Public Administration: Solutions For A Crisis Situation Term Paper A Level English Language Essay Help

Table of Contents Three Ethical and Legal Breaches

Lindblom’s Muddling Through

Scientific Management

Gulick’s Approach

Weber’s and Goodnow’s Concepts

Evaluating the Case

Reference List

Three Ethical and Legal Breaches The case in question entails at least three legal breaches, which can also be regarded as three ethical problems. One of the breaches is provision of distorted data. Thus, Secretary Swinson revealed a huge surplus in budget even though there was a considerable deficit. The employee deliberately revealed distorted data to hide poor results of his performance and create a positive image of himself.

The second breach is the theft as $1500 was missing. Even though there is some evidence that proves Arnold’s guilt, this breach could be committed by the Secretary Swinson who also could access the money. The third breach was misconduct of the majority of employees who violated the rules, i.e. were late for work, used computers for personal use, and purchased expensive furniture for the office.

Notably, lots of public administration theorists considered issues similar to the events depicted above. To clean up the breaches mentioned above, it is possible to employ approaches of such theorists as Woodrow Wilson, Jane Addams and Frederick Taylor. Thus, Wilson stressed the importance of seeing public administration as an organization (Shafritz

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Leadership in the American Elementary Schools Expository Essay college essay help: college essay help

Introduction The need to improve educational outcomes of learners in a bid to match the contemporary professional demands and current challenges associated with socioeconomic changes is augmenting. Without the proper knowledge economy and the required proficiency in the industrialised world, the future generation will face great challenges in coping with the expected harsh economic realties.

Education is currently one of the most integral development strategies with the main purpose resting upon investing in children and youth education. As professionalism becomes a key economic and social aspect in the modern world, complex industrialised societies are calling for improved educational systems.

Ylimaki (2012) notes, “Curriculum leaders who are grounded in understandings of cultural politics and curriculum theory recognise curriculum as complicated conversation and complicated decisions as political acts…they must have such understandings to navigate within a broader and increasingly conservative political sphere” (p.305).

This essay seeks to discuss this statement with reference to contemporary issues across the United States.

Curriculum leadership as a complex matter Literature indicates that curriculum leadership has become one of the convoluted issues that seem to attract controversial debates in the U.S. (Ylimaki 2012). Educators in the American education system continue to believe in the presence of a great disparity in curriculum development and management, which has resulted in intense confusion.

The U.S. educational system should be guided by modernised content standards, but the system has not granted a standardised and mutually accepted norm on educational practices (Spillane et al., 2001).

In the present-day United States, developing a standardised curricula accepted by all operatives in the education sector has been confronting following a mixture of ideologies, principles, and perceptions on what seems essential to incorporate in the curricula.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As Schmidt et al. (2005) postulate, “defining what it is that students should be expected to know or do” (p.526) has been one of the controversial issues within the U.S. curriculum realm.

Several issues have protracted in the American elementary school curriculum development and management practices, thus making the competency of the education itself questionable as cultural, political, and social influences result in regular discourses (Spillane et al., 2001).

Despite having a long convention of shared responsibility in matters pertaining to curriculum decision making and curriculum development, there is a need to consider theory, critical studies, and modern developments that should have space of inclusion and consideration (Ylimaki 2012).

Two differences in managing and developing of standardised curriculum practice are prevailing with each having divergent views towards curriculum leadership. According to Schmidt et al. (2005), the U.S. political controversy regarding curriculum-making centre rests on convictions of individualism in curriculum leadership and local controls that include the district curriculum enforcers.

Confusion is rising from the federal or state levels to school administrations, which makes efforts of decentralising arrangements for schools and curriculum development and implementation difficult to commence.

The inception of the recent curriculum policies that involve development of the No Child Left Behind Act (2002) and the Race to the Top (2009) are among modern changes that have put principals and teachers in accountability issues and elicited more discourse (Ylimaki 2012).

Following stipulations of Interstate School Leadership Licensure Consortium (ISLLC), “the school leader/administrator must maintain standards and focus on creating a nurturing vision, maintaining a growth-oriented school environment, effective instruction and management, positive collaboration with family members and the broader community” (Hilliard

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Communications and Integration Management Report essay help free

Introduction This report has been prepared to analyse the importance of communication and integration management in project management. This goal requires a review of a specific project, and hence the reason behind this study’s choice of the Victorian Desalination Project as an appropriate vignette. The project commenced in May of 2007.

The justification for this selection is partly the duration of the implementation of the project as viewed against the background of the actual planned date of completion, which was 2011. Instead, the project was carried forward by more than a year as the commissioning efforts were taking place in late 2012.

So far, the project is not yet under implementation as it is subject to the stay of production imposed by the government since 2012. Although the project lagged behind time so that it was not yet commissioned by 2012, Victorian desalination project can be deployed as an important case example for analysis of communication and integration management in a successful execution of a project.

Project Background The Victorian desalination project was aimed at augmenting water sources for both Melbourne and Geelong. The project was meant to ensure the production and supply of fresh drinking water through the aforementioned parts of the Victorian area. The commissioning phase of the project ended on the 17th December 2012. Therefore, as from 22nd December 2012, the project had been placed on standby.

This meant that it would no longer be used to produce drinking water through 2012 -2013. The commissioning was looking into the reliability, productivity, and performance of the quantity and quality of the water. The desired goal in terms of the quantity was 150 -200 billion litres of water.

The testing phase for the commissioning featured the running through of the system of 50 GL of water in different stages. Initially, all the water was emptied into the ocean for re-entry into the reservoirs. Upon the completion of the first stage, which comprised testing the first 50 GLs of water, the water was subsequently released into the network via the pipeline connects with the Cardinia reservoir.

The delivery outlets include Berwick. The specific location of the plant is the Bass Coast Wonthaggi, which was chosen after a comprehensive feasibility study that was conducted on several potential sites.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The reasons why Bass coast was favoured include its proximity to the seawater, which would ensure convenience in the collection of quality source water with little or no contaminants as well as providing a repository for the concentrated saline solution because of the free circulation of the ocean at that point, which would ensure rapid dispersion.

Stakeholders Communications Management The main stakeholders in the Victoria Desalination Project were the communities and landowners (Stair,

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Apple Inc. Smartphones strategic marketing plan Report (Assessment) essay help free: essay help free

Summary Apple Inc. is one of the telecommunication firms specializing in the production of high technological electronic products, computer hardware, and software. The company products include personal computers, media devices, mobile communication, and portable-digital music players.

Within the mobile communications category, the company has launched into the market variety of iphone and other android Smartphones that has significantly hit the world Smartphones market.

Currently, the Smartphone market share is valued at approximately five billion dollars with Apple products claiming 1.6 billion dollars, second after the Samsung products. The Smartphones market is expected to grow in the next five years, approximately an increase of 0.55% annually. Apple market share is robust with expected growth of 1.67% annually.

Apple Inc. brands are highly welcomed by majority of young generation particularly those between the ages of 16-40 years. The company has adopted social media marketing as the major strategy to reach the target market. However, the market is highly competitive with similar products being introduced into the market by the competitors.

Marketing objectives Apple Inc. will focus the delivery of Smartphones to the small businesses as the major market segment. The high-end small businesses that value services, support and knowledge are clearly differentiated in the market segmented. Within the market segment, the objectives of the marketing mix includes

To ensure sales increase by 40%

To ensure increase in the sales margin by more than 20%

To ensure increase in the total Smartphones by 55%

The marketing mix strategies particularly the price and distribution differentiations are aimed at attaining the set objectives. However, the major aim of the company is to increase its market share and the products brand awareness. Social media provides an avenue through which the company can achieve its major objectives (Dobele et al., 2005).

Apples Smartphones positioning The company will be using various marketing mix strategies to ensure that the new Smartphones are positioned in the market. Included in the market skimming strategies are product and pricing strategies, placing strategies, and promotional strategies (Mangold

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Alcohol Abuse by Quentin McCarthy Qualitative Research Essay scholarship essay help

Introduction This article focuses on alcohol abuse by Quentin McCarthy. It uses the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) to evaluate McCarthy’s stage of dependency and provides possible interventions for recovery. Overall, the article shows that McCarthy must receive an appropriate diagnosis, placement options, and treatment modalities.

According to McCarthy’s wife, McCarthy used to drink to have good time, but today, he drinks because he needs alcohol. This makes McCarthy a good candidate for health care professional evaluation and intervention because his condition shows hazardous drinking and alcohol dependence.

Screening instrument: the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) MAST developed in 1971 by Selzer is the most commonly used yes or no questionnaire that has 25 questions, which consist of true or false options (Zung, 1982). These choices are of significant concerns on “legal, medical, and psychosocial problems, control of alcohol intake among people with alcohol problems” (Zung, 1982).

The aim of MAST is to determine the extent of alcohol consumption based on responses provided and formulate strategies of helping the agent with regard to excess consumption of alcohol.

One can easily administer the MAST as a form of semi-structured interview or survey questionnaire. The process is simple once the agent has taken the survey. It involves summation of all the scores of the items in the survey. Items may have unique weight assigned in order to rate the extent of the problem.

The evaluator can obtain the aggregate score and decide on the suitable recommendation for the patient or he can be the scores on a given cut-off points when screening alcoholism. Previous studies have indicated the need to improve the MAST based on the length of the questionnaire and different conditions that may influence the respondent (Zung, 1982; Shields, Howell, Potter and Weiss, 2007).

All the items in MAST focus on “symptoms of problematic drinking and negative consequences associated with the use of alcohol” (Shields et al.,2007). Respondents who get high scores indicate high rates of alcohol problem, which requires intervention.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The MAST provides advantages to users because it offers multidimensional approaches to the evaluation of alcohol problem. However, scholars do not agree on the exact number of such factors (Shields et al.,2007).

Evaluators who use the MAST believe that it relies on a single aggregate score, but there are some minor changes to questions. This makes the approach to provide uniform results of respondents. The MAST solves the challenge of defining alcoholism conditions in different stages, which has been a major source of concern to evaluators.

Hence, evaluators have relied on the MAST and other test scores to gauge alcohol problem and provide their professional opinions after diagnoses. The MAST is a simple tool that overcomes challenges of rating alcohol problem.

Diagnosis (a complete 5-axis diagnosis). McCarthy’s alcoholism diagnosis using axes McCarthy displays alcohol–related psychiatric conditions. Clearly, heavy use of alcohol has affected and altered brain chemical and hormonal systems, which affect the development of many mental disorders related to mood and anxiety. One can observe these symptoms and sings.

The client also has alcohol–induced psychiatric syndromes. These conditions (mood, anxiety, and psychotic disorders among others) have resulted from the broad range of alcohol psychological effects associated with heavy drinking.

Axis I: Clinical Disorders

Anxiety disorders

Although anxiety disorder may be present in the general population, McCarthy has developed anxiety disorder due to dependence on alcohol. This is an alcohol-induced depression. The onset and the course of McCarthy’s anxiety disorder follow patterns associated with the temporary alcohol withdrawal.

Bipolar Disorder

Studies have shown that bipolar disorder, which is mainly mania or manic–depressive illness is the second disorder after anxiety disorder in axis I disorder. Bipolar disorder results from heavy drinking and alcohol dependence. McCarthy is a maniac patient who has become a heavy consumer and dependent on alcohol.

We will write a custom Essay on Alcohol Abuse by Quentin McCarthy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Diagnosing this condition can present considerable challenges. This may occur due to underreporting of symptoms or incorrect answers in the survey, complex mood changes from alcoholism, limited diagnostic accuracy, related conditions with similar symptoms, and involvement in pleasurable activities with friends to get business in return (common among manias).

McCarthy did not depend on other drugs other than alcohol. This has not complicated his condition and the diagnosis process. In other cases, accurate diagnosis is necessary through a careful analysis of the patient history in order to discover past tendencies and chronological order of alcoholism because several patients with bipolar disorder also abuse other drugs other than alcohol.

Independent Major Depression

Past studies have shown that many treatment-seeking alcoholic patients experience mood disturbances. Although mood disturbances may not be severe disorder, it is common among people with alcohol problem because mood disorder affects most alcoholics at some points during their drinking period. McCarthy’s mood disorder falls in the following three categories.

Abrupt and short effects of alcohol depressant on his cognitive functions

An organized series of symptoms and signs that indicate alcohol-induced disorder with depressive signs

A major disorder that exists alongside other mental problems prior to drinking periods

A careful analysis and classification of depressive conditions in McCarthy reveals that he suffers from a comorbid depressive conditions.

Although there are contentious issues about the exact cause- and-effect association between alcoholism and depression, depressive cases may predate early before patients start alcohol consumption. Alcohol causes alcohol-induced mood disorder among people with alcohol problems.

It is possible that McCarthy also experiences depressive cases of a major depressive disorder. In other words, he used to suffer depressive order before starting to consume alcohol, and then later fueled the depressive disorder with alcohol. This condition may persist even for a long period after abstinence.

Some studies have established that forms of depressive disorders differ among patients. There were cases of alcohol-induced depression and independent depressive disorder having diverse characteristics. A further analysis of the patient history, social relations, drug use, alcoholism treatment, and suicide attempts could show variations in disorders.

Axis II: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation

McCarthy shows several signs of alcohol dependence and psychiatric disorders. Alcoholism dependence relates with many forms of psychiatric disorder, which may develop irrespective of alcohol consumption and abuse. These independent disorders made McCarthy to be prone to alcohol abuse and other related problems.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Alcohol Abuse by Quentin McCarthy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More McCarthy displays one of the most common disorders among people with alcohol problem. He has antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), which is within the second axis. Although McCarthy kept his fights to a moderate level, he was still anti-social. Moreover, he only drank with people in order to sell them insurance policies.

McCarthy also shows signs of obsessive or compulsive disorder in the manner he consumes alcohol. As a result, McCarty has developed a long and consistent pattern of irresponsibility and abuse of his business associates’ rights.

McCarthy can no longer sell insurance to his clients because of the compulsive disorder to consume alcohol consistently. In short, McCarthy’s business associate was not comfortable because her husband was “doing business with a lush”.

Axis III: General Medical Condition

These are mainly physical medical problems, which people with alcohol problems exhibit. They are critical for understanding the mental conditions of a client or in controlling the client’s mental disorders. For instance, McCarthy’s doctor informed him that the constant pain above his navel was an ulcer. Hence, McCarthy had to stop drinking for the sake of his health.

Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems

McCarthy has experienced several challenges related to his job. Many customers have deserted his insurance business blatantly. However, one long-time client of the agency left the business after his wife commented that she was not comfortable that he was “doing business with a lush”. This departure injured McCarthy’s pride and his business.

Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning

McCarthy already faces problems related to economic or loss of customers, occupation, and social issues due to alcohol dependency.

Forty: McCarthy shows severe impairment in areas related to work, job, and social relations, judgment, mood, and anxiety.

Treatment placement options McCarthy has been postponing his decision to get help from professional because of alcohol problem. Interventions from the family and social networks of people with alcohol problem may help them to recognize that they have alcohol problem. However, professional advice is the best advice for people with alcohol problems. Hence, McCarthy will require such help.

Given the severe impairment that McCarthy experiences in various areas, such social, economic, psychological, and occupational, multi-treatment strategy is the best approach in his case. These may include brief intervention, counseling, and residential programs among others.

Obviously, McCarthy has a serious alcohol problem. He has already lost control on alcohol consumption. The aim of the intervention is to stop his drinking habit and enhance quality of life. McCarthy requires a multidisciplinary approach in order to tackle his alcohol dependency.

Detoxification and withdrawal The initial treatment for McCarthy would be detoxification. This process may not exceed seven days. The client may need to get sedating drugs in order to eliminate chances of uncontrollable shaking delirium, confusion, and other symptoms associated with alcohol withdrawal. Detoxification procedures require McCarthy to be in the inpatient department for effective treatment.

The alcohol treatment specialist must establish skills and learning plan for McCarthy. McCarthy and the specialist must set goals, identify behavior change methods, effective self-help manuals, counseling seasons, and follow-up treatment strategies.

Psychological counseling McCarthy has severe psychosocial problems due to alcoholism. Counseling for McCarthy would be an effective approach. This would allow the client to comprehend his alcohol challenges and acknowledge recovery programs from psychological perspectives. He may also attend group counseling.

McCarthy can also attend couple therapy and counseling because he has a wife. The wife must recognize that her role is critical in helping McCarthy to stop drinking.

Oral medications Alcoholism treatment also involves oral medications. Certain drugs (disulfiram) normally stop people from alcohol consumption. However, they are not instant solutions to alcoholism because of compulsive or obsessive disorder among alcohol addicts. This drug works by inducing unpleasant feeling whenever one takes alcohol. These may include nausea, flushing, severe headache, and even vomiting.

Another oral drug is Revia or Naltrexone. This works by inhibiting good feelings and ideas associated with drinking alcohol. It lessens the urge to drink and prevent addicts from alcohol consumption. In addition, Campral lessens craving for alcohol. This drug does not induce nasty feelings and sickness after administration. Oral treatment may be effective for McCarthy.

Injected medication McCarthy may also consider injected medication for his alcohol problems. There are many injected drugs for people with alcohol dependency problems. Injection may be once in a month by alcohol recovery specialists. There are oral versions of these drugs, but injection may be effective for McCarthy because of consistency that the recovery process requires.

Continuing Support McCarthy also requires continuing supports during and after the program. The major roles of support programs are to help rehabilitated alcohol addicts to improve, recover, stop alcohol consumption, control cases of relapse, and adjust to normal lifestyles and diets. McCarthy will require psychological support groups, medical care, or get help from Alcoholics Anonymous.

Intervention for psychological challenges McCarthy has several and severe mental health disorders because of alcoholism. These also require effective therapies, which may include counseling, psychotherapy and psychological interventions, and antidepressants. Behavioral therapy and anti-depressants may help McCarthy to alleviate depression, anxiety, and other challenges associated with mental conditions due to alcohol dependency.

Treatment for other conditions McCarthy has already developed ulcer and constant pain in his abdomen. These are serious conditions, which require immediate medical attention. In addition, excessive consumption of alcohol may also cause liver problems, high blood pressure, heart problems, and high glucose levels.

In addition, McCarthy must note that he will experience several health problems related to withdrawal from alcohol consumption. Hence, aftercare must account for these conditions and treatment.

Treatment modalities McCarthy would require different treatment modalities in order to cope with withdrawal challenges.

Brief Interventions

This has been the most popular form of alcoholism treatment modalities. Besides, the modality is popular among scientists and researchers. Professionals that tackle alcoholism provide brief interventions to their clients.

A brief intervention is a process that involves evaluation of a client’s alcohol consumption tendencies in order to ascertain whether such habits are harmful to his or her health and lifestyle. A brief intervention for McCarthy would show that alcohol dependency has negatively affected his life. McCarthy would require a referral to a thorough treatment.

This modality may be appropriate for people who have alcoholism challenges because of several repeated interventions. Hence, it may be effective than other modalities. Several and fast evaluations by a professional would reveal whether McCarthy has the ability and readiness required to change his drinking habits.

Brief Motivational Enhancement

Professional therapists and psychologists conduct this modality for people with alcohol problem. This modality aims to improve a client’s motivation in order to alter his or her drinking habits. In the case of McCarthy, the therapist would focus on his inner abilities to change. The approach does not depend on pressure from external factors. The evaluator must discover the underlying factors that influence McCarthy to continue drinking alcohol. The aim is to solve the indecision, but McCarthy must make the decision as an individual.

This modality does not rely on direct persuasion because direct persuasion does not work for people with alcohol consumption. Instead, the evaluator must create a condition in which the client may feel comfortable. In addition, the evaluator must not be judgmental. The aim is to get the client to make the necessary changes.

One must note that the desire to change one’s drinking habits requires personal commitment. Overall, it requires effective interaction, communication, empathy, and evaluation of the problem by the interviewer.

Acamprosate: a GABA Agonist This is a relatively new modality for alcohol problem intervention. The modality has been in use since 2004 when the US authorized it. A GABA Agonist causes alteration in chemicals within the clients’ brain in order to reduce alcohol consumption. However, this modality has side effects. The modality causes allergic reaction in some people, changes in blood pressure, heartbeats, impotence, or possibly insomnia.

Naltrexone works by inhibiting opiate receptors in the brain. This process results in impairing the desire to drink alcohol. Such modalities may work best alongside other interventions, such as behavioral therapy.

Community Reinforcement Approach Therapists and psychologists believe that their clients can recover quickly with the help of families, friends, and the community. Therapists want patients to stop drinking by ensuring that they acquire the right motivational level, achieve sobriety, understand their own drinking tendencies, seek for positive support, and acquire new skills in order to adjust to new lifestyles.

This modality goes beyond the professional’s office, and it requires effort and coordination of all friends, families, and the community.

Self-Help Manuals Although self-help manuals do not seem like the best approaches for people with alcohol problems, they are also effective modalities alcoholism. Clients must make effort and attend the recovery intervention modalities like Alcoholics Anonymous sessions. These are sources of interactive sessions for such people.

A Smorgasbord of Modalities Researchers believe that evaluators should use any modalities based on their effectiveness on specific clients. Hence, the approach to modality selection should be eclectic.

In this respect, evaluators should base their decisions on informed choices, and they must understand how different clients react to various modalities. Moreover, it is imperative to inform people with alcohol problem and their families about possible prolonged struggle with alcoholism in order to avert the possibility of destroying social, economic, and personal health.

Conceptualization of the etiology of the client’s addiction One must understand etiology of McCarthy’s drinking problem by focusing its root and origins. For instance, McCarthy was hyperactive and the class clown in early days, poor performance at school, and a sense of guilt.

Several factors shaped the development of McCarthy’s drinking problems. While in the army, McCarthy started to drink moderately, he fought, and avoided troubles. McCarthy claims that he started during in order to sale his policies for people.

Finally, McCarthy’s drinking problem got severe after he became the sole owner of the business. McCarthy drank with his customers, made a lot of money, and had ready access to alcohol, failed attempts to stop, including failure of the Alcoholics Anonymous.

Initially, McCarthy drank to have a good time, but he later became an addict who needed alcohol to keep going.

Summary McCarthy’s alcohol problem evaluation using the MAST shows severe symptoms of anxiety, depression, antisocial and business behaviors, psychosis, and physical pain. Hence, McCarthy needs multidisciplinary approaches in order to manage his alcohol problem. Such strategies would help McCarthy to struggle and stop drinking.

References Shields, A., Howell, R., Potter, J., and Weiss, R. (2007). The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test and Its Shortened Form: A Meta-Analytic Inquiry Into Score Reliability. Substance Use

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Cultural Studies, Multiculturalism, and Media Culture Exploratory Essay best essay help

Cultural studies of different societies reveal how media culture brings forth common norms, socio-political ideologies and issues in the current period. For instance, media in different countries are often expressing their views in a liberal or conservative manner. Notably, one can deduce the identities and opinions of the world from the media performances and actions.

Some of the media platforms that instill cultural behaviors on their audiences include films, radios, newspapers, and televisions. Media have significant influence on society, as they influence people’s understanding, interpretation, and criticism of different messages; they help in giving meanings to different information.

Evidently, media give suggestions on one’s view or perception of the world even though there is indispensable need for thinking for oneself or independent thinking. Through cultural studies, one is able to critically examine and scrutinize issues from different cultures without anticipated discrimination.

Currently, media have promoted the concept of multiculturalism where all cultures have their worth and the same recognition. In terms of gender and race, cultural studies have ensured that people alter their earlier perceptions on these groups. For example, media culture has made it possible for equal representation of female-gendered members and other marginal voices among the divergent races of the world.

Clearly, cultural studies sensitize all persons on how to encode discriminative acts, thus empowering individuals to develop resistance to such operations. Since media encourage divergent opinions, it has informed society on all frameworks and components of life.

On production and political economy, media firms have tended to produce systems in a specified format. For instance, they have inculcated special features like talks and shows, which have dominated the US television production. On the political economy, Capital Cities, GE, and Tisch Financial Group adopted Reagan’s slogan of conservatism and military adventures in managing their newly acquired media houses in the 1980s.

In this context, media culture reflects the ideologies of the ruling economic class, albeit intense struggle among the social classes. On textual analysis, media culture assigns different symbols and tags to their films and comedies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Markedly, some of them follow conflict resolution model by inculcating resolutions to endless miseries in life and including negative and positive aspects of social behaviors. Evidently, media culture tries to instill in society the benefits of kind acts and roles of all gender in the present world.

Besides, class, ethnicity, and gender shape how different audiences receive and encode messages. The factors, as mentioned earlier, have to apply multi-perspective and multi-cultural approaches in understanding the significance and effects of cultural studies in society. In this aspect, media culture has paid appropriate attention to all ages, classes, and gender in their service provisions.

This assists in aiding interpretation of information within the context of the production and reception. Further, media have adopted marketing and promotion strategies that target different consumers, as they consider gender, age, class, and race, among other factors.

The diversified approaches in cultural studies enable individuals to have freedom to analyze information in their own conscious. In addition, the move on media culture empowers individuals to resist any incident of manipulation by powerful bodies, thus enabling people to gain autonomy over their cultural practices and understand different political changes and cultures.

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Web 2.0: Education Report (Assessment) scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Web 2.0 has led to an increase in leisure classes which has encouraged people to study online during their free time. They are able to do this without fear that their student accounts may be hacked. It has also led to freedom in learning as people are able to learn any topic or subject that they want.

The web 2.0 has made learning to be convenient since it is easier for one to access their course lessons anytime. This encourages more people to register for free online courses that are being provided by multiple organizations nowadays.

Web 2.0 has also contributed to MOOC by creating flexibility. It has made it possible for individuals undertake their studies anytime that is suitable in relation to their schedules. People are also able to choose who they study or in which groups they can take part in discussions.

The web 2.0 has ensured that what we learn can be retrieved online by simply looking them up via search engines. Hence, all that we learn is always available and this leads to the promotion of a lifelong studying and learning as students are able to access more information without the need to buy books.

The presence of advanced internet technology has made free online studying easier which enables people to access new information thus making the world seem as a global village.

It has also broadened the horizon to extents that no one could imagine by making communication easier since one can communicate his ideas with ease through the internet leading to enlightenment to the majority. Generally, web 2.0 has enabled people to carry out their learning online at ease.

How to use OER in building courses Open Educational Resources are a powerful tool that provides basic education for all and ensures that education of individuals is promoted for a long period of time. OER is used in numerous institutions of learning as it enables the provision of a wide range of courses to a large since it is less expensive. Increased use of OER has a likelihood of transforming people’s positively by increasing the levels of literacy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More OER broadens access of education within and outside institutions of learning since one is able to access the needed materials for their study whether at home or in school.

This leads to an improvement of the interaction and development in academic networks through enhancement of quality in learning as educational resources have been released openly not just for enrolled learners but for everyone interested in learning. It also encourages the scrutiny of the people who create resources and their colleagues by ensuring that education resources are accessible worldwide.

OER Increases productivity as it ensures that one has a clear idea of the course materials that they are supposed to possess. This enables students to access a number of resources that make them well informed. OER‘s ownership is protected by a copyright that permits institutions to manage the available resources to prevent piracy.

Describe how the game integrates digital technologies to the benefit of teaching and learning The game uses digital communication to ensure consistent communication which is continuous between the teacher and the learner hence ensuring good interpersonal relations between them. It also ensures that before any learning takes place the student is willing. This leads to a higher performance as the level of student engagement and motivation during learning is heightened.

Digital technologies accelerates learning since it makes it easier by ensuring the materials needed are readily available and can be accessed at will by both the students and teachers. Thus, it links teachers and students and enables both teachers and students access the professional and reliable academic resources.

Furthermore, it has led to increased educational productivity by increasing the quality of education. This happens because it encourages by providing them with materials that are reliable and authentic. There is also an increased efficiency since they can manage risks.

Digital technology reduces the cost of purchasing the learning materials since they are sold cheaply online. It also helps in utilizing both teachers’ and learners’ time as there is no time wastage since the students and teachers can access information easily that they cannot be able to access manually.

We will write a custom Assessment on Web 2.0: Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Finally, the digital technologies ensure there is dual enrolment as students can enrol in more than one course at a time. Teachers can also carry out their education as they go on with their professional duties due to the presence of vocational and online classes.

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Mental Health Counselor: Ethics and Professionalism Essay best essay help

The ACA Code of Ethics assists in client growth and development by encouraging healthy and secure relationship between counselors and clients. In line with group therapy, counselors must strive to understand the different cultural backgrounds of the clients and learn how to integrate clients having the same needs and goals that are compatible to those of a given group.

In terms of relationships, the ethical codes encourage non-sexual professional relationships between counselors and clients (Ethics

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Culture and Communication: Variations and Effectiveness Exploratory Essay best essay help: best essay help

Communication is a vital process within organizations. Stakeholders in all organizations have different personalities and cultural backgrounds; they have to learn how to communicate to each other in order to attain effective competitive advantage over their competitors in the market. Effective communication requires initiators to understand the social and cultural contexts under which they intend to interact with the receivers.

The piece outlines that cultural differences can distort the meaning of messages sent to receivers; therefore, managers must comprehend the cultural behaviors of all their employees. Markedly, a media capacity used in a given cultural setting may not be effective in another.

Consequently, societal culture and individual perceptions affect the appropriateness of information transfer. If the receiver understands the message from the sender, the communication is considerably effective. In organizations, the mode of communication may depend on the urgency, complexity, and importance of information so that the receiver’s attitude and action changes in response to the message.

For media choice theory, the intention of communication, amount of data or information, and characteristics of the receiver are key factors that determine the choice of media that one uses in communication. The theory holds that all media have a specific capacity to convey knowledge correctly so that the receiver comprehends it properly.

Information context and content influence the attention of viewers; for instance, an organizational employee will pay attention to a formal memorandum than does an outsider. Clearly, lack of richness results in confusions in cross-cultural communication, and the theory helps in understanding effective communication of symbolism that are significant in some cultures.

Besides, societal perceptions influence the effectiveness of information as the beliefs, norms and values guide people’s behaviors, communication, and interpretation of information. Since culture dictates societal interactions, it is inseparable with communication, and any cultural variation will necessitate variation in communication.

In the analysis of different cultural orientations, communication processes are also different implying that culture affects the encoding and coding of messages. Individualism, as a variation of culture affects individual behaviors in achieving goals and gauging value of relationships.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a societal level, individualists tend to work alone and give their goals first priority, while collectivists tend to work in groups, through collective responsibility. Societies have members that range along the continuum of individualists and collectivists. Individualists have personal feelings and thoughts and are direct in their communication since they only view themselves and not actions of others.

This shows that the group possesses low creativity, analysis, and thinking skills. On the other hand collectivist communicators emphasizes on high context communication in order to comprehend the context under which the receiver will encode the message.

As opposed to individualistic cultures, collectivist cultures embed message content in the communication context, thus necessitating the receiver to know the contextual cues in order to interpret the message appropriately.

Evidently, individualist cultures will regard information sent through less rich media as it does not entail intensive cues. From this aspect, the perceptions that these groups hold reveal the challenges of communicating across cultures.

Power-distance of different cultures affects effectiveness of communication. For instance, societies with small power-distance, subordinates do not wait to be told of what to do while those with high power-distance tend to wait for their superiors to make crucial decisions and instruct them on what to do. In this aspect, there is a clear distinction between the subordinates and the superiors in a high power-distance culture.

Therefore, this culture promotes a specified line of communication from the superiors to the subordinates. On the other hand, low-power-distances cultures can change their medium of communication since they are independent workers. From the analysis, one can have the following questions for further discussion:

How do individual preference in an uncertainty avoidance and individualism in societal preference relate in affecting effective communication?

How current managers can adopt to varied cultures given the high rate of globalization?

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Learning Styles and Pedagogy Reflective Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction As an individual within the teaching profession, I realise how it is often important to examine myself to determine the effectiveness of my performance. It is an aspect of critical reflection that questions my actual performance, thereby helping me in finding answers to some of the most pressing questions.

The critical reflection helps in developing the profession because it acts as a building block, enabling the strengthening of weaker areas and enhancing performance even further in best performed areas (Leung

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Entrepreneurship and Innovation: The United Arab Emirates Report (Assessment) online essay help

Introduction: Business Endeavors and Results Evaluation Introducing innovative strategies into business is essential for the economic development of the state and the growth of its enterprises. As long as a country acquires the information on the latest strategies in business, it is capable of keeping in pace with the rest of the world and, therefore, remaining competitive. However, as soon as a state loses the touch with the globalized world, its business sector starts deteriorating pretty soon.

Despite the fact that the UAE is currently among the world’s most successful states, without the proper innovations introduced into the entrepreneurship sphere, it is most likely to share South Korea and Taiwan’s deplorable experience, which is a result of not updating business strategies when it is needed.

Considering the Experience of South Korea and Taiwan Analyzing the string of events that spurred economical, financial and entrepreneurial evolution of South Korea and Taiwan, one must mention first several issues that the given states had with their business field to begin with.

As the research says, Korea was in a very unique and quite complicated position, seeing how it was completely devastated after the war with North Korea and was trying to improve its performance in the world scene. As the research results state, the key to economic success was to progress from low to high growth and focus on exporting the goods to the partner states.

Speaking of Taiwan, its unique business setting involved the reconstruction issues that the sate faced in the early 50s. As a result, it was required to update the strategy on human resources and improve the technological aspects of the Taiwanese entrepreneurship.

Eriksson (2005) teaches that every single innovation strategy must be based on the assets of the state economics, which the country has gained over the course of its history, just like it must take into account its key weaknesses.

The Entrepreneurial Climate of the UAE: SMEs and Women in Business Consequently, it is required to look closer at the specifics of the UAE entrepreneurship. At present, the owners of small businesses face serious competition from the public domain and the immigrant owners of private enterprises within the state. In addition, the public companies in the UAE are notorious for their chauvinist policies, with little to no women getting promoted to the higher positions.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What It Takes to Build Innovation Based Policies Judging by the situation described above, it can be assumed that the UAE needs to reconsider its traditional approach towards such issues as gender profiling within the system of public entrepreneurships, the opportunities for employment in private sector and the monopoly on private entrepreneurship owned by the foreign investors and the immigrants from other countries.

To address the aforementioned issues, it will be required that the new policies including the regulations for avoiding discrimination should be introduced into the public sector. In addition, the creation of SMEs should be encouraged.

Overcoming Possible Obstacles: The Fear of Defeat Taking the aforementioned issues of gender discrimination, lack of positions for the native residents of the UAE in private sphere, the insufficient professional skills of the latter and the lack of SMEs within the state, one must admit that there are a lot of obstacles standing in front of the UAE entrepreneurs.

Conclusion: When the proper Strategy Has Been Defined It is clear that at present, the UAE business field needs considerable improvement. Apart from the deplorable state of affairs concerning women in business, there is an obvious problem with the public sphere being flooded by the natives and, therefore, leaving a number of people suffering from unemployment and creating mad competition within the sphere of public companies.

By developing its small businesses, allowing more women into the entrepreneurial sphere and helping the natives get jobs in private sphere, one can expect considerable improvements.

Reference List Eriksson S. (2005). Innovation policies in South Korea and Taiwan. Stockholm, SE: Vinnova Analysis.

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Education Society and the Curriculum Analytical Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Beveridge’s Five Giant Social Evils

What society requires from education

Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning

References

Beveridge’s Five Giant Social Evils According to Beveridge Report, also known as the Report of the Inter-Departmental Committee on Social Insurance and Allied Services of 1942, there were five giant social evils that were affecting the British society and which needed to be addressed urgently. This report identified these giant social evils as squalor, ignorance, basic wants such as food, idleness, and diseases (Durand, Belacel

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Branding Case Study: Burberry scholarship essay help

Introduction Burberry store is more than 150 years old. It had gained success and became a luxurious brand in Britain. However, in the 1990s, the company experienced challenges related to consumer perceptions, retail stores, and brand image. As a result, sales declined and profit dropped.

Elements of the Brand building factors used by Rose Mario Bravo since 1997 to rebuild Burberry brand

In 1997, Burberry brought in a new CEO, Mario Bravo to run the company. Bravo took a company that had lost its position in the market and had an old brand image. However, the new CEO had the required experience to transform Burberry to profitability (Moore and Birtwistle, 2004).

Bravo’s first approach was to introduce a young designer, Minechetti to change the clothes range at Burberry. Menichetti had to remodel Burberry’s raincoats and other conventional clothes by giving them a new image and making them striking to a new generation of emerging consumers. In addition, the young designer also had to introduce new clothe items for children, blue jeans, bikinis, watches, personal products, shoes, and home wares.

This approach aimed to re-establish Burberry among modern, young, and trendy consumers. As a result, Bravo managed to restore Burberry’s name in the market. This strategy also aimed at attracting new markets and increasing the company’s sales base. Bravo also appointed Christopher Bailey from Gucci.

Bailey would reinforce the brand name by designing heritage and classic clothe lines and presenting young, hip, modern, and fashionable clothes at the same time. This retained Burberry’s vision of heritage and classic to reflect its many years in the industry. All these strategies worked to restore Burberry in the market.

Bravo also focused on building the brand image in the market. As a result, she hired an advertising firm and a photographer, Mario Testino alongside models to shoot images that would change the old brand of Burberry. She would later work with other famous models who appeared in Burberry’s different commercial advertisements.

Burberry operated in an increasingly competitive fashion industry. As a result, it needed a greater focus on the brand image improvement in order to attract new consumers. Bravo noted that a well-developed advertisement message could play a significant role in developing Burberry brand image across its distribution channels and at all levels.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The advertisement served to restore the company’s brand image by informing customers about the “functional abilities while simultaneously imbuing the brand with symbolic values and meanings relevant to the consumer” (Meenaghan, 1995). The two major focuses were to inform consumers about new clothes range of Burberry and transform their opinions about the company. All these elements led to consumer persuasion.

Consumers analyse the brand advertisement message and associate it with certain aspects. For instance, Bravo brought in famous celebrities like David Beckhams and Jarvis Cooker in order to associate Burberry brand with celebrities in the minds of consumers. Hence, Burberry brand became functional and expressive among its potential consumers (Meenaghan, 1995). This led to building the brand perception among consumers.

Consumers are responsible for creating a company’s brand perception because of how they perceive a brand eventually defines it. A company may have a positive brand promise, but this does not count since customers may perceive it in a different manner. Bravo worked with Kate Moss to create striking images for Burberry brand. This image had positive effect on consumers and it improved the company’s sales growth.

The brand perception helped the company to understand how consumers perceived its clothes and specific items within different market segments. The company was able to understand elements, which influenced consumers when they were making purchase decisions, sources of their information, and consumers’ thoughts about Burberry.

It is also imperative to note that Bravo recognised that creating a successful brand image and perception involved several elements, such as value to customers, visual images, brand relevance, and its ability to engage the target audience’s attention (Diller, Shedroff and Rhea, 2006). Clearly, Bravo invested in professional advertisement agency, skilled photographer, and well-known personalities in order to create a working brand image and perception for Burberry. Burberry became distinct and unique among competition in the industry.

In order to build Burberry brand, the new CEO also had to work with the company’s distribution channels. Bravo closed all unprofitable shops and focused on developing retail stores in strategic locations. This was to create a market position, which would reflect the new Burberry. For instance, the company positioned the brand as prestigious and luxurious by working with retailers located in the high-end markets.

Consumers would then associate the brand with luxurious, high-end prices. As a result, the company was able to increase its sales revenues from 20 percent to 25 percent and profitability. Bravo also managed to persuade other retail stores to stock various items for Burberry.

We will write a custom Report on Branding Case Study: Burberry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, distributors who were only selling raincoats also added high-end accessories. This branding strategy established Burberry as a potential gift store with affordable luxury items. Burberry stores distribution channels were spread across different locations. Hence, consumers could buy products at various points.

Finally, Bravo decided to establish Burberry as an international brand by selecting strategic locations in New York, London, Spain, the UK, and Japan to expand the business. The aim was to increase Burberry’s growth by venturing into critical international markets and establish the brand identity. Burberry had potential markets and good reputation in these regions for many years. Bravo understood the perception of consumers about Burberry and that it could deliver its products to the market and meet rising demands.

It is imperative to recognise that several factors influence a company’s brand development. These may include the logo, advertisement, and media among others. In addition, brand managers must note that it takes time and financial resources to create a reputable global brand. As a result, consumers can immediate recognise the brand, identify its promise and product benefits.

Challenges that Burberry could face as it builds a global brand

Burberry experienced rapid growth and it had to adopt a new business model for the international market. The company would then strive to expand its operations globally because of the apparent success in the domestic market. On this regard, it must ensure that the business would still realise its primary goals in the overseas markets. It will have to maintain quality standards and delivery products as required by local consumers. Moreover, Burberry must meet cultural expectations of different people globally.

One major challenge could be product delivery. Burberry will have to ship its products to the new markets. However, different countries have different laws regarding imports or even manufacturing products locally. This could present a potential challenge for Burberry in its international expansion strategy.

On this note, it is imperative for the company to ensure that it would satisfy and meet the local demands through product reliability and consistency in delivery. In addition, Burberry will also have to understand local laws for business operations and employment regulations. All its products must meet quality requirements in different countries in terms of components, labels, and even packaging.

Packaging laws differ from one country to another. Burberry will have to understand packaging regulations in its potential target markets. This must happen before venturing into the new markets to avoid business setbacks. For instance, some countries have banned the use of plastic packaging, or they impose heavy taxes on users and manufacturers of such materials.

This would increase costs of running business in such countries. Customers’ requirements with regard to packaging also differ. Burberry may also use more than a single language on its packaging materials and include all product details to all consumers globally. Therefore, it is important to understand local laws on packaging and consumer preferences before shipping products in order to avoid unnecessary costs in running business operations.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Branding Case Study: Burberry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Burberry could also experience challenges related to building awareness of the brand in the new markets and enhance sales and profitability. It would not be possible for the company to succeed in new markets if it follows the same techniques applied at home to reach new customers and communicate.

The company will have to develop relevant messages to specific market segment in specific geographies, which highlight their needs and wants and the brand promise. Moreover, the channel of communication will also differ significantly, more so in emerging markets. The company must identify receptive channels for different target markets in order to allow potential consumers to understand and relate messages to their needs.

Burberry must develop the message carefully in order to account for diversity in the global market. It must engage in thorough research and possibly enlist the help of a local firm to assist in branding in the new target market.

It must evaluate what other firms and competitors do in the market to reach customers. Humorous or charming message in a different geographical location could be misinterpreted and misunderstood in another location. Burberry must also evaluate how consumers perceive old companies in its target new markets.

Burberry has been operating in developed nations since its inception. The company will have to understand the target markets, consumer habits, lifestyles, and find the right answer by conducting thorough research. The company will have to consider the right manner of communication, which is culturally acceptable.

This should account for tone and choice of words. Consumers can identify such elements in packaging, advertisement, and even through to employees. In addition, it will have to adopt a favourable sales policy in new markets. Ultimately, the company must project its brand at all levels in the international markets.

It is not simple for a multinational corporation to maintain its reputation across different markets globally. The company may be focused on developing an international brand and ignore other critical aspects of brand reputation. For instance, Burberry had spent a huge portion of its revenues on protecting its brand from counterfeit and association with hooliganism and violence.

In the Far East, the company could run into similar challenges, particularly with counterfeit and cheap imitations. Hence, the company must protect itself by educating consumers and communicating the right message to them. Protecting the brand reputation in every market is critical for a global firm. The challenge becomes worse as the company grows into several subsidiaries with many employees globally.

A brand acts like a promise that Burberry delivers to its potential customers. The company must ensure that customers have positive experience in all its stores with products and employees. This aspect also covers product delivery, product quality, and services rendered to consumers. The CEO must understand how to lead the organisation as it grows rapidly.

It is imperative to protect the company from any possible bad experiences with customers. As a result, a company needs to keep constant vigilance in most critical departments at all levels. It is also important to have an employee manual with the code of conducts and ethics. Moreover, the company will have to invest in employee training and engage in constant checks regarding growth and market activities in order to deliver the brand promise.

There would also be cultural differences for Burberry in new geographical locations. The company will face several obstacles, including languages and customers’ habits. Hence, it is important to work with local firms to help in building the international brand and gain a share of a foreign market. In extremely difficult cases, Burberry may consider working with local distributors or forming strategic partnership with local firms. Cultural or geographical differences may also influence customers’ needs.

Burberry price and competition will also have to consider both price and competition. The company has been operating only in developed economies. However, it will venture into emerging markets where consumers may perceive luxury items as too expensive and out of their reach. This implies that Burberry may review its prices downwards in order to cater for the middle class and few high-end markets. In addition, it will also face fierce competition from established brands in such markets, especially local brands.

“Opening more stores and adding new product lines can potentially dilute the Burberry brand”. A critical examination of this statement and recommendations for Burberry’s future operations

Brands have significant roles to play in global expansion strategies. Hence, firms must use a coherent international branding strategy in order to introduce new brands and open more stores. Burberry should show concern about adding more stores and new product lines.

Available studies on negative impacts of additional stores and brand extension or new product lines on the brand are few and their results are not consistent. Previous studies did not establish any significant impacts of dilution on the brand name through introducing new products, including unsuccessful ones (Romeo, 1991).

On the other hand, some studies show that dilution may take place when new product lines or stores are inconsistence with brand and brand belief (Singh, Scriven, Clemente, Lomax and Wright, 2012).

Hence, a brand failure may result from “difficulties to relate with the parent brand, a lack of product and brand familiarity and similarity, as well as poor integrated marketing communication messages” (Singh et al., 2012). A study on Johnson also showed that launching “a new product in same parent brand category have high chance of success while in different category is risk” (Ahmad, Mujeeb and Rajput, 2011).

Generally, some failures in new product lines can dilute brand equity, especially if the brand is integrated. In this case, dilution affects the new product and the original brand or parent brand. Any failure in stores or new products make consumers to develop pessimistic opinions about the brand or develop a different perception, associate the failure with the main brand, other products, and eventually lose sense of the brand and its uniqueness.

A failure in new products can affect either the general brand image or the product brand image. However, a strong brand like Burberry would not suffer much from a failed product, specifically on its general brand image. Overall, the dilution would greatly affect the product brand image. Consumers may hold their perceptions about the general brand image and attitudes towards the company. Nevertheless, a new product has ability to dilute the brand image and transform consumers’ beliefs and perception.

Any successful new product can attract massive revenues for Burberry. On this note, brand managers should spend their resources to understand the product before launching, understand the market and maximise the product message, and enhance awareness.

Technically, any flagship product will record the highest sales, revenues, and awareness. Today, consumers are critical and use social media to attack products, which do not meet their needs. Not all strong brands suffer from dilution because of a failure in a new product.

A dilute impact could affect other products instantly and eventually affect the whole company. However, the impact may not be severe for a parent brand. The outcome of dilution could be temporary and consumers’ perceptions may not diminish at all. Burberry should establish strong brand equity in the parent company through aggressive marketing campaigns and brand management.

The company should focus on establishing long-term brand equity across the world and evaluate all its business strategies and their potential impacts. Usually, any failure, even if it appears to be insignificant, could result in a great brand failure. Hence, the company should evaluate how consumers react to its new stores and new product lines.

It is imperative for Burberry to understand how consumers perceive new products. Consumers collect information, categorise, and associate them with either success or failure of a product. In fact, they would evaluate major differences between the main brand and new product lines from their experiences, other competing brands, and facts about the company and its brand.

The company should develop effective brand message for its new products and target markets. It must ensure that messages and communication are clear in order to develop a strong brand image. A negative result from a new product or a store can potentially harm Burberry brand.

On this note, brand managers and marketers should ensure that they develop consistent brand messages throughout the product life process. In some cases, negative outcomes from new product lines could be extensive and permanent, particularly in cases where the product message diluted the brand at all levels.

While few studies exist about stores or new product lines and their effects on the company’s brand, clearly any poor approach to branding and brand management could lead to a brand failure (Martinez and de Chernatony, 2004).

Burberry must also note that new product lines or stores may fail to generate increased revenues or develop brand equity as expected. Hence, it is a risky strategy for developing a brand or increasing sales because of the unexpected outcomes. Thus, brand managers must evaluate potential impacts of more stores or new product lines before launching them to consumers.

Reference List Ahmad, M, Mujeeb, E and Rajput, A 2011, Does Brand Extension Impact Parent Brand: A Case Of Johnson, UK, http://www.mnmk.ro/documents/2011/5_Pakistan2 FFF.pdf

Diller S, Shedroff, N and Rhea D 2006, Making Meaning: How Successful Businesses Deliver Meaningful Customer Experiences, New Riders, Berkeley, CA.

Martinez, E and de Chernatony, L 2004, ‘The effect of brand extension strategies upon brand image’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 39-50.

Meenaghan, T 1995, ‘The role of advertising in brand image development’, Journal of Product

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Clothing and Footwear Retail Sector in the United Kingdom Essay college essay help online

Introduction Marketing and its underlying thoughts and principles have evolved over the years. The evolution over the past few decades has widened the scope of this field. Such areas as business-to-business marketing, relationship marketing, and services marketing have become common in this field. Service marketing constitutes a major sub-discipline in this field.

Contrary to the impressions created by the name, this sub-discipline covers the marketing of both goods and services. According to Bessom and Donald (1975, p. 45), marketing of goods is a two-pronged phenomenon. It entails the promotion of durables and fast moving consumer products. On its part, service marketing entails the promotion of business-to-consumer and business-to-business services.

The current paper is written against this background. In the paper, the author conducts a case analysis focusing on the retailing sector in the UK. The clothing and footwear retail sector in this country is the case that is used in this analysis. The service marketing issues affecting this industry are critically reviewed in this paper. More specifically, the current study focuses on the competitive sector of sports apparel and footwear industry. The sports footwear sector is analysed in detail.

Introduction to Service Marketing The concept of service marketing is relatively new in contemporary global market. According to Lovelock and Wirtz (2001, p. 99), the concept of service marketing introduces a new dominant logic in the entire marketing spectrum.

Lovelock and Wirtz (2001) describe this new development as the ‘service dominant logic’. What this means is that promotion of services shifts the focus of marketing from operand resources. Such resources include, among others, land, plants, and animals. Service marketing introduces a new element of operant resources. The new resources include knowledge and skills.

The marketing of services brings together many industries in the global market. Some of these industries include those operating in the telecommunications, health care, aviation, and professional services sectors. Others operate in the hospitality and financial services segment of the economy.

Services constitute a major source of revenue for the developed economies. For example, such economies as the UK rely more on services compared to developing economies like those in Africa. As a result of this, it is apparent that service marketing is vital not only to the success of individual businesses, but also to the growth of the entire national economy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Service Marketing in the UK Retail Sector An Overview of the UK Retail Sector

The service sector in the UK and other economies can be determined from various perspectives. For instance, Burt and Sparks (2003, para. 3) highlight one of these perspectives in their definition of the service sector. Burt and Sparks (2003) conceptualise this sector as the wider group of industries that remain when agriculture, mining, and manufacturing industries are removed from the equation.

Going by this definition, it is clear that the scope of the services industry in the UK includes, among others, the transport and communication industries. It also involves the provision of professional services, as well as public administration.

Other examples of service industry sectors include, as already indicated above, financial services, hospitality, healthcare, and retailing. Professional services include the provision of such products as legal and accounting aid. On its part, the hospitality sector is made up of restaurants, accommodation outlets, and ski resorts. Examples of healthcare services include eye care, dentistry, and medical practice. Finally, retailing services involves merchandising and such other endeavours (Burt

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Green Technology and Its Benefits Evaluation Essay online essay help: online essay help

Despite the fact that environmental concerns have been raised quite a while ago, the concept of green technology has been introduced comparatively recently into modern business and everyday life. Although the idea of green technology is relatively young, it still deserves a major appraise for the compromise between technology and environmental issues that it has to offer.

By implementing green technology, a company specializing in consulting services, such as the ConsultingNow!, will be able to face the competition and attract more customers.

According to the existing definition, green technology is “a new technical-economic mode which could combine environmental protection, ecological restore, efficiency improvement and economic development” (Pan, 2012, p. 47). As recent researches have shown, quite a number of companies follow the principles of green technology. Among the most notable ones, Siemens is often credited as “the world’s leading green technology company” (Siemens launches second edition of Green Technology Journalism Award, 2013, para. 1).

As the report says, Siemens has gained considerable support from its customers all over the world after choosing the green technology principles (Siemens launches second edition of Green Technology Journalism Award, 2013, para. 2). Thus, the principles of Green Technology affect a company’s development in an admittedly positive way.

When it comes to consulting business, though, green technology principles might seem rather hard to implement, since consulting has little to do with environmental awareness. However, even ConsultingNow! Can contribute to environmental safety and bring the rates of pollution down. For example, a stronger emphasis can be put onto using the equipment that affects environment in the least.

While it would be unreasonable to make every single employee in the company buy a Hybrid car, using the resources that are made of recyclable material is the least painstaking means to introduce the company and its members to the concept of green technology. In addition, the use of solar-power watch, calculators, and other devices should be encouraged and promoted in the company. In addition, the principles of energy conservation should also be included into the company’s policies.

The fact that the application of green technology is going to bring the total cost of ownership down considerably should also be brought to the company leader’s attention. Not only will the devices bought to follow the green policy save an impressive chunk of the company’s costs for such services as electricity, water consumption, etc. down impressively, but also serve as a rather cheap yet very efficient advertisement program.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By showing people that its members care about environment, the ConsultingNow! Company will show the clientele and potential customers that it cares about people and, therefore, is worth trusting. In addition, the total cost of ownership will be decreased due to a drop in the consumption of such services as water and electricity. However, the functionality of software used with regard to the environmental safety principles should be checked more thoroughly.

Judging by the fact that green technology, though admittedly costly, allows for attracting more target customers and creating effective promotion campaigns, it must be considered a necessary step towards the restructuring and reorganization of the company, as well as remodeling of its key processes so that its expansion into the globalized market could be carried out.

The given process is going to be admittedly hard; however, with the integration of the green technology policy, the ConsultingNow! will have the needed support of customers and partners.

Reference List Pan, J. (2012). China green development index report 2011. Berlin, DE: Springer.

Siemens launches second edition of Green Technology Journalism Award (2013). Web.

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Consumer Interest in Space Tourism Report online essay help

Introduction and Background Tourism is a very rewarding economic activity in the present world, as it is among the largest income generators in many states and countries. For many years, countries have underscored the importance of tourism and its contribution to their economies. However, the act of underscoring the importance of tourism has gradually changed for a number of states have seen the benefits that accrue from organized management of tourism.

Unfortunately, several countries focus on common and traditional forms of tourism, such as beach tourism and expeditions to national parks and reserves. Stakeholders in the field of tourism, including the host government, communities, private investors, and the tourists accord little attention to alternative forms of tourism.

Alternative forms of tourism include leisure, sport, adventure, ecotourism, and space tourism. Therefore, it is against this background that the research assesses the viability of space tourism as proposed by Sir Richard Branson in terms of market size, number of potential consumers, their perceptions, willingness, and expectations regarding the space tourism.

Marketing Research Problem Tourism stakeholders like the government, private investors, service providers, non-governmental organizations, tourists, and the host communities have overlooked the benefits of diversifying tourism for a long time. Instead, these stakeholders emphasize on the development and consumption of common and prominent tourism products such as the expedition to national parks and reserves, as well as beach tourism, which incorporates sightseeing of elements like sand, sun, nature, and sea.

The development and extensive marketing of these common forms of tourism has resulted in the degradation of these destinations. The degradation of these destinations is due to the large number of tourists visiting the attractions.

These tourists usually exceed the carrying capacity that the subject tourist destination can comfortably support. Additionally, the large numbers of tourists increase the susceptibility of the destination to degradation owing to the trampling of vegetation, fire outbreaks, pollution, and other negative effects associated with tourism.

Extensive marketing of tourism attractions such as national parks, lakes, oceans, and seas, has led to pronounced degradation in the destination. Many tourists throng the tourist sites in these regions and in turn initiate several negative effects that only serve to degrade the destination and reduce the overall worth and value of the subject attraction.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, it has led to increased negative effects like pollution, which comprises environmental, soil, water, and air pollution. Environmental pollution occurs when tourists in a given destination dump solid wastes in the attraction site, especially outside designated waste bins.

Soil pollution takes place when waste from service providers like hotels and travel agencies seep into the ground. On the other hand, when tourism establishments release their wastes into water bodies like rivers and seas, it causes water pollution. Smoke from vehicles and emissions from tourist establishments leads to air pollution.

Fire outbreaks, trampling, and destruction of vegetation are other negative effects, which transpire because of too much emphasis on common tourism attractions. Due to marketing and promotions on the common attractions, many tourists travel to these destinations and initiate negative impacts, which lead to depreciation of attractions. Mass tourists break vegetation, trample on grass and other small vegetations, and hence, destroy the vegetation found in subject attraction.

Furthermore, the large number of tourists increases the chances of carelessness that can sometimes result in dire consequences like fires in the tourist destination. The host community suffers from the effects initiated by the absence of alternative forms of tourism such as space tourism. The effects that the host community experience include child labor, increased cost of living, scarcity of resources due to high demand, and diversion of infrastructure to tourism facilities.

Due to the absence of alternative forms of tourism, the pressure exerted on traditional tourism destinations led to short life cycles of the tourism products. Many of the destinations degrade and depreciate quickly and end up as desolate and derelict regions. The desolate nature of the destinations owed their states to the strain exerted on them by the tourists and tourism establishments. In addition, many tourism stakeholders fail to enjoy the revenues accruing from tourism due unsustainable use of tourism products and resources.

Due to the absence of alternative forms of tourism levels in these areas declined since many tourists have already consumed tourism products from these destinations. Consequently, the absence of alternative forms of tourism limited the products of tourism only to those tourists who consume traditional and common tourism products leaving out potential tourists attracted to alternative and unique tourism products.

The Research Aims and Objectives Examine the existence of potential tourists who can consume unique products of space tourism.

Determine the market size of space tourism because it is a new product in the tourism market.

Establish demographic characteristics of potential space tourists.

Assess the expectations and interests of potential space tourists.

Find out the perceptions and attitudes of individuals concerning space tourism.

The Research Questions Do potential tourists of space tourism exist?

What is the market size of space tourism as an alternative form of tourism?

What are the demographic characteristics of potential space tourists?

What are the expectations of potential space tourists?

What are the perceptions and attitudes of individuals concerning space tourism?

Discussion Alternative Forms of Tourism and Space Tourism

Popular and common tourist destinations experience challenges such as degradation, pollution, fire outbreaks, trampling of vegetation, pressure on social resources, and short life cycles of destinations due to increased tours. The presence of these challenges necessitates the need to diversify tourism and introduce alternative forms of tourism (Casino

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“The Los Angeles River: Its Life, Death and Possible Rebirth” by Blake Gumprecht Critical Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Book review The impact left by industries and urbanization has been the reason for global concern for quite long. In the XXI century, the issue has gained even more significance, seeing how new threats posed to nature and its resources by technology have emerged since recently.

Among the most topical ones, water resources and their preservation must be named. In his book The Los Angeles River: Its Life, Death and Possible Rebirth, Blake Gumprecht addresses the problem of the notorious Los Angeles River and its vegetation, making it obvious that the time to reconsider people’s effect on nature has come.

While Blake clearly provides a fairly honest overview of the problem, describing the current state of the river quite precisely, he still leaves the problem of technological evolution as the crucial element out of the picture, therefore, making the argument rather one-sided. Considering the integration of technological advances into the process of saving the environment would be quite an upgrade for Gumprecht’s work.

What social factors cause the degradation? (society and environment) While the degradation issues that Gumprecht discusses in his book concern mostly the regression of environment, certain societal perspective of the phenomenon is are also somewhat touched upon.

For instance, Gumprecht ties in the process of degradation of the Los Angeles River together with the issues in the evolution of the urban life – or, to be more exact, the specifics of the life of settlers and the effects that these specifics had had on the local river system: “The destruction of the Los Angeles River is in many ways unique in North America because of […] the ways in which Euro-American settlers […] reacted to it” (Gumprecht 129).

The environmental degradation is, therefore, linked directly to the societal, down to the point where one triggers another. Judging by what Gumprecht has to say, degradation is caused by such social factors as urbanization and economic growth. While clearly positive from a sociological point of view, these processes affect the environment impressively.

People sacrifice environment for the sake of greater revenues, which results in a major ecological catastrophe. Therefore, among the social factors that cause degradation, urbanization, industrial development and IT evolution must be listed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What impacts does the degradation have on society? (environment and society) As it has been stressed above, environmental collapse is linked directly to the societal one; therefore, it can be assumed that degradation as an environmental phenomenon has a reciprocal effect on the society. In other words, with the deterioration of the environment, the Los Angeles River in the given case, the regression of society can be observed, starting from numerous health issues and up to conflicts regarding the priorities (i.e., addressing the environmental issues vs. solving the current financial and economic problems).

A deplorable state of society, in its turn, also contributes to the decomposition of environment. For instance, increasing financial concerns and growing rates of poverty will lead to the lack of concern regarding the state of environment and the following rise in pollution rates.

Therefore, it must be admitted that in the XXI century, nature and civilization are linked directly, one obviously depending on another. The given balance must be maintained in order to make sure that the industrial evolution of the humankind will not harm nature and that its resources can be either replenished or retained.

Works Cited Gumprecht, Blake. The Los Angeles River: Its Life, Death and Possible Rebirth. Baltimore, MD: The John Hopkins University Press, 2001. Print.

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International and Intercultural Communication Compare and Contrast Essay essay help free: essay help free

A Comparison of the United States and Tanzania’s Cultures using Hofstede’s Dimensions The two countries that have been picked for comparison are the United States and Tanzania. The geographical distance between the two countries is huge. However, when the two countries are compared using Hofstede’s five cultural dimensions, there are both similarities and differences.

The first dimension to be evaluated is power distance. The United States has a power distance of 40 while Tanzania has a score of 70. This implies that people in the United States are less tolerant to inequality as compared to the people of Tanzania. This also means that it is harder to question and communicate with leaders in Tanzania. However, in the United States, leaders are accessible and they tend to rely on their employees.

The second dimension is individualism where the United States has a score of 95 while Tanzania has 25. The biggest difference between these two cultures is in their individualism. While the United States is a very individualistic society, Tanzania’s society is mostly collective. In addition, this means that the Tanzanian society is uneasy about outsiders while the United States’ society is open to aliens.

On the masculinity and femininity dimension, the scores of the two countries are 62 for the United States and 40 for Tanzania. These scores indicate that the society in the United States is more ‘masculine’ and therefore more competitive (Hofstede, 2005).

On the other hand, Tanzania is a feminine country that does not overemphasize hard work and shuns cutthroat competition. For instance, an effective manager in the United States is able to encourage and foster competition while an effective manager in Tanzania works hard to maintain a sense of equality among employees.

The two countries have almost equal scores in uncertainty avoidance with a score of 46 for the United States and 50 for Tanzania (Hofstede, 2005). Therefore, both countries do not go to great lengths to prepare for uncertainties. Nevertheless, Tanzania is more likely to put measures to prepare for uncertainties. While the United States is less anxious about new ideas and products, Tanzania is likely to be more suspicious about the introduction of new ideas and products within its borders.

The long-term orientation scores of the two countries are 29 for the United States and 30 for Tanzania. This means that both societies adhere to the short-term cultures. Both the United States and Tanzania are societies that respect traditions and lack the need to save money for future use. The low scores in long-term orientation also mean that both societies are concerned with quick results such as making profits using the stock exchange.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Recommendations for Business Between the two Countries If an organization in Tanzania is conducting business with an organization in the United States, there are few cultural considerations to be made to ensure effective communication. The first consideration is how to address superiors in the two organizations. While it is easy to gain audience and casually address management personnel in the United States, in Tanzania managers are highly regarded and addressed with more respect than in the United States.

It is important for the management in the United States to note that the society in Tanzania does not emphasize on the importance of personal space, as Tanzania is a collective society (Koester

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Sustainability and Waste Management: University of Queensland Report essay help

Executive Summary Waste management is vital in any organisation. Managers should have a waste management plan in place at their respective places of work. The University of Queensland is one of the largest and oldest learning institutions in the state of Australia, producing thousands of graduates every year. The institution also contributes to research and policy development in the country. The report focuses on one main campus of the institution located in St. Lucia. This campus started over 100 years ago. It covers over 114 hectares.

The methodology used in this report mainly consists of interviews, waste area assessment, and waste analysis. A survey was also conducted. The waste management assessment at the institution showed an efficient waste management plan in place. The main waste types produced at this institution include paper, food particles, hazardous waste from the laboratories, and the plastics mainly from the packaging materials.

A private contractor and the local city council do the collection and disposal of these wastes. The general waste is land filled while the rest of the waste is either recycled or incinerated. At the time of the collection of the waste from the bins, the bins are over 50% full, with the general waste bins being 95% full. Analysis of the data obtained from this waste assessment at the institution is provided in the report.

The recommendations from the analysis of waste management at the institution were based on the opportunities available. The institution has a waste minimisation strategy, which involves the reduction of materials for land filling to cut on the greenhouse gas emissions (EPA Information Bulletin, 1993).

The report recommends the creation of a committee at the institution to oversee the waste minimisation strategy, which should be headed by a qualified individual. The bulk of the organic waste can be reduced through inventory management at the catering department with some of the food materials being fed to animals such as pigs (Panikkar, Riley

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Cultural Values of an Organization Analytical Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

In their daily practices, managers need to focus on a set of aspects that are critical for the effective performance of employees. For instance, one can speak about communication, allocation of duties, motivation, and many other tasks. This paper will discuss some of the practices that can help managers make their work more effective.

Much attention should be paid to organizational culture because it can affect every business process within a company. In particular, it is necessary to discuss the way in cultural values of an organization should shape the interactions between business administrators and workers.

Researchers, who study organizational culture, emphasize the necessity to strengthen human value of employees. They believe that employees have several psychological needs such as recognition, respect, autonomy, or personal growth (Stallard and Pankau 21). Therefore, the managers should create a culture that supports these needs.

For example, business administrators should eliminate excessive supervision since it deprives workers of their autonomy (Stallard and Pankau 22). Additionally, they need to recognize and reward the performance of every person. On the whole, managers should develop a culture which is based on such values as empowerment, responsibility, and openness.

These principles can be applied to other aspects of management, for example, teamwork. Scholars argue that in effective groups, every individual can openly express his/her ideas, and they will not be dismissed out of hand (Mealiea

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Williams-Sonoma Case Study a level english language essay help

Introduction Large business organizations face numerous challenges in the contemporary world. Two main challenges affect the growth process and making of profits in a business, which include globalization and competition. In the wake of globalization, companies are seeking to extend their operations to different regions across the world.

Therefore, globalization has its challenges to the business whereby expansion to new locations increases the management risk; on the other hand, it poses competition challenges to local business organizations. On the other side, even without globalization, competition from rival companies has been a challenge to most businesses as they strive to claim a share of the existent market.

Williams-Sonoma’s growth process has been challenged by globalization, especially through Internet marketing and by other foreign businesses in the country, which have posed competitive challenges to the business. However, it has high chances of overcoming the challenges, as highlighted in this paper.

If the Williams-Sonoma continues with its present strategies and objectives, where will it be in five years

Williams-Sonoma Corporation has been experiencing steady growth process since its inception in 1953. Notably, the highest growth of the corporation can be defined in terms of product development and market coverage across the United States. The corporation’s leadership remained under Charles E. Williams, the founder and the corporation’s director, until 2003.

The director was focused on high growth rate of the company coupled with the attainment of competitive advantage over its competitors through product pricing and development. He was a growth-focused leader who helped the corporation to attain large market coverage in the country as well as introducing various products that target different customer genres. Williams’ successors have also played a major role in the attainment of the corporation’s competitive advantage in the contemporary competitive world of business.

The company’s strengths are on products and market strategies, which form the basic requirements of competitive strengths of a business. The company has adopted online marketing and selling as a modernized competitive strategy. The world is experiencing a new wave of globalization and in five years’ time, the corporation will have increased its market coverage to global markets given that it is a growth-focused entity (Michman, 2006).

This goal is achievable for a large corporation like Williams –Sonoma because it has the capital required when globalizing a company. In addition, the company would rely heavily on online shopping and avoid increasing its physical market coverage in various parts of the world, as that new strategy would facilitate the coverage of its local and international markets at the same time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, in five years’ time, the continued growth trend would usher the company into international markets and increase product varieties, which would play a crucial role of increasing competitive advantage in the global market.

If you were the CEO of Williams- Sonoma, what strategies would you recommend, and why?

If I were the CEO of Williams-Sonoma, I would recommend various strategies for the company to increase its competitive advantage. Firstly, I would focus on globalization as the most important strategy for the company. Williams-Sonoma is a well-established corporation across the United States due to its long existence and reputable growth since its inception. Globalization would increase market coverage into foreign markets that the company has never exploited before.

In addition, globalization would play a crucial role in the products’ development, as the corporation strives to acquire competitive advantage over foreign competitors in the international market phenomenon. In addition, globalization would also enable the corporation to increase varieties of products, which are customized to meet customers’ needs in both local and foreign markets, and hence enhance competitive advantage over the other competitors in the market.

Secondly, as the corporation’s CEO, I would advise the company to rely mostly on direct-to-customer operations market segment. In the contemporary world of business, companies have adopted strategies that aim at enhancing business-to-customer relations and eliminating intermediaries due to stiff competition in the market. Intermediaries are of little importance to manufacturers in acquiring competitive advantage, as they add no value to the products.

Hence, the strategy that would enhance business-to-customer relations would be the one that eliminates intermediaries in order for the business to acquire direct responses from customers. However, online marketing helps in enhancing business-to-customer relations as customers get a platform to express their feelings on the ability of business products to satisfy them. Therefore, the company should rely more on marketing strategies that promote direct customer contacts (Wheelen

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Improving front office employees motivation in a luxury hotel in Beijing Research Paper essay help online

Introduction The service industry is the leading sector in globalisation and international hotels. Other industries are going global. According to Li-Qun (2013), the service sector currently accounts for more than a third of the trade in global services provision (p. 74).

Researchers have embarked on a study of service provision in the hotel industry, as it is the most dynamic and popular for their studies. Customers in this industry are more demanding than in most other industries, and thus a combination of these factors makes the empowerment of employees a very important exercise (De Zilva,

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Emergency Preparedness in New Jersey Term Paper essay help online free: essay help online free

Studies by Dincer (2010) show that emergencies related to global warming in New Jersey are caused by changing weather patterns, rising sea levels, higher precipitation events, and extreme weather conditions.

That has made New Jersey vulnerable to rising hurricane intensity and major storms, raising the potential threats of human morbidity and higher mortality rates (Ross, 2011). After the superstorm Sandy occurred on October 29, 2012, officials in New Jersey realized how vulnerable the city was to natural disasters from the effects of global warming (Dincer, 2010; Ross, 2011).

In theory, the disaster management lifecycle consists of disaster prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery components. The appropriate type of public health response elements for New Jersey includes clean water, warmth, clean air, food, and health care services (Ross, 2011). A needs assessment after the disaster showed the needs of the people in New Jersey to include rebuilding healthcare facilities, offering medical support and counseling services to restore and improve the lives of the people (Dincer, 2010).

In practice, New Jersey official has put in place a robust public health response plan and integrated it into the response and recovery operations of the disaster response and recovery agencies of the Government, which are responsible for conducting training and awareness and exercises and drills on disaster response and recovery (Responding to public health emergencies, n.d). The plan is continually modified to address emerging challenges in disaster response and recovery (Responding to public health emergencies, n.d).

A review of the details on New Jersey’s public health website shows that the city’s public health disaster response plan, which accounts for the health, safety, and wellbeing of family members, has one central health coordination, communication, and command center. The center consists of several crisis communication centers with critical infrastructure that enables for quicker disaster response and recovery during a crisis (Responding to public health emergencies, n.d).

The Network-Centric Health Emergency Response (NCHER) links different health emergency preparedness and response personnel, electronic communication, early warning systems, and social networks into a web that allows for real-time sharing of information on disasters (Responding to public health emergencies, n.d).

The critical components of the response plan include regional emergency response assets, situational awareness network software, and command and control networks (Responding to public health emergencies, n.d).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The strengths of the disaster response plan include a well-designed plan that integrates the core principles of disaster preparedness, prevention, and response, which are critical public health tools for responding to public health emergencies (Ross, 2011). According to Ross (2011), the response and preparedness plan was developed according to the disaster response and recovery principles, which include cooperative partnerships.

The plan is consistent with State and regional policies, standards, and operating procedures, which have made New Jersey best prepared to respond to public health needs in the event of a disaster. However, the weakness with the plan is that it lacks a disaster management contingency plan in case a disaster happens that destroys the entire emergency communication response networks such as social networks and the Network-Centric Health Emergency Response (NCHER) command and control infrastructure (Dincer, 2010).

The disaster preparedness and response gaps identified include a lack of clear political coordination of the people and an audit mechanism to determine critical resource requirements during and after a disaster and a contingency communication plan.

References Dincer, I. (2010). Global Warming, International Journal of Global Warming, 2 (3), p.21

Responding to public health emergencies (n.d). Web.

Ross, J. I. (2011). From the McDonald Report to the Kelly Committees: The Government Research and Policy Making Process Connected to Oppositional Political Terrorism in Canada, Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 8 (1), p.2-12.

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The Analysis of Wal-Mart’s Retailing Strategy Case Study essay help online free

Wal-Mart is one of the largest multinational retailing corporations operating in North America and globally. The company was founded by Sam Walton in 1962. Today, the company’s headquarters are located in Bentonville, Arkansas. The corporation developed from a small chain of stores in Arkansas, and now Wal-Mart operates more than 7,000 stores which are located round the world (Ingram, Yue, and Rao 55; “Walmart”).

Wal-Mart’s operations are organized in a specific way to cover the needs of such divisions as the US stores, Wal-Mart Sam’s Club, and international stores located globally (“Walmart”). Wal-Mart stores propose a variety of food products, drugs, and general goods. To analyze the corporation’s retailing strategy and to state the perspectives for the corporation’s future development, it is necessary to focus on examining the Wal-Mart strategy’s strengths, weaknesses, threats, and opportunities.

The Analysis of the Industry and Wal-Mart’s Strategy The retailing industry in the United States is highly competitive, and Wal-Mart has to compete with such rivals as Kmart, Target, Meijer, and Safeway directly. The most challenging competition is observed in the sphere of general retailing where supermarkets compete in proposing a range of goods, stating low prices, and developing discounting strategies for customers. However, Wal-Mart also competes with Costco in the sphere of warehouse club activities (Pradhan 567).

To compete within the industry effectively, Wal-Mart developed a successful retailing strategy which should be discussed with references to the concepts of target market and retail positioning (Levy and Weitz 110). Wal-Mart’s target customers are diverse in their needs and interests that is why the company orients to satisfy the demands of the different population’s categories, including women, elder persons, and children.

Wal-Mart’s retail positioning depends on the ways of how the company can be differentiated from the other retailers within the industry. Wal-Mart chooses to attract different customers while proposing them a variety of products and innovative approaches to researching and analyzing their preferences (“Walmart”).

To provide customers with the products which are interesting for them while following the low-cost strategy, Wal-Mart also develops the strong relations with suppliers, and these relations are beneficial for both the retailer and customers.

This approach should be discussed with references to the company’s retailing mix which includes the focus on product, price, place, and promotion. Wal-Mart establishes strong relations with suppliers to provide customers with a variety of products satisfying their demands and meeting their local preferences.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The great assortment in Wal-Mart stores provides customers with the opportunity to make the right choice. Moreover, Wal-Mart pricing policies are based on the principle of low-cost retailing, and stores propose different discounts daily and weekly to cover all the groups of customers. It is important to note that Wal-Mart stores are located not only in the US metropolitans but also in small towns in the country’s states.

In addition, the retailer focuses on addressing the customers’ needs that is why Wal-Mart stores located globally are developed to respond to the local expectations (Ingram, Yue, and Rao 60; “Walmart”). The company’s promotion strategy is based on declaring the principle of proposing better products for lower costs, and it is modified regarding the needs of the local public globally.

Wal-Mart Strategy’s Strengths and Weaknesses Wal-Mart remains to be one of the most successful multinational corporations in the sphere of retailing because of a range of strengths associated with the company’s strategy. The first strength is the effective pricing policy. The company is the price leader within the industry because of proposing lower prices basing on the cost-effective relations with suppliers. The next strength is the focus on the wide assortment proposed to customers.

Selling a range of products which customers need, Wal-Mart stores address all the customers’ daily demands. Furthermore, concentrating on using technologies to collect the data about the customers’ needs, Wal-Mart develops the most effective distribution and delivery systems (Pradhan 567).

In addition, Wal-Mart opens stores in many cities in the USA and in many foreign countries, and the company operates as one of the largest retailers in the world while developing the brand image and customers’ loyalty (“Walmart”). Wal-Mart responds to the modern trends and uses social media and mobile technologies to meet the customers’ interests and to develop the work with customers’ orders.

However, there are also weaknesses in the retailer’s strategy which are the focus on traditions rather than on changes; the lack of the effective differentiation strategy to compete within the industry; and the focus on monopolistic strategy to develop the business within the industry. Having become the largest and most recognizable retailer within the industry, Wal-Mart concentrates on supporting the image rather than on expanding the areas for meeting the customers’ interests (Pradhan 568).

Opportunities for Wal-Mart’s Further Progress The opportunities for Wal-Mart’s further successful competition within the market depend on the effective use of the strengths related to the corporation’s strategy. Operating internationally, Wal-Mart can focus on the further expansion of the corporation’s presence in the global market. Moreover, focusing on the use of technologies and innovation, the company can also pay more attention to the opportunities of online retailing.

We will write a custom Case Study on The Analysis of Wal-Mart’s Retailing Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Today, the company uses different mobile apps and develops strategies to operate in the sphere widely (“Walmart”). Thus, the focus on online retailing and using digital strategies is a good opportunity for a company to attract more customers.

In spite of the fact that Wal-Mart as the retailer is attractive for customers during the decades, more attention should be paid to improvement the retailer’s brand image because it is necessary to focus on new approaches to formulating the company’s mission and vision to reflect the customers’ values.

The Threats Challenging for Wal-Mart Although Wal-Mart employs more than two millions of people globally and its revenues are more than $450 billion, there are several threats which the company can face within the industry because of the increasing competition among the rivals (Pradhan 569). Wal-Mart management strategies and policies do not attract employees, and these strategies are often discussed as discriminating in terms of payments and conditions.

Negative feedbacks related to the company’s policies regarding Wal-Mart employees also influence the customers’ attitude to the retailer, and they can be discussed as challenging for the brand image and customers’ loyalty. As a result, more attention should be paid to improving the company’s corporate strategies to affect the corporation’s development and public’s visions positively (“Walmart”).

The other threats are associated with retailer’s international operations. In spite of the fact that Wal-Mart proposes a wide range of products for customers globally, local competitors can also become a threat to the retailer’s activities because of their focus on responding to the market latest tendencies. More attention should be paid to the strategies followed by Wal-Mart stores globally.

Wal-Mart’s Performance, Position within the Market, and Prospects for the Future The effectiveness of the retailer’s performance depends on many factors which include the retailing strategy and the positive image as the employer (Levy and Weitz 24). If Wal-Mart’s retailing strategy focused on the customers’ needs and brand image is rather effective to increase the retailer’s competitive advantage, the company’s image as the employer is not effective to contribute to the customer’s loyalty because of the ineffective management strategies and policies.

Nevertheless, Wal-Mart aims to follow the strategy of the sustainable development to respond to the communities’ needs globally (“Walmart”). High levels of sales support the idea that Wal-Mart’s performance is based on the effective fundaments, and the chosen retailing strategy to meet the local customers’ needs globally contributes to the retailer’s strong position within the market.

That is why, the prospects for the future of Wal-Mart stores can be discussed as rather positive because of the customers’ recognition of the brand and Wal-Mart’s effective operation of the retailing mix.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Analysis of Wal-Mart’s Retailing Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To provide strong financial returns in the future, it is necessary for the company to focus more on expanding the international segment and on improving the relations with suppliers in the United States and round the world. These actions are necessary to expand operations and to increase revenues because it is the way to increase advantage in the situation of the new rivals’ entry.

Being one of the largest multinational retailing corporations in the world, Wal-Mart focuses on responding to the interests of all the customers in the United States and globally. The company’s strategy is rather effective to contribute to the future development of the retailer because Wal-Mart develops its leadership cost strategy, expands the assortment of products, and focuses on opening more stores meeting the demands of the local customers.

Works Cited Ingram, Paul, Lori Qingyuan Yue, and Hayagreeva Rao. “Trouble in Store: Probes, Protests, and Store Openings by Wal-Mart, 1998–2007”. American Journal of Sociology 116.1 (2010): 53–92. Print.

Levy, Michael, and Barton Weitz. Retailing Management. USA: McGraw-Hill Education, 2011. Print.

Pradhan, Swapna. Retailing Management: Text and Cases. USA: Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2009. Print.

Walmart. 2014. Web.

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“Barbarian Virtues: The United States Encounters Foreign Peoples at Home and Abroad, 1876-1917” by Matthew Frye Jacobson Critical Essay argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Book Summary

How the Author did It

What the author was trying to do

References

Book Summary Matthew Frye Jacobson, in the Barbarian Virtues, examines how immigration and expansionist ambitions defined the American identity in the 19th Century and early 20th Century. Jacobson offers a compelling argument about America’s interest and commitment to expansion and territorial domination, which claimed regions like Samoa, the Philippines and Guam.

He argues that this approach, which involved using “entire peoples as pawns” underscored America’s “heightened degree of imperialist vision in the twentieth century” (7). The book identifies industrial revolution and expansion of foreign policies as the two developments that led to increased the interaction with non-Americans, which defined the attitudes and perceptions about “Americanism”.

How the Author did It In his own words, Jacobson argues that the country’s “trumpeted greatness” during the Reconstruction and World War I periods was influenced by “the dollars, the labor, and, not least, the very image, of the many people with whom Americans increasingly came into contact” (8). The theme of American superiority is explored throughout the book with the author concluding that, during this time, the U.S. “chose imperial power” and non-populist policies as “many Americans liked them” (34).

Jacobson describes the dramatic post-Civil War events that transformed the social and political landscape and brought a new meaning to “Americanism” in the twentieth century. He articulates his thesis through three approaches. First, Jacobson traces the changing faces of ‘Americanism’ from the 1876’s Centennial International Exhibition to World War I, when America proclaimed its military might to the world.

An expansionist foreign policy and influx of immigrants were the two main developments that led to America’s tendency towards world domination in the 20th Century. But, according to Jacobson, the renewed sense of superiority that dominated the expansionist movement was meant to conceal a “plaguing and the quieter sense of self-doubt” (3).

The book uses political documents, treatises, travelogues and drawings as evidence for the strained racial relations during this period. The immigrant labor and overseas markets played a role in America’s industrialization and international trade.

Second, Jacobson describes the political rhetoric behind the foreign expansion and the influx of immigrants that dominated public discourses and helped shape the American identity. Jacobson describes immigration and expansion as “two sides of the same coin” (12), implying that the expansion led to a rapid influx of foreigners into America.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The entry of “problematic aliens” raised the question of their ability to govern themselves, which motivated the economic expansion efforts. The expansion policy was meant to protect America’s target markets in China. To cross the Pacific Ocean to China, America had to acquire Guam, the Philippines and Hawaiian Islands as temporary docking sites for its naval ships.

The colonization was justified on grounds that America was spreading civilization, a noble enterprise that characterized the “Great White Burdens” (104). The foreigners were perceived as “primitives” who should be civilized and therefore, the American intervention was necessary.

Third, Jacobson shows how the European migrants characterized the earlier immigrants as the “nativists” (9). Thus, cultural representations of foreigners and earlier immigrants combined with the changing attitudes towards the influx of immigrants defined “Americanism” at the start of the twentieth century.

What the author was trying to do The nineteenth century and early twentieth century saw a rapid influx of immigrants to America. As the U.S. was expanding to far areas, people from other nations were migrating to America in large numbers. Jacobson attributes the warm receptions that the migrants received to the high demand of labor (barbarian virtues) to drive the rapidly growing economy. This led to the emergence of labor unions, which, however, were meant to protect the whites while excluding Asian immigrants.

The labor policies favored racial exclusion and inferiority, which, according to Jacobson, served to exclude the non-white immigrants from mainstream local political and economic development, and justified America’s invasion to overseas lands inhabited by the “primitives” (7). Jacobson excels in associating the domestic racial exclusion campaigns with the justification for the colonization of foreign lands.

The United States’ place in global economics and geopolitics in the 19th century is well described in this book. Jacobson points out how this position was misunderstood and this shaped the current racial relations. The illustrations and pictures in the book reinforce Jacobson’s argument and convey the actual patterns of “Americanism”. It shows the “barbarian virtues” that the migrants had for America and the problems occasioned by the military expansion to foreign lands.

The broad range of evidence provided help to support the central argument of the book. Jacobson excels in describing how the American identity was developed through a domestic “crucible of immigration” and “empire-building” and domination of overseas lands.

We will write a custom Book Review on “Barbarian Virtues: The United States Encounters Foreign Peoples at Home and Abroad, 1876-1917” by Matthew Frye Jacobson specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More America’s imperial power was achieved through racial differentiation and fueled by “the dollar, the labor, and, not least, the very image, of the many people with whom Americans came into contact”, who, however, “they blithely identified as inferiors” (85). Thus, America’s expansionist ambitions in the nineteenth century and in the early twentieth century were mired in racial differentiation at home and imperial civilization in overseas lands.

References Jacobson, M. F. (2000). Barbarian Virtues: The United States Encounters Foreign Peoples at Home and Abroad, 1876-1917. New York: Hill and Wang.

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Space Tourism Analysis Report college essay help online: college essay help online

Executive Summary The important finding of the study is that there is a significant likelihood for people to travel into space. The descriptive statistics of income allocated to space tourism shows that about 90% of the respondents are willing to allocate the income that they earn within a period of less than a year. Additionally, descriptive statistics of respondents’ occupations indicate that the majority of respondents are white-collar professionals, blue-collar employees, and students.

Chi-square test and multiple regression analysis also shows that the level of education, age, and cost of space tourism are significant predictors of income allocated to space tourism. However, income allocated to space tourism does not vary according to the gender and occupation of potential tourists. In spite of the robust findings, the limitations are biased representation of potential customers and poor responses, which reduce both internal and external validities of the study.

Research Objectives To perform descriptive analysis of the income allocated to the space tourism and the current occupation of a potential space tourists.

Test the hypothesis using one-sample t-test to establish the willingness of respondents to undertake space tourism.

To determine the influence of gender on income allocated to space tourism using independent samples t-test.

Perform one-way ANOVA to determine the differences of income allocated among the occupations of respondents.

Chi-square test to determine the association between the amounts of income allocated to the space tourism and preferred length of stay in space.

Determine predictors of income allocated to space tourism using multiple regression test.

Descriptive Statistics Income Prepared to Allocated to the Space Trip

Analysis of the proportion of income that potential tourists are willing to spend on space tourism is important because it indicates their purchasing power. Gibson (2012) argues that a space tourism company needs to understand the amount of potential money that customers are willing to spend on space tourism so that it can design products and tourism packages that meet the demands of customers, as well as enable the company to optimize profits.

Table 1

Statistics Income Prepared to Allocate to a Space Trip N Valid 279 Missing 267 Mean 2.87 Std. Error of Mean .080 Median 3.00 Mode 3 Std. Deviation 1.337 Variance 1.786 Skewness .796 Std. Error of Skewness .146 Kurtosis .641 Std. Error of Kurtosis .291 Range 6 Minimum 1 Maximum 7 Sum 802 From the descriptive table, measures of central tendency are 2.87, 3, and 3 for mean, median, and mode respectively. This means that the majority of the respondents are willing to spend on space tourism income that they earn in 3 months.

Regarding measures of dispersion, standard deviation indicates that the majority of respondents are willing to spend on space tourism between one week’s income and 3 months’ income (M = 2.87±1.337). Although respondents indicate that they are willing to spend the amount of money that ranges from a month’s income to 5-years’ income, the allocated income skews towards income earned in less than a year.

The frequency table indicates the distribution of respondents according to the amount of income they are willing to spend on space tourism. The significant information in the frequency table is that most of the respondents (86) are willing to spend 3 months’ income on space tourism, followed by a month’s income (82), and the third is a week’s income (38).

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The histogram illustrates the distribution of income among different periods, which shows that most respondents are willing to spend between 3 months’ income to a month’s income on space tourism. Moreover, it illustrates the skewed distribution towards short periods of income.

Current Occupation

The current occupation of the potential customers is important to the space tourism because it enables marketing managers to understand the nature of customers they are targeting. For the space tourism to be successful, it must target certain kind of customers and define its market niche by targeting customers with specific socioeconomic attributes such as occupation.

Table 2

Statistics Current Occupation N Valid 543 Missing 3 Mean 4.22 Std. Error of Mean .109 Median 4.00 Mode 4 Std. Deviation 2.548 Variance 6.490 Skewness .400 Std. Error of Skewness .105 Kurtosis -.935 Std. Error of Kurtosis .209 Range 8 Minimum 1 Maximum 9 Sum 2289 The measures of central tendency in the descriptive table are 4.22, 4, and 4 for mean, median, and mode respectively. These descriptive statistics imply that the white-collar professionals formed the majority of the respondents. Comparatively, measures of dispersion show that the respondents’ occupations comprise of students, blue-collar, white-collar, contractors and businesspersons (M = 4±2.54).

The frequency table above shows the distribution of respondents according to their occupations. The leading respondents are white-collar professionals (149) followed by students (123), and then blue-collar employees (73) come third. The histogram illustrates that white-collar professionals and students are major respondents.

Figure 2

We will write a custom Report on Space Tourism Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Testing of Hypotheses The Likelihood of Traveling in Space

H0: There is no significant likelihood of the person wanting to travel into space, having the interest, and having undertaking.

H1: There is a very significant likelihood of the person wanting to travel into space, having the interests and having undertaking.

Table 3

One-Sample Test Test Value = 1 t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper like to do astronomical observation -21.847 314 .000 -.603 -.66 -.55 risks taken in recreation and leisure 37.611 310 .000 2.585 2.45 2.72 Travelled outside Australia 26.418 301 .000 .699 .65 .75 like to play sport -21.278 314 .000 -.590 -.65 -.54 travelled to poles -210.000 210 .000 -.995 -1.00 -.99 like to play in zero g -15.748 314 .000 -.441 -.50 -.39 From the one-sample test table, it is evident that all variables that measure the likelihood of a person wanting to travel into space, having the interest, and having the undertakings are statistically significant (p<0.05). This implies that the test rejects the null hypothesis and accepts that alternative hypothesis, which states that there is a very significant likelihood of the person wanting to travel into space, having the interests and having undertaking.

Gender and Income Allocated to Space

Hypotheses

H0: The amounts of income that male and female respondents are willing to allocate to space tourism are not significantly different

H1: The amounts of income that male and female respondents are willing to allocate to space tourism are significantly different.

Table 4

Independent Samples Test Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper Income prepared to allocate to a space trip Equal variances assumed .167 .683 1.388 277 .166 .222 .160 -.093 .537 Equal variances not assumed 1.387 273.559 .166 .222 .160 -.093 .537 The independent samples t-test shows that the difference in the amounts of income that male and female respondents are willing to allocate to space tourism are not significantly different (p>0.05). Hence, it implies that the independent t-test fails to reject the null hypothesis, and hence, male and female respondents have equal capacities of being space tourists.

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Hypotheses

H0: The amounts of income allocated to space tourism have no significant differences across the occupations.

H1: The amounts of income allocated to space tourism have significant differences across the occupations..

Table 5

ANOVA Income Prepared to Allocate to a Apace Trip Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 26.133 8 3.267 1.871 .065 Within Groups 469.708 269 1.746 Total 495.842 277 The ANOVA table shows that there is no significant difference in the amounts of income allocated to space tourism among respondents in diverse occupations (p>0.05). Post hoc analysis also affirms that there is no significant difference in the amounts of income allocated among diverse occupations. Hence, the ANOVA test fails to reject the null hypothesis and affirms that occupations does not influence income allocated to space tourism.

The Association between Income Allocated and Preferred Length of Stay

Hypotheses

H0: There is no significant association between income allocated to space tourism and preferred length of stay.

H1: There is a significant association between income allocated to space tourism and preferred length of stay.

Chi-Square Tests Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 36.658a 24 .047 Likelihood Ratio 38.128 24 .034 Linear-by-Linear Association 7.572 1 .006 N of Valid Cases 264 The chi-square test indicates that there is a significant association between income allocated to space tourism and preferred length of stay (p<0.05). This means that the amount of income allocated determines length of stay in space.

Multiple Regression Analysis

Hypotheses

H0: Level of education, preferred length of stay, cost, and age are not significant predictors of income allocated to tourism.

H1: Level of education, preferred length of stay, cost, and age are significant predictors of income allocated to tourism.

Table 6

Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .622a .387 .378 1.043 The multiple regression coefficient (R) is 0.622, which means that this regression model predicts the income allocated to space tourism.

Table 7

ANOVAa Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 175.352 4 43.838 40.290 .000b Residual 277.459 255 1.088 Total 452.812 259 Moreover, the multiple regression coefficient is significant (p<0.05). This means that the regression analysis rejects the null hypothesis and accepts the alternative one, which states that level of education, preferred length of stay, cost, and age are significant predictors of income allocated to tourism

Table 8

Coefficients Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) .757 .287 2.638 .009 highest level of formal education .106 .051 .107 2.099 .037 preferred length of stay in space .089 .060 .074 1.478 .141 pay for 2-day trip

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“The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business” by Alfred Chandler Critical Essay college essay help online

In his book, The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business, Alfred Chandler contributes significant insights to the world of business and defense management in the American management historic perspective. Chandler seeks to bring new knowledge of management by linking the traditional and modern managerial systems, which is of great significance to the growth and development of business and defense systems.

The book also has important implications on the readers’ side, especially in providing information on how important business functions located in small business enterprises can be utilized in the formation of multiunit enterprises, which in various ways can also be applied in a nation’s defense sector, as illustrated by the author’s idea that defense and business have similar managerial functions.

The book’s historical perspectives are also essential to the important government organs in assessing whether important government operations should be outsourced. Hence, the author intends to use the American historical perspectives of business and economics in relation to capitalism to advise the readers on the importance of history in the decision-making process in various sectors of governance in the US. This paper gives a critical analysis of Chandler’s book, The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business.

The book’s historical lessons give advice and assistance to the government in exploring the benefits and risks that defense sector will incur by outsourcing some activities to smaller security firms. In addition, the book helps in determining whether the government should internalize such activities by taking business angles in which some activities push businesses into expanding their sizes and scope of their corporate structures.

The author compares the government’s defense sector with business enterprises and finds that the two can be managed in nearly the same way as their managerial activities have common historical evolutions in a capitalist nation.

According to author’s ideology, small activities that affect business enterprise management, as well as defense management, have been challenging to managers as they have high hidden costs. Hence, Chandler (1997, 6-7) advises managers to consider the option of internalizing such activities in ways that will result in growth of business enterprises rather than outsourcing them to small companies that are in the same business line.

Although outsourcing is done to reduce costs, while attaining high productivity, the author argues that failure to outsource gave rise to the modern business enterprises through history of business evolution in the United States. Hence, the growth of modern enterprises into future giant enterprises can be achieved by failing to outsource business activities that if retained will enable the business to increase its size and corporate structure.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In business managerial, Chandler argues that the creation of managerial hierarchies was a key ingredient to the success of business management in the United States. The idea of business managers’ professionalism enabled many enterprises to achieve successful internalization of small activities that helped them to become large American companies that they are today.

Also, the author argues that professional managers are of great benefit to the business enterprises as they improve productivity and lower production costs, and thus business evolution cannot be achieved without professional business managers.

The author examines the evolution and growth of the American business enterprises in the period between 1840 and 1920, in relation to coordination and administrative developments (Chandler 1977, 20). Some of those developments gave notable rise to growth and evolution of business enterprises that include communication, financial administration, and transportation, all of which are relevant in production and distribution of goods and services.

Through the historical evolution of some business activities in that period, a notable growth of business enterprises was experienced in the US, whose managerial activities had advanced more as compared to their counterparts before the evolution. The author points out that development of key business activities gives rise to advanced business enterprises in the end.

In addition to his attention on managerial evolution, Chandler notes that the change in production and distribution activities in the industries after the development of department stores and chain stores, as characterized by mass production and distribution, was started due to available large market and storage facilities. Chandler’s insights shed light on the desegregation of production and distribution in industries via mergers and acquisitions.

This book gives insights to managers on the relevance of retaining small activities rather than outsourcing coupled with aiming at acquiring small companies within the same operation line. Chandler achieves the above idea by giving historical examples where numerous challenges, which faced supply chain management, were solved through acquisition of smaller companies, and hence forming larger corporate enterprises.

In conclusion, understanding of the “visible hand” of management makes managerial activities of modern business enterprises executable as it considers the evolution of the modern American business enterprise in relation to managerial activities and decisions that made business growth and development achievable. Hence, the problems facing the majority of American business enterprises and the defense sector can easily be solved by considering the decisions made in the historical evolution by enterprises under the same conditions.

We will write a custom Book Review on “The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business” by Alfred Chandler specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference Chandler, Alfred. 1977. The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

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Exploring the Substance Abuse Treatment Programs Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Abstract

Introduction

Relevant Policy Issues

Nature of Substance Abuse, Addiction, Recovery, and Relapse

Evidence-Based Treatment Approaches

Current Substance Abuse Treatment System

Group Therapies

Conclusion and Recommendations

Reference List

Abstract This research paper establishes that the problem of substance abuse in the female sex is increasing in most parts of the world. The trend is worrying. Some of the policy changes discussed include the use of specialized care providers, provision of care in the society, and the establishment of more women-specific rehabilitation centers. Issues concerning the course and nature of substance abuse, addiction, recovery, and relapse among this population of female substance abusers have also been discussed.

Various evidence-based approaches to treating substance abuse and addiction in various settings in the selected target population will be tackled in the research paper. The context of a changing health care environment for women substance abusers will also be highlighted. Important therapies such as the nontraditional approaches of motivational therapy, solution-focused brief, and group therapies will take the center stage. SFGT emerges a futuristic treatment modality for women with substance abuse problems.

Introduction Women are a special population of drug abusers. They provide a challenge to any group or individuals who are working towards their treatment. Like many states in the US, the state of Florida is one of the most affected with the problem of drug abuse among women. The impacts of substance abuse are relatively similar to those in the male population. However, this group of substance abusers also faces special challenges.

Therefore, it is important to examine the impact of substance abuse on this population and its recovery at an individual (micro) and systems (macro) level. This research paper looks at substance abuse in women, evidence-based approaches to the provision of treatment services for them, and any historical and current policy issues that may have prevented or supported treatment-service delivery to this client group.

Relevant Policy Issues Policies addressing the treatment of substance abuse in women with substance abuse problem have been developed from many research findings. The treatment of the special client group is mostly similar to the male colleagues, although there are few variations in the policies. Zarkin, Dunlap, and Homsi (2004) looked at some of the substance abuse services cost analysis programs (SASCAP) and some of the major policies in the management of substance abuse.

Some of the policy changes include the allocation of scarce drug abuse treatment dollars (Zarkin, Dunlap,

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Tiffany and Company Case Study a level english language essay help

Analysing the Case Strategic problem statement

Following Trian Fund Management LP’s announcement of Tiffany’s undervaluation, Tiffany became challenged to re-examine ways of increasing its shareholder value.

Tactical problem statement

Tiffany has prevented dilution of its brand name by limiting its sales growth, number of stores opened annually and not licensing the brand name to other entities (Hess 167). However, increasing its shareholder value means that the company needs to increase its presence in the market.

Identification of issues and symptoms Case Exercise: Tiffany and Company (Tiffany)

Tiffany was a leader in luxury jewellery brand with $2.6 billion generated globally from sales. The company even reduced the number of stores it opened in the U.S. though it could open 45 stores. Exclusivity of its products protected them from dilution and while opening fewer stores prevented production of low quality products.

However, with Tiffany’s realisation that it had the potential to increase its shareholder value, the company was forced to consider two strategic moves to achieve this. Lloyd and Davis (par. 1) note that creation of shareholder value depends primarily on the growth of revenue and return on invested capital in surplus of capital cost.

This can be through opening more stores quickly or licensing the company’s brand to the Italian company. However, it is important for managers to avoid blindly seeking to improve their companies’ shareholder value as they may end up destroying these values (Rappaport, par. 1).

Symptom 1: With recognition of Tiffany as a major jewellery dealer in America, it believes that it can maintain its competitive edge even after increasing the number of its stores.

Issue 1: (Strength) Tiffany’s long history and achievements in the jewellery business gives it ability to easily expand its operations. The potential profitability of the expansion is guaranteed as Tiffany has numerous customers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tiffany has notable achievements that ensure that it is firmly positioned in its primary market. Companies that use the product concept as their guiding principle focus on high quality and innovative products to retain their customers (Kotler 11). Tiffany’s products of high quality have helped in ensuring customers remain loyal to the brand through time.

Symptom 2: The Italian company will help Tiffany to quickly sell its products to many customers while allowing Tiffany to save on logistics and warehousing.

Issue 2: (Threat) Tiffany may need to revise its operational strategies and management policies in order to conform to those of the Italian company.

Tiffany may be forced to review its management policies when it offers the Italian company license to its brand name. As noted by Sears, Glenn and Richard (246), such a network structure is likely to complicate control and coordination of activities within the alliance. Tiffany’s products will also be diluted and Tiffany may lose its ability to regulate its commodity prices.

Symptom 3: Tiffany has a low employee turnover rate and employee-satisfaction rates are also high.

Issue 3: (Opportunity) High employee-satisfaction rates and low employee turnover rate ensures that Tiffany is stable and able to continue producing high-quality products.

The commitment of Tiffany’s employees to the company gives it the ability to easily obtain employees to serve in the additional stores. This will ensure that Tiffany experiences minimum interruptions in operations.

We will write a custom Case Study on Tiffany and Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Categorising the issues in order of importance (Long-term/Short-term)

Short-term

The new partnership with the Italian company will force Tiffany to review its operational and management strategies: (issue 2)

(Partnership with the new company will result in disruptions in operations and management of activities within Tiffany. As noted by Hess and Liedtka (65), it is difficult to maintain a sense of purpose and team culture while welcoming divergent views. Such divergent views are expected in the partnership between Tiffany and the Italian company).

Long-term

Tiffany has a strong brand name and wide recognition: (issue 1)

(Tiffany has a long history as a dealer in jewellery with notable accomplishments. This gives it ability to expand and increase its shareholder value independently).

The high employee-satisfaction rates at Tiffany ensures that the company is stable: (issue 4)

(Stability in Tiffany gives it ability to expand is operations without external assistance as Tiffany has enough capital and an experienced workforce needed for the expansion).

Setting the goals or Objectives

To increase the shareholder value by expanding Tiffany’s operations through opening more stores quickly while maintaining the company’s mission of enriching lives of its customers through the creation of memorable objects of extraordinary quality.

Recommendations On Issue 1

Alternative 1: Tiffany may continue to focus on its market segmentation and maintaining the exclusivity of its products by not expanding.

Alternative 2: Tiffany may choose to expand independently by quickly adding a number of its stores.

On Issue 2

Alternative 1: Tiffany may change its strategies to conform to those of the Italian company.

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On Issue 3

Alternative 1: Tiffany should increase the number of its stores while relying on its committed employees for manpower.

Alternative 2: Tiffany should partner with the Italian company and use some of its current employees to serve in stores owned by the Italian company.

Implementation PLAN

Tiffany should consider increasing its number of stores quickly in order to improve its shareholder value while maintaining its vertical integration strategy that has enabled it to retain its competitive edge.

Alternative solution proposals

Tiffany should increase its number of stores and use its current employees to serve in new stores in senior positions while filling any remaining vacancies with new employees.

Works Cited Hess, Edward D. and Jeanne Liedtka. The Physics of Business Growth: Mindsets, System, and Processes. 2012. Print.

Hess, Edward. The Road to Organic Growth: How Great Companies Consistently Grow Marketshare from Within. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2007. Print.

Kotler, Philip. Marketing Management, Millennium Edition. n.d. Web.

Lloyd, W. James and Davis E. Laureen. Building Long-Term Value: Objective financial analysis focuses clients on business revenue growth. November 2007. Web.

Rappaport, Alfred. Ten Ways to Create Shareholder Value. September 2006. Web.

Sears, S K, Glenn A. Sears, and Richard H. Clough. Construction Project Management: A Practical Guide to Field Construction Management. New York: John Wiley

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