. Social problems journal Vol. 27.1(1979):11-36.Print.

Steve Barkan, a retired article writer basically points out people’s views that have been influenced by environmental degradation. The people have turned more attention to nuclear energy technology as a means of addressing the problem. Barkan’s article examines people’s opinion on nuclear energy. Those against the notion of nuclear energy as a source of energy believe that carbon dioxide emissions mostly emanate from nuclear power and not renewable energy.

These people’s arguments are based on the argument that high grade ores will get depleted hence low grade ores which produce carbon dioxide will be used with no installation of advanced reactor equipment.

We will write a custom Essay on Nuclear Power Advantages and Disadvantages specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition the opponents say that nuclear waste makes the environment susceptible to harm in the future, but they fail to point out that long lived constituents or radioactive elements give off small portion of radioactivity. The opponents also fail to mention any person that could have been harmed as a result of using fuel from power plants.

Another argument is that high cost of nuclear plant management has resulted to increased cost of fuel. In this case, they fail to note that the cost of electricity from nuclear energy is cheaper than most sources. Barkan also brings out the contrasting issue of terrorist attack whom the anti nuclear group argues that could cause melt down of ore. He responds by saying that high level of technological security would not allow access of such suicidal sabotage.

Conclusion Nuclear energy is more affordable to produce than coal energy. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. Instead, the carbon dioxide is used in the process to remove heat from the system. In this case carbon dioxide does not act as a byproduct rather it serves a positive purpose by being utilized. In addition its usage, nuclear energy produces less waste. It does contribute to neither environmental hazards nor green house effect like coal.

Nuclear energy is reliable and produces large amount of energy from less fuel. The negative effect lies on the risks that are associated with nuclear plants especially accidents and suicidal terrorists. These could cause extremely deadly effects and scars that can never be erased. Only good management and high technological security can assist in nullifying such fateful occurrences.

Nuclear power reactors should not be built in politically unstable regions. Political instability results in war and negative effects on the economy. For instance war prone areas are susceptible to attacks by terrorists which could result in detrimental effects. There is need for effective safety policy to be implemented that will address the following factors namely, climate change, security of power plants, safety, energy security and proliferation of nuclear technologies. This is because such proliferations would result in nuclear bomb.

Works Cited Barkan, Steven. Nuclear Power and Protest Movements. Social problems journal Vol. 27.1(1979):11-36.Print.

Cohen, Benard. The Nuclear Energy Option. Plenum Press.1990.

Klug, Aaron