Pulp Fiction is one of the most famous works by Quentin Tarantino that was released in 1994 in order to introduce the audience the peculiarities of American life from various perspectives. This movie is a unique combination of such issues like humor, violence, love, devotion, fear, desire, respect, style, fashion, etc.
In fact, it is difficult to evaluate Pulp Fiction from the one perspective only because its richness and power lie deep in the perfect combination of the properly chosen genre, auteur, ideologies, and numerous cinematic elements. One of the most noticeable and amazing features of Pulp Fiction is Tarantino’s decision to present a kind of collection of stories that represent different people’s lives which are connected by the issues like money, power, sex, and family.
On the one hand, it is not always easy to comprehend director’s intentions: why it is important for so many people with different problems to make decisions and improve or at least save their lives. On the other hand, this movie is centered on the lives of two gangsters who have common affairs and duties, and their lives are hard to forecast but still easy to understand.
Quentin Tarantino introduces his Pulp Fiction by means of several scenes which have a certain sequence: proper enlightenment, strong and certain camera movements and shots, focus on some details and complete ignorance of the others, and careful attention to monologues and dialogues provide the audience with a good chance to grasp the main idea offered by Tarantino and accept it the same way the director does it.
Almost each American movie has its own message or a couple of messages, its audience, functions, and power. In case with Tarantino’s works, it is useless to admit that his movies may be interesting to one group of people and unclear to the others. Quentin Tarantino is one of those directors and screenwriters who cannot focus on one issue and devote the whole movie to it. He tries to add as many captivating details and lessons to his works in order to underline that it is wrong to accept this life as one-sided state of affairs.
This life is a combination of mistakes, lessons, desires, and dreams which fulfill each day and each night of an ordinary American citizen. Such attitude to screenwriting and directing makes many critics pay much attention to Pulp Fiction and evaluate the movie’s main aspects and approaches. First, according to genre, Pulp Fiction is characterized as a neo-noir that displays ironic and reflexive sensibility that is challenging to comprehend at first.
The movie under consideration has also numerous features to be recognized as a neo-realistic movie as it depicts social context with all its outcomes and challenges, authentic shooting that helps to underline some important moments, and numerous violent progressive changes which attract people’s attention due to their suddenness or long-term expectation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the possible examples may be observed in the scene when Vincent (John Travolta) and Jules (Samuel L. Jackson) come to Brett’s in order to punish the character who tries to transgress their boss. More than 5 minute, Jules communicates with the characters in order to clear up what happens and provide them with some time to live.
It is clear that Jules and Vincent come here to kill but still it is not clear when they should kill these men. In my opinion, with the help of this scene, Tarantino wants to represent a kind of spiritual message, where Marsellus Wallace (Ving Rhames) performs the role of the devil whose soldiers come and takes someone’s lives because of numerous sins and disobedience.
Talking about this movie and its strong and weak sides, it is necessary to remember the article written after the movie was released. “You don’t merely enter a theater to “Pulp Fiction”: you go down a rabbit hole” (Maslin para. 3). Quentin Tarantino’s Pulp Fiction has numerous hidden and evident messages in order to learn people, explain the challenges of this life, and evaluate the outcomes which may influence many lives at once.
And the point is that he shares his ideas and messages in absolutely different ways playing with light, camera movement, and even words. For example, Tarantino explains that danger may expect you anywhere and anytime. This message is depicted in the scene when Butch (Bruce Willis) comes to his home and discovers Vincent in his bathroom. Vincent cannot even guess that when he leaves the bathroom, someone may shot him.
Probably this Tarantino’s message is ironic and cruel but still it is always important to be careful when you are alone and defenseless. In fact, this scene has many captivating points to concentrate on. When Butch notices the gun on the table, he comprehends that there is another person who meddles in his life and his affairs. When he takes the gun, the camera movements play an important role at this moment.
The camera moves slowly away from Butch and represents a long corridor that leads to the door. Now, the camera directs and slowly approaches to the door that is open by Vincent. Short shots, two men (one of them is armed with the gun and another with the book), a working toaster, and quick gunshots. The life is over; death comes suddenly without any warning.
There are no sudden moves; the auteur does not hurry up to change the scene. There is no other way out, and people have to accept this reality though cruel and violent but still realistic and integral. The use of camera turns out to be a significant point in the movie, and Tarantino tries to make use of its movements, angles, and distances as professional as possible.
We will write a custom Essay on Pulp Fiction: Moral Development of American Life and Interests specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such writers and directors like Tarantino get used to rely on numerous cinematic tools in order to advance their worlds. They try to use everything from sight and light to camera angles and sounds. Though there are a number of dialogues and monologues in the movie, much attention is paid to different tools in order to tell the audience about the plot and allow them participating in the story.
Though it is impossible to observe a specific camera position and numerous angels while watching the movie, Tarantino admits that he implied more than 10 camera angels to create this movie. He slows down the reality to provide people with a chance to comprehend the moment and enjoy it; he makes use of editing and achieves the best results.
The scene when Wallace says or even orders Butch to lose the fifth round in the fight may be taken as an example. During the talk, camera movements alternate to demonstrate that several people are involved into conversation. However, when the suggestion is announced, Tarantino does not move the camera but leaves it on Butch in order to allow the audience concentrating on his face and thinking about the thoughts and ideas in his head.
It is very important to comprehend what runs Butch at this moment, and camera pause, as nothing else, helps to represent this task. Another powerful example of camera movements and editing may be observed on the scene at Brett’s. Camera shots seem to be a bit uncertain but still quick and logical. Tarantino knows what he wants to tell and what characters have to be observed.
In this scene, the main role is performed by Jackson who not only discusses about the sins, mistakes, and possible redemption but also provide the audience with a chance to comprehend the true nature of their business, their boss, and actions which may lead to different outcomes.
Even the positions of the actors (Jackson and Travolta) may be interpreted in many ways. One of them is that they encircle Brett as predators encircle the prey. Camera movements help to see that Brett is at the worst position even: he cannot observe these two people together at once; this is why he has to move and open himself to the stroke.
In this scene, as well as in many other scenes of the movie, certain attention is also paid to the light. To realize the whole essence of this episode, it is necessary to combine camera effect and movement with the light chosen. Poor lighting of certain parts of the room and clear lighting of Jules’ face make the reader focus on certain details and emotions.
When Jules is talking, the light allows to observe how emotionally tensed this character is. Though he does not like Brett’s attitude to the situation and cannot forgive his mistakes, Jules does everything possible to remain polite and confident in his ideas and words.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Pulp Fiction: Moral Development of American Life and Interests by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is also possible to notice that the room where the characters communicate is bright, and people in it are deprived of a chance to be lightened completely. They are bad; they sin often; and they have to be punished one day. Another powerful example of how Tarantino uses light in the movie is the scene when Vincent opens the briefcase taken from Brett. This plot device cannot be even properly interpreted by the director. This briefcase contains the light.
This light is brighter in comparison to everything else that may be found in the room. The point is that the viewer cannot even get a chance to discover what may be here. Numerous theories and suggestions were offered: from Wallace’s soul to Oscar’s Statue. The chosen color certain tapers off the possible guesses, but still it is impossible to give a clear answer that is so perfectly hidden by Tarantino.
To underline the significance of the sin and wrong actions which are conducted by people to get more money, power, or recognition, Tarantino also focuses on words and thoughts that may bother the characters. In the scene under discussion, one of the most excellent and educative speeches was introduced by Jules. The final words before he kills Brett are taken from Ezekiel 25:17:
“The path of the righteous man is beset on all sides by the iniquities of the selfish and the tyranny of evil men. Blessed is he who in the name of charity and good will shepherds the weak through the valley of darkness, for he is truly his brother’s keeper and the finder of lost children. And I will strike down upon thee with great vengeance and furious anger those who attempt to poison and destroy my brothers. And you will know my name is the LORD when I lay my vengeance upon thee.” (Pulp Fiction)
This religious side of the movie has to be appreciated because not each director will be able to unite such themes like murders, drugs, sex, and violence with the Bible and its rules. Though this movie is full of “F” words, it does not mean that it lacks of serious lessons and educative and spiritual stories. People are free to choose their style of life, their interests, and their duties. However, if the decision/choice is made, there is no other way out.
People have to be responsible for their actions, and if they prefer to use rude language and slang to be more comprehensible to people, they are welcome to talk this way. Tarantino does not want to look too religious, too right, or too wrong. Monologues and dialogues help the audience to comprehend the plot and those aspects which cannot be evaluated by means of camera movements or light preferences. Manner of conversation proves that this movie is a neo-noir that may be wrongly interpreted at first but appreciated with time.
Frequent use of rude and vulgar words, much attention to sex and sexual abuse, use of drugs, everyday violence, cheating, and nudity lead to the idea rate this movie as “R” so that only people at a certain age are able to watch it. However, one day or another each person would like to watch this movie, enjoy the chosen style, be amazed of the used techniques, and get one of the most significant lessons in this life.
It is just necessary to keep in mind that all phrases and ideas have to be listened till the end and evaluated together with settings, camera movements, and lighting because only the proper combination of details promotes the desirable effect and influence of the audience.
Quentin Tarantino introduces one of the most powerful and captivating movies about this life and its rules, people and their dreams, events and their outcomes. This professional director and writer makes a magnificent attempt to create a captivating story and to strengthen it by means of numerous cinematic tools and approaches. His Pulp Fiction contains many interesting scenes and episodes where the main role is performed not only by actors but also by cameras.
Without such a correct use of camera movements, this movie and its message will be hard to interpret and evaluate. This is why, to provide the audience with the necessary hint, Tarantino relies on light and shadow as well as one the play of Travolta, Willis, and Jackson.
The episode when two gangsters come to Brett’s in order to take a revenge, teach, and explain the mistakes made may be used as one of the possible examples of how perfectly and clearly each cinematic issue is chosen. Movements of cameras demonstrate how anxious and scared some characters are; certain lighting of the room demonstrates that not everything as clear as it should be, and there are still many aspects that have to be highlighted.
The peculiar feature of the chosen episode is not accidental because it can prove that only a well-coordinated work of each aspect, concrete phrases, and even mimics are able to reproduce the main idea of the story and show how the movie may influence people’s perception of the reality, this cruel but still integral reality.
Works Cited Maslin, Janet. “Film Festival Review: Pulp Fiction; Quentin Tarantino’s Wild Ride on Life’s Dangerous Road.” The New York Times. Sept. 1994. 8 Apr. 2010.
Pulp Fiction. Dir. Quentin Tarantino. Perfs. John Travolta, Samuel L. Jackson, Bruce Willis, Uma Thurman. Miramax Films, 1994.
Reflections on the Infancy Gospel Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help: college essay help
Introduction “Gnosticism is mainly influenced by the comprehension of the Hellenistic religion that the spirit is good while the material world is evil” (Keller). The teachings of the Gnostics about Jesus heavily contradict what the Bible teaches about Jesus. Some of the most common texts of the Gnostic Jesus are the Apocryphal of James, The Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Truth and The Gospel of Phillip (Keller, 2010).
It is not easy to describe the conception of Jesus from the Gnostic perspective because they fractioned him into various entities. According to them, Jesus was different from Christ, the savior as different and the begotten was also different as well as the logos. They also explained that there were two Christ. It was taught that Jesus was a man, just like any other and born usually by Joseph and Mary, thus disregarding the virgin birth (Samsel, 2008).
Comparison of the “Arabic Gospel of the Infancy of the Savior: and the “Infancy Gospel of James” to the Infancy Narratives in Matthew 1:18-2:23 and Luke 1:26-2:52.
Several similarities and differences exist in the three accounts of the infancy of Jesus as will be seen in the following discussion.
Mary and Joseph Chapter 1 to 9 of the infancy gospel of James gives a detailed account of the lives of the parents of Mary, the birth of Mary and her childhood until she got espoused to Joseph in her teen years.
This is not so in the Gospel as given in the Bible passages from Matthew and Luke. The history of Mary’s parents and her upbringing and how she got espoused to Joseph is not explained, we only get to know Mary at the point where the angel Gabriel appears to her, a virgin, espoused to Joseph, and tells her that she will conceive a child by the power of the Holy Spirit (Hock; Keller).
The Joseph that is spoken of in the gospel of James is different from the Bible one: He was a widower who had children already while the Bible one had not yet married, Mary was espoused to him and they had not come together, and he knew her not until she brought forth her first son, Jesus. The Jesus in the Bible does not speak to her mother while lying in the manger (King James Bible).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The message of the angel to Mary In both accounts, the angel of the lord comes to Mary, calls her blessed and favored among women and delivers the news of the birth of a son who shall be called Jesus and who shall deliver men of their sins. However, the gospel of James posits that Mary will conceive from the word of the lord, but the passages in Luke and Matthew are clear that that which she will conceive will be of the Holy Ghost.
Mary’s visit to her cousin Elizabeth The account of Mary at her cousin Elizabeth are same the gospel of Luke and Matthew and James. However, the claim by the gospel of James that Mary had forgotten the mysteries she had been told by the angel Gabriel concerning being called blessed by the generations is not so in the Bible. Mary and Joseph did not have to go through any ritual to prove their purity as is the case in the infancy gospel of James (Keller).
Jesus’ birth at Bethlehem of Judea Joseph took with him his wife Mary to Bethlehem of Judea to be taxed according to the decree of Caesar Augustus, which is also the case in the infancy gospel of James and the Arabic gospel. However, Joseph was not ashamed of Mary and did not complain about having to get a place for her to birth her baby. Furthermore, the Bible does not say that they were in a desert as is the case in the infant gospel of James, they were in the city of Judea where they had gone to be taxed (King James Bible).
The Biblical Joseph did not go to look for a Hebrew midwife to help Mary and did not put Mary in a cave as is the case in the Arabic and James’ gospels. Mary gave birth to her son alone and put him in the manger because there was no space in the hotel and Joseph did not look for a midwife as the two gospels posit.
In the Arabic gospel, the old Hebrew midwife asks for payment and having been affected with palsy, is asked by Mary to place her hands upon the child upon which she receives immediate healing and makes up her mind to be the servant and attendant of the child the rest of her life.
Likewise, Salome, who was with the Hebrew midwife in the gospel of James receives healing by lifting the baby, for her hand that was falling away and being consumed by fire after she put her finger on Mary to confirm the virgin birth. This is not so in the Gospels of Luke and Matthew (Hock).
The Arabic gospel is in agreement with the Bible concerning the baby being wrapped in swaddling clothes. However, He, according to the gospel of Luke and Matthew, was placed in a manger and not on a stall as in the Arabic gospel (Keller).
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Reflections on the Infancy Gospel specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A star stood over the place where the child lay and not lights more beautiful than the gleaming of candles and lamps filling the cave as in the Arabic gospel, or the great light appearing in the cave that the eyes of the midwife and Joseph could not bare as in the infancy gospel of James, which also claims that the light, which had replaced the dark cloud that hovered over the cave, had withdrawn again until an infant appeared and went and took his mother, Mary’s breast.
The three wise men The commotion as a result of the astrologers in Judea as posited in the gospel of James is not the case in the Bible. The Arabic gospel, on the other hand, says that as Zeraduscht had predicted, magi came to Jerusalem from the east and brought with them the gifts of gold, myrrh and frankincense, adored Jesus and presented him the gifts (Knight).
Mary took one of the swaddling bands and gave it to the magi (Hock). The Bible talks of three wise men, not astrologers, and not magi, seeking, just like James’ astrologers, and the Arabic magi, where Jesus had been born after seeing his star. Herod inquired, in the Bible, about the time the star would appear and not what sign they saw about the messiah (Keller). The star the wise men had seen led them to where the baby was, but this was not the cave, mentioned in James’ and Arabic infancy gospels.
James says the men were warned by the angel to depart to Judaea. In the bible, God himself warned them through a dream not to return to Herod, but return to their country, and not Judea, as in James’ gospel. The Arabian gospel posits that an angel, in the form of a star appeared to the magi and led them until they reached their country. The wise men in the Bible went to their country using another route, but were not led by the star that had led them as they came to see the baby Jesus (King James Bible).
Herod’s command to kill children under age 2 Joseph, in the Bible, being warned of Herod killing children under age 2, and being instructed on what to do by an angel in a dream took Mary and the child and went to Egypt by night. On the other hand, it is posited by the Arabian gospel that Joseph took Mary and the child and set out to Egypt towards cockcrow.
The infant Gospel of James is different and posits that Mary, hearing about the destruction of children, wrapped the child and put him in a stall of cows, while Elizabeth was guided through the mountain with her child, John, guided by the angel of the Lord, and Herod not finding John, ordered that his father Zachariah be murdered, and in his place, Simeon appointed (Keller). This is not so in the Bible.
Simeon and the baby Jesus In all the three accounts, it had been revealed to Simeon by the Holy Ghost that he would not die before seeing the Messiah, but not in the flesh, as is the case in the gospel of James. “Simeon is, in the Arabic infancy gospel, said to have seen the child Jesus shining as a pillar of light his mother was carried him and rejoicing over him with the angels too were praising him as they stood around him in a circle as life guards standing by a king” (Wesley Center for Applied Theology) .
In the Bible, Simeon, led into the temple by the spirit of God, took up Jesus in his hands and blessed God. He did not speak to baby Jesus and the Holy Spirit, and Jesus is not the one who revealed to him about his seeing the messiah before dying.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Reflections on the Infancy Gospel by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The angels, stated as standing around them, are no existent in the Bible. Hanna, a prophetess also present in the temple came up, thanked God and referred to Mary as blessed (Keller). In the Bible, she is named Anna and she thanked God and spoke of him to all that required liberation in Jerusalem.
The shepherds and the baby Jesus The shepherds in the Arabic gospel are said to have lighted a fire were greatly rejoicing when a heavenly host appeared to them celebrating and praising God and the shepherds were doing the same at which time the cave was made like the a temple of the upper world since both earthly and heavenly hosts glorified and magnified God at the birth of Jesus (Keller).
This is different from the Biblical account in which the angel of the Lord came to the shepherds who were watching their flocks by night and the glory of the Lord shone around them and scared them (King James Bible).
The angel delivered the news of the savior’s birth to them and the sign of the baby enclosed in swaddling clothes in a manger. The angel was all of a sudden joined by a large number of heavenly hosts praising God. After the departure of the angels, the shepherds went to see the baby and told the news to all abroad.
Circumcision of Jesus Circumcision is on the 8th day is in both the Biblical and Arabic gospels (Keller; King James Bible). In the Bible, the baby was named Jesus, as had been prophesied. However the Arabic gospel posits that Jesus was circumcised in the cave and the old Hebrew woman took the foreskin while some say she took the navel string which she laid in a jar and instructed her son, a dealer in ointments, not to sell the jar (Keller).
This jar is believed to be the one Mary the sinner used to pour expensive oil on the feet of Jesus. “It is claimed that after 10 days, the baby was taken to Jerusalem and on the 14th day, after his birth, was taken to the temple, put before the Lord and sacrifices offered to him as per the Law of Moses which according to which every firstborn male was to be the lord’s holy” (Wesley Center for Applied Theology).
Jesus at 12 At 12years, Jesus was taken to Jerusalem for the feast and at its conclusion, they went back but Jesus remained in the temple with the teachers, elders and educated men of Israel who wondered at his understanding and knowledge. His parents came to seek him after three days and he told them he was after his father’s business. This is true in both the Arabic and Biblical accounts.
The two thieves It is said, in the Arabic gospel, that Mary and Joseph met two thieves and one of them showed them kindness. The Arabic gospel posits that baby Jesus told Mary his mother that when he, Jesus, will reach 30 years, the Jews will crucify him at Jerusalem and the two robbers, whom they were with, Titus and Dumachus, will be hang on the cross alongside him, Titus to his right side and Dumachus to his left side and that Titus shall be in paradise on that day before him, Jesus gets there (Keller; Hock).
While it is true in the Bible that Jesus was crucified alongside two thieves and one went to paradise after asking Jesus to have mercy n him, it is not true that Jesus told his mother about this and the names of the thieves are not given in the bible as is so in the Arabian gospel.
The Arabic gospel and miracles The Arabic gospel of the infancy of the Savior is entirely about the miracles of Jesus Christ, who is referred to as the Lord and Master and Savior Jesus Christ.
An account of the miracles of all sorts of the child wherever he and his parents passed is recorded. Among the many miracles he performed include: demons left a possessed boy after he put upon his head the washed clothes of Jesus, idols were broken at the presence of Jesus in the surrounding, robbers ran and left all their plunder and captives at the approaching of Jesus carried by his parents, Satan left those he had possessed just by Mary looking at her and pitying her or by those possessed holding the baby Jesus, a dumb bride spoke by holding the baby Jesus, various illnesses like leprosy were healed by pouring on the sick individuals the water used to wash Jesus and life was also restored in the same manner, impotence was loosed by Jesus and his parents spending the night in the victim’s house, a city of idols was turned to sand hills as they came near it, in Bethlehem, Mary instructed a woman to sprinkle water she had washed Jesus in on her ill son and his eyes were healed, a child healed by Mary’s child could not be burnt in a hot oven or drowned in the well after his step mother did this to him, a dying boy arose after being laid in the bed Jesus was lying in and covered by Jesus’ clothes.
It is claimed that this child is the Bartholomew in the gospel. Jesus, at 7years, playing with other boys, modeling, is said to have made his models walk, fly, eat and do everything he ordered. These miracles are not in line with what Jesus in the bible did, especially the manner in which they are done (Hock).
Additional personal reflections The gospel of James puts a lot of emphasis on the life of Mary, the mother of Jesus and gives a lot of details. The Arabic stresses on the miracles experienced by people who came in contact with Jesus while the Bible accounts of Luke and Matthew are centered on Jesus himself, his birth, the prophesies being fulfilled and his kingship.
It is my opinion that we be faithful to the picture of Jesus presented in the biblical narratives about narratives. This is because they are consistent with earlier prophesies given and thus the Biblical account can be relied on.
The biblical gospels were written earlier than the Gnostic ones hence can be relied upon as authoritative. The biblical ones were written in the 1st century by the apostles and their close associates while the earliest the Gnostic ones were written was in the second century. The details of Jesus as depicted by the Gnostic accounts are different. They are not consistent and are not coherent in terms of the life and ministry of Jesus.
Gnosticism hides a lot of knowledge concerning salvation since they present a variety of views on Jesus. The bible, however, gives a coherent view. Most of the Gnostic accounts are combined material from the bible and from other religious traditions which may not be reliable historically as compared to the bible (Small) thus the importance for us to stick to that.
Gnosticism is described as the perverted Christianity due to speculation and learning. Gnosticism changed Christianity into a philosophy. It is a mystic religion and mystifies Jesus thus the need to stick to the Biblical account of Jesus.
Works Cited Bible gateway. The Christian’s Battle against Gnosticism. 2010. Web.
Hock, Ronald. The Infancy Gospel of James. 2010. Web.
Keller, Tim. The Gnostics and Jesus. 2010. Web.
Keller, Tim. The Gnostics and Jesus: Gospel of Thomas Sounds Far More Misogynist Than Anything Found in the Bible. 2010. Web.
Knight, Kevin. The Arabic Gospel of the Infancy of the Savior. 2009. Web.
Samsel, Roger. The Gnostic Jesus. 2008. Web.
Small, Keith. The Historical Reliability of the Gnostic versus the Canonical Gospels. 2010. Web.
Wesley Center for Applied Theology. The Arabic Gospel of the Infancy of the Savior. 2010. Web.
Mama Mancini Restaurant Research Paper essay help free
Table of Contents Strategy Paper 1: Proposal
INCOME STATEMENT FORM MAMA MANCINI’S FOR THE PAST FIVE YEARS
Strategy paper 2: Target Marketing and Positioning
Strategy Paper 3: Product and Channels
Strategy Paper 4: Promotion and Pricing
The goals of the business
Strategy Paper 1: Proposal The purpose of this paper is to examine the prevalence of family owned small business through analysis conducted to assess their contribution and impact to the society. The research is aimed at assessing the problems faced by small family owned businesses. First, the study will examine specific case of family owned small business, Mama Mancini’s, a mid size restaurant in Chicago area, in order to examine how closely it fits the general principles of family owned small business.
The success of this small business is owed to good planning, quality of their product and identification of the niche market. Bruno Mancini’s vision and planning contributed greatly to the success of the business. The paper focuses on dynamics of owner-owned enterprises and Mama Mancini’s business was chosen for this case because of the successful, family owned small businesses which are typical example of increasing numbers all family owned businesses all over the world.
Mama Mancini is a small family business started in 1913 by Arturo Mancini, an Italian Chef specialising in serving genuine home made sources. The restaurant has gained popularity over the years due to its unique delicacies of Italian recipes and dining experience combined with good cultural atmosphere.This small family owned business was running at a loss five years ago, the break even point was achieved during the third year. The figures below present the company’s financial statements.
INCOME STATEMENT FORM MAMA MANCINI’S FOR THE PAST FIVE YEARS (Amounts are in $’000)
Year 1 Year 2/th> Year 3/th> Year 4/th> Year 5/th> Sales 4,217 5,060 6,072 7,287 8,744 Cost of good sold 1,265 1,518 1,821 2,186 2,623 Gross Profit 2,951 3,542 4,250 5,101 6,121 Selling, general, Administrative
Frederic Chopin: A Biography Report essay help: essay help
In the world of music, one of the most prominent figures is the nineteenth-century Polish composer Frederic Chopin. Called “The boldest and the proudest poetic spirit of the age” by his musical contemporary Robert Schumann, Chopin embodied the essential ideas of the romantic period with his tragedy of losing his native land and spending life in vain attempts at supporting his countrymen in their struggle for freedom.
A Slavic soul in the Western world, Chopin expressed all his pain at the loss of motherland in his lyrical music that forever won the hearts of audiences. The composer’s short but eventful life was a struggle between the outward success and recognition in the musical world and the inner contradictions and home-sickness, worsened by the deadly disease — tuberculosis.
Born on March 1, 1810, in a small Polish village Zelazova-Wola six miles away from the Polish capital, Warsaw, Chopin was the second child and the only son in the family. His father, Nicholas Chopin, was a French emigrant of Polish origin and worked as an educator to the children of the Polish aristocracy. His mother, Justina Kryzanowska, of poor but noble family, “possessed of all the womanly virtues”.
Chopin’s highly educated and refined parents cultivated his love of music since his early childhood. His first piano lessons were given by his mother, and at the age of six he started studying with Adalbert Zwyny The young boy’s affection to piano playing was so big that by the age of twelve he already possessed enough skill to play at public concerts and even experiment in the sphere of technique and tone, “revolutionizing the world of music and the keyboard”
At the age of twelve Chopin entered the Warsaw Lyceum for classical education in languages, and later on enrolled the Warsaw Conservatory where he studied harmony and counterpoint with Joseph Elsner.
The latter recognized Chopin’s outstanding talent as a musician and provided the young composer with the professional knowledge and skills to develop Chopin’s natural talent. The young man’s greatest passion was music and he would often spend nights at the piano trying out and rehearsing the compositions he had created during the daytime.
He drew inspiration from acquaintance with the works of such masters as Bach and Mozart, but already managed to create his own lyrical style of romantic music. Chopin’s skills as a pianist also developed and found recognition among the contemporary public who acknowledged him as an unsurpassed pianist of the time.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Having finished his studies at conservatoire, Chopin set out to see the world in 1828. His first big trip was to Berlin where he enjoyed his time meeting contemporary prominent musicians and exchanging professional experience with them. He saw Spontini, Mendelsohn, and Zelter, and heard Webber’s “Freischutz”. His heart was bursting with ideas and hopes for success, since his improvisations on Polish melodies found a response in the audiences’ hearts.
In 1829 in Warsaw, Chopin met with such giants of contemporary music as Hummel and Paganini and debuted with solo concerts in Vienna. The Viennese public was used to astonishing bravura virtuosity of popular pianists and found his playing too quiet and timid for big stage. Some critics dismissed Chopin as a parlor pianist whose play “pleased the ladies”. But despite this, his charming play paved him the road to international recognition.
In 1831, Chopin settled in Paris never to return to Poland again. At that time the French capital was a major cultural center, a place where arts prospered and flourished. At first Chopin attempted at giving solo concerts but due to the specific intimacy of his performance, those concerts turned out to be financial failures. Therefore, to support himself and to earn his living, Chopin engaged into private piano tutoring and playing small piano pieces in salons of the French aristocracy.
Gradually enlarging the circle of his contacts, Chopin won the admiration of such influential musicians of the time as Schumann, Liszt, Cherubini, Bellini, Berlioz, and Meyerbeer; among his devoted friends were also the painter Delacroix, the poet Heine, and many others. Despite Chopin’s professional success, he never forgot his motherland and took hard the failure of Polish Revolution, expressing his anxiety and nostalgia in his nocturnes, mazurkas, studies and scherzos.
One of the most influential people in Chopin’s life was the French feminist writer and leading literary woman of the time, George Sand. Chopin met her in 1836 and was initially averted by her defiant mannish behavior but consequently they developed a mutual affection which lasted for over a decade.
George Sand took the same care of Chopin as she did of her two children and tried to arrange his life so that to restore the composer’s weak health. For this reason they spent winter 1838–39 on the Spanish island of Majorca, but bad weather only worsened the composer’s condition. Initially caring for Chopin, George Sand gradually cooled down to him and they drifted apart being more in patient-nurse relations than actually lovers.
Miserable and jaded, Chopin returned to Paris where doctors recommended that he should lessen the intensity of his working schedule — but naturally, the composer’s genius required constant activities and work on improvement of his creations. The last years of his life, heavily marred by his illness, were marked by Chopin’s gradual breaking with his friends and social bonds.
We will write a custom Report on Frederic Chopin: A Biography specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Growing ever-suspicious and critical, he became estranged from active social life and thus his career as a private piano tutor gradually tailed. In 1848, London heard Chopin play for the last time, when in a patriotic impulse the composer put all his remaining energy in a concert in aid of Polish refugees. By that time Chopin was hopelessly ill, and a year after his last performance, on October 17, 1849 the great Pole died, bequeathing his heart to be taken back to his motherland.
Chopin’s life is a story of painful survival and nostalgia for homeland against the background of outward success and public recognition. Although Chopin spent half of his life away from Poland, he never forgot his national roots, bringing them to the fore in his music. An example of this can be seen in the way Chopin revived and popularized the traditional Polish dances, polonaise and mazurka.
His music is a fancy union of joy and sadness that reveals the composer’s inner conflict of a successful immigrant who could not help his suffering land. Perhaps, this yearning for the impossible constitutes the special charm of his masterpieces which appeal to the innermost notes of human heart.
Works Cited Green, Janet. “Chopin, Frederic Francois.” Musical Biographies. Owen Press, 2008. 136–144. Print.
Huneker, James. Chopin: The Man and His Music. Plain Label Books, 1923. Print.
Orga, Ateş. Chopin. Redwood Books, 1983. Print.
Footnotes 1. As quoted in Green, p. 136.
. Huneker, pp. 4–5.
. Green, p. 137.
. Green, p. 137.
. Huneker, p. 8.
. Huneker, p.9.
. Green, p. 138.
. Green, p. 138.
. Huneker, p. 12.
. Huneker, p. 13.
. Huneker, p. 15.
. Green, p. 139.
. Green, p. 139.
. Orga, p. 54.
. Green, p. 140.
. Huneker, p. 44.
. Huneker, p. 46.
. Orga, p. 132.
. Green, p. 142.
. Green, p. 142.
Socio-Political Foundations of Hip-Hop Essay best essay help
‘The fire this time’ rings out the themes of indigenous resistance or indigenous reality. It shows there is a political, religious, and cultural connection among the African-American, Blacks and Native Americans and indigenous communities. This link is somehow unifying and cohesive among the people and enable people to appreciate each other more not necessary along racial boundaries, but on humane basis.
This video presentation shows the struggle for independence fought by indigenous individuals in West Papua New Guinea and other areas. This presentation is connected to a state of exploitation that continues in the world that has deprived people so much, yet the struggle continues (Raging Blakkindian Dub 2).
‘The sociology and history of African American’ brings out the theme of poverty. It observes that poverty levels are more concentrated to the urban areas due to the historical denial of access, deindustrialization, that is, lack of job opportunities, and segregation of groups. Poverty is particularly concentrated among the black community. The percentage of high poverty and extreme poverty areas has increased.
Also the book brings out the theme of crime and fratricide in an urban setting. It is notices that there is an increase in trend intra-racial homicide danger of the African Americans which is not particularly inter-racial; furthermore it was higher in black communities than any other group. By 1987, the ratio of blacks to whites is 1:9, yet almost one out of two people arrested of murder and none negligent manslaughter was a black, and 41% of those murdered were blacks (Black 210).
The cool pose’, this book brings out the theme of racism and discrimination among the various races in the United States. It also brings out the theme of dilemma of masculinity among men in the United States. Racism, harsh injustices and discrimination mostly affects black men, subjecting them to social stress and social symptoms.
Being a man and a black in US meant that one was weak economically, politically, and social arenas, which were occupied by whites. Also their hard work did not yield the same fruits as their counterparts, whites, in terms of wages and positions (Majors and Billson 3)
According to Chunk D. of ‘Public Enemy’ the “3Es” necessary for healthy community development were economics, education and enforcement, however these factors play a role in the pieces stated above. According to ‘cool pose’ social, economic and environmental problems have worsened the black men’s problems in school.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Drop-out percentages are stiff, failure is rampant, alienation is epidemic and performance is below average. Black men are suspended, expelled, kicked out and drop out of school that any other group. The black males form the highest percentage of the unemployed, in 1987 the unemployment rate stood at 34% as compared to only 17% of all races together.
According to Dr. Black (245), Blacks were always caught wrong footed by the law due to their negligent acts or desperate actions. Segregation and discrimination in workplaces have aggreviated the economic position of the black males. High poverty levels have affected their productivity and worsened their health. Segregation concentrates education disadvantage among the black communities.
External forces such as the police and the media also greatly influence the achievement of the “3Es”. The media reflect the state of the society and enlighten people on their rights and the realities of life. The media gives the people a conscious informed mind to decide in matters affecting their lives, for instance, cultural orientation, economic and political empowerment.
On the other hand, the police are the law enforcers, they are an instrument of the government to ensure law and order is maintained within the country and also ensures that rules of the law are adhered by everyone irrespective of the race. The police also ensure equity is maintained in administering justice to the masses.
There are issues that can be identified that affect other communities, not necessarily, African Americans, but regardless of the racial makeup. These include; gender discrimination, environmental calamities, political instabilities or poor governments, social unrests, corruption, and unfair judicial systems.
Works Cited Black, Albert. The Sociology and History of African Americans, volume 1. Washington, DC: University of Washington, 2000. Print.
Decorative Surfaces: Marie Antoinette as a Sourcebook for 18th Century Critical Essay college essay help near me
Introduction It is always dangerous to try to learn history from a commercial movie, especially one which sets its action to pop songs, no matter how congruent the mood of the songs is with the over-the-top nature of the era. However, because Marie Antoinette, directed by Sofia Coppola , and starring Kirsten Dunst, was filmed with Versailles, Chantilly, and Paris Opera interiors, there is a certain minimum of accurate inference about the 18th century that can be drawn from this work.
It is possible also to tick off the widely accepted facts or persistent rumors about the doomed Dauphine and the court, as the movie touches lightly and stylishly on them. Inferences about the social order, the status of women, daily life in the court, clothing (although sometimes by omission), and interior design can all be gleaned from this re-telling of the Austrian Archduchess Maria Antonia Josepha Joanna’s story as teenage coming-of-age narrative.
Social Order The most obvious message that comes through in the movie is the rigid and unbending hierarchy that the ancien regime imposed on itself and the rest of the nation. The king was at the top, by divine right, and everyone else was in a step-wise ranking below him, with the peasants at the bottom.
The movie makes the point early on, humorously and painfully, that the task of assisting the rulers with even their most intimate activities was a privilege assigned by protocol and etiquette. The Mistress of the Household (named the Comtesse de Noailles) explains all this to the bemused Dauphine, and choreographs arrivals and turns in line, according to rank and relation, lest the Dauphine lift her hand to help herself by mistake.
This custom, as is clear from the shivering anorexic form of Dunst waiting to be clad in a shift in her lavishly ornamented bedchamber, was not a luxury, but a duty. On the other hand, the Comtesse de Noailles actively and visibly avoids embracing the Archduchess upon being presented to her, presumably because that would be a sign of disrespect, despite the clear implication that a hug was what the 14 year old needed at that moment more than anything else.
Every action done by or to the ruler (and any potential ruler), no matter how personal, constituted a national action. Every action, therefore, justified the observation and participation of the loyal nobility. Note that Marie Antoinette’s nephew is born in the full sight of at least the distaff portion of the court, and the exhausted and haggard mom is viewed immediately after birth by the nobility of both sexes. Not even the most hounded celebrity today would tolerate such an imposition.
Likewise Marie Antoinette’s own children, even more critical to the survival of the nation, are delivered under the gaze of her subjects, and paraded shortly after birth to assure the people that the throne was, for the moment, safe (more on that delusion later). The birth of an heir to the throne was an event of moment, and the nobles wanted to be sure that there were no switches of one baby for another.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Every bite that entered their mouths was also specially arranged on the plate and tasted by somebody (it looked as though the Mistress of the Household was fulfilling this critical service), presented to them with elaborate ceremony and a cast of dozens . The royals were watched carefully for sign of choking, poisoning, or displeasure.
All these personal services and intrusions into personal life symbolically reinforced for the king, and the nobles, and the rest of the country, the special and near divine nature of royalty, and, by implication, the dangers of disrupting that system or attacking those very special individuals.
Another message that comes through very clearly is the level of consumption that prevailed in the court of Versailles and elsewhere in the privileged classes.
This was considered to some extent to be a positive support for domestic production of all goods and services . As evidence, note the fact that, in the movie, the Archduchess is stripped of foreign products, even her lap dog, before adopting her new life as a figurehead for the French nation.
The luxuries of the royalty were not universally disapproved of, however. The notable philosophe, Charles Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, famously wrote regarding this issue, “Were the rich not to be lavish, the poor would starve”. However, the indulgent and oblivious excesses of many nobles, and especially Marie Antoinette, became catalysts in the ferment that resulted in the Revolution, and, ultimately, her own downfall, as we see later in the movie.
The status of women
Like most women of the 18th century, Marie Antoinette’s choices with regard to her marital status were largely out of her control. All women in 18th century France, were expected to marry, and only special circumstances (such as family economy or a strong religious inclination) would justify deviating from this model.
For royal houses, marriage was a matter of politics above all. Had the young Austrian Archduchess declined the French offer of marriage, not only would she have endangered the status of diplomatic relations between the two countries, as her mother and her country’s ambassador make abundantly clear , but it is also conceivable that she would have been either married off to some other man swiftly, or consigned to a convent, to avoid embarrassment, and any hint of scandal.
We will write a custom Essay on Decorative Surfaces: Marie Antoinette as a Sourcebook for 18th Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Those are the logical alternatives for her worried parents. For less politically visible women, for example, women of the urban professional class, single life, usually as the doyenne of a brother’s home, or living with parents, or both, was a legitimate alternative.
As a wife, in the political hothouse of France’s court, even wedding vows could not ensure Marie Antoinette’ s security and stability. She was the designated vessel for the bearing of a legitimate heir to the throne.
If she were unsuccessful, she risked being put aside and sent home in shame, with the relations between Austria and France in danger, as her mother’s voice reminds her in voice-over. Even bearing sons was not enough – they had to survive to take the throne (and the sad scene of a tiny coffin being borne off makes clear). Her apparent unwillingness and/or inability to conceive leaves her socially and politically vulnerable.
Her failure to conceive exposes her, otherwise sacrosanct in her royal person, to the rude and cutting remarks of her subjects, for example, as she walks with constrained speed through the windowed gallery past the women who fling comments at her about giving them an heir. Thus, the movie emphasizes the limited role that women could play officially in France in that era.
The movie does not give much attention to Marie Antoinette’s unofficial power, except in the case of her grandfather-in-law’s mistress. The longing and demands for recognition by Marie Antoinette of Madame Du Barry, force the young woman to swallow her moral and aesthetic objections. She elects to acknowledge the king’s favorite during a morning walk-by through the palace.
Even the king’s good will and the Dauphine’s tolerance, however, are not enough to prevent Madame Du Barry’s ignominious eviction from Versailles upon the eve of her royal patron’s death by smallpox. However, a style force until the end, Du Barry’s gorgeous violet cloak certainly made a striking fashion statement as she swirled away into the waiting carriage, like the unwelcome bad fairy at the christening of Sleeping Beauty (but with matched luggage).
Daily Life Clothing and identity:
Near the start of the film, we watch, with horror, as the Archduchesse is re-garbed in the pass-through that delivered her to her new life as Dauphine, naked and presumably shivering under the gaze of the French delegation. This scene reinforces how important clothes were to the creation of identity, as was emphasized by the frosty directions of the Mistress of the Household, the Comtesse de Noailles.
Every item that the Dauphine wore, carried, ate, drank, or used, clearly sent a message about her national affinity, and her support for the substantial body of seamstresses and sempsters, textile manufacturers, shoemakers, milliners, wig-makers, hair dressers, cosmeticians, perfume manufacturers, parasol makers, carriage makers, craftsmen of all sorts of furnishings, and cooks and pastry chefs, as well as the farmers and gardeners who produced the ingredients for her table, and the musicians who created entertainment for her ears.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Decorative Surfaces: Marie Antoinette as a Sourcebook for 18th Century by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More We are aware of all these people only through the results of their labor, for the most part.
We see her, as noted earlier, in her bedroom, forced to wait to be dressed by ladies-in-waiting. While this custom is likely to have been accurate in some respects, it was certainly not what the vast majority of women would have experienced in terms of fresh linen.
Most people of both sexes wore some version of the shift that Marie Antoinette shivers in, but those who slept in cold or less private conditions probably wore one all the time, under all their clothes, and in all circumstances, bed included. They might change it every once in a while, but hardly every day. Laundry doubtless involved at least a week of turnaround time, if not more, given that everything had to air dry, and all fibers were natural.
We watch as Dunst is encased symbolically in a cage-like frame that held her skirts away from her, giving her the wide hipped, narrow-waisted silhouette that was prized until after Neo-classicism and Republicanism imposed the high Empire waist and chitin-like drape of thin fabrics on the ladies of France.
These wide skirts occasioned satire, and censure on the part of the Church (Coudes, Panniers a 2010). We see her beckoning to her lover wearing stockings (these looked suspiciously transparent for being made of silk, which would have been the only available fabric anywhere near thin enough) held up by decorative garters.
We do not see underpants, which is appropriate, since this undergarment was not invented yet. She would have worn at least 3 or more layers at any time, as we see at various points in the movie: shift, corset and stays, petticoat, a dress in however many layers the specific design called for, stockings, and perhaps a scarf to fill in her neckline.
The variety and creativity involved in dressing a noblewoman, or indeed any woman who wore more than the minimum required to do labor, demonstrates that fashioin was indeed an art form. Here are some samples of the styles, fabrics, and decorative media which were available to dressmakers of the day: “Italian rose and blue silk changeant taffeta suit with red foil and hammered silver buttons and embroidery”, or this delicious description, “green and ivory serpentine silk damask robe à la francaise”
The movie does not show as many of the characteristic sky high hairdos of the era as it might have. Perhaps they were unbecoming to Ms. Dunst, or perhaps she could not manage the poise of the head required to keep such an arrangement in place. Some small hint of the absurdity of the architecture of hair at the time is shown when the queen and her ladies-in-waiting sport model ships in their hair, and when Ms. Dunst thanks her hair dresser for a bulbous, soufflé of a “do” that moves independently of her head.
Shoes were fragile and acted as a colorful accessory for privileged women. Peasant women would have been wearing clogs (sometimes called sabots) or some variation thereof. Note that Dunst’s costumes are cut short enough for her to walk without tripping, and also short enough to show off her wardrobe of highly ornamented shoes. This seems practical.
The royal bed in the movie, a blatant advertisement for French needlework skills, with its floral ornamentation, would have necessarily been a noisome affair in comparison with the cheapest sleeping arrangement from IKEA today.
The mattress would have been filled with some natural stuffing, such as straw, horsehair, cattail fluff, or milkweed fluff, which probably came with its own resident vermin. It was possibly supported by ropes, or planks, so there would have been little bounce or give. If not aired and turned regularly, all such beds were, and are still, a nightmare of dampness.
The canopy that sheltered the royal bed probably doubled as a shield from vermin dropping from the ceiling. The magnificent crewel worked bed curtains gave a minimum of privacy for the sleeper while actually asleep, but their function was also to prevent drafts in rooms heated only by wood burning fireplaces or stoves (later).
Food was scarce for the vast majority of the population in France. By the time the Bastille was stormed in the 1780’s, people had been for years rioting and complaining about bread subsidies, as noted in the movie’s rare scene of statesmanlike discussion by the king.
And in spite of this suffering on the part of their countrymen, as the movie reminds us, Marie Antoinette and the nobility in general were self-indulgent and wasteful in the extreme. The scene that brings this point home is the post party clean up, when the beautifully dressed servants collect plate after plate of half-consumed fruit and cream pastries (including magnificent berries, a particularly expensive fruit to grow, even today).
She may not have said the famous quote attributed to her about substituting cake for bread, but she was certainly not helping matters with her spending and wastefulness on food, among other items.
The magnificent and decorative food that was ceremonially served to her and her husband every day was probably the least of it, but recreating a single formal dinner could take weeks, and most of the table decoration of sculptures of sugar and gum Arabic would have, after all that effort, been inedible. Marie Antoinette’s “casual”, champagne-drenched entertaining was where the really thoughtless waste probably occurred.
When people are tipsy and allowed to serve themselves, even today, they muck up the food they have helped themselves to, lose their plates, drop things, make a mess of serving platters, get distracted, and walk off, leaving behind their serving, and generally engage in a whole set of oblivious behaviors which is certainly borne out in the various party scenes in the movie.
The movie reflects pretty accurately the pitiable state of medical knowledge and practice in the 18th century, although there were certainly advances being made throughout the period.
The smallpox which carries off Louis Auguste’s grandfather would not be preventable even on an experimental basis until the 1790’s. No one, not even the critical child-bearer, Marie Antoinette, is kept away from him, or his body, because no fully articulated theory of micro-organisms existed. However, the word “germs” was, indeed, used for the first time in the 1700s .
When a physician, Dr. Lassonne, is called in to consult with the young couple about their childlessness, his efforts do not seem to involve a physical examination, or many questions a modern patient would recognize as appropriate to a check-up, but he does inquire as to the king’s breakfast (Louis Auguste reports, and this news is received with all serious attention, that he drank hot chocolate).
The responsibility of the man in achieving mutual fertility was not fully understood or accepted, as indicated by the scorn with which she is treated by her public.
The need for semen to achieve impregnation was proved in this century, but by an Italian, so perhaps the French did not accept this notion with enthusiasm. Marie Antoinette and Louis Auguste lose at least two of their children very young, which shows that even great privilege did not shield the wealthy and powerful from the infectious diseases which today would be dismissed with a 10 day course of antibiotic.
It is tempting to speculate whether the fact that she was discouraged from nursing her own children by the ladies of the Court, including the Comtesse de Noailles, could have contributed to a lack of immune robustness on the part of her children. The 18th century was a time of intense confusion over the nature of a woman’s body, and there was lively discussion by philosophes, such as Rousseau and others, of the issue of nursing, the role of the breast, whether women’s bodies were truly different from men.
There was a fundamental conflict between two trends. One intellectual trend was to keep women in the home and out of the halls of power, which would bolster the argument for mothers nursing their own babies and forgoing wet-nurses.
The other philosophical movement was aimed at imposing on women the responsibility of wives to be, and to remain fully available to their husbands to prevent their husbands from succumbing to their uncontrollable sexual desires and commit a sin such as masturbation or infideli ty.
This discussion is beyond the scope of this paper, but the apparently simple request of the Queen to nurse her own children and the apparently cut and dried response of the Mistress of the Household all conceal a mass of philosophical, social, and medical conflict and confusion, much of which still persists today.
Culture, Arts, and Design Church
We see Marie Antoinette going to church on a daily basis and finding herself variously bored, distracted, constrained, scolded, and, based on the music we hear in the background, entertained. We do not see her obviously inspired or uplifted spiritually, which may reflect the gradual movement towards secularization and laicization that Allen describes as characterizing this period.
Versailles was a self-contained community, and it had its own chapel, perhaps even the one shown in the movie, served by a resident choir, soloists, orchestra, and composer . Like every other aspect of life in Versailles, its design reinforced the implacable message of hierarchical rigidity, as well as lavish consumption.
The service was a gathering time for the royal household and all who could justify being there. As Allen quotes John McManners in a review of his book on the role of the Catholic church in 18th century France, “Since, as a social obligation, everyone went to church, the congregation brought its social hierarchy, feuds, worldly concerns, yearnings for companionship, and sense of the ridiculous into the nave when it came to worship.”
The movie does not address the simmering discontent with the church which was famously articulated by the philosophies.
Dancing and Balls
At the start of the film, we see the newlywed couple dancing what is likely to have been a minuet at their own wedding ball. This very complex and formal dance is described by Fader as “a dance better suited to bals par;és since it was typically danced by one, or sometimes two, couples using an elaborate Z-figured floor pattern.” The bals pares were dances given by the king for the nobility exclusively.
They were gradually supplanted by less formal social forms, both in terms of the event itself, and the sort of dancing involved. Later in the movie, we see the Dauphine escaping Versailles, in one of the few off-campus transgressions portrayed, to attend just such a ball. These events were clearly a way for all those in the privileged classes, who could afford a ticket, to mingle.
We see her and her friends discuss the need or lack thereof for a written invitation, but both she and her husband attend en masque, without announcement. She flirts with Fersen, then a young foreign military officer, whom she would not normally have had occasion to meet.
There is the possibility that such events were staged as a deliberate distraction from disturbing current issues  (a more elegant and higher class version of “bread and circuses”, perhaps) (Juvenal 2010). At a bal masque, there was the opportunity for pseudo sexual pursuit that she and Count Fersen undertook, concealed anonymously, at least in theory, behind the scraps of fabric that acted as masks. (Fader 2005, 383)
Marie Antoinette expresses a wish to see the opera in Paris, but mainly hears opera at the court theatre, where she inaugurates the custom of applauding at court performances. This custom is used later in the movie as a symbol of her changing status. When she falls out of favor, the nobles refuse to clap with her.
The use of women in opera was fairly new, and Marie Antoinette’s own participation in her own staging of a performance would have been quite shocking. The taint of impropriety lingered around all activities in the theatre until very recently, and well-bred young ladies were not encouraged to go on stage even in living memory. Her imposition of her uncertain talents, or lack thereof, on a captive audience of courtiers was, at the least, ostentatiously self-indulgent.
We see Marie Antoinette with her friends, reading the work of Jean Jacques Rousseau,. The movie seems to make a connection both between the Queen’s new status as a mother, and her readings of Rousseau, and the gift to her by her husband of the little model farm; Trianon. Rousseau is popularly associated with the idea that man is healthiest and most moral when closest to nature, although this notion is often misinterpreted .
His ideas still have an impact on education, art, and philosophy today. This bucolic scene of read-aloud reminds us that women, often in the role of hostesses of intellectual salons, were the supporters and promoters of many new ideas, but in a way that could be reconciled with their limited societal roles.
Versailles was the epitome of the decorative excess of the 1700’s, as is clear from the lavish rooms used in the movie. Every surface is ornamented. The furniture is variously decorated and shaped with motifs from nature (leaves, flowers, vines) or classical art (heroic figures, columns, pedestals). Ms. Dunst lolls very unrealistically in a small delicate chair, a posture which would be a physical impossibility if she were dressed in the stays and corset of the time. Later, she collapses after an all-night party onto a half-chair, half-sofa.
This piece looks as though it was an example of the style popularized by Madame De Recamier, a worldly hostess. The advantage of this design is not obvious to the viewer, based on Ms. Dunst’s position in sleep (movie actress sleep, of course). Her hairdo is not any better supported than it would have been in a regular bed, or so it appears.
In looking at all the furniture, it becomes apparent that one of the reasons to build a personal play-farm at Trianon could have been the desire for comfort. Marie Antoinette had to have been delighted to have access to a place where she was able to wander around without stays sticking into her ribs, and where she could sit in or on comfortable furniture (although we see less of the furnishings of Trianon). As a bonus, she was still being waited on and rowed about on the pond by a liveried servant, as we see in a lovely scene.
The wall treatments are very light in color, probably because this would reflect a lot of natural light in rooms lit otherwise only by candles. The magnificent hall of mirrors is probably decorated that way for the same reason. The potential amount of mercury in those mirrors is terrifying. (The number of tapers burnt for one dinner probably equaled the yearly candle budgets for many households.)
Rooms are generously sized, perhaps because they had to hold many courtiers at once to wait on the king or queen (or for dancing). Most of the doors are double, which would be necessary to accommodate the extravagantly wide skirts. The same is true of staircases visible in the movie, which are all designed to allow for grand entrances.
Architecture and Gardens
The overarching theme of the buildings’ exteriors is symmetry and balance, with everything at precise angles, including the gardens. The fountains must have been a wonder of innovative engineering, considering that there was no indoor plumbing.
Nature in the palace gardens was completely controlled in every way possible; planted, clipped, raked, graveled, punctuated at regular intervals by classically inspired statuary or urns. This ideal expressed at Versailles was in complete contrast to theories of garden design which developed later, which emphasized an apparent congruence with untamed nature. It was also clearly not yet influenced by the faux nature reproduced in Chinese garden designs .
There is very little mention of politics in the movie. We are reminded that France spent ruinously on trying to not let England win at anything, even against the Anglophone colonies.
This support was given in spite of Louis Auguste’s misgivings about supporting an anti-monarchical movement – a view which seems prescient in retrospect, since the American colonies’ revolution was inspiring to the French populace ten years later. France’s help was vital in helping the American colonies obtain and maintain their independence, but it was way too much money for the French treasury to handle, in combination with domestic expenses.
We are reminded that the people of France were suffering, through references to bread subsidies. However, the bloody threat of it is not brought in to the picture until the very end. The attempt to flee, the farewell to Versailles, and the final scene of shocking vandalism are the only hint that the viewer receives of the violent end to Marie Antoinette’s life and that of the whole royal family.
Conclusion This movie focuses on the emotional surface, and the decorative surfaces of Marie Antoinette’s life, at the end, as it does all the way through. However, since so much of what was irritating to the revolutionaries was, indeed, the visible surface of her life, this may be a legitimate perspective. This overwhelming revulsion against the decorative is expressed in the movie by the closing shot of her bedroom, wrecked and ruined.
Even given its clear bias towards showing Marie Antoinette as a lonely, sex-starved young woman who was substituting clothes and food for what she really wanted (competent marital relations and affection), this movie has something to say about the era, if only by omission in some areas. The prevailing social order was reinforced by every product used and every action taken by the royal family, and this characteristic of the era is communicated clearly in the movie.
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Fader, Don. “Review (The Bals publics at the Paris Opera in the Eighteenth Century, by Richard Semmens, Pendragon Press, Hillsdale, NY, 2004).” Notes 62, no. 2 (2005): 380-382.
Fashion in the Late 1700s: Fashion and Clothing Reflecting Political and Cultural Change. 2008. Web.
Fraser, Antonia, and Sofia Coppola. Marie Antoinette. Film. Directed by Sofia Coppola. Produced by Sofia Coppola, Ross Katz and Francis Ford Coppola. Performed by Kirsten Dunst and Jason Schwartz. Columbia Pictures., 2006.
Gaskell, Ivan. “Costume, Period Rooms, and Donors: Dangerous Liaisons in the Art Museum.” The Antioch Review 62 no4 615-23 Fall 2004. Fall 2004. Web.
Hillwood Museum and Gardens. Summer’s Focus: The Luxury Arts of 18th-century France Overview. 2010. Web.
“Jean Jacques Rousseau.” The International Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2010. Web.
Juvenal, D. J. “Satires 10.77–81 (circa 100 C.E.).” The Latin Library. 2010. Web.
Kreis, Steven. Écrasez l’infâme!:The Triumph of Science and the Heavenly City of the 18th Century Philosophe. 2000. Web.
Lastinger, V. “Re-defining motherhood: breast-feeding and the French enlightenment.” General One File. Gale Group. 1996. Web.
Lowell, Lauren. Georgian/Roccoco Overview: Undergarments, 18th Century. 2008. Web.
Maginnis, Tara. “18th Century Women’s Hair and Wigs.” The Costumer’s Manifesto. 1996-2008. Web.
Montesquieu, Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de. “The Spirit of Laws, Book 7:Consequences of the Different Principles of the Three Governments with Respect to Sumptuary Laws, Luxury, and the Condition of Women, section 4.” Constitution.org. 2010. Web.
Sawkins, Lionel. “The Sun King at Worship; a book review of Alexandre Maral, La chapelle royale de Versailles sous Louis XIV: cérémonial, liturgie et musique (Sprimont, Belgium: Mardaga, 2002).” Early Music 33, no. 1 (Fall 2005): 119-121.
Footnotes Antonia Fraser and Sofia Coppola, “Marie Antoinette”, 2006, Columbia Pictures, starring Kirsten Dunst, and Jason Schwartz. The location credits list these as well as other actual sites (Fraser and Coppola 2006)
It is worth noting that the Marie Antoinette’s magnificent linen shift that Dunst is garbed in was the equivalent to the basic garment worn next to the skin by most folk over a period of several centuries, but most of the population would not have changed it more than a few times a season, whereas we led to believe by the movie that Marie Antoinette was given fresh linen daily, and then some more for wearing while bathing. This level of luxury would likely have been beyond the reach of all but a fraction of the country’s residents, given that bathing was famously not even a common daily activity anywhere in Europe until very recently, and a visit to the deodorant section of a European store suggests that the custom still is not universal.
Lionel Sawkins, “The Sun King at Worship,” Early Music 33, No.1 (Fall, 2005):119-121. The royal couple dine while being serenaded by undoubtedly original music which no doubt entered the nation’s musical canon once having been performed for the royal household, if the pattern was the same as for religious music as suggested by Sawkins. (Sawkins 2005, 119)
“Summer’s Focus: The Luxury Arts of 18th-century France Overview,” Hillwood Museum and Gardens. This webpage for Hillwood Museum offers a well-written, brief essay on 18th century decorative arts and their cultural context, including the prevailing view that consumption by the nobility was a civic good, and a link to a wonderful video clip about an exhibit on table service. (Hillwood Museum and Gardens 2010)
Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, “The Spirit of Laws, Book 7:Consequences of the Different Principles of the Three Governments with Respect to Sumptuary Laws, Luxury, and the Condition of Women, section 4,”. Montesquieu was a noted philosophe and social critic, although in this case, his epigrammatic statement seemed to support the current hierarchical system. (Montesquieu 2010)
Christine Adams,”A choice not to wed? Unmarried women in eighteenth-century France,” Journal of Social History 29, (1996): 883-894. Highlighting an apparently unusual example of the alternative path, Adams reviews the well documented circumstances of a specific pair of sisters in a French urban professional family who chose to remain single and manage their parents’, and later, their brother’s household for the good of their family’s finances and for their own independence (Adams 1996)
Marie Antoinette.” Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd ed. 17 Vols. Gale Research, 1998.Reproduced on the Web in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale. This article asserts that any her influence and involvement in politics or public policy have been over-stated (Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd ed. 17 Vols. Gale Research, 1998. 1998)
This walk-by reminds the viewer of the paparazzi clinging around a celebrity, or the press corps waiting for a word from a government leader.
It is shocking to take note of the king’s cause of death (smallpox), the speed of its action (the length of a brief trip to Paris), and the complete lack of protection of the rest of the court personnel from infection in this pre-germ theory era (they all stand or kneel around his bed barefaced).
“Coronation of the British monarch,” Search.com. This highlights another example of how royal clothes signal identity. The British coronation ceremony includes an anointing in which the monarch changes into an absolutely unornamented linen shift, after which the elaborate robes which signal the new role as king or queen are put on. (Coronation of the British monarch 2010).
Lauren Lowell, “Georgian/Roccoco Overview: Undergarments, 18th Century,”. This Illinois State University webpage, clearly explains this and other 18th century foundation garments with text and pictures. The stiffened construction of corsets with stays and laces, and the hooped panniers are particularly striking (Lowell 2008).
“Coudes, panniers á,” Marquise de. Wearing a costume of this era seems less uncomfortable than it would appear, because either the panniers or frame of hoops holds the heavy petticoats and skirts up, and allow for air movement around the legs. The pannier a coudes, or basket for the elbows, in use in the time of Marie Antoinette, is described as follows: “A kind of pannier of (oval) dome shape, high enough at the sides that the wearer could rest her elbows on it (Maybe not literally, but at least figuratively)…introduced around 1730, had its high time in the 1740s and stuck around for highly formal wear until the 1770s. Some sources describe the pannier à coudes as having pads on top of the sides to raise them even higher than the hoops alone would.” (Coudes, Panniers a 2010)
“Fashion in the Late 1700s: Fashion and Clothing Reflecting Political and Social Change,”. This article specifies, “At the end of the 18th century…in the reforming political climate of Europe, … fashion trends…would mirror the greater ideological changes of the century. In France, the disappearance of the court at Versailles suppressed extravagant fashion,…replaced by the Republic’s simplification in style: mens fashions looked to the proletarian class somewhat and women’s fashions sought the appeal of a Classical, Antiquity-inspired, aesthetic.” (Fashion in the Late 1700s: Fashion and Clothing Reflecting Political and Cultural Change 2008)
(Coudes, Panniers a 2010)
Ivan Gaskell, Costume, “Period Rooms, and Donors: Dangerous Liaisons in the Art Museum,” The Antioch Review 64, No. 4 (2004): 615. Gaskell’s review of the 2004 Metropolitan Museum of Art exhibit contains wonderful descriptions of clothing and furnishings such as, “…the Voluptuary, whose robe à la francaise of hand-painted green-and-white woven striped silk taffeta was already open to reveal her cream silk stays as she reclined upon a carved, painted, and gilded sultane by Jean-Baptiste-Claude Sené in a room from the Hôtel de Crillon, Paris…” (Gaskell 2004, 617)
Tara Maginnis, ‘18th Century Women’s Hair and Wigs,” The Costumer’s Manifesto, 1996-2008. Ms. Maginnis says, “Hairstyles continued to rise steadily until 1778 when high fashion was achieved by as much as three feet of hair above the head surmounted by an elaborate headdress, of fabric, feathers, flowers and pearls. Naval and land battles were commemorated on these huge creations which offered such scope to the millinery artists of the time.” (Maginnis 1996-2008)
Ivan Day, “An !8th Century Princely Table,” HIllwood Museum. The staff of this institution took weeks to create a dessert table, not even a whole meal, with a faithful recreation of a garden scene created from sugar and gum Arabic (Day 2010).
“Eighteenth Century Medicine,” Humboldt University. This article confirms that although there was much Enlightenment experimentation, almost always on human subjects who had nothing like today’s informed consent, there was not much beyond bloodletting and prayer to treat or prevent diseases like smallpox. (Eighteenth Century Medicine 2010)
“Childbirth in the 18th Century,” Humboldt University. This article documents the lengths to which couples would go to conceive. They were as extreme, and as pitiful as they are today, although with less science underpinning them. A quack named Graham used ambient electricity to encourage fertility, along with music, and mottoes (Childbirth in the 18th Century 2010).
(Eighteenth Century Medicine 2010) Lazzaro Spallanzani discovered the need for semen for fertilization in 1779.
Valerie Lastinger, “Re-defining motherhood: breast-feeding and the French enlightenment,” Women’s Studies 25, No. 6 (1996): 603-618. This issue is discussed in fascinating detail in this much cited article by Lastinger (Lastinger 1996, passim)
The problem that Marie Antoinette must have encountered, of a period of intense discomfort while the milk “dried up”, is not addressed by the movie at all.
John Allen, “Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France,” The Historian 68, No. 3 (2001):683, and passim. Allen makes this clear throughout his concise review of John McManners’ 2 volume work on religious life in this era. (Allen 2001, 682-684)
“The Sun King at Worship,” Early Music 33, No. 1, (Fall, 2005): 119. In his book review, Sawkins cites the French language work of Alexandre Maral on the variety musical compositions that enriched, and apparently, made bearable, the religious life of the 17th century court (Sawkins 2005, 119-121)
Ibid., 119 In the time of Louis XVI, according to Sawkins’ review of Maral’s book on the music of the 18th century court, the king and queen would have actually sat in an elevated area (reflecting their closeness to the divine) facing the choir and accompanists, who were also apparently on an elevated area behind the altar, with little chance of hearing the celebrant’s liturgy at all down in the groundling section where the rest of the household sat. Since the reign of Louis XIV, the royal chapel had been the scene of a daily low mass, but with at least three separate and usually original, specially commissioned pieces of music for soloist, chorus and orchestra to accompany the service, the last of which was likely to be a rendition of the Psalm verse “God save the King”. (Sawkins 2005, 119)
(Allen 2001, 683)
Jeffrey D. Burson, “The Crystallization of Counter-Enlightenment and Philosophe Identities: Theological Controversy and Catholic Enlightenment in Pre-Revolutionary France,” Church History 77, No. 4 (December, 2008):955-1002. Burson argues “that the fundamentally secular, self-conscious Enlightenment identity was calcified (if not precisely created) by its opposition within the Catholic Church in France,…”. (Burson 2008, 956)
Don Fader, “Book Review (of The Bals publics at the Paris Opera in the Eighteenth Century, by Richard Semmens, Pendragon Press, Hillsdale, NY, 2004),” Notes 68, No. 2. The book seems rather specialized but the review gives a good deal of information on public and private dances in the 18th century, including a description of the minuet (Fader 2005, 381).
(Fader 2005, 382)
(Fader 2005, 381)
D.J.Juvenal “Satires 10.77–81 (circa 100 C.E.)” The Latin Library. Juvenal’s epigram referred to the lowest classes, whereas the Bals Publics were for the nobility or near-nobility (Juvenal 2010).
(Fader 2005, 382) Contredanse, which is the dance form that the actors were attempting to portray, became the new norm, allowing more guests to participate, and requiring less in the way of choreography to do well.
(Fader 2005, 381)
“Jean Jacques Rousseau,” The International Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The brief biographical sketch confirms that Rousseau was an influential philosophe with strong opinions on education, work, and the way life should be lived. (Jean Jacques Rousseau 2010)
Steven Kreis, “Écrasez l’infâme!: The Triumph of Science and the Heavenly City of the 18th Century Philosophe,“. Kreis debunks the pop-philosophy over-simplification attributed to Rousseau (Kreis 2000)
William Chambers, “Designs of Chinese Buildings, Furniture, Dresses, Machines, and Utensils” in A Documentary History of Art: Michelangelo, the Mannerists, the Baroque, and the Eighteenth Century, edited by Elizabeth Gilmore Holt (Garden City, NJ, Doubleday and Company, 1958), 302. Chambers was an 18th century essayist and garden designer, responsible for portions of Kew Gardens. Despite his ethnocentricism, he nonetheless accurately identifies and documents the way that Chinese courtly gardens reproduced the unexpected and dramatic in nature (Chambers 1958, 302).
What Causes Poverty in the World Report (Assessment) custom essay help: custom essay help
This essay discusses the causes of poverty in the world. Poverty and related social inequality are as old as human history. Over the years, people have postulated many causes of poverty and social inequality. The many causes of poverty not withstanding, many definitions of the phenomena have been established. Whichever the definition, poverty is associated with want, lack of or deprivation of necessities in life. According to World Bank, people are individuals who survive on less than a dollar per day.
Despite the fact that living below a dollar, especially in urban areas, is an indicator of being poor, this definition does not apply in given contexts. For people living in some rural areas, the value of what they use as per their market pricing is lower than a dollar. However, considering the quality of life they live, they are better off than many others who live on more than ten dollars a day in the big cities of the world. Therefore, poverty is a complex concept and highly relative in its application or misapplication.
Poverty Rates in the World The world of today has the many people living in better socio-economic conditions than a century ago. However, the divide between the rich has widened over the years with the poor in the world forming an overwhelming majority. Statistics indicate that Africa carries the bulk of the poor in the world.
However, even in highly developing nations like India and China, given regions are notably highly impoverished. The impoverished regions of the world are characterized by dilapidated housing, lack of access to education, health care, frequent famines and other humanitarian disasters and catastrophes.
Due to poor infrastructure, response to problems is not efficient and effective enough thus resultant high impacts of disasters that would otherwise be averted. To understand this point better, one has to consider how a natural disaster like a tsunami of say Katrina’s magnitude would affect a third world country. The effects would be high due to poor response unlike what actually happened in the USA.
Overpopulation and World Poverty One of the major factors that have contributed to poverty in given areas of the world is overpopulation (Jones 137). The condition of having many people with fewer available resources combined with little space inevitably results in poverty. Uncontrolled birth rates, in places like Africa, have resulted in a general population boom.
The population upsurge has continually exerted pressure on available resources in the world. The available resource in given countries can only support a given number of people (McCarthy 42). One of the critical resources that support mankind is farming. A majority of people around the world depend on farming or general agriculture for sustenance. Population upsurge and resultant splitting of land into smaller pieces has led to less food production.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Culture and World Poverty Culture is one of the reasons why people remain glued to practices that perpetuate poverty. For example, in some developing countries the more children one has the higher he or she is regarded in society. Cultural practices in traditional rural communities usually sanction the ability of large members of the family (Baker 154).
The governments of most third world countries give little or no attention to family planning because it goes against the cultural assumptions of the people. People anticipating to have smaller families experience difficulty in realizing this as others consider them weird (Rohr 105). Surging population rates point to even higher poverty rates in developing countries (Rohr 149).
Global Distribution of Resources: Historical Injustices and Poverty in Nations Some thinkers have attributed poverty in some parts of the world to unequal distribution of resources. The legacy of colonialism is largely blamed for unequal resource distribution in the world economy (Baker 1).
Most of the developing countries have put more efforts to develop and strengthen their economies with technology and industries but this has been unsuccessful. The inequality in world economy due to historical events has largely hampered poverty alleviation efforts in the world (Pogge 17). Colonialists, for example, left Africa with a very weak infrastructure i.e. transport systems, power generation and communication after bludgeoning the resources of the colonies.
These happenings have derailed all aspects of moving away from poverty because the infrastructure is critical in the development of industries and expansion of the economy (Pogge 123). In recent years, wealthier countries have been accused of neocolonialism i.e. economic based dominance. This influence has enabled the wealthier countries to acquire inexpensive resources such as oil, ores and mineral from poor countries (Fields 59).
Education and Unemployment Lack of educational opportunities hampers development especially of children from rural areas (Baker 26). For the educated, lack of employment opportunities denies them an opportunity for social mobility. The rural areas in most countries of the world have high rates of illiteracy.
Illiteracy has been more severe in developing countries especially Africa south of the Sahara. Governments of poor countries have faced the inability to provide good and efficient public schools thus not marching with developments in the developing countries. Without good and sound education people fail to find a meaningful income.
We will write a custom Assessment on What Causes Poverty in the World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Most poor people, in rural areas, forego going to school to facilitate concentration on how to make a minimal living (Iceland 79). Developing countries provide minimal employment opportunities, especially for women, which dampens the youth’s morale of going to school. When people do not work, there is no money which is earned and thus this increases high unemployment rate which in turn increases the level of poverty (Gilbert 131).
Environmental Degradation Environmental degradation in many parts of the world has led to the increase of poverty in the world. The world natural resources, which support mankind and enable growth and development, are slowly getting depleted due to unsustainable usage.
The climatic conditions have been changing gradually and natural habitats have slowly but surely been severely changed (Fields 167). Water bodies, atmosphere, forests and soils have deteriorated and this is a major cause of increasing world poverty. Global environmental degradation has led to the phenomenon of global warming.
Weather conditions are no longer steady but rather erratic and unpredictable. Over use of fertilizers and other wrong use of land has highly affected crop yield. Intensive farming or land over use, for instance, has lead to soil infertility and decrease in crop production (Fields 218).
Pollution from industries such as power production, mining, automobiles, agricultural fertilizers and chemical production has adversely affected adequate food production, availability of clean water for drinking, and facilitated destruction of natural habitats especially for aquatic beings.
Deforestation has brought environmental effects especially in developing countries where some sections of the population depend entirely on forests as source of food and wood to power their activities. Their survival efforts have largely contributed to deforestation and its related effects (Fields 225). Forests absorb pollutant and offers catchment area for water. Without forests, the rain cycle is affected leading to increased famines in the world.
Inflation and Development Approaches Poverty in the world is linked to economic trends. Developed countries, such as the United States in the 1950s, experienced high income growth (Dudley 167). Most families doubled their income within this period. However, in 1970s and early 1990s, inflation grew steadily hence raising the cost of living.
The economic recession of the 1980s adversely affected families; the young and less educated people could not get well paying jobs to support themselves. The change of labor market in most developed countries has also further aggravated the situation of poverty in the world today (Dudley 215).
Not sure if you can write a paper on What Causes Poverty in the World by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The number of well paying jobs in the manufacturing industries has declined whereas in the service and technology industries, workers have significantly increased. Most people who cannot afford college education experiences hardship in securing a well paying work hence they are locked out of social mobility.
Moreover, in most wealthy countries, many people living in poverty have increased because of the rising inequality in the way resources are distributed. For instance in the United States, 20% of the poor have got smaller percentage of the total national income whereas the wealthy have increasingly earned much higher national income of 45%.
During this period, the middle and bottom income distribution has been progressively worse as the cost of living has gone up (Kendall 67). Demographic shifts have contributed to poverty especially among the children. In the US for example, family structures have been altered significantly increasing single parenting. This has increased poverty in the world (Kendall 73).
Conclusion Poverty levels have been soaring around the world despite improved economic fortunes for a minority. The major causes of world poverty are improper policies and development approaches or plans undertaken in different nations. Economic imbalance or inequalities resulting from historical injustices also maintain a world order that does not sustain all. To alleviate world poverty, issues like overpopulation, environmental degradation among other factors have to be looked into more closely.
Works Cited Baker, Judy, L. Poverty Reduction and Human Development in the Caribbean: a cross- country study, Parts 63-366. Washington: World Bank Publication.1997
Fields, Gary, S. Poverty, Inequality, and Development. Florida: CUP Archive. 1980
Gilbert, Geoffrey. World poverty: a Reference handbook, Contemporary world issues. California: ABC-CLIO. 2004
Iceland, John. Poverty in America: a handbook. California: University of California Press. 2006
Jones, Philip, W. Education, Poverty and the World Bank. New Jersey: Sense Publishers. 2006
Kendall, Diana. Sociology in Our Times. Connecticut: Cengage Learning, 2007
McCarthy, Callaghan. The Causes of Poverty. East Yorkshire: P. S. King
LECO Company Strategic Vision Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Customer value
Customer value Distinguishing marks of successful business enterprises calls upon managers to identify and incorporate the four components identified by (Potter 332) as strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (Porter 332). These four components were the key concepts upon which LECO based its core competencies in terms of customer value, demographics, and unique implementation.
The entrepreneurial spirit that characterized LECO’s executives proved a success in the face of the bold, entrepreneurial, risk taking, managers. According to Afuah (120) this, in addition to other strategic management and marketing skills gained the company a strategic position.
Customer value distinguished the company amid a competitive business environment invested with tough competition from interested business organizations. Inclusive of the unique products introduced in the market were the 7-inch plastic extraterrestrial figures in addition to other products such as LECO mind storms; a product developed after many years of research in one of the prestigious universities renown for technological inventions MIT (Porter 334).
In addition (Porter 333) highlights the strategic value components the company integrated for maintaining and attracting a large market share. Afuah (200) sees the most important characterizing elements in the company’s vision as product characteristics with unisex outlook for all ages with the opportunity for all year round use and maintaining quality in its products (Porter 333).
Demographics Core competence components included the organization’s ability to integrate demographics as a strategy. The risk taking managers tailored the company’s products and introduced a variety of them in the market specifically targeting children of different age groups by tailoring these products according to their needs. This fact is clearly identified in (Porter 333) of the case study.
The products ranged from T-shirts, puzzles, comic books, uniquely differentiated and strategically tailored for the purpose of attracting customers’ attention and maintaining the customers with a variety of product offerings. (Porter 333) identifies LECO’s strategic vision, to “Nurture the child in each of us”.
These characteristics in children impressed the business executives to creatively tailor some products famously known after the name “LECO system of play” (Porter 333) for children. The clever business managers were able to reach adults and persuasively convince them of the inherent value of their products.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another business strategy was the significant demographic component and ability to identify and create products for children in the range of 5 years to 12 years (Porter 335). This unique component made business executive Counted Company profits in a satisfying endeavor by raking in huge returns in the form of profits (Porter 336). As the organization enjoyed rising profits and a bigger market share, another unique business component unfolded. This was the implementation strategy.
Implementation This entrepreneurial component was the implementation strategy incorporated in the pursuit of the organization’s goals and objectives (Porter 335). The case study indicates that the company partnered with a variety of other market leads to remain strong and competitively assertively.
These strategic partners included, electronic arts, the world’s leading interactive entertainment industry, Universal music for creating music for CD’s, Upper Deck, Nintendo, DC comics, and Walt Disney. These market players formed a strategic alliance that saw the business organization establish a market lead in the industry. Profit retention distinguished the organization’s ability by minimizing on expenditure.
Financial growth and economic boom were experienced during the turbulent times as when America was at war.
Bold decisions entrepreneurial spirit characterized the organization’s business managers identified in its risk taking business adventures (Porter 333).
Works Cited Afuah, A. Business Models: A strategic Management Approach. University of Michigan ® McGraw-Hill Irwin Boston Burr Ridge, 2003.
Porter, Michael. E. Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. 1st ed. Free Press, 1998.
We will write a custom Essay on LECO Company Strategic Vision specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Business Model Essay best essay help: best essay help
Table of Contents Pricing
Pricing The Pricing component is a marketing strategy that organizations put to their advantage in a competitive business environment (Afuah 200). The case study identifies a market invested with rivals such as Vodafone and new entrants offering the same mobile products and services. DoCoMo had identified the pricing component and inherently priced its products tailored at capturing a large market share resulting in the business organization gaining a strategic position in the market.
This strategic component is uniquely identified in the pricing mechanisms adapted by the organization in the Japanese market. With attractive monthly access charges of 300 yen (US $ 2.48) in addition to the varying access fees ranging from 0.3 yen for a data packet of 128 bytes to 60 yen for funds transfer, loyalty to the company’s products had been created.
Strategically tailored fee ranging from 100 yen (US $ 0.83) to 300 yen (US $2.48) was evident form the above case study (Porter 346). This unique pricing mechanism brought the company to a strategic level ahead of its competitors. New entrants found slim chances of survival in the competitive environment.
With tailor made prices blended with competitive knowledge on target market needs, the business executives saw the company rake in profits. This helped it sustain marketing activities leading to higher revenue generations, a larger market share, and improved market strength. That characterized KPN mobile and its subsidiary companies. Product differentiation and unique pricing mechanisms integrated in the Japanese market saw increased usage and bigger profit margins. The marketing strategy had worked well for DoCoMo.
A strategic market position characterized KPN, NTT DoCoMo, in addition to other subsidiaries. Pricing, value addition and product differentiation were unique marketing elements which strategically placed the mobile company in a leadership position in the market.
Customer Value Customers determine a business organization’s market share, profitability, product and service image, acceptability, and customer buying behavio.This is applicable in a market strewn with competitors who know well what they want. The competitors wage business wars to gain higher profits, a bigger market share and leadership position. DoCoMo and its subsidiary companies had conducted research in the target market quite well.
This unique undertaking can be clearly illustrated in the way DoCoMo had designed mobile sets with different features. The prices offered were very attractive and were tailored for different markets (Porter 6). These in addition to other devised mechanisms propelled the company to success. Features integrated in the mobile phones included larger screens for the i-mode with target markets including Germany and the Netherlands.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, good quality display characteristics, improved service capabilities were features found in the i-mode technology. Other mobile set incorporated features such the capacity to send and receive 1000 emails with a 160 character capacity. This is clearly illustrated in the case study According to the case study on (Porter 350) with entertainment features particularly for the Japanese market incorporated.
Product Differentiation The need to differentiate KPN’s products and services to suit identified target market steered the company to success. This was illustrated in the company’s ability to tailor products as competitive substitutes. In addition they could substitute services offered by other companies such as Vodafone.
The company’s 3G mobiles were competitively ahead of FOMA’s 2GHT bandwidth capacity offered by competitors (Porter 350). According to the article on Porte (350), the company placed emphasis on its strengths identifying its market position with strength and profitability.
The supply chain was identified with capable and reliable marketers and suppliers. Subsidiaries companies were important components. They were integrated, making the company see succees in a wider market share for its differentiated products. Substitutes such as different versions of web browsers for mobile phones, hybrid technologies such as WAP and e-HTML, and a range of others were also integrated.
Works Cited Afuah, A. Business Models: A strategic Management Approach. University of Michigan ® McGraw-Hill Irwin Boston Burr Ridge, 2003.
Porter, Michael. E. Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. 1st ed. Free Press, 1998.
Improving Store Cleanliness and Housekeeping Problem Solution Essay essay help free: essay help free
EatNGas is an organization on the verge of collapse. Urgent is the need to identify de-motivating factors by identifying employee activities and carrying out performance improvement initiatives based on motivation (Cashier Responsibilities: Duties of a Cashier, 2000). Organizational establishments flourish on success when the human resources within such settings embrace quality improvement issues.
In addition to the tasks and sub tasks carried out by cashiers of receiving payments, maintaining clean and orderly checkout areas among others call upon pragmatic leadership to make things better. Maintaining and improving store cleanliness and housekeeping is one of the incentive plans in such a business setting. This included participatory motivation.
Motivation is fundamental component in retaining employees in the work place besides improving on productivity and employee efficiency in achieving organizational goals and objectives. Motivation can be induced but in essence rests on an individual’s drive to achieve organizational goals and objectives.
According to the case study, of fundamental importance is the inspiration from the organization’s management to bring about a new perspective in employee thinking, a key component for the organization. Even if employees are rained with incentives such as money, the organization may not realize any benefits if their thinking style is consumed in poor perspectives of the organization.
Therefore, deducing from the case study, the business executives have to motivate the employees based on various motivation theories. According to shah and shah (2000), the organization faces an urgent need to incorporate achievement motivation.
Once a cleaner has done excellent work by paying attention to detail in carrying out tasks and sub tasks, motivation will reinvigorate work values in a non competitive environment ultimately leading to embracing moral values in the job environment. In addition, motivated employees feel supported by the management in place. This has the impact of making employees work harder in pursuing organization’s goals and objectives. Other motivational component to incorporate is affiliation motivation.
This will instill the need for employees to associate with others in the work place. According to Shah and Shah (2000), competence motivation makes employees performances improve in addition to power motivation that instills the need for other employees to influence others in performance improvement in the work place. Employee attitude determined work force productivity in the process of a cashier handling customers in the workplace and maintaining a clean environment (Shah
Realism, Naturalism, and Modernism Period Critical Essay college essay help online
Realism, Naturism and Modernism period is one of the most fascinating elements of African American literature. Many of the writers of this period emphasize the harshness of African American life in their work. These writers are simply unapologetic in the way they view life.
Writers of this period held that these three terms had outstanding differences. “Realism is a window by which to view the lives of ordinary people; naturalism examines the most raw and real variables of a culture while modernism is a contemporary form that allows artists to experiment with new styles” (Hakutani 5). Harlem Renaissance preceded the entry of these writers in literature scene, which happened between 1940 and 1960.
Important writers of this era include Melvin Tolson, Ann Perry, Ralph Ellison, Gwendolyn Brooks, and Richard Wright among others. However, Richard Wright is the most important figure of this period; actually, the other writers were said to have attended “Wright School.”
There are different reasons why these writers were said to have attended “Wright School.” Firstly, Richard Wright came before any other writer of this period; he lived between 1908 and 1960. The other writers emulated Wright and bought his theories. Wright never accepted most of the writings from Harlem Renaissance; therefore, he became a big critic of these writings.
The other writers that came after Wright held his believes and became critics of Harlem Renaissance writings. This is the reason they were said to have attended “Wright School.” Moreover, Wright concerned himself with exposing the challenges that were facing black Americans in urban areas; something that the writers that came after him exposed and analyzed further.
The description given to the writers of this age is accurate. For instance, Ralph Ellison, in his book Invisible Man, talks of challenges that blacks were facing. The only difference between Ralph’s work and that of Wright is that, “Ralph’s characters were articulate, educated, and self-aware” (Hakutani 9).
Change of characters does not change theme; therefore, Ralph emulated Wright. Gwendolyn Brook also touched on the challenges facing blacks through her poems. Her main agenda was to call blacks into social and economic awareness, something that was conspicuously missing during Harlem Renaissance. Maud Martha; one of Brooks’ outstanding poems is about life of a young black woman from her birth to marriage exposing the challenges that she went through.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other writers like James Baldwin, “Spoke of pain and suffering of black Americans and saving power of brotherhood” (Hakutani 11). Baldwin’s writings were inspired by personal experiences that he went through under a strict father and a discriminating society. Finally, Lorraine Hansberry, “Explored African roots of African-American experiences especially the segregation issue her family dealt with in Chicago” (Hakutani 11).
Taking a close look at the literature works of these writers, it is evident that they were unapologetic about their standpoint. They wanted the world to know the sufferings of blacks in America during those times. However, Wright was the ‘father’ of them all for he was the first to write about blacks and criticize Harlem Renaissance writings.
Therefore, it is appropriate to say that writers of Realism, Naturism, and Modernism period attended “Wright School.” These writers matured under the intimidation of Harlem Renaissance; having been provoked by the same, the entry of realism, naturism, and modernism period offered them an opportunity to express their thoughts and feelings unapologetically and harshly.
Works Cited Hakutani, Yoshinobu. “Richard Wright: Critical Perspectives Past and Present.” African American Review. Kent University, 1995.
An Evaluation of Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development and how it could be applied to Grade School Essay essay help online: essay help online
Summary of Theory of Moral Development The topic of moral development is of fundamental importance in the fields of psychology and education. American psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg adapted and expanded upon the seminal works of Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget to formulate a stage theory of moral development that was more comprehensive than the latter’s initial suggestions (Crain, 2004).
Kohlberg’s theory of moral thinking is viewed as more inclusive and comprehensive in that it makes mention of six stages of moral development, which are firmly grounded on three different levels of growth. In contrast, Piaget’s theory only makes reference to two processes of moral development. It is the purpose of this essay to summarize Kohlberg’s theory, and thereafter analyze how the theory can be applied to grade a school.
Kohlberg used a sequence of dilemmas such as ‘Heinz steals the drug’ analogy to evaluate the moral reasoning capabilities of children aged between 10 and 16 years.
The explanations received from the subjects assisted the psychologist to develop his theory, which holds that moral reasoning, the foundation for moral behavior, has six exclusive developmental phases, each more comprehensive at answering to ethical dilemmas than its precursor (Crain, 2004).
Expounding further upon the earlier works of Piaget, Kohlberg established that the progression of moral development was fundamentally concerned with justice, not to mention that this process continued throughout a person’s lifespan.
Under level one, also known as pre-conventional morality, Kohlberg developed two stages – obedience and punishment orientation, and individualism and exchange. In stage 1, the child is of the opinion that some powerful authorities dictate the rules to be strictly followed without question.
According to the child, breaking the rules is met by unfavorable consequences. In stage 2, the child become aware of the fact that there exist many right views relating to a particular decision and that different people shares diverse viewpoints. This demonstrates that the child has developed some sense of right behavior, otherwise known as the concept of fair exchange (Craig, 2004).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second level – conventional morality – consist of phase 3 and 4 of Kohlberg’s theory. In phase 3, the conventional morality phase, people believe that individuals should always leave up to the expectations as formulated by family and society, and should always have good motives and exhibit good interpersonal feelings in their behavior, devoid of unfair practices.
In stage 4, individuals strive to maintain the social order in the society as a whole. Emphasis is laid on obedience of laid down laws, respect of authority, and adequate performance of one’s core tasks in a concerted effort to maintain social order (Craig, 2004).
The third level – post-conventional morality – also consists of two stages depicted as Social contract and Universal principles. Here, individuals are more concerned, not with maintaining the community for its own sake, but with developing principles and norms that will make their lives better in the society through emphasizing basic rights for all and democratic processes (Craig, 2004).
Application of Theory to Grade School According to Kohlberg’s theory, it is clearly evident that students in both elementary and high schools functions at different levels of responsibility and discipline. As such, school administrators must never expect the students to achieve the same level of responsibility and discipline.
According to McEwan (1990), the rates of development through the levels of Kohlberg’s theory vary from student to student, but the development from one level to another is the same in spite of differences in sex, race, localities, or culture. This way, the model can be used to grade schools, especially in school discipline and educational achievement.
The personal reward orientation level in Kohlberg’s theory is particularly important in grading students. For example, a teacher may come up with a rule that stipulates how marks will be deducted for assignments received after the due date. Such a rule, according to the model, may apply differently to different students who did the same mistake of failing to turn in their assignments in time depending on the reasons and justifications given (Lawrence Kohlberg, n.d).
The theory empowers a teacher in such a scenario to justify her decisions depending on the excuses given by students, and may give full credit for a student who failed to submit his assignment on time for the reason that he was sick, while taking points off another student’s assignment for the reason that the student could not concentrate on the assignment as her boyfriend had left her. This way, fair play in grading is ensured.
We will write a custom Essay on An Evaluation of Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development and how it could be applied to Grade School specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A teacher may also utilize the social contract orientation stage, under Kohlberg’s post-conventional level, to appeal to students to exercise proper behavior and equal participation in classroom activities as this will go a long way in deciding the type of learning that will take place and the grades that the students will be able to garner (Lawrence Kohlberg, n.d.).
It gives the teacher the authority to set and implement laws and procedures in school to ensure the individual rights of all students are protected, respected, and upheld.
Such an arrangement will always have an impact on school performance as students who fail to abide by the principles of social contract orientation will always achieve low grades, while those who abide by the rule are expected to achieve good grades (McEwan, 1990). As such, Kohlberg’s theory of moral development has obvious ramifications if applied to grade schools.
Reference List Craig, W.C. (2004). Theories of Development. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Lawrence Kohlberg: Applying Kohlberg’s Model for Discipline in Schools. (n.d.). Retrieved from
McEwan, B. (1990). Judicious Discipline. Democracy and Education, Vol. 4, Issue 3, p. 37-40
Vygotsky’s Social-Historical Theory: Towards Facilitating Learning in Kindergarten-age children Research Paper cheap essay help
Summary Lev Vygotsky’s social-historical theory of human development is perhaps one of the most cited theories by educationists when it comes to issues of curricula development and formulation of new teaching approaches (Velenzuela et al, 2000).
The psychologist’s views on human development have particularly been used by educators and other theorists to alter children’s perceptions, thought-systems, expectations, and behavior. It is the object of this paper to demonstrates how Vygotsky’s theory can be used to assist kindergarten students and others with special needs to cope with the learning process
It was the perception of Vygotsky that social interactions among young children lead to not only improved levels of cognition, but also to a total transformation of the children’s thought-systems, attitudes, and behavior (Mahn, 1999).
Consequently, the theory suggests that children’s cognition, mindsets and world views are shaped by the particular social-historical environment in which they reside and by their continued interactions with adults. The most essential notion of Vygotsky’s theoretical perspective is that our minds, no matter our biological predispositions, are culturally mediated (Wertsch, 1985). This perspective insinuates that culture is the most basic determinant of individual development.
Vygotsky also presupposed that a child’s knowledge base is fundamentally expanded by exposing him or her to a multiplicity of cultures and social environments. The developmental progression of children, according to the psychologist, is entirely dependent upon the adults as well as the cultural tools granted to them within the wider social context (Velenzuela et al, 2000).
Vygotsky came up with three approaches through which learning can take place, namely imitative learning, instructed learning, and collaborative learning (Wertsch, 1985).
To briefly describe the processes, imitative learning takes place when the young child attempt to copy or imitate others, while instructed learning happens when a child develops the capacity to recall instructions or directions as given by the instructor and thereafter putting them into practice.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Finally, collaborative learning occurs when an assemblage of individuals join forces in the process of learning so as to understand each other in depth or accomplish a particular set objective (Velenzuela, 2000).
Vygotsky hatched the concept of zone of proximal development (ZPD) to demonstrate the difference between a person’s level to independently solve problems and his or he ability to solve critical issues under the direction of adults or other competent peers, otherwise called the actual and potential levels of development (Wertsch, 1985).
Application This theory is increasingly being used by educators in the school context to help kindergarten-age children and others with special needs to cope with requirements of the education system. The theory insinuates that children have the capacity to learn through social interaction.
In this perspective, curricula and teaching strategies for kindergarten-age children and others with special needs should be explicitly designed to accentuate the interaction between the children on one hand and the learning tasks on the other (Valenzuela et al, 2000). When the theory is utilized, the kindergarten children are most likely to derive meaning of the whole learning process by the virtue of active participation in the actual social-cultural context.
Vygotsky theory of human development is more receptive to the learning requirements of children with special needs since it presupposes that notions are socially mediated, and can only subsist in collectives rather than in persons. As such, the learning process is centered on the socio-cultural, institutional, and historical facets rather than emphasizing individual cognitive capacities (Wertsch, 1985).
With suitable assistance from the educator such as the employment of the scaffolding technique, kindergarten children can effectively complete learning tasks that could not have been accomplished if the children were on their own (Edwards, 2005). The scaffolding technique obliges educators to continually adjust their level of assistance in response to the student’s level of understanding.
In other words, educators must have the capacity to control the learning environment to make it possible for the children to learn through a step by step process. Studies have revealed that the technique not only lessens the frustrations levels evident in children within this age-category, but it also widens their knowledgebase and inculcate the skills necessary for self-regulating problem solving in the future (Valenzuela et al, 2000).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Vygotsky’s Social-Historical Theory: Towards Facilitating Learning in Kindergarten-age children specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The concept of ZPD can also be used by educators to uplift the learning capabilities of kindergarten-age children and others in need of special attention. Indeed, the assessment criteria used by educators to grade the children must aptly consider what the young learners are able to achieve on their own and what they are able to achieve with the assistance of others (Valenzuela et al, 2000).
In other words, two children may be initially endowed with similar levels of actual development but one may end up becoming more knowledgeable than the other due to the kind of interaction established and assistance offered. As such, both the curriculum and assessment techniques for kindergarten-age children and others with special needs must considerably focus on the children’s level of actual development in relation to their potential level of development.
It is important to note that this theory perceives each social interaction as a learning experience, and as such, kindergarten-age children should be exposed to individuals and ideas that function above their existing level of knowledge and understanding to open up their minds to new and more complicated ideas (Edwards, 005).
Reference List Edwards, S. (2005). Constructivism does not only happen in the Individual: Socio-Cultural Theory and Early Childhood Education. Early Childhood Development and Care, Vol. 175, Issue 1, pp 37-47. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier Database
Mahn, H. (1999). Vygotsky’s Methodological Contribution to Socio-Cultural Theory. Remedial and Special Education, Vol. 20, Issue 6, pp. 341-350
Velenzuela, J.S., Connery, M.C.,
Postmodern and Modern Art Compare and Contrast Essay essay help site:edu
Harrison and Wood observe that “The history of art is that of a long series of attacks upon social and aesthetic values held to be moribund, although the avant-garde position is frequently nostalgic and absolute.”  This could not be truer in the case of the essays under consideration, essays in the style of manifestoes or blank verse.
The essays by Claes Oldenburg and by Ad Rheinhardt; I am for an Art, and Art for Art  express two responses to pre-existing art movements and ideas, responses which are themselves mutually opposing. These two artists of the Twentieth Century may never have been at odds personally, but their ideas of how to move art forward from the past could not seem more drastically different. It is no wonder that their impacts have been quite distinct from each other.
What they agree on, and very strongly, is that the old ways of doing, making, thinking about, learning to do, and making a living from, art, need to change radically. They both dislike the way that that the sale and use of art was manipulated by others, rather than by the artist.
They both discard Abstract Expressionism, which was in and of itself a rejection of the whole effort to achieve realism , at least in the way that painters and sculptors of the previous 400 years had striven for. However, it appears that Oldenburg and Rheinhardt rejected Abstract Expressionism for different reasons. Certainly, the directions that they pursued, after having tossed the prior millennia of human artistic effort unceremoniously into the ditch, are radically divergent.
Claes Oldenburg calls for art to be everywhere. He calls for everything and anything to be potentially art, and for art to be part of every facet of life, including blowing one’s nose. He was clearly influenced in much of this by the Dadaist movement which began in Europe, perhaps in Zurich, in 1916 .
The Dadaists, part of a generation which had seen the senseless death and destruction of World War I touching the entire world that they knew, rejected just about everything that was accepted, whether in art, or in politics, or social justice. They adopted a previously meaningless word  to be the aegis for a new definition of art, as well as its creation and use, preferably to uplift and elevate those who were oppressed and disenfranchised .
Rheinhardt is far more elitist than Oldenburg; at least that is the way it seems from his essay . (Messrs. Harrison and Wood describe the alternative to Pop Art as seeming like “authoritarian dogma”  , but do not associate these terms specifically with Rheinhardt – a tempting description of his essay, however. )
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rheinhardt started out as an enthusiastic proponent of Abstract Expressionism, but became disillusioned with its “biomorphism, emotionalism, and cult of individuality” . Presumably this refers to a residual suggestion or reference to realism that persisted even in the works of a Willhelm de Kooning or a Jackson Pollack.
He may also have objected to the idea that the artist was achieving some sort of emotional catharsis in the process of throwing, dripping or otherwise applying paint to a surface. Finally, it seems that he wanted the artist to recede into complete anonymity, at least in the painting itself. The sort of mythology that grew up around characters such as Picasso or Dali, or even the afore-mentioned Pollack, was apparently anathema to him.
These aversions eventually propelled his art away from any sort of recognizable human, animal, plant or landscape forms. All that was left to his art, by the end of his life, was color (or the absence thereof) and a “Greek cross” of barely hinted squares of varying saturation.
Rheinhardt wanted art to be only for art’s sake. He wanted art to be hermetically sealed off from the rest of life, and commerce, and everything else, never used for anything except for itself . Rheinhardt suggested that the only pure art was art that did not try to depict or suggest anything at all. To emphasize this, he writes that art should be “non-objective, non-representational, non-figurative, non-imagist, non-expressionist, non-subjective” . This is a fairly water-tight list.
He took on the entire world that surrounded art, again, very negatively. He wanted art museums to be art museums only; mausoleums of “soundlessness, timelessness, airlessness, lifelessness” . This is a goal which sounds depressing and oppressive to modern ears more attuned to the frenetic engagement of the viewer, especially very young viewers.
He also disapproved of the “art academy” for anything but the “correction of the artist”, rather than the education of a knowledgeable public. This constraint, taken together with the museum-as-bell jar concept, sounds as though it would amount to shooting the whole enterprise of art in its paint-spattered, if inspired, foot. It sounds as though Rheinhardt is urging that art be created for no audience but the artist; a rather sterile notion, it would seem.
If, as Rheinhardt directs, museums do not engage, and art academies do not engage, from whence is the future cohort of practitioners and appreciators to come? Rheinhardt certainly does not address this. His relentless negativity leads the reader to question whether he would have cared.
We will write a custom Essay on Postmodern and Modern Art specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Perhaps he felt that his was the last pre-apocalyptic generation, after which such trivial issues as the survival of art as a way of making a living (whether by patronage or by successful marketing, neither of which option sounds as though they would be attractive to Rheinhardt himself) would become irrelevant. He explicitly discards the notion of art as a “means of making a living”, which leads one to wonder how he expected to make a living himself.
He does say that there is always more art to create; “the more an artist works, the more there is to do”. This suggests that he believed that the urge to create art was so powerful, in those who were touched by the muse, that the urge would be sufficient to compensate for the inevitable sacrifices attendant on painting for oneself alone. In sum, his is not a very practical manifesto.
Although Claes Oldenburg is deliberately symbolic and vague in his essay, there is enough which is concrete to allow the reader to follow his ideas backwards to the Dadaists, and forward into his and other artists’ work .
Oldenburg’s “happenings” in the 1960s, for example, the creation of a store that sold faux food objects over a period of days, are a more contemporary version of the spontaneous and often shocking free form audience-participation events staged by the Dadaists, such as those described by Conway .
His selection, and designation as fit subject matter for art, of aggressively mundane objects such as hamburgers, or pastries, also harkens back to the Dadaist movement. These pieces bring to mind, for example, the toilet, submitted by Marcel DuChamp, as a work of art to the Independent Artists Exhibition in New York, entitled Fountain, and under the pseudonym Richard Mutt.
Another means of transmuting the ordinary into art is seen in the super-stimulus of Oldenburg’s giant soft sculptures, such as Floorburger (subtitled “Giant Hamburger 1962”), and Floor Cake . These pieces are realistic in all but their gargantuan size. They call into question the whole definition of an art object. The viewer is left wondering whether these could just as easily be advertising props, or toys for a day care center.
In his political activism, Oldenburg was also drawing on Dada influences. The monumental sculpture which his fellow Yale alumni sponsored for the Yale campus, Lipstick Ascending on Caterpillar Tracks 1969 , with its treble apparent references to a military tank, as well as the commercial commoditization of female beauty, as well as a lingam-like symbol, was accepted as an anti-war statement.
Its installation apparently caused a suitably Dadaist civil disturbance. Later monumental projects such as Clothespin 1976 in downtown Philadelphia, created with public sponsorship, apparently were part of his urge to sidestep the retail art establishment ; what Harrison and Wood term “the art rackets” . This latter motivation seems to be another commonality with the Dadaists, with their ready-made art and do-it-yourself entertainment.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Postmodern and Modern Art by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A slightly different direction is represented by the papier mache piece entitled “Empire” (“Papa”) Ray Gun 1959. This childlike construction is outsized and awkward, only distantly suggesting the ray gun of the title. It reminds the viewer of comic book space operas, while the title may be an oblique critique of the cold war obsession with weapons and science in the service of geopolitical aims.
This piece also reflects Oldenburg’s contention in his essay that art “takes its form from the lines of life itself” . The droopy “gun” shows a gloppy resemblance to objects normally seen only in abdominal surgery or autopsy.
Oldenburg’s impulse to boldly use objects and materials not usually thought of in connection with art is echoed in the works of Joseph Cornell. This New York artist collected the detritus of modern life and created assemblages that conveyed definite messages, albeit very idiosyncratic and personal ones .
His piece Central Park Carrousel: In Memoriam 1950, is one such evocation of a time, place, event, and feeling which uses found objects. It is intriguing to discover that there was indeed a carousel, previous to any in existence recently, in Central Park which was completely destroyed by fire in 1950 .
Further, although there is nothing readily accessible to prove this, it seems reasonable to infer that Cornell either used materials from the defunct and beloved merry-go-round ride, or wants the viewer to believe that they are looking at bits of detritus from the fire site itself.
We can stand and wonder endlessly about the smoked mirror, the wire fencing that might have surrounded the ruins, the bits and bobs (such as what appears to be a strap handle), which could have come from the complex workings of the carousel itself.
However, only the artist could confirm these suppositions. Most of these small objects are whitewashed or painted to create anonymity, and/or uniformity, or to perhaps to recall the white paint which is so universally resorted to in order to conceal deteriorated surfaces. The Cornell used this unifying technique of white paint (or perhaps Gesso), in other pieces, as well. The deft arrangement shows his experience creating layouts for Vogue Magazine .
This piece is a lovely valentine to a lost joy, a deeply individual set of mementoes (or facsimile thereof) of an irretrievable landscape. Not one of the elements is what we think of as art supplies, except perhaps the frame (and even these were often hand constructed by the artist or found and re-purposed) and the protective glass in some of these works.
Finally, this work, as well as all the constructions of Cornell, seems to disregard and abjure consumer society as much as is possible, and expresses an obliviousness that gently and subtly shames as it ignores.
Another aspect of Oldenburg’s ideas and work which rippled out into the work of other artists is the use of the blatantly commercial objects to do…what? What does Pastry Case1961-1962 do, exactly? . Perhaps, in its loving realism, it is meant to evoke the still life paintings of the Dutch masters.
Perhaps it is meant to skewer the buying habits of consumer society. Perhaps it was meant to be a metaphor for the human body , in all its variety, vulnerability, and perishable nature (note the candy apple with a bite taken out of it – what commercial establishment would allow such an unhygienic bit of contamination among the otherwise pristine or properly cut pastries?).
In any case, this and other consumer items portrayed, in increasingly monumental size, by Oldenburg, force the viewer to consider, at a minimum, what is art, what is a hamburger, and what does the shape of the object remind us of, what is the role of the subject (e.g., hamburger, pastries, cake, wall plug, clothespin) in our lives, and what is the role in our world of the things that the object reminds us of?
This focus on banal, everyday objects, especially mass-produced objects and items, is reflected in the (dare one say it) iconic Pop Art work, Campbell Soup Cans 1962, by Andy Warhol . An entire paper could be written on this strain in mid-Twentieth Century art, and the colorful artist himself.
However, to see the relationship of this work to Oldenburg’s essay, it is only necessary to look at the phrases “everyday crap”, “comic”, “eaten, like a piece of pie”, “flipped on and off like a switch”, and more. Oldenburg further suggests that art can be “blinking biscuit signs” and “Kool-art”, “7UP-art”, “Pepsi-art”, and “ready-to-eat”.
All of these describe, and practically prescribe Warhol’s use of quotidian images, images which are familiar in our environment to the point that they have become unnoticeable. Oldenburg’s essay, however, does not prescribe Warhol’s innovative techniques for transforming these images through his use of paint or silk screening.
These are techniques which lend themselves to mass-production, a notion which is in concert with the egalitarian urges of the Dadaists. Art, in the new art world order, was meant to bring liberation to those whose economic, educational, and social status placed them well outside the usual market for fine art .
Warhol’s graphic art techniques also allow for the involvement of a whole staff of helpers. This seems reminiscent of the famed ateliers of Old Master artists such as Rembrandt, but at the same time, reminds one of industrial production arrangements.
Turning to the impact of the other essay, it was noted earlier that Ad Rheinhardt’s manifesto was not only unbendingly negative, but also seems un-conducive to brisk art sales. However, as a way of liberating artists generally from the absolute necessity to be figurative, it is only necessary to stroll through MOMA or any other institution featuring works of the 50s onwards, to see that his words have clearly had an impact.
Perhaps they were effective themselves (somewhat doubtful, given the highly specialized journal in which his essay was published), or else he articulated unambiguously some powerful ideas which were in the air in the 50s and 60s.
His own works are the most unambiguous ambassadors for his ideas; for example Number 107 1950 , a painted collage of shades of white. This vertically oriented canvas of varying shades and thicknesses of white can be appreciated as serene and un-intrusive. The pattern of painted rectangles clearly follows Rheinhardt’s’s own ascetic reductionist rules  for purity.
Although he would probably object strenuously to this suggestion, the white patches of paint do, however, suggest something from nature, if only in the way snow piles take on different tones from the accumulation of soot and the changing angle of winter light, and if only because the human eye, by evolutionary design, creates meaning even where none is intended.
They are also orderly and restful in the same way that well-applied wallpaper is, but with the added interest of heterogeneous texture. It is nonetheless clear that this is a work of art, and not simply a series of wall paint samples; firstly, because the artist has defined it and labeled it as such, and secondly, because the paint is applied in a painterly fashion, with deliberation and care.
There is a perhaps unconscious creation of differences in texture, to which the eye, again by evolutionary design, naturally gravitates, in search of difference in the midst of sameness.
If Rheinhardt’s ideas did not directly affect others, they certainly were in current circulation. His notion of the pure abstraction of paint laid on canvas, with no apparent attempt at subject, is echoed in the works of Mark Rothko. The negativism of Rheinhardt seems to have found a fertile and sympathetic ground in Mr. Rothko.
He apparently suffered from depression and eventually took his own life . His paintings of the late 40’s and beyond have been described as “veils of color”, which is an accurate description of the mix of heavy and delicate layers which he applies to the underlying color in one of his works, No.3/No.13 1949.
In this piece, the colors are conflicting, considered in terms of the color wheel, and their very difference creates interest in this work. The red and green and black almost vibrate after one looks at the canvas for a while, simply because of their complementarity and the wavelengths they reflect.
Another example of his work, No.5/No.22 1950 also combines colors which clash and vibrate next to one another. However, the painting wall label notes that Rothko warned his public against merely appreciating the spectral effects, contending that he was out to express grand themes . In this he seems to be in conflict with Rheinhardt, who contends that art should not be a “reflection of conditions”.
The interaction of the colors is subtle, but rewards close observation, and is clearly intentional. What grand themes this particular canvas communicates may be elusive, but conflict is clearly present, and where there is conflict, there is the possibility of emotion and narrative, no matter whether the artist intended it or not.
These two essays by significant figures in modern art may have reached a rather modest audience when they were first published, but clearly both had a major and lasting impact.
If only in setting down in words the feelings which artists around them were trying to express visually, they have captured an era, a mood, and a set of ambient ideas, which are still vividly in evidence today. Their words express what we take for granted in this decade. The two artists had very different attitudes towards their audience and the role of art in society, but both rejected all that went before.
Reductionism, spontaneity, and a final liberation from the need to portray the observable world, or to fit into any preconceived notion of what “art” should look like; all these ideas and others are still reverberating in the art we see being created today. Oldenburg and Rheinhardt have done us a service by documenting artistic and social urges in circulation in the lively period of the 50s and early 60s.
Bibliography Anfam, David. “Abstract Expressionism.” Museum of Modern Art. Grove Art Online, Oxford University Press. 2009. Web.
Central Park Carousel. 2010. Web.
“Central Park Carrousel: In Memoriam 1950.” Museum of Modern Art. 2010. Web.
“Claes Oldenburg.” Independent Gallery. 2010. Web.
Claes Oldenburg: “Empire” (“Papa”) Ray Gun. 2010. Web.
“Consumer society.” The Coolidge Consumerism Archive. 2010. Web.
Conway, Aaron. “Theatre of the Absurd or Theatre de la merde : The influence of Alfred Jarry’s Ubu plays on Paris Dada.” Sappy Prof Art Historian. 2010. Web.
Cooper, Phillip. “Joseph Cornell.” Museum of Modern Art. Grove Art Online; Oxford University Press. 2009. Web.
Craft, Catherine. “New York Dada? Looking Back After a Second World War, lecture given September 9, 2006.” Museum of Modern Art. 2010. Web.
Darwent, Charles. “Well-chosen works show how De Stijl – ‘The Style’ – movement led to a revolution in European art that still resonates today: Van Doesburg
The Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) Measure Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Introduction Psychological measure determines psychotic properties like depression. The Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) measures the level of depression in children. It is necessary to carry out this measure since it helps in identifying the children who are suffering from depression and decide on the appropriate intervention for them in time. This will help in improving their self esteem, educational achievement and peer relationship.
The author of the article on “Depression in Children: Children’s Depression Inventory”(Crowley 1993) has used both the classical test score and generalizability theories. Classical test score considers just one measurement error at a given time ignoring the possibility of interaction effects of other sources of measurement.
On the other hand, generalizability theory which considers the sources of error variance and the interaction effects of the sources. He uses generalizability to assess the level of depression symptomatology so as to give data that can be generalized to tests, items and even different occasions due to its reliability.
His study focused on the use of both theories in measuring childhood depression. The individuals used in his study included both males and females between ages 11-16, grades 5-7 from all ethnic composition even though the ratio varied. He used the CDI in exploring psychometric properties. He demonstrated on how the classical and generalizability theories gave totally different estimations even on the same data.
In clarification of conceptual issues of depression in children, Chartier
Labor Relations Essay essay help online free
Table of Contents Defending the termination
Impact of Decision by State Board of Labor Appeals
‘Work Now Grieve Later’ Provision
Defending the termination Employee insubordination, if left unchecked, can escalate into a major problem not only for the affected employee, but also to the whole workforce (Fossum, 2005). Several factors, however, need to be considered before disciplining an employee for insubordination.
The present case presents an interesting twist to issues on labor relations, pitying an employee and the established formal framework of regulations. The employee decision not to transport the patients seems to be based on two fundamental issues – the ability to drive safely and lack of a special license.
These are major concerns that the employer ought to soberly look at before terminating the employee. It is worth noting that presenting a safety danger to the patients in the desire to force the employee to comply with formal orders cannot be justified or rationalized in any legal or labor system.
Under such a circumstance, the employee has every right to refuse engaging in unsafe work and still expect to be protected under the existing labor laws. In other words, she is entitled to challenge the directive requiring her to transport the patients without any fear of termination since the directive compromises not only her own safety but the safety of others
Employee’s Contention Labor decisions ought to be carried out in an objective and justifiable manner, and the employee’s contention that she does not trust herself when it comes to driving calls for a reconsideration of the decision to terminate her contract.
It would be disastrous for the employer as well as the organization to force the employee into causing an accident so that it may be known officially that she is not a good driver. Such a decision will have a negative impact not only to the organization’s reputation, but also to its patients who may never trust the organization again, especially with the knowledge that the organization is supposed to take good care of them, at least health wise. This may call for reconsideration
Past Practice A past practice, according to Fossum (2005), supports the desired elucidation and interpretation of prevailing contract language, which may not necessarily be in written form. The employer is rightly acting within his jurisdiction since the employee appended her signature in the contract papers, whereby one of the functions of the position holder as spelt out in the job description was to drive patients to their appointments.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More But when it comes to matters of labor relations, the employer can be accused of violating the past practice process since the said employee has religiously followed the practice of not driving the patients for the last six years, hence the practice qualifies to become a binding or obligatory unwritten contract between the employer and the employee. The application of this practice, indeed, has been repeated by the employee for a long period of time.
Impact of Decision by State Board of Labor Appeals The appeals referees’ panel is made up of employees acting in their capacity as judicial officers to investigate various labor related issues (Fossum, 2005). The decisions they make regarding a particular organization may be inconsequential to the employer since they are not binding, and can only sustain, alter or reverse a decision made by an adjudicator.
The employer, however, can appeal against such decisions to the labor commission or any court of law. In this perspective, the decision made by state board of labor appeals may be inconsequential to the employer, and therefore, it may not impact his decision to uphold the termination
‘Work Now Grieve Later’ Provision The employee is being accused by his employer of not following a formal order. This charge amounts to insubordination, and as such, the case could fall into the above stated provision. The main objective of the ‘work now grieve later’ provision is to facilitate an orderly labor environment in an organizational setup by ensuring that supervisory and managerial regulations are adhered to without question or dispute (Dwyer, 2009).
This particular case will also fall into this provision bearing in mind that the employee has a written contract with the employer requiring that she performs the tasks as stated in the job description for the position. The provision, however, allows the employee to air her grievances and challenge the directive requiring her to transport the patients since, according to her, such a directive compromises not only her own safety but the safety of others.
Reference List Dwyer, T.P. (2009). Applying the “obey now, grieve later” rule – part 1. Retrieved from
Fossum, J. (2005). Labor Relations: Development, structure, processes, 9th Ed. McGraw-Hill/Irwin. ISBN: 0072987138
We will write a custom Essay on Labor Relations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More
Mary Calkins Accomplishments for Psychology Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Psychology is a branch in science that has been evolving greatly with time and with the intervention of many individuals and institutions. Mary Whiton Calkins played a great role in this field. She is believed to have helped improve the psychology field in immense ways and had to go through many struggles to achieve what she believed in and to attain her goals.
Not only is she respected for being able to attain the position of presidency in the American Psychological Association but the fact that she was committed to her work and was able to overcome the hardships that came with being an ambitious and brave woman. The paper will focus on what Mary Calkins is remembered for and what she was able to accomplish in psychology.
Born in 1863, Connecticut, Calkins was lucky to receive education because given her era it was difficult for girls to receive quality education if they were lucky enough o receive any (Aisenberg
Art and Identity Expository Essay essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Art and Identity
Fashion Choice and Identity
Art and Psychological notions of Identity
Art as what someone stands for and art as what someone is
Difference between Eastern and Western art
Cultural Art and Personal Identity
Introduction Art depicts people’s identity in all its dimensions. In this essay, through explaining notions of identity in relation to art, it will become clear enough that art depicts the fullness of individuals’ identity. When it comes to identity, two distinct categories emerge i.e. personal identity and collective identity. Considering how art is used and what it signifies, art is the most powerful depiction of both personal and collective identity.
To illustrate the foregoing assertions, this essay will fast consider personal fashion choices and what fashion says about individuals. Secondly, the essay will look into psychological usage of art to illustrate its connection to personality. Finally, the paper will consider what general art signifies and in what way it captures the collective identity of people i.e. cultural values.
Art and Identity Art choice speaks volumes about an individual’s Identity. Art choice is largely dependent on an individual’s way of thinking, feelings, and concerns. Individuality or personal identity is defined by how an individual thinks feels and all that is of concern to such a person.
Artists create what is representative of objects in their life. What an artist produces is necessarily representative of something in his or her world view. Therefore, in an artist’s workmanship, one can learn a lot about the artist as an individual and the society he or she hails from.
Individuals choose or take art works or art forms that speak to them. If one buys an artwork for someone else, the intention normally is that the art speaks a given specific message to the receiver. It is for this reason that art plays a great role in preserving historical perspectives. Whatever is communicated in a piece of art is representative of the general world view or aspirations of a people.
Fashion Choice and Identity To illustrate how art choice speaks volumes about an individual, an analysis of fashion choice is very handy. Fashion choice is a reflection of an individual’s identity. People cannot go through a day without experiencing art. The cars people drive, the clothes they wear and even the utensils people use are artistic items designed by artists.
Even people’s homes are designed in an artistic way. To appreciate the extent to which fashion distinguishes people, one need just to look at clothing tastes. Some people have a favorite color and whenever they buy anything, the go for something with that color. Every person has his/her own style of fashion which represents them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Individuals identify with different fashion or artistic design, which means that the arts are representative of their personality or disposition. Some individuals are more into tangible art products. For others, it’s abstract art or art pieces that do represent anything or have no subject that excite them. Majority of the people in the world identify with tangible or realistic art i.e. art that represents a certain subject.
People’s choice of style or art object defines what they stand for or how they reason about given issues. Therefore, to know the kind of art one likes is to know the individual, to some extent, because art is representative of their identity. Coleman (1) explains that art is a significant representation of people’s identity which protects their culture and existence.
To learn to appreciate art in its entire dimensions is the best way of learning about people and what they really stand for. Anybody not convinced should just look at the hair styles that people wear. Highly organized professionals have given hair styles that they wear. Musicians often adorn more gruff or crusty hair styles.
In daily living we identify friends with given kind of items. When people see a particular object, they associate it with a certain person. This happens because due to using certain objects for a long time, people begin to associate it with his or her person. One may argue that continued or sustained use of Items only results familiarity.
Such a refutation is welcome, however, whether the habit resulted out of mere familiarity or not, the habit has something to say about the individual. One can only use an object he or she likes. There must be something in the object that is representative of the person.
Therefore, it is no surprise that for example, when a friend sees a certain kind of shirt, he or she is likely to comment and say “oh this shirt is really your style”. Each individual has his own unique taste of style. And people notice the unique sense of style from the kind of things the individual uses. Once in a while individuals hear comments like “this arrangement is typical of you”. Such statement only comes as a result of people identifying the person of an individual with a certain way of doing or organizing things.
Taking the example of a room, each individual or cultural group has its own unique way of setting up a room. A friend coming into a friend’s new room could easily be heard uttering phrases like, “oh this room is so like you”. There is a unique way that this person organizes his room that represents him. When people see a similar room they identify it with him.
We will write a custom Essay on Art and Identity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To cement the idea that fashion choice and art choice are representative of a person’s identity, it is helpful to look into considerations one makes when buying a present for a loved one. Generally, individuals buy presents that are meaningful and thus can be appreciated by the other. The concern normally is to buy something that is as representative of the love. Alternatively, the present is supposed to speak volumes about the person who is presenting the gift.
When a mother goes buying a present for her son, she chooses a particular style and design. A particular design is chosen because it is associated with that particular person. A person may like a particular design which he is always identified with. In addition, how these objects are used gives them meaning and makes them a representation of a person’s identity.
Art and Psychological notions of Identity In the practice of psychology i.e. therapy, art is employed a lot. For example, psychologists use pictures drawn by troubled children to help them identify their problems. To help understand clients, therapists sometimes show pictures or art object to them and note the reactions.
A skeptic may wonder how a piece of art is related to how people are. The truth is that art speaks our personality and shows the deepest innermost of us that we try to hide and ignore. Sometimes it is difficult to express how we feel through words and this is especially true for children and those under overwhelming emotions (Malchiodi 133).
There are people who say they have no sense of art in them or that they cannot draw. This is not true because art is not just about drawing. Art sense is reflected in every person in many different ways like songs, dancing, poetry, humor and story telling etc. Art does not mean just painting or drawing. Another example of how art is reflected is through liking or disliking a particular design or valuing a particular object more than others.
Psychologists are known to use and apply the power of art powerfully in therapy. As already discussed, they use art to help identify the issues that their clients are suffering from. For psychologists, the choice of music for example tells a lot about how happy or sad an individual is.
To help people let go of bad feelings, therapists encourage them to draw, write or perform an art. Music is famed, metaphorically, to be the soap of the soul. It has the capability of altering individuals’ ego states and helping them understand some more or learn better. It is for this reason, that music is often employed in learning or behavior reinforcement practice.
Art as what someone stands for and art as what someone is Some individuals argue that art only portrays what someone stands for but that does not translate into defining who i.e. identity of an individual. When considering art, there are two notions that come out clearly i.e. on one hand art can be used to identify what someone stands for and in another sense, art is truly representative of what the individual is as a person.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Art and Identity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More People who perform art, for example poems, express themselves through their art work. Through their artistic performances and art works e.g. drawings, they are able to express their feelings and moods on given subjects. Therefore, art helps them state clearly how they are and what they stand for or represent as individuals.
For example, art may be used to create awareness on AIDS, malaria etc. Artists who are happy paint pictures that suggest happiness to the viewers. On the other hand, artists who are scared may tend to draw gloomy art. In this case, through their works, the artist’s state of being or what he truly thinks and feels is identified.
Difference between Eastern and Western art Differences in cultural arts illustrate how art is representative of people. Different cultures have different art forms. Western art is different from Eastern art and this is what marks their different cultural identities. Western and Eastern people look at objects in different ways and consequently their arts are different. For example, eastern music tends to be more melancholic when compared with western music.
Artists often compose music in response to their deep seated feelings, emotions and thoughts. When one listens to any music they are able to hook into a composers mind and are swayed by the intended feelings of the song. The music thus develops a personality gearing that rubs itself on the people who listen. Therefore, when it is said that eastern music is more melancholic than western music, it is valid to conclude that easterners are more melancholic than westerners.
Painting and drawing is largely driven by symbolic meanings of given figures. It is from this perspective that paintings by westerners are largely different from paintings from the eastern countries. For example, spiritual paintings from the east especially china my feature figures like the dragon. In the west, a cross would generally depict a religious theme. In painting a social setting, western paintings depict more hierarchical settings than eastern settings that are community centered.
Western and Eastern styles of art are different in many other ways, these include, views and visual effects they produce. Western art puts more emphasis on people while the Eastern art emphasizes more on nature and its beauty.
Easterners believe nature is more significant than people while the Westerners believe people are more important and above nature (Samovar et al 34). All that this points to is the fact that art is informed by the cultural background and interpretation of any art work has to take into account culture connotations.
Even in a given country, sub cultural differences impact on art in a big way. For example, white American have often criticized African-American art and some individuals have gone ahead as to question its classification as art. The issue is that African American try to infuse African roots into their art.
By blending the American reality with what they think is African, they create something unique that speaks of their experience. Art reflects cultural values and through it people are able to identify themselves and appreciate who they are (Patton 186). This kind of fusion of cultural art should not be criticized. When these arts blend they convey a message which is less ethnic or racial compared to traditional arts (Leuthold 37).
Cultural Art and Personal Identity Cultural art is what has the most profound effect on a person’s identity. It moulds people’s behavior and makes them identify with their tribe or nation. In the same way one feel a sense of patriotism in an encounter with say national flag, tribal art pieces enlist certain kinds of feelings in individuals.
One may argue that in this globalization era, no one cares about cultural or tribal art. However, even the modern man feels something in the face of that which represents his or her heritage. Cultural art fills us with pleasure and joy and it is a significant way of restoring damaged social structures and strengthening cultural and individual’s identity.
Nationhood and related Identity may be threatened by globalization. However, nationhood remains alive through art. Art reflects values that individuals or communities would want to identify with. Consequently, cultural art encourages people to identify and be proud of their community.
Conclusion Following from the considerations in this essay, it is clear that art depicts personality or individual’s identity. Individuals interact or associate with pieces of art on a daily basis. All the things that individuals use e.g. cars, houses, clothes, utensils, paintings etc, are works of different artist and are fashioned to appeal to different kinds of people.
Considering fashion, considerations made when buying presents and general artistic choices, it was illustrated that individuals choose pieces of art that speak to them or about them. For instance, when a reggae musician chooses to wear dreadlocks, he or she is basically saying that this is what I am and I belong to this group of individuals. His or her sense of art communicates his or her identity; what he or she wants to be known as by others.
Considering art from a psychological point of view, it was established that artists develop pieces of art based on their world view. The consumers or lovers of art also go for pieces of art that are meaningful in their world view. Thirdly, tapping into an individual’s interpretation of a piece of art is a great way towards understanding what their world view is like.
These considerations are cemented when one analyses cultural art and associated meaningfulness. In a nutshell, cultural art differs because it reflects the subjective realm of different communities. Artists in a community only produce pieces of art that are representative of the realm or aspirations in their community.
Works Cited Coleman, Elizabeth, Burns. Aboriginal Art, Identity and Appropriation. UK: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2005 In this book, the author evaluates the Aboriginal art to find how it represents their identity. The book is very helpful as it elucidates or explains the relation between art and identity.
Leuthold, Steven. Indigenous Aesthetics: Native Art, Media, and Identity. Texas: University of Texas Press, 1998 This book looks into the Native American aesthetics and art and it all relates to identity. The author discusses cultural blending in depth and how the same affects the personality and identity of individuals
Malchiodi, Cathy, A. The Art Therapy Sourcebook. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006 This book discussed in depth the relation between art and personality. For example, on page 133, the author explains how art speaks our personality. Art speaks our personality while individual expressions or speech is art.
Patton, Sharon, F. African-American art. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998 This book is about black art, painting and the cultural crisis of the Blacks and American artists. The book explains how African Americans try to blend their art into Western culture.
Samovar, Larry A, Richard E. Porter
How to Have a Happy Marriage Expository Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Strategies for a Happy Marriage
Introduction In any matrimony scenario, developing a happy marriage is not a simple undertaking, as most individual perceive it to be; but rather, it is process, which requires a lot of sacrifices, insistence and, commitment.
This is the case primarily because, as a partnership business, marriages also involves the coming together of individuals with difference backgrounds, values, and behavioral patterns for a common purpose; sharing their entire lives together; as they endeavor to better their lives, and always keep their love glowing (Davis, 2010, p.1).
As concerns the achievement of happiness in one’s life, good marriages are primary sources of delight, to almost all individuals who have tied the knot; hence ready to spend their entire lives together. Although this is the case, as Anna (2006, p.1) argues, delight in matrimony, is a concept that cannot create itself, but rather it depends on the strategies adopted by spouses in their daily undertakings, as they endeavor to keep their promises hold as they face each new day’s challenges.
On the other hand, as Stritof argues (2010, p.1) argues, although the joining together of two individuals with diverse characteristic is not a guarantee, that these individual will be happy forever, but rather happiness in life depends on principles, which couples base their marriage on.
Regardless of whom individuals are, their origin, the kind of life values they hold, or their life patterns, in one way or another or at one point in their life, marriage(s) have affected or influenced patterns in their lifestyle patterns; hence, the respect, which not only the society, but also all single units within the society accord marriages.
As each new day dawns life brings in many individuals’ lives many issues, which need either immediate or later solutions. Such is the case in marriage primarily because; problems never ceases once two individual decide to stay together but rather, marriages mark the onset of other special problems, as individual venture into siring.
Although matrimony life has many associated problems, it is important for all individuals to note that, regardless of the magnitude of such problems, success in matrimony depends on the nature of lifestyles adopted by individuals and mechanisms adopted by individuals as they face each new day’s problems (Bruner, 2010, p.1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Strategies for a Happy Marriage In life it is important for all couples to ensure that, their marriages not only lasts, but also brings to them the joy they expect hence, the need for them to adopt workable strategies in their marriages. These strategies at all times should encompass concepts of respect, love, commitment, conviction, sincerity, openness, and above all, a communication mechanism, which should clearly spell out protocols of dealing with problems that may arise as individuals endeavor to make their lives better (Johnson, 2009, p.1).
In life, although a number of strategies of enhancing happiness in life exist, it is important for all individuals to note that, success of these strategies depends on the commitment levels in spouses hence, the need of establishing common goals in any family scenario.
One primary methodology of ensuring happiness dominates every aspect of marriage includes the willingness of couples to give their spouses all the emotional bids they hope or not hope for from them. This primarily involves the ability of any wife or husband to help their spouses to move in the desired direction in life. Emotional bids can be in many forms, which range from the simple nonverbal connection mechanisms to the most complex ones, which involve the development of physical or non-physical connecting methodologies.
One common mistake made by most spouses in their daily undertakings is that, most of them assume that, because they share everything or because they spend all time at their disposal together, they should not have connection mechanisms between them (Johnson, 2009, Para. 2). Frankly asking, what does it cost for individuals to say hi to their spouses?
Courtesy is another important component of any joyous marriage. This involves simple appreciations, compliments, and the acknowledgement of mistakes or failures regardless of whether individuals committed such blunders or faults willfully or unconsciously. In addition, this concept involves the use of humble and loving expressive terms, something that is achievable in individual through control of one’s emotionality or temperament.
In most marriage scenarios; due to variations in preferences, life expectations, wants, which change with time, failures, likelihoods of strife are high. To ensure peace prevails and regardless of the situation, love prevails, it is necessary for all individual to maintain calmness as a strategy of minimizing confrontations, which may occur out of wrongdoing or going against their partners’ wishes.
On the other hand, courtesy involves the simple acknowledgement of anything; no matter how small it may seem, that is good in their partners or given by their partners. When it comes to this, majority of individual always imagine that, offering of fascinating bounties to their spouses, is the only way of showing gratitude for either their love or something good they have brought into their lives.
We will write a custom Essay on How to Have a Happy Marriage specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Although to some extent this may work, it is important for such individual to note that, any form of appreciation so long as it is thoughtful, is a way of expressing love regardless of its magnitude or value (Bruner, 2010, Para. 14-16).
Communication is the third main “medicine” to any successful and cheerful matrimony. Although it sounds simple, this concept encompasses many ideas, which range for the expressive mechanisms to adoption of appropriate mechanisms of presenting and expressing ideas in a family.
Regardless of how much partners may be engrossed in their personal jobs or activities, it is advisable for them to at least spare even a half a hour every day; time that is crucial for reflection into their journey as one family. In addition, such moments are crucial for discussing personal developments and dreams; hence, in many ways a promoter of peace in a marriage (Pantley, 2010, Para. 15-16).
On the other hand, sparing of such times, in many ways is a mechanism of appreciating each other, for it is necessary for individual to appreciate their spouses’ presence in their lives. As concerns communications, it is also advisable for all spouses to speak straightforwardly on any concept, which they feel is pressing them or they feel their partners should know. One of the worst mistakes done by most couples is the engagement in mind games.
Such a case occurs in most marriage scenarios where individual have in them fears that, if they say something offensive to their spouses likelihoods of strife are high. Although this might be the case, it is important for all individuals to note that, it is better for one to express such issues with good intentions, rather than keeping it to them, thus causing silent suffering; hence the need for their partners to listen (Anna, 2006, p.1).
Adoption of correct resource management policies in a family has also a crucial role as far maintenance of health relationships in concerned; them being primary components, which make marriages. It is important for all individuals to note here that, resources encompass everything owned by a family ranging from the simple household equipments to money saved in private accounts.
This is one of the primary points, which all couples should discuss even before they engage themselves in marriage. In most marriages, money is the backbone of all undertakings; hence, misuse or poor management can lead to a lot of strife among partners, more so when it comes to times of bankruptcy or low-economic times.
Considering this, it therefore becomes necessary for all couples to ensure they lay family plans together, through family discussions; depending their personal and collective objectives (Quilliam, 2010, pp. 2-3)).
Not sure if you can write a paper on How to Have a Happy Marriage by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although all these factors are important in ensuring that a marriage works, it is important for all individual to note that, the entire marriage issue is a commitment that starts somewhere. That is, before making the decision of settling down, it is important for individuals to take time with their spouses to be.
This should be the case primary because, it is better for individuals to avoid the temptation of settling down with somebody they do not understand or know anything about , than facing a failed marriage (Collins, 2010, p.1).
Conclusion In conclusion, it is important for all individuals to remember that, building of happy marriages is not a onetime endeavor but rather it involves the acceptance that one is matrimony hence; dedicating all their efforts, time, resources, and anything that is at their disposal to ensure their commitment lasts.
Reference List Anna, S. (2006). How to have a happy marriage? Marriage helpers. Associated Content. Web.
Bruner, R. (2010). 12 ways to have a happy, healthy marriage. Web.
Collins, J. (2010). How to have a happy marriage in life. Web.
Davis, J. L. (2010). Want a happy marriage? Be nice, don’t nitpick. WebMD. Web.
Johnson, K. (2009). How to have a happy marriage: ten tips to improve your relationship with your spouse now. Psycho Forums. Web.
Pantley, E. (2010). How to have a happy marriage when you are busy being parents Married Romance. Web.
Quillam, S. (2010). The seven secrets of a successful marriage. Ivillage. Web.
Stritof, B. (2010). Happiness in Marriage. About. Web.
Ideas of W.E.B. Dubois and Booker T. Washington Research Paper essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Discussion on Ideas of W.E.B. Dubois and Booker T. Washington
Introduction Contrary to the present state of the African-American natives; socially, economically, and politically, in the past, individuals mostly of the American white origin, segregated this group hence, oppressing them through oppressive power control mechanisms.
In addition, to ensure this community never succeeded in any of their endeavors, the whites exercised full control of the political, social, and economic systems hence, making natives of the African-American culture to suffer a lot. Although this was the scenario, for a very long time, realization of the African-Americans that there is a lot they could achieve on their own, as far as securing their freedom from such oppressions was concerned led to the rise of many freedom movements.
The birth of these movements and the continual struggle for liberation led to the emerging of very strong political activists, whose main mandate was to ensure black Americans enjoyed the same freedom as other American natives; a war that faced a lot of antagonism, because the whites thwarted such efforts by using all mechanisms they had at their disposal.
Although many leaders emerged as the struggle become serious, two leaders of this community will forever receive recognition in the American History namely: Booker T, Washington and his greatest opposer W.E.B. Dubois (Moore pp.3-13).
It is important to note that, although these two individuals had one thing in common; to free the African-American community from extreme oppression and segregation they had suffered from for a very long time, their approach to the entire liberation concept was very different.
Discussion on Ideas of W.E.B. Dubois and Booker T. Washington To some extent, critical analysis of their ideological stances clearly show that, this individuals backgrounds was the primary element, which shaped their ideological views on mechanisms that were necessary in the struggle for liberation of the African-American community; commonly called the Negros.
That is, unlike Dubois who was a pure black from the North, Washington, had a southern affiliation, with parents of different ethnicities; a black mother and a white father; a fact which majority of scholars associate to his biased views on the liberation war.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although Dubois was African, his love for education gave him a chance of studying in Europe hence, his liking of the socialism and communism ideology of living. Washington’s early life history greatly varied from Dubois in that, through his early life was that of slavery and oppression; hence, his believe in the concept of pleasing his oppressors, as a survival and liberation mechanism (Henry p. 1 and Moore pp.61-72).
According to Washington, although education had a role to play as far as the war was concerned, its contributions were too minimal; hence, such knowledge obtained from any educational forum was of more importance in the Job market.
According to him, to ensure that blacks got the liberation they were yearning for, they had to be submissive to their white oppressors, a practice, which according to him could finally make the whites to recognize efforts by the African-Americans; hence, grant them their freedom. To achieve this, there was need for Negros to wholly depend on provisions from whites, something, which was achievable by blacks first acknowledging that they were for real blacks; hence deserved little freedom.
Contrary to this, his great antagonist Dubois held a very different view of the entire war. That is, according to him, the only workable and real mechanism in this war was African-Americans to demand for their rights, as the only primary mechanism of ensuring there was minimization of the oppressive powers held by whites.
In addition, to him the gradualist political orientation was the only mechanism; politically, of speeding the liberation, due the notion held by him that, many social mechanisms failed hence, some force and demand for civil rights was necessary for such like a struggle to be victorious (Gibson p.1).
To Washington, black power was achievable through hard work and not strife that is, freedom was a gradual process that needed hard work and development in sectors, which were main economic contributors for example, agriculture, Education; for skill enhancement, and economics. Through his two-way oriented ideologies; liberation of African-Americans while acknowledging the Whites’ supremacy, Washington become popular in both of these two societies hence, his success politically.
His concepts received a lot of antagonism from Dubois, on grounds that, freedom was not all about accepting “defeat” as a primary mechanism for gradual gain, but rather it involved achievement of civil equality, which encompassed recognition and respect of all individuals’ right (Smock pp.135-145).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Ideas of W.E.B. Dubois and Booker T. Washington specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Yes, to some extent, Washington’s ideological perspective of achieving freedom was right, but considering the conditions and nature of oppression the African-American community faced, it was hard for the these natives to achieve their freedom.
In addition, to some extent, Washington’s ideologies were biased; hence, by embracing them, there was no way the society could have gained its present freedom, owing to the fact that, this could concrete the white supremacy; hence, lead to more oppression and abuse of the Blacks’ rights (Moore pp. 7-11). This makes Dubois’s orientation the most appropriate on grounds that, it was impossible for this community to achieve its freedom without having to ask for such rights.
During the time of these two great and most respected leaders, the concept of discrimination was prevalent in all sectors, hence considering the disenfranchisement of this minority community it was hard for Washington’s ideas to work in reality. For sure, how can individuals attain success and respect in a scenario where their bosses despise everything such individuals do or endeavor to achieve?
This is because; adoption of Washington’s ideology of submissiveness, could mean accepting any orders from any white native, something that elucidates one primary question; if African-Americans could have submitted to whites orders, how sure could the community be that, these whites could grant them their freedom finally; owing to their importance in helping them strengthen their empires economically?
On the other hand, in any societal scenario, no one can deny that, educations is one of the primary building blocks of any social, economic, and political systems existing in such a society. Although this rhymes with Washington’s idea, it is important to note that, success of his ideologies was almost impossible in the olden American society.
This is the case primarily because; during the times of these prominent leaders, the then existing segregations created prime obstacles to the advancement of the African-Americans in education (Smock pp. 50-73). Considering this, sometimes is very hard to comprehend how Washington’s ideas could have succeeded, owing to the fact that, if even him who had some white origin, faced many obstacles in his schooling, what could have been the case for the African-American minorities?
Sometimes, considering Washington’s ideologies on achievement of freedom, it will not be wrong for any individual to argue that, his ideologies were egocentric and only aimed at personal gains, rather than communal gain.
That is, although he succeeded in his political career, because of the political support he received from both sides, what contributions did his ideologies make to the liberation of this minority group? Considering the current status of these two communities in the American continent, his ideologies could have been fruitless in achieving freedom enjoyed presently.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ideas of W.E.B. Dubois and Booker T. Washington by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, considering the antagonism and attacks this community received form White driven groups for example, the Ku Klux Klan and the White league, Dubois’s ideologies were the best in achieving the freedom, which this community had yearned for a very long time.
On the other hand, yes, education had some significance in the liberation war; however, how could it achieve its targets with the much segregation, which were prevalent in the Job market. This made Washington’s ideologies not only impractical and unrealistic, but also the hardest to achieve, in a society, which had many conflicting issues and differences (Moore pp. 92-110).
Economic dependency was another factor that this African-Americans needed for such liberation to come as per Washington however, how could this minorities have achieved this, in a society where black entrepreneurs received extreme victimization? This because; as Dawkins (P.1) argues, the concept of freedom entrepreneurship was a vocabulary to this segregated group primarily because; no white could be pleased to see a Negro succeed.
To whites, succeeding of an African-American meant that, likelihoods of them sinking capitalistic gains were high; hence, the need to minimize their achievements for them to remain whites’ descendants forever. Hence, this made it important for this oppressed community to take Dubois orientation, for it was the only mechanism of ensuring this group received its required civic recognition.
Conclusion In conclusion, although Washington’s ideologies of achieving freedom were good, they lacked the practicality concept, owing to the fact that likelihoods of such efforts succeeding in the past American society were minimal. In addition, this was the case primarily because; this society received extreme segregation from the whites in all aspects of their lives hence, submitting to the whites, as a mechanism of achieving freedom; through economic gains, could play no role as far as the struggle for liberation was concerned.
Works Cited Dawkins, Sabrina. Deromanticizing Black History W.E.B. Dubois
The Glass Menagerie Essay college essay help near me
Written by Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie is a masterpiece and it passes as a memory play for it exposits Tom Wingfield’s thoughts. A wishful poet, brother to Laura, and son to Amanda and ever absent Mr. Wingfield; Tom works hard in a shoe store to provide for his mother and sister. Amanda on the other side is a complicated mother who regales her children in this moment and scolds them in the next.
Amanda plays important role in Laura’s reticence and pathological shyness. While she cannot be blamed for making her shy in the first place, she is to blame for making Laura’s continued shyness.
Instead of supporting Laura emotionally, she goes out to look for quick fixes and material gains. First, she enrols her in a business school for her to earn some good fortune. After realizing Laura’s weakness has kept her out of school, she does not care to investigate the problem and settle it amicably; on the contrary, she resorts into finding her a fiancé.
These are uninformed decisions and she is to blame for Laura’s continued shyness. If only Amanda were supportive, Laura would probably gain self-confidence and have high self-esteem. Amanda’s reminiscences on her youth in the South are not reliable. They are too overstated to be true. How can someone get seventeen callers in one afternoon? This is unrealistic; therefore, judged from this platform, Amanda’s reminiscences are treacherous.
Throughout this play, there are different forms of music, movies, and legends. These elements create emotional impact in the play. The audience can connect with the main characters. For instance, the music and lightning used make the audience connect with Laura’s shortcomings, Amanda’s indifference, and Tom’s struggles.
This play suggests a repressed desire boiling under the surface. Tom holds this burning passion; he wants to get out there and explore the world. This burning desire explains why Tom visits a witchdoctor and finds a way of getting out of a coffin without the hustle of pulling any nail.
He coffin here represents Wingfield’s home. The object of Tom’s longing is to explore the world out there and this is why he plans to accompany Merchant Seamen to get out and explore the world. He says, “I am tired…movies tranquilize people, making them content to watch other people’s adventures without having any of their own…plan to join the Merchant Seamen” (Tennessee 62). This trip would finally quench Tom’s desire to explore the world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Absence of Mr. Wingfield affects his children and wife greatly. Tom has to work for the family whilst Laura knows only a nagging mother. Perhaps she would gain self-confidence and self-esteem if she had her father around her. Amanda is ever worried because of her fatherless family.
She is too concerned about her family’s financial security that she would not let Tom leave without getting Laura a suitor who would provide for her. To counter her fears, Amanda enrols Laura in a business school hoping that she would be stable; provide for her self and probably for the family. This stems from the fact that she fears without a father; her family would be insecure. If only Mr. Wingfield were around, she would be financially secure.
Jim O’Connor is a “nice, ordinary, young man” (Tennessee 5). These adjectives come out clearly in the context of the play. Due to his ‘ordinary’ nature, he manages to win Laura’s confidence, dances with her, and finally kisses her. His ‘niceness’ drives away Laura’s fears and low self-esteem and she opens up to him. As the play closes, Tom tells Laura, “Blow out your candles, Laura–and so good-bye” (Tennessee 97). Audience may respond to this statement by concurring to it.
Laura has to blow out her candles and reach for the lighting that lights the world nowadays. Tom is the protagonist in this story. Tom is the most crucial to the play’s dramatic action because everything revolves around him. Without him, the Wingfields would not be, Jim would be unknown, and the central theme of illusions would not be realized.
Works Cited Tennessee, Williams. “The Glass Menagerie.” Oxford; Heinemann Educational Publishers, 1968.
Cognitive Aids for People With Multiple Sclerosis Research Paper college application essay help
Table of Contents Multiple Sclerosis
Critical evaluation of Evidence based assistive technologies
Importance of assistive technology
Relevance to occupational therapy
Multiple Sclerosis Over the years, assistive technologies such as personal digital assistant (PDAs) have been used for management of multiple sclerosis. It is evidenced that cognitive impairment can have adverse effects on a patient’s life affecting his daily personal activities as well as family and social life. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of occupational therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis as they assist in managing the symptoms but have failed to provide efficacies of the evidence based methods.
Critical evaluation of Evidence based assistive technologies The numbers of studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of therapeutic intervention of patients with symptoms of multiple sclerosis have not been without criticism.
First, extensive literature that covers rehabilitation techniques for cognitive impairment are mostly concentrated on brain injury therapy which is mostly theoretical and fails to demonstrate practical functional improvement of the patient in the real world. Secondly, the emergence of computers in the 1970s introduced gamelike remedial programs that were evidenced to improve memory attention and concentration.
Research conducted in this field however did not show results of improved cognitive impairment following use of computer programs as many of the patients recorded high results in game scores which did not reflect in their every day learning activities. This therefore brings us to the conclusion that computer use as compensatory rehabilitation tool may not be affectively applied in remedial therapy (Gentry, 2008, p.18).
Desktop task prompting systems such as on screen keyboards specifically developed for people with cognitive impairment are only based on theoretical analysis as they provides no evidence to support on their efficacy in improving patient’s functional performance.
Another study conducted to asses the Psion Organizer, as a memory aid in patients with brain injury did show limitations of the evidence based practices despite remarkable improvement in functionality of the patient after practice.
The problem, however, is that, memory aid used in cognitive impairment recorded high levels of response to Psion Organizer as a reminder system but failed to describe how participants were trained and track functional outcomes (Gentry, 2008, p.19).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Electric reminder systems that include cognitive aids tools such as electric pager, voice recorder and cell phone have widely been reported in numerous case studies to help people with cognitive disability carry out their daily activities by helping them stick to one schedule.
Although userbility of reminder system have showed improvement after administration, the assistive technology only displayed minimum functions that were used in the study hence unreliability of the results. It has also been argued that cognitive aids rely on theoretical research which is drawn from client-based practices, innovation theories and cognitive rehabilitation theories.
Since theoretical based studies such as client-centered practice involve the collaboration of a patient and a clinician in solving everyday functional problems, use of assessment tools such as Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) need adequate and thorough training which was not administered in the beginning of the case study (Gentry, 2008, p.19).
Importance of assistive technology Different practices relate to different functional needs, and as Takai (1986) affirms, most of the assistive tools are widely found, durable, pocket size, light-weighted and offer multiple organizational functions that are very beneficial. For example, assistive technologies used in cognitive impairment that include hand held computers, dressing sticks, adopted clothing and button aides are simplified, easy to adopt and affordable as they enhance functional independency.
Feeding devices for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that include electronic feeders and fore-arm orthoses have enabled patients improve articulation. Reports from Takai (1986), case study indicated that after practice, many patients with muscle weaknesses were able to draw diagrams, feed themselves and even limited the number of visits to occupational therapy as they had mastered the adoptive techniques.
Other assistive devices such as grab bars, bathseats, walkers among others have been widely credited for increasing independency of multiple sclerosis patients and even improve work life( Finlayson, 2000, p.549).
Grasp kinematics that incorporates motor coordination help patients grasp objects and improve muscle movement of patients with amyotrophic lateral scelerosis (Maitra et al, 2010, p.101). The benefit of using hand held computers as an assistive technology is that they are easy to carry around which can be used both at home and in the community.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Cognitive Aids for People With Multiple Sclerosis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The personal electronic devices that included calendars, alarm and memo pads enabled patients to adhere to daily schedules as opposed to paper-based schedules hence. All the participants in the case study demonstrated the ability to operate a PDA functions independently after training as majority of them of them were able to set calendar alarms and perform basic PDA which improved their lives significantly (Gentry, 2008).
Relevance to occupational therapy Assistive technology relates to occupational therapy since they represent significant of daily living. In assessing activities of daily lives performance for patients, lower and upper extremity dressing has been showing disparities with patients recording different observable benefits.
Occupational therapies for this case should consider all the aspect and incorporate them into patient training activities. Some of the adoptive cognitive aids of dressing that facilitate occupational engagement of wearing slippers instead of shoes as patients experience difficulties in combining socks and shoes together result to decreased mobility since patients may shy away from leaving the house.
Occupational therapists should instead fabricate assistive tools that can make dressing easier. Activities that can be incorporated in the program to help these patients quickly adapt to functional independency will require introduction of sitting while dressing and other simple tools that can be used as single items. Therapists for this case should also research into new adoptive methods and incorporate them into patients (Mann et al, 2005, p.406).
Assistive technology also relates to occupational therapy since it sufficiently trains individual with cognitive impairment to use therapeutic devices to improve their functional performances and satisfaction of their every day tasks. Occupational therapists engages in facilitating occupational engagement of the patient by encouraging their active participation which helps build self-esteem and deal with the illness amicably (Takai, 1986, p.360).
Conclusion The research showed improvement in patient’s functional improvement more specifically in compensatory assistive technology as opposed to remedial therapy. Although this research showed lack of evidence to support the effectiveness of occupational therapy, majority of the patients successively achieved the needs of the assistive devices by partnering with therapists. This therefore brings us to the conclusion that computer use as compensatory rehabilitation tool may not be affectively applied in remedial therapy.
Occupational therapies on the other hand should consider all aspect cognitive functionality and incorporate them into patient training activities to help these patients quickly adapt to functional independency. Desktop task prompting systems such as on screen keyboards developed for people with cognitive impairment should provide evidence to support on their efficacy in improving patient’s functional performance.
References Finlayson, M., Guglielmello, L.,
Why and how did the US get involved in the Korean War? Research Paper college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction On the surface, the Korean War seemed like a normal war between North and South Korea; however, there was more to it than what met the eye. This was a war between the United States of America and the Soviet Union. Critics and adherents alike have come up with many hypotheses as to why and how the US government got involved in the Korean War.
Why According to Park, America got involved because of the “Domino Theory; a political theory that if one nation comes under communist control then neighboring nations will also come under communist control” (96).
In 1949, China had become one such a victim of communism and Truman knew if Korea went the same way, Japan would follow suit, something that would cripple America’s economy. “Before the tide turned, the U.S. established very high war aims of seeking the destruction of the Communist regime in North Korea” (Reiter 63).
It is evident that Truman never liked communism for he believed that it would undermine capitalism and freedom, important elements of American life. Cotton and Neary posit that, “the bombing as purely a military operation…as a means of applying pressure on the communists… (107). Truman acted on the 1950 National Security Council report (NCS 68), which called for abolishment of communism.
On the other hand, some scholars believe that America was competing against the USSR for world domination; consequently, Truman did not want to attack Russia directly so he opted to support South Korea as a way of fighting communism without involving the USSR directly.
Other compelling reasons include the fact that after America lost its bid to control China from becoming a communist state coupled with the USSR’s acquiring atomic bomb, a preserve for the Americans; many people believed that the American government was becoming weak. Therefore, to prove that the American government was not weak, therefore, Truman acted to prove that the US government was as strong as ever.
Other unusual interpreters claim, “Both sides wanted to unite but could not agree on what type of government, so the North tried to unite it forcefully by crossing the 38th parallel on June 25th 1950” (Park 99). By crossing over to the South, the North was angering the USA for it controlled the South region. Finally, America got involved in this war to honor her pledge contained in Truman’s document that stated that America would help any country that was willing to root out communism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More How The USA sent her troops to the Southern Korea government under the pretext of United Nation’s peacekeeping mission; however, “…the UN forces of the free world, with the United States as its key participant joined the conflict to aid South Korea” (Millet 1).
It is true that the North began the war by invading the South; something that led the UN; which was only five years old then, to ask ally nations to offer military support to the South region. Nevertheless, as aforementioned, Jenkins and Fredrick observe that, “To Kim’s surprise, however, the United States rose to action immediately” (xxiii). Therefore, it was an American exercise under the guise of the UN.
Conclusion The Korean War was not just a normal war between the Southern and the Northern region; no, it was war between the US and the USSR as they contested for world supremacy among other reasons. Particularly, America wanted to protect her trade with Japan and lifestyles; these elements were under threat of communism.
The sources used here are helpful for they offer different reasons behind America’s involvement in the Korean War. Without these different sources, one would think America went to this war for one reason; fortunately, these sources are peer-reviewed materials hence offering credible information.
Works Cited Cotton, James,
New advertising campaign of a new foot wearing company Analytical Essay best college essay help
The article ‘Crocs’ and ‘Style’ in the Same Breath deals with the new advertising campaign of Crocs, which is supposed to “establish Crocs as a brand” (Newman B4). Crocs was founded only eight years ago, but proved to be a successful company since it has sold approximately 120 million pairs of shoes.
Advertising methods of Crocs.
The article under consideration also highlights the ways used by Crocs to improve the sales. For instance, Crocs shoes have been sold not only in the footwear shops or in sporting goods shops, but also in kiosks and malls. Another method is advertising on TV, websites, magazines, posters, etc. And finally the article depicts the advertisement which reveals the company’s tagline: “Feel the love” (Newman B4).
The main issues of the article under consideration.
Thus, the article highlights one of the issues not only of Crocs but of all the companies: how to sell its products more. Crocs has its opponents who blame this brand for its strange look. But Crocs argues and suggests that “Ugly can be beautiful” (Newman B4).
But this kind of criticism, of course, doesn’t determine company’s revenue loss, and so Crocs finds the ways to gain its profits in different ways. One of which is wide advertising campaign, and another one is taking “outside-the-box approach”, which consists in selling Crocs in malls and kiosks (Newman B4).
Main advantages of this advertising campaign.
To my mind, Crocs represents an example of a successful company which uses all possible methods to sell its goods. First of all, they understand the importance of a good and thoughtful advertising campaign, so they point out and even stress the main advantages of their products telling about them to the customers via television, the Internet, periodicals, etc. They also introduce new characters to enhance the idea of comfort wearing Crocs shoes; these are two Croslites who massage woman’s feet in the advertisement.
The name of these characters is not sudden, for this is the name of the material used for Crocs shoes, which is “soft, odor resistant and conforms to the shape of feet” (Newman B4). To my mind, it is a very wise decision, for people will remember this material’s name, since they hear about those little characters Croslites every day, thus, they keep in mind the significant characteristics of that material and will likely to by Crocs shoes.
Pluses of Crocs’ experimentation.
And another interesting method used by Crocs to sell their products in new places, this suggests that this company is not afraid of experiments and is ready for something new, which is highly important in our world, which changes so fast. To my mind this campaign will bring Crocs on the level of the year 2007 and let the company develop further, improving its already very good products.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The importance of following target audience readiness stages.
It is also necessary to point out that Crocs launches its campaign taking in consideration the readiness stage of the target audience. Crocs know that their target audience is on the third or fourth stage, i.e. liking or preference (Kotler et al. 701). Thus, their advertising campaign will not to make consumers aware of their product, but will pass to the next steps forming buyers liking, preference, then conviction, and, finally, making customers buy Crocs.
To my mind, this is the right approach, since marketers should be aware of the stage where their target audience is. For example, if Crocs started from the first stage (and we remember their target buyers are on the third or even fourth), they could come to the opposite effect, for people who already know quite enough about the company might become tired hearing about something they know.
It is also impossible to pass to the stage conviction and purchase, for example, without forming liking first. People will never buy anything, if they only have some information about the product, people buy things which they like, and advertising campaign is to form this liking.
Works Cited Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Wong, V., Saunders, J. Principles Of Marketing. Harlow: Pearson Education, 2008.
Newman, A.A. “Crocs And Style In The Same Breath.” New York Times 14 April 2010: B4.
One Holy Image By Two Great Artists Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
One of the most important themes in the western art is religion, and one of the most inspiring images for may be each of the greatest artists has been the Virgin Mary. Enormous amount of works of art depict the Virgin, and since with the course of time artistic styles change, these images are revealed differently. It will be very interesting to compare two images of the Virgin, depicted in different epochs by different artists: Raphael and Paul Gauguin.
First of all, I would like to focus on the work of art by Raphael Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints, dated 1504. This is an altarpiece painted with oil and gold on wood. It depicts the Virgin with her holy Son on the throne in the center, God the father, angels and two apostles who surround the Virgin Mary forming perfect framing. The piece represents an example of Florentine style; it is very bright and symmetrical. This painting like the rest of Raphael’s works reveals his style of perfection and dignity.
At this point it is necessary to point out that Raphael is one of the greatest Italian artists of the High Renaissance. In spite of his short life, he was only 37 when he died, he left enormous amount of his beautiful works: paintings, architecture, frescos, altarpieces, drawings, etc.
Here are only few of his most famous works: Madonna of the Chair, The School of Athens, The Sistine Madonna. Raphael lived in the epoch of Da Vinci and Michelangelo, and three of them formed the trinity of great masters of those times. Raphael, to certain extent, was influenced by Da Vinci, but still he had his own style (D’Anvers 10).
Despite such great number of different works, this painter is best known for his Madonnas. It is necessary to stress that his “type of beauty is not such as calls forth immediate or extravagant admiration” (Hurll X). Raphael sticks to harmony in everything and that is why his works can never be tiresome.
At this point I would like to pass on the other painting depicting the Virgin Mary, painting by Paul Gauguin Ia Orana Maria. First of all, it is necessary to point out that Gauguin is famous Post-Impressionist artist, who turned from Impressionist style to Synthetics style, and finally introduced Primitivism.
His life wasn’t quite long (he lived 55 years) but very interesting and eventful. He started artistic life when he was forty and had a wife and five children, but he abandoned his family, peaceful life and even motherland; he became an artist who had to live in poverty for the rest of his life looking for real life and real people, which he found on islands.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is necessary to add that Gauguin lived in epoch of drastic changes in art, when traditions were broken and artists were seeking for new forms and means of expressing their inner world. His most famous works are Vision after the Sermon; Jacob Wrestling with the Angel, The Yellow Christ, Ia Orana Maria, Tahitian Women on the Beach; Where Do We come from? What Are We? Where Are We Going?
Gauguin’s image of the Virgin differs from the rest of such images, like Gauguin differs from the rest of artists. In this painting Gauguin “transposes the Christian story of the Son of God to a South Seas setting” (Walther 42).
First of all, the Virgin with her Son is depicted as a Polynesian woman in an island, she doesn’t hold her Son traditionally in her arms, and he sits on her shoulder. The Virgin stands in front of two other Polynesian women. Behind the two women the angel with yellow wings is depicted. This piece is painted in Primitivism style, with quite bright colors.
Comparing these two paintings it is necessary to point out that they are totally different. The former reveals transparent idea of the Holy Mary and Her Son.
It is very symmetric and even perfect in its form and its idea: depiction of the joy of Jesus birth. But as far as Gauguin’s painting is concerned it is necessary to admit that the form of the painting is not so symmetrical and ideal, and the form is not the main concern, it is idea of the painting that matters: Christianity comes to the islands and is accepted by the natives in their own way.
These two paintings’ theme is the Virgin, who is depicted in two different ways: Raphael depicted the Virgin very realistic and Gauguin painted in Primitivism style. Raphael focused on the form more than on the idea; Gauguin revealed his idea via simple lines to stress his idea.
Thus, it is possible to conclude that religion is a powerful and inexhaustible source of inspiration of all times. The artists referred to religious characters, and above all the Virgin, during centuries and each epoch presented its own view of eternal image. Such eternal subjects are very valuable in terms of art study, since it is possible to differentiate different styles and even epochs considering the image of the Virgin depicted by different artists.
We will write a custom Research Paper on One Holy Image By Two Great Artists specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited D’Anvers, N. Raphael. Charleston: BiblioBazaar, 2008.
Hurll, E.M. Raphael: A Collection of Fifteen Pictures and a Portrait of the Painter. Charleston: BiblioBazaar, 2008.
Walther I.F. Paul Gauguin, 1848-1903: the primitive sophisticate. Koln: Taschen, 1999.
Energy and Momentum Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Features of energy and momentum as applied in daily life
Relationship between energy and momentum
Introduction This paper presents energy and momentum as applied in the daily life. It is important first to define energy and momentum separately so as to grasp the technical terms used during the discussion of the topic. Relationship between energy and momentum will be drawn with reference to potential and kinetic energy. The analysis will also note application of both energy and momentum to our daily life.
Features of energy and momentum as applied in daily life As defined by many scientists, energy is termed as the ability to do work. Work done is when a force is incurred by a system over a distance. There are several forms of energy in existence. Examples of them are: kinetic energy, electrical energy, potential and heat energy (Llewellyn, 40).
Potential energy is the stored energy in a system. Water in a dam has potential energy while a body which is inclined on a plane and not moving also has potential energy. Kinetic energy is the energy oriented to move. When water in a dam runs down a tunnel it will gain kinetic energy.
The body had been inclined on a plane gains kinetic energy when it starts to move down the plane. According to the law of conservation of energy it states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can be transformed from one form to another (Tipler, 23). An example is water in a dam which is used to turn the turbine in the hydro electric power station.
Initially, still water possesses potential energy but on flowing down the tunnel to the turbine, the potential energy changes to kinetic energy and finally turns the turbine and which rotates the current carrying conductor inside a strong magnetic field to generates the electrical energy.
Momentum is the quantity of motion possessed by a moving object. To calculate the momentum of a moving body, we multiply the mass of that body by the speed at that instance. Spontaneity is considered in the calculation. Stationary bodies has zero momentum because they don’t have any motion hence their velocity is zero (Serway, 21).
Taking the picture of a body inclined in a plane, it gains speed on moving down the plane consequently increasing momentum such that the final momentum is higher than the initial momentum. Average momentum is therefore calculated as the initial momentum added to the final momentum and the result is divided by two (Smil, 13). Where two bodies in motion collide, momentum before and after is conserved. As a Vector quantity, momentum has both path as well as scale.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relationship between energy and momentum Considering the case of water in a dam, both potential energy and kinetic energy can be speculated for its effectiveness by the use of system of equations. From the equations, relationship between energy and momentum can be deduced.
Total energy (Et) of the system represents the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy, Et = Ke Pe…eq (i). From the definition of Energy as ability to do work, we obtain Energy = Force (F) × distance (X) …eq (ii). Considering a small change in the distance given by Δx, Energy = F.Δx…..eq (iii). Displacement formulae states that; displacement = velocity (v) × time (t). Therefore Δx = Δv.t. Replacing this equation in equation iii above we get the following: Energy = F.vΔt……eq (iv). From Momentum (p) = Mass × velocity= Force × velocity (Halliday, 12). Taking a small change in momentum, equation (iv) becomes Energy = Δp⁄Δt.v. Δt = Δp.v =v. Δ (mv) ….eq (v). Taking the dot product of the above equation v. we get Δ(v.v) = (Δv).v V.( Δv) = 2(v. Δv).
For a constant mass, equation (v) becomes v. Δ (mv) = m/2Δ (v.v) = m/2Δv2 = Δ (mv2/2)…………eq (vi)
Therefore Energy = f. Δx = Δ (mv2/2). Taking the integral of both sides from initial to the final i.e. from the time water started moving down the dam through the tunnel we get the kinetic energy of the system. ∫f. Δx = ∫ Δ (mv2/2) = mv2/2
Therefore kinetic energy has been derived. Ke= mv2/2
From eq (i) taking the negligible potential energy we have E t = Ke = mv2/2
Kinetic energy is therefore related to momentum in the above equation.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Energy and Momentum specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Momentum and energy is applicable in everyday undertakings, for example when there is a head on collision the policeman inspecting the accident will determine the distance of braking using the inelastic collision of momentum.
To further supplement on the discussion, an example to show relationship between kinetic energy and momentum is when playing pool table game where one has to hit a ball from the angle. The final direction is determined by the head on collision between the two balls and the impact will result in one ball moving in another direction.
Conclusion This paper offered a vivid illustration of energy and momentum. It was evident from the discussion that momentum has magnitude and will act in the direction of a force. Whereas energy can be converted from one form to another, momentum cannot be changed from one form to another but can be converted to other forms. In a collision of bodies for a closed system, the momentum of the two colliding bodies can be exchanged. As mentioned in the literature energy is related to momentum in the following equation Et = Ke = mv2/2.
Works Cited Halliday, David and Resnick, Robert. Fundamentals of Physics. New York: John Wiley
A Comparative Analysis of Apple custom essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Market Segmentation for Sony and Apple Stores
The Marketing Mix for Sony and Apple Stores
Introduction Today, more than ever before, organizations are finding it difficult to maneuver through a myriad of business challenges ranging from stiff competition for market share to economic meltdowns to high costs of production. To remain afloat, managers, especially in the marketing department, have been handed the most intricate of duties, entailing looking for ways that their respective organizations might strategically expand their market segments in an ever constricting market base (Duboff
Taliban reforms Argumentative Essay essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Arguments for Taliban Reforms
Arguments against Taliban Reforms
Introduction Since its attainment of independence from British in 1919, Afghanistan has had a turbulence history characterized by foreign invasions, sectarian wars and poor governance. From the 1980s the Taliban, which began as a resistance group fighting against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, has played a key role in the affairs of Afghanistan.
While the Taliban governance may have appeared to be limiting the rights and freedoms of Afghans by their strict enforcements of religious laws, they brought about relative peace and stability by ending the near anarchy state that ensued following Afghanistan’s splitting along ethnic lines after the Soviet withdrawal in the late 1980s.
Following the US led invasion of Afghanistan, the Taliban lost the almost absolute control it held in the country. However, the Taliban is still a potent force and the group still has some influence in the county.
Through the course of the last two decades, Taliban has made a number of reforms which affect the lives of the people in Afghanistan. This paper shall argue that Taliban reforms are by the large good for the wellbeing of Afghanistan citizens. To buttress this assertion, this paper shall give a detailed description of some of the Taliban reforms which resulted in an improvement in the lives of the people of Afghanistan.
Arguments for Taliban Reforms One of the most significant reforms by the Taliban was the crushing of the drug industry in Afghanistan. Afghanistan is hailed as the world’s biggest opium producer and its production capacities are reported to have increased significantly following the toppling of the Taliban regime.
While it would be a fallacy to assume that there was no poppy cultivation during the Taliban reign, it is a well documented fact that on July 2000, the Taliban “issued a decree banning opium poppy cultivation” (Perl 2). Following this decree, the drug production was almost stamped out of the Taliban controlled regions in Afghanistan.
This reform demonstrates the Taliban’s commitment to establishing a drug free Afghanistan. However opponents of the Taliban rule have argued that the Taliban regime did in fact encourage the production of poppy and subsequently used the poppy-derived income to fund their arms purchases and training of their police. This is a view that is refuted by Whitaker who concedes that the Taliban only threatened to allow the resumption of opium production in light of imminent military action against them by US in 2001.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition to this, the invading forces and the interim government that replaced the Taliban showed great reluctance in putting pressure on local farmers to stump out poppy production. One especially damaging report by Nathan of the USA today magazine affirms that the Afghan authorities continue to enjoy up to 12% in taxes from opium sales.
Arguably one of the most notorious laws by the Taliban was the strict application of Islamic law which in some instances compelled doctors to “cut off the hands and feet of thieves in accordance with the Shariah”. Another significant reform by the Taliban justice system was that killers were tried promptly and punishment handed down in a matter of hours (Matinuddin 35).
This strict law enforcement resulted in a marked decrease of crimes in Afghanistan as the severe punishments acted as deterrence. Owing to the prompt manner in which sentences were handed out, there was a sense of justice by the population for as the old dictum goes, “justice delayed is justice denied”. However, there are those who feel that this strict laws practiced by the Taliban were too severe and amounted to a gross abuse of human rights.
Considering the remarkable decrease in the levels of crime and a restoration of Afghanistan from its previous state of near anarchy to some semblance of order, one must contend that despite their harsh nature, the laws imposed by the Taliban were indeed good for the people of Afghanistan. The prompt dealing of punishments to criminals also evoked a sense of fairness and justice which resulted in harmony in the country.
Taliban reforms were credited in restoring security in a war-torn Afghanistan. By use of their police force, Taliban was able to come up with security policies that resulted in a decrease in the cases of crime and insecurity in much of Afghanistan. Bryden and Hanggi note that following the collapse of the Taliban regime, there has been a steady growth of insecurity which has rapidly spread throughout the country (210).
It is for this reason that Taliban still continues to enjoy the passive support of the majority of the population since they concur that for all its ill, Taliban reforms are able to bring about relative stability to the volatile region.
Critics of the Taliban movement argue that the increased insecurity in Afghanistan is as a result of Taliban insurgency which has resulted in the death of thousands of civilians. While there is some truth in this statement, one must consider such claims in light of the fact that the violence only erupted following the overthrowing of the Taliban. In addition to this, Taliban forces are not the sole sources of violence in Afghanistan.
We will write a custom Essay on Taliban reforms specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Warlords and criminal gangs fighting for control over territories have also been responsible for a big percentage of the insecurity problems in the country. This is very similar to the situation that existed in the late 80s and early 90s before the Taliban took power in Afghanistan. As such, it is a credible assumption that only the Taliban reforms can lead to peace in Afghanistan.
Arguments against Taliban Reforms The most contentions reforms by the Taliban are those that dealt with the treatment of women. One of the issues which have been focused on is the encouragement of wedding off of girl children. According to the Taliban, it is “good and Islamic to marry your daughters off while they are young’ (Ellis 143).
In the modern age that we are living in, this is tantamount to child abuse and studies indicate that girls who are forced into such marriages have a higher chance of suicide or mental problems. Taliban reforms also led to a ban on employment of women and a temporary halt to formal female education; these reforms were very retrogressive in nature (Marsden 88).
From the above examples, it is evident that Taliban reforms as pertains to the female population were mostly adverse in nature. The Taliban religion police were also often accused of beating women with sticks in the street undoubtedly led to a deterioration of the already bad situation for the women in Afghanistan.
Discussions Arguably the most significant argument presented against the Taliban reforms is as concerns their treatment of women. The Taliban rules which resulted in the lack of education for the girl child and a restriction on their movement evoked wide spread criticism from the Western world.
However, It can be argued that the Taliban’s gender policies which led to a restriction on the education of women and generally placed them under the protection of men was an attempt to protect Afghan women from influences that could weaken the society from within.
Ayub, Kouvo and Wareham note that while the 2001 Afghanistan invasion by the US let military force may have been largely welcomed by the general Afghan public, the ensuing breakdown of security and reemergence of sectarian war largely undermined the efforts of the new government and its international backers (7).
Nearly a decade after the dramatic fall of the Taliban, the country is full of violence, drug-related crimes and other abusive behavior that have cast a dark cloud over Afghanistan. While there is no doubt that Taliban is far from perfect, looking at the current state of affairs in Afghanistan, one cannot help but acknowledge that the country is in a sorrier state that it was in during the Taliban rule.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Taliban reforms by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion This paper set out to argue that Taliban reforms are generally good for the welfare of the Afghans. By taking a critical look at some of the specifics of these reforms, this paper has shed light to the advantages that these reforms presented to the population of Afghanistan. This paper has also presented some reforms which have been perceived as negative so as to provide a balanced view of the Taliban reforms in Afghanistan.
While the reforms are in some areas largely flawed, from the evidence provided in this paper, it can be seen that these reforms presented the best means for Afghan to be a functional society. It can therefore be authoritatively stated that Taliban reforms are good for the welfare of the Afghanistan people and as such, ways in which they can be incorporated into the current government should be looked into.
Works Cited Ayub, Fatima., Kouvo, Sari and Wareham, Rachel. “Security Sector Reform in Afghanistan.” International Center for Transitional Justice. April 2009. Web. https://www.ictj.org/sites/default/files/ICTJ-Afghanistan-Security-Reform-2009-English.pdf
Bryden, Alan and Hanggi, Heiner. “Reform and Reconstruction of the Security Sector.” LIT Verlag Münster, 2004. Print.
Ellis, Deborah. “Women of the Afghan War.” Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000. Print
Marsden, Peter. “The Taliban: war, religion and the new order in Afghanistan.” Palgrave Macmillan, 1998. Print.
Matinuddin, Kamal. “The Taliban Phenomenon: Afghanistan 1994-1997.” Oxford University Press US, 1999.
Nathan, James. “The Folly of Afghan Opium Eradication.” USA Today Magazine, March 2009. Print.
Perl, Raphael. “Taliban and the Drug Trade.” CRS Report for Congress. 5 October 2001. Web.
How failure to report affects the army Essay college application essay help
The army of a country can be defined as the military unit charged with the responsibility of safeguarding the country’s land and air borders. The army is the unit used by a state to safeguard its sovereignty. It includes land based operatives who carry out field and combat operations and air based operatives through its air force branch.
The unit conducts regular training to recruit new personnel to help build and sustain its capacity base. The trainings are carried in extreme conditions that characterise the harsh circumstances that successful soldiers will face on ground and thus prepare them for field operations.
Reporting is the bringing to light or forefront of an issue or information. It helps in the exchange of useful information from one person or unit to another. Just like any other successful functioning organisation, there needs to be exchange of information between all individuals in the army.
Army officials are better suited to understand soldiers within their platoons based on the information they get from or reported to them by their respective platoon members. A number of issues can arise if accurate and adequate information is not shared between soldiers and their officials.
The main concern of not reporting is the deployment of soldiers who are not 100% fit to field operations. In any combat that a platoon faces, the fitness of all its members determines how effective the platoon will be. If there exists a soldier who is not fit prior to deployment and this condition is not reported to the officials, he or she will not only be a weak point of the platoon but will also make the platoon members have diverted attention from the combat at hand.
He/she will have to be given care meaning that the platoon will fall short of one or two of its members who will be responsible for availing the care. Such unfit soldiers will lower the mobility of the platoon.
The army’s priority is to ensure national security of a nation. If an army official or any other person within the country has knowledge of information that could compromise national security and he or she fails to report this matter to the defence department, detrimental consequences might result there after.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If the country’s security apparatus could have had access to this information, these consequences can be avoided. Terrorism is best fought by exchange of vital information between various international security agencies in collaboration with the defence departments of respective states.
Army officials need to have access to information on how the department administers its duties. Programmes need to be initiated for community participation in information gathering by the defence department.
This information can be used to evaluate how the department performs its duties and develop new strategies of performance in instances where service provision by the department is poor. If such useful information cannot be availed, the manner in which the defence department carries out its duties cannot be determined. As a result, corrective measures cannot be initiated if the department performs poorly.
For the formulation of effective policies and reforms in the department of defence, policy makers need to have access to accurate information from soldiers to whom these reforms are to benefit. Combat and other ranks of soldiers have vital information that can be used to develop reforms within the defence department.
They have first hand access to information concerning the challenges they face while on duty. This information can be used to formulate reforms and develop policies that take care of and address the soldiers’ concerns. Current policies that impact negatively on soldiers cannot be reformed if this vital information is reported.
Customer Value: e-Bay Essay online essay help
Table of Contents Connected Activities
The firm offers an automated, well organized website that gives the customers easy time when transacting businesses online. Those selling items are able to display their goods and every detail including prices on the site. Auctioneers have found it easier to use e-Bay since it helps them perform every step involved during auction as well as providing completed transaction to both the seller and the bidder.
The company offer buyers free browsing time, this provides cheap channel for buyers to access high quality goods while on the other hand sellers are able to access large market with rich customer base (Tang 371- 376; Feng et al 467-503).
The company has protected its customers from fraudulent activities that may occur in the process business transactions. It provides its clients with insurance for the first $200 of every transaction performed through its site. They give the customers opportunity to socialize freely using their site. They offer clients the opportunity to choose one station where to list their inventories (Tang 371- 374)
Connected Activities The e-Bay company entered into partnership with several other companies which formed the basis of its expansion (Tang 371). The company is currently involved with products that have ready market. There is also involvement in vertical channels that sees the company sell automobiles and other industrial goods boosting the company’s revenue. The company partners with outside vendors to offer to clients additional assistance services.
The firm offers education to its users and this help in improving the customer’s proficiency in online activities. The company has created several sub sites that helps in the sale of some goods like used cars, Kelley Blue Books helps the firm in advertising prices and information regarding commodities on sale (Tang 376-377).
The firm has adopted the use of non-auction methods to sell off products. It also created the program that enables buyers to win auctions as fast as possible. The firm uses a strong brand name which has been one of the driving forces behind their success.
They use the brand name to attract new customers through partnership and advertisement in the internet. It partnered with American Online which led to co-branding of the auction sites; this gave eBay a good base to market its products. It also incorporated its activities in MSN through partnership with Microsoft Corporation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The firm has further partnered with several service providers to offer enough space and good inventory management for the big businesses to channel their products (Tang 377). The company acquired PayPal to help in improving the level of the non-auction services. This offers the clients maximum security and efficiency on their transactions.
Scope The firm uses public relations effectively and uses it to provide stories to its customers. It offers its services to United States where it operates local sites in the regional markets. The local sites enable the users to locate products that are sold within their reach; this is more eminent in Los Angeles, Honolulu, Oklahoma and Miami all in the United States. The American Online digital City enables the customers of e-Bay to access city guide services and Newspapers all over the region (Tang 376).
The firm has expanded its services to twenty seven countries, these include; United States, Brazil, Canada, Argentina, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Mexico, Uruguay, Venezuela, Austria, European countries, Australia and some countries from the far East. In some countries like Germany it offers services on acquisition of online auction houses.
It offers customers wholesale markets, developed retail options and structural efficiencies (Tang 388). The firm offers sellers free listing services and heavy sales promotion in Japan. The firm’s stores have been used by big companies as preferred channel to sell their products. The state governments also find it convenient to auction their vehicles through e-Bay (Tang 376-377).
Works Cited Feng, Froud, Johal, Haslam and Williams. “A New Business Model? The Capital Market and the New Economy”. Economy and Society, Vol. 30, No. 4, 2001: 467-503
Tang, Scott, e-Bay: growing the World’s largest online Trading Community. United States. 2003: 371-383
The Students Media Board Organization Leadership Model Essay custom essay help: custom essay help
The Students Media Board (SMB) is an organization that directs various units important to achieving success of the Washington State University Vancouver media outlets. The organization oversees three student-operated media groups: the KOUG radio, the VanCougar bi-monthly newsletter, and the Salmon Creek Journal (an annual literary arts journal. As an organization, SMB demonstrates various traits in terms of organizational factors.
Every organization is characterized by a leadership model. Leadership involves influencing the staff to take part in achieving the organizational objectives. There are different theories explaining leadership styles, which include; first is the trait theory. This theory holds that there are personality characteristics that distinguish leaders from the followers.
There is a mental demonstration of the characteristics and mode of conduct shown by the leaders. Looking at SMB, it is led by an Executive Board that is made up of a team of four volunteer students and the Students Involvement Manager. The main function of the leadership board is to coordinate efforts and expand media resources.
The second leadership theory is behavioral style. This theory requires that a leader should create mutual respect and trust among followers and also initiate an organizational structure that organizes and defines what team members are expected to do. A leader’s behavior should be systematically molded and improved, since there is no single ultimate leadership style, thus it is important to determine when to exhibit certain traits.
Thirdly is the situational theory, which argues that a leader’s style should be consistent with the situation at the moment. It refers to how well the leader is in charge and can manage the work environment at hand.
Situational theory can take three dimensions: leader-member relations where the leader has the support and trust of the team; work structure; and position power of the leader, which includes the extent to which the leader can sanction, compel and reward the work team. Hershey and Blanchard propose that efficient leadership behavior is influenced by the alertness of the followers, the ability to complete a given duty.
Another model is the path-goal theory which defines how leader’s effectiveness is impacted by the interaction between directive, supportive, participative and results-oriented styles. There are contingency factors that affect the aptness of a leader’s behavior. The SMB board is in charge of implementing problem solutions from the top authority.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is transactional leadership which aims to clarify the employee’s tasks and provide reward according to achievement. This model of leadership can be distinguished from transformational leadership, which focuses on changing employee’s attitudes to pursue the organization’s objectives over self interest.
Transformational leadership involves increasing intrinsic motivation and objective pursuit, idealizing influence, individualizing consideration, and by intellectual stimulation. Good leaders are expected to be both transformational and transactional so as to impact on the team dynamics and team-level results, while employees are more transactional than transformational.
There is the leader-member exchange model, which assumes that the quality of relations between the leaders and the employees is more vital than the traits of either the leaders or followers. Leaders are encouraged to create high performance expectations of their direct reports but not to enable homogeneous work conditions.
Just like any other organization, SMB has an objective which is to provide educational opportunities to the campus media teams and their development. Due to its organizational structure created by the leadership, SMB is able to achieve new and lucrative inventions that one cannot be achieved individually. Another role of the leadership team of SMB is to introduce and train new recruits in the organization to achieve success of their goals and pursue a person’s need for affiliation.
Effects of Stress on Physical Health Research Paper college essay help
Man has had to deal with numerous challenges as far as remaining healthy is concerned. Researchers have been able to identify several causes of health problems among human beings and most of them have grave consequences. Stress has been singled out by most investigators as being one of the major causes of both physical and emotional health problems (Niess, Monnikes, Dignass, Klapp,
Composing and Performing Church Music Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
In the twentieth century, the view of music by the Roman Catholic Church was defined in two statements: the first of them, motu proprio of 1903, proclaimed return to Gregorian chant, restoration of unaccompanied polyphonic singing, and composition of contemporary music for liturgy (Wilson-Dickson 1992, 214).
Thus, a more professional approach was taken to composing and performing church music — which in its turn, brought forward the necessity for educating and training the priesthood in church music. The tendency to restoring the medieval Christian music found a major response among French organists and composers who formed a whole tradition or improvising and composing church liturgy in the twentieth century.
Among the organists and composers who relied heavily on the tradition of Gregorian chant were Louis Vierne, Charles Marie Vidor, Charles Tounemire, Jean Alain, Marcel Dupre, and Jean Langlais. But the most outstanding is the figure of Olivier Messiaen whose creative work features a broadest range of Christian content and ideas realized by means of innovatory treatment of scale and rhythm.
The distinguishing feature of Messiaen’s music is that it incorporates not only the legacy of Gregorian chant but also the sounds of contemporary Western music with those of the nature and of the East (Wilson-Dickson 1992, 216). His music of immense complexity represents a careful balance of medieval symbols and oriental traditions weighted in a simultaneousness of diversities.
After the decline of professional music for liturgy in the nineteenth century, the twentieth century witnessed a spiritual revival in professional art to which the church hardly related. The dramatic events of the two world wars inspired composers to seek a special spirituality in music. The genre of oratorio was restored to a new glory, and the word of Bible was brought to concert halls.
The leading composers who created large-scale oratorios reflecting the central themes of Christianity were Arthur Honegger, Frank Martin, Igor Stravinsky, and Benjamin Britten. In their works, the nature of concert music was reassessed: appealing rather to the spiritual than to the emotional domain of human beings, concert music was called to satisfy “humanity’s deep need for spiritual understanding” (Wilson-Dickson 1992, 222).
New content demanded new form, and the music of the time broke up with the traditional functional harmony and demonstrated a tendency to minimalism of expressive means. This allowed to concentrate more on the “purity of sound, perfection of tuning, and exquisite blend” — the qualities that turned music performances into spiritual experiences (Wilson-Dickson 1992, 222).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The second Roman Catholic Church statement on the role of music, the 1963 Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, brought about too rapid a change that resulted in nothing more than a crisis. Accentuating the necessity for the congregation’s active participation in the liturgy led to dramatic changes.
Those involved abandonment of Latin and consequential loss of most chant and polyphony repertoire; antiartistic feeling brought about by the plain unison of the congregation instead of the professionals singing in perfect harmony; and derivation of liturgy music from such popular sources as dance, pop, and even rock music.
Eventually, it was hard to discern the difference between a liturgical event and a rock concert. As a response to such crisis of professional tradition in liturgy, a Silvanes cultural center was established, where training is given in professional liturgy activities to preserve the venerable standards of excellence.
In addition, renewal of psalmody is observed in certain liturgy practices that use Latin as a neutral language universal for all nations and perform music emphasizing the orderliness and simplicity of sixteenth-century style.
Works Cited Wilson-Dickson, Andrew. (1992). The Story of Christian Music. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press.
The Circular Ruins Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
‘The Circular ruins’ is a short story written by Jorge Luis Borges about a wizard who moves away from humanity to the circular ruins, an isolated location which is considered to hold magical power. The wizard is motivated to create a human being and he intends to do so by dreaming up the human.
To do so, the wizard starts sleeping and dreaming for prolonged periods on a daily basis where he imagines a young man who gradually gains wisdom and knowledge. Soon, the wizard begins to lose sleep to the point where he can no longer dream of the young man.
The wizard therefore declares the first endeavor to create a human as a failure and decides to try again. After several attempts, he finally falls asleep where he initially dreams of an indistinct form which gradually becomes a clear image of a heart in subsequent nights.
The wizard continues to give detail to his young man form for many years until finally he feels that the form is complete upon which he requests the god Fire to give life to the form. Fire agrees and the form finally becomes just like a human and is sent to the real world to work in a secluded temple of the god Fire.
Since the creation is not human, it is able to do astonishing deeds like walking through fire and on hot coal without being burnt. The creation becomes famous so much so that the wizard learns of these achievements and decides to visit the creation. When he arrives, the wizard walks into the flaming house of Fire and become aware of the fact that just like his creation, he too is not burnt by fire and realizes that he is also a creation of another dreamer.
Discussion Jorge Luis Borges in ‘The Circular ruins’ articulates the prospect that reality is superlative, hence the conscious mind controls all the matter around it. The story takes an idealist approach to realism by suggesting that ideas are just as powerful as reality. For instance, the idea of a rock is just as real as a material rock to a material person to a mind that identifies the idealized rock as real (Costa 78).
The deeper meaning could therefore be that the mind has the power to expand and compress reality hence if the mind is incapable of connecting with reality more than what it is familiar with, what the mind then recognizes is the only pertinent reality (Bronstein 647). The wizard in ‘The Circular Ruins’ lives in the reality of ordinary men before he relocates to the ruins and he is regarded by others and views himself as a normal man (Asma 6). The wizard goes ahead to imagine another person only to realize later that he too is an idea.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Borges here implies that our existence as human beings could also be the thoughts of a more powerful being and since we have no way of knowing, authority has to come from the being that allows us to understand our existence(Costa 81). Consequently, no one is completely certain that their reality including their mind and ideas is not just another person’s imagination which would make their imagination reality (Bronstein 654).
In conventional and modern cosmology, dreams play a major role in enhancing communication between the conscious and subconscious mind as well as bridges the gap between the dream and the dreamer (Hagar 3). The meaning of the dream could be that the wizard was subconsciously longing for a son or a new invention (Asma 9). It is also possible that the wizard was indeed a dream which would mean that the dreamer was neither focused nor was he actually committed to his intentions though the Ego was willing(Hagar 4).
The god Fire is of the essence in the rule of anatomy because he is the one that consequently forms reality out of the wizard’s imagination (Bronstein 659). However, it is in his second attempt that he is able to successfully create an individual through a more thorough and detailed process from the first (Asma 10).
According to Hagar, the anatomy of the final creation has various meanings and interpretations the most profound being the importance of time in doing anything worthwhile (6). The first creation is created rather quickly when compared to the second being meaning some crucial aspects might have been overlooked. In addition, the detailed amalgamation of the second being perpetuates the meaning that carefully collected thoughts are potent and more likely to generate the expected results (Costa 85).
One major advantage that this short story has over conventional philosophic prose is the ability of the author to connect emotionally with the reader. In doing so, cavernous meanings can be drawn from the dreams at both an anatomy and cosmology levels as well as form an idealistic state of mind (Asma 12). It is however apparent that the author meant for the reader to question his environment as well as his thoughts in order to ultimately understand his reality, identity and existence.
Works Cited Asma, Matthew. Borges: Intruding on Reality. May 2002. Web.
Bronstein, Catalina. Borges, Immortality and the Circular Ruins. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, Vol.83, No. 7, pp.647-660, 2002.
We will write a custom Essay on The Circular Ruins specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Costa de René. Humor in Borges. Michigan: Wayne State University Press, 2000. Print.
Hagar, Salamon. Between Conscious and Subconscious: Depth-to-Depth Communication in the Ethnographic Space. Sep., 2002. Ethos, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 249-272. April 26, 2010: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3651873?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Sense experience is the only source of knowledge Research Paper custom essay help
Table of Contents Empiricism in philosophy
Empiricism compared to other theories
Inconsistencies in the Empiricism theory
There are several theories in epistemology also known as the study of human knowledge and one of the theories states that sense experience is the only source of knowledge. Also known as empiricism, this theory is one of numerous contending observations that dominate various fields such as history, science, and philosophy in the study of human knowledge.
The theory gives emphasis to experience and substantiation sensory participation and awareness in particular, in the development of thoughts and ideas. Empiricism however challenges the concept of innate ideas which may in unique cases be deduced from empirical reasoning for instance in hereditary bias.
In addition, the philosophy of science which is a comparatively unrelated sphere of knowledge, integrates empiricism extensively by underscoring the view that that all assumptions and conjectures have to be tested against interpretations of the natural world, instead of being created only through an innate way of thinking, perception or disclosure.
The theory therefore asserts that the features of scientific knowledge in particular as discovered in research, be directly correlated to the evidence and hence science is perceived as a methodologically empirical form of study.
Empiricism in philosophy Empiricism is a philosophical theory that connects knowledge to experience where experience is regarded as the sensory component of perception. The theory disagrees with other theories that support the notion that knowledge in any form exists outside experience (Walter 2008, 82).
Theories such as rationalism the Intuition/Deduction thesis and Innate Knowledge thesis which support the notion that there is the existence of intrinsic or instinctive knowledge or the subsistence of a priori knowledge, knowledge of necessary truths or any common ideologies that claim knowledge in any form is acquired through the use of reason are of an opposing essence to the empiricism theory of philosophy (Maxwell 1998, 56).
The theory’s primary argument is that nothing in the intellect that was not previously in the senses and hence human thoughts are regarded to be completely dependant upon experience.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Various philosophers agree with the empiricism theory though suggesting that rationalism and empiricism are not mutually exclusive thus reason can be used to acquire knowledge though it has to utilize the information provided by the senses(Ward, n.d). For instance we can be rationalists in art, arithmetic, music or a particular area of the given subjects while at the same time we can still be empiricists when it comes to the physical sciences or history (Walter 2008, 83).
If philosophers can be rationalists and empiricists at the same time then the organizational formats frequently used in philosophy need restructuring since early philosophers were either grouped as rationalists or empiricists but the two different categories are now shared among philosophers with a common agenda (Markie, 2008).
Fundamental empiricists on the other hand argue that experience is the only source of knowledge and have a different opinion of the relationship between experiences and thoughts that suggests that thoughts are themselves subjects of examination, perceived by the senses in their categorization (Maxwell 1998, 59).
Two of the most prominent empiricists namely John Locke and David Hume both held that all thoughts and ideas developed from sensual cues are gained through experience and human beings are all are born without any form of knowledge inspiring Hume to state that “all ideas derive from the sense experiences which they copy” (Hume, 2006).
Discussion Sense experience is the only source of knowledge due to the fact that we cannot conceive ideas devoid of an equivalent sense impression. This notion is supported by Hume’s observation that, “A blind man can form no notion of colors; a deaf man of sounds” (Hume, 2006).
In addition, human imagination without any sensory foundation is limited and hence human beings cannot visualize perpetuity since we have never experienced it or a similar event to it. However, it is easy for us to imagine a blue lion although we have never seen one because we are able to combine ideas and thoughts to form a more intricate thought (Ward, n.d).
Empiricism about a given area under discussion for instance history discards the analogous theories that support the notion that such knowledge is innate due to the fact that as long as we have knowledge in history, our knowledge is a posteriori meaning acquired and is reliant upon sense experience such as reading, listening and observation(Walter 2008, 84).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Sense experience is the only source of knowledge specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Markie, (2008) states that; “reasoning can make us realize the connection present between our ideas though the ideas themselves as well as any truths in relation to the external reality the ideas represent can only be achieved due to sense experience”. Hume adjusts the comprehension of the content of our thoughts to simplify the empiricism theory by associating thoughts with experience hence explicating the origin of our thoughts.
Through the study of Hume’s work, it is easy to tell between the two types of mental contents which are impressions and ideas (Ward, n.d). According to Walter 2008, impressions are the contents of our experiences that are currently in progress such as desires, way of thinking, emotions, needs among others, whereas ideas are the mental contents developed from impressions. Ideas are however not similar with the existence of both simple and complex ideas.
Simple ideas are basically replications of impressions while complex ideas are compounded or expanded forms of impressions. Consequently, provided that all our ideas are accordingly achieved through experience, various techniques can be used to establish the content of any idea in addition to the implication of any expression in use to articulate it (Maxwell 1998, 60).
For instance by regarding a philosophical term to be without a meaning or idea, then by finding out the impression that is the supposed source of the idea will substantiate the sense experience (Markie, 2008).
“Therefore, as long as experience is the source of all ideas, then our experiences also establish the contents of our knowledge, such as our knowledge of right and wrong as well as our knowledge of substance have their content verified by the experiences” (Maxwell 1998, 60). Furthermore, empiricists do not support the connotation of the subsequent Innate Concept thesis that suggests that we have innate ideas in any subject area hence concluding that sense experience is our only source of ideas and knowledge.
Empiricism compared to other theories According to Maxwell 1998 (62), Empiricism and Rationalism differ fundamentally in principle though it has been deduced that the two theories simply diverge whenever they are set up to construe a similar subject.
For instance when discussing the truths about the external world, a rationalist with will claim that some external world truths are and have been known a priori since various ideas essential for that knowledge are and have to be innate moreover that this knowledge is more advanced than any knowledge that experience could offer(Ward, n.d).
An empiricist in contrast would argue that experience is the only source of information regarding the truths about the external world. However, the observations of philosophers are more refined and multifaceted and hence the annotations of the philosophers need to be viewed in isolation rather than categorize them as either empiricism or rationalism (Hume, 2006).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Sense experience is the only source of knowledge by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Locke for instance discards rationalism but also acknowledges the significance of the Intuition theory which supports our inherent knowledge of God and his being (Walter 2008, 85). Hume however states that our failure to give explanation as to how some thoughts with contents that can be characterized as rationalists though they are obtained through experience should not present the Innate Concept thesis as a viable option (Ward, n.d).
Such experiences are not able to sustain the content that various rationalists attribute to the consequent ideas and hence we should acknowledge a more restricted outlook of the contents for the thoughts and in so doing a more narrow view of our ability to explain and identify with the world (Markie, 2008).
There is also the Superiority of Reason thesis which empiricists adamantly decline to recognize due to the fact that reason does not offer any knowledge exclusively and hence it does not give more advanced knowledge. The Empiricism theory does not demand that we have empirical knowledge rather it involves the view that sole acquisition of knowledge can only be through experience.
Inconsistencies in the Empiricism theory There are a number of errors which have been identified to be within the Empiricism theory the first discrepancy being in the statement itself due to the fact that we can in reality obtain some knowledge without the necessarily incorporating experience and this is referred to as a priori.
A priori is therefore the knowledge that can be gained without experience while the converse posteriori, is the knowledge that is obtained through experience. Supporters of rationalism argue against empiricism due to the fact that the hypothesis fails to offer provisions for the manner in which thought affords one with compartments which are used to systematize and process the thoughts, a process which is not necessarily derived from experience (Maxwell 1998, 63).
Priori knowledge which is the central form of knowledge in the Empiricism theory is conferred in three dimensions, intuition being one of the means by which such knowledge can be acquired (Ward, n.d). Intuitive knowledge is the understanding gained through instinct as we as reflexively without the necessity of reasoning.
The assumption for instance that wherever there is no property, injustice cannot exist there is not conceived through reasoning and is rather through natural feeling (Markie, 2008). Demonstration is also another source of a priori knowledge and the implication is that knowledge by conclusions is developed through arguments and subsequent agreements, for example it can be proven that a vehicle moves because of the engine (Walter 2008, 87).
Finally, innate knowledge is also a way in which priori knowledge can be obtained and hence human beings are not born as “Tabula rasa” or as a blank slate but instead human beings posses a little innate knowledge during birth. For instance after birth, humans have knowledge about the rational connectives as well as the aptitude to develop verbal communication (Hume, 2006).
According to Hume, 2006 “Words in their primary or immediate signification stand for nothing in the mind of him that uses them.” The underlying significance of this statement is that since words have their meaning rooted in selected sense impressions, a speaker never has the same meaning when he think he is communicating(Ward, n.d).
This argument is erroneous for the reason that a speaker’s words stand for his sense impressions which a listener cannot obtain while the listener’s words represent his sense impressions which are different from the speaker’s and which cannot be obtained by another(Walter 2008, 89).
Furthermore, the Empiricism theory also lacks to acknowledge the fact that that the human mind dynamically transforms the way we experience different objects (Markie, 2008). Human beings observe objects in a diversity of ways since the human mind processes the information in different ways depending on an individual’s past (Maxwell 1998, 65).
Ludwig Richter for example along with a number of his colleagues went to a Tivoli to paint an image of a precisely similar object. However, after the completion of their paintings, they compared their work and noted that every painting was uniquely different from the rest. The conclusion of the above experiment reveals that the human mind has a dynamic role in the way we experience things (Ward, n.d).
Conclusion The empiricism theory was put together by a number of philosophers such as Aristotle, Robert Grosseteste, William of Ockham, Francis Bacon, John Locke, George Berkeley, David Hume, John Stuart Mill and Gilles Deleuze.
The philosophers suggested that the mind is a “tabula rasa” or a “blank tablet” or “white paper” on which experiences create the knowledge that is stored in the mind. Also known as fundamental empiricism, this version of empiricism contradicts the notion that human beings have intrinsic knowledge or that knowledge can ever exist without orientation to experience.
The empiricist view is of the view that knowledge requires to be ultimately obtained through an individual’s sense experience for any information to be accurately presumed understood or concluded. The philosophical empiricism theory is normally an antithesis of the philosophical theory of rationalism which emphasizes that to a great extent, knowledge is gained through reason and without the help of the senses.
The difference between the two theories is however not clear-cut in the present philosophical studies due to the fact that Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz who were fundamental rationalists also supported some aspects of the empiricism theory such as the scientific application of empiricism. Stringent empiricists such as Locke also held the concept that some knowledge for instance the knowledge of God’s existence could be obtained priori through instinct and reasoning only.
However, other philosophers such as Rene Descartes have provided reasonable proof through the rationalism theory that there are several errors in the empiricism theory. Their arguments undoubtedly prove that not all knowledge is gained from sense experiences given that there are indeed some ideas that are obtained without experience such as an aptitude for communication and the belief of the existence of God.
Reference List Hume, David. 2006. “A Treatise of Human Nature.” [email protected] Web.
Markie, Peter. 2008. “Rationalism vs. Empiricism.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Web.
Maxwell, Nicholas. 1998. The Comprehensibility of the Universe: A New Conception of Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Walter, Kaufmann, and B. E. Forrest. 2008. From Plato to Derrida. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Ward, Teddy, “Empiricism.” Web.
Leadership Roles: My Experience in the Nokia Cup Reflective Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Event organization always features different leadership roles being exhibited. There is clearly a need for organization, and therefore events are always instances where leadership is needed. The event I participated in is the Nokia Cup. This is an annual curling event and is very big within the sporting circles. I was assigned the role of lead hand in one of the event locations, namely Guelp Memorial Gardens stadium.
The main leadership role there was organization. A lot of resources and personnel were allocated so that the organization could be efficient. There was the overall committee, which had been working in partnership with other organizations. Additionally, there were departments headed up by individuals who took care of specifics such as security, entertainment and other facets within the event. My role was to help with organizing and controlling others within the stadium I had been assigned to.
The organization had both its advantages and challenges. The first advantage relates to the delegation of duties. The head committee delegated responsibility to various individuals based on the spread of the venue. This delegating allowed the people involved to specialize and take responsibility for different facets of the event. However, this was not followed up with effective communication, thus a breakdown in the quality of organization.
The result was that inter-related aspects of organization were not taken into consideration. For example, security was a nightmare simply because the head committee did not give feedback on the expected attendance. Additionally, the leadership on the ground did not prepare those who were actually going to carry out security properly.
There was need for a master plan as regards to planning, but this did not happen. It would have required an inter-committee task force to properly plan out the security in order for it to work effectively.
The mediocre planning caused a series of unfortunate events. There was need for the leadership role of crisis handling. Good crisis handling allows the event to save face and maintain its reputation. The compressor for keeping the ice temperature was not working properly because the overhead sensor was malfunctioning. Additionally, since concessions were not up to par, we had less money to work with.
However, there was real leadership shown in the heat of the moment. The leadership allowed for creativity, which saw a suggestion to increase the drinking so as to divert attention from the failed areas. This worked as the participants loved to drink. Additionally, the staff on the ground were inspired to work extra hard in order to cover for the unfortunate circumstances. At my venue, our venue head inspired us with a pep talk and a lot of warmth.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The result was that we were able to pull off the event, despite the overwhelming amount of work. However, I do not know specifically how the leadership handled the crises that they were facing in the other venues. What I do know is that the crises had to be handled, thus presenting a leadership moment for those in charge on the ground.
Supervision is another aspect that we can explore. It is the work of any leadership to allocate roles and see them out. This is what supervision entails: handing out roles and checking whether they have been done effectively and efficiently.
The main committee handed out responsibility according to the venue, and thus the delegated supervision to the various leaders appointed. At our venue, our leader was very hands on. He wanted to know what was happening and how it was being done. This allowed him to oversee effectively and respond to the challenges on a real time basis.
However, this also made him very exhausted at the end of the day. In my department, as one of the leaders I was able to organize my minions to move into the irregular roles assigned to us. This made it hard to supervise what they were doing since I had “lent” them out to different departments to help out as was necessary. I left them to be supervised by the various heads of the departments I lent them to.
In terms of creativity, I think the job done was very good. In this regard, I would change very little. The creativity was amazing, as shown by the building of a bar, food and beverages stand within the stadium, at the west end of the rink. They used professionals in creativity, and it paid off.
However, if I extend creativity to include problem solving, I would recommend bringing on more talent and wider experience. The leadership should have trusted us, in the lower levels, to be able to come up with suggestions and insights into how the event could be organized.
Had we been consulted, I am sure a wide range of suggestions that would have proved invaluable would have come up. Additionally, I would have loved if the leadership put in place a feedback mechanism for assessing the event. This way, the people on the ground would have given their view on how to improve the event. Additionally, they would include information on things to watch out for in the next event.
We will write a custom Essay on Leadership Roles: My Experience in the Nokia Cup specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I recommend that proper planning be done in future. The structure of planning needs to change in order for the event to succeed. In my opinion, the leadership was way too concerned with what was happening in the upper ranks that it forgot the small planning details that mattered. Ensuring proper delegation would solve this.
Event venues should have their own effective planning committees, as opposed to relying on leadership directives from afar. Additionally, I would have the main and sub-committees meet regularly to discuss the challenges of planning. This way, we would avoid the problems altogether. Planning should be a participative process, and therefore I would include the lower levels of staff in the process. This would allow for an even greater pool of suggestions to be made.
As for supervision, I think it would be solved by effective delegation. In order to avoid senior leadership from getting tired handling all the work, I recommend more leadership posts be created. This way, the system runs without exhausting some individuals. I have already stated that with creativity, I would prefer if the leadership allows recommendations from lower levels. This would boost morale and give the leadership a true picture of what is happening on the ground.
Finally, since even the best laid plans have flaws, emergency precautions need to be put in place. Putting flexible and adaptable individuals in charge to handle the unknown would greatly help. Additionally, these individuals must be true leaders: they must be able to rally up those underneath them to effectively handle the challenges. This way, any challenge would be effectively handled.
Historical Events in the History of Los Angeles Essay essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Comments on Some of the Events
Introduction Los Angeles has come a long way to be where it is today. It has undergone numerous changes, some positive, some detrimental. Nevertheless, regardless of the nature of the change, each event contributed largely to the growth of Los Angles. After the transfer of California to the United States in 1948, Los Angles underwent a legion of changes including organizational, administrative, physical, and cultural changes among others.
Of all these events, four events stand out clearly as the most important historical events in the history of Los Angeles. These are the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad, which was completed in 1876, the struggle at Los Angeles River in 1938, appropriation, and consolidations of Los Angeles in early twentieth century and the Proposition 14.
Events As aforementioned, the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad in 1876 is one of the most important events in the history of Los Angeles. However, there were other railroads whose construction heralded the completion of this Railroad. San Pedro Railroad, stretching for 21 miles, was the first railroad to exist in Los Angeles.
In 1885, the California Southern Railroad was established due to the rapid population growth and this contributed to the establishment of Central Pacific Railroad, which was directed to Los Angeles instead of San Francisco.
Several railroad conflicts ensued; actually, this would have cost Los Angeles the Southern Pacific Railroad had John Downey not intervened to persuade Collins Huntington, the then president of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company to let this railroad go through Los Angeles. Eventually, construction of the Transcontinental Railroad in Los Angeles reached its climax in 1876 and this heralded massive economical development in the region.
This event was important because it opened Los Angeles to the world and other states. The 1,000 miles of the railroad linked Los Angeles to Pomona, Huntington Beach, San Bernardino, Long Beach, Santa Ana, Santa Monica, and Hollywood, among other places and this makes this event the most important in the history of Los Angeles.
The other important event is the struggle at Los Angeles River. This permanent river, rich in fresh water, sustained 45 Gabrielino settlements in Los Angeles. According to Gumprecht, floods were the major problem of this river (15). The floods were unpredictable and would catch residents unaware and result into massive destruction. For instance, “The location of the Los Angeles Plaza had to be moved twice because of previously having been built too close to the riverbed” (Estrada 95).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ironically, during the dry season, people would construct houses near the banks of this river only to be washed away by floods. Nevertheless, the worst event in this series of struggles occurred in 1938 when a fierce storm destroyed infrastructure across Los Angeles and the neighboring Orange Counties.
After these massive floods, the federal government came in to save the situation. The Army Corps, “transferred floodwater to the sea, paved the beds of the river and its tributaries, and built several dams in the canyons along the San Gabriel Mountains to reduce the debris flows” (McPhee 26).
This was the turning point in flood history of Los Angeles. To date, Los Angeles River functions to control floods in the area. The Army Corps also drilled numerous wells in the region. This event is important for through it, Los Angeles has been in position to contain floods effectively.
The annexations and appropriations of Los Angeles stand out clearly in historical events of this state. Until, 1890s, Los Angeles stood on 73 km2 area. However, the twentieth century ushered in a new beginning. Garvanza and Highland Park were the first two districts to be added to Los Angeles from the northern side. In 1906, Port of Los Angeles was sanctioned, something that linked Los Angeles to other places just like the railroads.
In 1909, Wilmington and San Pedro became part of Los Angeles. Hollywood, Colegrove, and Cahuenga followed suit in 1910 making Los Angeles to have an area of 233 km2. According to Municipal Secession Fiscal Analysis Scoping Study, by 2004, Los Angeles had a total area of 469 square miles (2). This annexations and appropriations ensured that Los Angeles became a giant in water provision services escalating its economical growth.
More districts meant more economical growth and these annexations have uplifted Los Angeles to the status it enjoys today. If these districts remained divided, there would be no pooling of resources and they would be still minute districts of little or no economic, cultural, or physical importance. Therefore, these annexations allowed economic expansion in the area.
Finally, Proposition 14 ranks among the most important historical events in the history of Los Angeles. Since colonial times, land allocation in Los Angeles had been an ethnicity issue. By 1945, only a minute number of blacks and Asians owned land or houses in this place. Actually, after World War II, blacks who were involved in the war returned home only to miss land and houses. This trend had severe effects in other areas of blacks’ lives like education and economical well-being.
We will write a custom Essay on Historical Events in the History of Los Angeles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, 1959, Augustus Hawkins from Los Angeles pushed for implementation of California Fair Employment Practices Acts, which would root out restrictive land covenants across America. In 1963, California Legislature authorized Rumford Fair Housing Act, which would take from where the previous act had left. However, there was opposition and whites did not want to offer minorities equal opportunities on matters of land ownership.
To attain this, they formed alliance that would campaign against this act in a referendum in what turned out to be Proposition 14. In Los Angeles, Martin Luther King was campaigning for equality and freedom; however, Proposition 14 passed in California and the minorities were doomed to inequality. This led to Watts Riots in 1965.
After these riots, California Supreme Court “ruled that Proposition 14 violated the State Constitution’s provisions for equal protection and due process” (Jeffries
GIS Project: Environmental Hazards in the USA Essay writing essay help
Table of Contents Study Objectives
Among the variety of problems that disturb people, it is not always easy to define one particular problem and prove that it is the only one that deserves people’s attention. Problems connected to nature and human impact on it is considered to be a burning aspect to deal for a long period of time. “As the world population grows, so more people are exposed to hazard” (Smith 3); this is why the decision to choose environmental hazards as the topic for this GIS project is not accidental.
Study Objectives The main purposes of the study are the evaluation of environmental hazards, analysis of the historical facts, and development of the ideas on how to prevent some hazards in future or, at least, get prepared for possible damages. People awareness about the possibility of natural hazards turns out to be not enough; and the process of mapping hazards and identification of the places which are in danger.
Literature Review It is known that solving problems during the GIS project “involves several distinct components and stages” (Longley et al. 15); this is why it very important to define one purpose to be achieved during the analysis and several supporting ideas on how to comprehend the importance of hazards’ evaluation.
The results of numerous investigations on different levels show that “it is impossible to live in a totally risk-free environment” (Smith 4); however, there is always an opportunity to examine what threats are waiting for people in future and the ways of how these threats may be overcome or minimized by means of human actions.
Methodology The current study is based on the evaluation of the particular territory and the analysis of the data given online. The ideas offered by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences may be used as a reliable and powerful source to define what challenges created by nature are the most serious for people.
After earth conditions are taking into consideration, it is possible to rely on the census data in order to clear up what parts of North America may be changed or damaged by nature. In general, the use of different methods that depend on weather conditions and population level seems to be the most adequate for this type of work.
Planned Analysis A thorough evaluation of conditions that may influence the development of environmental hazards is the central point in this work. The analysis of information found has to be divided into several logically arranged steps: earth analysis, population, human effects on nature, and possible territory for hazards.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Results At the end of the study, it is expected to define the most vulnerable territory and the outcomes of hazards. It is also necessary to clear up what types of hazards are possible in the chosen territory and how serious the level of damage can be.
Evaluating the already found information, it is possible to predict that the north-west of the United States of America may undergo considerable damages due to the level of population and the structure of the earth. The main point is to focus on hazards’ types and effects.
Conclusion In general, the GIS analysis of environmental hazards in the USA shows that a number of dangers for people exists all the time, and people should not only be aware about these threats but also be able to take necessary precautions and be saved.
Works Cited Longley, Paul, A., Goodchild, Michael, F., Maguire, David, J., and Rhid, David, W. Geographic Information Systems and Science. London: John Wiley and Sons, 2005.
Smith, Keith. Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Appendix Figure 1: Droughts in America
We will write a custom Essay on GIS Project: Environmental Hazards in the USA specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Figure 2: Census Data
Figure 3: Acceleration of Peak Ground
Group work evaluation Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
For the work on the project, our class was subdivided into groups. We needed to work in groups during the semester; therefore, the proper distribution of students into members was extremely important. I was lucky to appear in the group of my good friends. That is why, working in team with them was easy and interesting for me. I knew every member of my group before the project, and this made it easier for me to communicate with them. Knowing the personal qualities of every individual allowed us organize the work properly.
Specifically, we managed to distribute the tasks among the group members in a way that guaranteed the sufficiency and competency of every individual. Every member of the group was responsible for some task and its performance. All the members managed to do their tasks on time, and there were no disagreement with any of the members.
At the beginning of the work on the project, I expected the work to be rather complicated. Namely, I had assumed that it would be hard for several group members to cooperate. In fact, I had doubts about the team project to be successful.
I thought that it would have been better and more comfortable for me to work on the project on my own. It was also hard for me to trust the other members, and let them be responsible for some tasks. However, with the flow of the work my vision of the project changed. The team project appeared to be a very interesting and educational type of activity.
What is more, the group project contributed to my general understanding of the subject. As far as the responsibilities were distributed among the members of the team, it was easier for me to analyze every level of the subject.
Group project allowed me doing the research step by step, learning its separate parts, and then analyzing the project as a whole. In comparison with other activities group project proved to be harder to do, but in some cases it was even more helpful. Now I can confidently claim that the process of learning would have been incomplete without the group project.
One more advantage of the group project is that it involved interaction with the other group members. Such activity developed my communicative skills, teached me how to express myself clearly and understand others better.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, work in team developed the sense of responsibility in every of the members, as the task of each individual was not only doing his or her own task, but also contributing to the group work. Failing to do the task on time meant not only personal failure, but also letting down of the whole team. I feel that the experience of doing a group project changed my attitude to doing tasks in general, and to the process of learning.
Working on team project was a new kind of activity for me. However, despite the fact that it proved to be very interesting and useful, it is hard for me to decide whether it is the best of the course activities.
I guess that team project is a good kind of work, but it cannot be used alone. Indeed, the textbooks are irreplaceable; they were also helpful in the project. The exercises that we did in the class were very interesting, and they helped to understand the material better.
In addition, while the flow of the project was managed by us, the exercises in class were controlled by the teacher, which guaranteed our adequacy. The films shown in class were also rather helpful, especially for those students, who have a good visual memory. I think that every kind of activity is extremely useful, and all of them need to be used in complex for maximal effect.
The Corporation a level english language essay help
The film by Joel Bakan “The Corporation” deals with the most significant facets of the issue of corporations in our society. This film produced a very strong impression on me, made me think of our society development and our future.
First of all, I’d like to point out that this film made me feel as if I finally understood thoroughly what I only suspected. I realize that this film is not a “scary movie”, but it is a reflection of what is happening. The film revealed what corporations are, what they do, what positive or rather negative impact they produce, and, finally, how people can cope with all that. As far as my opinion on the film is concern I’d like to point out that this is a very useful film, which causes only positive feelings.
Of course, a lot of negative things about corporations are revealed, but still the film shows that it is possible to influence corporations; this film makes the viewers not only see and admit the facts enlisted in the film, but it provokes necessity of action and making corporations work for people, and not vice versa; for corporation is people’s creation “endowed in the interest of society” (Drucker 209).
Personally I was impressed by the passage revealing media corporation impact on people, and how people can resist such a big machine. To my mind, the most frightful and powerful of all corporations are media corporations, since they influence people almost 24 hours a day: ads, news, even programs and films.
All above mentioned are means of making people do the necessary choices in products, and even ideas. People know only what they are allowed to know – this was the most striking notion for me. Nevertheless, even this huge power can be resisted, for there still people “who are feisty and fractious enough” to say about media the whole truth (DeJean). It is only a great pity that there are few people who dare to say truth, and there are too many of those who only think of profits.
To my mind, the main purpose of the film is to make people (as much people as possible) aware of the processes which corporations cause, caused or may cause. The filmmakers intended to provide as comprehensive information as it is possible. The film is devoted to detailed depiction of the corporations and their impact on society.
Actually, I could assume that the filmmakers wanted to provide adequate information with a bit negative tinge, and this, by no means, can not a demerit of a film, since there is much more negative than positive about corporations. They wanted each viewer, after watching this film, to take his/her own ideas about the whole issue.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I believe that the filmmakers counted on a very diverse audience, and they actually succeeded, for it is very clear and watchable for ordinary individuals and it is still very interesting even for specialists. The speakers not only state something, they illustrate it, prove it; the filmmakers support the voices by very emotional videos, thus the film effects by provoking ideas and provoking images.
I am sure that the film reaches its purpose to make people think about the situation in our society and make their response, since I am one of those people, who watched it and was affected by it. I would assume that filmmakers wanted to focus on young people, for young people should understand the necessity of actions and youth can and actually must act. Young people should know these processes so to be able to change things.
As for me, this film depicted the comprehensive picture of the modern society and me in this society. Not so long ago I didn’t think about corporations impact, or rather about corporations at all; but now I understand that corporations are making quite a lot of harm to the whole society, since they are only concerned about the profit, they don’t bother about ethics, other people rights, environment, they simply don’t think about the future.
Industrial corporations use natural resources, accumulate wastes; deprive people from working in normal condition, work out different ways to make money without thinking about the consequences.
At this point I’d like to consider the film passage concerning using chemicals, which not only pollute the environment but cause very negative effects in people. Still corporations sell such products without thinking that they and their relatives can also suffer from their business (not even in the future, the very next day after tasting that milk during their breakfast).
I should admit that I am (or was) aware of most of things discussed in the film, but only now it came across my mind that I am a part of that system: I use corporation’s products, I consider options given by advertisements, finally, I watch news and form my own opinion based on what I am told. Now I understand that the majority of media promotes somebody’s interests, and now I will think twice before making my decision.
My strong belief is our media system needs changes. I would support the Media Reform Movement, since I understand that media corporations forgot about the purpose of media, they don’t provide any truthful and unprejudiced events or facts, they only feed people with some little amounts of information which can bring profit. To my mind it is possible to change this state of things.
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Does Evolution explain human nature? Analytical Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Morality is one principle that applies in both human beings and animals alike especially considering the evolution theory. Morality covers a broad perspective made of several elements/virtues like empathy. In their work, Martin Nowak and Frans de Waal address the issue of empathy in relation to human evolution. Of the two scientists, Martin Nowak addresses the issue of empathy better in relation to human evolution.
Nowak’s explanation of empathy fits well in evolution. Elementary, evolution is based on natural selection, which in turn is based on competition. Therefore, if humans have evolved through competition and survival for the best, it means that there has to be a change of rules to contain competition prevalent in natural selection to accommodate empathy.
Empathy calls for cooperation, which is non-existence in competition; therefore, “Cooperation means that one individual pays a cost for another individual to receive a benefit” (Nowak 12). This explains how empathy fits in this selfish nature of evolution as facilitated by natural selection. The rules change when the ‘cost’ for another individual is fully paid.
There has to be mechanisms therefore, to facilitate paying this cost. To this Nowak posits, “The fundamental mechanisms encouraging cooperation are direct and indirect reciprocity” (Nowak 12).
Direct reciprocity results from interaction of two same individuals; what one individual has done to the other, determines how the other individual will treat the former. On the other hand, indirect reciprocity insinuates that what an individual has done to others, will determine how she/he will be treated.
This means that, even in presence of competition, two competing sides may have empathy towards each other and cooperate. This is why Nowak says that, “Cooperation…is another, fundamental force of evolution” (13). Therefore, just like natural selection, cooperation becomes part of evolution bringing in the element of empathy existing amidst competing and evolving beings.
Frans de Waal on his side views empathy from a perspective that does not withhold the competing nature of natural selection that brings about evolution. According to Waal, “Human morality must be quite a bit older than religion and civilization. It may in fact, be older than humanity itself” (12). This argument may be true; however, it does not address the issue of competitive nature of evolution. It excludes the issue of survival for the fittest.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While the principle cardinal rule of doing unto others as you wish them to do to you may hold true, it fails to explain how basic components of evolution apply. Waal argues that, “Other primates live in highly structured cooperative groups in which rules and inhibitions apply and mutual aid is a daily occurrence” (12).
The only thing he fails to address here is how these cooperative groups come to be in a scenario where everyone is competing to survive. He holds that empathy and reciprocity support human morality; however, the big question remains, how does empathy prevail in competition grounds.
Looking at the two works of these scientists, Nowak seems to explain empathy better in relation to evolution. Without changing core principles of evolution like natural selection, empathy could only occur at a cost but not based on morality.
Nowak exposits the process of paying the cost through reciprocity adding that cooperation is a basic element of evolution. Along evolution, competing individuals learn to empathize with those who empathize with them, hence cooperating in the process. Waal’s argument that human morality preceded humanity itself does not address the issue of competition in evolution.
Works Cited Nowak, Martin. “Does Evolution Explain Human Nature?” John Templeton Foundation. N.d. Web.
Waal, Frans. “Does Evolution Explain Human Nature?” John Templeton Foundation. N.d. Web.
William Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying Explicatory Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Table of Contents Addie Bundren
Addie’s Perspective in Plot and Themes of the Story
Written by William Faulkner, As I Lay Dying is a masterpiece addressing different societal issues that were pertinent in 1930s and have even persisted to contemporary times. This story is intriguing given the numerous numbers of narrators involved, each upholding different views from the others.
To some extent, each character is pursuing his/her ambitions and does not seem to care about the rest. Nevertheless, even though dead, Addie Bundren stands out in this story. She determines, controls, and directs the entire story. All events result from her, if not so, they revolve around her. Her perspective determines the novels structure and most of the themes of the story.
Addie Bundren Addie dies shortly after the story starts; however, the short period she appears in the play and her dead body directs the structure of the story setting themes in place. From the short stint that Addie appears in the play, it is evident that she is a strong-willed and well-informed woman whose only shortcoming is disillusionment.
She is unloving and unfaithful mother too. She does not love her husband; children, save for Jewel; and her surrounding. Her unfaithfulness comes out clearly when she cheats on her husband, sleeps with Whitefield; a local church minister, and bears Jewel out of wedlock.
She clearly points out her disinterest in life by saying, “the reason for living is to get ready to stay dead a long time” (Faulkner 46). This caps her character. Someone whose purpose of living is to prepare for death cannot be interested in anything and this describes Addie. Nevertheless, as aforementioned, Addie’s perspective determines and dictates the plot and most themes of this story.
Addie’s Perspective in Plot and Themes of the Story Addie’s perspective toward life that, the purpose of living is to prepare for the long time one spends in death, coupled with the fact that she does not love her environs makes her request to be buried in Jefferson; the land of her ‘people’. The journey towards Jefferson is the storyline of this story.
The bigger part of the plot and structure of this story revolves around this journey. If Addie had not asked to be buried in Jefferson, the story would end soon after she dies. However, the story carries fifty-nine sections most of them revolving around the journey to the town of Jefferson.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this journey, many events unfold that are core to this story. The motives of all the Bundrens come out because of this journey. For instance, Jewel’s love for Addie comes out as he takes care of her dead mother including rescuing her corpse from being swept away by water and burnt by fire. Darl’s caring character comes out for he wants to fulfill his mother’s will.
On the other side, Anse’s selfishness stands out for he only wants to go to Jefferson to get some false teeth whilst Cash and Vardaman want to get phonograph and toy train respectively. On her part, Dewey wants to abort and the only way she can do this is being on journey for she would meet new people, probably experts in abortion. Therefore, Addie’s perspectives underpin the plot of this story; moreover, its themes revolve around her and her perspectives as exposited next.
The four main themes of this story viz. mortality; disillusionment, religion, and duty revolve around Addie’s perspective and character. Mortality takes centre stage in this story. After Addie dies, some of her children have many questions about existence and mortality. For instance, Vardaman does not understand all this; actually, he compares his death mother to a fish he had cleaned into, “pieces of not-fish” (Faulkner 29). Mortality brings transformation similar to that of cleaning a fish.
Darl understands mortality as transformation from “is” to “was” because that is how Addie is being referred. By having sex with a church minister, Addie exposes the challenges facing men of the cloth. Religion is only in words, not in actions. Addie’s perspectives portray the theme of disillusionment. She does not seem to understand anything going around her.
Her husband and children are disillusioned for they do not understand maternal love that she does not offer. Finally, the theme of duty is hinged on Addie. After she passes away, her family realizes that it is their duty to bury her despite the fact that they have ulterior motives of going to Jefferson.
Conclusion Addie Bundren passes as a strong-willed, intelligent, unfaithful, disillusioned, and unfaithful woman. She cheats on her husband and shows no love towards her many children. Nevertheless, her perspectives drive and shape the plot and themes of this story. The storyline of this story lies in the journey to Jefferson to burry Addie and fulfill her dying wishes. She only wants to rest with her ‘people’ and this perspective and request sets the story in motion. Themes of religion, duty, mortality, and disillusionment revolve around her.
Addie’s affair with Whitefield exposes cynicism in religion. If it were not for Addie’s perspectives in life, readers could never know of Jewel’s love for his mother, Anse’s selfishness, Dewey’s inhumanity, Cash’s selfish ambition and Vardaman’s innocence and gullibility. Therefore, Addie’s perspective in life makes unfolds a lot in this story; defines its plot and presents its themes. Without Addie’s perspective towards life, the story would end after her death.
We will write a custom Essay on William Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Faulkner, Wiliam. “As I Lay Dying.” New York; Vintage Books, 1985.
Flannery O’connor: Influences and Writing Style. Facts from Biography a level english language essay help
Flannery O’Connor is well-known American short-story writer who revealed religious and moral issues in her writings. She was a Southern writer and depicted the life and traditions of her region.
One of her best known stories, Everything That Rises Must Converge, depicts an episode from life of several Southern people, focusing on mother and her son. To my mind, this story can be called quite autobiographic, to certain extent. Sometimes it is possible to see Flannery in Julian, since they both lost their fathers and they both lived with their mothers.
Just as Julian, O’Connor lost her father who was really important and dear for her. She of course, had some difficulties in understanding with her mother, just like ordinary child with her parent.
This story reveals one of the main issues of that time; African American people became equal with white people. Admittedly, O’Connor’s “fiction reveals concern with outsiders” (Spivey 53) and this issue is clearly depicted in Everything That Rises Must Converge.
She experienced a lot of events concerned with this problem, she lived in the South where this issue was of great importance, and thus she depicted what she saw around her. This story reveals O’Connor’s own ideas about the whole problem. She is known to be highly religious as a person and as a writer, and in her writings she contemplates on the religious issues.
But the story under consideration also depicts political changes in society which reveals the eternal religious issues: thus, progressive son is quite rude to his racist mother, and though O’Connor is opposite racism still she insists on the necessity to remain humanity in people relations (Bercovitch
Faith or Free Will Used In the Movie- Minority Report and the Drama – Antigone Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
In life, people have the freewill to choose what they want; however, in some cases, faith and fate takes the center stage despite the choices made through freewill. This aspect of life comes out clearly in the movie Minority Report and the play Antigone. Even though at some point some characters in Antigone have the freewill to make choices, faith plays a key role throughout the play. In the movie Minority Report, faith and fate run all actions that take place in the movie.
In Antigone, after Creon decrees that Polynices will not be given proper burial, Antigone chooses to follow her faith. She decides to follow the unwritten law according to her faith. She does not care whether this will cost her life or not. Fagles notes that, “Antigone appeals not only to the bond of kindred blood but also to the unwritten law, sanctioned by the gods, that the dead must be given a proper burial – a religious principle” (Sophocles 40).
In this case, faith takes precedence over freewill. Even though Antigone has the freewill to comply with Creon’s edict, she has to follow the ‘sanctions’ of her faith. Like wise Creon, even though he seems to defy religious beliefs that the dead should receive a proper burial, he follows faith. Fagles notes that, “But Creon’s, position is not anti-religious; in fact, he believes that he has religion on his side.
The gods for him, are the gods of the city…Creon finds it unthinkable that these gods should demand the burial of a traitor to the city” (Sophocles 40). This shows how faith is deeply rooted in this society. Freewill does not matter; people can only use freewill to make choices based on what they believe.
In the movie Minority Report, faith takes center stage. Anderton’s police have absolute faith in their system of detecting future crimes and stopping them before they happen. This explains why if a Pre-cog detects a suspect, he or she is arrested without questioning.
There is no need of trial because the authorities have faith that this system works perfectly. “Anderton’s single-minded belief that locking up potential murderers is right based on his pre-deterministic belief in Pre-Crime’s righteous predictions” (Bruni Para. 7). This is absolute faith. Actually, Anderton has faith in this system such that even after he learns he would become a murderer in the near future, he does not hide or escape.
Despite the fact that Anderton knows that he is only set up to kill Crow and refuses to kill him in the first place, he later pulls the trigger killing Crow to comply with Pre-cog’s report. This can only be explained in matters of faith. If Anderton had freewill, he would choose not to kill Crow and uphold his decision. Unfortunately, he has so much faith in the system that he does what it says.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nevertheless, the Pre-cog system has faults and this comes out clearly, after Witwer concurs that the systems suffers recidivates of past murders. It is only faith that keeps Agatha, Anderton and Witwer in the Pre-cog system despite the fact that they know it is faulty. Its faultiness comes towards the end of the film when the Pre-crime department is closed.
Faith dominates the play Antigone and movie Minority Report. Antigone’s faith makes her hold steadfast to her beliefs even unto death. Creon also holds to his faith, which he believes does not allow evil people to receive proper burial. As a result, tragedy befalls Creon’s empire because of misusing his faith.
On the other hand, Anderton and his allies have absolute faith in their Pre-crime detection system. This faith explains why an individual; detected in the Pre-cog system, becomes guilty of murder without trail. Actually, Anderton accepts to kill Crow simply because the Pre-cog system has said so. Therefore, faith is used in this movie and drama and not freewill.
Works Cited Bruni, John. “Minority Report.” 2004. Web.
Sophocles. “The Three Theban Plays.” Fagles, Robert
Life of Nicias, Life of Crassus, Comparison of Crassus with Nicias Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Life of Nicias
Life of Crassus
Nicias and Crassus
In his work, Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans, Plutarch selects some few individuals who had some outstanding characters or who achieved salient things in their lives. Amongst these noble Grecians and Romans are Nicias and Crassus. Plutarch expounds lives these two nobles and compares them as exposited in this paper.
Life of Nicias Nicias was amongst the three renowned, honest, and loving citizens in Athens according to what Aristotle noted. Moreover, he was a captain most of the time working with his master Captain Pericles but sometimes working alone. Fortunately, after Pericles passed away, Nicias fame and popularity propelled him to nobility for people loved him dearly. “…his gravity was neither severe nor odious, but mingled with a kind of modesty…which made them thereby the more to love and esteem him” (Plutarch 295).
There appeared to be some fortune in all that Nicias did. He managed to overcome his closest rival Cleon, by use of subtle tactics. For instance, while Cleon was humorous, something that Nicias lacked, Nicias noted the weakness and, “crept into people’s favor with liberality, with charges of common plays…exceeding in cost and pleasant sports…” (Plutarch 295). He had massive wealth.
His simplicity and popularity ensured that he fitted in any group that he found himself. For instance, he would reward his cravers generously regardless of whether they are malicious or good-hearted. Through these tactics, orators could not find anything to accuse him for he did not even drink, engage in useless talk, or get involved in pleasures that would taint his reputation.
In office he would busy himself with office issues; not meddling with other people’s business. Nicias simplicity and openness made him bring peace amongst Grecians something they call, Nicium peace even to date. His nature to create peace enabled him to stoop low before Gylippus who had taken hostage some Athenians; unfortunately, he was seized, taken in as a prisoner, and killed.
Life of Crassus Crassus was a man of good character; however, accusations that he had defiled Licinia; a nun, tinted his reputation. “…vice of covetousness in Crassus that drowned many other goodly virtues in him” (Plutarch 333). It is unfortunate that one vice would destroy many of Crassus’ virtues.
Nevertheless, despite this shortcoming, Crassus was a wealthy man through diligence, ‘by fire and blood.” He was a friendly person even to strangers; moreover, he would lend his friends interest-free money. Unfortunately, Cinna and Marius attacked Rome forcing Crassus, his father and brother to escape to Spain in a flight. Rumors had it that, some tyrants were looking for Crassus. In Spain, he lived in caves until Cinna died after eight months. He maneuvered his way back to Italy under Sylla.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Later he became part of Cesar’s reign in Rome where he worked under Pompey and became popular amongst Romans for he would lend them money and spend time with them in the market place. “To pleasure everyman; so that by this easy access and familiarity…he grew to exceed the gravity and majesty of Pompey” (Plutarch 340).
At one time, he saved Cesar by lending him 838 talents to satisfy his creditors something that elevated Crassus to nobility; he became the governor and praetor of Gaul; however, Po attacked and overthrew him. Fortunately, the senate was offended, overruled this act, and restored Crassus.
He achieved several feats like conquering Spartacus in Romania. However, later in his reign, Crassus fell into conflict with King Hyrodes and he was slew by Surena, one of the king’s men. His head “his head was brought the same night before the kings…” (Plutarch 374). This marked the end of one Marcus Crassus.
Nicias and Crassus Before comparing these, two noble men, it is important to note that, even though both were rich, Nicias’ wealth was more just than Crassus’ was. Nicias was a man of the people as aforementioned; he never did anything malicious; on the contrary, he purposed to do things that would benefit all.
On his side, Crassus was unpredictable; at one time, he would be friendly, at the other cruel. He had a way of getting what he wanted. For instance, he admitted that “he came to be consul the second time by plain force and cruelty, having hired two murderers to kill Cato and Domitius” (Plutarch 378).
Crassus was an enterprising person and he believed greatness was to be earned. On the other side, Nicias was a quiet character and revered people regardless of their class and status. Whilst the Athenians forced Nicias to war against his wish, Crassus forced Romans into war against their wish. Therefore, “the commonwealth fell into misery by the one, brought into misery by the other” (Plutarch 380). These are some of the differences exhibited by this Grecian and Roman.
Nevertheless, these two great men shared some traits. In his fight against Cleon, Nicias portrayed ambition similar to that of Crassus against Spartacus. Crassus died in the hands of Surena after falling apart with his enemies; he yielded himself to his enemies. Similarly, Nicias surrendered before his enemies in a bid to strike a peace deal; unfortunately, he died infamously. The bottom line is that, they al yielded to their enemies.
We will write a custom Essay on Life of Nicias, Life of Crassus, Comparison of Crassus with Nicias specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Nicias, a Grecian and Crassus, a Roman were both noble men in their times. They ruled differently with Nicias believing in peace while Crassus believed in fighting and violence to have his way. They were rich even though Nicias’ wealth was more just than that of Crassus. Nevertheless, they died similar death of yielding to their enemies.
Works Cited Plutarch. “Plutarch Selected Lives.” Mossman, Judith. (Ed). Wordsworth Classics of World Literature, 1994.
Harrison Bergeron Theme Essay online essay help
Harrison Bergeron, a short story by Kurt Vonnegut, highlights the perils of governmental control, coupled with people’s ignorance. Vonnegut goes ahead to predict the results of such a move. The most prominent theme of Harrison Bergeron is the lack of freedom in American society. Vonnegut also explains how the loss of civil rights is catching with Americans. What is the result of all these? There is a high probability that America will end up in a dystopia. In summary, the loss of freedom and civil rights would lead to America’s dystopia are the main messages of Harrison Bergeron. The essay briefly discusses the topics of the story and the questions raised by the author. Some of them are illustrated by the quotes from the text to demonstrate its tone and the literary devices used in the story.
Central Idea of Harrison Bergeron As aforementioned, Americans love freedom, and Harrison’s actions evidence this; he escapes from prison, goes ahead to remove his handicaps, and finally tries to influence those around him. “Why don’t you stretch out on the sofa, so that you can rest your handicap bag…?” (Vonnegut Page 216).
The government chained this handicap bag around George’s neck; however, Harrison is telling George to ‘rest’ it, as a sign of rebellion and push for freedom. Nevertheless, in Harrison’s world, this freedom is no more, and people cannot make choices because they are above average in everything, and as a result, they are disabled. For instance, the dancers are cloaked to ensure that “nobody would feel like something the cat drug in” (Vonnegut Page 216).
The fact that all people are above average in everything takes away the freedom of choice and hampers everyone in the new dystopia America. The plot unfolds around the main theme of Harrison Bergeron. The main idea of neglect of freedom of choice is also expressed in the article of Clark. The author argues that “Uninformed citizens are left vulnerable to the political exploitation of special-interests” (Clark, 1). That proves that, though Americans love freedom, their freedom of choice is restricted by lack of information.
The loss of civil rights is another contributing factor to this dystopia in America. Everyone is equal “due to the 211th, 212th, and 213th Amendments to the Constitution…the unceasing vigilance of agents of the United States Handicapper General” (Vonnegut Page 218). In this state, the ‘Handicapper General’ ensures everyone is equal, and he or she has no right, including the right to life. No one in the nowadays society is truly free, as it will be shown in the next paragraphs of the essay. Harrison Bergeron’s character George says, “Two years in prison and two thousand dollars fine for every ball I took out” (Vonnegut Page 216).
George here talks of the consequences of removing the ‘handicap’ that the government has placed around his neck, evidence of loss of civil rights. George even watches her daughter die on television, and he cannot complain leave alone filling a suit. All these events resonate well with what is happening in America today. Manson discusses the issue of loss of civil rights by American citizens in one of his articles, which is devoted to mind control.
There is multiple “evidence for government involvement in attempts to control people’s behavior” (Manson, 1). The mind-control conspiracy theory proves the intrusion of the government to people’s personal lives and even to their consciousness. The violation of fundamental civil rights defined by the Constitution is apparent.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Vonnegut insinuates that if what is happening in contemporary America is not countered, then a dystopia in America is inevitable. That is the central idea of Harrison Bergeron. Even though Vonnegut wrote this story many years ago, he had seen what was lurking; for instance, after the 9/11 events, congress passed the US Patriot Act that allowed security agencies to probe personal issues.
That resonates well with “the unceasing vigilance of agents of the United States Handicapper General” (Vonnegut Page 216). Even though the loss of freedom in contemporary America is not as bad as in Harrison’s society, American authorities are slowly taking away freedom.
For instance, smoking regulations placed public places is a move of its kind. To this, Vonnegut would say, “Some things about living still aren’t quite right. The ‘rightness’ of living is disappearing as people lose freedom and head to the new dystopia America. Indeed, the freedom of Americans is gradually lost.
According to Manson, even the right to individual opinions is violated. As a result of the government, activity is such that “a person simply becomes a pair of eyes designed to observe and transmit data.” This serves as evidence of American citizens being deprived of their rights for freedom.
Conclusion This analysis essay outlined the central idea and the main theme of Harrison Bergeron. In summary, Vonnegut tries to highlight how government control would slowly convert America into a dystopian nation. Despite the love that Americans have for freedom, Vonnegut is afraid that this is being taken away, and people will have “a little mental handicap radio in their ears tuned to a government transmitter” (Vonnegut Page 218). That would take away freedom, and civil rights would suffer the same fate for those who rebel against the set ordinances will have, “ten seconds to get their handicaps back on” (Vonnegut Page 219).
The overall effect in this situation would be a nation where all people are equal according to government standards hence dystopia. The take-home point in Vonnegut’s short story is, people should come out of their ignorance, take action, and correct government errors; otherwise, America will be a place of parity without dreams and competition hence dystopia America.
Works Cited Clark, J. “Regulating Government” The Encyclopedia of Public Choice. Dordrecht: Springer Science Business Media, 2004. Credo Reference. Web.
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Labor Market Research for Nurses in the State of California Analytical Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Factors Influencing the Supply and Demand of Nurses
How Nurses Pay is Determined and Structured
Towards Increasing the Supply of Nurses
The healthcare system in the U.S. is largely dependent on the number of health professionals available in public and private healthcare facilities across the country. Nurses are at the core of the healthcare system by virtue of their role in the doctor-patient relationship, and hence their availability is fundamental if the country is to uphold an effective, competent, and efficient healthcare system (Rickles, n.d.).
However, it has not been easy for many states to maintain the required number of nurses in their health facilities judging by the vastness of the healthcare sector and high level of specialization witnessed in the industry. This paper aims to use the article by Rickles et al (n.d.) titled ‘California Policy Options: Supplying California’s needs for Nurses’ to evaluate the labor market for nurses in California state.
Factors Influencing the Supply and Demand of Nurses The demand and supply of nurses is influenced by a multiplicity of factors judging by their relative importance to the healthcare system. Indeed, analysts are of the opinion that the U.S. is not anywhere near satisfying the demand for more nurses, and a time when the supply of nurses will effectively deal with the demand can never be imagined as of yet (Rickles, n.d.).
California’s shortage of qualified nurses is among the most relentless in the U.S. as many of the state’s health institutions experience great difficulty in the process of recruiting and retaining qualified nursing personnel (Rickles et al, n.d.).
By 2005, California had an estimated 200,000 registered nurses, with credible projections suggesting that the state’s demand for registered nurses will stand at 300,000 by 2010 and 458,733 by 2030 (Rickles et al, n.d; Hausellberg, 2010).
The above scenario can be attributed to a variety of factors that influence the dynamics of supply and demand of the nurses in the state. On the demand side, it can be safely argued that the demand for nurses in California has sharply risen in the past and will continue to steadily grow in the future due to the population’s ever rising demand for healthcare (Rickles et al, n.d.).
The trend is that individuals residing in California are increasingly utilizing hospital facilities, with around 4 million patients being released from hospitals in 2003, a 7% increase from the figures recorded in 1998.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The total population of California has also expanded by at least 8% between 1998 and 2003, and is projected to continue expanding in the future. Still, California’s elderly population is increasing by the day, impacting heavily on the demand of nurses since the elderly requires more medical attention than any other age-category.
Other influences on the demand side include the reimbursement approaches employed by health insurance plans, federal regulations on nurse staffing ratios to meet the required nurse-to-patient ratios, aging of the Registered Nurse work force, natural attrition, and personal wealth (Rickles et al, n.d.).
Influences that determine the supply of nurses into health facilities based in California seems so much constrained to meet the ever rising demand. The supply of nurses in California is mainly influenced by the duration of the nursing educational program, new graduates, input of retired nurses who may wish to return to active employment, external recruitment of nurses from other states, licensing requirements for new nurses, and sourcing of nurses from other countries (Rickles et al, n.d.).
Supply of nurses is also determined by the number of students nurturing an ambition or interest to train in nursing. Rickles et al (n.d.) posits that “…for the first part of the 20th century, licensed nursing was one of a few occupations widely open to women…As career opportunities expanded for women in the second half of that century, however, nursing had to compete with other attractive professions for new entrants” (p. 105).
It is therefore prudent to argue that the enhanced labor market prospects for women have worked to diminish the supply of nurses. Lastly, the supply of nurses in California has been given a lifeline owing to the relaxation of some U.S. immigration regulations.
How Nurses Pay is Determined and Structured The pay for nurses must be determined based on the local labor situation and the forces of supply and demand (Clanton, 2009). When a health facility faces a shortage of nurses as it is the case in California, the net effect on the market equilibrium in competitive market situations would be an increase in nurses’ pay.
Other factors that may influence the market equilibrium and hence determine the nurses pay include costs of living prevailing in the state, consumer price index (CPI), and fluctuations in the purchasing power of the American dollar (Rickles et al n.d.).
We will write a custom Essay on Labor Market Research for Nurses in the State of California specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, federal regulations such as the nurse-to-patient ratios are likely to increase the nurses’ pay as states fight to attract more nurses to keep up with the set legislations. Lastly, the professional bodies representing the nurses may play a fundamental role in determining their pay.
The pay structure for nurses in the state is determined by a number of factors, namely the level of education and experience, position in the labor force, duration of service, level of specialty, nationality, and station of duty (Rickles, n.d.).
Towards Increasing the Supply of Nurses The concerned stakeholders need to offer more monetary and non-monetary incentives to attract more nurses and trigger more students to enroll in nursing schools. The federal government of California should step in to guide the labor market for nurses by offering more funds to schools for training purposes aimed at boosting supply. To further enhance supply, the central and federal governments should further relax immigration restrictions for qualified nurses from other countries to join the labor market (Rickles, n.d.).
The retired nurses who have the capacity to continue in the service should be encouraged to apply through offering incentives such as bonuses and flexible working hours. Lastly, the government should chip in and assist the health facilities meet the escalating labor costs associated with enhancing the nurse-to patient ratio as per the regulations put in place (Clanton, 2009)
Reference List Clanton, S. (2009). Nursing: Labor Market Research. Web.
Rickles, J., Ong, P.M.,
Modern Dance by Jiri Kylian Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help
Jiri Kylian as one of the most prominent ballet-masters of the twenty-first century is known to perform a wide spectrum of emotions and feelings in his works, which fascinate with their perfection and beauty of movement. No exception is the “performance “Petite Mort”, which was first represented to public in The Nederlands Dans Theater in 1996 and was the part of the so-called “Black
Is solar energy good for the state of New Jersey? Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Since historic times, the sun has been a vital resource for the existence of man on this planet. Plants, which humans eventually eat, make their food using the sunlight and adequate exposure to sunlight has beneficial health effects. Besides, man has used the sunlight as a source of generating energy. However, with the depletion of fossil fuels, it was not until the twentieth century that more attention was paid to the benefits of solar energy.
The sun’s energy can be used in many different forms. One of the most commonly used ways is its conversion into electricity by the use of photovoltaic cells to power several household and industrial electrical appliances (Hirschmann; Brooke). The merits that solar energy offers have made some states, for example, the New Jersey, to adopt its use. However, is its use beneficial, especially for the state of New Jersey?
The state of the New Jersey is second to California in terms of the use of solar energy. After a few years of coordinated efforts, the state now generates almost two times more solar energy than Colorado, the number three. The emphasis on renewable energy sources has brought significant benefits to the state.
As people are waking up to the reality that the limited world’s resources are increasingly being depleted, New Jersey has embraced the use of energy from the sun in order to help in the conservation efforts. Humans have milked the Earth’s vital energy reservoirs without thinking of the next generation. Even though the cost of a barrel of oil has increased tremendously, the world’s thirst for oil has not been quenched.
It is estimated that if the current trend continues, the world’s demand for oil is likely to rise by up to sixty percent in the next two decades. It is possible, and as New Jersey has discovered, that solar energy will be present even after the other resources have been completely depleted from the face of our planet.
It is estimated that in the U.S., the cost of electricity has been escalating at an estimated rate of 6.5 percent yearly for the past three decades (Peter, para. 2).
Due to the tremendous increase in the cost of generating energy using conventional non-renewable resources, this increase may yield to unprecedented price increases in consumer power bills if no efforts are made to tap on other alternative sources of energy. Besides, more and more consumers are embracing environmentally friendly methods of generating electric power.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The thousands and thousands of tons of carbon dioxide and other bi-products being emitted in the atmosphere yearly due to the generation of energy from fossil fuels is making more people turn to less destructive means producing energy. In this regard, the state of New Jersey, which is sometimes called the ‘garden state,’ has stood out in reducing the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere.
It is without doubt that our increased dependence on fossil fuels for the generation of energy puts has in a difficult situation (Tyrell).
In as much as there are a number of wonderful renewable technologies that can generate power, the difficulty has always been on the issue of cost effectiveness. For a long time now, it has usually been more cost effective to produce energy using fossil fuels; therefore, renewable sources, for example, sun and wind energies have not been adequately tapped. However, the situation now seems not to be the same again.
The world’s consumption of energy far exceeds the amount that is supplied. The grid cannot adequately meet the increased thirst for power. Power failures have became an everyday occurrence. No wonder the officials of the U.S. government are looking for affordable alternatives to be adopted. And no wonder, New Jersey is outshining the other states in the provision of affordable energy from the sun.
New Jersey is making preparations that will ensure that thirty percent of its energy is supplied from renewable sources by 2020 with 2.12 percent of it entirely from the sun (Pisani, para.6). The complete adoption of this strategy will enable the state to offset utility-supplied energy consumption.
This is because it will significantly reduce the cost of electricity as well as provide its residents with electricity even in the event of a power outage. Energy from the sun is available independently. It does not need a connection to a power or a gas grid for its operations. This implies that solar panels can be installed even in the remotest parts of New Jersey such as in log cabins. This would make it more practical and less costly than the installation of utility electricity to a new location.
In addition, the use of energy from the sun lowers the state’s reliance on centralized energy sources. These centralized energy sources are usually affected by the occurrence of natural catastrophes or wars. Therefore, the use of solar panels will add to the state’s sustainable future.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Is solar energy good for the state of New Jersey? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some people claim that the use of solar energy is expensive due to the high costs incurred in installing solar panels. However, in the long run, solar panels save money or are ‘free’ once the installation process is complete. The recovery period for this investment is shorter for a household or a commercial enterprise that uses more electricity per day.
Moreover, New Jersey offers ambitious financial incentives for people who want to install solar panels. Some utility companies also practice net metering whereby a person sells his or her excess energy to the company, thus building up a credit on his or her account. This eventually reduces the cost on one’s electricity bill. Solar energy systems also save energy in the sense they do not need any fuel; therefore, they are not influenced by the rise and fall of oil prices, and indirectly reduce health costs.
It is argued that unlike other states such as California or Nevada, New Jersey has limited space that can not accommodate solar panels, which need adequate space to achieve a high level of efficiency. However, this problem has been surmounted by developing creative strategies.
For example, grid-connected solar panels have been attached on utility and light poles, businesses with extra space are filling it with solar panels, and households are installing the solar panels on roofs. Thus, once installed, solar energy systems have no or minimal maintenance costs and more of them can be easily added in the future to cater for any increased needs. After installation, solar panels function silently since they lack any moving parts and do not release offensive smells.
Even though solar energy cannot be produced at night, this difficulty can be trounced by having an efficient battery backup system or by practicing net metering. Since the effectiveness of the solar panels depends on the location of the sun, fitting them with certain parts will ensure that they operate optimally under different conditions.
Although bad weather can reduce the rate of production of solar energy, the consequences are not very much far-reaching. This is because even if the United States were to get forty minutes of sunshine daily, it would get more energy than all the fossil fuels it uses in a year. More so, the fossil fuels are being depleted 100,000 times faster than they are being created (Wanamingo, para. 3). The use of energy from the sun is able to reduce the usage of the Earth’s precious fossil fuels.
Attention in the use of sunlight for the production of energy is on the rise, and it should, too. Even as other states are wrestling with energy policies, the state of New Jersey is proving to be the leader in promoting the use of solar power in the U.S.
This is because the use of solar energy has been a beneficial initiative that has assisted it in meeting its increased energy needs. In addition, the state has been able to save money, protect the environment, offset utility-supplied energy consumption, and increase the affordability of electricity.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Is solar energy good for the state of New Jersey? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In contrast to fossil fuels, solar energy is abundant, available almost everywhere in the planet, and can never be depleted. Therefore, even as New Jersey takes the lead, solar power advocates should make concerted efforts to inform the whole world about the benefits of this energy resource.
Works Cited Brooke, Booke. Solar energy. New York: Chelsea House, 1992. Print.
Hirschmann, Kris. Solar energy. Farmington Hills, MI: KidHaven Press, 2006. Print.
Peter, Kavar. “Here Comes the Sun: Solar Energy Is Becoming More Attractive For Mainstream Consumers.” Affordable solar power. 2005. Web.
Pisani, Joseph. “New Jersey Outshines Most Others in Solar Energy.” CNBC. 2009. Web.
Tyrell, Joe.”New Jersey is now a true solar power.” Newsroom Jersey. 2009. Web.
Wanamingo, Erica S. “Solar energy.” Teen Ink. N.d. Web.
Business plan on IT Training Centre Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
In any business plan there are fundamental provisions that are required with respect to the nature of the market in question. In essence the market is the most essential tool for consideration when seeking opportunities for the business success.
If there is minimal feasibility of the market, there is no need to launch the business, however if there is an evident market gap in a given region, it is always advisable to optimize on the opportunity that may soon be gone. The UAE in this case is one of the fastest growing economies in the world together with China.
In fact, the UAE is almost not dependent on natural gases like petroleum and oil because of its diversity. With a $270 Billion GDP, UAE is a wealthy region with people who are willing to invest. Technology is the key solution for industrialization and hence the need of technology in the region.
Statement of the problem This analysis explicitly looks into the viability of venturing into an IT training center in the UAE based on the market research that had been concluded. The market research indicated that there is an opportunity to make a successful business venture in the region because of the presence of adequate need in the region.
Purpose In this business plan analysis, the major purpose is to develop a viable business plan that will be used be used for the IT Training Center (ITC) that will be established in the UAE. This business plan will therefore provide important information about the nature of the business that will be launched in the UAE.
Some of the most important considerations in this case include the marketing plan, operation plan, management and organization, financial plan and the milestone for the ITC training center. This business plan is developed after an extensive market research had been carried out to establish the viability and the feasibility of establishing a training center in the UAE.
Significance of the study A successful business plan is a plan that has reasonable projections on profits and reasonable estimations of costs; this is the significance of this study. The other important consideration in ensuring a successful business plan is adequate sources of fund coupled with sound management. When these factors have been considered, marketing plan can now be organized and implemented to acquire as substantial niche. In this case, the establishment of IT Training Center in the UAE has been based on the viability of the project.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The economic base of the UAE is strong and one of the fastest growing economies in the world and therefore highly likely to accommodate foreign investors to the region. The country is also aiming to be dependent on tourism and other sources of funds in future as their oil and mineral base is expected to diminish with time. These facts provide evidence on the viability of the project in the region.
Background The business will be based in the United Arab Emirates; it will be stationed in a rented office in the Abu Dhabi the capital city of UAE. The name of the business is IT Training Center (ITC).
The business will target both the local residents and the international students who will be visiting the UAE or outside the UAE but have constant internet access that will enable them attend live class proceedings. The financial plan and its projections have been provided and projected to make a profit $19,740 by the end of three fiscal quarterly years.
The services that will be offered by ITC will include the following, IT Governance and Ethics, Project management, Web designing(Data driven web design using Drupal, Joomla, and SharePoint), Networking, N , A , Cisco CCNA/CCNP, ICDL and office packages, Linux administration, Oracle and Java, web marketing and optimization. The services will be offered on a 24 hour basis, online support will also be provided to other students willing to enroll to the college within the UAE for a reduced fee and outside the UAE.
Literature review In a business venture, there are several concerns to be considered when launching the business. Some of the most foundational concepts in planning a business are; ensuring that there is a sufficient market demand, financial provisions, and operation planning among other imperative considerations (Covello, 123).
A successful business plan should therefore have a comprehensive consideration of the market and the need for the product or service in the market (Covello, 124). This consideration is the foundation of any business since the business cannot survive without the market for the products and services.
In some instances, there is essence to create the need from the market through bridging the market gap by innovative and competitive products and services, if this is achieved; sound business prosperity will be attained(Covello, 126). There are other considerations that should be implemented before the onset of the business enterprise; some of these include PEST and SWOT analysis, these analyses are relevant because of the external influences of the business.
We will write a custom Report on Business plan on IT Training Centre specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Definition of terms PEST- Political Economic Social and Technological analysis
SWOT-Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats
CCNA- Cisco Certified Network Associate
CCNP-Cisco Certified Network Professional
ICDL- International Computer Driving License
A – Foundational Networking course
N – Basic networking course based in the fundamentals of A
UAE- United Arab Emirates
Not sure if you can write a paper on Business plan on IT Training Centre by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Results Based on the market research that had been done in the field, the results of the analysis process as outlined in the market research proposal require that the following progression be followed.
Market plan This is the central aspect of the business, the initial analysis for the feasibility of establishing a business opportunity in the UAE had provided evidence of the existing market for training of IT courses in the region. The existence for the need of the services is a great demonstration that there exists opportunities (market in this case) to be exploited in the region.
The imperative step that will be taken by the management of the ITC is the implementation of a thorough marketing strategy that will emphasize on the uniqueness of the services that the college will offer better those of other service providers in the region.
Promotional strategies The promotional strategies that will be exploited by the ITC will aim to capture and convince the service consumers on the services of the college. Considering that technological advancement is the key issue in the modern world. Developing a strategy that show optimum use of technology to the modern world market will be essential to the residents of the region. Online and regional advertisements will be utilized to maximize the market opportunities in the region.
SWOT analysis of based on the competitors Strengths
The colleges in the UAE have a stronger online presence.
The companies in the region are mostly local and hence have a local support.
The colleges in the UAE have most of the courses that are to be offered by the ITC.
The colleges in the region have poor marketing strategies that ITC can take advantage of.
The services offered by the companies in the region are professional but not market oriented as opposed to the ITC which is more market oriented compared to other colleges like sites power training college which exist in the area.
Given the competitive advantage of the ITC, there is a likelihood of the market oriented services like market optimization options if Information technology to influence the residents on using the services of ITC.
The market opportunities in the region are still open to be filled because of the economical strength of the UAE and hence despite the presence of competitors, there are opportunities for new entrants into the market.
The loyalty of the local residents may be biased to international companies.
The cost of starting a business in the region may exceed the approximations because of the dynamic nature of the market in the regions.
As evident from the analysis of the competitors’ strengths and weaknesses, the ITC will exploit all the opportunities within its reach in ensuring that the strategies employed by the business will yield positive results.
The aspect of close relation of Information Technology to business will yield more positive market approach because of the uniqueness of the service being offered. Unlike other institutions in the region that have less or no reliance on their market perspective to technology, the ITC will be the market leader in closely relating the two and ensuring that the students who will graduate from the institution will be better placed as managers who are more market oriented and can take advantage of technology for the good of the organization that they will manage after graduating from the ITC institution.
The idea of the penetrating prices at the onset of the institution will be set to be moderate in order to gain the perception of cheap services that are quality. The prices will average compared to other institutions in the region to avoid being mistaken for cheap and possibly poor service and again expensive and an international company that does not understand the needs of the United Arab Emirates.
Plan of operation
The plan of operation in the region will require several requirements to be met in order to enhance a suitable environment for development (Covello, p.121). The initial consideration is proper management of the ITC. The management will be hired from the region because of the loyalty of the customer aspect.
The other important consideration will be the teaching staff. The teaching staff will be hired from the region and outside the region in order to enhance the quality of the services that will be offered. The teaching staff will also be assisted by the support staff and co-workers of the institution, these people will be hired from the region and their financial provisions are as projected in the table below.
In order to impress investors on the viability of the project for financial assistance, the projections outlined below will be of essence. The financial provisions with a projection of a growth rate of more than $4,000 on a quarterly basis will increase their confidence on the guarantee of their returns on investments. The sources of funds will therefore come from different places including bank loan, private investors, personal contributions and savings.
The institution’s partners will be another added advantage in ensuring that there is a value from the services being offered in ITC. Some of the important partners that the institution will create a Business-to-Business relationship (B-2-B) include Microsoft Corporation, Cisco, Linux institute, and Mc fee. These partners will help in building the name or the image of the institution because of their success in their different fields of Information Technology (IT).
Networking Cables(Cat 6)
Licenses and fees
Concepts of Organizational Culture Research Paper online essay help
Table of Contents Organizational Culture at my Workplace
Employee Behavior and Action
In management or organizational learning environments, learners use the phrase ‘organizational culture’ to imply the beliefs, values, attitudes, experiences and psychology of a certain organization. In most cases, organizational culture is a collection of social norms and values applied by people working in an organization. Largely, these values and norms dictate the relationship of members within an organization.
Organizational culture comprises of aspirations and goals set by members towards realizing success. Language, symbols, interactions and expectations are some of the examples of goals set by an organization. They act as culture itself. In essence, personal or group norms sire organizational norms, aspirations, expectations and employee behavior within an organization. (Hill
Connected Activities and its Influence on Firm Essay essay help: essay help
The firm has formed partnership with other big companies like Amazon.com in order to improve on its services to consumers. This has enabled them to deliver orders in time to the benefit of Borders.
The firm apart from operating bookstore also runs music store and coffee bars, these helps in increasing its overall sales. The firm uses modern computerized system to manage its inventory; this makes it record highest sales as compared to other competitors within the market. Borders have divided its products to serve as small business segments to the satisfaction of their clients.
They operate numerous book and music stores within the United States and additionally organize live performance events by artistes and books authors. The coming of the internet enabled multiple works to be performed by providing an efficient and cheaper means of communication between the stores and the clients (Gataric et al, 2002, pp 387-397).
The firm’s superstores engage in sponsoring community functions like story telling occasions as well as group discussions amongst others. Borders also engaged in sponsoring online magazines one of them being Salon which offers customers with opportunity to read variety of books and keep updated with current affairs.
The firm launched the use of Borders Universe which provides online inventory data connecting all the retail outlets, this makes it easier for customers to find books from other related retail stores. Borders deliver books and other products to consumers’ doorsteps and operate telephone support twenty four hours a day throughout the week (Gataric et al, 2002, pp 387-397).
Customer value The firm’s superstores provide consumers with various selections of music and videos at affordable prices. These selections comprises of music that are rarely found but sought after by the majority, these include jazz and opera type of music. They offer the same trend within their video stores which makes available a number of title movies. The firms’ use of the internet in retailing provides the consumers with easier means of selecting variety of what they require online.
This meant that customers are now able to save on time that could have been consumed looking for items in the stores and undergoing all other required services. The merger with Amazon.com enabled Borders to provide customers with unique services that included complete information on store locations and the several events that take place at the in-stores (Feng, et al, 2001, PP 467-503).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Capabilities The firm launched a site that had the capability of handling the largest multimedia database on the internet. It was also the only firm with the largest in-stock of multimedia selection for most of the retailers using the internet, besides they offer ready shipping services for the millions of their products purchased online.
Borders.com offers beautiful sites and choices to the consumers, on top of this they are also time conscious in the way they deliver their services. This makes the firm to be one of the most trusted internet brands. In order to build close relationship with consumers and win more of their trust, the firm created private database that serves customers at individual levels taking care of confidentiality (Gataric et al, 2002, pp 387-397).
The company needed to improve on its commercial capabilities whereby the consumers will be served in a more organized way. The firm launched internet in-store kiosks which provide customers with easy time when locating the products availability and prices online.
The costs of operating the online services seem to be high calling for further strategies. The firm increased the level of their sales through partnership with top leaders in online sales; this has helped in shifting of costs responsibility for internet sales (Gataric et al, 2002, pp 387-397).
References Feng, et al.(2001). A New Business Model? The Capital Market and the New Economy. Economy and Society, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp 467-503. Gataric, I., Gilbert, J., Green, J., Kennedy, I. Lewallen, W., and Sumita, Y. (2002).
Borders: Responding to Change. International Directory of Company Histories Vol. 43, pp 387-397.
Exploration of Watchmen the Graphic Novel Essay (Critical Writing) scholarship essay help
Probably, when the writer Alan Moore together with his artist Dave Gibbons and a colorist John Higgins were creating Watchmen, they did not know it would be a bestseller one day or would be adapted in a movie. What is the secret of their success?
I will try to answer this question in my paper. Watchmen is a graphic novel, in which verbal and visual elements are perfectly combined. A verbal element that includes the main heroes, central themes, and author’s main messages plays a more important role, while a visual element makes a story more vivid and involving.
Watchmen: A Verbal Aspect To understand the importance of a verbal aspect in the novel, let me first discuss briefly the theme of superheroes and their extreme popularity. Superheroes have always been the main characters of almost all or, at least, the most famous comic books. They possess abilities, and very often personal traits that normal people do not. For both kids and adults, superheroes turn into champions always ready to fight for justice – this is what Jamie A. Hughes writes in The Journal of Popular Culture (39: 546-547).
However, what do we see in Watchmen? Authors of this graphic novel make a unique attempt to “deconstruct the very idea of the hero” by “shattering this idealized reflection of humanity” (McLaughlin 101). They do it by mean of the character of Adrian Veidt or Ozymandias who becomes the main villain of the novel.
One of the author’s main purposes was to show that by such medium as comics it is possible to show and make emphasis on some real world problems that exist in society. The main themes covered in the novel perfectly reflect some major 1980s issues that bothered Alan Moore. He saw “superheroes” of his times, Ronald Reagan or Margaret Thatcher who were supposed to be watchmen, who had to control the world, and rescue it if necessary (Wright 273). Obviously, Moore was disappointed by those “superheroes”.
Watchmen: A Visual Aspect It is said that the artist Dave Gibbons deviated from some widely accepted rules of drawing comic books. He used a so-called nine-panel grid system for making Watchmen, which he believed gave Alan Moore more control over the plot and storyline (Salisbury 80).
Although somebody may find this style of creating comic books unique or special, I cannot fully agree that it contributes to the overall success of this novel greatly. Yes, all the characters are depicted in a simple and rather realistic way, which definitely makes reading the novel more captivating. However, from my point of view, Gibbon’s style does not differ significantly from other comics.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I can agree with the role of the colorist John Higgins who I think managed to make this novel more lively and moody by using colors. Watchmen is done in so-called European style colors, secondary colors, which are not too bright, but still convey the mood of the main characters, their feelings, etc, perfectly (Duin, Richardson 460).
What can be said in the conclusion? I am sure that millions of people will agree that Watchmen is not just a graphic novel. A brilliant combination of visual and verbal aspects can turn it into motion pictures in someone’s mind, and perhaps this is why the novel was successfully adapted into a movie.
Yet, it is a novel that cannot be understood fully after the first reading. It is a work that should be re-read several times, and each time a reader will discover new meanings and themes in Watchmen.
Bibliography Duin, Steve, Richardson, Mike. Comics Between the Panels. Milwaukie: Dark Horse Comics, 1998.
Hughes, Jamie A. “Who Watches the Watchmen?: Ideology and “Real World” Superheroes”. The Journal of Popular Culture 39.4 (2006): 546-547.
McLaughlin, Jeff. Comics as Philosophy. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 2005.
Salisbury, Mark. Artists on Comic Art. Michigan: Titan Books, 2000.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Exploration of Watchmen the Graphic Novel specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Wright, Bradford W. Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.
Ann Oakley’s Gender Socialization Theory – Essay college essay help online
Table of Contents The definition of the discipline
Anne Oaksley and her place in sociology
An overview of her work. Main interests
List of References
The definition of the discipline According to Longman, Dictionary of Contemporary English, sociology is defined as the scientific study of societies and the behaviour of people in groups. It also can be synonymic to social science.
It uses different methods (empirical investigation, exploratory and constructive research, analysis) to develop and improve the knowledge about human social activity. Frequently, these facts can be used in practice in order to refine people’s life. The science combines two levels – micro level (interaction between people) and macro level that connects different social systems to one.
Sociology is a very wide discipline. Traditionally, it focuses on social spheres including religion, culture and other, later it was broaden to modern spheres (the Internet), medicine. Nowadays, sociology covers as much as such topics: culture, criminality, economics, environment, education, family and childhood, gender, health, internet, knowledge, law, media, military, politics, race and ethnic relations, religion, social networks, urban and rural spaces, work and industry (Sosteric, 2010).
Anne Oaksley and her place in sociology Ann Oakley was born in 1944. nowadays she is a well-known British scientist in sociology. Oakley’s father is Professor Richard Titmuss. Her mother, Kathleen, was also working in social sphere. Later, she wrote her. She was studying at Somerville College, Oxford University. She received her bachelor degree in 1965. she continued her studies at Bedford College, University of London, Anne has gained a PhD in 1969. main spheres of her investigations included sociology of medicine and health of women.
An overview of her work. Main interests Ann Oakley’s contributions include lots of academic works, most of them touch upon women’s place in life. There are also lots of novels, one of the most popular is The Men’s Room. She has also written her own biography, however it is not full for now.
Main spheres of her interest are numerous. They are childbirth and motherhood, family, feminism, housework, imagining the future, men, relationships between men and women, sex and gender and social science.
In a wide range of books Anne Oakley has proved that the understanding of person’s gender role comes not from biological matter, but from a social one. A person perceives his or her place with communication and interaction with others. The same is with the children. They are given their gender basis from childhood. Oakley believes that gender socialization had four central elements:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Manipulation – parents are influencing on their children, they can easily encourage or discourage ways of behaving in their children on the basis of their own consideration of good and bad for a male or female child.
Canalization – children are persuaded to show more interest to some concrete toys, for example. Adults have their conceptions of toys that are appropriate for a girl and unacceptable for a boy.
Verbal appellations – this is the use of language. Parents are usually providing their children with names for toys, pets etc. in this way, children can be stimulated to usage of certain gender.
Different activities – Girls are encouraged to participate in indoor activities which are often ‘domestic’ in nature. Boys are encouraged to participate in more outdoor activities (Oakley, 1979).
So, socialisation is a key factor to identifying oneself as a male or female person. Furthermore, roots of this process go back to our childhood.
A lot of Anne Oakley’s works were dedicated to women. She was a feminist, so she was struggling for establishment of women’s rights in mainly men’s society. One of these key moments was discussed in her work ‘Interviewing women: a contradiction in terms’.
In this article, Anne Oakley discusses methodological points which she previously highlighted by her research on motherhood. In particular, she describes the gap between textbook advised plans for interviewing and her own experience as an interviewer. Oakley suggests some traditional criteria for interviewing.
First, the problem lies in the one-side process. The interviewing situation implies only an interviewer asking and the person answering. The problem is that the interviewer does not give any information. Oakley shows the absurdity of such situations through a discussion of the questions she usually receives from people during taking an interview.
Second, many scientists advise interviewer to be strict and show certain attitude while interviewing. In their opinion, strictness will provide objectiveness in responses. However it is not so far true. Not feeling comfortable in conversation, a respondent will not say true and sincere things.
Third, sometimes interviewers are seen as having no personal opinion. They are confining everything only by means of statistics and other social data obtained from people. This will not help in taking an interview, as a respondent needs to have an interlocutor to reveal his or her thoughts, but not an emotionless robot that is just asking questions one after another. (Oakley, 2010)
This experience of such problems Anne is applying on feminist interviewers. In order to get helpful data, an interviewer should consider everything mentioned above.
We will write a custom Essay on Ann Oakley’s Gender Socialization Theory – Essay specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More ‘When I say I’m a feminist what do I mean? I mean that I believe that women are an oppressed social group, a group of people sharing a common exclusion from full participation in certain key social institutions (and being over-represented in others).
Women in Britain in the 1980s are still subject to the awful soul-destroying tyranny of being told the meaning of their lives by others in terms which are not theirs.’(Oakley, 1984) this is a citation connected with Oakley’s studies on feminism. She points out that women have no rights and they have a duty to establish them.
Positions in government were bothering her a lot. In her next work, she writes: ‘The state is a masculine institution: men hold most of the top positions in government and its associated agencies…’(Oakley, 2003) She was arguing with the fact that women have no possibility to obtain higher positions in society.
In conclusion, Anne Oakley has made a great benefit in the development of social science. Her works are dedicated to such burning issues as feminism, child upbringing, education and other maternity problems. She touches upon men’s nature of the world. Her works are of great importance to further generations.
List of References Oakley, A. ‘Interviewing Women: a Contradiction In Terms’ Doing feminist research, Roberts H. Web.
Oakley, A. 1979 ‘Becoming a Mother’, Oxford: Martin Robertson.
Oakley, A. 1984 ‘Taking it Like a Woman’, London: Jonathan Cape.
Oakley, A. 2003 ‘Gender on Planet Earth’, Cambridge: Polity Press (New York: The New Press) 15 May (2).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Ann Oakley’s Gender Socialization Theory – Essay by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Sosteric, M., Brasted, M. and Scheff, J. T. ‘The Socjournal’, A New Media Journal of Sociology and Society. Web.
Raiding the American Financial System Essay best essay help: best essay help
World societies were normally structured and governed through specific systems. However, none of the administration arrangements demonstrated a sense of fairness to the societies. Egalitarianism, communism, free enterprise, and modern open-mindedness governance systems were exposed as unfair.
Les Leopold, in his book The Looting of America, proposed a theory on how the 2008 financial depression occurred. Capitalism in America had lost its known definition among the citizens. More so, a recent bail out of the complete financial segment in the American economy perplexed most Americans.
The capitalism governance system in the world had been transformed especially in the financial sector. Modern capitalist societies encouraged accrual of enormous wealth, provided financial guarantee to risks taken by the wealthy and evaded accountability for society wellbeing.
Characteristics of the modern American capitalist system demonstrated unfair practices. Governance practices that cushioned the American economy against collapse were ignored. Profits accumulated by the wealthy were not success of businessmen. However, the proceeds gained were endowments provided by the regime.
The governance trend had resulted in bitterness among American citizens. Majority of the wealth buildup activities were carried out by associates of the modern society. The wealthy had always thrived on society unresponsiveness to financial systems manipulation. Measures that established an expanded taxation bracket and included the wealthy would have generated sufficient funds for the society. Advancement in taxes might have cut wealth of the rich and provided increased resources to the public.
America had existed in a situation where most of the national proceeds were handled by the few wealthy citizens. The earnings inspired a dream money club on Wall Street. Earlier in American history, President Roosevelt regulated the financial sector with monetary reforms. A great financial depression and Second World War condensed the society’s earnings divide. Amount of finances for the dream money club on Wall Street had reduced.
However, the earnings allocation stabilized until President Regan liberated the wealthy by slashing taxes, extensive liberalization, and smashed employment. The move by President Regan started the dream money club that contributed to the investments and credit disaster, amalgamation obsession, the dot-com simmer and ruin, shelter and imitative simmers, and the recent dream money collapse of 2008. Ultimately, absence of improved rallied resistance and logical option to distribute resources continued to fuel the dream money club.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Deviation of output and earnings, rejection of firm distribution of income, and regular repositioning of great amounts of wealth from the people to a few selected rich persons had led to a faulty financial system. Wealth transfer was carried out through the American government.
Apparently, false circumstances were developed where business financiers lacked investment opportunities in the physical financial system. Consequently, financiers discovered methods that spent money in expectations, formulated poor speculations to appear admirable, and risked money belonging to citizens in idealistic ventures.
According to Les Leopold’s assumption, the origin of modern financial downturn was a divide between output and actual income. The divide started enlarging in the 1970’s. Income derived from production activities was directed to top business tycoons as opposed to the employees.
A rejection of balanced income split to employees, measured relocation of colossal finances to an extremely rich group of people resulted in a financial imperfection. The huge amounts of money were relocated to the wealthy via the government. Consequently, a circumstance in which financiers could not get new ventures to invest in was created.
In mid 1940’s and early 1970’s rates of production were on the increase and businesses employed more labor to broaden the profitability scale. Increased employment in the businesses forced employment upwards. In later years, large business reduced the profits plough back into their trades.
Financiers retained their earnings resulting in a percentage rise of money owned by the society’s top brass. The wealthy begun to seek for substitute income sources to invest the additional money with large profitability. Thereby, a period of imagined monetary systems, directed by imitations, was developed.
Billions of dollars overflow into a money club financial system stimulated chancy gambles and the home business flare-up. The wealth financiers and their firms made extraordinary profits through the novel trade. Employee’s income levels fell, liabilities inflated, and end user expenditure lingered. Actual trade activities lacked money lending services as financiers opted for dream money clubs with increased profitability.
We will write a custom Essay on Raiding the American Financial System specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Economic mechanisms developed by financiers seemed much secure than conventional investments. Finances were invested into innovative businesses and protected home credit facilities. Furthermore, a steady investment shift was directed towards counterfeit home credit facilities.
The counterfeit financial mechanisms attracted huge sums of money that could have been utilized in other real investments. Gradually, the money generating mechanisms flourished. An economic outlook was created, especially, in the home market. Money availability was increased and the financiers raked in large amounts of money in fees and profits. Financial division of the American economy developed into the most lucrative section.
Forty percent of commercial income was created in the monetary division of the American economy. However, the income generated was later discovered to be false. Reports indicated that a few years before the economic downturn of 2008, the financial division of the American economy had an income of 300 billion dollars. Apparently, all the earned proceeds were spent in wages and bonuses.
Financiers devoted money into financial mechanisms based on counterfeit validations. An artificial profitability mark-up was attached to the financial instruments so as to attract investments. The complicated copied financial instruments were a beneficial to the financial organizations. The New York Times reported that income accrued by major profit-making investment institutions was three hundred and five billion dollars in 2004 to 2007.
Nevertheless, the investment institutions have recently struck out their appraisals on lending’s and property by a similar quantity. Evidently, gains by the investment institutions must have been artificial. As soon as the dream simmers erupted and the imaginary gains lost, the investment institutions were in receivership. The American national administration interceded to prevent a global financial disaster.
Financial investment organizations developed crafty money generating products that were directed at benefiting the wealthy. The economic instruments were speculations based on false projections. American economic analysis information concluded that the downturn was as a result of home credits owned by deprived citizens dangerously invested by irresponsible investors who ought to have had facts.
Roughly one trillion dollars value home credit was issued. Three hundred billion dollars of the invested money were in non-payment. The financial mess resulted in an economic crisis that nearly affected the global economic system. American citizens were required to bail out investment banks to prevent a collapse of the county’s financial system.
In 2007, seven hundred thousand dollars was invested in amenities, skills and prospects for pupils of Whitefish Bay high school. The expenditure arrangement benefited the students as 94% of Whitefish former students preceded on to university right away. Whitefish Bay high school had accountability monetary standards.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Raiding the American Financial System by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, similar to other institutions, responsibility burdens overwhelmed Whitefish high school. Whitefish high school was located in a wealthy neighborhood and the residents, occasionally, chose to bail out the school. The Whitefish Bay town residents sought after a rewarding investment with low risks. Wall Street investors, on the other hand, focused on learning institutions such as Whitefish Bay high school’s dependence resources.
Wall Street financiers anticipated to convince the institutions not to put away money in government securities. The amount of the schools trust funds was prized at one hundred billion dollars countrywide in 2006. Wall Street financier’s ground-breaking investments were much more rewarding. A provision and requirement need was thus created and seemed as an ideal equal.
In contrast, Wall Street homes speculation were lost subsequent to investment of the one hundred billion dollars set aside by learning institutions as dependence finances (Leopold 2009). Financiers developed a concept of investing other people’s money in idealistic ventures. Nonetheless, the Wall Street investors focused on fantasy investment plans that had no forecasted growth. The investors had ulterior motives to enrich themselves and other wealthy colleagues.
The real estate industry had grown rapidly and was a bubble waiting to burst. Financiers developed investment mechanisms that lured institutions into devoting their finances. Speculative ventures with attractive profit margins were developed by investors as dream investment instruments. Subprime mortgages were mostly targeted by the crafty investors.
Obviously, the world economic downturn experienced in 2008 was initiated by fantasy investments by financiers. Money earned by average citizens was invested in false ventures to enrich the wealthy at the expense of the poor in society. Subprime mortgages were heavily financed which led to an indifferent economic equation.
Supply of homes exceeded demand hence drop in house prices. In a period of three decades, investors diverted money from productivity ventures into dram money clubs. The ripple effect on employment and wages left ordinary citizens in an awkward economic circumstance. Sadly, a possible collapse in the economy required bail out from the deprived citizens. American government had few options that could rescue investment banks and avoid a possible disintegration of the financial system.
The 2008 world financial downturn was destined to cause havoc to major global economies. Media reports that blamed other economic sectors, other than the financial sector, were far fetched. Unscrupulous financiers developed greed for large profits by investing in speculative ventures. A system of public management of resources ought to be adapted. Conventional investments in production and services had a beneficial effect on citizens.
Employment had dropped drastically in recent decades based on poor investment plans. Infrastructure, industry, and services were regarded as real economic ventures. A vibrant financial system dealt with tangible assets as opposed to speculative undertakings. Modern investors focused on the financial sector without solid foundations that would support growth. Exponential growth patterns resulted in a near global catastrophe.
Les Leopold had a reliable analysis of the financial damage caused by fantasy investors. The looting of America book captured the essence of the past three decades of the American financial system. The manuscript concentrated on perceptions, assumption, and outcomes related to the 2008 economic downturn in America. Information obtained from Les Leopold’s manuscript was valuable for understanding how the American financial system had been raided by selfish investors.
Reference List Leopold, Les. 2009. The Looting of America. How Wall Street’s Game of Fantasy Finance Destroyed Our Jobs, Pensions, and Prosperity- and What We Can Do About It. White River Jct., Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing.
Strategy and policy Report essay help
Table of Contents History of the Apple Company
Strategies and policies of the Apple Company
Strategy and policy are the backbones of success in the business world. If the policies and strategies of a company are well structured, they mostly translate to profits (Colley, 2004, p. 23). This is because strategic planning helps an organization to produce goods that are appreciable by their customers and also helps them to enter new markets and thus widen their customer base.
Additionally, strategic planning helps a company plan well for the future and be aware of future business twists and also helps it to maximally employ the skills of its workforce. On the other hand, development of policies helps an organization to maintain ethical standards and thus maintain its goodwill.
Policies also protect the assets of the organization and thus they protect the organization from losses fuelled by fraudulent employees and/or court cases which will, otherwise, be evident in the organization (Hartley, 2010, p. 1). This paper explores the strategies and policies of the Apple Company.
History of the Apple Company Apple was founded by Steve Jobs and Wozniak Steve in the year 1976. It was initially a computer manufacturing company but it has, since them, expanded to offer a variety of technology products and a wide range of electronics. In the last 30 years, Apple has expanded its product base to include products like laptops, Mac OSX, the iPod, the iPad, the iPhone, Apple TV, Mac OS Server and a wide variety of desktops.
The strategic innovation of the Apple Company has enabled it to gain worldwide popularity with its recent product, the iPad, hitting a million sales marks recently. A billion units of the product are expected to be sold by the end of May. On the other hand, the iPhone is in stock in close to a hundred countries (Malik, 2010, p. 1).
The company has been revolutionary in the distribution of digital media and in the field of personal computing. It has dominated most technology consumers and achieved commendable appreciation from educational establishments.
Most educational institutions are now using Apples products in their classrooms and computer laboratory. Additionally, a great number of students and lecturers own Apple products for their personal computing and technology needs (Malik, 2010, p. 1). This success can be partly attributed to the priority that the Apple Company gives to strategic innovation and invention.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Strategies and policies of the Apple Company The Apple Company has also established relationships with international agents to help them market their products. For instance, Rogers Communications Inc. markets Apple products in Canada. They have recently developed policies on the marketing of data plans for the iPad. They offer 250 Mb monthly data for $15 and 5 Gb for $ 35.
They do not have an unlimited data plan because they believe that most customers use less than 250 Mb in a month. This is contrary to the policies set by the Apple Company in the U.S. where they have offered an unlimited data package for $ 30 (Rowley, 2010, p. 1). This way, the Apple Company is able to provide products that a specialized for different groups of customers.
As stated earlier, much of the success of the Apple Company can be attributed to the priority that the company gives to strategic innovation. To exemplify this, in the recent past, the company took the mobile telephony by storm with its invention of the iPhone.
It has fantastic features which include a user friendly User Interface, voicemail enhancement, a powerful GPRS and a powerful platform for development and information sharing. These features enabled the iPhone to be the choice of consumers registering exponential sales in the U.S. since its launch. There are currently more than 6.5 million iPhones active in the U.S. alone. The company has also developed an online music store.
This innovative step has enabled the company to market tunes for their products such as the iPhones. It is also a strategic step since in selling their iTunes, the company also gets a chance to market their products to prospective customers since people buying iTunes are also potential customers for products like the iPod, the iPhone etc (Doughdale, 2010, p. 1).
Apple has also upheld inter-corporation cooperation. To achieve this end, it worked in alliance with Microsoft in the 1990’s incorporating Microsoft’s products like office in their systems. They also abandoned Suns Original for Microsoft java Implementation and took Microsoft browser, the Internet Explorer, as a Mac OS standard.
This strategy of cooperation made the Apple Company to get out of losses that were experienced by the company in 1997. It also helped the company to provide the customers with products that were compatible with other products in the market. For instance, the incorporation of office was a big step in their recovery (Rowley, 2010, p. 1).
We will write a custom Report on Strategy and policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many people will agree with me that Apple is the company of the decade. In the last decade, Apple has launched a number of new products that have gained amazing popularity and revolutionized the technology industry. To get a glimpse of the success that Apple has seen in the last decade, let us compare it with the technology giant, Google.
The performance of the stock of the giant is amazing but it does not compare to the performance of Apple. Since the time it was listed, Google’s stock has risen by an approximate 500%. In the same period, the stock of Apple has risen by about 1200% (Saxena, 2010, p. 1). This highlights the fact that Apple was the most performing company in the last decade.
This success is attributable to the aforementioned strategic innovation in consumer demanded technology products like the iPhone that has revolutionized the Smartphone industry and the iPod whose influence in the music industry is massive (Foremski, 2010, p. 1).
To cite a current example, the company is now accepting advance orders for the iPad from international clients. This is a strategy that will definitely help in the realization of exponential sales of the product when the company enters international markets in the end of May.
The pre-order strategy has been implemented for the eight countries which appreciate the iPad launch as a very significant event. This implies that the pre-order strategy will definitely have its desired effect since Apple customers in these countries are genuinely interested in acquiring the iPad.
The Apple Company has also adopted a strategy to control the kind of software and applications that run in its hardware. This was developed to add to the existing control on the Operating System that runs on Apple systems.
Many critics have branded Apple Inc. the control freak but the control is advantageous to the company since it enables the company to market more of their software and applications. In this regard, the applications which run on the iPad and the iPhone are all developed by Apple Inc (Foremski, 2010, p. 1).
Another strategy that has enabled Apple Inc. to maintain its competitive edge is its acquisition policy. Remarkable among its acquisitions is the acquisition of its co-founder, Steve Jobs, and his company NeXT. This acquisition brought to Apple a lot of expertise and innovations that enabled the creation of iMac and Mac OS X gold.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Strategy and policy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company has recently acquired a chip company in order to maintain a competitive edge in the mobile industry. The acquired company, Intrisity, was bought for 121 million dollars, which is a negligible amount of money to Apple compared to the benefits that the company will bring to Apple Inc (Doughdale, 2010, p. 1).
The involvement of the company in the microchip industry has been very profitable to the company since its conception. It is the microchip resources possessed by Apple that have enabled the company to develop products like the iPhone, the iPod and the iPad which are have skyrocketed the success of the Apple Company.
Unfortunately, Lala, a company bought by Apple specializing in streaming of music, is closing down by the end of May. This is bad news to the music streaming industry and to Apple since other music streaming sites using Apples app store may be affected. Users may become reluctant to the buying of music for ownership. Such music sites include Rhapsody, Pandora, MOG etc (Saxena, 2010, p. 1).
Apple Inc’s policies have also helped it to achieve the success it has achieved in the last decade. Consider for example its sales and refunds policy. The company offers assistance about product information, pricing, orders etc throughout the week. This enables it to reach a myriad of customers interested in its high quality technology products.
The company accepts defective products from customers to ensure that their customers get the best of its products (“Apple store”, 2010, p. 1). This has made Apple customers gain confidence in the products of the company and thus it has helped in increasing the customer base of the company.
The company also offers a variety of software which is readily available for downloading on the internet (Lowensohn, 2010, p. 1). This has made the company reach software customers across the globe and it has also enabled the company to market its products since most of its software are compatible with its systems and devices.
Conclusion The Apple Company can be taken as the benchmark of the importance of strategy in the corporate world. Its strategic involvement in products other than desktop computers depending on demand has made the company achieve unimaginably. Much of the success of the company can be attributed to its investment in strategic products like the iPhone, iPod and the iPad. All these products serve different industries and were developed by the company due to its innovative capability and the demand of such products in the technology market.
The company has been able to achieve an innovative and competitive edge though the use of a variety of strategies which include acquisition, inter-corporation cooperation, online marketing, international market exploitation and exceptional customer care.
All the stated strategies were meant to beef up their digital hub strategy which focuses on Macs (hubs) and spokes, software and hardware (Mortensen, 2010, p. 1). The company has therefore been able to achieve its objectives by the production of the aforementioned devices.
Bibliography Apple Store. (2010). Sales and refund Policy. Web.
Colley, J. (2004). Corporate Strategy. California. Barnes
Rearing of cattle Argumentative Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Rearing of cattle is an old practice that has been very beneficial to mankind. Before the discovery of wind and steam power, animal power was relied on as a major source of energy. Harnessing the power in animal muscles, communities ploughed their lands and carried produce to the market; increasing their economic productivity.
It must sound very surprising, strange and even absurd, to you my friends, to even imagine I can advocate for abolishment of beef farming in this country. Given we are all sons and daughters of farmers; you have every reason to consider anybody with my proposal insane. However, please do not dismiss me before hand. Allow me to explain to you my reasons and let see if they have some sense. I am convinced that our world would benefit immensely from a ban on beef farming.
Beef faming in this country and in the world as whole is very lucrative. Ladies and gentlemen, it is imperative for me to note how beneficial beef farming has been and continues to be to you. Meat and milk form a great bulk of people’s diets around the world. Consumption of quick foods like hamburgers in the streets of developed countries like the US continues to sky rocket.
Despite the negative effects of quick foods, people rely on them for convenience purposes. Most of the quick foods are beef products. It is projected that consumption of beef products is bound to increase fourfold by the year 2020 (Schossler 199). Therefore, for those established in the beef industry, huge margins or profits still beckon.
Cereal farmers are also making a kill in this by providing the animal feed that is on high demand due the increased animal farming activities. It is needless to say how beef consumption is beneficial to our body health. Consumption of lean meat, mark the word LEAN, is good for our health.
It is third behind cereals and grains as a source of iron. Beef is also an excellent source of protein, zinc and phosphorus which are important for our body nutrition. Proteins are very essential for our bodies. They are the building blocks for our bodies. I can already see living examples of users of these proteins here. They are well built and good looking.
Dear friends, you have all heard of Global warming, haven’t you? In the last couple of years, everyone was talking about climate change and global warming. We are all very afraid of the effects of global warming; aren’t we? From desertification in Africa to submerging of Islands to Increased Tsunamis, all these are basically effects of climate change. It is for this reason that the whole world has to pose as ask the question “What are the causes of global warming?”
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The answer is simple, climate change and resultant global warming has to do with carbon emissions into the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases form a blanket on the atmosphere and trap solar energy radiated from the earth’s surface. This leads to what we are calling global warming, which is causing adverse climate change. We all affirm that our cars, coal and our industries have very adverse effects on our environment.
However, I risk being stoned to death right now for pointing out that today’s diets, especially meat consumption, is a major reason why global warming is happening. This sound awry and maybe very absurd but let me explain. A 2006 report by the United Nations Food and Agriculture organization (FAO) indicated that beef farms produce higher percentages of greenhouse gases into the environment than cars and industries (CIWF.org). That sounds like an exaggeration, but the report is out there for all of us to read for ourselves.
Compared to crop farming, beef farming produces as much as ten times the amount of greenhouse gases. Gases like carbon IV oxide (CO2), nitrogen IV oxide, and methane are produced in high quantities during beef farming, beef processing and beef transportation to the markets.
From the FAO report, current contribution of beef farms is between “14-22% of 36 billion tons of carbon IV oxide equivalent” (CIWF.org). This is a very high and alarming level. In this case, a small beef farm can produce the same amount of greenhouse gas that a car can produce when driven for several miles. In my introduction I pointed out that beef consumption is increasing all over the world. This boils down to increase in greenhouse gases; from expanding beef farms, thus accelerated global warming.
Additionally, the increased rearing of beef animals has led to increased deforestation as huge tracts of forest land, all over the world, are cleared to create room for pasture development. Clearing of forests for livestock keeping has seen the destruction of “over 25% of the forests in Central America since 1960” (Robbins 220). To clear forests, most farmers simply burn them down.
Away from the global warming issue, considering the amount of vegetation that cattle eat, one would wonder if these are not creatures of destruction. Land dereliction and desertification has been caused to a large extend by livestock all over the world. The cattle trample on the vegetation while devouring tons of vegetation on a daily basis. An animal feeds on approximately 900pounds of vegetation every month. Lack of soil cover due this leads to soil erosion and hence reduction in the soils output (Shiva pp 70-71).
Ladies and gentlemen, suppose some terrorist organizes a bomb attack that kills 4,000 people, how many of us will bay for the terrorist’s blood? How many of us will advocate for the cruelest penalty against the terrorist? My bet is many of us would want to personally lynch such a person. We all want to live well and guarantee a better future for generations to come. However, as I look around, all I notice is people killing themselves and ensuring the future generations will survive in pain.
We will write a custom Essay on Rearing of cattle specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Let us stop to think about it. How many people do we know that have obesity, suffer from heart attacks and other related conditions that are related to diet problems? Consumption of red meat as well as processed meat is harmful to our bodies. Therefore, to remain healthy, we have to cut down on the amounts of meat in our daily diets.
It is medically verifiable that cutting down on meat consumption lowers the chances of getting heart diseases or cancer. Most of the processed meat passes through irradiation. People consuming such meat risk of getting cancer, which is a terminal disease (Schossler 202).
Dear friends, in conclusion, I wish to reiterate that I appreciate the economic value of beef farming and the nutritive value of proper meat consumption.
However, the odds are against the rearing of cattle and consumption of meat. Global warming, climate change, desertification and land dereliction are not only caused by our cars and industries! In this essay, I have provided convincing facts connect beef farming and global warming.
Secondly, I have also shown how unchecked meat consumption is harmful for health. Finally, the quest for more pastures has led to deforestation leading to increasing desertification in some parts of the world. Considering all this facts, I am personally convinced that is it more beneficial and healthy if we switched to vegetarian diets. A vegetarian diet would assure all of us of good health but also decelerate global warming.
Works Cited CIWF.org. Global Warning: Climate Change and Animal Welfare, 2008. Web.
Robbins, Richard. Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism. Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon, 1999.
Schossler, Eric. Fast Food Nation; the Dark Side of the All-American Meal. Harcourt: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Rearing of cattle by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Shiva, Vandana. Stolen Harvest. New York: South End Press, 2000.
Protestant Music: A Sociological Perspective of the Relationship between Reggae and Moral Decadence Essay best essay help: best essay help
Today, more than ever before, the role played by music in shaping our thought systems and our interactions with others can never be underestimated. It is safe to argue that music has not only been able to transcend cultural and racial boundaries to find appeal universally, but has also assisted civilizations across the world to find their own exclusive social niche, bringing them together with other individuals and societies that collectively share the same interest (Durant, 2010).
The reggae music genre has particularly been instrumental in communicating the message of resistance against political and social systems that appear biased to the interests of the blacks not only in Jamaica where the genre originated, but also across the world (Alvalez, 2008).
Through sampling some of lyrics of Bob Marley, the proclaimed founder of the Rasta movement, this paper will purpose to show how the musical messages of resistance to political and social systems have served to fuel social decadence and crime in contemporary world.
It is a well known fact that music is a communicative apparatus that is used and shared by individuals around the world to emphasize their values and articulate new notions. Reggae music is no exception. Bob Marley brought into the world revolutionary ideologies of love, peace, unity, and independence, all wrapped together in a message of political revolution to free the blacks from the colonial masters that had invaded Africa and other parts of the world (Alvarez, 2008).
His Redemption Song in particular rallied the blacks to be strong in the face of white domination using the following lyrics: “Emancipate yourselves from mental slavery, none but ourselves can free our minds, have no fear of atomic energy, cause none of them can stop the time. How long shall they kill our prophets, while we stand aside and look? Ooh! Some say it’s a part of it: we’ve got to fulfill the book” (Elyrics.Net, 2010, para. 2).
Marley may have had very valid reasons for singing against the system especially with the realization that racism and subjugation of blacks was at its peak during his era. His lyrics together with contributions of other black civil rights activists such as Malcolm X and Martin Luther King greatly assisted Africans and black Americans to nurture their own identity and demand for recognition as human beings rather than slave subjects (Alvarez, 2008).
Bob in particular was able to question authority while vividly portraying the agony and suffering of the black community through music. It is therefore sad to note how his legacy has been used to cause social decadence and acts of crime in the name of Rastafarian movement (Rommen, 2006).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Roots reggae and its teachings have become deeply entrenched in the lifestyles of many people across the world. The real value of the music, however, has undergone great transformations mostly to the negative. In the U.S., for example, “reggae has tended to be the soundtrack for college kid’s ganja smoking rather than spiritual or political struggle” (Miner, 2003, para. 2).
This scenario is replicated around the world, where reggae music is increasingly becoming identified with drug-taking behavior more than the ideals it represented some few decades ago mainly due to personal habits and drug life of a few musicians. This problem can be traced back to the issues of self and identity.
According to Stets
Developing the Cultural Diversity at the Workplace Research Paper writing essay help
Importance of Cultural Diversity The main aim of diversity is to tap talent and unique qualities along these dimensions. Cultural diversity in the work force requires those involved in the system should focus and capitalize on their differences to improve their work.
This influence over individual identity and perspective goes beyond legally specified dimensions to offer non-discriminatory opportunities and affirmative statutes within the work setting. The workplace ought to have non-discriminatory programs through the organization culture. This is the key element representing dignity and respect for all to encourage knowledge or experience gain and team work.
The paper addresses presents the common strategies that a manager can utilize to develop and cope with cultural diversity at the workplace. It provides the possible proactive measures a manager requires to deal with conflicts associated with workplace diversity and caters for ways of fostering the practice in the aim of garnering creativity and innovation.
Advantages and disadvantages To begin with, cultural diversity boosts the company’s competitive situation in the market. Unlike the early days when marketers thought that a good or service was universally acceptable, cultural diversification enables today’s marketers to know that different cultures demand for different taste of the same product or service.
Large chain stores like Wal-Mart or Woolworths are in a position of establishing the best way of presenting their products depending on location, thus their competitive advantage over the rival companies (Booyens, 2008).
Today we see a business scenario where small and medium sized companies are able to give big company a run fro their money because they have understood the concept of trading in a multi-cultural setting.
Managers have to understand that the twenty first century creates openings for engaging in technological aspects and resources such as the internet trading, which provides a wide world web, which assists to overcome the physical boundaries. A culturally diverse company is rich in knowledge because of engaging people from various countries thus enough chances of enhancing trade (Miller, 2008).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Civilization calls for a management system that is able to cater for a wide rage of personnel preferably from various countries internationally. Cultural diversification means that the business has ethnically diverse personalities who can easily assist in serving a wide base of clients without much effort, considering the ease for workers to relate with clients. The managers have to present clients with a diverse representation in the firm thus the need to ensure sharing of common grounds between the client and the server.
There is a wide and equally diverse but well-balanced pool of knowledge created by diverse cultures in the workplace. Knowledge is power to gain experience, creativity, customer support or participation, lasting results and eventually long-term high profit margins (Booyens, 2008).
Managers utilize the strategy of ensuring acceptance and non-discrimination status in the firms as the main characteristics on the subject of diversification. They characteristics enable the employers or managers to enhance cultural diversity in the workplace. People from different background have personal features that may hinder this form of development, but with proper training, emphasis and practice the diversification at the workplace is achievable.
The cultural diversity within an organization can also be a main source of conflicts, group-work failures and thus fall of business operations and eventually poor economical growth if left unattended. The diversity issue can therefore be a negative aspect if it lacks proper implementation procedures.
Proactive measures a manager can take in resolving cultural diversity related conflicts at the workplace Proactive management requires one to include the process of implementing cultural diversity at the workplace as a subsequent to strategically planning or the human resources management planning. Execution of change management in an organization must entail employees’ inspiration.
The motivation of the personnel is possible through infusion or integration of various aspects such as those involving diversification into the business procedures or requirements. Diversification ought to apply from the top executives, who should show commitment and importance of diversity. Having the employees understand the importance of diversity from the time of recruitment in to the organization reduces any possibilities of conflicts in future.
The productive and successful leader engage an upbeat measure of solving diversity related conflicts by regularly emphasising on its benefits of having various cultural settings in a firm. The business cultural commitment to diversity requires legal gazetting with the external regulator body to emphasize on the consequences regarding the cultural related conflicts or daunt any breaking of the rule that cater for the organization culture.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Developing the Cultural Diversity at the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In relation to Booyens’ writing (2008), a company need to have programs for performing prior training to employees during the orientation procedure. This infuses the work etiquettes to guide one on how to deal with counterparts from different cultural setting. Arguably, it is impossible for employees to grasp various complex cultural nuances in one sitting, therefore the need for extra procedures to strengthen the interrelations.
Most organizations that involves the employees in teambuilding activities enhances the cultural diversity easily that those without such continual procedures. Managers emphasizes on the need for to be careful on issues regarding stereotyping, language differences, time differences and individual versus collective mindset, as a measure of avoiding or resolving diversity related conflicts.
Fostering cultural diversity at the workplace Emphasis on acceptance of cultural diversity in the workplace ought to take place before commencement of hiring procedures. This means that the managers should include diversity in the business plan. In line with Pride et al (2009), discovery of strengths or benefits of an action occur well prior to proper planning.
According to Pride et al (2009), “These calls for the management to be responsive over…. recognizing, respecting and capitalizing on various aspects of the society differences, mainly regarding ethnicity, race and gender.” A good manager notes that even outside the work setting it is possible to finds exposure to various cultural practices.
There is need to increase interactive activities outside the work settings such diversifying the programs one watches, the places one visits and the restaurants. Once people are able to establish rapport outside the work situations, then internal diversification becomes a normal procedure to cope with.
Conclusion According to Miller (2008), a good management system capitalizes on the employees strengths while minimizing on the weaknesses. The differences between employees’ cultures should motivate others a resourceful point of the organization thus the need for proper involvement.
Cultural diversification requires managers with the ability to strengthen the understanding and enhance stronger bonds through team works, as a measure to capture global clientele. An entrepreneur should also know that diversity is something more than mare moral obligation or a necessity for a business but is a business opportunity.
References Booyens, S.W. (2008). Introduction to Health Service Management Juta and Company Ltd. South Africa, print
Not sure if you can write a paper on Developing the Cultural Diversity at the Workplace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Miller, C. (2008, May 30). Cultural Diversity is an Opportunity. Ezinearticles, Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/
Pride, W. M., Hughes, J. M.,
Monsoons in South Asia Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Technically, the term monsoon is used to refer to the blowing of winds between the ocean and land, and the heavy rains that are associated with these winds. The winds blow in opposite directions in different seasons due to the reversed changes in the temperatures of the ocean and land.
South Asia is characterized with extensive land which teams up with the massive water area covered by the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea to form the Asian Monsoon. This monsoon is very strong and has adverse effects on climate in this area (Parker, 2007, p. 1). In this paper, we discuss the causes of the South Asian monsoons and explore their effects on the climate of this region.
There exists substantial controversy over the formation of monsoons but one thing is for sure; air pressure is a factor. With the above fact, therefore, the most plausible explanation to the formation of monsoons in South Asia is that pressure imbalances between the Indian Ocean and the Asian continent are the contributing factors (Arlblaster, 2010, p. 1).
That is, in summer, the air covering the Indian Ocean has a high pressure while that covering Asia has low pressure leading to the movement of air masses from the high pressured zone to the low pressured one i.e. movement of air masses from the ocean to land.
Since the air covering the Indian Ocean is moist during summer, South Asia receives moist air from this phenomenon. In the same way, during winter the pressure imbalance is reversed and thus the Indian Ocean is the one that is lowly pressured while the air over Tibetan Plateau is highly pressured and thus air moves from South of India and down the Himalayas towards the Indian Ocean.
The monsoons are, therefore, cyclic and they consist of both onshore and offshore winds. From the explanation above, it is apparent that the monsoon is parallel to convectional currents. Convectional currents can therefore be described as miniature monsoons (Rao, 1992, p. 34).
The convectional currents are characterized by movement of air currents between the ocean and land due to the different heating and cooling rates of the two. Other factors that contribute to the formation of monsoons are the westerlies and the trade winds that blow across South Asia (Parker, 2007, p. 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Geographers have been increasingly worried about the effect of the monsoons on climatic conditions. Most of them describe the monsoonal climate with one word; violent. This is used to describe the effects of the heavy monsoonal rains on the South Asian climate which is characterized by destructive floods, irregular rainfall changes, occasional extreme temperatures, storms and extensive erosion.
The irregular climate experienced in this region is a great challenge to agricultural activities in this area and therefore agronomists and planners constantly watch the weather to predict planting dates. Sometimes rains delay making farmers to either fail to sow seeds or plant few seeds.
Mostly, the rains come with great intensity accompanied by strong winds and they therefore destroy young plants and property. On the other hand, it is only recently that the people living in Monsoon Asia have been able to curb the effects of drought in this region. The monsoon climate has had adverse effects on the portion of the South Asian population occupying drought prone areas face extended periods of drought and famine in the recent past (Arlblaster, 2010, p. 1).
Approximately 50% of the world’s total populations are affected by the climate patterns that are caused by South Asian Monsoons (Arlblaster, 2010, p. 1). Most of these people are subsistence farmers and therefore adverse monsoonal climate changes have a great affect on their livelihoods. Excess or insufficient monsoonal rain could therefore translate to famine or flood in a number of regions depending entirely on the monsoonal climate for agriculture.
Wet monsoons occurring in June are very significant to India and Bangladesh, giving virtually all the water used in India. The monsoon rains also lead to waterborne diseases which affect the Indian population adversely. Children fail to attend classes while recovering from diseases like cholera, diarrhea and typhoid. The rains sometimes lead to flooding which kills people and displaces them, submerges infrastructure and halts businesses (Parker, 2007, p. 1).
The South Asian monsoons have evidently influenced climate in this region. They are responsible for rains and substantial changes in temperature that occur in this region. Additionally, storms have been repeatedly experienced in this area; courtesy of the monsoon winds. As earlier stated, these climatic influenced have had tremendous effects on the livelihoods of the inhabitants of South Asia.
Despite the negative effects that the monsoons in South Asia have had on the South Asian population, there are a number of benefits that come with them (Parker, 2007, p. 1). The monsoons are responsible for a good percentage of the rainfall experienced in the region and the floods associated with extended periods of rainfall fertilize the South Asian land.
We will write a custom Essay on Monsoons in South Asia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Arlblaster, J. (2010). The Asian Monsoon. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/
Parker, J. (2007). What is the South Asia Monsoon? Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6929988.stm
Rao, S. (1992). The physics of monsoons. New York. Barnes
The Efficiency Resulting From Utilizing Information Systems Report (Assessment) custom essay help
Table of Contents Website
Information technology planning
This paper explores how the efficiency resulting from utilizing information systems plays a central role in shaping modern businesses. The paper further explores cloud technology in details and how it impacts on the current trend of technology.
Moreover, the paper discusses the importance of information technology on issues of planning and protecting confidential information thus preventing major losses. Finally, the paper concludes by explaining the importance of planning to enhance efficiency in utilizing new technologies in businesses.
One of the major technological advances that can make a business more effective and efficient is the use of ERP software applications. Moreover, a business is better off when it employs an accounting package. Such packages ensure accuracy and effectiveness in accounting / financial work. Accounting packages are designed in a way that they carry out huge amounts of transactions almost instantly which would otherwise consume a lot of time to be performed manually hence costing a lot for the business (Newman 2009, p.58).
Database management systems software plays a crucial role in managing organizations’ information. The DBMS software ensures that an organization or businesses can easily collect information, securely store, manage and update the same as necessary.
For example, most organizations have a wide customer bases. With a wide customer base, it is difficult maintaining customer related files or information especially when it comes to personal details. However with a data management system (DBMS), such an endeavor is simplified. The software allow for customer data to be stored in a sequential order to facilitate sorting, referencing and enquiries (Newman 2009, p.96).
A data warehouse, which is a central storage area, can be used to facilitate easy storage and retrieval of information. The digital technology has enabled more robust online selling because it allows for retrieval and storage of a wider array of information on products and customers/ clients. This technology allows for interactive transactions between organization and customers over the internet. An interactive way of doing online business helps towards elimination of delay times for transactions, orders and payments.
Another technology that organizations are adopting is data mining technology. Data mining technology is critical for organizational information management because it allows for sorting and fast retrieval of data from archives (Newman 2009, p.111). Data mining enables easy gathering, arranging and analyzing of information in an organization. Such ease comes in handy for example when trying to establish or determine trends or when an organization seeks to compare performance of products in the market (John, 2009, p. 60).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Data mining technology also comes with tools that allow for reporting or querying for data from databases. When reporting and querying technology is incorporated in most databases, it allows employees to easily generate reports and interpret the same for execution of plans in the organization.
Other packages may also be used e.g. word processors to perform typing work and report writing (Newman 2009, p.134). All these software applications must be accompanied by the relevant hardware, so businesses must invest in efficient computers, printers, scanners and other hardware to be able to run its operations softly and efficiently. A network will also be very essential in disseminating emails or instant messages within the business or across its customer base both internally or externally.
Website Websites play a great deal in enhancing the efficiency of a business. By employing the web technology, businesses benefit by accessing useful. For example, many organizations are using websites to conduct surveys on their products. Search engines, which are websites designed to locate information on the World Wide Web can be powerful sources of knowledge.
Despite web usefulness, the business must take extra care in testing the credibility of the information from websites (George, 2003, p. 43). The business may also use internet newsgroups to access business information. By creating its own website, the business will be able to market its products and services online hence increasing on the customer base.
Cloud computing Information technology is always changing. A most recent innovation is called cloud computing. This is a technology that allows an organization to carry out transactions on the internet without having servers within its premises. Cloud technology has widely been used by businesses and has considerably decreased their cost of information management (John, 2009, p. 69).
This technology allows its users to store information on ‘the cloud’ and by so doing; they can access their information from any computer as long as they have internet access.
This technology allows for efficient usage of resources as a centralized storage process is created. It allows for sharing of infrastructure thus saving organizations a lot of money (John, 2009, p. 87).
We will write a custom Assessment on The Efficiency Resulting From Utilizing Information Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More What this implies is that if the business puts up a website on a cloud, it means that if more users access the website and the business needs more computing power dedicated to the website, the business can get it instantly and the user needs will be met with ease. This is a major advantage that comes with cloud computing; the business only uses what it needs.
Cloud computing has three major segments (John, 2009, p. 112). First there are the applications over which business transactions are run. These applications allow organizations to carry out transactions via the internet without having to install any on-site server. Due to not having to install on-site servers, the costs involved reduce drastically. If there is an on-site server, the organization has to look into related maintenance of hardware and processing necessary licenses and other installation costs.
Cloud computing relies on interactive software sold on demand basis. As a result, the pricing of such software differs greatly from user to user. In normal computing, an end user buys a software license from a dealer or provider and goes to install the same on his or her on-site servers (George, 2003, p. 76).
After the installation the end user continues to pay annual subscription fees and the license provider continues to update the software. As need may necessitate, the service provider occasionally sends the user update information on how to get the best out of the software (John, 2009, p. 133). To access this updates, the end user must have internet connectivity and enable or allow accessibility to the license provider.
The second segment in cloud computing is the platform. Platform plays an important role in deploying the cloud application. Platform is used to refer to the products used to set up applications.
Platforms are the interfaces over which the users are able to interact or deal with the programs or applications provided by other parties. Without the cloud technology platforms, uses cannot access customers or other partner’s applications thus rendering the whole system ineffective.
The final part of cloud technology is the Infrastructure. Infrastructure is the major component or backbone of the cloud computing concept. There are organizations that provide the infrastructure i.e. servers, storage space and everything. These infrastructural vendors provide the processing and physical storage mechanisms (John, 2009, page 169).
Information technology planning Information technology planning is very essential in every business. This involves disaster recovery measures and control processes meant to protect confidential information and to prevent any major loss of information (Goetsch, 1999,p.37). This measures may include data encryption whereby information is encrypted to protect against unauthorized persons accessing it, regular backups made to ensure data which is lost can easily be recovered (Goetsch, 1999,p.56).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Efficiency Resulting From Utilizing Information Systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another way of ensuring security is through data masking. In this process, data is stored in a database cell that is locked to the access of only authorized individuals using measures such as passwords. This is a software controlled process, which involves erasure of sensitive data as soon as it has served its purpose. In often cases, the software overwrites data thus destroying sensitive information that could later be tapped into by people reusing the machine (Goetsch, 1999, p.87).
Conclusion In conclusion, the new developments in information technology such as cloud computing have completely changed how businesses are conducted. Efficient strategic planning, monitoring and implementation play a pillar role in enhancing efficiency within an organization.
One consideration users of information technology have to bear in mind is information security. All organizations embracing new information technology have to institute security measures. To embrace information technology fully and benefit immensely from the same, proper planning is a prerequisite. For many organizations, cloud computing is the most efficient and cost effective way accessing and using information technology.
Reference List George, R., T. (2003). The Ethics of Information Technology and Business, Volume 3 of Foundations of Business Ethics. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell
Goetsch, L., A. (1999). Information Technology Planning. New York: Routledge
John, R.,(2009). Cloud Computing: Implementation, Management, and Security. Boca Raton: CRC Press
Newman, R.,C. (2009). Computer Security: Protecting Digital Resources. Massachusetts: Jones