Psychoneuroimmunology Essay Cheap Essay Help

Introduction In the usual analysis held by many scientists explain that the immune system is self-sufficient. This is to say that it is self dogmatic and occupation split and autonomous for the rest of the body. In the midst of the mounting hub on the comparatively new science of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), these aged reports are becoming less justifiable.

Psychoneuroimmunology was discovered by Dr.Robert Ader 1975 who was the director and psychosocial medicine at the New York University of Rochester. In his theory, he concluded that there is a connection among our thoughts, our wellbeing and our capability to restore our health. The theory by Dr Robert Ader gives the scientific field of study and the meaning of Psychoneuroimmunology. (Andersen, etal, 1994, p.389)

In their theory, they commented that a person’s body and its operations has forever been the theme of enormous attention to many. This science effort was to study the consequences of intellectual and emotional issues in the healing method. Their research also clarifies the protection method of the human body and its resistance to different disarray as it’s mainly influenced by psychosomatic method.

There after, Psychoneuroimmunology was extended explaining deep about the human physiology. During this stage, they now involved in the inspection of precise machine in brain which helped in to the immunity and resistance to harm. (Cohen, etal, 1991, p.325)

These adjustments in the psychosocial actions have influenced the healthiness structure of people. It is believed that stress and diseases are profoundly associated. You will find that events in people like lose of loved ones or being in a natural disaster sternly influence the immune structure.

In there theory, some changes like in hormonal balance, emotional and behavioral are variations of stress. The changes are believed to be important in preserving the operating accord of mind and body. Following a certain point, stress influences the stability in both the mental and physical status of the body. (Andersen, etal, 1994, p.389)

The theory of Walter Cannon and Hans Selye explains a certain psychopathology. To start with, psychopathology refers to either the study of mind infirmity or psychological distress the sign of behaviors and occurrences which may be indicative of psychological infirmity or mental harm.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More If you look keenly, you will find that the theory has connection with psychopathology for they both speak about mental harm which may be resulted by stress. As you continue with the theory, you will find that psychopathology is subjected to the functional collapse in either the cognitive and neurocognitive structure in brain which is linked with stress. (Cohen, etal, 1991, p.327)

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis controls various endocrine functions. Unlike in the endogenous opoid structure plays a great function in the intonation of the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. “It is said that the endogenous hides the tonic opoid reticence of HPA axis actions which help in releasing the POMC derived hormones in the pituitary and cortical from the adrenal gland”. (Leserman, etal, 200, p.121)

The theories done so far shows a confirmation of a sharp boost in adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol ranks in man following intravenous combination of the opoid antagonist naloxone. It is also believed that the acute HPA axis has an effect on verbally managed naltrexone that has been carried out with comparatively diminutive sample sizes (n<10). This among others controls various endocrine functions. (Kiecolt-Glaser,

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One or More of American Political Values Applied in Recent Political Campaign Essay best essay help: best essay help

Noteworthy is the fact that every country of the world has its political values, which go to define what political scientists refer to as political culture, and America is no exception. Political culture has been defined as ‘a set of extensively joint beliefs, standards, and norms concerning the ways that political and economic life should be run’’ (Wood, 2010).

Arguably, therefore, this culture charts and sets the association between the government and the governed, the relationship between citizens and the economy as well. America, even though shares basic belief system as well as political norms, it is nevertheless unique in its own right, seen in the light that it operates in a consensual political culture; a culture which experiences little variance (Wood, 2010).

The political system in the US encompasses a number of political values. These include Liberty, Equality, Individualism, Democracy, Rule of Law, Self-governance, and Civic duty. Liberty, which is widely seen by many as the greatest motivation of all to Americans, remains one of the key values today. It is captured in the American National Anthem: ‘’that among these rights are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness’’ (wood, 2010).

Equality features very prominently at the declaration of the American independence and it is captured in the following phrase: ‘’…. we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal’’ (Patterson, 2008). This is perhaps the most controversial of these values because most Americans do not buy the idea that they are equal. Regardless, perhaps the spirit behind this value is the philosophy of equality in availing opportunity and treatment in same manner before the eye of the law (Patterson, 2008).

Individualism entails the fact that, in American system of governance, people as individuals are entitled to rights and responsibilities. This means that Americans appreciate common sense and people to chart their own destiny.

Democracy, regarded by Americans as the centre of these values, is largely anchored on the belief that governance legitimacy lies in the hands of the governed, the people. It is the belief that majority rules, while the views of the minority is also taken into consideration (wood, 2010).

The Rule of law, which is the fifth of these values, tailors predominantly on the conviction that government is formed on the cradle of law executed without discrimination and thus gives credit to justice.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Patterson (2008) notes that the rule of law ‘’stands in opposition to the rule by an individual, which to many Americans implies following the whims of a dictator’’. The last one is civic duty, which deals with a sense of communal duty (Patterson, 2008). For the sake of this people, the paper will zero on self-governance in relation to democracy, and equality in America.

The Ideal of Self-governance and democracy

Democracy, as one of the American political values, is like many others based on the realization that the existence of the government is for the sole purpose of serving the people who are the electorate. This means that the centrality of governance is on the people and not the government. Self-governance implies that ‘the people are the ultimate source and proper beneficiary of governing authority, in practice, a government based on majority rule’ (Patterson, 2008).

Patterson (2008) asserts using the declaration of independence, which connotes ‘’Governments derive their powers from the consent of the governed.” This point to assertions by Abraham Lincoln address when he said that a government should be formed and controlled by the people and for the people.

This ideal of self-governance goes back to the foundation of America at independence, and predominately even when America was still a colony of the British. Great writers like Thomas Paine often brushed shoulders with the authorities for a revolution America, a revolution of democacarcy and self-governance. They had no option but to give Americans a leaf of self-governance (Patterson, 2008).

In order to get a clear picture of these ideals (Self Governance and democracy), it is important to review the recent elections and the events prior to the election itself.

In February 2009, the Democrat-saturated congress passed an economic stimulus bill, which was largely divergent by their republican counterparts. This bill was valued at US$ 787; later in March the same year, a health reform bill was voted for. The reform bill focused on the expansion of medical cover of 30 million uninsured people by 2014 (Inter-parliamentary Union, 2011). Beyond this, it forbids insurers from refusing coverage to persons with medical problems.

This was opposed again by the republican representatives and interestingly some democrats. Regardless, because it had been passed, President Obama signed it into law in the same month. Evidently, the democrats largely praised the law as a major come through. The republicans on the other hand alluded that the act meant that the government took over private health care systems and that this would lead to increased insurance premiums and more taxes (Inter-parliamentary Union, 2011).

We will write a custom Essay on One or More of American Political Values Applied in Recent Political Campaign specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This development (the Obama’s Health Care Bill), together with other tenets such as the economy and federal deficit, were to be the predominant centrality in the recent elections of 2010. At the campaigns, both camps of the political divide, the democrats and the republicans rode on a rider during the campaigns, of more job creation, and uplifting the economy to greater heights. Indeed, a number of politicians waxed their political lyrics based upon the aforementioned.

For instance, the republican leader of the house, John Boehner, aspiring to become the speaker, campaigned for reducing government spending and ensuring that taxes remained at the present levels. More pronounced was Eric Canto (the republican whip) who launched the programme, ‘’YouCut’’. This was a programme aimed at determining what the citizenry wanted to see cut in terms of cost, by the house by reviewing the accruing online responses (Inter-parliamentary Union, 2011).

The opinion polls revealed that the democrats were ceding ground on these issues on economic challenges as the republicans were profoundly asserting that they would reduce the size of the federal government significantly and thereby cut its spending. They also promised to recall and change government policy on ‘taking over health’ (Inter-parliamentary Union, 2011).

Interestingly, as pundits have put it, election campaigns espoused even dissent in the democrat’s political camp. This was more revealing as many democrats choose to remain silent and only a few stood tall in defending Obama’s health care reform agenda, with a few others categorically stating their earlier opposition to the bill.

This bill made voters to be hostile even to Speaker Nancy Pelosi, since it was viewed that she was significantly liable for the passage of the health care bill and her support in spreading out of the national government spending. Obama, on his part, reasoned that allowing the congress to get back into the hands of the republicans was largely disastrous and urged people to vote in favor of the Democratic Party (Inter-parliamentary Union, 2011).

Even more intriguing and worthy mentioning before the 2010 elections was the emergence of the ‘Tea Party’, which contained political big wigs including among others Sarah Palin, Senator Jim Demmint, Dick Armey, and Michelle Bachman. Bachman aided the establishment of the tea party Congressional Conclave that included 52 republican members of the house.

Even though, the tea party was not yet registered, it was a big influence to the election that followed; (Inter-parliamentary Union, 2011) and as the results revealed, gave a swing victory to the Republicans.

Equality as an ideal in American Political system

Even though equality is a term, which has not been clearly defined in American political culture, it remains of the core ideal. It originates from the words captured at the declaration of independence ‘’we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal’’ (Patterson, 2008). In spite of the lack of uniformity in what equality actually means, efforts such as President Obama’s health care plan has been riding more on the need to reinforce equality (Inter-parliamentary Union, 2011).

Not sure if you can write a paper on One or More of American Political Values Applied in Recent Political Campaign by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion

The cornerstone of American political culture and its ideals are centered on the belief that government subsist to serve the people of America.

Whether you are talking about democracy, equality, self-governance, or any other of its value, the zero sum evidence is that they are all tailored around the people. Ideally, this is what makes America unique from other countries, whether they are democratic or autocratic.

The political culture in America is so pronounced and deep seated in every citizen’s mindset and psyche that even dissent within a party is often tolerated. They are the habits of our political mind.

References Inter-parliamentary Union. (2011). Last Elections. IPU PARLINE database. http://archive.ipu.org/parline/reports/2340_E.htm

Patterson, T. (2008). The American Democracy. Dallas: McGraw-Hill Education.

Wood, E. (2010). Political Culture. Federal Government. Web.

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Great works of literature- Chinua Achebe Term Paper essay help

Introduction Albert Chinua Lumogu Achebe, commonly known to many as Chinua Achebe, was born in the 16th of November, 1930 in the Igbo speaking town of Ogidi in southern Nigeria.

He is renowned worldwide for his poetic and novelist skills, while regarded in Africa as the god father of literary writing, with his novels such as Things Fall Apart (1958), No longer at Ease (1960), Arrow of God (1964), Anthills of the Savannah (1987), The trouble with Nigeria (1984), receiving admirers globally. Conflict, setting characterization, theme, protagonist, antagonist, foreshadowing and point of view are just some of the literary elements, which he has used as a ground for plotting and setting his literary work (Achebe, 1963).

This research paper therefore attempts to investigate the works of literature done by Chinua Achebe.

Things Fall Apart (1958)

This is one of the vastly read and studied African novels seeing it as the best selling African novel of all time with interpretations being done in several languages, a feat unequalled by any other work of African fiction.

This novel, just like other early novels by Chinua Achebe, was well received because it depicted an untimely African nationalist habit that renounces imperialist and colonialist concepts (Achebe, 1963). Achebe’s narratives were analyzed basing on their speculative proposition on ethnicity and ideological approach serving as a form of confrontation within the nationalist practice that the literature his literature works observed (Barksdale-Hall, 2007).

Things fall apart portrays the wide tensions within traditional Igbo society at the end of the nineteenth century to the cataclysmal changes brought by colonialism and Christianity in the twentieth century with one famous example being the inter-faith exchange between Mr. Brown and Akuna. Chinua Achebe also ”Africanizes” the language of the novel to bring out the cultural milieu of the Igbo people.

In this attempt, Chinua Achebe recreates the social, cultural and the religious fabric of Igbo between 1850 and the early1900 (Barksdale-Hall, 2007). This book not only brings out the reference of tradition, but it also emphasizes on different ideological points of view with the diverse forms of consciousness that arise within the dissertation of self-definition in Igbo customary way of life.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The complex relationships between individuals and groups in the fictional world of the author’s Igbo society, is also widely conveyed (Begam, 1997). These narratives discourses and the dialogism views in this book can seen as the forms of normal social exchanges that portray the very basis of individual and social behavior within conflicting world opinions and such is the thesis relating to tradition as it is the comfort zone of the human conscious (Begam, 1997).

No longer at Ease (1960)

In this book, Chinua Achebe uses the literary technique of blending biblical parlance with a traditional idiom to stress the reality about the inevitable convergence of opposite values and therefore rallying his beliefs on the value of coexistence for people of different religions. He therefore emphasizes that this peaceful coexistence can only be achieved when these people find a common binding factor from their religions and come together in an ecumenical fraternity.

This discussion is based on Umezinwa’s semiotic theory of African symbols, which signifies renewal, flexibility, growth, suppleness, reincarnation, and flexibility. Achebe’s originality is brought out because he focuses significantly on episodes and incidents, which subsumes the concepts of tolerance, accommodation, mediation, and a cosmopolitan mentality on life (Begam, 1997).

This objective brings him out as an author who promotes and encourages inter-faith dialogue with mutual respect for a multi-religious setting. This book also brings out the wide impact of knowledge, education, and evangelism on the people lives and at psychological level, the damage is inflicted on Achebe’s changing society as this brought the culture of self-denigration and the denial of the African’s sense of self-worthiness.

According to Achebe, ”people accepted everything alien as good and everything local or native as inferior (Ekwe-Ekwe, 2001). This matter is brought out in Obi who had received a western system of education and went ahead to alienate himself from the deep customs of his family by becoming involved with Clara. Obi’s western education, like Clara’s education comes forth to set him apart friends and family.

Symbolism is widely used in this book with its plotting set in the 1950s before Nigeria’s independence with the Europeans symbolizing power and change which was being opposed heavily by the African indigenous culture which termed it a ” curse” while they still succeeded in the new world of capitalism, business and western values. This kind of plot is still being edified in the modern day literature as it is used to encourage the appreciation and tolerance of different (Ekwe-Ekwe, 2001).

Cultural values despite the conflicting views and opinions, therefore gradually changing the psychological mind set of the modern day world (Igwebo, 2010).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Great works of literature- Chinua Achebe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Arrow of God (1964)

”Proverbs are the horses of speech if communication is lost, ” these words do not fall short of this book as the title itself proclaims. It is drawn from an Igbo proverb to represent the will of God.

In other words, Arrow of God does not center on the experience of the first Igbo converts to Christianity and modernity but it propelled by the need to help Africans understand and accept that westernization was of great significance than a mere cultural humiliation, conquest and abandonment of indigenous cultures though indeed its a component of all these (Kofi, 1990).

In no other novel does Achebe show a strong sense of social dynamism as the society is shown to be a web of constantly adjusting to inner tensions and rivalries and largely competitive by nature which has to be controlled in a larger union (Kofi, 1990). Words like ”challenge” and ”fight” have been used to energize and bring realism to challenges.

The use of proverbs in this novel can be widely appreciated as it has brought out calmness in the characters by letting the deeper thought be said with a conventional meaning a true depiction of our daily lives whereby we let words and events speak on our behalf. Transposing proverbs from the oral to the written mediums is therefore disabling and foreshadows the death of species, for proverbs are generally collected in written form when about to die, this phenomenon has historical antecedents (Kofi, 1990).

Anthills of the Savannah (1987)

This novel is considered most important to have come out of Africa in the eighties. It comprises the sum total of Achebe’s political and literary thinking as well as his attempts to come to terms with his country’s politics and society by trying to give solutions.

The story line in this book dwells on thematic strands such as love, hate, passion, and friendship that are a recipe for violence especially with political and natural disasters as part of the background of the novel. He gives an artistic portrayal of contemporary Africa where tension, conflicts, as well as military and civilian confrontations are order of the day (Mezu, 2006).

The book combines important elements of African oral narrative traditions with sophisticated literary devices such as the use of multiple narrators. He brings home the point that the elite can combine forces with the dispossessed masses to ensure the creation of more than just and fair society, although there is a change of government in the end, there are several casualties including the dictator himself (Mezu, 2006).

This is integrated within the critique of post independence political practice and the engagement and political problems is a consistent evaluation of the nature of interpersonal relationships and how they can affect the concept of a nation as an imagined community (Mezu, 2006).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Great works of literature- Chinua Achebe by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Achebe also rejects calls to replace older nationalist narratives of liberation with newer neocolonial narratives of liberation with newer neocolonial narratives of economic exploitation because the latter do nothing to change the perception of Nigeria’s continued victimization and helplessness and therefore blames it on imperialism and capitalism.

This book, just like in the modern day activism, acted as a championing forum for unity for a common goal. In attempt to lay emphasis on this, the author using the first person narrative to show an element that demonstrates for social change which was very rare in the time of his writing and that is why he uses foreshadowing in citing the military coups follows later in Nigeria with the repercussions of such a coup (Ogede, 2001).

The trouble with Nigeria (1984)

This novel introduces the chronicle of English writing from East and West Africa drawing to the on a wide range of texts from the slave diasporas to the post-war upsurge in African English language literature. The plot is set in a politically unstable Nigeria as he laments the series of governments in postcolonial Nigeria and leaders that have betrayed Nigeria (Igwebo, 2010).

Achebe sets a nostalgic mood to this story in response to the trauma of embittered history and therefore providing authors with the means to address the failure of optimistic narratives of liberation that had guided independence movements throughout the colonial world.

Achebe and Soyinka’s characterization trauma resonate with psychoanalysis in suggesting that rehabilitation requires the recollection of past events. Trauma as understood by psychoanalytic theory and both Achebe and Soyinka inhibits an individual’s or community’s ability to access knowledge and process change and growth, therefore Achebe symbolizes through narrative and assimilation the systems of a traumatized individual.

The narratives are also used to call for a rise to socialism and justice to the system, which is not at all working. Chinua Achebe uses the elements of empathy and antipathy to try to reach out to every Nigerian with the same aspirations to come out for this cause (Ogede, 2001).

Achebe argues that elections should not be left to the man who is fighting to save his neck for public servants are public servants and they should be open to criticism, examination and to exposure. This kind of statement is nowadays common in the civilized world making it a literary step to modern day Africa therefore making Achebe the ambassador for literature and justice. Achebe’s longstanding claims for the pedagogical value of literature can be read in this light.

Nostalgia is also outlined in this novel as it is similarly crucial to the articulation of Achebe’s political vision while identifying the crisis facing the nation to be the result of the ”death” of a dream-Nigeria” in which all citizens could live and work in equality (The Economist, 2008).

Nostalgia sharpens the critique of existing political regimes by enabling Achebe to cast present disappointments in concrete and widely recognizable terms. Imagery also comes into play, as the only missing ingredient to Achebe’s imaginary Nigeria is an environment in which a person could pursue any legitimate goal open to his fellows.

This piece of work can also be taken to be inspirational as it serves as a motivation to come and speak for oneself and country in a confined environment where many are afraid to do so (The Economist, 2008). It portrays the side of active involved not just with personal life but also with the socio-political life that can generate heat but give freedom of speech on behalf of the majority (Yousaf, 2003).

Conclusion It is evident that Chinua Achebe was one of the renowned African writers who had the objective of addressing social problems in the African society. In his works of literature, Chinua Achebe emphasizes on this social problems using narrations. Therefore, Chinua Achebe can be argued to be a socio-political activist, who carried his activisms using literature works (The Economist, 2008). Another dominant theme in the literature works of Chinua Achebe is the ideology of modernity, which is as result of European colonialism

References Achebe, C. (1963). Works of Chinua Achebe: Things Fall Apart: Part One . Monarch Notes , 12-56.

Barksdale-Hall, R. (2007). Chinua Achebe: A Bio-Bibliographic Review . The Journal of Pan African Studies , 12-56.

Begam, R. (1997). Achebe’s sense of an ending: history and tragedy in ‘Things Fall Apart.’ (Nigerian author Chinua Achebe)(Postcolonialism, History, and the Novel) . Studies in the Novel , 89-100.

Ekwe-Ekwe, H. (2001). African Literature in Defence of History: An Essay on Chinua Achebe. Dakar: African Renaissance.

Igwebo, K. (2010). Chinua Achebe. The Journal of Pan African Studies , 123-125.

Kofi, Y. (1990). Chinua Achebe’s Novels: A Sociolinguistic Perspective. Uruowulu-Obosi, Nigeria: Pacific Publishers.

Mezu, R. U. (2006). Chinua Achebe: The Man and His Works. London: Adonis

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History of European Currency Essay college essay help: college essay help

Executive Summary The article reviews the European currency from its inception to date. The introduction underlines the general importance of currencies to various individual countries and their contributions towards the economy. Euro has since become a major currency within Europe, uniting twelve countries.

The paper then describes the history of the euro currency the benefits and disadvantages it posses to the member states within Europe, followed by the analysis on the most significant influences of its value from its inception to-date. The n the discussion on the pressure euro has encountered in the near past, the causes and how the pressure affected the individual countries. Finally there’s the conclusion on the overall effects of the currency to individual member states.

Introduction Most countries define objectives they use in achieving financial goals based on the kind of environment they operate under. One of the prime factors which dictate the level of profits made by an international corporation is the nature of the exchange rates. This could either strengthen or weaken the level of trade any country enjoys with its partners.

The objectives underline the processes applied together with the advantages which could help in improving any country’s trading status. The objectives revolve around the country’s key strengths and opportunities, and at the same time assist in preventing any form of weaknesses as well as protecting the individual countries’ against threats. However, there is a possibility that they could create competitive advantage through the implementation of appropriate business models (Camardella, 2003, pp. 103-107)

Explanation on the origins of the Euro and the main advantages and disadvantages of a single currency for its member countries Euro is considered currency of almost twelve countries within the European Union. The euro currency has been in circulation in terms of notes and coins two years after its inception in the year 1999. The history of the Euro could be traced back to the commencement of the European Union which comprised of twelve countries. The countries involved, started by establishing conversion rates that made it possible for them to work between their individual national currencies and the euro.

This led to the creation of a monetary union in January 1999 having single currency known as the euro. Since then, several countries and other territories have generated link between their currencies and euro through agreements of different kinds which includes; exchange rate Mechanism II, bilateral exchange-rate agreements and unilateral exchange rate regimes (Chabot, 1999).

Ambitions for a unified currency were adopted at the Bremen Summit in 1978, where decision was made by Germany and France to establish the so called European Monetary System (EMS). This system could not operate without the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) which ensured that all the countries within Europe were unified by a system of fixed exchange rates.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ERM system was hence considered a managed float, where currencies were allowed to operate within specified fluctuation band. The differences in variance between currency values were checked by central banks through the foreign exchange market. This was adopted till late 1980s when there was strong global economic growth. The kind of economic progress experienced within these years resulted into pressure which brought about the necessity of creating single internal economic market.

This brought about the adoption of the Single European Act in the year 1986. This was followed by meeting of fifteen member states of the European Union in 1991 where agreement was reached to create single currency which was expected to strengthen the race towards creation of Economic and Monetary Union. This agreement was called Maastrich Treaty which also led to the creation of European Central Bank for the purposes of controlling price stability within Europe (Chabot, 1999).

These inceptions led to the trial of the Exchange Rate Mechanism of the EMS by those who doubted its legibility. This was because some believed that the European currency was only strong as a result of the managed float.

This forced most of the countries to devalue their respective currencies owing to fear of loss. However, this led to the collapse of the ERM system paving way to the enforcement of the Maastrich Treaty which saw the establishment of economic and monetary union within three stages with the last stage commencing in January 1999.

This was the time when the euro currency was launched in form of electronic currency used only by larger monetary institutions such as banks and major companies within the stock market as well as foreign exchange dealers. The European Union has since met lots of challenges surrounding the use of the common currency leading to great fluctuations on the level of exchange rates (Blanchard and Francesco, 2004).

In 2002, the Euro Currency became popular within Europe and hence became cash currency for citizens within the member states. The aim is to make Euro stronger internationally hence help in lowering familiar barriers to trade within member states. The Euro notes and coins appeared for the first time in the year 2002 leading to the withdrawal of individual national currencies (Blanchard and Francesco, 2004).

Advantages of common currency in Europe One of the benefits of using common currency is that it leads to efficient increase in economy. The benefits could be defined in terms of elimination of transaction costs and elimination of risks resulting from fluctuations experienced in exchange rates. The costs of transactions are identified within various fields such as fixed commission charged on the process of selling individual currencies.

We will write a custom Essay on History of European Currency specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The disappearance of currency conversion costs seem to be beneficial to both individuals and companies on the platform of dealing with foreign partners. The use of common currency further leads towards creation of good grounds for comparing and harmonizing prices across borders.

Elimination of transaction costs and creation of price transparency techniques leads to the creation of a more integrated market within Europe. The use of common currency has led to attraction of more investors since their confidence is boosted by the fact that market integration leads to creation of channels that would easily help in sharing risks in case of any financial set- back (Chabot, 1999).

Uncertainties which go with exchange rates could sometimes be damaging to the trade and investment sector. This can only be checked through the use of common currency which helps in eliminating the situation of currency fluctuations. This leads to creation of positive environment within international businesses.

Fluctuations experienced with exchange rates, threatens sustenance of foreign investments making foreign markets to suffer. This kind of risk could only be eliminated through the use of euro as common currency and it’s of benefit only to member states (Schinasi, 2003).

Disadvantages of using common currency in Europe Several disadvantages are associated with the issue of having common currency in Europe. These disadvantages revolve around cost of institutions and the level of each countries adjustment to new dimensions brought by new currency. There is also a wide experience on the lack of policies guarding the national monetary which could be used as means of adjusting to economic changes. Lots of money is used in the process of adjusting various tools and documents dealing with monetary issues.

The possibility of the region getting hit by economic shock may cause imbalance in one of the countries though not posing much threat to other member countries. The member countries using euro are forced to look for alternative methods on how they could handle economic shocks, this is since they could no longer use monetary and fiscal policies of their individual countries. These may range from application of capital mobility to labour mobility (Gali and Roberto, 2003).

Analysis on the most significant influences on the value of the Euro over this period

Graph 1; showing variation in euro value since its inception

Not sure if you can write a paper on History of European Currency by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The graph above reveals the varying trends in the value of Euro since it’s inception to-date. Euro replaced the old national currencies of twelve European member states in the year 2002. The level of increased capital and trade flows between 2002 and 2004 influenced the value of the euro.

These two variables had tremendous effect on the value of the euro since they determined the level of euro demand. Faster economic growth in some countries within Europe was experienced leading to increase in capital inflows which in turn contributed towards financial market integration (Chabot, 1999; Collignon, 2003).

However, there were a number of difficulties experienced since the adoption of euro currency. Despite improving the economic stability of member countries, euro brought lots of challenges including the use of similar interest rates within each member countries.

This presented a big challenge since it made it impossible for individual economies to adjust their own interest rates for the purposes of monitoring their own economic growth. On other sectors, fluctuations in the value of euro in 2006 led to large drop in output showing decline in the rate of investment, consumption and exports.

The period between 2008 and 2009 was characterized by increase in the rate of unemployment which ultimately led to reduced earnings and increased inflation rates. The decline was clearly revealed on the kind of crisis which faced Lehman brothers in 2008.

The Greek and Irish crisis in 2010 led to reduced output levels within the region, trade flows were affected due to difference in the growth rate experienced during this period. This affected the currency exchange and movement of goods and ultimately weakened euro against other strong world currencies like the dollar (Chabot, 1999).

During 2010-11 the Euro has come under significance pressure. Explanation on the causes of this pressure and analysis on how it may affect the individual countries

There has been increased capital and trade flows during this period, this helped in raising Europe’s financial market integration in collaboration with other countries. The pressure within Europe’s financial market has experienced relative increase in demand for the euro and its related investments.

Due to some laxity in 2010 investors were forced to diversify their investments in other regions at the same time preferring to trade with other countries outside Europe. This pressure was caused by the increased demand for European assets by the outsiders which resulted into net capital outflows. Also the kind of lag experienced in the Europe growth rate made most of the investors to seek for investing opportunities in other regions considered to experience higher growth (Bishop, 2003; Padoa-Schioppa, 2003).

The pressure experienced led to slow growth rate which eventually led to decrease in the individual European countries share within the global economy. This made foreign central banks to decrease their incentive levels hence increasing their holdings within the places dominated by euro. Decrease in demand for the euro as a result of increase in the level of imports to Europe led to depreciation in value for the euro.

This led to an experience of decrease trade flows within member countries. The value of the euro depreciated as compared to other strong currencies (DeGrauwe, 2000). Appreciation in value of euro could lead to the adjustment of pricing mechanisms. This could lead to an increase in the level of export values and decrease in import. As a result the ultimate outcome is increase in the level of surplus goods within the market. This process could be maintained over long period of time (Prati and Garry, 1997).

Conclusion The introduction of euro as a single currency for twelve European member states led to tremendous positive change in the level of economy within Europe. It provided some safety to individual country economies since other countries could easily supplement economic deficit which might arise within member countries.

Each country focused on the quality, cost, performance and the issues on the values at which their goods and services traded within various world markets. The member countries also found it easy to focus on the level of supply of their goods to consumers at different locations. Euro provides an easy way of analyzing consumers in relation to their potential and the channels of marketing.

Reference List Bishop, G., 2003. The Future of the Stability and Growth Pact. International Finance 6 (2), pp. 297-308.

Blanchard, J.

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Training and Development as Related To Human Resource Management Essay essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Training Needs Analysis

Training and Evaluation

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction With the current trends in globalization and trade liberalization, organizations can nowadays afford practically every asset that is needed for optimal production. Due to this fact, employees have remained the most valuable assets that an organization can use in order to build a comparative advantage over rival firms in which ever sector the organization invests in.

People or employees in an organization are usually associated with the skills they possess; the only asset rivals cannot copy. As a result this has made the human resource management and their practices to be accepted as one of the major strategic levers to ensure that there is continued success within organizations (Smith, 2006).

Training of company employees has received much accreditation from the management by designing training programs that seek to address the specifics of the organization, which then helps in ensuring that the services or the output is received in a way that the company reaps the maximum benefits. In designing these programs, the human resource department works very hard by assessing the needs for the training where the training is all that necessary or not.

Training Needs Analysis In order to assess the training needs, the Human Resource (HR) department can decide to conduct an organizational analysis. It is preferred by many organizations since it takes into consideration the organization’s traditions, strategies and the general environment and how the training is likely to improve the business situation. The human resource can also perform the job or task analysis where training is usually done depending on the needs of that job.

In order to improve the delivery of the job the skills and abilities an employee possesses are usually analyzed. The Human Resource can also train the employees depending on the required needs. Lastly, they can also conduct the employee analysis where the HR determines the current skills that the employee is in possession of and then train the employee depending on the expectations or the levels the employee should attain.

Training and Evaluation There are several methods through which the Human Resource can train the employees in order to make sure the new training needs are delivered efficiently. Examples of the training methods include: A classroom setting where an instructor teaches or trains the employees by interacting with them. They can also use computer based training which incorporates the classroom training and Tele training.

Organizations using computers to train the employees do so by introducing software which seeks to advance their skills. To make the training successful, the training objectives should be written properly in order to be able to decide on the contents, methodology and duration of tackling the needs.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Based on the importance of training, the HR can either classify the training as technical or behavioral training whereby, the skills or the technical type focuses on providing the learning competencies related to the employee knowledge and skills while behavioral on the other hand ensures learning competencies related to the employee attitude and habits are learnt and adhered to.

Evaluation is the last phase and it is usually concerned with the measurement of the training success or the effectiveness to establish whether an investment in a particular training has paid off. The effectiveness is based on the previous set objectives and results while considering the needs, methods, and the other areas of training administration.

The valuation of the training program can be done depending on the reaction, learning, behavioral change and finally the impact to the society which measures the effect of the training on the unit where the trainees belong and on the entire organization (Edralin, 2004).

Conclusion With employees becoming the most valuable asset a company or an organization can possess, it has thus become important for organizations to create effective and efficient work force in order to achieve the competitive edge over other organization. To make this possible, organizations have embarked on trainings that seek to perfect and introduce new skills to employees in order to ensure an organization remains a success and way above the others.

Reference List Edralin, D.M. (2004). Training: A strategic HRM function. Vol.7, No.4. De La Salle University. Web.

Smith A. (2006). Human Resource Practices for a Changing Environment. Web.

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American political parties in the late nineteenth century Essay a level english language essay help

During the late nineteenth century, political parties were very dominant in the political process of the day. Americans had the idea that politics meant being aligned to a particular political party, and they therefore chose which party to support by looking at how it was organized and structured. Men were expected to have strong attachments to the party they supported, and women were not allowed to vote.

Organization

The two major political parties were democrats and republicans. The democrats were considered to have been the faction that had not defended the United States during the cold war; thus they were regarded as cowards, while the republicans consisted of those who were the patriotic citizens, who fought to defend their country (Katz

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Ethical Practice in Business Environment Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Summary

Introduction

The Spa Issue

Conclusion

Works Cited

Summary The business environment is faced with multiple ethical issues that need to be resolved. This paper reviews the ethical issues that arise from a spa in Singapore, Wellness Village spa, closing down without notice. The spar disappears while owing customers’ money in the form of pre purchased packages and credit card bills. This paper applies various ethical theories so as to solve the ethical issues.

By use of the consequentialist, social contract and stakeholder theories, it is proposed that the bank has an obligation to cover some of the costs covered by the customers. Application of the deontological ethics reveals that the bank is under no obligation since it has performed all the duties expected of it. While the directors of the spa are pinpointed as the major culprits, this paper shows that they should not be punished alone since they were working for the interests of shareholders.

Collective punishment is seen as the best manner to obtain justice. From the ethical theories applied in this scenario, it has been seen that the interest of the society at large should ideally take precedence over individual or business interests. The paper concludes by restating that knowledge of ethical theories is essential in solving ethical issues that arise in the business environment.

Introduction Ethical behavior has throughout human civilization been supposed to be a major building block for a productive and well functional society. For this reason, ethical behavior has been applauded and taught to be superior to unethical dealings. However, ethics have not been given much relevance in businesses and so long as businesses stay within the law, businesses been given much consideration and businesses have been subjected to little criticism for their ethical behavior so long as they did not break the law.

Ethics can loosely be defined as a system of moral principles by which social conduct is judged as either “right” or “wrong”. As relates to business, ethics are moral principles which prescribe what is legitimate behavior in varied business dealings (Chryssides and Kaler 3). This paper shall analyze the ethical issues that surround the closing of the Wellness Village spa. The paper shall make use of various ethical theories so as to demonstrate the most effective way to deal with the ethical issues.

The Spa Issue The ethical issues surrounding the Wellness Village Spa closure is who should pay for the credit card bills charged to cardholders by the bank for services that the cardholders did not receive. In the scenario, the spa closed down without informing the clients some of whom had purchased expensive packages from the spa.

Notably, the Wellness Village spa used misinformation to deceive the customers. This was by claiming that they were overbooked while in reality the company was preparing to close operations abruptly. Another underlying concept in the case are secrecy whereby the company directors failed to divulge vital information about the company being closed in the near future since the information would had affect the company’s profitability.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ethical theories are the criteria that we use to make judgment as to the fairness or unfairness of actions undertaken regarding problems (Crisp, Potter

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Furnished Room in the Weisman Art Museum, Minnesota Essay online essay help

Introduction The world of architecture is rich and amazing indeed, this is why it is always interesting to evaluate and investigate different aspects of design work. Each room and each building has its own purpose, function, and impact on a visitor. In this paper, one of the rooms in the Weisman Art Museum in Minnesota will be analyzed. The chosen building is located on 333 East River Road, Minneapolis[1].

It was designed by Canadian American architect Frank Gehry in 1993[2]. For a long period of time, this building is considered to be one of the major landmarks on campus, and its rooms contain much information about people’s history and achievements.

The interior of the Weisman Art Museum under consideration is rather conventional and attractive to the visitors. The main challenge of the room was to combine as much space as possible and add the required furniture to meet the expectations of the visitors. It was important to support the idea that it is the room of the museum where people should have a chance to observe innovations, share their opinions, and feel comfortable.

This is why, in the furnished room, the designer focuses on proper lighting, necessity for all subjects in the room to be available for the visitors, and possibility to take rest for people. The furnished room in the Weisman Art Museum is an example of how such elements like furnishing, lighting, color, and construction material should be considered in order to create a perfect image that deserves the right to be a part of art that influences human life.

Historical Introduction of the Room In fig.1, it is possible to observe the room under analysis and define its main purposes and functions. Still, before talking about such aspects of the design, it is necessary to identify its historical worth and development. Each designer has his/her own ideas and imagination to introduce a new room or a new building to public.

The designer of the building is Frank Gehry[3], still, its patron is another person. The room is placed in the building created in honor of a famous Minneapolis art collector, Frederick R. Weisman who died in 1994. His contribution was great for American art as well as education, this is why it was necessary to recreate the rooms which underline the social and cultural situation of the country, the idea of stability and functionality.

In spite of the current competition, it is not always possible to admit the room and the place that worth certain attention and evaluation, still, there are several reasons of why some rooms of the Weisman Art Museum should be discussed.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More First, it is a well-known fact that the director of the museum with its designer makes a decision to improve the design and spend several million dollars to achieve the best ideas. And another reason is the ways of how innovations are made as the museum’s representatives admit that museum’s original site should be narrowed to meet the expectations of visitors and meet the requirements set by modern times[4].

The evaluation of the room will help to understand what kind of innovations may be required and why the owners of the room as well as the building itself want to redecorate the construction.

It is interesting to define the weaknesses of the projects and introduce new ideas, this is why the chosen room seems to be a captivating subject for discussion from a pure artistic point of view as well as from some social or cultural perspectives. Design is the sphere that cannot accept too many changes at one place, and the room will be changed by the designer himself, so, it is a challenge to understand how changes should look like and whether all of them are appropriate.

Spatial Organization and Planning The chosen furnished room is one of the central rooms in the building. Its peculiar feature is a number of doors (fig.2) which allow visitors pass through it any time in order to get another room. Still, it is necessary to underline that it is the room of an art museum; this is why its designer should consider the importance of functionality and accessibility.

Taking into consideration the spatial planning of the building those main objective is to encourage social communication, interactions between visitors, and participation in discussions, each room should have enough space for people to have some privacy as well as special space for discussions.

In other words, each visitor of the room should be provided with the required space in order the main purpose of visiting the museum can be met. In fact, the designer considers all aspects of the room and its purposes so that the chosen room fits into the spatial planning of the building perfectly.

There are several adjacent spaces of the room which are other gallery rooms of the museum. Its adjacent rooms are almost of the same space, still, the northern one is bigger than the chosen room (fir.3) due to its function to unite more rooms alongside the whole museum. Due to the position of the room in regard to other spaces in the building, its axes of approaches are parallel to other rooms. Approximate square of the room is 66m2 (regarding that its width is about 6 m and its length is about 11 m).

We will write a custom Essay on Furnished Room in the Weisman Art Museum, Minnesota specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Certain attention should be paid to the space organized within the room. The point is that the main challenge for the designer was to consider proper lighting still introduce a unique form of the building. On the one hand, it seems that not all rooms are provided with the daylight; on the other hand, the image of the room in fig.1 proves that in the daytime, the room is properly lightened. It means that the space of the room is properly organized and used by the designer.

As it is the room in the museum, not much furniture may be observed in the room. As a rule, several benches are located in the west part of the room so that they may be observed from other rooms. Such simple still rather functional choice of furniture and use of space is justified by the owners of the museum as their main purpose is to satisfy the needs of the visitors.

Materials and Construction Methods In the room under analysis as well as in other rooms of the building, the designer makes a decision to use square forms and 90-degree corners. There is no need to use some unique construction methods to amaze the visitor of the room and prove that the chosen room should be recognized among the rest.

What is needed is the idea that the room has its purpose – to be a guide for people and introduce new exhibitions, new ideas, and fresh approaches in the sphere of art. This is why its framing is quite simple what cannot be said about the content of the room. For a long period of time, Frank Gehry admits that his 47,000-square-foot museum is not finished, and the chosen stainless-steel forms should be improved with time[5].

Thought the chosen museum became popular due to its unbelievable exterior of irregular form, its interior also has its peculiarities and captivating elements. Each element of the room under consideration is a kind of a message from the designer who admits that this room is a unique one: its simplicity should not be regarded as weakness but as a chance to focus on other elements except its form.

The chosen interior of the Weisman Art Museum is rather conventional improved by white walls and geometric details of a ceiling that is partially made of glass. Such choice of ceiling construction is predetermined by a desire to reveal skylights which support natural lighting of the room.

Curvilinear slices one the ceiling and their absence on other elements of the room are also characterized by a particular purpose. For example, it is possible to believe that the designer wants to guide the visitor and shows that the walls of the room are already provided with some interesting details, informative works, and ideas for discussion. Still, it is impossible to exhibit something on the ceiling, this is why this part of the room has its own constant beauty – the connection to the nature, light, and air.

Another important element of the room is its floor. In comparison to the vast majority of buildings around, the designer of the building chooses blonde wood flooring. In addition to the already discussed natural lighting of the room, the idea to use natural wooden material for the floor is justified as it seems to be a good stimulus for the visitors to relax, focus on the exhibits, and evaluate the works offered.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Furnished Room in the Weisman Art Museum, Minnesota by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In general, it is possible to say that the room chosen for the analysis contains a number of significant elements properly chosen by its designer in order to underline the main purpose of the room and provide people with the highest level of comfort.

Furnishings and Ornamentation The design of the room in the Weisman Art Museum proves that the developers of this building do not find it obligatory to create rich and magnificent details inside. It is enough to introduce a mysterious exterior and choose appropriate interior regarding the functions and the peculiarities of each room. In the room under consideration, the designer does not want to focus attention on richness but, vice versa, he chooses simplicity as his key to success. This is why there is no need to search for some rich furnishing and ornamentation.

On the fig.1, it is clear that there is one small still rather elegant bench for visitors to take a rest. In fact, even the location of the bench in the room has its meaning.

The point is that this bench may be observed from different rooms and a person who in need of some rest will see an empty place for sitting. It is necessary to admit that the bench is made of wood still not similar to the one used on the floor. The bench is white, wooden; still, it is not a kind of continuation of the floor. It is another object in the room that should attract visitor’s attention.

The bench is located in the north-western part of the room so that it is lighted by the natural light due to the ceiling as well as the lamps in the building. More than 150,000 people visit the Weisman Art Museum annually[6], and the administration of the museum is able to evaluate how much place and benches are usually required for an exhibition.

Ornamentation is another element of the room that is always interesting to analyze. The point is that it is a museum where different exhibitions are introduced to public, this is why decorative objects are not constant in the room. As a rule, different paintings or art objects change each other in the room. In fig.1, the room with some painting exhibition is observed. The distance between each picture is almost the same that allows several people approach the image and spend several minutes evaluating it.

The designer cannot predict the colors of the pictures which can be placed on the walls, this is why his choice of white colors for walls, the floor, and ceiling may be based on a kind of uncertainty and the desire to create a room that will meet any subjects of any size. Considering such decision, each painting on the wall seems to take its own place as if the room was created to introduce a particular exhibition.

Functions and Signification During the whole paper, it is mentioned that the chosen room is one of the rooms in the Weisman Art Museum, this is why its main function is to introduce exhibitions and encourage communication between the visitors of the museum.

In addition to the necessity to create appropriate conditions for exhibitions, this room may become a good example of how natural material may enrich the general view of the room. In spite of the fact that wooden floor, pure white walls, and natural lighting are used in the room, its image captivates and defines how powerful and unpredictable the nature can be.

It is hard to guess whether the functions of the room have been changed since the building was created in 1993, still, it is possible to guess that this room always performs the functions of an exhibitor. Of course, different paintings, subjects, and even furniture could be used in the room, still, its purpose is always the same – to provide a person with a chance to look at art and enjoy its beauty.

In addition to this function, it is possible to admit that this room also helps different people be closer to each other and understand each other’s needs. The patron of the museum, a person in honor on whom the museum was created, Mr. Weisman, wanted to unite people by means of art and destroy inequalities and fears inside of society.

This is why it is possible to believe that each room in such building performs the same functions to contribute to the sphere of art and create more possibilities for people’s communication. This room as well as the whole building is eager to meet a person from different part of the world and open the world of art.

Designer’s Sources and Inspiration During the last decade, a number of exhibitions have been introduced in the museum[7] as well as in the room that is analyzed. For example, in 2003, the exhibition “In the Spirit of Martin: The Living Legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.” took place in the room. This American hero deserved the right to be remembered by society: more than 150 paintings and photographs have been introduced to the public.

Gary Chassman was the developer of the exhibition. He was assisted by Verve Editions and some representatives of the Smithsonian Institution. The Boss Foundation supported the Weisman Art Museum during that exhibition. A number of people gathered to remember the achievements of a genius and demonstrate personal respect to his activities. This room as other rooms in the museum was perfectly prepared by the designer for such event.

Thought the patron of the room did not impact the precedent chosen, it is possible to admit that his contribution to the development of the sphere of art should be considered as an important step by means of which art becomes available to people.

During almost one year, the exhibition “Who Is a Citizen? What Is Citizenship?” was available to the public in the room. With the help of such exhibition, a number of artists like Rockwell Kent were discovered. It is not an easy thing to answer the questions about citizenship by means of paintings, prints, and photographs, and this exhibition was another proof that there was nothing impossible for people. Only a desire and personal intentions have meaning.

Conclusion In general, the furnished room in the Weisman Art Museum plays an important role in such spheres like art and design. Not many people are able to create a place where a number of exhibitions of different types may be organized.

Frank Gehry shows how simplicity, uniqueness, and care to each detail in the building may create a perfect room as well as a perfect museum. For a long period of time, this museum serves as a good example of how exhibitions should be organized, and the detailed explanation of the room makes it possible to understand what creates a good work and how this work should be perceived by the public.

Bibliography Abbe, Mary. “Weisman Art Museum’s Expansion Begins: Frank Gehry Designed the Additions to His 1993 University of Minnesota Landmark, Scheduled for Completion in Two Years.” Online Posting. 2009. McClatchy – Tribune Business News. Web.

Bette, Hammel. “Frank Gehry Got His Wish to Expand the Weisman Art Museum.” Architectural Record 195.5 (2007).

Byars, Mel. “Gehry, Frank.” The Design Encyclopedia. (London: L. King Publishing, 2004) 259.

Drengi, Eric. Midwest Marvels: Roadside Attractions across Iowa, Minnesota, the Dakotas, and Wisconsin. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006) 140.

Gardner-Hugget, Joanna. “WARM: A Feminist Art Collective in Minnesota.” Woman’s Art Journal 29.1. (2011). 64-67.

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Of Matrilocality and the Role of Women in a Village Election in Northern Thailand Essay (Critical Writing) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Summary This article reviews Metrilocality societies in Thailand. It explores gender roles as defined by community customs in the region. The article traces the disputes arising before and after an election and highlights the role of women in solving these disputes. It also looks at the varied causes of the dispute. The article examines extended households in matrilocal societies.

It also highlights the discrimination of women by men considered as family heads and shows that women despite being lower in the family hierarchy play a significant role of heading the households such as resolving disputes, engaging in economic activities to feed their families and helping their husbands to cope with new environments and family members. The article demonstrates how conflicts brought out the hidden role of women in the matrilineal societies (Bowie 2008:136-153).

Central Issue Addressed

The article assesses how matrilocality and matrillineality plays an important gender role in the politics, and brings out the paradox of women being important and simultaneously invisible in the politics.

Importance of Central Issue Addressed

The analysis assists in the understanding of Thai village electoral politics by factoring in the domain of women. It highlights the intertwining of the domain of women in the village cultures of matrilocal and matrilineal kinship.

Use of Scholarly Literature

The author uses scholarly articles to place his research in the context of the Thai woman domain. For example, the author refers to literature in bringing out the history of the Thai woman, noting that the ignorance of the fact that Thailand was the first country to give women rights to vote has been a source of androcentric bias in political studies. The author also refers to social drama literature while studying the interpretation of domestic and political issues in the Thai village context.

The author uses literature to illustrate the significance conflicts as one of the fundamental aspects constituting a society. In describing the nature of matrilocal residency and the household’s kin the matrilineal villages, the author cites literature covering the customs and traditions of the Thai people. Furthermore, the author points out the characteristics of the Thai households in relation to general theories of social organizations (Bowie 2008:136-153).

Analysis of Original Author’s Material

The author’s material is an ethnographic study; a compilation of the findings that the author examined and experienced while living among the Thai people and participation in their daily lives for a period of 30 years to the extent of assuming bias positions in her opinions in local politics. During the fieldwork, the author looks at the issue of village politics and personally experiences the roles of the women as well as their interventions in their various households.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the author notes how husbands despite being the heads of their families have no choice but to vote in accordance with their wives political affiliations, an issue that brings conflicts between the husband’s parent family and their wives family. While witnessing the conflicts, the author further gains insight into the context of women’s simultaneously disappearance and appearance in the running of matrilineal households(Bowie 2008:136-153).

Research Method

The author studies the history of the Thai people in relation to matrilocality and then examines the political environment of a Thai village. In order to bring out findings to the reader, the author offers a narration of four cases of conflict that highlight women visibility and invincibility in relation to their assigned roles in the matrilocal residences under study.

Strengths and weaknesses

The author majorly relies on her understanding of the Thai village households, and only consults academic literature strengthens her opinion. As a source of bias, this fact makes the research weak. However, the ethnographic nature of the study puts the author positions to presents her findings as credible. Secondly, use of actual cases in presenting the study findings bring out clearly the issues examined by the author, leaving little room for research gaps (Bowie 2008:136-153).

Reflection The article has provided a deeper understanding of kinship, in defining women roles in the matrilineal societies of the Thai people. The article has highlights decent in matrilineal societies. The composition of matrilocal residences and households in Thai villages stands out from the article.

It has also highlighted the role of ceremonies and customs in fostering kinship relations while highlighting how husbands after leaving their parents, freely embrace the customs of their wives families (Miller 2010:204-214). The article has also highlighted how household’s patterns are changing as in the example of the Thai women gaining rights to vote and becoming more visible in the household (Miller 2010:220-221).

References cited Bowie, Katherine 2008 Standing in the Shadows: of Matrilocality and the Role of Women in Village Elections in Northern Thailand. Theme issue, American Ethnologist (35)1: 136-153

Miller, Barbara, with Penny Van Esterik and John Van Esterik 2010 Cultural Anthropology. 4th edition. Canada: Pearson Education Canada

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Automobile Industry in USA Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents The Global Automobile Firms

Generic Competitive strategies

Differentiating strategies

Points of value differentiation or cost differentiation

References

The Global Automobile Firms Global Automobile firms that operate in the USA include Mercedes, Nissan, General Motors (GM), Ford, and Volvo. However, these are a few of a long list of other automobile companies that operate in the US. These firms have generic competitive strategies that uniquely identify and differentiate their products in a fiercely competitive market for positioning their firms for strategic market advantages (Stoner, 1987).

Generic Competitive strategies In theory and practice, Porter’s generic competitive strategies include cost leadership, product differentiation, differentiation focus, and cost focus. However, with regard to the US market, these global automobile firms have generic competitive strategy that uniquely characterizes each of them. These strategies are specifically tailored to target specific market segments, demographic distributions, income levels, and consumer behavior (Stoner, 1987) and (Humphrey

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Workplace Hygiene Procedures Report (Assessment) college application essay help

Introduction The level of hygiene at the workplace is very important in the hospitality industry especially when preparing food. A high standard of hygiene is emphasized in order to prevent food contamination or poisoning. The food handlers should also be physically well. This means that they should not handle food if they are sick since this can lead to food contamination. This paper focuses on the significance of hygiene in regard to food preparation (chicken).

The Preparation Process Chicken is generally considered to be a hazardous food because it usually carries the salmonella bacteria. This type of bacteria is one of the major causes of food poisoning. Thus if the chicken is not properly cooked or stored the bacteria in it can survive and cause food poisoning. Chicken is also hazardous because it contains a lot of proteins. Proteins usually provide a fertile ground for the multiplication of bacteria. Thus if chicken is not stored according to the time and temperature regulations, it can easily be contaminated.

Cross contamination may have occurred at the following stages of the food preparation process. The cooks cleaned the chicken using unwashed hands. Besides, they did not clean the knife and the chopping board that was used in the process. Thus the chickens were contaminated by the germs or bacteria that were in the hands of the cooks. The germs or bacteria further contaminated the stuffing since the same board was used to prepare them. The sick cook also contaminated the chicken when he stopped to blow his nose.

The chicken were left on the bench overnight and found to have fully thawed the following morning. Thus the bacteria in the chicken got the opportunity to grow during the thawing process as the temperature became favorable for their growth.

The sandwich had the potential of causing food poisoning due to the following reasons. First, the cooked chicken used to fill them was not covered in the fridge. Since they were also stored on the bottom shelf, the liquid from the thawing items that were stored in the upper shelves could have possibly contaminated them. Second, the lettuce, tomatoes and carrots that were served with the sandwich were raw. Thus if they were not properly cleaned, the germs or bacteria in them could have possibly caused food poisoning.

The micro-organisms that cause food poisoning include bacteria and viruses. The common types of bacteria that cause food posing include the salmonella that is common in chicken.

Avoiding Food Poisoning Food poisoning could have been avoided by the following techniques. First, the cooks should have maintained high standards of hygiene by washing their hands and the utensils they used to prepare the food. Besides, the sick cook should not have been allowed to handle the food in order to prevent cross contamination. Second, proper storage could have helped to manage the situation. This involves storing the food at controlled temperature as well as covering it to avoid contamination.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Third, testing if cooked helps to ensure that the food is fully cooked. The bacteria that cause food poisoning are only destroyed if the food is properly cooked. The thawing process should not take too long since it gives the bacteria an opportunity to grow. Finally, the correct cooking procedure in terms of setting the right temperature and time can help in preventing food poisoning. This is because it leads to the destruction of the micro-organisms that cause the poisoning.

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Writer Albert Camus Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Written by Albert Camus, The Guest is an irrational intriguing short story found in the novel Exile and Kingdom. The captivating masterwork is a reflection of the kind of politics that Algeria exercised during the colonial times.

Camus uses Daru as the main character solely to bring out different themes like alienation, absurd, freedom and solitude among others. He speculates and examines the negative impacts of one failing to back up any party during political upheaval in Algeria. In addition, the story also explores his political stand during his stay in France.

In 1914, Albert Camus was born to Algerian parents. Unluckily, his father passed on during the World War II leaving him in the care of his mother and grandmother. As a journalist and co-founder of theatrical group, he was part of the intellect community in Algeria. He was a member of the communist party but two years later, he quitted due to differences in the Algerian nationalism.

He moved to Paris where the French actively opposed him, a scenario that fuelled his publishing of a number of novels among them The Stranger, The Plague, and The Guest besides working in a publishing company. In 1952, he fell out with his friend Jean-Paul Sartre due to differences in the communism. Due to his political stand and refusal to back up neither Algerians nor the French, he constantly received criticisms. In January 1960, his life ended prematurely due to a car accident in Villeblevin.

The setting of the Novel is in Algeria during the colonial times of the republic of France. Ethnic conflicts and fight for decolonization or freedom by the Arabs are among the problems Algeria was experiencing at the time. Daru, the schoolteacher is the main character in the story.

He lives in school quarters but due to drought, pupils are not attending school. However, the school administration confers him the role of distributing relief food to pupils. In addition, he plays the role of handing over a rebellious Arab to the authority, which he breaks by letting the Arab go free.

The second character is Balducci, who brings the Arab prisoner to Daru to hand him over to the authority for conviction. The Arab prisoner is the third and final character who is a rebellious, rude and murderer and one who is supposed to face the law.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are different themes like absurd, morality, alienation, solitude, and freedom among others that the author vividly highlights. The theme of absurd is one of the major themes. The author describes the earth surface as inhabitable and cruel for human survival. Due to extreme drought, the land is less productive.

Despite the human suffering, they strive to survive through relief food. Camus brings out the theme of absurd when he says, “The absurd is born of this confrontation between Human need and the unreasonable silence of the world” (14). The author symbolically uses the earth’s harsh climate and human confidence to survive to bring out the theme of absurd. Although the personas brings out the theme of absurd and struggle to survival, finally he is unable to forge on as he gives up.

The second major theme is freedom. The author uses Daru to highlight this theme. Although plateaus have a harsh climate and seem inhabitable, Daru freely chose to live there. Despite the desert’s harsh conditions, he is able to live and survive there. However, Daru is to decide the freedom of the Arab and this leaves him undecided on which is the best route to chose. Finally, he leaves the Arab to decide for himself.

The author uses Daru symbolically to highlight and describe the fights between ethnic groups in Algeria. He lives in a desert plateaus and hilly environment.

The desert is a symbol of the Arabs who are struggling to survive in their harsh country because of French colonialism. On the other hand, the plateau is a symbol of the French. Therefore, the French forced the Arabs to live with them as symbolically represented by Daru who lives in the plateau because of his role as schoolteacher. This is because Daru did not always want to side with either Arabs or the French.

Balducci brings out the irony of the story in that though he is arrogant, rude and disrespectful to the Arab prisoner he does not face the law (Eberhard 6). He lives freely in the society without any form of conviction. On the other hand, Daru who appears kind and caring to the Arab faces the wrath of the fellow Arabs. This is because after freeing him he finds some scribble on the board asking about the Arab prisoner (Camus 20).

In summary, the author, Albert Camus who is a famous writer highlights the problems Algerians faced during colonialism. On the other hand, he symbolically uses the characters like Daru and Balducci to highlight the major themes of the story. Absurd and freedom are the major themes the author brings out the story. He also applies irony to show the cruelty of the Arabs and French people during the colonial period.

We will write a custom Essay on Writer Albert Camus specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Camus, Albert. Exile and Kingdom: The guest. France: Gallimard Press, 1957.

Eberhard, Greim. Albert Camus’s The Guest: A New Look at the Prisoner. Britain: Longmans Publishing, 1993. Print

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Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Y Essay essay help online

Employee motivation was the main subject of discussion when McGregor developed the two theories and he explained the factors which motivate people at the place of work. McGregor developed this theory to explain the behavior of employees towards different management strategies adopted by various organizations (Burke, 2011). The two theories developed by McGregor have great impact on the organizational processes.

The theories have similarities and some differences concerning the manner in which organizations motivate their employees. However, the overall concept that was developed was that motivation is an important factor that determines the performance of employees in an organization. McGregor explains that motivation affects almost all activities of an organization and managers should motivate their employees if good results are to be achieved.

Theory X Waddell, Jones, George (2011) explained that McGregor proposed that people do not like work and they attempt to avoid it at all costs. This theory assumes that people have no ambition in life and they try to avoid responsibilities as much as possible. Leadership is not an aspiration to this category of people and they expect to follow others instead of being leaders.

Resistance to change is a common feature of this category of people and they tend to shun new things. Employees applying this theory are not focused on achieving the goals of the organization but they tend to promote their personal goals more than those of the organization. McGregor was of the opinion that this group of people are gullible and that they lack intelligence. Employees are assumed to work for money and to have security at the place of work (Russ, 2011).

According to Kopelman, Prottas and Davis, (2008) opined that managers can apply hard or soft approach to enhance employees change their motivational goals. Through the use of the hard approach managers coerce, threaten, supervise employees closely and put tight control measures to ensure that employees comply with the goals of the organization.

The soft approach applies the use of harmony and permissiveness to encourage employees to cooperate with the top management. When the hard approach is applied employees become hostile, the output declines and trade unions put tough measures to reduce deviance against the set laws. The soft approach results into reduction in output and an increase in the rewards for the employees. Applying a small amount of each approach is the best to achieve optimal management of an organization (Waddell, Jones, George, 2011).

Theory X has the weakness that it promotes the idea that once employees are satisfied by a particular motivator, they seek a higher level motivator and the previous one becomes useless. This theory is therefore similar to Abraham Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs whereby people are motivated by higher needs in the hierarchy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More McGregor therefore suggests that managers should use monetary rewards to improve the level of motivation in an organization. The motivations are no longer important once they are provided to the employees and this makes the managers to seek more benefits to motivate their employees.

This system of motivating employees does not offer opportunities for motivating employees at high-level positions in the organization. Another weakness with this theory is that a system of command and control does not allow employees to be innovative. Employees follow instructions without question and this does not provide opportunities to come up with new strategies (Weisbord, 2011).

Theory Y The assumptions of this theory are that employee should perceive work to be natural and that people are supposed to work to improve their wellbeing. This theory suggests that employees should take work in a positive manner and they should develop self-motivated positive attitude towards work. In his theory, McGregor explained that employees can achieve organizational goals if they are motivated. Commitment to achieve the goals of the organization determines the ability of the employees to achieve them.

He explained that people are satisfied by needs as they continue getting better opportunities in the organization. Existence of higher needs in an organization determines the ability of the employees to get the motive to get these needs and this creates opportunities to exploit the highest goals in an organization. Creativity is a major ingredient in achieving goals in an organization and people can handle this (Russ, 2011).

To capture the motivational energy of employees in an organization using theory Y can be achieved by decentralizing control and delegating duties to subordinates. Delegating duties enhances decision making by promoting the level of responsibilities assigned to each subordinate. In addition, theory Y encourages managers to enlarge the business operations. As such, the scope of business activities is broadened to enable the employees satisfy their ego (Russ, 2011).

Theory Y enhances participation of all stakeholders in the management of the business. Managers are encouraged to consult their subordinates about issues affecting the organization and this improves the decision making process. It also improves the creativity of people by providing opportunities to all stakeholders.

In addition, theory Y encourages managers to appraise the performance of the employees. This is achieved by setting objectives and participating in the evaluation processes of the organization. The evaluation process determines how successful employees are in achieving the goals of the organization (Kopelman, Prottas

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Margaret Thatcher, Simon de Beauvoir and the woman’s movement Essay cheap essay help

Since the late eighteenth century, the Women’s Movement has been a rich and vibrant movement that has engaged in efforts in search for equal rights and opportunities for women in their economic pursuits, private lives, and politics.

In the second half of the twentieth century, two iconic women, Margaret Thatcher and Simone de Beauvoir, played different roles in enhancing the principles of the strong and plural movement. Nonetheless, they represent two different generations of women in their public sphere and they also represent two philosophical extremes in their views.

Margaret Thatcher is a politician who served as the British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 (incidentally, the longest term in office of any head of a modern European government). Nonetheless, during the twenty-one years she was in power, she never did enough for the Women Movement and, at times, she even went contrary to the interests of women. Further, she did not portray any commonality or sorority with the other women who had the same political ambitions as her; she did little to support the careers of other women.

Although her accomplishments as a politician is somewhat indebted to the relentless efforts of the Women’s Movement that fought for the increase in number of females in positions of governance, she never conceded to this fact. Thatcher often asserted that she owed her accomplishments solely to her own hard work and personal attributes that earned her the nickname of the “Iron Lady” (Blundell, 2008).

Thatcher was a right-wing woman who opposed the ideas of the right and the Conservatives towards liberation of women. Thus, she portrayed the image of an uncompromised advocate of her own opinions. This was much more related to the nickname she earned and undoubtedly did not go well with the compassionate feminine stereotype of that time.

Some people saw that this amalgamation of her insensitive character and cruel policy made up a treachery of her own sex. However, it is of essence to note that if Thatcher contributed to something, then it was in respect to the normalization of the accomplishments of women.

This could only be realized in the way she did it. Obviously, realizing this under the banner of feminism could not be that easy. By serving as the leader of the Conservative Party, she provided evidence of gender equality and she knew that women were slowly changing their traditional role in the society (Foster, 1990). And in this way, she reached out to the rest of the women who were not holding demonstrations to burn their bras.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, Simon de Beauvoir is viewed to have made a significant contribution to the Women Movement in terms of both theory and activism, which have been an inspiration to several women. De Beauvoir, considered the mother of post-1968 feminism, wrote many books that advocated for the course of women to be heard (Simons, 1999). More so, her life was a role model to the females. She publicly rebuffed marriage and motherhood and had a lifelong open and equal relationship with Jean-Paul Sartre.

She is mostly linked to the “second wave” of the Women’s Movement (1960s to 1980s), which was addressing issues of gender inequality in laws and culture. This is because of her thought of the females as “the other.” The thought established the foundation for later feminist theories as it was adapted to apply for the gender roles of the females in the homes, at their places of work, and even to define their sexuality, as well.

In one of her books, The Second Sex, she tackles the idea of the “other.” She suggested that the idea that the females were being perceived as the “other” in the patriarchal society was increasingly being regarded as the custom and implemented by the continuing development of myths. She asserted that the fact that the females are able to bear children does not prove to be a reason enough to give them their position as the “second sex” in the society (De Beauvoir, 1952).

As a left-wing woman, de Beauvoir battled against cultural and political disparities that she perceived to be inextricably associated and, through her various works, she motivated women to fathom elements of their own personal lives as acutely politicized, and indication of a sexist arrangement of authority. The feminist activities of de Beauvoir were mostly concerned with the issue of equality, for example, how to end unfairness in the male-centered society (McKay, Hill,

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Employee Development Plan Research Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Goals to be achieved

Development options

Evaluation of training

Reference List

Goals to be achieved This paper is aimed at creating employee development plan for a group of consultants. While setting goals for these people, one has to adhere to the so-called SMART framework which means that goals must be “specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-bound” (Thackwray, 1998, p 75). These are the objectives that have to be attained:

To increase the sales rates for customer by 10 percent within the span of twelve month.

To improve customer retention rate by 10 percent within 12 month.

To increase the customer base by 5 per cent within the next year.

To improve my ability to communicate with customers within the next fifty days.

The objectives that we have described correspond to the SMART model. Each of them is quite specific and measurable. There are both numerical and qualitative means of evaluating the progress of the employees. Furthermore, in each of these cases, we have set the specific timelines. Finally, these objectives are both achievable and realistic. These objectives lie within the scope of consultants’ duties and the employees will find them very challenging and interesting. However, one has to ensure that employees know how to reach these goals.

Development options It is possible to propose several development options for the workers. These options try to take into account different learning styles, different level of competence, and different degrees of workload.

Reading professional and academic literature related to their job. This approach is particularly beneficial for people who have already gained experienced in this field. Mostly likely, these individual will occupy higher positions in the workplace hierarchy and this activity will help them upgrade their knowledge and elaborate their skills. This strategy is more appropriate for assimilators, or people who are more prone to reflective observation and abstract conceptualization (Kolb, 1984, p 185).

Participation in seminars and mock sessions. The key benefit of this option is that it allows to simulate real-life situations and difficulties faced by consultants. This method is more suitable for convergers or people need some practical experience in order to learn better (Kolb, 1984). Furthermore, this strategy will be particularly useful for the consultants who have just begun their professional career. These mock sessions and role playing are primarily intended for the front-line personnel.

To conduct regular self-assessment of one’s performance. In particular, the employee should point out those aspects which he/she finds difficult. This learning strategy is more suitable for people who are more inclined to self-reflection. In this way, the workers will be able to identify their strengths and weaknesses. This option is particularly relevant to those consultants who have already become competent and who cannot be disturbed from their duties.

Evaluation of training Several techniques can be applied to evaluate the effectiveness of the training programs. First of all, we need to speak about numerical information, namely sales rates and the number of customers retained by the consultants. Moreover, one has to conduct regular customer surveys in order to assess the efficiency of the training.

The clients can objectively evaluate the consultant’s communication style, his/her willingness to assist the client, his/her politeness and so forth. Finally, one has to ask employees for their feedback. They can tell which aspects of the training program need improvement.

Reference List Kolb. (1984) Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. Chicago: Prentice-Hall.

LeFever. M. (1995) Learning Styles. NY: David C Cook.

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Cognitive development Research Paper essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Method

Results

Discussion

Limitations of the study

Implications

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Understanding the peculiarities of the children’s perception and interpretation of facts, collecting information and acquiring knowledge is important for guiding them in their cognitive development. In 1920s the Swiss biologist Jean Piaget was the first theoretician who pointed at the differences between amount and structure of knowledge in children and adults. The purpose of this project is to examine Piaget’s concepts by applying them in practice, collecting and interpreting data from an empirical research.

Focusing on the peculiarities of the child’s knowledge and the processes of acquiring it, Piaget observed everyday actions of children and infants and offered them various problem-solving situations for examining the reasoning patterns they were using.

Deriving numerous concepts and principles from his findings, the researcher concluded that children are active learners who constantly conduct experiments and manipulate the objects from the surrounding word for observing the results of their experiments. Children not only absorb knowledge, but also try to organize it for explaining new phenomena with available knowledge in future. “Children think in qualitatively different ways at different age levels” (McDevitt and Ormrod, 2010, p. 143).

Linking cognitive development with children’s biological development, Piaget used the idea of a staircase for his theory of cognitive development, claiming that each step in physiological development represents the improved cognitive ability. Piaget’s model of cognitive development includes four main periods, including a sensorimotor (0-2 years), pre-operational (2-7 years), concrete operational (7-12 years) and formal operational (older than 12 years) stages (Oakley, 2004, p. 16).

The empirical research would be valuable for evaluating Piaget’s main concepts and exploring the ways for implementing them in professional practice.

Method A five-year-old Jessica and a thirteen-year-old Miranda gave their consent for participating in the study by signing the consent forms. A large discrepancy in the participants’ age enhances the effectiveness of the experiment, clearly representing the differences in their reasoning modes and corresponding differences in their cognitive development.

Jessica and Miranda were offered to sort sixteen pictures of animals, including a tiger, a frog, a spider, a parrot, a whale, a snake, an octopus, a goldfish, a crocodile, a newt, a butterfly, a ladybird, a scorpion, a snail, an owl, and a shark, into different subgroups, explain what their reasoning for sorting the pictures in this or that way was and sort them again, using other principles.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Both girls had enough time for thinking their decisions over and doing the assignment. The experiments were conducted in a comfortable atmosphere in a place free from distractions which allowed establishing interpersonal contact with both participants and enabled Jessica and Miranda to express their opinions freely.

The level of the participants’ cognitive ability was taken into consideration for formulating their task and the questions for discussing the reasoning mode they have used for sorting the pictures. “As a learning expectation, each product needs to be clearly described in some detail so that there is no misunderstanding about what students are required to do” (Macmillan, 2011, p. 227).

Still, the formulation of the assignment for Jessica was exempt of any hints as to how the animals could be sorted. During the discussion of their choices, the answers to the participants’ reasoning were neutral and did not express any attitude or opinion as to the way in which the assignment was done.

The choice of methods, formulation of the task and the overall atmosphere of the experiment were favorable for retrieving reliable data on the differences in Jessica and Miranda’s cognitive ability and examining Piaget’s concepts.

Results The results of the empirical research have demonstrated significant differences in quantity and quality of knowledge in Jessica and Miranda.

Jessica used the criteria of personal attitude to the animals for sorting the pictures into two large subgroups. Thus, explaining her reasoning for classifying the objects, the girl admitted that the animals in the first subgroup she liked, while the animals in the second subgroup she disliked.

It should be noted that Jessica’s personal negative attitude depended upon dangerousness of a certain animal (a snake, a shark, a crocodile, a scorpion) and its appearance (a butterfly is pleasant-looking, while a snail is not). When Jessica was asked if she can create new groups of the same animals, the girl was confused and answered that she could not do it.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Cognitive development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Miranda, the second participant of the study first sorted the pictures into subgroups, labeling them as mammals, reptiles, fish, birds and insects. When the girl was offered to do the same assignment using other criteria for classification, she easily provided several variants for this problem-solving situation.

Thus, Miranda suggested the possible subgroups of warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals, animals with body hair and without it, animals breathing with lungs and animals breathing with gills. In general, the girl has demonstrated not only her knowledge of peculiar features of representatives of the animal world, but also her ability to provide arguments for supporting her position.

Doing the same assignment of classifying the pictures with animals, Jessica and Miranda have shown the differences in their knowledge and reasoning modes for solving the same problem.

Discussion The findings of this empirical research revealed a wide gap in cognitive abilities of five- and thirteen-year-old participants. Piaget’s concepts can become a theoretical basis for explaining the differences in Jessica and Miranda’s reasoning modes used for explaining the classification criteria.

According to Piaget’s classification of various cognitive stages, a five-year-old Jessica is at the preoperational stage. Eggan (2010) noted that “In the preoperational stage, perception dominates children’s thinking” (p. 38). In other words, at the age between two and seven, children are expected to confuse physical and psychological events and give preference to their perception rather than logic for explaining their reasoning.

It explains Jessica’s choice of personal attitude as the main criteria for classification of the animals. Complying with Piaget’s expectations from cognitive abilities of children of her age, she concentrated on her personal perception and did not use the logics for doing the assignment. Other characteristics of this period include egocentrism, lack of conservation, single classification and transductive reasoning (McDevitt

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The role of Japan in the transformation of modern China Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

It is undeniable that China has transformed itself into a modern country in recent years and this has been well done. As a matter of fact, the country has shaped itself to become a modern nation by its own terms. Anybody who visits China will be greeted by massive developments and modernization and this have been synonymous with a modern nation.

There has been an argument as far as the country’s modernization is concerned. In this case, people are arguing if China is indeed western or just modernized (Wan 2006, p. 12). There are various aspects that are supposed to be looked at as far as the country’s modernization is concerned. In this case, we are not supposed to look at the country’s economic gains alone.

As a matter of fact, we can look at the country history and culture that have also modernized as time goes by. Currently, the country has established itself as an economic powerhouse and other aspects are set to improve to make it more sustainable. It should be known that the country has developed because of various aspects and factors.

This is based on the fact that a given country can not be sustainable without getting help from others. This is because there are certain things that need to be shared for long term sustainability (Emmott 2008, p. 17). This paper will therefore try to look at the role that Japan has played in the transformation of modern China. In this case, the paper will look at various aspects that have evolved as far as the two countries are concerned.

Japan has played various roles in the modern transformation of China and this is acceptable based on various aspects. During the Koizumi era, Japan and China did not have good relations and this has been improving as time goes by. There have been positive relations and both sides have always made good comments that indicate that the two countries will continue to relate well for long tern sustainability.

On the other hand, there have been contrasting developments that have continued to indicate that there might be frosty relations (Emmott 2008, p. 32). The two countries have enhanced their bilateral relations and this has seen China surge forward as far as economic development is concerned.

All along, China has agreed that it needs a good relationship with Japan for it to move forward. This is because such a relationship has served its national interests well. China will always seek for a compromise because of the role that Japan has played in its modernization. Japan knows that it has played a large role in the transformation of China and that is why they have never wanted to be at odds with its neighbor.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This is as far as the country’s long term sustainability is concerned (Crossley 2010, p. 13). Japan has always wanted and promoted peace with China and this explains why the country has not been having problems with its neighbor. China has been enjoying peace and that is why it has focused its energy on transformation. This is mostly as far as economic transformation is concerned.

As much as there might be problems, Japan has always ensured that it does not engage in any activity that will disrupt Chinas peace and this has given the country enough time to focus on its own ideas. Japan is a big trading partner of China and this means that the county exports a lot.

China accounts for 13.5% of the country’s exports and this means that they share a lot. Currently, these exports stand at $80.1 billion (Crossley 2010, p. 78). China has a large population and this has acted as a good market for Japan. In this case, China has benefited a lot from other things that they don’t produce. In this case, Japan has immensely contributed to Chinas modernization through these imports. Just to show how important these imports are Japans exports to China increased by 18% in 2010 (Crossley 2010, p. 56).

Japan has helped in the transformation of China through foreign direct investments. These investments have helped to transform various sectors of the economy and make the country more modernized. In this case, Japanese investors have been encouraged to make inroads in China thereby bringing in new ideas as far as various aspects and sectors are concerned.

It should be known that Japan was more transformed than China before and this means that it has learned a lot. Japan has been helping China in various ways through good ideas that have been exported to the country (Iriye 1992, p. 28). This is as far as innovations are concerned. Most of these ideas have been shared through investments that Japanese citizens have made in China.

China has had various environmental problems and this where Japan has come up strongly to ensure that the country is more sustainable. Japan has been effective in curbing environmental problems and this has made the country a good example as far as its Asian neighbors are concerned.

Japan has helped China to curb various environmental problems through exchange programs. This has therefore helped China to modernizer its environmental issues and aspects. All in all, Japan has played a big role in the transformation of China as far as the country modernization in environmental issues is concerned. This is a very important aspect that every country needs to be considered modern (Emmott 2008, p. 22).

We will write a custom Essay on The role of Japan in the transformation of modern China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It should be known that Japan has helped China to reduce its energy consumption through various initiatives. As much as China has its own initiatives, the country has been sharing ideas with its neighbors. The most notable example is the production of green energy vehicles by Japan. This technology has been replicated in China and helped the country to transform itself in various ways. There have been initiatives to ensure that energy consumption is reduced because of the effects that such emissions have on the environment.

We can not say that such ideas have solely come from Japan but it should be known that the county has been on the forefront to ensure that this technology is adopted (Crossley 2010, p. 41). All in all, Japan has been a major player as far as the reduction in energy consumption is concerned. The most notable beneficiary from these developments has been China because of good relations that the two countries have enjoyed.

We can not say that the two countries will enjoy long term strategic stability and this is a fact that we need to agree. Japan has its own interests that are supposed to be adhered to. The region needs to have sustainable peace for long term sustainability. This is as far as relations between the two countries are concerned.

Public opinion from the two countries is negative about each other but they notably share a lot and this should be strengthened. China is currently enjoying economic might and there have been arguments that it is transforming these developments into military and cultural power (Crossley 2010, p. 62). This issue has raised a lot of suspicion between the two countries yet they share a lot.

Japan has had a good approach when dealing with China and this is commendable. The country has tried to engage China in many fields as much as it can for long term sustainability. This has been aimed at making it a modern nation because a country can not enjoy peace when its neighbor is not doing well.

Japans’ engagement policy has been aimed at giving China various economic and political incentives that can transform it in various ways. By doing this, Japan has always wanted China to be a responsible shareholder in various aspects (Rose 2005, p. 45). Because China has become a responsible shareholder, it has produced good political and economic policies that have played a big role in its transformation to a modern nation.

Such policies have been beneficial to the country’s economic system and that is why China is nowadays a modern country. As much as a country can always have its own policies and direction that it wishes to follow, there is need to borrow ideas and this is where Japan has always come in.

Japan has always come up with good military measures that are aimed at reducing Chinas military threat to the region. This is because the region needs to be peaceful for China to continue being a modern nation (Crossley 2010, p. 36). It is undeniable that a country can not move forward if it is not at peace with its neighbors. This therefore helps to explain the role that Japan has played in the transformation of China as time goes by.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The role of Japan in the transformation of modern China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In numerous occasions, the two countries have always engaged themselves in dialogue to come up with different solutions to their own problems. Most of them have been aimed at coming up with a balance that will resonate well with hard and soft elements. Dialogues between the two countries have been used to bridge the gap that might exist as time goes by thereby improving relations and sharing of ideas.

The regional, global and bilateral frameworks that have been employed by Japan have helped China to move forward and this is good for the two countries. This is because the two countries have a lot that they share and lessons learnt by either of them can be very fruitful (Quansheng 1996, p. 28).

As much as China has replaced Japan as the world second largest economy, it has learned a lot of lessons from the country that have helped it to move forward (Crossley 2010, p. 87). This is as far as economic aspects are concerned. Japan is very important to China in various ways and this is undisputed.

Economic relations have been the centerpiece of the relationship between Japan and China. As earlier noted, Japan has been Chinas’ biggest trading partner since the 1960s. It should be known that lower expectations between the two countries have helped to increase trade relations as time goes by. There has been an argument that Japan helped china to participate in World Health Organization in a broad way and this has seen it benefit a lot (Crossley 2010, p. 65).

Japan has made a lot of tenacious and persistent efforts to guide China into various organizations. This has been made one after the other based on the fact that it is only your neighbor who can guide you well in various issues and aspects. As much as this aspect can be very frustrating, Japan has not shied away from guiding and helping its neighbor.

In a broad perspective, Japan has helped China to play by the rules of various organizations instead of being cautious through withdrawals when it feels that its interest are threatened (Rose 2005, p. 55). This has been done through dialogue and brainstorming because Japan has been a major player in such organizations and therefore its word can be trusted by China.

Chinese culture though one of the most ancient has evolved and somehow modernized in recent years. Most of this influence has come from Japan and this can be looked at from various perspectives. The two countries share various cultural aspects but Japan has a modern culture that has been spread to China as time goes by. For instance some form of dressing has been replicated to China by Japanese designers.

This has been done through the transformation of existing designs to make them modern. Apart from this, various linguistic aspects have also been shared between the two counties as time goes by (Wan 2006, p. 43). In this case, we can unilaterally say that Japan has been instrumental in the modernization of China in various ways.

As much as Chinas’ economy has been growing drastically, its political system has not been changing with the same pace and this is where Japan comes in. Japan has been trying to advocate for more democratic space in the country through various forums and this has piled pressure for a different and positive approach. Japan has a better political system than China and it has always been steadfast in encouraging it to embrace democracy and open up its political space (Emmott 2008, p. 37).

As much as political relations between the two countries have been improving in recent years, Japan is still convinced that China can do more as far as political transformation is concerned. This pressure has helped to modernize the country’s political system though more needs to be done.

The two countries have had a dispute at the East China Sea but China’s society and its party state is changing. Japan has strongly influenced China’s ancient writing system though it was first exported to Japan. This has been done through interactions and intermarriages that have taken place between their people.

It should be known that Japan will continue to influence China and vice versa and this should be capitalized on to enhance their own modernization. For instance, Japans’ investments in China are set to increase in 2010 and this means that the country will gain in a broad way. There have been various bilateral sensitive issues but Japan has been instrumental in shaping China’s chemical industry and weaponry. This issue was initially complicated by an argument that the US was using Japan to spy on China (Wan 2006, p. 51).

It should be known that Japan will continue to play a big role in the transformation of China as a modern nation because the two countries have a lot that can be used by either side. Japan has learned a lot of lessons in its journey to become the second largest economy in the world before being displaced by China (Crossley 2010, p. 73).

These lessons can still be used by China as it attempts to consolidate its economic gains for long term sustainability. The two countries have vowed to improve ties because they know the importance of such relations. As much as the two countries have had serious diplomatic rows, they can still resolve such for their own good. For instance, the issue of the disputed island can still be sorted out because it has recently played out.

As much as Japan has helped China to move forward, the two countries are very independent as far as economic aspects are concerned. The only issue is that they need each other to enhance their economies and this should always be looked at. All along, China has modernized its industry by getting help from Japan and this is good for the two nations.

In this case, there have been a lot of technological transfers that have helped China to modernize its industries. There has been an argument that Japan has helped China to develop a long range missile capacity but this has not been proved well (Emmott 2008, p. 83). Therefore, it will be interesting to see how the two countries interact as time goes by because they are big economies in the world.

It is presumed that relations will continue being positive because by virtue of being the worlds second and third largest economies, they are supposed to interact well (Crossley 2010, p. 74). This is as far as economic, social and political aspects between the two countries are concerned.

Wholesomely, Japan has assisted China to develop its economy through various foreign aids and this will continue as the two countries enhance their relations. It will be interesting to see how the Japan and China relate in the coming years because this will ultimately define their future. This is based on the fact that they are competing economically.

Reference List Crossley, P., 2010. The Wobbling Pivot: China since 1800. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Emmott, B., 2008. Rivals: How the Power Struggle between China, India and Japan Will Shape Our Next Decade. New York: Oxford Press.

Iriye, A., 1992. China and Japan in the global setting. Harvard: Harvard University Press

Quansheng, Z., 1996. Japanese Policymaking: the Politics behind Politics: Informal Mechanisms

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Political system comparison between India and China Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Unmistakably, India and China have gradually developed in the economic sectors due to effective organization in their political systems. The two countries found in the Asian continent, despite being third world countries, have advanced in the technological know how. It is unbelievable that the western countries face a serious competition from these nations due to the political stability found in the two countries.

The political systems in China and India are stable therefore the two countries have developed both econonomically and socially (Wang, 2003). Consequently, this paper attempts to compare their political systems, process and the policies in China and India. Finally, the paper hypothesizes the future of India and China in relation to their political systems.

India is a democratic country which is headed by the president. The major functions of the president include; powers to declare the state of emergency that allows the lower house (Lok sabha) to extend the five year term, chief legal adviser of the government and signing of the bills from the parliament (Manion, 2000).

The members of parliament have an obligation to vote for a persistent president. Among the members of parliament is the Electoral College. An electoral college is made up of the lawmakers. The number of these members is proposed to be 4500. Also there is a post of vice president who is elected by the members from both the upper and the lower houses. An individual who has an obligation to chair the upper house is the vice president. The upper house of the Indian parliament is identified as Rajya Sabha (Goldstein, 1990).

India has got the post of prime minister who is the head of the government affairs. Some stages are usually followed during the selection of a prime minister. First, a group of individuals from the lower house are expected to nominate the prime minister. Finally, the president is given the duty to select the Prime Minister (White, 1994). The prime minister is expected to advocate for the best ministers. He then leaves the remaining task to the president to select the ministers. The ministers then form the Council of Ministers.

The parliament of India is proposed to have two houses. One of the houses is the lower house. This is also known as house of people or Lok Sabha that has got 552 members. 530 members come from various states in India, while 20 members come from the union territories of India and 2 members are representatives of the English and Indian communities (Almond, 1956).

The president should dismiss the movements in the lower house after five years of operation. Unless the president exercises his power of declaring state of emergency, the lower house may precede the five year term of operation. For instance, the lower house in the years1962-1968 experienced extension due to declaring the state of emergency (Goldstein, 1990).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The election to the lower house is held at large magnitude in the 530 states in India which are completed after the five rounds which may last up to one month.

The second one is the upper house. According to White (1994, p. 23), “The upper house on the contrary is also referred to as the council of state or Rajya Sabha which consists of 250 members”. The 238 members of this house are elected by the state or territorial agencies according to the number of people while the remainder 12 members are elected by the president basing in the knowledge of their specialization in various fields.

The upper house lasts for a term of six years of which the session of the house is continuous. As a result, the upper house in India is not affected by the dissolution from the president (Dickson, 2003).

Both the upper and lower houses perform similar functions i.e. legislative functions therefore they share some of their duties. However, the lower house is the most powerful in the conflicting matters since it is made up of almost double the number of members found in the upper house (Manion, 2000).

In India, there is a system of multiparty where there are several political parties in the lower and the upper house. It is mandatory that a political party is recognized in four states for it to be called a national party. A political party can never be referred to as a national party unless it is acknowledged in four states. State parties are names used to refer to parties that are not acknowledged in either four or more states (Dickson, 2003).

Likewise there are state parties and national parties in the India political system. However it can be noted that the Indian National Congress has been dominating the Indian politics since its inception in 1885. It was formed majorly with an aim of fighting for freedom but afterwards it engaged in politics of India and its leadership has rotated within the Gandhi family. For instance some of its leader include; Jawaharlal Nehru Gandhi, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, Sonia Gandhi etc.

Other major political party that is found in India is Baratiya Janata Party, abbreviated as BJP. This party was formed in the year 1980 with an aim of catering for the needs of social and religious values for the Indian people. India is a country that has a considerable number of minor political parties.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Political system comparison between India and China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Amongst them is the Nationalist Congress Party as well as the Bahujan Samaj Party (Wang, 2003). State parties in India operate in restricted regions and some of them include; Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Goa, Aryana, Punjab etc.

The judicial system of India consists of the Supreme Court as the highest organ in the provision of justice to the people of India. The chief justice is selected by the president. The president does this basing on the guidance from the prime minister. In White (1994, p. 24), it is quoted that “Civil cases are dealt with in both high courts and magistrate courts”. Such cases are chaired by the judges.

China has a complex political system however it practices communism. China is a socialist republic where the working people act as the leaders of the country. Therefore the power of deciding the future of this country lies in the hands of the citizens rather than leaders of the government or political party leaders. Therefore the national people congress (NPC) and the local people congress (LPC) are the organizations that represent the people in their duty of exercising control of the country.

The National Peoples Congress is the powerful organ in the republic of China and it is made up of deputies from 35 different units (Manion, 2000).

The main work of the national congress is making and amending of the law, determining the budget of the government. This is the supreme organization in PRC therefore it has powers to appoint or demote senior officials. The terms of office of the national people congress is five years and for every year there is a convention where the members of the congress gather to discuss ideas.

For instance it is the work of the national people congress to nominate and elect senior officials such as the president and the chairman of the committee of the NPC. Also the prime minister and various ministers are appointed by the national people’s congress and they can be removed from these positions by the same organ through legal procedures.

The national people congress is therefore a major unit in the administration of the country since it not only provides the people with an opportunity to exercise power over the destiny of their country but also assists the state agencies to intermingle and share the work. This helps in developing the spirit of socialism of which the people republic of China relies on this policy.

The selected president and vice president in China are expected to be in leadership for a period of five years. These individuals are appointed by the national people congress.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Political system comparison between India and China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is worthy to note that china is also a democratic republic where there is exercising of multiparty (White, 1994). The Communist Party of China (CPC) is the leading party therefore it is dominant in decision making in the National Peoples Congress. This is because after the decisions are passed in the people’s congress, the decision is subject to scrutiny by the CPC. This makes the peoples republic of china to sound like a one party state however there is existence of other political parties.

In Dickson (2003 p.32), “there are other eight political parties and some of them include; China Association for Promoting Democracy, China Democratic League, China Democratic National Construction Association, Taiwan Democratic Self Government League, Jiusan Society, Chinese Peasant and Workers Democratic Party”.

However these political parties work hand in hand with the communist party of China since the CPC is the dominant party i.e. the ruling party (Wang, 2003). This means that there is interaction and consultation between the ruling party and the other eight political parties. Therefore the CPC is supported by other parties in ruling the people republic of china.

Consequently, there is no opposing party in the debate of national issues since there is cooperation between the CPC and the other eight political parties (White, 1994).

In India, political socialization occurs when the president interact with the prime minister in appointment of senior officials. For instance, a proposal must be made from the prime minister before the president is guaranteed the freedom to choose the ministers. The same applies to the prime minister who is selected after approvals from groups of individuals from the lower house. From this, it is derived that the president has to cooperate with the prime minister while performing his activities.

Another instance where political socialization occurs in India is the working between the lower house and the upper house. Both houses are involved in legislative duties however the lower house has supreme powers over the upper house therefore the former handles sensitive bills such as money bills. In special circumstances, there is joint session between the two houses.

The two houses are therefore the socialization agents in India. This is because in the lower house, members are elected directly from the 530 states of India. The members have a duty of representing each person that is found in the constituency. In the upper house, the members are elected indirectly by the president or other legislative units. As a result of this, most of the interests of the common man are catered for since there is a representative in the parliament.

On the other hand, political socialization in China is witnessed through the cooperation and consultations between the ruling party CPC and other parties (Goldstein, 1990).

The minor parties participate in the discussions concerning the state affairs and policy implementation while the ruling party takes into consideration the ideas. Therefore there is sharing of ideas where the parties are dependent on each other. The final decision that is made by the ruling party is reached upon consultation with the other eight political parties.

Therefore the agent of socialization in the china political system is the political parties that provide democracy to the people of china. Through the ruling party CPC, the people are able to express their opinions

Articulation and aggregation of interests of the people in republic of India is through political parties. India has a system of multiparty where the parties fight for the interests of the common man. This is done by means of articulation where the needs of the citizens are expressed in a simple way so that they can be understood clearly by the political system. For instance, communist party of India fights for the recognition of the rights of the Marxist group found in republic of India.

Aggregation of interests of the people is achieved through analyzing various opinions from the people and then identifying the common ideas among them (Almond, Powell, Dalton

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Hotel Management Essay essay help online free

Introduction Hotel management is one of the key aspects of ensuring that a hotel retains its position at the market by delivering excellent products and services to its customers. Delivering customer experience depends on how the guests are treated through a process usually referred as guest cycle. This paper sheds more light on the concept of hotel management. The paper briefly discusses some of the duties carried out by different departments in ensuring that customers have a great customer experience when they book in to a hotel.

The guest cycle

This refers to the organization of all the processes that occur from the time a potential customer reports to a hotel to the time the client leaves the hotel. A guest cycle, therefore, can be viewed as all the time that a client spends within the hotel facilities.

Pre arrival

This is the beginning of the guest cycle whereby customers make reservations which can be online or by presenting themselves at the hotel. At this level the reservists either does the work online if the hotel has online facilities or processes the reservations when the guest has arrived (Henning 2008, p. 72).

Arrival

This is where the guest physically arrives at the hotel premises. The reception process is done by a concierge and the doormen who welcome the guest to the receptionist whose role is to carry out the registration by taking down the details of the guest and assigning the room or any other service the guest may need. The concierge also does the issuing of keys and handles the luggage while directing the guest to the assigned room (Henning 2008, p. 72).

Occupancy

This represents the period in which the guest uses the services and the facilities of the hotel which may include lodging and meals among others. The telephonist has the role of facilitating communication between the guest and management of the hotel.

The concierge facilitates the efficient flow of information to and fro the guest and also delivers services such as mails (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011). The front desk cashier offers the services of currency exchange, does safe deposits and maintains guest accounts. The cashier may also facilitate processing of credit cards (Baker, Huyton and Bradley, 2001, p. 21).

Departure

This is the last cycle where the guest leaves the premises of the hotel. The cashier has the obligation of ensuring that bills incurred by the customer are settled. The concierge facilitates the baggage handling and transportation for the guest while the receptionist may do enquiries about how the guest found the service and welcoming the guest for a future time (Pitt, 2009, p. 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Role of room division personnel and house keeping staff

House keeping supervisor ensures that all the accommodation facilities are in order, well attended to and ready to use. The guest relations staff ensures that all personal needs, requirements and preferences of the guest are attended to.

The concierge serves the guest in terms of handling the baggage, giving directions and other functions such as mail delivery; he can be seen as the overall caretaker of the premises. The porter’s role is mainly to handle the luggage and hotel supplies and may even have the role of guarding the entrance of the hotel. The security officer ensures that security issues as pertains to the guests are not compromised (BLS, 2009, p.1).

Housekeeping and laundry

This is arguably the most important and sensitive department. Malhotra argued that housekeeping is very significant as it helps a lot to create a great customer experience (Malhotra, 1997, p. 165).

This department is mostly led by an executive housekeeper who delegates different duties to different housekeepers. The laundry work is attended by a laundry supervisor who oversees all the laundry work. Cleaning of the rooms and arrangement of clothing and house setting may be assigned to the maids under an overall supervisor (Jones, 2007, p. 30).

The housekeeper and the laundry may be in different departments in some large hotels; however, the two must work in unison. Sanitary and utility also may be in the housekeepers department. Maids may be assigned the duties of supplying sanitary ware to the rooms.

In some hotels housekeeping also encompasses a technical department whose role is to ensure all the mechanical and electrical instruments and gadgets, such as air conditioning systems, are in perfect working condition (Miller, 2011 p. 1). Some modern hotels have even implemented housekeeping software management systems which provide a platform for communication of all participants in the housekeeping department (Bardi, 2010, p. 430).

It is also suggested that training in all departments should be carried out to ensure that all the hotel personnel are able to serve all caliber of clients. Andrews also argued that since housekeepers are usually the direct contacts and service deliverers to the customers they should be well organized; dress appropriately and most importantly cooperate effectively both within various departments and the different levels of management (Andrews, 2007, p. 174).

We will write a custom Essay on Hotel Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Blue Ribbon hotel The problems in the guest cycle for Blue Ribbon hotel arguably began with the front office Manager who is said to have problems with forecasting the occupancy levels. Under forecasting may drive the hotel into financial losses whereas over forecasting may cause customer overflow than the hotel can handle thus affecting the guest cycle either way.

The executive housekeeper is said to be illiterate and thus may have problems dealing with modern dynamic hotel industry such as computerized housekeeping applications and thus not be in a position to handle guests effectively (Bardi, 2010, 79).

Room attendants are reported to work on fixed shifts with little or no incentives and this is likely to demoralize them thus negatively affecting their work output both in quality and quantity hence disrupting the guest cycle (Sogno, 2008, p. 1). Training of all the housekeepers is very important in ensuring timely and effective housekeeping service delivery and this is not provided at the hotel. This may lower the quality of service delivery thus negatively affecting guest cycle (Pitt, 2009, p. 1).

Conclusion Understanding and application of an effective guest cycle in any hotel is very important in that it ensures that customers are attended to in all aspects of their experience as guests in and out of the hotel. The cycle begins with pre-arrival, the actual arrival, occupation and finally departure with different employees attending to every aspect of service delivery.

Different workers have different roles to play as individuals and most importantly they should always work as a team. Hotel management should be carried out with a lot of sensitivity as what draws customers back to a hotel is the experience that they encounter.

References Andrews, (2007). Textbook of hotel housekeeping management and operations. New York: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

Baker, A., Huyton, F., and Bradley, N., (2001). Principles of Hotel Front Office Operations. New York: Cengage Learning EMEA.

Bardi, J., (2010). Hotel Front Office Management. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Hotel Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bureau of Labor Statistics, (20101). U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition. Web.

Henning, J., (2008). Effective Guest House Management. South Africa: Juta and Company Ltd.

Jones, T., (2007). Professional Management of Housekeeping Operations. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Malhotra, R., (1997). Encyclopaedia of hotel management and tourism, Volume 1. New Delhi, India: Anmol Publications PVT. LTD.

Miller, S., (2011). How to Build an Effective Hotel BSC in Minutes. Web.

Pitt, M., (2009). Effective Hotel Management. Web.

Sogno, A., (2008). The importance of effective communication in the Hotel industry. Web.

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Incidents in the Arabian Peninsula Essay best essay help: best essay help

Introduction The Arabian Peninsula has been a focal point in the world with the incidents in the region attracting world wide attention. This has been because of the mass quantities of oil reserves that the region holds as therefore making it especially significant to the developed world. Walker et al (2007) declare that the discovery of oil in the first decade of the 20th century forever changed the face of the region.

After the first commercially viable oil struck in the Gulf in 1908, Arab local ruler’s interest in oil was heightened. Walker et al (2007) notes that this interest was sparked by the desire by rulers to bolster their finances. As of this time, most of the Arabian Peninsula countries were colonized by Britain. In the 1960s, countries in the Gulf region began gaining independence which resulted in an increase say by the population on how to use the oil revenues.

A major result of the mass quantities of exported oil in the Arabian Peninsula was the rapid modernization of Arab communities. Before the oil wealth, most of the population in the Arab States was rural and led a primitive nomadic lifestyle. Oil revenues helped change the communities into modern entities with the state boasting of good infrastructure for its people. As a result of the enormous wealth, most states were able to establish generous welfare program that “emphasized primary health care and universal education” (Walker et al. 2007).

The oil Embargo of 1973 is hailed as a historic event since it demonstrated a major use of oil as a political weapon by the Arab states. Shwadran (1977) reveals that the following the hostilities between the Arabs and the Israeli, the oil ministers in Arab countries met and held discussions as to the implications of the war.

The Arab States representatives unanimously decided to cut oil supplies to all the consuming countries and more drastically to impose a total embargo on the United States and Holland who were the major supporters of Israel. Falola and Genova (2005) document that the objectives of the embargo were to directly impact Israel by cutting its oil supplies as well as its biggest Western supporters.

The Arab States came up with a number of conditions which had to be fulfilled before the cut in supplies could be lifted. This conditions were; Israeli withdrawal from all the Arab territory she occupied and the granting of rights to the Palestinian people.

While the embargo was finally lifted in 1974 without either of the demands of the Arab State being met, the embargo highlighted the power that the Arab oil producers held.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The embargo resulted in the Western world acknowledging the vulnerable position that resulted from the great dependence on Oil from the Arab States. In addition to the political leverage that imposition of oil embargoes gave to the Arab states, the embargoes also made them wealthier. This is because each embargo resulted in a surge in oil prices which resulted in even greater wealth for the oil producing countries.

The embargo demonstrates a recognition by the Arab states of the importance of oil to the world and their attempt to exploit this for a political cause. While the plan was a failure since the Arab producing countries lifted the oil embargo before achieving their cause. However, the embargo resulted in a reasonable increase in the oil revenue to the advantage of the Arab States. In addition to this, the embargo revealed to the world the power that the Arab states could posses when they acted in unity.

Difficulties in Attaining a 2-State Solution While the origins of the Arab-Israeli conflict date back many centuries with both Jews and Muslims laying claim to the land of Israel, the conflict as we currently know it traces its roots to 1948. This was when the United Nations established the state of Israeli and encouraged Jews from all over the world to immigrate to the land. This led to a displacement of hundreds of thousands of Arabs who had previously occupied the land and resulted in a number of Arab-Israeli Wars over the formation of the state of Israel and the rights of the Palestinians.

Attempts at ending the conflict have been underway with the most notable step being the 1993 Oslo Accord during which the 2-state solution was proposed (Zanotti, 2010).While many Palestinians are committed to the “principle of self-determination” and Israelis are opposed to a one state solution, the 2-state option still remains evasive. Some of the major reasons are as outlined below.

A major concern for Israel has been the security of her people from attacks. This concern has been validated by the constant tensions between Israelis and Palestinians as well as the upsurge of attacks by both sides (Zanotti, 2010).

At the present, Israeli has an upper hand due to its control of the Jordan valley as well as control of the entire airspace, Were a 2-state solution to be achieved, Israel would be required to give up the Jordan valley and allow Palestinians to control the airspace as well as the frontiers that lie in their territory. This would greatly increase Israel’s vulnerability to attacks as well as limit its defense capabilities.

Another reason why a 2-state solution would be difficult to achieve is because of the settlement projects by Israel. As it currently stands, Israel has and is continuing to set up settlements in the West Bank. While this has been cause for many demonstrations by Palestinians and Arab states, Israel has continued to establish new projects. If a 2-state solution were to be reached, it would invariably call for Israel to abandon its settlements.

We will write a custom Essay on Incidents in the Arabian Peninsula specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kelman (2011) declares that the settlement process itself has resulted in increasing opposition by Israelis to the proposed two-state solution. As such, while both the Palestinian leadership and the State of Israel have recognized each other’s political legitimacy a 2-state solution has not been achieved.

Currently Palestine is under Israeli troop’s occupation. This has been one of the bones of contention with much of the democratic world deeming Israelis occupation as illegal. A 2-state solution would call for the withdrawal of Israeli troops so as to enforce the sovereignty of the Palestinian state.

Zanotti (2010) states that this relinquishing of full control over territory and borders by Israel is highly unlikely in any foreseeable future. Considering the fact that an end to Israeli occupation of the West Bank is one of the major demands by Palestinians before a 2-state solution can be reached, the Israeli stand presents a major difficulty in the 2-state solution.

As can be seen through this paper, the Arab-Israeli conflict has major ramifications to the rest of the world. Many negotiations have been held in an attempt to come up with a peaceful solution to the conflict with the 2-state solution being the most promising one. However, various issues have resulted in both sides sabotaging the solution up to the present time.

References Falola, T.

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GWS Personnel Motorsport Report online essay help

Introduction GWS Personnel Motorsport participates as a team on various Australian Motorsport competitions. They are “competitors in the Australian Manufacturers Championship for Production Cars” (GWS Personnel Motorsport, 2011).

The manufacturers bring forward different types of production cars to the racetrack made by different producers. “The championship takes in circuits throughout Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland including Eastern Creek, Sandown Park, Wakefield Park, and Morgan Park Raceway (GWS Personnel Motorsport, 2011).

There are the six-hour and the twelve-hour competitions. The sport is a high adrenaline activity for the drivers and the enthusiasts. The enthusiasts find the speed and competitiveness of the sport very exhilarating. Some of the event sponsors include, “The Shire Conveyancer, Spinifex Australia, Rogue Lager and Briffa Smash Repairs” (GWS Personnel Motorsport, 2011). It is upon the GWS Personnel Motorsport to generate interest in the sport and to earn a support base from fans in order to turn it to their advantage.

Creative Strategy Theory

There is a unique need to develop advertising ideas that stand out from the multitude of advertisements that compete for attention in our cities. Conventional advertising can be a frustrating experience for the advertising team when a carefully developed advertising campaign ends up obscured by other advertisements that compete for attention.

Creative advertising uses normal advertising tools in new and refreshing ways that guarantee a lasting impact. It gives an advertising campaign fresh impetus. It requires the expansion of communication methods to appeal to the target audience in new and unmistakable ways.

The need for creative advertisement comes from the nature of advertising. Advertising aims at creating a bond between potential clients and a supplier.

This requires regular changes in approach since people change. Failure to keep up with changes in the society may lead to an advertising campaign becoming ineffective despite its budget and the planning process. Marketing is never a stagnant process but one that changes with time (Ferrell

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Zappos Case Study custom essay help

Company Background Zappos is an online shoes and apparel company with its head quarters situated at Henderson, Nevada, USA; it is barely twelve years old; Nick Swinmurn founded it in 1999. Swinmurn got the idea to invest in the company after he searched for his favorite brown pair of shoes in vain; he pondered over the idea and he saw an opportunity in the market to invest in the sector.

In the same year that he had missed his favorite pair of shoes, Swinmurn approached Tony Hsieh and Alfred Lin, and they jointly started an online footwear shop that they named as “ShoeSite to Zappos”. One year down the line, the company merged with Venture Frogs, which added an additional capital to the growing capital base of the company and jointly they adopted the name Zappos.

According to the company’s audited financial statement of 2009, the company was worth $1.2 billion in 2009. To venture and adopt better online selling skills, the company sold some of its shares to Amazon.com in 2008; currently the company’s chief execute officer and chief finance officer are Tony Hsieh and Chris Nielsen respectively (Zappos Official Website, 2011). This paper analyzes Zappos management structure.

Organizational structure The company has a formal structure where there are two main players, the chief executive office and the chief finance officer. They are the people that are mandated with the task of condensation and pioneering different issues in the company. The managers have the role of making various decisions on different issues in the company.

The idea to target the international market has been seen as an unusual approach to the company’s selling and business approach. The highly unusual corporate philosophy formed the foundation for the company’s business model, notably its profit sharing operator agreement. The model is such that, when the company wishes to expand, instead of seeking out franchisees, it carries out a search for highly motivated and responsible operators, who are usually among the existing employees of the company.

The top management has numerous meeting with other line managers in the efforts to disburse information and receive feedbacks from the people on the ground. They do not stay in the office and wait for work to be done but they are actively involved in day-to-day running to the organization (Smith

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The effect of the French Revolution on Lazare Carnot Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction The period of the French revolution was celebrated with a lot of enthusiasm and it can be perceived to have laid the groundwork and the birth of the new world socio-political order. This is an arrangement that is still analyzed by historians and social scientists alike as unique and diverse, and at the same time controversial to the avenues and trend, which had been in France before that time[1].

The French Revolution has indeed been seen as very complex, because its repercussions had spilt over effects to Europe and even the world over. Writers and political analysts wrote tremendously about the French Revolution both in 20th and 19th Century with the likes of Emile Dukheim launching their study of sociology based on the political and industrial turmoil the French Society underwent during that point in time[2].

Indeed, this point is emphasized by Nelly when she argues that, whereas the causes that characterized the French revolution cannot be authoritatively established, scholars and thinkers alike do recognize that the underlying impacts of that event spilled over into other parts of the world other than in France itself[3].

Notably, before the revolution, France was considered as a backward nation. This is because the notion was that it had not a so well balanced situation since the economic and intellectual development was not congruent to the social change[4].

This is perhaps the reason why studying the likes of Lazare Carnot who played a key role in the Revolution remains very core; since, based on his tactics and organizational competence, many governments and nations wanted to mimic his strategies especially based on his military successes that were interwoven in economic relating to technological advancement as well as cultural factors[5].

Indeed, the French society was undergoing a lot of industrial and political turmoil, to the extent that the intermediaries especially those against the aristocracy of the day began to push for change; this is how complex the revolution was[6]. Lazare Carnot, who was a staunch republican, is regarded as one of the men who voted for the execution Louis XVI[7].

Scholars of history have since posited that his desire was to see France emerge from turmoil to insurmountable success and France to be strong enough to defend itself, together with its ideals against the nations whose intentions were to destroy it[8].

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Summary of Carnot’s Life and Role in the Revolution

In summary, Carnot role and the impact of the revolution can be broadly looked at in a number of ways. One is in his execution of Louise XVI and his motive to realize a French society, which was strong to battle it out with other nations in terms of ideals, economic stability, as well as cultural independence[9].

Second is to examine him in the context of how he restructured the French Army mass conscription and bringing together of different regiments together with volunteers, and new recruits blended with war veterans or those who were already considered experienced enough.

Historians have since asserted for instance that this arrangement brought in the much-needed impetus, enhanced manpower, and facilitated speedy gaining of experience by the new recruits who later became instrumental in the war[10]. Third is the fact that Carnot exhibited his war aptitudes in the field and in essence practically aiding the wining of various battles[11].

Fourth is to view him in the part when he was a member of various committees. For instance, while he was a member of public safety committee, he got involved in the fight with Maximillein Robespierre, and later surviving the fall of his regime and cronies alike[12].

The fifth way is to examine when he was at his highest position as the President of the Directory. During this time, he was strongly opposed to ‘imperial honors’, causing him to have a friction, leading to eventual fall out with Napoleon Bonaparte. Later, he took over the Defence of Anterwep. The sixth way would be to examine the retuning emperor campaign for 100 days. Finally, there is need to scrutinize his life in exile, which he later spent in many European cities during which he wrote memoirs[13].

Carnot’s Educational Biography and Career: Summery Reflection Lazare Carnot graduated from the School of Engineering in Mezieres in 1773.

He wrote a book titled Essai sur les Machine en general in 1778, which was based on engineering and mechanics; indeed, he submitted it for a prize competition. Interestingly, he failed to honor “an invitation to enter the Prussian service and in the same year period, he was elevated to the level of captain”[14].

We will write a custom Research Paper on The effect of the French Revolution on Lazare Carnot specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It was in 1787 that Lazare Carnot got into the Dijon Academy, effectively becoming a member of the academy. Later on, he served in Legislative Assembly, the National Convention, and “director of the Army of the North after April 1793” before becoming the “leading member of the Committee of General Defense and a member of the Committee of Public Safety”[15].

The year 1797 is considered a very eventful year for Carnot, as it was the year when he published his book, which became famous. Although however everything indicates that there will be a “new turn in the culture of mathematics, the author deems it opposite to publish this monograph”[16].

It was in 1780 that Lazare Carnot came back to France following the installation of Napoleon Bonaparte as the First Consul; and surprisingly enough “he became Napoleon Bonaparte’s minister of war for a period of five months and he was promoted further to rank of lieutenant general” [17]; however, Carnot is best known as geometer.

Lazare Carnot survived and maintained his position of power through the time of the French Revolution. This was from the time of the inception of the war to its ending during the bringing down of the greatest Charlatan of his time, Napoleon Bonaparte. This period was between 1789 and 1815[18].

Socio-politically, Lazare Carnot is regarded to have started a number of instrumental reforms ideal for France at that time and arguably for the generation that were to follow. These included his proposition on mandatory public Education for all the French Nationals[19]. He was also involved in writing of the French Constitution together with others such as Thomas Paine, the writer of common sense.

The constitution among others entailed provisions of the declaration of the duties of the citizens. This declaration entailed among others, that all citizens of France are entitled to both education and military service training and that this should encompass those that are within the age ranges of 21 to 25[20].

Regardless of the fact that Carnot was of noble birth, he championed for a system where recognition of citizens was to be based on intelligence and their abilities and not merely based on birth; this was revolutionary. It is argued that it was on this school of thought that Napoleon Bonaparte rose to power in France, since also Carnot elevated him to be a general from captainship[21].

Houghton Mifflin Company notes that one f the greatest success stories in favor of Carnot by denouncing French government were of military nature. Indeed, was it not for Carnot, “the modern waging of war with mass armies and strategic planning would not exist”[22].

Not sure if you can write a paper on The effect of the French Revolution on Lazare Carnot by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Being a military engineer that he was, he developed policies in favor of fortresses and strategies, which were largely defensive by nature. It was only as a result of the regular invasions that he changed tact and opted for attacking as his strategic Planning method. The strategies that he developed were within and largely informed by his intelligence and military genius.

Therefore, he managed to coordinate maneuvers and put in an organizational competence, leading to major turning of the wave of war right from 1703 to 1794. By him incepting this idea, the background was grounded on the fact that he was shrewd in making his army divided and deployed in a number of units[23].

This would ensure that they speedily move and attack from all angles in the end, and not have a head-on collision with the adversary. He had thought earlier that attacking the enemy directly would lead to same defeats as it has happened before when he had not been elected to the Community of Public Safety. Indeed, the tactics he employed were victorious in many fronts and were largely superior to the traditional methods that had been applied previously by a number of European Armies[24].

Perhaps, Carnot strength was to be found in his leverage of training the conscripts in the art of war and to deploy the new recruits together with soldiers who had enormous experience and this ensured sharing of ideas on how to wage war against an enemy. Beyond this, he discovered a political strategy, which had advantages.

This was to disconnect and disrupt an adversary communication links between enemy countries of England and Austria. While at that, he kept on attacking England. Noteworthy is the fact that his military styles were finally employed in initiating and eventual overturn of Robespierre. Considering various viewpoints of Carnot, he should be understood in a number of dimensions[25].

The Biography and his role and Impact in Details Creation of the Republican Concept

Noteworthy, Carnot’s role in bringing about political change is characterized by the economy. Even though France was not a balanced country in terms of having a clearly distinguishable political economy, the idea only came to being by Carnot’s merging the ideas of Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716) and Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683)[26].

Paoli notes that Leibniz economics was based on technological advancement being formal training that would usher in success in all countries. For him, this called for reorganization of the society, facilitate success and to bring about Cultural Revolution. His view was tailored around what he called ‘social reproduction’ and not on simple accounting. Of course, Carnots and his co-contemporaries used this knowledge to their advantage[27].

For Colbert, his ideas were also resounding for Carnot, being the first ‘statesman’ to develop the idea of planned economy, and established the French Academy of sciences, putting in Research and Development Department, he was certainly influential to Carnot. Further, he liked all the departments to Technological Development.

Carnot combined these ideas: strong political economy and cultural independence to understand how to destroy enemy states at that time, the British with the aim of creating insurmountable unsolvable crisis.

Carnot and his Leibnizinism

Lazare Carnot was trained by the American, Benjamin Franklin, who had fought so hard against Feudalism in America and Europe. Here, it is noteworthy to mention that he went to a school operated by Oratorian Fathers and studied the works established by Leibniz and later went to Méziers where he learnt military engineering. It was between 1783 and 1784 that “Lazare Carnot came into contact with Franklin’s Parisian circles, and began the fundamental political endeavor”[28].

Paoli notes that “Carnot defined himself as Leibnizian in a broadest sense” when he wrote his essay “Essay on Machines” in which he profoundly asserts that the progress of society is just a good as its technological advancement[29].

It was also during this time that Carnot assisted some of his friends and the ‘Montogolfier’ brothers in an experiment of aerostatic balloons, something that had tremendous appeal against those that believed that man could not influence nature especially going against gravity as a law. He was to later bring in a notion, which fundamentally challenged the principles of thermodynamics and energy conversion. Beyond that, he refuted the claim on “ecology movement for solar energy for new ‘diffuse’ sources of energy”[30].

The struggle for a republic during the Revolution

Carnot, Franklin and their followers played a big role as far as the revolution is concerned. The role of Carnot in the making of the first republican army, which had the potential of dealing effectively with other countries’ forces that were liaising with French royal class and considered a lot capable and superior. Paoli notes that the revolution had two broad motives in fighting for power right from its inception.

One was the American influence, which entailed the likes of Thomas Paine, and this did not focus on the creation formation of regime change, rather it was wired to encompass implementation of an economic as well social policy changes modeled the same way the American one was[31]. Carnot thus came in to protect the real spirit of the revolution among the French masses. He was against the faction which wanted to ensure Orleans were on the throne, which having not achieved its goal was split down the middle into two[32].

Carnot, because of his membership to the committee in charge citizen’s safety, had to belong to Robespierre function, but as he profoundly asserts, he was opposed to it for its ‘cruelty and tyranny.’ It was after a number of intimidative plans by the authorities that Carnot and those that believed in his thought (his student friends at the Meseires School of engineering) were elected to the Legislative Assembly[33].

Thus, it was also the time that they attempted to craft a political movement that defined the politics of France for the years that would follow. The dilemma then became that a line was drawn between republicans. These were operating separately either in fight or defense of the feudal lord ideology which considered man to be a ‘laborer and just a beast’[34].

Carnot and the Education of the Citizenry

The role of Carnot here became very important in the sense that he was elected to the new Legislative Assembly and to the committee responsible for public/civic education. Here, he was largely responsible for the reconstruction of the French Education and pedagogical arrangement.

Even though the likes of Danton, Marat and like minded were opposed to Carnot’s ideas including supporting a statement that ’the republic has no use for scientists’ as stated some judges then. Carnot still pushed on; it was in fact such remarks as those of judges that provoked the ‘permanent revolution’[35].

Carnot Organizer of victory

It was in 1792 that Carnot and his friends organized to cease power with the motive of stooping the ‘destruction of France’. He employed a military model that borrowed from the republican political loom to the skill of war. It entailed combination and application of various disciplines that he had experience in including `science, technology, and a victorious military strategy’[36].

Scholars and historians particularly have since argued that his tactic were incredible because he successfully brought them into play in the middle of anarchy, economic collapse, as well as foreign invasion.

In his earlier writings, Carnot emphasized the concept of the art of war in which he reiterated the relationship among defense works, and the restructuring of the economy and mass employment of modern technology. Beyond this, he brings in the significance of using cultural autonomy as a very good tool in war and societal reconstruction.

Due to the fact that he was a renowned tactician and who viewed war with global lenses, he was flexible and very resonate in his approach to the extent that he sought out some strategies from to iron out `aspects of military deployment’ Guibert even though they clashed in 1784[37].

He at one point took a tour to rearrange the forces and having realized how bad the situation had been, he connected to what he called `the stupidity of the revolutionaries’. He thus planned some actions to be taken to correct the situation. When Carnot ascended to power, he brought in great scientists who he used to reconstruct the military supply and logistics[38].

They were mathematicians, chemists, geometers, and engineers all of which came from Métiers. They eventually, five years later, managed to overturn the military situation. The French army also became great to the extent that it became a model to be copied by many countries the world over. Scholars have argued that it was a time when the great Nicolo Machiavelli was realized[39].

Carnot Thermodian Coup d’ Etat

Robespierre tried going after and trying to execute Carnot. This was during the period between September of 1793 and April 1794 when Carnot had made success stories regarding the military conditions in France.

However, Carnot having been provoked decided to deploy his army with the purpose of eliminating the partisans of Robespierre without killing anyone. It was after this that he gained his total freedom as he deemed fit. While this was an opportunity, which he used to consolidate the fragile bases of the French Republic, he however, did not capitalize on this to eliminate his rivals who interestingly were to get him out of power later in 1797[40].

Hanson reckons that Carnot always thought not in terms of short-lived plans, but by plans whose impacts would be felt in a long time. For instance, in September of the same year, he established the Ecole Polytechnique, a school that created the best of European Scientists and was to be an assailable legacy/model for the world during the 19th Century[41].

In 1984, Carnot made an evolutionary speech, a speech that was largely against Napoleon Bonaparte. In his speech, he explicitly emphasized that Bonaparte should have chosen America and George Washington models rather than choosing Rome and Julius Caesar[42].

Carnot’s view was embedded in the idea that, to create a Europe with lasting peace, it was important to factor in republican regimes or monarchies characterized with republican economic systems. This, according to him, would mean the disbandment of the feudal lords system or the feudal oligarchy, and what he called ‘the worst tyranny that ever existed’ and regardless of the fact that the English tried to interfere with Carnot’s ideas he still pressed on[43].

When Robespierre had fallen, those who expedited soft landing for the English Oligarch tried to oppose Carnot, and in 1795, a group of individuals led by Barras and Talleyrand, had formed a command pedestal for those called ‘Themidorians’[44].

This group later in 1797 tried to eliminate Carnot when the army devoted to him was away. Surprisingly, Barras still went ahead to publicize some information that Carnot was trying to commit treason, information that was false. Due to this misled information, Carnot became frightened and escaped to Switzerland having barely survived death[45].

Regardless of the fact that Carnot’s plan was on peace, his seeking refuge in Switzerland was a great relief to the monarchists, as well as English and French agents. It was however not easy to scrap out the institutions and the ideologies he had built over the years[46].

Napoleonic Period

When Napoleon Bonaparte took power in 1799, he called Carnot back to France and made him his Inspector of War, where he was in charge of army training and deployment besides having the authority to reconstructing the French Army all the way in Germany. Interestingly, Carnot resigned from the position a year later, based on lack of congruency of ideas between the two[47]. Napoleon Bonaparte was very much concerned with the ideology of monarchy, and had inconsistent republican views that Carnot held very dear[48].

Beyond that, he had a less tactical approach to war. It should however not escape his mind that during his short-lived period in office, he still endeavored to map out what he felt as the road that reforms should follow, particularly as far as education matters were concerned. Education in his view should have followed republican approach[49].

Also, Carnot persisted in implementing his reform agenda of enhancing the authority of the army in France, and went ahead to form ‘corps’ of telegraphers and incepted the idea of forming a unique special unit-that of naval infantry, an idea which Bonaparte was vehemently opposed to, and Carnot had quit government.

The following years between 1800 and1804, Lazare Carnot dedicated himself to putting his scientific ideas into writing and it was during this time that he produced his works in geometry and machines. Some of his works soon became the basis for republican views as far as Science was concerned. It was also during this period that he found himself alone ‘opposer’ of Napoleon rules[50].

At this time, he was determined and worked together with other like-minded individuals to form a common thread in scientific reasoning and methodology. This opened a window of opportunity to the formation of Prussia Institutions akin to those that were on France, and University in Berlin was created[51].

It was not until 1814 that those that followed Carnot’s teaching ganged to the extent that the empire under Napoleon collapsed. However, since Carnot saw this as a threat to stability in France he returned to governmental service even though he was already 60 years of age. He was at this initiative appointed Governor in charge of the City Of Garrison of Anvers.

He was to defend, with marked intelligence, the town that it was not subdued by any adversary. Interestingly, the Prussians were so impressed by the way he defended the to the extent that they refused to kill him even when they were ordered to do so by King Louis XVIII[52].

Napoleon appointed him Interior Minister when he returned from exile, and Carnot formed the Council of Industry and Welfare, bringing together the men who belonged to the Committee in Charge of Defense[53]. This program is viewed by historians and political scientists to have ushered in grounding on economic scientific workings that were technology based and this became the lenses through which the countries industrial innovations and capacities were anchored and encouraged.

The French Army was to face defeat later in the same year because of Napoleon stubbornness to heed to Carnot’s advice[54]. Napoleon tended his resignation and Carnot once again took the place of the president of the Assembly of France.

He organized the army, but Fouche ‘committed treason against Carnot’ and stalled his plan to protect that Capital[55]. Louis appointed Carnot to the position of the Interior Minister for his role as a ‘thank you’ for his efforts. Regardless, Fouche soon drew a list of those to be exiled as he was asked to do so by Louis and Carnot was first the in the list[56].

Carnot and his Exile in Magdeburg

Because of his name in the Fouche’s list, Carnot was forced to flee to Magdeburg, a place that accommodated him adequately and he formed a good rapport with the inhabitants. His spirit was soon to be anchored since he found a number of personalities who subscribed to republican scientific orientations[57].

It was not surprising that the “German republicans sought to build in Germany a republic which would be based on the ideas of Franklin and the French”[58]. This made Germany and Prussia to be ahead educationally, and England was towing behind. Among the other exploits during this time was that Franco-German scientists soon established a number of colleges and created a journal called Crelle’s Journal[59].

Death of Carnot

Carnot passed on in 1823 in Magdeburg. At this time, there was decay in France whereas Prussia was making headways. Perhaps that would not have happened had his ideas been fully embraced in France[60].

Conclusion The French revolution had significant influence in the lives of leaders who lived at the time of its occurrence. France, having been seen as inferior to its rival European countries, was trying to redeem and rediscover itself, more so following the mediocre nature of leadership by the then political leaders, who made the country fall into turmoil both socially and economically.

It is for this reason that some great revolutionists such as Lazare Carnot fought protracted battles to engineer change in the country. Carnot’s political ambitions began early in his life; indeed, during his education life, he had written various books and later joined the army. The French revolution however, had a significant bearing and influence in the life of Lazare Carnot, especially given the fact that during this time he was the minister of war in the government of Napoleon, the then leader of France.

However, the actual effect of the revolution on Lazare Carnot can be assessed by looking at the roles he played during the time of the revolution. In this case, it is good to assess his role in execution of Louise XVI, his role in French Army, the various public committees he served in, the highest position held, and lastly, his actions while in exile.

Nevertheless, his prowess, both in democratic front and in war made various leaders during his life to embrace him and incorporate him in their armies, and surprisingly enough, he never failed them. Indeed, sometimes he became even more powerful and critical to the leadership especially during the rule of Napoleon, thus necessitating his exile to neighboring countries.

Bibliography Anonymous. Biography of Distinguished Scientific Men. NY: Forgotten Books, N.d.

Arnold James. The Aftermath of the French Revolution. Minneapolis: Twenty First-Century Books, 2009.

Gillipse, Charles. Science and Polity in France: The End of the Old Regime. New Jersey: Pricenton: Pricenton University Press, 2004.

Hanson, Paul. Contesting the French Revolution. NY: Blackwell Publishers, 2008.

Houghton Mifflin Company. The Houghton Dictionary of Biography. NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2003.

Kates, Gary. The French Revolution: Recent debates and New Controversies. Second Edition. New York: Routledge, 1998.

Moran, Daniel. The People in Arms: Military myth and national Mobilization since the French Revolution. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Neely, Sylvia. A Concise History of the French Revolution. Maryland. Rowman and Littlefield, Inc, 2008.

Paoli Dino. “Lazare Carnot’s Grand Strategy for Political Victory.” Executive Intelligent Review, 1996. Web.

Price, Roger. A Concise History of France. Second Edition. New York: Cambridge Press, 2005.

Schubring, Gert. Conflict between Generalization, Rigor and Intuition. Number concepts underlying the development of analysis in 17th-19th century France and Germany. CA: Springer Sciences, 2008.

Struik, Dirk. A Concise History of Mathematics. Fourth Edition. NY: Dover Publications, 1987.

Footnotes Sylvia Neely. A Concise History of the French Revolution, (Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield, Inc, 2008).

Daniel Moran. The People in Arms: Military myth and national Mobilization since the French Revolution, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003).

Sylvia Neely. A Concise History of the French Revolution, (Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield, Inc, 2008).

Paul Hanson, Contesting the French Revolution, (NY: Blackwell Publishers, 2008).

Sylvia Neely, 2008, ibid

Paul Hanson, 2008, ibid

Sylvia Neely, 2008, ibid

Gary Kates, the French Revolution: Recent debates and New Controversies, Second Edition, (New York: Routledge, 1998).

Daniel Moran, 2003, ibid

Dino Paoli. “Lazare Carnot’s Grand Strategy for Political Victory.” Executive Intelligent Review, 1996.

Daniel Moran, 2003, ibid

Daniel Moran, 2003, ibid

Gary Kates, 1998, ibid

Houghton Mifflin Company. The Houghton Dictionary of Biography. (NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2003).

Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003, ibid

Daniel Moran, 2003, ibid

Daniel Moran, 2003, ibid

Paul Hanson, 2008, ibid

Paul Hanson, 2008, ibid

Daniel Moran, 2003, ibid

Dino Paoli., 1996, ibid

Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003, ibid

Charles Gillipse, Science and Polity in France: The End of the Old Regime, (New Jersey: Pricenton: Pricenton University Press, 2004).

Paul Hanson, 2008, ibid

Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003, ibid

Charles Gillipse, 2004, ibid

Dino Paoli., 1996, ibid

Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003, ibid

Dino Paoli., 1996, ibid

Gary Kates, 1998, ibid

Dino Paoli., 1996, ibid

Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003, ibid

Gary Kates, 1998, ibid

Gary Kates, 1998, ibid

Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003, ibid

Dino Paoli., 1996, ibid

Gary Kates, 1998, ibid

Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003, ibid

Dino Paoli., 1996, ibid

Paul Hanson, 2008, ibid

Anonymous. Biography of Distinguished Scientific Men. NY: Forgotten Books, N.d.

Charles Gillipse, 2004, ibid

Dirk Struik, A Concise History of Mathematics, Fourth Edition, (NY: Dover Publications, 1987)

Charles Gillipse, 2004, ibid

Dino Paoli., 1996, ibid

Gary Kates, 1998, ibid

Schubring, Gert. Conflict between Generalization, Rigor and Intuition. Number concepts underlying the development of analysis in 17th-19th century France and Germany, (CA: Springer Sciences, 2008).

Dirk Struik, 1987, ibid

Charles Gillipse, 2004, ibid

Paul Hanson, 2008, ibid

James Arnold, The Aftermath of the French Revolution, (Minneapolis: Twenty First-Century Books, 2009).

Roger Price, A Concise History of France, Second Edition, (New York: Cambridge Press, 2005).

Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003, ibid

Roger Price, 2005, ibid

Paul Hanson, 2008, ibid

Roger Price. A Concise History of France. Second Edition, (New York: Cambridge Press, 2005).

Gary Kates. The French Revolution: Recent debates and New Controversies. Second Edition. (New York. Routledge, 1998).

Dino Paoli. “Lazare Carnot’s Grand Strategy for Political Victory.” Executive Intelligent Review, 1996.

Dino Paoli. “Lazare Carnot’s Grand Strategy for Political Victory.” Executive Intelligent Review, 1996.

Houghton Mifflin Company. The Houghton Dictionary of Biography, (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2003).

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The New Gay Teenager Report college essay help near me

In his book “The New Gay Teenager” Ritch Savin Williams explores the different what being a “gay” adolescent is like in the world today with the media playing a greater role in how being a homosexual is interpreted by society (O’Conner 2005).

He explores how the concept of being gay is slowly changing as a result of pop culture influences brought about by the media which in effect has created a whole new generation of gays completely separate from the previous generation in terms of behavioral aspects and established norms (Williams 2005).

He elaborates on the concept of the creation of the gay adolescent as the result of prevailing literature during the 1970’s portraying gayness as being potentially self-destructive and classifying such individuals as being mentally ill.

He goes on to elaborate on how the adolescents of today are growing up in a much different world as compared to that of previous generations of gay and lesbian individuals where being gay is more socially acceptable as compared to previous decades.

Finally, toward the end of the book, Williams states his hope that within his lifetime he hopes to see the elimination of biases placed on same sex relationships with it being relegated to normal behavior.

Main question addressed by this book

Is the concept of being gay changing in teenage society as a result of pop culture influences and the media?

Main Argument/ Central Thesis of the Book

Teenagers are rejecting the biases associated with gender categories in order to pursue satisfying sexual relationships with same sex partners as a direct result of media influences.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most important empirical/ theoretical claim

The author posits the idea that being gay is slowly losing the distinction of being abnormal as the influences of pop culture and the media slowly changes public perception. This is especially true among teenagers which results in a greater level of acceptability towards homosexual behavior. As a result individuals are no longer “embarrassed” to be gay since it is slowly becoming a more socially acceptable trend which as a result has created a distinct upswing in the amount of same sex attractions between young individuals.

Relating the content of the book to ideas of Social Inequality and Sexuality

Williams claims that as a result of media influences the “New Gay teenager” is an individual that will be attracted to both girls and boys with terms such as “gay” being irrelevant to public discourse. He claims that there is a growing trend of teenagers becoming bisexual with lines existing between being gay and straight slowly being blurred over time with individuals coming to terms with the duality of this unique behavioral nature that they have acquired.

This creates a situation where an individual has sexual relationships with both males and females without any apparent guilt as to the possible views society has towards his/her behavior due to the increasing general acceptance of being bi-sexual. As a result, this has created a type of dramatic shift between the older generation of gays that had fixed sexual orientations with that of the newer generation of gay teens that view gender categories as being unimportant in the long run due to their own views regarding bisexual orientations.

On page 18 of this book Williams specifically states “the success of the entertainment industry in presenting and hence normalizing same-sex desire has had an incalculable impact on the ability of adolescents to understand their own emerging sexual desires” (Williams 2005).

Based on this statement it can be stated that the entertainment industry has greatly affected the concept of gender norms, sexuality and homophobia by effectively creating a social trend wherein gender categories are no longer considered of great importance and in effect are replaced with open acceptance of bi-sexual behavior. In a sense it could be considered the end of the category of being “gay” since it would be considered normal for individuals to love either men or women.

Weaknesses in the book

The one weakness in the book is the favorable use of the work of Dr. Sandfort without showing that Sandfort was in fact part of the pedophile movement. This is evidence of the distinctly propagandist nature of the writings of Williams which fails to take into account other possibilities in relation to the development of human sexuality through the media.

Works Cited O’Connor, Elizabeth. “Homosexuality

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Nickel and Dimed Report essay help: essay help

The book “Nickel and Dimed”, written by Barbara Ehrenreich investigates the resulting impact of the 1995 welfare program instituted by the U.S. in order to aid the working poor.

Set in the perspective of an investigative journalist working undercover as a poor low wage worker, the book delves into how non-skilled workers within the U.S. attempt to live through earning the bare minimum wage given by their employers.”

The goal of the author was to work one month each in Florida, Maine and Minnesota in order to see if she could live off the money earned from working low wage jobs and still have enough to pay for her rent next month” (Ehrenreich 10).

By the end of the three month period the author found out that even working a single minimum wage job was not enough to meet the necessary cost of living in the three states. As such she needed to get a second job in order to supplement her income however this came at the cost of being physically exhausted nearly every single day with very little pay to show for it.

Main Question Addressed by the book:

Do minimum wage workers earn enough to attain a sufficient standard of living for themselves or is there a need to supplement their income?

Main Argument of the Book

The main argument of the book centers around the fact that minimum wage workers are not paid enough to reach a decent standard of living. That their situation is compounded by derogatory practices by employers which are meant to force employees to see themselves in a lowly position which facilitates better control over their actions and to keep them from demanding better pay and benefits.

Most important empirical/ Theoretical Claim

The author posits the idea that despite the actions of the government to aid the urban working class poor through better wages the fact remains that the current salary range earned by a minimum wage worker is nowhere near sufficient to meet the various “hidden costs” associated with living as an unskilled laborer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is often seen that unskilled laborers have to stay at cheap low end motels due to their inability to pay the security deposits needed for renting an apartment. Not only that they are unable to buy healthier and inexpensive food due to their inability to have access to refrigerators and stoves. As a result they have to rely on expensive fast food items in order to supplement their diets which are detrimental in the long run to their health.

Relating the content of the book

It must be noted that unskilled workers receive low wages not out of choice but due to the current labor and social system in place which keeps wages down in order to keep low wage workers in their positions. The current economic system does not benefit low wage workers at all, low income housing has all but disappeared, services and education are all geared towards skilled labor and unskilled labor is more often the least cared for portion of the U.S. labor force.

Ehrenreich suggests that this might be due to the fact that society requires unskilled laborers to remain in the positions they are in right now so that the upper echelons of society can benefit. The fact remains that should unskilled laborers receive higher wages this would translate into higher costs of labor for the middle and upper class. By keeping unskilled laborers in their current positions society ensures that the price of services continues to remain low.

The inherent problem is that the system of employment for unskilled labor is virtually designed in such a way so as to limit their rights and give more power to the employer. The derogatory behavior and repetitive tasks employed as well as the regular drug tests and questionnaires are all meant to degrade employee perception. This is done to ensure their compliance towards work practices and ensure that they will have no option but to go to work again the next day.

Ehrenreich states that the entire system is inherently constructed so as to imprison people within a certain role and within a certain economic class to benefit those above (Ehrenreich 98). Even though the jobs they do are harder and involve more work the pay is invariably lower. What must be understood is that the current system fosters class and economic inequality for the benefit of the select few leaving little if next to no choice for those at the very bottom rung of the ladder of society.

Works Cited Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel and Dimed: On Getting By in America. 2001. Metropolitan Books, New York City

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The Connection between the lives and works of Richler, Cohen and Layton Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction Mordercai Richler, Irving Layton and Leonard Cohen are Jewish Canadian writers. These three writers have tremendously impacted the Canadian literature and their writings prove that a person’s culture is capable of influencing his/her writing. Some of the most intelligent literary names in Canada are of Jewish faith. It is important to note that while Judaism influenced the works of Richler, Layton and Cohen, none of the three writers can be described as an observant Jew. (Jones, 326)

Living life in a certain way and having a set of ideas that are opposed to those generally accepted by the society is termed or described as counterculture. The trio of Mordecai Richler, Irving Layton and Leonard Cohen share such a way of life and such ideas. These three authors were counterculture to their Jewish origin. (Wayne, 421)

This narrative essay will attempt to connect the lives and writings of Mordecai Richler, Irving Layton and Leonard Cohen. These three writers are from Montreal Canada, they are all Jewish, they have all lived abroad and they share a similar way of life and ideas that differ from those accepted by the Jewish Canadian society. This essay will examine their separate lives and writings before attempting to connect it.

Mordecai Richler

Mordecai Richler was born January 27th, 1931. He was a screenwriter, poet, essayist and an author. Richler had always maintained that he desired to be a sincere witness to his immediate environment. It was also his dream to write at least a single book that he will be remembered for after his death.

He was often described as a pillar in Canada’s literary history and as one of the greatest Canadians. His contribution to the Canadian literary history can never be forgotten. While he was alive, some critics tried to distinguish Richler the polemicist from Richler the author. (Charles, 338)

“The apprenticeship of duddy Kravitz”, “Barney’s Version” and “Jacob two-two” are considered as some of Richler’s best works. “Solomon Gursky was here” is a novel which was written by Richler in 1989 and in 1990, the novel was shortlisted for the prestigious the Booker Prize. Apart from been one of the most intelligent and reputable Jewish Canadian writer, Richler also had a reputation for always stirring controversy.

Some of Richler’s admirers and followers hailed him for his boldness of saying the truth. He was also described as the last honest man by some of his admirers. However, his critics thought differently. Richler was seen by his critics as a person who was only good at doing things that were quite difficult like; sketching interesting and unusual scenes. They believed he lacked the ability of creating logical and well organized narratives. He frequently had conflicts with the Quebec nationalists. (Mordecai, 866)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the 1970s and 1990s, Richler’s articles in American publications increased the tension that already existed in the volatile situation between him and Quebec nationalists. His articles condemned Quebec language laws and it linked Quebec’s political party to Nazism. This stirred a lot of controversy and it created a division in the Quebec societies.

A fraction believed Richler’s perspective of the Quebec society was stereotyped and archaic. But the other fraction of the Quebec community argued that Richler was only defending the rights of the Quebec Anglophones by questioning the rigid norms that existed in the Quebec societies. (Jones, 109)

Richler used Jewish themes and symbolism in his writings. His book “The apprenticeship of duddy Kravitz” had a character named Kravitz who was a money hungry and self centered person. These traits were usually attributed to the Jews. The book “The apprenticeship of duddy Kravitz” attracted a lot of criticism. He was briefly married to a French Canadian woman and he died in July 3rd, 2001. (Wayne, 155)

Irving Layton

Irving Layton was born March 12th, 1912. Layton was born as Israel Lazarovitch to Jewish parents in Romania thus making him a Romanian born Canadian. Layton was a poet who had a reputation for saying things exactly the way the appeared. This earned him respect and a large number of admirers but it also made a lot of enemies for him too. Layton’s work provided the much needed break through for modern poetry to showcase its depth and richness. These are qualities that poets before his time had ignored. (Wayne, 300)

Layton had a lot of books to his credit but his most outstanding and notable publications were; “A red carpet for the sun” and “The collected poems of Irving Layton” which were published in 1959 and 1971 respectively. The book “A red carpet for the sun” won Layton the governor general’s award. He also, wrote “Butterfly on the Rock” in 1991 and “A wild peculiar Joy” in 1982.

While at the McGill University, he became a socialist and this resulted to his been banned and blacklisted in the United States for two decades. Layton’s books earned him an international reputation and made him a celebrity on Canadian television in the 1950s. His works were greatly appreciated abroad particularly in Italy and South Korea. These two countries also nominated Layton for the Nobel Prize for literature in 1981. As an influential teacher, he taught vigorously and influenced his students.

His influence on his students made some of them choose writing and arts as professions. According to Moses Znaimer a television magnate and a student of Layton, he choose the media due to Layton’s influence. Irving Layton can be described as an intelligent and accomplished writer. He was married to Betty but he had a son named David with Aviva Cantor. He died in January 4th, 2006.

We will write a custom Essay on The Connection between the lives and works of Richler, Cohen and Layton specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Leonard Cohen

Born September 21st, 1934, Leonard Cohen is a Jewish Canadian writer, poet, novelist, musician and songwriter. He is mostly known as a musician with hit songs like “Hallelujah” and “Suzanne”. Cohen grew up in a Jewish community and his name “Kohen” means priest or priesthood in Hebrew. In spite of his family’s deep roots in Judaism, Cohen is presently a Buddhist even though he has severally maintained that he is comfortable with his old religion of Judaism. (Mordecai, 239)

His writings usually dealt with issues of sexuality, religion and isolation. His first book of poetry was published in 1956. He has a successful career in music and writing that has spanned over 5 decades. His first novel was published in 1963. The Judaic allusions usually found in Cohen’s songs, poetry and prose are not surprising given his family background.

He proudly identifies himself as a Jew but he strongly condemns the new trend in the Jewish communities that permit and allow businessmen and Rabbis to take over community buildings. Cohen describes the new trend in the Jewish communities as “organized Judaism” and he expressed his dissatisfaction in the book “The Favorite game”. He feels that righteousness and spirituality which were the usual practices of Judaism are replaced with pride and material desires. (Mordecai, 511)

He is a companion of Canada’s highest civilian honor which is called the “order of Canada”. More than 2000 musical performances of Cohen’s songs are recorded. He is inducted into both the Canadian songwriter’s hall of fame and Canadian music hall of fame respectively. (Smith, 241)

Given his tremendous achievements in music and writing, Cohen is regarded as one of Canada’s biggest and greatest artist. His songs and books are filled with Jewish culture and wit. He regards poetry as a form of prayer and feels God is not associated with the present organized Judaism practiced in Jewish Canadian societies. The Holy Bible according to Cohen is the most important book in his life and his 1961 book of poems “The spice Box of Earth” is filled with reference to the Bible and Jewish traditions.

With a career that spans over 50 years, Cohen Leonard can be described as an accomplished songwriter, musician, poet, essayist and novelist. (Smith, 229) His accolades are gained from European and American countries. Notably among his musical achievements are; songwriters hall of fame induction, meteor music awards in Ireland, Grammy lifetime achievements award and Porin award in Croatia.

On March 10th, 2008 Cohen was inducted into America’s Rock and Roll hall of fame and two months later, he embarked on a world tour which lasted over 2 years. While on tour, he performed 246 shows in Croatia, United States, Israel, Australia and Europe. It has been described as his greatest musical tour. (Smith, 413)

Leonard Cohen is by all standards a successful and accomplished songwriter, musician and poet. Lou Reed described him as one of the greatest and most influential songwriters of his generation. (Charles, 342)

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Connection between the lives and works of Richler, Cohen and Layton by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Connection between the lives and works of Richler, Cohen and Layton Leonard Cohen, Irving Layton and Mordecai Richler are all Jewish Canadian writers. These three authors are all from Montreal which has a reputation for producing intelligent and splendid authors. It is worthy of note that, apart from Leonard Cohen, Irving Layton and Mordecai Richler, the Montreal Jewish community has also produced a notable author like A.M Klein. (Smith, 301)

Cohen, Richler and Layton share common beliefs about Jewish culture and religion. Apart from the three authors been Jewish Canadians from Montreal, they also spent part of their lives abroad. This is believed to have influenced their criticism of certain aspects of the Jewish communities. Irving Layton was born in Romania to Jewish parents and his family migrated back to Canada a year after his birth.

His professional career made him spent some time abroad particularly in Europe and Asia. Mordecai Richler and Leonard Cohen also spent part of their lives abroad either in educational pursuit or their professional career respectively. (Wayne, 222)

The works of Richler, Cohen and Layton are usually filled with Jewish symbolism and these three authors believe their traditional Jewish culture is losing its ground to a new trend of businessmen and Rabbis who are more interested in material gains. There is also a spiritual flair in the works of these authors but their spirituality differs from the current Jewish system. Cohen has deep Jewish roots and his works concentrates on exploring sexuality, religion and isolation.

These are issues which he strongly believes are affecting the Jews. Mordecai Richler on the other hand was known for saying things exactly the way he witnessed it and this earned him a reputation as the last honest man. According to Richler, the truth was uncomfortable but it was necessary to speak for those who did not understand the turn of events or for those who were too afraid to speak boldly. (Mordecai, 222)

Conclusion In spite of the fact that Richler, Cohen and Layton are from the Jewish culture, they wrote against issues they felt were affecting the Jewish communities and culture negatively. These three authors believe Judaism is supposed to be a spiritual and religious practice. But it is sad to note that the spiritual and religious values of Judaism are replaced with material desires. (Jones, 112)

Despite coming under heavy criticism, Cohen, Richler and Layton continued to express their opinions about the negative change and old traditions of the Jews. There are changes which affect the Jewish societies negatively and there are old Jewish traditions which the trio of Richler, Cohen and Layton believe should be changed. These reasons and their exposure abroad made these authors counterculture to their Jewish origin. Irving Layton died January 4th, 2006 while, Mordecai Richler died July 3rd, 2001.

But Leonard Cohen is still alive to continue the great work he and his contemporaries started. Furthermore, Irving Layton’s son David has continued the great work his father started. It is very glaring that the Canadian literature will continue to be filled Jewish wit and culture. Lastly, the Canadian literary history will not be complete without mentioning Leonard Cohen, Irving Layton and Mordecai Richler and the Jewish community of Montreal which they come from. (Charles, 201)

Works Cited Charles, Stephanie. Like one that dreamed: A book in memory of Canadian writers. Toronto: McGraw, 2010. Print.

Jones, Grace. The life and works of Leonard Cohen. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.

Mordecai, Richler. Barney’s Version. Canada: Knopf, 1997. Print.

Smith, Jerome. Unfinished Journey: A review of Jewish Canadian authors. Toronto: Summerhill, 2005. Print.

Wayne, Edwards. A complete guide to the works of Irving Layton. Toronto: Totem Press, 2009. Print.

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A Systematic Study of Suffering and Death in Christianity Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Christian Beliefs on Suffering

Christian Beliefs on Death

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Suffering and death are issues of major concern in Christianity today. The meaning conveyed by these two terms is dependent on the perspective from which an individual views it. The ordinary meaning of suffering is the process of undergoing physical or mental pain.

On the other hand, the meaning of suffering from a Christian view is similar to the ordinary view, but differs in the way Christians explain its origin. Christians earnestly accept as true the idea that suffering comes as a way of testing one’s faith and as a punishment for of sin. Christians also connect human suffering to the suffering that Jesus endured on the cross and believe that it saved humanity. As such, Christians should emulate Jesus and endure the suffering they undergo.

Death, on the other hand, is a subject matter whose interpretation depends on personal judgment. The usual meaning of death is a stage of life whereby a living thing seizes to exist physically. In other words, it is a state of existence associated with detachment of the spirit from the flesh. The Christian point of view about death articulates that, death is a stage of existence during which the soul and flesh exist separately.

To distinguish this view from the normal perspective, it further articulates that there is life after death, which can be a rebirth or eternal life. Eternal life implies that the spirit reunites with the soul that it originally paired with to form a new everlasting life. Rebirth implies that after separation of body and soul at death, the spirit joins another body to form a new life. Christian belief in life after death originates from the time of Jesus, who died on the cross and came back to life three days later.

They argue that even if the flesh dies, there is a comforting hope that another life awaits after death. An in-depth understanding of Christian suffering and death is essential in daily Christian life and existence. As such, church leaders should teach and disseminate the doctrines that underscore this understanding to the Christian community. Although many myths that explain the existence of suffering and death do exist, this essay will only focus on suffering and death from a Christian point of view.

Christian Beliefs on Suffering There exist six major perspectives that try to explain the meaning and existence of suffering in Christianity: First, the Bible exploits well the subject of suffering; it does not leave it to the believers’ own judgment as the other religions do. The book of Job for example exploits all ideas that a Christians needs to know about suffering (Brown 1997, 39). In this book, Job undergoes a series of sufferings ranging from disease, death of his livestock to his own family.

His wife tries to convince him to abandon God who has seen him suffer without intervening. Job, however, ignores her and decides to endure his suffering. In the end, God not only takes away Job’s suffering, he restores his health and gives him back all the property and livestock that he had lost. Job’s story tells Christians that regardless of how much or how long they suffer, God is aware about it and all they need to do is to endure for His time of intervention will surely come.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Secondly, it is common knowledge that God made humans in his own image and made them possess some of his characters; a privilege that animals do not possess. Like God, humans possess traits such as love, anger, happiness, jealous, sympathy, and pride. This explains God’s love for humanity.

Besides God giving humans all these character traits that are inherent in Him, He also gives them the freedom of choosing whether to embrace His love or ignore it (Timothy 1995, 60). As it is evident all over the world, people have instead turned their backs on God and embraced worldly pleasures. In other words, they have decided to shun heaven to embrace hell (Isa. 53:6 New International Version). Hell is a destiny preserved for sinners and involves eternal suffering.

The argument here is that people are responsible for their own suffering. Take for example a smoker; such a person knows very well the dangers of smoking to his/her health because besides the bible discouraging this habit, the cigarette packets have warnings printed on them. If such a person’s health deteriorates due to this habit, then it is clear that s/he actually anticipated it.

This truth stands because s/he decided to ignore the apparent smoking effects and chose to suffer the consequences. Other habits like inebriation, fornication, crime, and adultery fall in the same bracket as smoking. Therefore, for one to avoid suffering in hell, s/he should embrace God’s love. People should also utilize their freedom to choose in embracing the doctrines that govern Christianity.

Thirdly, Christians believe that sin and suffering are closely related. In other words, human beings suffer because of the sins they commit. The freedom to chose bestowed upon humans has led to sinfulness that has also brought forth suffering. In other words, the suffering that people undergo emanates from people misusing their freedom to choose.

Humans, for example, despite God-given authority over the rest of nature, have neglected the environment and as a result brought about suffering in form of global warming. Some religious sects like Hinduism “have chosen to ignore the clear drawing a line between evil and suffering” (Brown 1997, 39). This negligence has played a major role in many believers going astray. Since it is supposedly hard to separate good and bad, all humans have sinned and fallen short of God’s glory.

God himself has not punished people for their sinful nature but one day He surely will as promised in His word. Making a choice that will not lead to suffering depends on one’s ability to distinguish good and evil. God gives Christians some hope; He guarantees them the possibility of obviating suffering brought by evil. He has sent his only begotten son, Jesus Christ, to humanity so that through him, perishing souls may find safety.

We will write a custom Essay on A Systematic Study of Suffering and Death in Christianity specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fourthly, Christians argue that God is aware of the suffering that they undergo. The Bible says that though Jesus was the son of God, He himself is God. Jesus knows much about suffering because he actually went through it. The book of (Isaiah 53:3) describes Him as a man associated with sorrows and suffering. Right from the time of His birth, King Herod wanted to kill Jesus. On his mission to “preach the gospel and save humankind, Jesus underwent suffering, even worse than normal human beings do” (Miller 1994, 13).

People mocked him for being a friend to outcasts in the society. This included people like tax collectors, prostitutes, and thieves. At times, His close friends for example, Peter, betrayed him. Desire for worldly treasures obligated Judas to betray Jesus for only thirty pieces of silver. Jesus endured more sufferings when the Pharisees tortured him, forcing him to carry his own cross to Golgotha.

Worst suffering came at the point where they crucified him alongside two thieves. Jesus endured pain inflicted through nailing, not forgetting to mention the pain of a spear on his ribs. This truly explains that Jesus went through suffering as humans do, even though He was the son of God. From the Biblical history, the scripture says that God entered humanity through Jesus Christ. As such, through Jesus, He also knows all about Christians’ suffering.

The fifth belief of Christians about Suffering is that Jesus’ death was meant to set them free from sin. If people trust in Him and honor his name, then Jesus will dwell inside them and grant them life full of holiness. He will then transform their lives and make them worthy to spread God’s word. He does this by subjecting believers to suffering. If anything, if Jesus being righteous suffered, man in his fallen nature must suffer.

From this perspective therefore, suffering is not bad but just a way through which Jesus transforms people’s lives. The bible stipulates that it is God’s desire to mold the lives of Christians by subjecting them to trials. As they try to overcome these trials, His name receives glorification and those who overcome become better people. As such, suffering is not bad and God allows it for purposes of glorifying His name and for the benefit of humans.

Lastly, Christians believe in the final elimination of suffering from existence. The bible says that the death and resurrection of Jesus implies that he overcame death so that all humans may receive redemption from sin. They hope for that time that will mark the second coming of Jesus. During this time, there will be no more death, pain or crying in anguish (Rev. 21:4 NIV). People will live in harmony; they will be full of love for one another for they shall have triumphed over evil, having overcome temptations of this world.

The bible explains how the new heaven and earth will be; it will be full of righteous people worthy to stand for and speak in favor of God’s name (II Pet. 3:13 NIV). However, nobody knows when the time of elimination of suffering from the face of the earth is due. The closest clue that believers have is that this time is near, actually nearer than people have ever thought before.

This belief stands because people have already seen or witnessed the signs that the bible says would signify his second coming. These include the emergence of many churches and false prophets; occurrence of many calamities like the recent Japanese landslide that displaced millions of people and killed thousands of them; presence of civil wars, widespread immorality, and massive lawlessness.

Not sure if you can write a paper on A Systematic Study of Suffering and Death in Christianity by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, all is upon everyone to prepare himself or herself for the second coming of Jesus so that when the hour comes, Jesus counts them among the few chosen ones who will occupy the new heaven that is void of suffering. For those who shall have not prepared themselves, there is only one destination: hell, the lake of burning sulphur, for eternal suffering.

Christian Beliefs on Death Having exhausted on what Christians believe about suffering, the rest of this essay will focus on Christian belief about death. At many instances, people have really wondered what death is all about. It is also not clear where one’s spirit goes after death. However, the Christian perspective explores every aspect of death from theological point of view to examine what God requires humans to know about it (Kilgallen 1989, 25).

Death, as already defined, is a state of existence in which the flesh and the soul separate. After death, Christians believe that the soul goes either to heaven or to hell. Heaven has characteristics such as eternal life, full of peace, love, and happiness. Some denominations have defined hell as the final or complete state of death of the spirit that completely excludes an individual from the presence of God physically as well as spiritually.

Death can be in two forms: spiritual or physical. Physical death means the ordinary separation of the body and soul, leaving the body to rot away whereas spiritual death, which is a consequence of sin, means the separation of one’s spirit from God. Believers in spiritual death also call it the second death because besides one dying physically, the spiritual part that establishes link with God for those who die in Christ is also absent.

Only God has” control over death and knows when and how every human being is going to meet his/her death” (Lund 1990). It came because of sin as brought out in the book of Genesis in the Old Testament. After the snake lied to Eve, she in turn convinced Adam to eat the forbidden fruit. This action angered God who decided to curse humanity by introducing death, a thing they have no control over.

Therefore, whether physical or spiritual, death came in as a punishment for sin. From the apostolic books in the New Testament, Mathew, Mark, Luke, and John, one is able to learn about the life of Jesus on earth until he met his death on the cross. His death was not ordinary death because he rose to life again three days later. Through his death, humanity received redemption from sin.

One mystery that people have been unable to ascertain about death is whether there is life after death. This is because no living example that can prove the existence of life beyond death. Thus, to many people, life after death is a notion rather than an experience. The theological point of view however gives a clearer dimension about life after death.

One may wonder why God leaves good people to die if death came because of sin. However, the answer to this is simple; even though good people die, they encounter new life after death in which they live eternally in happiness while bad people experience eternal suffering.

Though it came as a punishment for sin in the Garden of Eden, God, through the holy bible and scriptures reveals that, “so long as people live sanctified lives, they are able to overcome death as Jesus did on the cross” (Brown, Fitzmyer, and Murphy1990, 30). Another example from the Bible that illustrates that God has power over death is the act of Jesus raising Lazarus whose body people believed had already decomposed.

The son of God actually brought Lazarus back to life so that all may see and acknowledge His power over death. The Bible also reveals that besides Jesus, Enoch and Elijah surpassed death and went to heaven. The Bible goes on and explains the requirements for one to overcome death. The requirement is simple; s/he should be born again, live a holy life and believe that there is life beyond death.

Conclusion People around the world view death and suffering differently and at any instance, the interpretation depends on the perspective from which an individual is viewing it. Christianity has its own view of suffering and death that differs from the ordinary view and views from other denominations.

About suffering, Christians believe that it is a consequence of sin. They further believe that God allows His people to suffer so that they can grow in faith and his name be glorified. He gave humans the freedom to take or disregard His love but many have decided to ignore it. Interestingly, people conclude that humans choose to suffer directly or indirectly through their actions. Whether their suffering is because of their own actions or God’s choice, endurance is inevitable.

About death, Christians say that it originated from sin. This occurred in the Garden of Eden in which God cursed humankind for giving in to temptation. Death can be physical or spiritual depending on what an individual believes. Different denominations have different views about death and life after death but Christian doctrines articulate that there is life after death, only if one dies in Christ, meaning that he/she adhered to Christian doctrines before death.

Reference List Brown, Raymond E. 1997. An Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Doubleday.

Brown, Raymond E. et al. 1990. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

Kilgallen, John J. 1989. A Brief Commentary on the Gospel of Mark. New York: Paulist Press.

Lund, Gerald N. 1990. “The Fall of Man and His Redemption.” Ensign, January.

Miller, Robert J. 1994. The Complete Gospels. Sonoma: Polebridge Press.

Timothy, George. 1995. Theology of the Reformers. USA: Broadman

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Corporate Restructuring Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction According to Gilson (2001), corporate restructuring is what happens when a corporate entity revises in a major way, the various contracts that radically exist between it and all its stakeholders who include its employees, creditors and shareholders.

There are various reasons for restructuring that I shall look at later but the result of restructuring is that it substantially alters the company’s organizational structure, shareholding and market value (Wruck 1994). In many corporations, restructuring is a major decision that requires approval from the highest levels of authority in the company. Restructuring more often than not brings about a huge value gap between the restructured and the pre-restructured entity (Jensen 1993).

Before an organization can restructure, it must make several preliminary steps which mostly have to do with seeing various consents from relevant parties and also sorting out possibly controversial issues such as the laying off of employees or the sale of shares (Mitchell

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Commodification and Globalisation in Dubai Essay essay help free

Dubai, one of the seven United Arabs Emirates (UAE), has captured the attention of the world as global city with a globally competitive economy. The city is has been known for oil industry but this has been replaced by its comprehensive tourism industry, hosting of events and construction projects. It is therefore evidenced that development of Dubai is line with concepts of globalisation and commodification. Globalisation is a function of Economy, Environment, Culture, Society and Politics, and effect on one result in effect on the other.

Commodification is the process by which formerly non- economic things and relationships like institutions, objects, attributes, signs and even people are turned into commercial things whose prime purpose is sale in the market place, as Blunden (1975) explains. According to Marxist political economy it refers to the extension of market trade to formerly non-market areas, and to the handling of things as if they were a tradable commodity (Blunden,1975)

A commodity is typically associated with 3 types of values: use value referring to the design of commodities to meet certain need either physically or psychologically; Exchange value as they can be bought and sold in the market with money, and finally commodities have sign value as they act as mode of self-expression in a battle for social position. (Gottdiener, 2000, 26)

In Dubai the global media has influenced the society by laying emphasis on the three value of a commodity. The use value of commodities implies that for every need there a product claiming to satisfy it. This has lead to continue product differentiation to meet the arising needs.

Labour in Dubai has been heavily commodified with the growth of the fashion industry. The socialisation of women to do domestic work such as dressmaking, cooking, cleaning and caring for the children among others for free has changed. The Dubai shopping mall is a classic example of how the otherwise non-economic dressmaking has been commodified and the fashioners are making lots of money.

The Dubai shopping mall. Web.

Leisure has been largely commodified in Dubai with distancing from work being perceived as prestigious and a symbol of honour. This is in agreement with Veblen’s observation that, conspicuous leisure; which means distancing oneself from industrial work attracts admiration. (Veblen, 1899).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Commodification of labour, education, government service like education among others have been accelerated by globalisation, whose prime aim is to reduce people’s diversity by restricting individuals’ freedom with the promise of economic gains.

Another issue to consider is the increasing commoditization of the city and its impact in the eyes of tourists. According to what Galdauskas (2008) says, commoditization is a two-part complicated process which requires certain efforts and time. However, it must be kept in mind that the process allows to promote the place so that it could bring more profit and attract more tourists.

However, Galdauskas (2008) warns that to achieve this goal, one will have to make sufficient alterations concerning the way the place looks and the facilities it can suggest to the newcomers (38). Thus, the question of national identity rises against the idea economical profit. To ensure the balanced correlation between the two, considerable efforts must be made.

It is evident that both the part involving “dramatization of life on the stage” (38), as Galdauskas (2008) put it, and the one concerning the preservation of national identity are leveled in Dubai. However, it does not mean that the process of commoditization must run uncontrolled in the city.

Since one of the main concerns of the space regeneration is the idea of keeping the national identity, as Universidad de Barselona (1977) claims (77), it becomes clear that the key priority of Dubai citizen at present is to ensure that tourism can coexist with their national identity – otherwise they will be forced to abandon the former to preserve their sense of national dignity.

Still, taking into account the culture of Dubai, it can be considered that its citizen can cope with preserving their national identity. Since people flood Dubai to indulge into sightseeing and all kinds of attractions, they bring certain misbalance into its established structure. Foreign elements in the clockwork of Dubai, they slowly make the city dissolve. To prevent Dubai from being gobbled by another culture, people have to undertake certain measures.

Another aspect of the problem, the space regeneration, deals with the economical issues. In this case, the principle of mutual recoupment can be put into practice: thus, certain spaces can be restored using the tourism incomes. According to what Universidad de Barselona (1977) suggests, the balance between tourism and the space and place maintenance can be achieved once the “appropriateness to the work in relationship to the place” (133) has been achieved.

We will write a custom Essay on Commodification and Globalisation in Dubai specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, to achieve this goal, the dwellers of Dubai will have to follow the main principles of the Consumption Theory. Thus, one of the first challenges which the dwellers of Dubai are going to face is how to level the supply and the demand.

Utilizing the principle of rationality, as Sherman (2008) suggests (332), it will be possible to achieve the desirable result. However, there are certain issues which require special attention of the entrepreneurs and the government of Dubai. For instance, it is crucial for the city to take into account the principle of rationality. Thus, the chief goal of Dubai is to suggest its guests the necessary attractions and entertainments which they suppose to encounter in here.

An advancement of an integration agenda between nations and it entails the widening of economic markets (Mittelman, 1997. pp. 2) globalisation has brought various benefits such as: growth of tourism industry through the movement freedom, enhanced trade widen access to information, rapid diffusion of creative and innovations, specialisation of work and benefit from large scale of production where countries produce what they can better and cheaply produce for local and export while they import what they cannot produce, enabling international relations and this has resulted to rapid economic growths as well as improved living standards.

The immense impact of globalisation is felt in Dubai from all aspects of life i.e. Economy, Environment, Culture, Society and Politics. The great extent of globalisation in Dubai is demonstrated by its rapidly growing tourism industry with such baits for tourists as: Burj Al-Arab – the only seven-star hotel in the world and an international icon of Dubai and Palm Jumeirah- an on-going project of the largest artificial island in the Arabian Gulf. The Dubai’s special features have been a major focus for the global media. (Elsheshtawy, 2004).

The hosting of international sports has had immense gains for the Dubai’s economy. Although these prizes are won by the foreigners, they spend some of the money in Dubai. Also the fans of sport come in large numbers to watch the sports further contributing to the growth of tourism industry in Dubai. The city has become well-known for hosting famous tennis and golf tournaments, with Andre Agassi, Roger Federer and Tiger Woods promoting Dubai. (Student Personal World Wide Web Pages.2)

”Golfer Tiger Woods tees off the Burj Al-Arab helipad nearly 1,000 feet above the ground”

The integration of Dubai with other emirates to form United Arab Emirate and a further collaboration between the UAE and other countries has opened its market to the foreign investors. “Dubai attracts foreign investors and corporations because of the considerable economic opportunities offered to businesses there.” (Hollis, 2000, 52) Off shoring is a classic example which entails transfer of commodities from one country to another.

Globalisation results in the free movement of people from one region to another. Dubai continues to create global job opportunities for low waged workers. According to Lang LaSalle the employment rate in Dubai has grown to 8.3 percent per annum while the population is growing at 5.8 per cent per annum (2004). This means the economy will continue to get more workforces locally and from international market.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Commodification and Globalisation in Dubai by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The high level of globalisation has had negative effects on Dubai society. Some of the negative impacts of globalisation include: the freedom of movement of people from one country to another has made it difficult for the natives to preserve their culture and religion. Islamic had been the predominant religion in Dubai but with globalisation, other religions come up.

This resulted in change of weekend from Saturday –Sunday to Friday-Saturday in a bid to accommodate both Muslims who emphasis on holiness of Friday and Christians who respects Saturday-Sunday. There is a conflict between the native’s culture and the western.

In a global market an economic recession affect the whole world with the poor and middle income population being hit harder. As Hari (2009) emphasized, because of the economical crisis in Dubai a number of workers suffered great losses; many of them were not paid and thus could not leave the countries. Hari observed that policemen intimidated the workers who complained or left their stations. (2009, pp6).

Other negative effects of globalisation in Dubai include the increase in the prostitution which is as a result of the rapid growth in tourism. Globalisation enhances capitalism resulting in poor getting poorer thus the poor population of Dubai has turned to illegal business like prostitution, drugs and arms smuggling and also terrorism, as Davidson (2009) mentioned (p. 247).

Commodification and globalisation have had both positive and negative impact in Dubai with the former outweighing the later. It is important for Dubai government to come up with policies that will enhance globalisation and commodification for Dubai to be consistent with the national development goals.

Government should try to bridge the gap between the poor and the rich and reduce instances of crime and prostitution as this will not only devalue humankind but it also increases disease transmissions. If Dubai has to remain a world class city, it has to deal with social problems of its citizens.

Reference List Blunden, A., ed. Commodification, Encyclopedia of Marxism. Web.

Davidson, Christopher M., 2009. Dubai: the vulnerability of Success. New York, Columbia University Press.

Elsheshtawy, Y., 2004. Planning Middle Eastern cities, an urban kaleidoscope in a globalizing world, Stamford, CN, Cengage Learning.

Galdauskas, K. et al., 2008. Serving culture: tourists, lobsters and restaurants of Ogunquit, Maine. Ann Arbor, MI, Pro-Quest.

Gottdiener, M, 2000. New forms of consumption. Oxford, Blackwell.

Hari, J., 2009. The dark side of Dubai. The Independent (London). Web.

Hollis, R. 2000. Managing new developments in the Gulf. Washington, DC.Brookings Institution.

LaSalle, J. L., 2004 Winning cities of the decade. Web.

Sherman, H. J., et al., 2008 Economics: An Introduction to Traditional and Progressive Views. Armonk, NY, M. E. Sharpe, Inc.

Student Personal World Wide Web, The effect of globalization on Dubai’s economic development: Web.

Universidad de Barcelona, 1977 Urban Generation: A Challenge for Public Art. Barcelona, Edicions Universitat Barcelona.

Veblen, T. (1899). The Theory of the Leisure Class New York, NY, New America Library.

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Ethnicity and Health Research Paper college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Review of the Literature

Propositions

Expected Outcomes

Research Design

Limitations

Significance of the Study

References

Introduction A growing body of literature has pointed out that race, ethnicity and gender are characterized by strong social dimensions which greatly implicate on the health of individuals. It has been discovered that the underlying mechanisms within these ethnicities have profound influence not just on the access to primary, secondary and tertiary health care but also policies and general practices that affect the groups.

Practices and beliefs by the ethnicities could be attributed to some of the greatest variability in diseases. Dindyal and Dindyal (2004) define an ethnicity as “a social group, which shares certain distinctive features, such as language, culture, physical appearance, religion, values and customs” (p. 1).

In the United Kingdom, the whole population is made up of 92% whites. This includes other whites who are significant but non British like the Irish. Asians and Asian Britons account for 4% of Britain population while blacks and black Britons account for a further 2%. Britons of mixed descent account for 1.5% of the whole population.

Although the percentages might look negligible, the total population represented by them could be extremely large. Considering that the government has, as its objective, the idea of ensuring that there is equity in health care access and provision, it is necessary that the underlying social mechanisms are understood in order to avoid some retrogressive practices that would lead to inequality. In order to come up with proper policies, it is important to ascertain whether ethnicity plays a role in inequality of health care access.

Review of the Literature The Parliament Office of Science and Technology (2003) clearly argues that there is a great disparity of health and health care between ethnicities. In their report, it was identified that South Asians living in the United Kingdom had a 50% chance of suffering from heart attack and angina. On the other hand, men from the Caribbean origin in the United Kingdom run the highest risk of 50% of dying from stroke.

In their report, it was ascertained that blacks and minorities had comparatively small chances of dying from cancer as compared to the white majority. According to the report, immigrant women from Asia in the United Kingdom ran a comparatively lower risk of suffering from breast cancer as compared women born and brought up in the United Kingdom. The trend in lower cases of cancer in minority groups as compared to white Britons was attributed to less smoking.

The highest deaths that resulted from lung cancer were established to be from Scots and the Irish who are also found out to be great smokers. The lifestyle of women in the United Kingdom was also attributed to women’s death from breast cancer. Immigrant women had less chances of suffering from breast cancer because they take some time to adapt to Britain lifestyle. This was consistent with Wells and Evans (2003) and Ku and Waidmann (2003) findings.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Adamson (2009) argues that socio economic factors contribute to inequality of health and health care. He argues that the lower the position on the economic ladder an individual is, the higher the chances of poor health. Unfortunately, most of the ethnic minorities tend to have the lowest incomes in the United Kingdom.

This means that ethnic minorities are likely to suffer and die from diseases that they would easily control (Kuo 2001). In a study carried out on the immediacy of need for health care concerning chest pain and vignettes, it was found out that black respondents were very likely to seek for immediate health care seeking to get assistance for vignettes. On the other hand, the British whites were the most unlikely to seek for this help.

The result seemed consistent in several cases. This position is echoed by Lorant and Bhopal (2011) and Zimmermann, Wendy and Fix (1998) who also argue that socio economic disadvantage could lead to inability to get regular visits by the doctor. Furthermore, it would lead to inability to use the clinics regularly and the inability to purchase proper prescribed drugs. This therefore indicated that there is a clear disparity within ethnic groups. This assertion is also echoed by Fiscella, Franks, Doescher and Saver (2002)

Health insurance plays an important role in ensuring access to primary, secondary and tertiary health care. Inability or unwillingness to get insured would therefore lead to disparities in health and health care. Ku and Waidmann (2003) and Mai, Cummings McIntyre (2004) argue that most of the ethnic minorities account for the highest percentages of uninsured people in several countries. As argued above, socio economic factors contribute to inequality of health.

This is where insurance comes to question. With poverty and lack of money, it is clear that raising money for the expensive insurance could be a problem for most of the ethnic minorities. This also explains why less white Britons would die from diseases that are curable. They have enough money to seek for care from good providers. Similarly, Adamson (2003) and American Academy of Pediatrics (2000) support the same findings.

Discrimination and stereotyping are also factors that lead to inequality in health and healthcare. According to Lorant and Bhopal (2011), acts of discrimination and stereotyping could subject a group of people to a low social economic status. This can also be as a result of strongly held values that tend to demean and prejudice certain ethnicities.

Dealing with a case using a block approach as opposed to individuals leads to poor health for minorities. For instance, just believing that cancer is a disease for the Irish and Scots might lead to misdiagnosis. Every individual needs to be examined as an individual (Collins, Hall and Neuhaus 1999; Ku and Matani. 2001).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Ethnicity and Health specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Power, Davis, Plant and Kjellstrom (2009) in their report on deprivation and ill health highlight a clear fact that people living in deprived environments are most likely to have poor health. Given that several studies have pointed out the fact that minority ethnicities tend to rank lowest on the economic ladder, it then suffices to argue that they account for the highest population living in dejected and overpopulated regions in the cities in the Britain.

Considering the arguments by Power et al (2009), “Living in deprived urban areas increases the risk of poor health outcomes even after controlling for individual characteristics” (p. 20), it suffices to argue that even when other factors are controlled, dilapidated housing and overcrowding in their own rights are able to lead to poor health. For instance, their study pointed out to the fact that men living in poverty stricken neighborhoods had a 6.8% lower life expectancy as compared to the average in the United Kingdom.

On the other hand, women from similar environs had 5% lower life expectance as compared to the overall rate of Britain. In contrast, men from high economy areas stand a high likelihood of living 4% more than the national average. Women in similar regions live run a likelihood of living 3% more than the average national life expectancy rate (Shaw, Smith

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Production, Competition and Globalization Essay essay help: essay help

Introduction The first quarter of the 21st century is almost elapsing and our prognostications about the coming days are being recognized. Nowhere in history, have people’s forecasts been more positive than in our deliberations of international competitiveness. Competitiveness is by characterization, intricately connected to globalization, since it is appraised for nations in an international framework.

While the yardstick for nationalized gung ho lead would be other nations, firm-level competitiveness is appraised in the framework of competitors in an international industry. (Hitt 36) Indeed, our firm (Eagle Communications) has taken in to consideration this aspect in its bid to produce micro cameras that will revolutionize the way security is perceived in the world.

When the idea of Eagle Communications was conceived a few months ago, we were concerned about the high price of producing and purchasing a micro camera in the market.

Moved by a desire to produce and market a product that would not only be affordable but environmentally friendly, our technical team embarked on a mission to come up with a model that was both unique and affordable. (Shaker)After six months of research, our technical team came up with a model that is unique in its own way. In order to reduce the price of producing the device, we used recycled materials, which virtually reduced the production cost by almost half.

This is bound to reduce the price of the device in the market thus making it more available. Unlike the micro cameras currently available in the market, our model has an alarm code that can be used to send a quick SOS message. This means that unlike in the past, one does not need to hire an all around the clock professional to monitor the cameras transmissions.

Currently, the price of producing a minute camera is about $1,000. This hikes the prices of the commodity making it available only to the very rich. In fact, these devices are only appealing to corporate clients who buy them as a matter of duty and not necessity.

In designing this device, our team understood that security was a matter of concern not only to the very rich but also to ordinary people in the society. Currently, the cost of producing one camera in our lab is about $670, which is almost half the price spent by other firms. Up to date, our firm has spent close to $50,000 and we intend to have recovered this amount in our first month of operation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With insecurity having become rampant in our society, the need for tracking devices has become a necessity for everyone. This minute camera is expected to enhance security in the society especially in developing countries. Given the high prices that the current cameras are being sold and considering our prices, we highly believe that this venture is worth the risk.

We are currently in the process of setting up regional offices in strategic Africa and Asian cities to facilitate trade in those countries. With the internet having transformed the way business is done, we have already begun advertising our products in the social media and we are already getting positive responses. (Shaker)

Conclusion Researchers and policymakers have envisaged that the future overall economy will be consumerist based and environmentally responsive. When trying to design a new product, it is always important to consider the price of production and marketing to ensure that it is a worthy venture. On top of this, the venture must be realistic, profitable and above all, it should be ideal for the society. In order to stay on top of your competitors, it is always advisable to take note of technological advancements within the industry.

Works Cited Hitt, Michael. Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization: Concepts, 2006. Nelson Education Limited, 36. Print.

Shaker, Zahra. Competitiveness in the 21st Century: reflections on the Growing Debate about Globalization, 2011. Web.

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Growing up in China Historical Analysis Term Paper argumentative essay help

The purpose of this paper will be to analyze the world historical process of growing up in China by examining Yan Phou Lee’s biographic adaptation of “When I was a boy in China”.

The author talks about their life from birth to growing up as a boy in China. The thesis statement for the essay will therefore be to examine the process and pattern of growing up as a male child in China from birth, to infancy and then to adulthood (marriage). The essay will look at how male and female children in China are treated and raised by their parents, relatives and the society as well as important periods of celebration in their lives.

The primary source which is Yan Phou Lee’s biography offers an insightful look into the life of male children in China and it also presents various aspects of Chinese culture such as the Chinese calendar and Chinese months which is corroborated by other secondary sources used in the study. Lee’s biography supports the arguments made by the secondary sources with regards to how the Chinese count their months as well as the religious systems that exist in China which include Buddhism, Taoism and Confuciusm.

Lee’s work however presents some controversial issues which might be viewed by many gender activists to be biased against women. He portrays the Chinese culture as one that is punitive to women by not offering them the same gratuities that are given to the male children. The evaluation of the historical process therefore offers the readers a look into the life of a male child growing up in China as well as the differences that exist in the society.

In the first chapter of Lee’s biography, he talks about his birth and the cultural practices of the Chinese people when a child is born. Lee indicates that the Chinese calendar is different from that of the English calendar, an indication of the difference that exists between the Chinese and English cultures. According to Lee (7), the Chinese year is different from the English year because the months of the year are determined by the revolution of the moon around the earth.

This is corroborated by Parise (215) who notes that time in China during the period of 1800 was usually determined by the number of accessions that the country had in terms of Emperors. Time was also determined by the number of cycles which were usually sixty years each and the cycle in which Lee was born was 1861 during the reign of Emperor Tung-che.

Parise (215) also highlights the difference that exists between a Chinese calendar and English calendar where the months are referred as Regular Moon, Second Moon, Third Moon, Fourth Moon and so on instead of January, February, March and April. Every third year was termed as a leap year and it had an extra month so that it could make the lunar year to be equal to a solar year.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Chinese culture places a lot of importance on the birth of male children as demonstrated by how the various members of Lee’s family celebrated when he was born. He alludes to the fact that the Chinese culture views men to be more important than women because Chinese men are more desirable since they are able to maintain the family’s honor once they decide to get married.

This is not possible for a girl as they lose the family’s honor when they are married off to another family. Male children according to Lee were therefore seen to be more important especially amongst the elderly relatives of the family. When it came to the naming of children, parents picked names from the Chinese dictionary which encompassed the meaning of luck or fortune. Choosing names was an important activity for many Chinese parents as they believed that names had the power of warding off evil spirits (Lee 8).

Fortune tellers were usually called upon by the parents of the child to predict their future as soon as they were born. Rich parents who had male newborns invested large sums of money to consult deities who had the power to ward off any malignant influences from the child’s future. The money was mostly used to buy gifts for the God of Longevity in return for the child’s protection and also provide guidance in periods or situations of difficulty or chaos.

The rich parents also consulted blind fortune tellers who were paid to intercede for the child with a particular Chinese god or idol. Because of the large amounts of money rich parents were willing to spend for the future of their children, fortune-tellers, astrologers, priests and the lessees of temples made a lot of money when they participated in these mysterious activities. Poor families were also not left behind as parents from poor backgrounds sacrificed their wealth so that the male child could have a positive future (Lee 10).

Lee (10) described his day of christening to also be a day of celebration as many relatives and friends attended the ceremony with gifts and valuable trinkets that would be useful in his future life. This was a different case for the girls as their day of christening was usually marked by fewer gifts and less excitement than is usually exhibited in the case of boys.

The presence of roast pig which is the national festive dish in China indicated that male children were more valued than the female children. According to Lee (11) no occasion was complete without the presence of roast pig which meant that all weddings, religious festivals, birthdays and ancestral celebrations incorporated roast pigs in the menu.

After infancy, the male children were groomed to be obedient followers of their parents, grandparents and ancestors as it was required by Chinese culture. Children were not supposed to talk back to their parents even when defending themselves from being wrongfully accused. They were required to take the punishment without any objection as a sign of respect and compliance to Chinese cultures.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Growing up in China Historical Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Lee (17) everyone in China is subject to somebody else which means that all children were subject to their parents and their parents were in turn subject to their own grandparents which demonstrated that subjectivity in Chinese culture was a continuous cycle. The magistrate during that time was seen to be the father of everyone he ruled over while the Emperor was subject to his citizens who in return had to show their subjectivity to their Emperor (Lee 18).

Young Chinese boys usually engaged in various games and past times such as kite-flying where they designed kites that were six to seven feet long from wing to wing. The kites were of various colors and designs and the children flew them so as to catch and retain the wind. There was even a date set aside for kite flying which was the ninth day of the ninth month which usually fell in October according to the Chinese calendar.

This day referred to as Kite Day saw the male children going up the hills in China to have a communion with the heavenly zephyrs after which they get to fly their kites made of rice-paper. The fun part during the whole event was when the male children made the kites fight in the sky which resulted in the display of dragon designed kites of different colors engaging in combat (Lee 38).

Apart from kite flying, other past time games that the children engaged in included kicking the shuttlecock which was a favorite past time game for many teenage boys and gentlemen. The shuttlecock was made up of a bunch of feathers stuck together by small round pieces of leather and then tied together with a piece of string.

Players would serve the shuttlecock to each other while at the same time making sure not to drop it hence the name kicking the shuttlecock. Other games and past times Chinese boys engaged in included penny-tossing and cricket fighting which were mostly done by the older boys and men (Lee 38).

Once the male child reached a school going age, they were either taken to schools that were run by private gentlemen since the government of China provided education to advanced students only. But because the qualification for gaining office employment was education, the government encouraged many parents to take their children to school.

This ordinance saw many schools being established in various corners of China where classes were held in people’s private homes or in the halls of Chinese temples. These temples were usually chosen because of the tablets that were used for deceased ancestors which could serve the purpose of writing desks and tables. Only boys attended these schools because the girls went to schools that were operated by their families.

But the type of education was similar for both girls and boys except that girls were usually schooled until they were twelve years old while the boys went to school until they were sixteen or seventeen years old. After this age they viewed by their parents, grandparents and village elders to be ready for marriage (Lee 55).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Growing up in China Historical Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When it came to marriage, the male children on acquiring a wife were meant to continue living with their parents. This was not so for the girls as societal cultures and beliefs expected them to live with their husband’s parents. Such an arrangement however usually had its downside because most of the domestic squabbles and infidelity that occurred within the home were usually caused by this.

This custom is however still being practiced as every generation is educated by their ancestors on the domestic arrangements for the male children once they get married.

The success of such arrangements has all been placed on the son and husband of the family where they are required to be strict disciplinarians when it comes to managing the affairs of the home. Chinese culture also depended on the male figure during such arrangements as men were able to prevent domestic brawls which commonly occurred between the mother-in-law and the new bride (Lee 32).

The predominant religion in China is different from the rest of the world which can mostly be attributed to their different calendar. The Chinese calendar is not divided into weeks or months but it is divided into moons which as mentioned earlier are calculated according to cycles.

The Chinese do not believe in Christianity and they therefore do not celebrate Christian holidays such as Easter or Christmas. Their religion was divided into three systems the first of Confucianism which was the religion taught by the great philosopher Confucius. This religion prescribed to the notion that mankind had to perform certain duties such as being obedient to parents, honoring and serving members of the society and living harmoniously with one’s relatives or spouse.

Confucianism never taught its subjects about the existence of God because Confucius himself did not believe in the existence of a higher authority. He instead taught his followers to pursue goodness and everything that was good in the world by viewing. The gods worshipped under Confucianism included the five great mountains, heaven and earth and the spirits that existed in the wind (Lee 64).

The second religious system in China was referred to as Taoism which focused on philosophical teachings and Buddhist doctrines. This religion however degenerated into a sect where the sect leaders prayed on people’s superstitious fears so that they could earn some money. Taoist priests who were the leaders of Taoism were usually called upon by families to intercede for individuals that were possessed by an evil spirit.

The role of the Taoist priest in such a situation was to offer up vows to the gods so that the person could be able to recover. Because of the poor religious standing, Taoist followers worshipped everything imaginable because they believed that every object or living organism had a spiritual counterpart in the next world. The gods that were worshipped under the Taoist religion included gods of war, literature, medicine and worldly possessions (Lee 66).

Buddhism, which is currently the most predominant religion in China, came about during the time of Christ when an embassy sent by the Emperor of the Han dynasty to investigate Jesus’ teachings came across Buddha in India while they were on their way to India. The ambassadors assumed that he was the great sage they were looking for and decided to stay on so that they could listen to his teachings.

Once the great Buddha died, they decided to return to China with his books which contained all the religious teachings of the religion. Buddhism began to pick up as a religion in China where Buddhist priests and nuns lived separate from the rest of the society in monasteries and convents. On joining the monastery, the Buddhist priests were required to shave their heads completely and don a costume that would allow them to be easily identifiable (Ling and Liu 1).

Under the Buddhist religion, Chinese people believed that wealth and happiness were easily acquired from the priests so they offered them money which would be used to buy oil and incense for Buddha. The god in return would meet the wishes and desires of the people who prescribed to the religion.

These three religious systems formed the background of religion in the country where the Chinese society was willing to worship everything and anything rather than nothing. Apart from these religious systems, the Chinese society worshipped gods and goddesses where each idol had a special holiday in the Chinese calendar. For example the Goddess of Mercy had a dozen days in the Chinese calendar that were dedicated to her where the sacred days would see followers converging to celebrate her (Ling and Liu 1).

The religious systems of Taoism and Buddhism were however despised by the educated classes of Chinese society but they always consulted the Taoist and Buddhist priests in cases of sickness or death. This demonstrated that the religious instinct of most Chinese people was strong where they could worship anything in the event they were in need of a higher intervention. The presence of temples instead of churches in most Chinese neighborhoods signified the embodiment of the highest level of architectural skill in the country.

The idols who resided in these temples represented the superiority of idolatry in the country when compared to idol worshipping in India and Egypt. These three systems of religion in China however failed when it came to the religious training of young children. Religious knowledge was usually passed on to young girls and boys through their parents where they were told to worship particular idols with objection or questioning (Lee 71).

Works Cited Lee, Yan Phou. When I was a boy in China. Boston: Lothrop Publishing Company, 2007

Ling, H., and Liu, J. Buddhism in China. China: China Intercontinental Press, 2005.

Parise, Frank. The book of calendars. New York: Gorgias Press, 2002

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Development and Globalization in Africa Research Paper essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Introduction Development experts retain Sub-Saharan Africa as a case study in the perpetration of poverty, disease, illiteracy, and poor governance. The continent’s abundant resources that saw the world powers of the eighteenth century scramble for it.

Despite immense opportunities such as financial and technical development aid, Sub-Saharan Africa has failed to take advantage of the opportunities for development. Sub-Saharan Africa has some of the grimmest statistics relating to poverty incidence. The region remains stuck in the rut after many years of self-rule. This paradox is worth exploring. How can a region so rich in terms of natural resources fail to meet its basic obligations towards its people?

Measures of Development In order to consider this question, we need to have a working definition for development. There is no consensus on the definition of development (Misra). For the purposes of this paper, we shall look at development as socioeconomic and political maturity. Socioeconomic maturity revolves around the social superstructure of the society, and the economic systems that underpin its resource mobilization process.

The coherence of the society lies in working social systems. Lack of these represents some kind of poverty for the people. Economic systems ensure there is a means of acquiring the resources necessary for survival and lifting up of people’s living standards. Political maturity refers to the ability of a group of people to determine the form of governance they want and to participate in it. These wide definitions will provide the measure against which we will explore the effects of globalization on Sub-Saharan Africa.

The Scope of Sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa constitutes all the countries that lie below or within the Sahara desert. These countries share many characteristics such as level of development, colonial history, political systems, and economic performance. These characteristics do not constitute uniformity.

Rather, they show the maturity of the countries. For instance, the poverty incidence, disease and education levels seem to compare closely among the countries irrespective of their political systems and economic outlay. Most of these countries are at a basic level of development. A small strip of countries around North Africa does not form part of Sub-Saharan Africa. Development experts regard them as part of the Arab world. Most of them have higher per-capita income and GDP compared to Sub-Saharan countries.

Pre-Colonial Africa Africa’s heritage spans millennia when viewed from the perspective of ancient Egypt. Egypt retains a unique place in world history as an ancient civilization that influenced the world profusely in its time.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, very little information exists today about what was happening in Sub-Saharan Africa during that period. There are some interesting historical accounts about traditional kingdoms in Africa revolving around personalities such as Shaka Zulu, kingdoms in West and Central Africa such as the Aksum, and the mention of Ethiopia in ancient times as an influential kingdom (Zamosky).

African people living south of the Sahara had different types of governments and lived in diverse ways. Amongst them, there were farmers, pastoralists, hunters and gatherers, and traders. Initial external influence brought about by technological advances in the East and in the West set the foundations for the modern day problems Africa deals with today.

In that era, the Arabs and the Indians sought to trade with inland tribes in the continent and as a result, they developed several coastal towns. One of the significant cultural consequences of this interaction is the Swahili language and culture that developed when Arabs intermarried with the Bantu speaking tribes residing at the East African coast.

With the advent of slave trade, the exportation of many Africans especially from West Africa led to the growth of African populations in America and the Caribbean (Loomba). This probably represents some of the worst form of exploitation in the history of the continent. It set the stage for the unending exploitation the continent lives with to date.

When Europe industrialized, it looked at Africa with renewed interest as a source of raw materials for industries back home. All countries that had the means took over territories in Africa and administered them in the interest of their own countries. Africa, especially Sub-Saharan Africa, saw the exploitation of its natural resources such as wood, wildlife, and minerals for the benefit of European countries.

Scramble for Africa At Berlin in 1890, a conference held to discuss the matter of Africa ended with a division of the continent into colonies, marking the beginning of the colonial era for Africa. Page defines colonialism as the “domination or assertion of control by one human group over another” (xxi). Depending on the country, natives lost their land, their livelihoods, cultural heritage, and dignity at the hands of colonial masters. Where locals resisted, they suffered the full force of the more advanced war machines the colonial masters had developed.

The scramble and colonization of Africa watered the seeds planted in the previous era of slave trade, which by then was illegal in many European countries. Africa suffered official exploitation in the hands of the colonial masters, reducing the natives to servants and clerks. Infrastructural development did not consider the needs of the locals, but served to make the exportation of resources more efficient.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Development and Globalization in Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The first and second world wars were blessing in disguise for Africa in the quest for self-determination. Colonial masters recruited Africans as soldiers to fight for them in wars that they did not understand. The experience from the wars gave Africans the confidence and mindset required to fight with modern weapons. Soon after the Second World War, Africa became the next battlefield with various forms of independence struggles coming up.

Positive Impacts of Development from the Colonial Era The colonial era gave Africa its first formal administrative system. This came with Africa’s first maps and plans. The infrastructural outlay laid by the colonial masters remains a legacy of colonialism in Africa. Many cities in Africa today still use the plans produced by the colonialists. The Balkanizing of Africans into certain territories provided an environment conducive for social integration and cohesion.

With the colonial masters as a common enemy, Africans experienced a sense of kinship only possible under common persecution. On economic development, sub-Saharan Africa benefited from the knowledge generated in the west on economic planning. This made African countries do well economically since the colonialists came with a superior set of economic skills compared to what was in place in sub-Saharan Africa at that time.

Negative Impacts On the other hand, irreversible loss of African traditions and culture occurred when colonialists forced different tribes and communities to live and work together in farms and in the service of the colonial regimes. Africa took on a new way of life revolving around modern trends and services.

Old systems died. Prior to the entry of colonialism, tribes protected their territories and their way of life. War was the means of settling disputes. The stronger tribes took over territory from their subdued or vanquished enemies. Culture was alive. Each people group upheld its norms and practices. Africans had a means of self-determination that describes how leadership transited. The colonial period snuffed all these things out. It is an irrecoverable loss for Sub-Saharan Africa.

Postcolonial Africa The post second world war period saw the resurgence of the Pan African movement which came about forty years ealier (Adi and Sherwood). It brought together opinion leaders who saw the need of an ideological affront against the colonial masters. Africa rose to fight off colonial rule with different countries using different means to rid themselves of foreign masters. A new phase of development ensued. Political development arose throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Economic and social development took much longer to attain.

As countries got their independence, a number of them went through tough periods of coup’s and counter coups as leaders, selfish for political power, or disgruntled by the ruling class sought to liberate their countries from the new masters. An inevitable decline in political successes ensued. With it went all possibility of social integration and cohesion among citizens. Some countries developed and applied sound economic policies, which saw them become economically stable, yet others continued to flounder.

Globalization and its Effects on Africa’s Development The history of Africa shows us that globalization is a serious force to reckon with. In a globalized world, there will be a single society and culture occupying the planet” (Waters, 5).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Development and Globalization in Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Globalization is a recent term that describes the process of integration between countries. However, we can trace the process of globalization to the early-recorded history of the African continent. Sub-Saharan Africa lags behind in taking advantage of global opportunities that exist today. This is because of internal and external factors. Internal factors hindering Africa’s development include ineffective governance hindering the development and implementation of effective economic, social, and political goals.

On the other hand, globalization has led to the further exposure of Africa as a source of resources. Initially, natural resources were the main resources sought after. Increasingly, African intellectual resource base is in the cross hairs of foreign powers. This phenomenon, referred to as brain drain, leaves Africa the poorer. On the other hand, Africa has an immense potential to reverse all the historical injustices and consequences of globalization that it has used as an excuse for its state.

With a bulging population of young educated people, Africa can follow the example of India and China to find businesses made possible by the internet. Business Process outsourcing has the potential of offering Africa the much-needed jobs for its young people. Some Sub-Saharan African countries such as Tanzania have been able to transform their social systems to the extent that they have achieved admirable social cohesion and integration. Many countries still struggle with issues of tribalism and ethnicity.

Economically, some countries such as South Africa and Namibia have been able to develop enviable economic models that the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa will do well to emulate. Political development allowing citizens to exercise their right to self-determination puts Ghana in a good standing and provides a proper perspective and motivation for the rest of the African countries. Clearly, based on our analysis criteria for development, not many sub-Saharan countries may claim that they have it all right.

However, there are some sterling examples, which provide hope for a better Sub-Saharan Africa. There are some terrible stories from Sub-Saharan Africa too. They include the failed state of Somalia, the genocide of Rwanda, and perennial famines of Ethiopia. Africa has more than its fair share of dictators and bungling of elections is the norm rather than the exception. The Kenyan and the Ivorian cases come to mind.

Poverty incidence, disease, and illiteracy remain formidable enemies in the sub-Saharan region. In the end, anyone who wants to be pessimistic about Africa has enough reasons to do that, but it is not all lost, with some glimmer of hope coming from various corners of the Dark Continent.

Conclusion So, what went wrong in Africa? This question has no simple answer. However, based on the preceding discussion, it is evident that there is the hand of the East and the West in making Africa what it is today.

This is not an excuse for Sub-Saharan Africa to sit pretty, but it explains some of the things that have made a continent full of resources fall into near abyss. Africa was let down in the past by foreigners who tampered with its fledgling socioeconomic and political systems, and is currently being let down by its own leadership which fails to address these issues convincingly and sustainably.

Works Cited Adi, Hakim and Marika Sherwood. Pan-African History: Political FIgures from Africa and the DIaspora since 1787. New York, NY.: Routledge, 2003.

Loomba, Ania. Colonialism/Postcolonialism. New York, NY.: Routledge, 2005.

Misra, R. P. Developement Issues of Our Time. New Delhi: COncept Publishing Company, n.d.

Page, Melvin E. Colonialism: An International Social, Cultural, and Political Encylopeadia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2003.

Waters, Malcom. Globalization. New York, NY: Routledge, 2001.

Zamosky, Lisa. Sub-Saharan Africa: World Cultures Through Time. Huntington Beach, CA: Teacher Created Materials, 2007.

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The Illegal Aliens Should Continue Receiving Social Services Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Advantages of Illegal Aliens to the United States of America

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction The argument as to whether illegal immigrants in the United States of America should continue receiving social services such as food, welfare medical care and even financial aid for schools has been ongoing for such a long period and no one seems to agree with the other.

Most of the Americans argue that the illegal immigrants are lazy and form gangs while those who are active are taking jobs that in the past belonged to the Americans. On my side, I would propose that the support of the illegal immigrants continue based on the following simple facts.

Advantages of Illegal Aliens to the United States of America Illegal immigrants as long as they are living within the United States of America contribute to the Gross Domestic Product of the country since they purchase goods and services produced within.

When the factories and other firms in the US produce goods and services, these commonly hated illegal immigrants do not import the goods and services from their mother countries rather they buy the goods and services produced in the United States of America. On the other hand, even if they imported the goods and services to the United States of America, it would still lead to the country gaining more from foreign direct investments (Hanson 19).

A common belief among the critics who argue against the provision of the said goods and services to the illegal immigrants is that they do not pay taxes and that they therefore put strains on the American social services. These all are lies as it is a well known fact that most of the illegal immigrants do not qualify for government aid and they do pay taxes (Anon 5). The truth of the matter is that the illegal aliens do contribute to the taxation system though they may not be directly registered under the tax programs existing in the country.

For example illegal aliens contribute taxes through the Individual Tax Identification Number (ITIN) which is usually a special number provided to those who are not in possession of the social security numbers but wants to file for taxes since it is a basic requirement. These illegal aliens also pay taxes whenever they buy goods and services on offer in the United States of America just like other normal citizens does whenever they purchase goods (Tristam 5).

Most of the Americans cannot perform any sort of jobs on offer, especially if the wages are low. While most Americans are in desperate need of better paying jobs they cannot offer their services cheaply thus it is only through illegal aliens that most of the US companies are able to access cheap and less costly labor.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When US companies are able to access cheap labor from the aliens, the costs of production are reduced and as a result most of the US companies are able to gain huge profits compared to what they would have made if they had employed the legal American citizens. As a result, illegal aliens contribute to the taxes indirectly or even through reversal linkages where the company pays for corporate taxes on profits (Garibaldi 13).

Conclusion Most Americans argue that children of illegal immigrants enjoy free public schools and to many this is considered as a cost of illegal immigration. However, instead of seeing the costs what many critics fail to observe is that it would be dangerous and even unproductive to have the large population of youth out of school as fate would force them seek ways of survival with criminal activities being the only left choice.

These critics would be the first to be attacked by the formed gangs and start complaining to the authorities that the illiterate children of the illegal migrants should be taken to school instead and thus my continued support stands as to why the government should carry on providing these services to illegal aliens.

Works Cited Anonymous. “Biased and Hysterical Media Reporting.” Illegal immigration statistics, 2010. Web.

Garibaldi, Mario. “Illegal Immigration: Pros

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Child and youth care counselor Essay essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Attracting resilience helping the kids do better

Conclusion

Reference

Introduction Being a good and effective child and youth care counsellor doesn’t always come automatically but rather through much training and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of human nature and particularly the kids. The article “Attracting resilience: Helping kids do better” presents the reflections of the author, Hector Sapien in his endeavor to understand the nature of children and how he would position himself as an effective child counselor.

His work has presented rich ideas, observations and conclusions that are worth understanding for anyone who is aspiring to be an effective child and youth counselor. It is, therefore, imperative to critically analyze this article with the aim of understanding the art of attracting resilience which will eventually lead to an effective and efficient child and youth counselor.

Attracting resilience helping the kids do better The writer begins by introducing his works by reflecting on our own personal experiences in dealing with frustrated or disappointed kids who will fail under any slight amount of stress and blame ourselves for not rising up to the occasion. He introduces his own personal experience as a child care worker giving the predicament of Javier as an example.

Javier’s case is just one of the many painful, difficult experiences that most children in the same situation go through. Poor parenting, poverty and peer influence. He was reported to have become rude defiant quiet and reserved. He involves himself with the wrong group of youths and finds himself in the correction facility.

Javier seems to have the least resilience ever and will break under any slight stress. The writer gets a chance to interact with him and in the process makes some very important and interesting discoveries; he claims that “I was amazed and excited at how Javier managed his disappointment with such emerging resilient composure” (Sapien, 2007, 1).

I find it particularly interesting how the writer discovers the changes in Javier’s resilience when he is treated with understanding and empathy. Javier is reported to have felt better about himself and the people around him. It is worth noting that Sapien had to go through experiences with other kids and at times felt lost and disappointed just as the kids he was trying to help and also shared the experiences with the other coworkers who had gone through the same experiences.

Through interacting more with the kids at a more personal level and having the willingness he finally learned the art of attracting resilience. I find it interesting that we have these talents within ourselves and what is expected of us is to discover them and as he says, “become more intentional and deliberate in their use, while also finding and devising ways to stimulate or attract them in others” (Sapien, 2007, 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By looking at what the writer goes through in his journey of discovery of how best to deal with kids, it becomes important to understand that one has to invest a lot of time in understanding how to deal with different issues concerning kids and young people.

The writer had to go through “late night conversations with fellow colleagues, attendance to child care conferences, and reading about what other people had come up with, as well as a relentless survey of my personal history” (Sapien, 2007, 1). He presents his first idea of focused selective attention which, in my opinion, is of utmost importance when it comes to communication and relationships with kids.

I agree with him that communication is important but how we effectively communicate is even more important. The only way to attract kids in order to help them is to use the techniques of good communication which encompasses talking, body language and listening which should be focused selectively depending on the given circumstances. Targeting healthy positive emotions by initiating interesting and captivating conversations should be blended with careful calculated response and listening.

The art of prospecting becomes necessary for any meaningful connection with children. He personally did the prospecting by “watching, listening, and being emotionally sensitive to what was going on at any given moment while looking for particular elements in their play, personal stories, and general endeavors” (Sapién 1). I find it necessary to take time and constructively interact with the children in order to understand their strengths and weaknesses and look for the best ways get to help them.

Perhaps one of the things that help the writer to accomplish his mission of reaching to the inner life of the kids is the ability to remember the previously observed nuggets and timely application of the same. This means that to be effective in dealing with kids I would have to understand them, their history, collect enough nuggets and use them when the appropriate time comes. He claims that, “then when the person was having a difficult time I could use one or more of these nuggets to attract their increased resilience” (Sapien, 2007, 1).

I strongly agree with the writers thought about emotions and how they indicate the effectiveness of satisfaction in life. He maps need deprivation with negative feelings and need satisfaction with positive feelings.

I agree with his interpretation of resilience in terms of emotional needs “Resilience is the power of the individual to get back on track to getting what they need in their day to day lives, after being bombarded by some significant event and/or experience that is felt as jeopardizing these needs being met” (Sapien, 2007, 1). This revelation goes a long way into helping people develop resilience quite fast by bringing in the emotions that have the potential of restoring good feelings and hope.

We will write a custom Essay on Child and youth care counselor specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The law of attraction arguably speaks for itself. The writer has it that “Attraction involves thinking, doing, saying and feeling certain ways that attract certain desirable qualities such as resilience” (Sapién 1). This simply means that one is more likely to achieve tremendous results by thinking, acting and being involved in activities and experiences that are resourceful in resurrecting and bringing back to life experiences of resilience.

It also means that we can’t simply give what we don’t have and as such we should internalize within ourselves and create emotions of courage, bravery and resilience and only after that will we be able to project the same to the kids who look upon us for guidance and consolation. This can be seen as the key prerequisite for an effective counselor.

The article is particularly important for anyone dreaming of becoming an effective child and youth care counsellor. The art of taking time to understand what the kids have gone through seems to be the first step towards attracting them. The article stresses the importance of time investment in the right experiences such as spending time with the kids, reading resourceful materials and discussing experiences with other counsellors.

The article also stressed the importance of the theory of attraction whereby thinking, doing, saying and feeling certain ways that attract certain desirable qualities such as resilience will make one an effective counselor.

The article also stresses the importance of bringing in the emotions that have the potential of restoring good feelings and hope which in my opinion makes one valuable counselor since the youth and the kids look at us for guidance and source of hope.

The need for precision in terms of identifying the key areas to touch to have the largest impact on your target is particularly stressed in the article. He claims that “a nutritionist identifies those foods that are most physiologically nutritious” (Sapien, 2007, 1). In the same way a counselor must be in a position to deliver quality.

Conclusion Becoming a child and youth care counsellor is not a simple task and calls for much preparedness and willingness. The article has been critically analysed and found to be of great importance in modelling an effective child and youth care counsellor.

It has stressed the importance of the theory of attraction, need for precision in terms of identifying the key areas to touch, art of taking time to understand what the kids have gone through and the concept of bringing in the emotions that have the potential of restoring good feelings and hope. The importance of listening, and being emotionally sensitive to what was going on at any given moment has also been stressed. The article is highly enriching and can be recommended for anyone aspiring to be a child and youth care counsellor.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Child and youth care counselor by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference Sapién, H. (2007). Attracting resilience: Helping kids do better. Cyc-net. Retrieved from https://www.cyc-net.org/cyc-online/cycol-0711-sapien.html

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Hawthorne’s “Young Goodman Brown”: Cynicism or Meliorism? Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Paul w. Miller in “Hawthorne’s Young Goodman Brown: Cynicism or Meliorism” states that critics have shared the feeling that Hawthorne’s story intends to express the move from the relationship between God and man that is brokered through faith to the state of evil taking charge resulting to the damnation of the human soul. He is not sure whether they think Hawthorne uses Goodman Brown to represent humanity as a whole or only the men who share the same sentiments as himself (255).

Miller says that if Young Goodman Brown represents the whole of humanity, then this should be an indication of the cynicism held by the author Hawthorne during the time he composed this story. He goes on to indicate that if Young Goodman Brown was a representative of a segment of people who share sentiments similar to his, then his creator must have been pessimistic.

In analyzing the words of Henry James, Miller says that the picture of Young Goodman Brown created by Hawthorne is not in any way intended to reflect his views about humankind. He says that it should however be viewed as simply work of creativity and nothing more. He however disagrees with James view by stating that unless other critics can analyze any work of art and the hidden meaning extracted, the work never qualifies not for a good art since this is what defines its quality.

According to Miller, whether or not the creation of Young Goodman Brown is a representation of humanity depends on whether or not there is human representation in the whole story. This he says would determine if Young Goodman Brown is the representative of humanity or not considering whether Hawthorne has a sample of humanity in the story. Miller argues that if there were a representative sample of humanity in the story, then it is possible that Brown would not be a representative of all humans (258).

Miller specifies that if in the story Brown moves from being faithful to be being evil, it is a clear indication strategically the story by Hawthorne targets to represent humanity. On the other hand if Brown is simply deluded by the devil with hallucinations and seeing false figures in the forest, it is then clear that he is not a representative of all humans but of a few who hold suspicions on others as he does.

There are critics who view Young Goodman Brown as skeptical according to Miller. These include Richard Forgie, who then based on this concludes that Brown is a representative of the entire humanity. McKeithan’s view is different considering his conclusion brought out by Miller that Brown cannot pass for a representative of all men or the other people in the story.

Miller concludes “…the witches that Brown saw in the forest were real” (260). He continues to justify Brown’s misanthropic view of the other people. His devotion to evil bars him to be regarded as a representative of all the other humans.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Miller states the need to replace Hawthorne’s explanation of witch trials as containing that puritan “rigorism” by a virtue, which starts with the confession of human weaknesses. Miller concludes by addressing how one need not to consider Brown’s story as based on his view on humanity but what the society can influence on a man such as Brown.

Works Cited Miller, Paul. “Hawthorne’s ‘Young Goodman Brown’: Cynicism or Meliorism:” Nineteenth-Century Fiction 14. 3 (1959): 255-264. Print

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Rural-Urban gap in Post-secondary education access Research Paper a level english language essay help

Introduction Post-secondary education is great investment for a nation’s future; thus, governments should strive to ensure that more citizens access this education. Primarily, post-secondary education is very significant component for economic, social, and cultural development; it also gives a country a competitive edge.

However, access to post-secondary education has been a long-standing issue in many countries. It was found that significantly higher proportions of all high school graduates who enter post-secondary institutions come from large, as compared with small, schools and from urban than rural areas. In Canada, ‘the proportion of 25- to 54-year-olds who have some post-secondary education is slightly higher than 60% in urban areas and just under 50% in rural areas’ (Canadian Council of learning, 2006).

Problem Background Generally, many students desired to attain post-secondary education; however, there are some hindrances. Education researchers have identified varying factors that prompt the inaccessibility of post-secondary education; socioeconomic status and lack of motivation.

Therefore, the government has attempted to put in place, strategies to encourage citizens to attain tertiary education. We find that, overall, post-secondary education participation rates generally rose over this period. However, the number of people attaining post-secondary education from rural areas is generally lower that those from urban areas.

There are two types of access to tertiary education, type I and type II, where type I is considered on ‘how many’ people are accessing PSE while type II is concerned with ‘who’ the composition of the group accessing post-secondary education. Past educational researchers have dealt primarily on type I access and relative less research on type II. Therefore, there is general agreement that there is increase in the number of people accessing PSE in many societies. Due to less research based on type II, there is no clarity in rural-urban PSE access gap.

Objectives Previous studies on barriers of accessing post-secondary education have mainly focused on socio-economic status and educational level of parents. Thus, the objective of this qualitative research study will focus to establish why rural students have difficulties in accessing tertiary education.

Also addressed in the research study are reasons why so many “rural students, including many with the academic ability to go further, fail to include further schooling as part of their plans” (Green

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Drug Abuse essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Effects of Drug Abuse on Families

Resources for fighting drug abuse

Conclusion

References

Introduction Just like all the body parts are connected, so is the family unit and society. When one part of the body is ill or suffering, so is the rest of the body. Drug abuse is not a one man show per se, because it affects all the members of a family more so the community at large whether directly or indirectly. Drug abuse involves the use of a drug for a non-therapeutic/ non-medical effect or for personal pleasure. Most of the common drugs abused are: alcohol, cocaine, opioids, benzodiazepines, methaqualone among others.

The causes of drug abuse could range from the addiction of drugs meant for treatment to individual unhappiness to unemployment. Focusing on the family seems to be by far, the most known and effective way of finding a solution with regards to the “war on drugs” since it more promising to end the vicious cycle of drug abuse. The approach taken in this paper addresses the scenario where it could be the parents or the children or just peers who are addicted to drugs and how it affects the other parties who are not abusing the drugs.

Effects of Drug Abuse on Families In the cases of families where the parental figures are involved in drug abuse, there are many factors which could influence how the children are affected, for instance “age of the child and their personality, severity of involvement of the parent, whether or not it is a single parent family, parent’s ability to fulfill parental role satisfactorily and social isolation” (CASA, 2005, p. 2).

Despite this, there are undisputed ways in which subsequent family members are affected: financial constraints, physical abuse, health issues (for instance headaches and insomnia), psychological and emotional stresses, behavioral disorders, educational/academic challenges and in most cases the children will themselves be introduced to drug abuse (CASA, 2005).

The other category mainly falls on youth/adolescents/teen abusing drugs and this also has tremendous effects especially to the society. This group is more likely to get into drug abuse as a result of peer influence.

Peer influence, however, depends on race; a concept stated by Broman, Li

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The poem “The Red Wheelbarrow” Essay (Critical Writing) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Examining the Pattern of the Poem

Use of Symbology

Speaker’s Point of View

Interpretation

Works Cited

Introduction The poem “The Red Wheelbarrow” is considered to be the masterpiece of 20th century writer William Carlos Williams, supposedly written in five minutes when he was caring for a sick child that eventually died (The Book of the Dead Man 109).

While there have been many interpretations over the years as to the meaning behind the words of the poem, the use of Occam’s Razor which states “one should not increase, beyond what is necessary, the number of entities required to explain anything” (Pretorius 339) suggests that an explanation examining the situation when the poem was written rather than using all manner of literary theory and word by word examination would be the best and most accurate way of determining what Williams was trying to impart. Though the red wheelbarrow can be described in many ways its influence in our lives is priceless.

Examining the Pattern of the Poem The overall pattern of the poem is slightly reminiscent to the style utilized in Japanese haikus where importance is placed on the power of individual words to convey meaning to the reader. In this case instead of the various lines being measured by syllables they are instead measured by words with each stanza in the poem having three words with a single line coming after that with just a single word.

Again, this is almost reminiscent of the style of various Japanese haikus however in this case the words in the poem have different measurements with some having three syllables while others have four. Overall this work has a specific combination which attempts to place a certain amount of stress on certain words but for some reason appears to miss placing a sufficient amount.

Use of Symbology In lines three to four of the poem the image of a wheelbarrow is emphasized with the word “red” clearly being used to enhance the visual image of the wheelbarrow itself.

This is noticeable due to the fact that the monosyllable words which can be found in line three seem to elongate the length of the stanza placing a distinct pause between the word “wheel” and the word “barrow” which helped to actually break down the image of the wheelbarrow into separate parts. In such a case the examination of stanza by a reader seems to be a scrutiny of the individual parts of the scene (Barker 112).

It appears to be a method by which the speaker attempts to place greater emphasis on seeing the object in the scene more closely which actually conforms to the famous phrase “no ideas but in things”(Barker 112). One method of looking at this is that the speaker is using the words as a means of capturing the essence of the moment, similar to how a painter uses various lines and color combinations to create a still life painting.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This apparent style can actually be seen in the rest of the poem. For example on lines five to six the word “glazed” is emphasized which is actually a term associated with certain painting styles. In the last lines the word “white” is also focused on, similar to the word “red” in lines three to four which further enhances the apparent connection between the poem and the creation of a painting.

Speaker’s Point of View The speaker of the poem appears to place emphasis on the phrase “so much depends” (Williams 1) and on the word “wheelbarrow” apparently conveying importance on an apparently unimportant object that most people tend to overlook.

It appears as if the speaker places a type of importance on the wheelbarrow beyond what it was meant to do and it is this importance that the author seems to connect to the phrase in the first line of the poem. The speaker seems to gaze at the wheelbarrow from afar using the chickens as some sort of method of estimating distance. If this is so the wheelbarrow could be interpreted as a type of goal for the speaker.

Interpretation Earlier it was stated that the best way of determining the meaning of the poem is one using Occum’s Razor as a means to eliminate unnecessary additions to the examination process. An examination of the history of the poem shows that it was created within the span of five minutes by the author when he was tending to a child that was terminally ill.

An examination of this event shows that the author who was also a physician thought that if he could get the child to walk to the wheelbarrow in the courtyard, to employ some form of exercise on the body, the health of the child would be able to improve. Unfortunately the child died before such an attempt was made and the author realized that he placed so much importance on the goal of the wheelbarrow that he neglected helping the child in another fashion.

The poem “the red wheelbarrow” can be interpreted as a moment in time captured by the speaker in an apparent still life painting, wherein the absolute goal represented by the wheelbarrow which the speaker focused on resulted in the speaker neglecting what was truly important.

The emphasis on the bright red color is due to the speaker using it in comparison to the goal blinding him to what truly must be done. The phrase “so much depends” (Williams 1) is thus meant to be said in sorrow due to the utter blindness by which the speaker focused too much on what was ahead of himself that he neglected what was around.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on The poem “The Red Wheelbarrow” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The white chickens actually represent the tasks he was meant to accomplish but due to the brightness of the goal he set forth for himself he ignored what he was suppose to do and blindly focused on reaching it. As a result the end was sorrow and regret, the poem is meant to influence our lives in a way in which we should not blindly follow the “red” goals of our life, that we should take into account that which we neglect.

This can take the form of parents neglecting their children in order to provide them with a better life, a husband ignoring his wife in order to plan their future and society merely placing money in the hands of a beggar while ignoring the true problem at hand. The poem speaks volumes in its simplicity, it captures what is today a common occurrence and it warns of the folly such actions have on life.

Works Cited Barker, Wendy. “Teaching “The Red Wheelbarrow” the Thirtieth Time.” Southern Review. 112 – 114. Southern Review, 2010. Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web.

Pretorius, Elizabeth J. “Issues of complexity in reading: Putting Occam’s razor aside for now.” Southern African Linguistics

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Creative, Fair-minded and emotional thinking Essay essay help

Introduction Every activity we undertake daily is usually the products of our thinking. The success in any activity is dependent on how we view, analyze and think about it before drawing a conclusion. The way people approach different problems may vary even when they share same abilities.

The arguments are usually influenced by internal and external factors which may make the thinking biased. Making good arguments on challenges that faces one in all aspects of life is the key to success. This paper seeks to analyze the various thinking styles making comparison and contrast analysis on fair-minded, emotionalist and creative thinking styles.

Creative, Fair-minded and emotional thinking Thinking involves various activities and analysis before giving out the answer to a problem. Mostly the aspects involved are questioning, thinking broadly, reasoning clearly, organizing the thinking and synthesizing. When one is thinking on an issue, it is usually good to accommodate new ideas and visualize the possible consequences of a problem that may arise and thus prepare for means of minimizing the negative impacts (Jarvis, 2006).

Some thinking may be biased to one side due to some interests or failure. Fair-minded thinkers usually listen to all the opinions available and analyze them before giving results which are usually fair. This type of thinking is very useful and is able to overcome some challenges.

There are decisions made from thinking based on personal emotions; this is usually referred to as emotional thinking. Emotional thinking is very dangerous as the results provided are usually biased. Creative thinking is thinking that brings forth new and different ways of approaching issues (Moser, 2002). This usually leads to new problem solving techniques.

The different types of thinking have their strengths and weaknesses. The opinion of people on a given issue is usually different with respect to others. The best approach is usually to take critical analysis of all of them as well as checking on the possible consequences.

References Jarvis, P. (2006). Towards a comprehensive theory of human learning. London, UK: Routledge.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moser, A. (2002). The Five Faces of Genius: Creative Thinking Styles to Succeed at Work. London: Penguin.

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The History of Bible Making Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Early texts

The writing of the Bible

Canonization of the Bible

Translation of the Bible

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction The history of Bible making is an unclear subject to most people. Majority, especially Christians, blindly believe in the bible teachings without seeking to understand how it came about or where it came from. It is very important for Christians to understand this subject in order to comprehend more about their religion.

By doing so, Christians will not only be followers of Christianity, but also they will be part of it. Scholars argue that the process of bible making started thousands of years ago during the pre-reformation period between 1400 B. C and 1400 A.D. During the pre-Reformation period, the Bible existed in the original languages of Greek, Latin, and Hebrew.

The translation of the Bible started about 1380’s AD when John Wycliffe wrote dozens of manuscripts in English. The canonization process whereby the authorities determined which ‘writings’ were authoritative to form the present Bible has received worldwide criticism throughout the history.

It is uncertain why the authorities included some texts rather than others. Although, the original manuscripts of the Bible might not be available to support the arguments of most theologians, historical sources for both Testaments of the Bible provide sufficient evidence regarding the origin of the Bible. This study touches on historical issues surrounding the dissemination of the bible across the world.

The aspects explored here provide supportive evidences for emergence of different versions of the Bible. The purpose of this research is to find out how the modern Bible was collected into its current form. With focus on New Testament, the paper discusses the textual content considered for inclusion into the Bible. The paper will also examine the role played by translation of the bible as a developmental stage as the bible moved into its current form, what many refer as ‘the modern bible.’

Early texts This section highlights various teachings and writings by the early scholars, which could have led into composition of the modern Bible. The writing by Constra Celsum between 3rd BC and 3rd AD played a crucial role in the writing of the New Testament. Celsum criticized the then Christianity teaching of monotheism. Although, Celsum was a pagan, scholars assert that he believed in supreme divinity.

However, his argument was that there existed other inferior divinities which the supreme God delegated powers (Young 1990, 35). With the birth of Jesus, Celsum argued that the Christian’s position on monotheism loosened and monotheists slowly disappeared with the waning popularity of their religion. Celsum’s writings elicited debate among the Christian thinkers, who worked hard to defend the core teaching of Christianity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to ensure respect for Jewish monotheism, Christian scholars wrote different texts, which disapproved the arguments of Celsum and from these texts Paul founded his teachings. 1Corinthians 8:6 states that, “But to us there is but one God” (NRV). As this text presents, the author seemingly was opposed to the views of other people such as Celsum. Scholars believe that this passage aimed to confirm the Jewish faith in monotheism.

Although, non-Christians such Celsum questioned monotheism, Paul derived 1 Cor. 8:6 from the teachings of the defenders of monotheism such Justin Martyr.

Theologians attribute the origin of John’s first chapter to the accounts of Justin Martyr. In his writings, Justin argued that God used creative speech to present his reason. This reason is what Justin referred to as Logos. In John’s first chapter, the author defines the reason as the word through which God revealed Himself to man. In fact, God expressed Himself through the ‘word’ in Genesis.

As per the Justin’s writings, the word was not just any word; it was wisdom. In order to illustrate this word as wisdom, according to Justin’s assertion, the author refers to the word as God. This teaching proved to the doubting Thomases that Jesus was the son of God since it was through him that God’s word reached the world. It is therefore justifiable that, Justin’s writings contributed significantly to the writing of the gospel books in the Bible.

The gospel books focus on confirming to the world that Jesus is the only son of God through whom, His word shall reach and save the world. Justin’s work illustrated the difference between Jesus and the prophets. According to him, Jesus was a fulfillment of the Old Testament as predicted through the prophecies of Isaiah. This further formed the foundational texts for the writing of the gospel biblical books.

The concept of God’s trinity evolved in 2nd century AD, when Irenaeus indicated that there were three personalities of God: Son, word and the spirit. As a doctor of the church, Irenaeus’ teachings received applauded attention among the Church thinkers.

Although the modern bible does not consider word as the element of trinity, it is apparent that Irenaeus’ writings formed the basis for God’s trinity in the bible. According to modern theology, God trinity is composed of three personalities namely, the father, son and the spirit. The ‘father’ replaced the ‘word’ in the Irenaeus teaching.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The History of Bible Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As the Gospel of John notes, “The word was God” (John 1:1, NRV); therefore, it is justifiable to conclude that the ‘word’ was the ‘father’ according to Irenaeus’ teachings. The writings of Irenaeus are the basis of the New Testament teachings that God is the spirit, the son and the father.

Another important scholar though controversial in the making of the New Testament is Noetus of Smyrna. Noetus in 200 AD wrote that Jesus was not the son, but the father. Although, his work may not be vivid in the New Testament, he contributed greatly to the understanding of God among the non-Christians. As per some Biblical contexts, particularly the New Testament, Jesus possesses the powers of God. Indeed, he is God.

The writing of the Bible Originally, the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament existed in the Hebrew language except a few books, which Scholars wrote in Aramaic. Close examination of these different texts is useful for reconstruction of the most likely origin of the Old Testament.

According to Mykytiuk (2010), “the very oldest fragment resembling part of the text of the Hebrew Bible so far discovered is a small silver amulet, dating from approximately 600 BCE, and containing a version of the Priestly Blessing” (76). The Old Testament of the modern Bible originated from the Hebrew bible. The authors of the Old Testament used three blocks of genres, the Torah, Deuteronomy history, and Chronicler’s history.

The Torah comprises of books between Genesis and Deuteronomy. Torah reflects many historical writings by the Hebrew scholars concerning God’s creation of both the world and man. It also includes the history of Moses, Egypt and the Israelites. The Deuteronomy and Chronicler’s histories focus on the Israelites journey to Canaan.

Originally, the New Testament was recorded in Greek and for over the years, more than 56,000 copies of the ancient Greek Bible have survived. It is from this original manuscript that scholars derived the modern New Testament. With the support of the Roman Empire, composition of the New Testament was made easier. The authors in the New Testament describe the stories of Gospels and the Revelation.

The Gospels describe the life of Jesus Christ in the world whereas Revelation describes the end of the time and the ultimate God’s judgment to mankind. Most scholars such Dever, Young among others dispute the authorship of the New Testament books. Based on the contextual evidences of these books, scholars should not have any reason for contention. Critical analysis of the gospels reveals that the authors were conversant and closer to Jesus.

Therefore, as Mazar asserts,”the disciples or their associates therefore wrote these stories (1992, 65). It is therefore justifiable to assert that John wrote the gospel of John and so on. Scholars unanimously agree on the Paul’s authorship of the epistles and acts. This observation holds because of contextual evidences, which characterize Paul’s personality. Evidences for Paul’s authorship

Not sure if you can write a paper on The History of Bible Making by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The epistles have one common format throughout the New Testament. They start with Paul’s greetings to his audience. According to Jewish culture, greetings represented courtesy and love (Mazar 1992, 73). Paul possessed these two characters. Prior to his conversion, Paul, then Saul, persecuted the followers of Christ and after the conversion; God filled him with love and the urge to transform the world.

Therefore, in order to share this love, Paul introduced his letters with “Grace and peace of Jesus Christ to you” (NRV). The letters end with similar phrase that “Grace to all who Love our Lord” (NRV). It is therefore clear that these epistles share the author, who happens to be Paul.

The second evidence is the subject of the letters, commonly known as epistles. The author aims to bring hope to humanity. Since on his conversion Paul found hope, it is justifiable that Paul used these letters to bring hope to the world. The letters also focus on change of the behaviors among the Jews.

As a person who transformed his life through encounter with God, Paul uses these epistles to transform others not to succumb in sin. In his letter to Galatians 5:1-13, Paul informs them that it is through transformation of their lives that they will live in freedom (NRV). According to Paul, human beings are captives of sin and free people in Christ. Since Paul had experienced this captivity, it is only him who could write such content.

The third evidence, which supports Paul’s authorship, is the message of peace and care for others contained universally in the epistles. As indicated earlier, the letters begins with a message of peace. In 2Corinthians 7:1, Paul emphasizes on purification of the heart (NRV). Through purification of his heart, Paul acquired unlimited peace in God.

Therefore, such message illustrates Paul believed in purification of the heart as the means to eternal peace. Throughout the letters, Paul advocates for friendship among the people of God. Because of his past life as a persecutor, Paul clearly understood the effects of unfriendliness among God’s people. Therefore, in order to ensure that the people of God do not experience the same, Paul used these letters to warn Christians in advance.

Canonization of the Bible According to Young, the canonization of the “Old Testament consists of 24 Hebrew books, which Hebrew scholars further divided into three parts: the Torah or the law, prophets and writings” (1990, 98). The modern Old Testament therefore derived its plan from this Hebrew Bible and other additional books. The modern bible arrangement however is slightly different from the Hebrew Book. It consists of the books of Law, then the historical books, followed by the books of wisdom and the prophetic books.

The canonization of the New Testament began towards the end of 2nd century. It started with the acceptance of the ten letters of Paul. Irenaeus’ argument for inclusion of Gospel canon into the New Testament then followed. Early in the 3rd century, scholars accepted the other books.

However, an official canon of the New Testament never existed. In Egypt for example, Christians used at least 35 books in New Testament while Jerome version (Latin) had 27 books. Mid 4th century, Athanasius, the Alexandria bishop raised the question on which canon the church was to adopt. In order to avoid the spread of false information about Christianity, church authorities developed the basis for canonization of the New Testament.

The church delegated the responsibility to the church councils who canonized the New Testament based on several guiding principles. First, the author of every book considered had to be an apostle or an associate of a disciple. Mark for instance was not an apostle, but a friend of Apostle Peter.

Secondly, the message of the book had to act as a divine revelation of the Old Testament and reflect Jesus’ Character. For example, the gospel of Matthew is a fulfillment for the prophecy of Isaiah on birth of Jesus Christ and the salvation of the world. Thirdly, the council had to consider the universality of the book; all the books had to communicate the message of God, which all the Churches would practice.

All the epistles of Paul provide hope, encouragement and love to the world, which were teachings of Jesus Christ. Finally, the council had to consider whether the books provided inspiration to the church. They had to ensure that all the books had spiritual character of God to inspire the believers.

Historians note that there were three major councils: Laodicea (A.D. 363), Carthage (A. D 397) and Hippo (419 A. D). “Laodicea accepted all the New Testament books except Revelation; the other two councils endorsed the 27 books” (Mazar 1992, 39). However, throughout the canonization process, the council members disputed several books including Philemon, Hebrews, II Peter, Jude, John’s epistle, and Revelation.

The book of Philemon did not measure up to the canonization protocols for as per the priests of that time, this book was simply another personal letter if not secular manifesto. The council could not figure out the authorship of the book of Hebrews, whether the author was an apostle or a friend to the apostle. The Epistle of John was not universal to the church and it was very brief while Jude and II Peter were not original; they seemed to contain borrowed information.

Finally, Revelation was the center for dispute since very few Christians comprehended its message up to A. D 400. Its apocalyptic imagery of the judgment and the end of the world proved confusing to most council members and the church. Finally, by 450 A. D the church had reached a consensus of a New Testament with 27 books, which is the composition of the modern bible. The council did not include texts such as Maccabaeus and Enoch simply because they did not meet the canonization criterion.

Translation of the Bible During the 3rd century BC, Greek was the first language for Jewish communities who lived in the Diaspora. Since Greek had written the New Testament, there was no need for Bible translation until five centuries later when people developed the urge to read the Old Testament.

This was therefore the first reason for translation of the bible (Lemche1998, 32). Due to spread of Christianity all over the world, scholars and theologians shifted their focus on bible translation into major languages such as English. John Wycliffe was the first scholar and theologian to translate the bible from Latin into English.

However, the church opposed severely his teachings. In his translated bible, Wycliffe argued that the bible should be available in all the languages for all people to read. Wycliffe further taught that, the church should not continue to perpetuate oppression among the Christians. The church was so infuriated such that it murdered all the Wycliffe’s followers.

Through the invention of translation, the spread of the canonized bible against the will of the early church became possible. This invention further resulted into making of a beautiful bible, used by the modern Christians. Translation increased understanding of scriptures to many Christians. This further enhanced the interpretation of the biblical messages. Interpretation of the bible by many Christians enhanced further translations into native languages.

For instance, Professor Colet’s translation of the Greek New Testament into English resulted into increase in Christians in London. Historians note that after this translation, Christians increased beyond the capacity of the church of London; a clear indication that translation increased the scripture knowledge among the Christians, which further led into translation of the bible into the modern languages.

During the translation, there were alterations in the content of the original bible. These alterations meant to reduce the powers of the church and this is the reason for existence of varied versions of the English bible. Comparison of verses for different versions of the bible would clearly evidence this argument. Therefore, changes made by reformers during the translation era, contributed significantly into the development of the modern bible.

Conclusion The making of the modern bible started before the 3rd century B. C, with the teachings of the early scholars. These scholars expressed their thoughts through diverse writings some of which became the basics for writing of the bible. Beginning with the Celsum’s criticism to the teachings of Irenaeus and finally to the contribution of the translators, the collection of the modern bible came into realization.

The important stage of modern bible making is the canonization stage whereby, the council of the church selected the books for inclusion in the bible. The canonization criterion had three important guiding principles viz. universality of the books, the nature of the message contained in the book, and inspiration of the book to the Christians. Paul’s authorship of the epistles is widely accepted by the modern scholars. The messages in these epistles characterize Paul’s personality.

Theologians refer to Paul as the message for hope, encouragement, and peace. Because these characters form the messages in the epistle books, it is justifiable that Paul is the author of these books. Translation of the bible on its part played a very crucial role in the development of the modern bible. Alterations in the content of the original bible during the translation process resulted into the different versions of the modern bible.

Reference List Lemche, Niels P. 1998. The Israelites in History and Tradition. London: John Knox Press.

Mazar, Amihai.1992. Archaeology of the Land of the Bible: 10,000-586 B.C.E. New York: Doubleday.

Mykytiuk, Lawrence J. 2010. Strengthening Biblical Historicity vis-vis Minimalism: Introducing a Bibliographic Essay in Five Parts. Journal of Religious and Theological Information 9, no. 3 (January): 71-83.

Young, Frances M. 1990. Making of the creeds. London: SCM Press.

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The Concept of Supply Chain Management Essay essay help free: essay help free

What is the Supply Chain? A system in which people, organizations, technology or any sort of activities are involved in the movement of goods or services from the producer to the customer who is in dire need of them is defined as a supply chain. The activities which take place within the supply chain system are numerous and are all aimed at transforming raw materials into final products which can be used by the customer.

During instances where the supply chain involves multiple parties, used products can enter or even leave the supply chain system as long as the residue value is recyclable (Stevens 1989). Experts define the supply chain simply as a complex network of facilities dispersed over large areas (geographically) all over the globe.

Components of the Supply Chain The supply chain usually contains three components which ensure that the system remains complete and fully functioning: The first component is the upstream supply chain which usually includes the organization first tier suppliers and their suppliers. The component focuses on the raw materials and how they can be distributed to the manufacturing channels. As a result, this makes manufacturing or the internal supply chain the second component of the supply chain.

It involves materials needed to transform the inputs to outputs and it is mainly concerned with how the raw materials can be transformed into final products ready to be used by the customers. The last component is the customers to whom the products are supposed to reach. The customers component of the chain is also referred to as down stream supply chain since it involves all the activities which makes it possible for the goods to reach consumers downstream (Keah-Choon, Vijay, Handfield

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Kidscity in Melbourne, Australia Essay college essay help

Need for Kidscity Kidcity is not a simple entertaining center, it is a unique edutainment where children can work and get salary. Many students have problems with profession choice as they do not know what responsibilities each occupation comprises. It is important to entertain children with something. It is also important to understand that the main purpose of edutainment is to attract children’s attention to one of the issues and hold it for some time there. Thus, children learn something without being made (Okan 2003).

Kidscity Concept Kidcity is the centre which is going to offer children different occupations, pay them money, and offer the shops where they can spend earned money. This Kidcity is aimed at providing with the possibilities for trying jobs on the basis of KidZania, a theme park in Japan (Spooky 2009). Working as firefighters, doctors, etc. children can try different jobs, have their money and understand the value of it while spending them in the center on the territory of Kidcity.

Only children between 4 and 16 are going to be allowed in the center. Others, including parents, will not. This is going to be a replica of a real city with streets, buildings, retails and different vehicle going around city. A theme park is a place where children can decide what they want to be when they grow up by actually doing the job and earn money. The currency in the Kidscity is called ‘Kidzos’.

Center Development Possibilities

The center has many opportunities in the development, starting with the implementation of new jobs connected with the infrastructure development and concluding with the territorial increase (with the possibility to creation of another city with different jobs).

Market and Competition Having considered the child care industry in Melbourne, it is possible to state that there is no such center in the city, as well as in the whole country. Considering a venture as an educative one, it may be stated that it is not going change the secondary school attendance, as we have absolutely different direction and our center is not compulsory (McMIllan 2011b).

Moreover, the child care services in Australia are usually provided for children under 12 years old (McMIllan 2011a). Our Kidcity is going to reduce this level up to 4 years and work with children of more varied age. Thus, the business is not going to experience high competition.

Economics Having considered the success of the similar ventures in Japan, we would like to base our prices on theirs $50 per shift (Hours and admission fees 2011). The approximate admission from parents for their children for a shift in Kidcity is going to be $50-100 depending on the position. A child will get about $10 as payment for their job in ‘Kidzos’. 1 dollar equals 5 Kidzos to make children interested in possession much money.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Initial Investment and Expected profitability of Venture The venture requires much investment as to build the basic infrastructure (a hospital, several offices, houses, streets, shops, etc.) costs too much (about $50,000-$8,000) as the whole city should be built from the very beginning. Being a profitable business, it is possible to attract investors, both national and foreign.

It can be easy to explain the profitability to Japanese investors as having the same center they can easily follow its profit. Moreover, having low competition, the business will ring more profit. The profit will not be gained at once as it is necessary to cover the costs spent on the center building.

Exit strategy of the company should be directed at the reforming and restructuring the center into an entertainment facility where both children and parents can have fun.

Reference List ‘Hours and admission fees’ 2011, KidZania. Web.

McMillan, P 2011a, ‘Child care services in Australia’, IBIS World Industry Report.

McMillan, P 2011b, ‘Preschool education in Australia’, IBIS World Industry Report.

Okan, Z 2003, ‘Edutainment: is learning at risk?’, British Journal of Education Technology, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 255-264.

We will write a custom Essay on Kidscity in Melbourne, Australia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Spooky 2009, ‘KidZania – Career-Building Theme Park for Kids’, Oddity Central, September 24, http://www.odditycentral.com/pics/kidzania-career-building-theme-park-for-kids.html

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The law of comparative advantage forms the basis of international trade Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

The law of comparative advantage

David Ricardo: Theory of Comparative advantage

The Heckscher-Ohlin Trade Theory

Conclusion

Reference List

Introduction Factors of production differ from country to country. The difference is significant in the labor skills, availability of raw materials, climate and population density. These factors are generally immobile; hence, their differences tend to persist from country to country.

Even though climate and land are immobile, other factors like capital and labor have tight restrictions in terms of their physical, legal, cultural, and social form especially when their movement is between two countries as opposed to the movement within one particular country. This hence differentiates the ability in terms of supplying goods between countries.

The difference is attributed to the difference in cost of production of goods. These differences ultimately establish the solid foundation of trade. Comparative advantage on the other hand is the beneficial trade between countries, despite one country having the upper hand of producing all of its goods by use of minimum resources. This therefore brings about relative efficiency that differentiates production of goods between the two countries (Suneja, 2000, p. 172).

The law of comparative advantage According to Maneschi, “the principle of comparative advantage has been named the deepest and the most beautiful result in all of economics” (Maneschi, 1998, p.1). This concept plays a crucial role in international trade despite lacking a satisfactory and common definition to define it.

In the dictionary of economics, this concept has been defined as a systematic definition of gains attained from trade in reference to division of labor and specialization. It is the perception of others to define specialization effects in terms of comparative advantage as well as use theories in consideration of its sources.

Overall, comparative advantage is side supplying of differences between various countries in regard to technologies as well as factor endowments. This explanation has been subjected to criticism from different quarters, with some arguing that the explanation failed to account beyond reasonable doubt, the trade pattern after World War II, in particular concerning the expansive fraction of world trade, which was tribute to growth, and the nature of intra-industry.

This has partly led to the constant challenging of Hecksher-Ohlin theory over the last two decades by the new trade theory. Despite of these shortcomings, the trade models founded on comparative advantage continue to be popular in regard to international economics. The concept continues to receive praises from high-learned professionals (Maneschi, 1998, p.1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Comparative advantage is achieved by a country if it is more productive in a given commodity as compared to both other countries other products. In defining the law of comparative advantage, one can consider the scenario of a country exporting products whose production is cheaper as compared to other countries.

It is easier to understand this scenario, as no complicated commodities exist. However, complications may arise especially when the scenario becomes general in terms of technology as well as a number of factors and products (Maneschi, 1998, p.2).

David Ricardo: Theory of Comparative advantage The theory states that, despite a nation having absolute disadvantage in producing commodities as compared to other countries, trade could still be undertaken, which is mutually advantageous. The nation with less efficiency is supposed to focus on both the production and exportation of commodities with advantage that is more absolute.

It is this kind of commodity that the nation in question has comparative advantage. In addition to this the vice versa should happen which means the nation should undertake importation of commodities which it has less advantage. In 1821, Ricardo indicated that despite a country having absolute advantage in production of every commodity that does not mean it has comparative advantage in the production of every commodity.

This therefore signifies the fact that it is impossible for a nation to be importing everything (Condon and Sinha, 2003, p. 32). According to Ghai and Gupta, it was the theory of comparative advantage that incorporated together a large portion of trade within the world by eliminating the necessity that pertains to absolute differences in cost, which in the past was used in trade (Ghai and Gupta, 2002, p. 237).

In this theory as Suggested by David Ricardo, even lack of absolute differences in cost, the two countries could still engage in beneficial and mutual trade. The mutual benefits in trade are still possible despite the fact that one country could be less efficient in producing both commodities as compared to counterpart nation.

One nation may undertake to specialize in producing and exporting commodities of a lesser disadvantage and at the same time import a commodity that has a higher absolute advantage. The restriction in this case is that absolute advantage should not be similar in the two commodities. The assumptions in this theory include; Presence of two countries, the trade is free and no transportation cost (Ghai and Gupta, 2002, p. 237).

We will write a custom Essay on The law of comparative advantage forms the basis of international trade specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Katsioloudes and Hadjidakis (2007) suggested that prices were dictated mainly by the labor quantity that was in use during production. In addition to this, capital costs also play a significant role in determination of prices. The effect of increase in wages average prices is attributed as a result of the quantity of labor and capital costs, which are factors of production in the different commodities (Katsioloudes and Hadjidakis, 2007, p. 74).

In a simpler format, a country’s comparative advantage in certain commodities and comparative disadvantage in other commodities is attributed to the fact that the country’s endowment of climate, technology, natural resources and the productivity of labor force.

The prediction that is normally kept across of an international trade is that a nation is likely to export the commodities whose endowment in terms of land, capital and labor has room for output expansion with minimal sacrifice of any other domestic goods. Technology was also used to create trade opportunities (Kletzer, 2002, p. 12).

The Heckscher-Ohlin Trade Theory The Heckscher-Ohlin Trade Theory, attempts to answer the pending questions that were not answered by David Ricardo and his theory. Questions that reflects on the reason behind comparative advantage or why there is a difference in comparative costs in regard to production of commodities in various countries and the impact of international trade in terms of earnings received by the two countries in trade.

These are some of the questioned that have been tackled by the Heckscher-Ohlin Trade Theory. This theory as the name suggest, was named after Eli F. Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin who were economists. The two economists also shared the same nationality, which was Swedish.

Hecksher was the first economist that published an article in 1919 that had the heart of the Hecksher-Ohlin theory. Bertil on the other hand was a student of Hecksher who later worked on the unnoticed publication of Hecksher to give it life through publishing of his own book in the year 1933. In 1977, Ohlin received the Nobel Prize in the field of economics as his work was internationally accepted and was crucial in international trade (Ghai and Gupta, 2002, p. 278).

The Heckscher-Ohlin Trade Theory is founded on the foundation of general equilibrium theory. The validation of the general theory was considered particularly for one market. It was later concluded that due to the differences that existed between international trade and domestic trade, it was ideal to have a separate theory that incorporated international trade.

This however was not in agreement with Ohlin who perceived international trade as a case of interregional trade. In addition to this, he considered the application of general equilibrium theory to both domestic and international trade. The assumptions considered in this theory include the use of the similar technology in the two countries of trade, Presence of perfect competition and the trade is free without barriers among others (Ghai and Gupta, 2002, p. 279).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The law of comparative advantage forms the basis of international trade by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Heckscher-Ohlin Trade theory does not contradict nor reject the theory of comparative advantage, but instead it acts as a supplement to the theory as it removes the main limitation from the theory and provides a comprehensive explanation of comparative advantage. The differences in prices of commodities to be traded, act as the main reason behind the trade of the two countries.

The commodity’s price in return is affected by the factor prices that differ from country to country. In addition to this, the rise in the factor prices is initiated by the difference in supply factor between the countries of trade. In consideration of Heckscher-Ohlin Trade theory, the distribution of income, tastes, and preferences of the consumer and distribution factors of production determines the level of demand for the commodities.

This means that the demand that is based on the factors of production depends on the demand that is based on final commodities. In this case the taste and preference of consumers in the two countries is similar as well as the income distribution. Therefore, the demand of factors and the demand for commodities play an insignificant role in the final prices of the commodity (Ghai and Gupta, 2002, p. 281).

Conclusion Differences in prices in various countries represent the difference in cost of production thus signifying the basic cause of trade. In the world trade in one way or the other tries to reduce, the resource costs attributed to production.

This tend to happen more often as in the world of trade producers from different countries can specialize on economic trade activities that tend to utilize the country’s resources to the maximum. The differences in international trade of the relative cost of production indicate the comparative advantage notion, which is the basis of international trade theory.

The introduction of comparative advantage was brought about by David Ricardo and later on upon extension; it was refined by the two economists Eli Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin. International trade in consideration of the two theories will result to expansion of export production sector and at the same time contraction will be taking place on the import sector. This is attributed to shift of focus by a nation to commodities of comparative advantage.

Reference List Condon, J. B. and Sinha, T., 2003. Drawing lines in sand and snow: border security and North American economic. NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.

Ghai, p. and Gupta, A., 2002. Microeconomics Theory and Applications. New Delhi: Sarup

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Apprenticeships for the 21st Century Report college essay help online

Introduction The selected reports address the need to reform the Australian Apprenticeship system to give participants the right skills that will impact the Australian labor market positively. The report of the Panel chaired by Mr. Jim McDowell titled A Shared Responsibility – Apprenticeships for the 21st Century mentions that there is need to come up with a system that is more efficient and capable of producing a large number of highly trained, skillful and highly inspired workers (McDowell et al 2011).

Other reports echo on this sentiment, for example, the report by Amy Simons titled Report savages apprenticeship system blames the current system for causing young Australians to relinquish their occupations (Simmons 2011).

The reports stress the need to simplify and streamline the system to impart skills that are crucial to the growth of the Australian economy (Evans 2011), similar calls are made by the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) (ACTU 2011). The Housing Industry of Australia (HIA) contends that plans to reform the system are welcome, but the industry must be involved in coming up with a better system that ensures apprentices get employment opportunities (HIA 2011).

The final report by the Australian Industry Group (Ai Group) commends the report by McDowell et al and says that it presents ‘the opportunity for real reform of the apprenticeship system after many years of tinkering’ (Ai Group 2011).

Points or Arguments The reports agree on one issue: the Australian Apprenticeship system needs urgent reforms, and the recommendations by the government-appointed panel chaired by Mr. McDowell are vital towards achieving the reforms. The reports cite several weaknesses in the current program as a justification for the reforms, majorly, the low completion rates.

Simmons mentions that more than half of those enrolled in apprenticeship programs drop out of the system. This anomaly is due to the low pay rates. Senator Evans mentions that since 42 percent of those enrolling in apprenticeship programs are aged 25 and above, there is need for a new system that recognizes previous experience or skills, this will motivate more persons to enroll in the program (Evans 2011).

Quoting one of the recommendations by the panel, HIA reports that reforms will address the issue of high dropout rates and the will make the system simpler. The reforms will reduce Australia’s over-reliance on imported labor and meet demands of Australian labor market (ACTU 2011). A weakness of the current system is that it contains many difficulties and inconsistencies, and hence the reforms are vital towards overcoming the obscurities (Ai Group 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While the Australian Apprenticeship system continuously provides skilled labor to the market, there is a need for urgent reforms that will lead to the production of a skilled and flexible labor force that has the ability to meet the challenges of the Australian economy in competing with other global economies (McDowell et al 2011). Besides, the new system will meet the changing skill requirements as well as the ambitions and anticipations of the participants.

Factors that might Influence the Perspective of the various Stakeholders The assertion that the Australian Apprenticeship system requires urgent reforms is a genuine. However, to win the vote of the various stakeholders in effecting the reforms, the following points must be said of the current system:

There have been high dropout rates among persons who enroll in apprenticeship program under the current system. The low completion rates are caused by low wages, a lack of motivation among the participants, and receiving education that is obsolete, especially with the constantly changing labor market requirements. In some jobs, an apprentice receives less that $200 a week, this discourages other individuals from taking up apprentice programs.

Globalization has increased the movement of labor across the world, the situation is no different in Australia. The current system does not impart knowledge required by the economy, hence it has had to import skilled labor. If this situation persists, the more than 400,000 students enrolled in the Vocational Education and Training (VET), or nearly 4% of the workforce, may lack employment.

The youth form the largest proportion of our economy, yet, this is the group that suffers most from unemployment. In the future, social ills and poverty may begin to crop into our society if the current situation is not rectified. This is a wake up call and the first step towards averting the future disaster is to reform the apprenticeship system to avail jobs.

References Australian Council of Trade Unions. (2011). Apprenticeship reforms are long overdue and must be acted on to provide a skilled labour force. Web.

Australian Industry Group. (2011), Apprenticeship report an opportunity for real reform. Web.

Evans, C. (2011). Reforming the Australian Apprenticeship system. Web.

Housing Industry of Australia (2011), National Apprenticeship Reform Needs Industry Input. Web.

McDowell, J., et al. (2011). A Shared Responsibility – Apprenticeships for the 21st Century. Web.

We will write a custom Report on Apprenticeships for the 21st Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Simmons, A. (2011). Report savages apprenticeship system. ABC News, 2011. Web.

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Social Class and Voting patterns in Britain Essay college admissions essay help

Introduction Social class can be termed as an unofficial grading of people in a society based on their earnings, profession, schooling, residence, among other factors.

Diverse cultures however, vary according to social class, owing to various societal aspects. Britain was at one point in time a class-ruled society. Class was an affixed part of the people’s lifestyle. Today, multiculturalism and a shifting financial system are steadily wearing down the prevalent class system. Over the years, one area where the influence of social class has been felt in Britain is in the area of voting behaviour.

When we talk of voting behaviour one is simply talking of the way or manner in which people tend to vote. If the voting patterns in Britain are analyzed, one will notice that social class is the most significant reason in the way people traditionally voted in the 20th century. In short, people tend to vote according to their existing class. However, the class de-alignment that was experienced in the dying years of the 20th century greatly altered the voting patterns in Britain. (British Broadcasting Corporation)

Unlike the United States where social class merely refers to capitalism, the term means different things in the West. When talking of class in Britain, one might be talking of the upper class people or the middle class people in the society. Additionally, the term might be used to refer to the upper working class, the lower working class or even the temporary workers in the society.

Towards the middle of the 20th century, a large number of voters in Britain were associated with one of the two major political parties. Although the whole population cannot be said to have followed this trend, a close analysis shows that people in a social cleavages tended to vote in a certain way.

In fact, people in the upper working class and lower working class tended to vote for the Labour Party while people in the middle class mostly voted for the Conservative Party. In the mid 20th century, the middle class, upper working class and the lower working class accounted for close to 64% of the total votes received by the Labor Party. This pattern of voting shows that the social class was a good indicator of twentieth-century voting patterns in Britain. (British Broadcasting Corporation)

Naturally, there has been extensive attention in the changing patterns of class voting in Britain. Several writers argue that there has been a continuous process of class dealignment, which has seen all social classes begin voting in the same pattern. (Franklin 24) In fact, recent research shows that class voting reached an all time low in the 1997 elections when the Labour Party approached the heart of the political continuum. (Evans 43)

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although attention on the effects of the social environment on voting is not something new, it has rarely been incorporated within the context of class voting. Most studies done on the matter have taken an idiosyncratic advance to the issue of tendencies in class voting, examining the shifting affiliation between a person’s class membership and his vote.

However, the sociological premises upon which the fundamental presumption of social grouping rests highlight the function of social processes, in particular the creation of class-based communities which produce social strains on folks to throw their weight behind a certain party. These theories presume that the individual voting decision is not merely a result of the person’s own class characters but it also relies on the class positions of the individual’s associates. (Evans 50)

According to Hauser (1974), “contextual effects” are methodical variations in individual behavior across backgrounds that cannot be accounted for by explanations in terms of personal distinctiveness. In layman’s language, what Hauser is simply saying is that contextual effect is any upshot on personal behavior that arises due to social relations within an environment. (Hauser 374)Perhaps, Hauser’s claim can well be understood if examined in light of Miller (1977) who claims that;

If Mr A and Mr B have similar social characteristics but Mr A lives in an area where the middle class form twice as large a fraction of the local population as in the area where Mr B lives, then Mr A is likely to have more middle-class contacts than Mr B even if he is unlikely to have twice as many. Thus, Mr A’s contact group will be biased towards the middle class compared with Mr B’s contact group. (Miller 259)

According to Miller, Contextual effects are usually consensual regardless of whether people’s social contacts are comparable to themselves in their social class positions or not. This means that people tend to be inclined towards political harmony with their social contacts. Subsequent to this explanation, we would expect to find predispositions towards class voting to be resistant among electorate who frequently associate with people from the same social class.

Alternatively, we would expect to find the inclination towards class voting to be destabilized among voters who regularly interact with people from different social classes since the association would be inclined to alter their opinion to conform to that of the other social classes. This simply means that class voting is weakened as people begin to interact with members of other social classes. (Franklin 30)

Apart from Miller’s observations, Przeworski and Soares (1971) agree contextual effects are consensual on the working class but differ with him by observing that contextual effects may be reactive on other classes under certain circumstances. An example of this is where an area with a high ratio of voting class may exert pressure on people in other classes to become more cognizant of their own class wellbeing and this in effect may lead to voting against parties that are perceived as not being on their side.

We will write a custom Essay on Social Class and Voting patterns in Britain specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This suggests that there will definitely be an association between personal class, contextual social class, and voting performance. I.e. the influence of related social class will differ in the situation of middle-class and of individuals in the working class. (Przeworski

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The Analyzing of Paintings “Cranes” in Edo Period Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

The paintings under consideration, Cranes, date back to the Edo Period, the time of humanistic and rational evolution. During this period, a significant shift from religious topics to secular motifs was observed. Elements of nature and classic representation of images were also included into the salient features of this time.

Despite secularism and predominance of mundane elements, the paintings still contain some religious trends, particularly Neo-Confucianism philosophical underpinnings that one of the leading movements in Edo period. In this respect, Cranes are endowed with spiritual atmosphere and natural vitality that are expressed through an ideal combination of flora and fauna. Everything – from texture, fabric, and tone to color, shapes, and lines – reflect the common traits of Edo artistic movement.

Painted in ink on silk and paper, Cranes are represented through extreme delicacy that is achieved by means of the materials used. Cautious lines made by the painter require extreme attention because at least one wrong movement or brush can spoil the entire work.

Refinement of the materials used also contributes to better representation of artistic motives and themes. Judging from this, the artist strives to make use of these materials in order to achieve the effect of weightlessness, lightness, and simplicity. In addition, ink, paper, and silk are considered to be one of the main attributes of painting culture in Japan.

It reflects Japanese cultural and historical heritage. Along with accuracy and delicacy of the image representation, the painting is also closely associated with spontaneity, subjective sensitivity, and grace. Incorporating all these features creates a complete picture of what ink painting is all about.

While talking about the thematic concerns presented in the paintings under analysis, it can be stated that they are fully attached to the natural vision of the world with slight accent on illusion. At a glance, the cranes and surrounding natural elements are depicted in a realistic manner. We can easily compare those with real-to-life objects.

However, realistic vision of the painting will not allow to see the essence and ideas that the author intends to convey. In fact, in order to understand the main motifs and themes of the works, one should understand the artist’s perception of the work and his/her emotional state.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Regarding light, use of colors, and composition, the primary concern here is to capture not the object itself, but its essence, landscape and interaction between the objects depicted on the picture. Beside accurate forms, minimalism of refined lines, the author also strives to render the traditional aesthetics of simplicity combined with intuitive expression. Apparently, this is the main feature of Japanese artistic trend in the seventeenths century.

Particular attention should be paid to color usage that also contributes to the concept of simplicity and delicate expression. Black and white hues, shadows, and tones provide exceptional harmony to the described scenes. Hence, postures are colored in darker colors indicating the thematic center of the paintings; their movements and positions render their grace and beauty that are supplemented by virtuously presented background.

Though being identical in composition centers, the backgrounds distinguish this picture from each other. At the left, the crane looks more superior and proud because all his movements and positions convey this idea. Strength and dignity are also represented through straight lines. In contrast, the crane depicted on the right painting seems to be more gracious and yielding. A slightly raised leg and a half-opened beak render openness, lightness, and grace.

Its metaphorical meaning can be presented through the artistic desire to express his openness to the world. Comparing these two birds, these cranes oppose each other in terms of character, position, and the painters’ expression. In addition, the birds are surrounded by different environments. Hence, left picture depicts some trees in bloom that, eventually, presents trees spring or summer period whereas pictures on the right is presented in autumn motifs

Taking a closer look at the paintings concerned, a few words can be said about the dynamic character of scenes and objects. While studying the main elements, lines, and shapes, it is necessary to resort to artists’ emotional perception of the world described within a picture.

In this respect, these lines, themes, and tender shades can be transformed into powerful energy that can endow the viewers with the main concepts and ideas of Japanese art and philosophy. In addition, the brushwork presented on the canvas also provides the entire work with greater range of expression and feelings. All these peculiarities and techniques are the main attributes of Edo painting whose primary purpose is narrowed to aesthetic and cultural representation of picture.

In conclusion, artistic representation, usage of delicate techniques, and peculiar materials contribute to conveying the artist’s perception of the surrounding world.

We will write a custom Essay on The Analyzing of Paintings “Cranes” in Edo Period specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cranes do not only represent the natural world, they also render the artist’s emotional and psychological state. Particular emphasis is placed on brushwork, colors, and techniques that amplify the paintings’ cultural and historical affiliation to Edo period, the era of humanistic movement. Finally, the pictures also reflect spirituality and vitality through the disclosure of natural world motifs.

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Problems of the Poorest People, Capital Flight, and Migration Essay essay help

Introduction Globalisation is probably on of the most controversial issues in the world history: many people find it as an amazing possibility to achieve success and make use of a number of opportunities, still, some people, for example the citizens of South Africa, suffer a lot because of inabilities to solve their problems and eliminate poverty that decreases the level of human lives considerably.

There are many writers and researchers like Dicken (2007) or Ravenhill (2008) who investigate the economic perspective of globalisation, however, not all of them manage to discuss the chosen issue in a proper way.

In this paper, the work by a famous British professor, Paul Collier, will be evaluated in order to prove that the poorest billion of people have already integrated into the world economy by means of capital flight and migration, still, the outcomes of such integration are not as successful as they are in the countries like the USA or China.

The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Falling and What Can Be Done about It is the book where the author evaluates the level of developmental aid offered to the developing countries like Africa and underline the advantages and disadvantages of the process of globalisation.

Africa has bad governance, one of the four traps defined by Collier in the book, that is not ready to use the full potential of the country. This is why the citizens of South Africa have to make use of capital flight and migration in order to continue developing and becoming a recognisable country on the world’s arena.

Collier’s attempt to discuss the difficulties existed in developing countries is powerful indeed; poverty is the challenge that has to be overcome by the Africans by means of proper understanding of the main ideas of globalisation, four traps which are dangerous for the country, and the possible instruments like capital flight or migration, which may be used to overcome poverty and find another way to success.

Poverty as the problem to be solved Poverty is the challenge that not all nations are able to overcome. Sachs (2005, p. 10) admits that even if some countries like China or Canada are lucky enough to overcome poverty and stabilize citizens’ lives, it does not mean that poverty will never influence human lives again or create some new risks for human survival.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is wrong to believe that poverty may be completely illuminated from human lives, and in order to succeed in development, people have to understand the main reasons of poverty and the conditions under this problem may appear again.

However, there are a number of countries where poverty is not that huge problem anymore; China, Canada, the USA are the best examples of such countries. Collier explains that even such developing countries like Africa are able to create a certain paradigm by means of which people can shift away poverty and set new goals to be developed.

Acemoglu and Robinson (2006) discover that “the European presence in South Africa began in 1652 when the Dutch East Indian company founded a colony in Table Bay” (p. 10). It was a kind of the starting point after which the country was not able to control the activities which took place on its land, and the Africans could help but fighting poor conditions of living.

Types of traps for people In order to understand how poorest people may integrate in the world economy through capital flight and migration, Collier offers to define poverty as not the only trap which the countries may fall into. What he suggests is to pay more attention to the four types of traps which are dangerous for different countries.

These traps are the conflict trap, the natural resource trap, the bad governance trap, and the landlocked with bad neighbours trap (Collier 2007, p. 5). The author underlines that poverty cannot be intrinsically a trap as much more countries remain to be poor; this is why Lesotho, Botswana, and other countries in the South Africa still get a chance to overcome this challenge in case they clearly identify what else may lead to poverty.

The citizens of South Africa are actually in several traps at the same time, still, the most terrible trap for the country is the one of bad governance. In a number of small countries, governance plays a very important role in promoting economic development. However, it happens that small governments are usually eager to achieve some personal benefits and decide to corrupt or choose some bad policies.

This is why it is hard to understand how economic development may occur under such conditions. It is necessary to admit that South Africa as well as the rest of the countries on the continent is characterized by impressive workforce that may be developed along with the coast. Unfortunately, the government of the country does find it beneficial to make use of natural sources but rely on aid-flows which may be received from different developed countries.

We will write a custom Essay on Problems of the Poorest People, Capital Flight, and Migration specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The bad governance trap is not the only one that exposes to danger the whole country. Collier says that the landlocked with bad neighbours trap may also challenge the country. Most African countries have to be geared to the world market or be enclosed. And even if some countries have appropriate geographic location, its citizens are not able to benefit from this natural gift.

For example, African economies are more inward looking, this is why when the time to increase its neighbour comes, the vast majority of Central African countries which are far from the coast do not have enough sources to take the step required and the countries suffer because of such landlocked trap.

Switzerland is another example of a landlocked country; still, it continues advantaging from cooperating with Germany and Italy in the market sphere. Though the natural resource trap is not as dangerous for Africa as for other billion countries, the government cannot find practical application to the already defined sources. This is why even this trap may become dangerous for the country under consideration.

The last trap that plays a crucial role in economic development in Africa is connected to the conflicts which are inherent to the country. Brett (2008) mentions that during the 1970s, post-colonial Africa overcame the economic crisis that was based on the “intense conflict over political control and resource allocation, and a shift to military or authoritarian rule” (p. 340).

The possibility to escape the traps The peculiar feature of the book introduced by Collier is that the author does not lose hope to improve the economic conditions in billion poorest countries and does offer a number of ideas of how and when the country should start its development.

The examples of how African countries may be developed are observed in the successful development of Botswana that “had the highest rate of per-capita growth of any country in the world in the last 35 years” (Acemoglu, Johnson,

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Human resource management Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction Human resource management involves management of people in the organisation, and such other important functions as recruitment, selection, performance, appraisal, and other personnel functions in the organisation. The objective of HRM is for the success of the organisation through its assets, the working force. HRM maximises human resource potentials, including their talents, skills, and capabilities for the strategic advancement of the organisation.

Armstrong (2006, p. 3) defines human resource management as the “strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisation’s most valued asset – the people”. The ‘people’ are the workforce, who spends a lot of time working for the success of the company’s objectives. Storey’s (1989) definition states that HRM is “a set of interrelated policies with ideological and philosophical underpinning.”

Human resource management system involves recruiting qualified people for the organisation. This is known as staffing. The organisation’s objective plays a critical role in the staffing process. The management is responsible for identifying and selecting persons capable of implementing the organisation’s plans.

Traditionally, personnel management took the functions of HRM. When functions and responsibilities multiplied due to various organisational and environmental factors in these times of intense globalisation, changes had to be introduced in the organisation. HRM has taken over the function of personnel management, which range from recruitment to training to managing the personnel and their various functions and roles in the organisation.

The objective of this essay is to analyse and determine the advantages and disadvantages of human resource management with respect to two case studies, Apple Inc. and Sony Corporation. The importance of HRM and how it affects Apple and Sony are given enough space for discussion.

Literature Review In the age of globalisation, knowledge is both a product and resource. Organisations are now focused on knowledge-based economies, and are more concerned with the knowledge people possess, or what is termed ‘people-embodied knowhow’. Firms invest much on intellectual capital. (Rodriguez and de Pablos, 2002, p. 174)

Companies attain competitive edge through constant innovation. The first periods of the new century marked profound shifts in organisation’s strategies with aims for talents, technologies and customer’s focus and loyalty (Venkatraman and Henderson, 2008, p. 258). Organisations keep constant contact with customers, looking for ways to satisfy their needs and wants. Good customer relation is an important aspect of business (McColl-Kennedy

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Uzbekistan’s History, Economic and Culture Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Uzbekistan is a country in central Asia which boarders Kazakhstan in the northern side, Kyrgyzstan in the eastern side and Tajikistan in the southern eastern side. During the 4th century B.C it was under the Persian rule that had been conquered by Alexander the Great.

The region incorporated Islam as a religion in 8th century when the Arab forces invaded the land. Around the 13th century the region was taken over by the Mongols from the Seljuk Turks. The 16th century saw the region been merged with their neighbors but was not to last for long as the region broke into principalities (Adams 19).

However, the city-states, which included khanates, Kokand and Bukhara were not to last for long as the Russians conquered them in the 19th century. In 1924, the territory was a republic but it is in 1925 that it became an independent under socialist republic. However, in 1991 the country declared its independence making September 1st their national holiday. The country today enjoys independence with a presidential rule.

Economically, the people of Uzbekistan are agriculturalist, however, the country is endowed with many minerals. Cotton has been their main produce but has recently been replaced by natural gas. The other minerals that the Uzbekistan people are involved with are gold and uranium. The country has recently grown to be a manufacturing country, especially in the automobiles industrial where they are a big exporter to Russian market.

The state has always been in control of most business enterprises, but in the recent past free market has been endorsed (Oliker 46). It is not easy to determine the growth rate of the country because the government keeps unreliable records. However, it is notable much of the wealth of the country is held by the elite in the society with almost a quarter of the population living below the poverty line.

The government has been instrumental in preventing the country from facing capital outflow by ensuring that the country adopts the policy of substitution of their imports. The actions of the government to control economic activities have even made convertibility of different currencies of the world. The low economy has transformed to some of the individuals in the country getting involved to human trafficking business. The business usually involves girls, as they are traffics to other countries as prostitutes (Boĭkova 181).

Amongst the people of Uzbekistan, the elders are the most respected people in the society. They have a mode of greetings where the men put their hands on the heart of other men when greeting them, while women usually put their right hands on each other’s elbow. The mode of dressing especially to women was such that they were to cover their bodies with their heads looking down to avoid any attention. The people of Uzbekistan are mostly Muslims with a small percentage of people enjoying other religions like Buddhist and Jewish.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Traditionally, matters of marriage were left to the man and the women but the approval of the parent was important. Virginity among the women was upheld and women were expected to be married much earlier than the men. Bride price had to be paid by the family of the man, and the cost incurred in the marriage ceremony was covered by the family of the wife (Hanks 83).

There were defined duties of both men and women. While men were expected to work outside, the house women were expected to work indoors engaging in activities like weaving and spinning using cotton. Women were expected to cover the whole of their bodies when in public and they viewed it as observance of their faith (Adams 17). Traditional medicine was also incorporated in their treatment where herbs were used for treatment.

There was also a taboo of drinking cold drinks since it was viewed as the reason why people caught cold. Arts performance that dated back during the soviet rule is still practiced. They include the crafts work as well as miniature painting. However, the practice of their music by the instruments they used in past is still in practice. Dotars that were put on the legs, flutes, and small drums are still used in the performance of their art.

Unlike other countries in central Asia, Uzbekistan has adhered to the principle of legal stability. The constitution gives rights to the people to own private property and it views it as a way of giving self-respect to the people as well as a way of developing the society. Solid constitutional bases have been laid down through the years to promote and upgrade political and social relations.

Economic freedom of the citizens has been highly promoted as well as the spirit of entrepreneurship with an aim of eliminating the repugnant old command-administrative system. The country has also incorporated a legal and organization environment where the society of Uzbekistan integrates with the world. Uzbekistan has adopted an open door policy that grants foreign investors reliable regal guarantee and broad economic opportunities in the economic activities.

The environment for foreign investors has continually been improved as well as simplification of the procedures that are involved in creation of manufacturing enterprise for foreigners (Karimov 172). Regulatory acts created by Uzbekistan have had a comprehensive system of taxation and incentive against poetical and commercial risk for the foreigners. In turn, there has been active participation by foreign investors in this country.

Some of their favorable policies to the foreigners are: freedom of buying property that the state has already privatized as well as ownership rights to these properties. Enterprises owned by foreigners are allowed to export without licenses as well to import duty free property from joint ventures (Karimov 173).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Uzbekistan’s History, Economic and Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Economic relations between Uzbekistan and the United States have mostly been controlled by the bi-literal trade agreement signed by the two countries. The agreement was signed in 1994 and one of the benefits the agreements had to Uzbekistan was that it had an exemption provision to many of the United States importing tariffs.

In the year 2000, the two countries signed a bilateral investment treaty but it did not come into force because of the weak economic reforms in Uzbekistan. In terms of imports and exports, Uzbekistan imports machines and equipment. Also inclusive in the list of the imports are chemical products and food items, especially the ones that deal in plastics. The exports to the United States include inorganic chemistry products machines and equipment (Group Taylor

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Heathrow Airport Report college admission essay help

Table of Contents Heathrow airport

Discussion

Issues that passengers might face

Remedy

References

Modern business strategies are considering the effects of internal processes on stakeholders as a strategy to create and maintain health business relationships.

Business stakeholders include shareholders, customers, governments, and internal customers; their needs and expectations are paramount when developing business processes (Weiss, 2008). Heathrow airport is a London based international airport that connects over180 destinations in more than 90 countries; it offers departure services, arrival services and inter-fright connection services, the airport is managed by BAA.

Stakeholder theory is management tool that looks into how ethical businesses are conducted in a certain industry or company; the theory advocates for mutual benefit of an organization and stakeholders through the impact that business processes have on social, economic and environmental attributes of life (Sassower,1988). This report analyzes how travelers, as stakeholders, are affected by Heathrow airport; it will use stakeholder’s theory for the analysis.

Heathrow airport Heathrow airport is operated by BAA, according to 2010, airports review, the airport was ranked as the fourth busiest airport in the world and the busiest in United Kingdom in terms of passage and cargo volume. On average, the airports received 67 million passengers, with 11% traveling to UK destinations, 46% are long-haul and the rest are in short-haul international travelling (Heathrow airport Official Website, 2011).

Discussion BAA is committed to understand and look into all spheres of customers that use the airports, they have facilities that enable the old, the disabled and other passengers to have a pleasant environment or stay in the airport. The airports policies respect Disability Discrimination Act (DDA); it has enacted appropriate measures to ensure that its services are continually improved to meet the needs of such people with special needs. The information is contained in it accessibility report and the management aims at improving the approach further.

When a customer is in the airport, there are some guiding posts and signs that are aimed at guiding the customer to the destination; this happens at the time of departure and when arriving. The airport management has adopted the spirit of freelance organizational culture that ensures that every employee within the compound can be trusted to guide a passenger effectively. The company has five terminals each named effectively to direct a customer effectively.

Under the stakeholders theory a firm addresses investors, employees, suppliers, and customers needs, the airport in recognition of the theory has enacted environmental conservational measures that facilitate good cooperation with stakeholders. As far as travelers are concerned, in the efforts of offering adequate and reliable information for decision making, the company has 24hou online chatting and checking system which travelers can use; incase there is a change in-flight schedules, then efforts are taken to advise customers effectively.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Under the stakeholder’s theory, customer’s interest should be the forefront phenomenon; customers experience should be improved consistently; in this effort, the airport embarks on various rebranding, and compound conservations.

Within the airport, the management has allowed some hospitality industry players to establish high quality and standards businesses, these businesses are allowed to fetch business form passengers; however, they should maintain high quality and efficiency.

The establishments include five and four star hotels, massage setups, salons and barber shops, fast food joints, duty free shops, entertainment sites and shopping establishments. The reason to encourage such establishment is to ensure that travelers experience when using the airport is improved. In between flights and departure, or when a customer jets in the airport, the airport has invested in that time to offer a memorable experience.

Taxi operators from companies with high reputation, and which maintain high standard vehicles operate the transport networks in the airport. The taxi operation and their safety is guaranteed by the management of the airport and incase of any misfortune the management takes up the issue. At periodical bases, there are some publics means of road and railway transport that are given access the airport, they include passenger busses, trains, bicycles and motor cycles. The flow of traffic is well regulated with the assistance of computer networks.

Within the airport, a number of forex bureaus that are regulated by the airport management and expected to adhere to UK banking rules and regulations. The system is meant to offer foreign currency to travelers at the prevailing rates (Heathrow airport Official Website, 2011).

Issues that passengers might face Although the airports performance is commendable, new users are likely to face culture shocks and language barriers. The airport receives passenger from different part of the world that have people with different cultures, experiences and expectations; the challenge offered by the cultural difference is that people might be stranded in the airport.

Another challenge that might face travelers is lack of understanding of signs and language used; the adoption of the airports culture is more skewed to English setting thus non-English people might face difficulties understanding some of the signs and symbols.

We will write a custom Report on Heathrow Airport specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Remedy Heathrow airport should implements culture intelligence programs in its operations such that airport operators, whether dealing with travelers directly or indirectly, can guide travelers effectively. Secondly, at different points, the management should have language-translating machines that are user friendly that travelers from different parts of the world can use; this will boost communication within the airport.

References Heathrow airport Official Website, 2011. Heathrow airport. Web.

Sassower, R., 1988. The Business of Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, (7)4,PP. 279-282.

Weiss, J., 2008. Business Ethics: A Stakeholder and Issues Management Approach: New York: Cengage Learning.

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Personality Theories Matrix Essay best essay help: best essay help

Theory Assumptions Reliability Validity Application Social Cognitive Theory- Bandura Plasticity which is recognized as one of the most important human characteristics allows people to choose various behavior patterns depending upon the situational context.

People can control their lives through a triadic reciprocal causation model which consists of behavioral, environmental and personal components.

People can influence the quality of their lives. The higher the individual’s self-efficacy is, the higher his/her chances for success are.

Bandura’s social cognitive theory can be regarded as reliable. It is based on the two reliable components, including the accurate observation theoretical speculations. Bandura’s theoretical speculations are well-developed but not overdistanced from his empirical observations. Thus, placing his assumptions only one step in front of his observations, making his social cognitive theory reliable. Bandura’s social cognitive theory can be regarded as valid disregarding certain weak points of the self-efficacy part. Thus, Bandura claims that the choice of a behavioral pattern and the efforts made for achieving certain goals depend upon the individual’s belief in following success. Further research of particular components of this assumption could result in falsification of this part. Muammar Gadaffi is known as one of the longest-ruling leaders in the world with the 42 years of ruling the Lybian Arab Republic since the military coup on 1 September 1969. Ban dura’s social cognitive theory can be implemented for explaining certain episodes of this motivated and charismatic person as well as the preconditions for the heights which he achieved on his life path.

A triadic reciprocal causation model can be useful for explaining the combination of Gadaffi’s personal and behavioral characteristics and the environmental context as the cluster of influential factors which allowed him not only to get the power, but also maintain it for 42 years and contribute to the development of the country.

On the one hand, organizing the military coup and becoming its leader can be defined as a fortuitous event in his life. On the other hand, these were his personal traits of a leader and a strategist as well as his courage which allowed Muammar to get the power.

Self-efficacy was another influential factor which allowed Gadaffi to make responsible decisions for his country. His success required strong faith in his own abilities and talents. Though becoming a leader of a country requires certain favorable situational context, Gadaffi believed in his power to rule the country and take the responsibility for the destinies of the whole nation.

For instance, in 1981 Gadaffi invalidated the US passports for travel in Lybia because he was insulted by Reagan. It caused the American ban or the import of Lybian oil. This situation can be viewed through the lens of a triadic reciprocal causation model because it was not only situational context but also Gadaffi’s personal qualities that triggered the political decision of this charismatic leader.

Reference Feist, G. (ed.). (2009) Theories of personality. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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“Paint a face” on the Audiences of Outdoor Magazine and PC Photo Magazine Essay scholarship essay help

Writing for a specific magazine, the writer should take into consideration many important details that will make it possible to create the article interesting for the readers. In other words, the writer should direct his writing on a particular audience. For example, writing for a professional magazine, the writer will choose topics relevant to the subject and use specific terms.

In fact, there are many means used to attract and, what is more important, hold the reader’s attention. These means are the author’s language choice, tone of the voice, specific descriptions, example and details. All these means should be focused on the interests and knowledge of the target audience. Stark and Pitt are the writers who create articles for magazines with different audience.

Consequently, their articles cover the topics relevant to the target audiences and use voice and terminology that are understandable for the readers. However, how would their writings change if they switch audiences with each other? Thus, in order to attract and keep the attention of their new audience, the writers would have change the manner of representation of the material, terminology and voice of their articles.

As it has already been mentioned, the author should focus his writing on the knowledge and interests of the target audience. Edward Jay Friedlander and John Lee in their book Feature Writing for Newspapers and Magazines: The Pursuit of Excellence say that, “writers, if they are to be successful, must learn not only to write in different voices, but also deliver the topics in a manner expected by readers” (76).

In other words, the writer should define a target audience. Each magazine has a specific target audience. It can be a professional magazine, scientific, a magazine for teenagers, housekeepers or car drivers, etc. In each case, the writer should take into account.

Thus, if the authors switch the audience, the first thing they should do is to correct the titles of their articles. According to the settled condition, the authors should make the topics of their articles interesting for audience of a different journal. Pitt would have to change the manner of presentation of the material, as a majority of the target audience of the Outside magazine would not understand the terminology applied to digital technologies.

His article is aimed at teaching people work with Photoshop and some of its new versions. Thus, it presupposes that readers can use the program and knows the terminology, “we used Jasc Paint Shop Pro 8 for our example, but most photo imagine has the same or similar tools” (Pitt n. pag.). The readers of the Outside Magazine, who might be interested in the digital edit of the photography by themselves, hardly know these tools.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, the author should introduce explanations for the terms and usage of the tools. Moreover, as the audience much of the context of the writing, the author might change the subject matter, for example, instead of editing human photo, he could suggest editing of the nature or animals pictures. Finally, he uses the first first-person voice, and then switches to the second-person voice to teach his readers.

In case with the audience of the Outside Magazine, he must change the way of addressing to the audience. It should be less straightforward, as the majority of articles in the Outside Magazine are the stories that happen to people and look like literature stories. Thus, Pitt must change the tone of instruction to less straightforward, more get-to-know one and switch to the second or third voice.

If Peter Stark writes for the PC Photo Magazine, he also must change many things in his article. It is very important to remember that:

“The words in the text should reflect an author’s knowledge of the topic with the intent of informing the reader. Most authors not only want the information to be accessible, but also want to achieve their purpose by allowing the reader to “enter” into the text comfortably. Authors do this by making the word choice and language interesting, compelling, and appropriate to the audience’s knowledge level, age, and experience” (Medina 41).

For him, it would be a bit difficult to attract the attention of people who are interested in the digital technologies, to the topic of his article “As Freezing Persons Recollect the Snow – First Chill, then Stupor, then the Letting Go”. Thus, the first thing that can be done is changing the title into more appropriate.

For example, “What Should One Do if…”. The form of the writing should be changed as well. It should contain some instructions or helpful advice. The article should be written in second voice and include some conclusion, for example, some addition to the story after the experience. In addition, the terminology, such as “hypothermia” should be changed to more common words.

Thus, we can come to a conclusion that the target audience of the magazine article, as well as other writings has a great meaning, and the writing interesting for one reader can be absolutely indifferent to other reader. If Pitt and Stark change the target audience of their articles, they will have to change many issues, such as title, examples, terminology, idea, voice, manner of representation of the material.

We will write a custom Essay on “Paint a face” on the Audiences of Outdoor Magazine and PC Photo Magazine specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Friedlander, Edward Jay, and John Lee. Feature Writing for Newspapers and Magazines: The Pursuit of Excellence. Harper Collins College Publishers, 1996.

Medina, Conni. Successful Strategies for Reading in the Content Areas. Huntington Beach: Shell Education, 2007.

Pitts, Wes. “Photo Exorcism”. Motives for Writing 5th Ed. Ed. Robert Keith Miller. Online Learning Center. Web.

Stark, Peter, “As Freezing Persons Recollect the Snow – First Chill, then Stupor, then the Letting Go”. Motives for Writing 6th Ed. Ed. Robert Keith Miller. Online Learning Center. Web.

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Dead men’s path by Chinua Achebe Essay essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Aspects of colonialism

Postcolonial identity

Others

Anti colonial resistance

Cultural differences

Conclusion

Works Cited

Introduction Chinua Achebe is an African writer from Nigeria born in the year 1930. He comes from the Ibo tribe. He grew up in Nigeria in a village called Ogidi.

At the university Achebe took English literature and while studying he encountered novels written by Europeans about Africa which he called appalling. He realized that no one was better placed to tell the African story than the African themselves and thus he began writing to tell the African story (Innes 11). The short story Dead men’s path by Chinua Achebe is a story written to tell the postcolonial experience.

The story was written in 1949 after the British had colonized Nigerian at the beginning of the twentieth century. The colonizers despised the culture and beliefs of the Igbo people which they considered as barbaric and inferior. To that effect, they introduced Christianity and western form of education through the missionaries. The introduction of Christianity led to weakening of the tribal affiliations. The meeting of the two cultures led to a conflict.

Aspects of colonialism The protagonist in the story is Michael Obi a young man aged twenty-six years. He is a teacher who has been promoted to head Ndume Central school because he is a “young and energetic” man besides being very modern and progressive (Spack 113). He also got the position because he had sound academic qualifications above other headmasters in that area and he was “outspoken in his condemnation of the narrow views of these older and often less educated ones” (Spack 113).

He sees the older less educated teachers as representatives of the conservative way of life and narrow views that he wanted to replace with modern progressive methods. He wants his teachers to work very hard to bring about the adaption of the modern methods in his school. He is very happy that the teachers are unmarried and thus they will devout all of their energies to school work.

Obi had embraced the white’s way of life and his wife Nancy had also been caught up in his fascination with modern ways at the expense of the traditional way of life practiced by his people. Nancy wanted to have modern beautiful gardens, which symbolize the western way of life. Just like her progressive husband, she has adapted the western lifestyle as she speaks to her husband she reads a woman’s magazine and calls him Mike.

Postcolonial identity Due to Michael’s progressiveness, he has no regard for the traditional practices of his village. The village in which Ndume Central is situated is traditional. The people believe in shrines and spirits. They have a footpath that runs through the school that even though it is often disused. The path joins the village shrine and the place where they bury their dead. Michael does not understand why the villagers have been allowed to continue using the path yet it trespasses through the school compound.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He is against the footpath and in the spirit of converting the school, which he considers backward he wants the path closed. He wants it closed to please the inspector of schools and he is afraid that the villagers might turn the school into a site for some pagan rituals. Calling the practices of his people, pagan ritual shows how much he hated the traditional ways and considered anything about his culture to be backward and retrogressive. Michael is an African man who is trying to adapt foreign ways.

Just like the white who developed ambivalence towards the African culture, Michael has a negative attitude towards his culture due to hybridity. He feels that the culture of the white man is superior and thus he should strive to copy the white man’s ways. He is a man who is trying to change his own self-consciences and see it through the eyes of the whites because he has a double conscience. He regards them highly and thus will do anything he thinks will help to modernize the school at whatever cost (Izzo 89).

Others The villagers see the colonizers as others in the text. The villagers feel that the white man has intruded upon their life and disrupted the smooth running of their way of life. They are unhappy with the attempt of the white man through agents such as Michael of trying to change their way of life.

The villagers also consider Michael as an outsider because he does not respect the traditions of the village, which have been practiced for a long time. The outsiders represent as people who are unwilling to listen to reason. They are pushy and do not care who they offend as long as they achieve their goal. In this case, Michael refuses to listen to reasons given for the existence of the path and goes head to order its closure (Izzo 90).

Anti colonial resistance The villagers resist the colonialists but eventually they accept some of their ways. For instance, they embrace education and send their children to European schools. The villagers are willing to accommodate the whites and coexist peacefully. However, some people like Michael do not see the possibility of mixing the traditional and modern ways. According to him, the traditions must be discarded in favor of modern progressive ways.

Ini, the village priest goes to talk to Michael about the closure of the path because a baby had died and the reason given by the villagers for the death was closing the path. The priests tells Michael “ let the hawk perch and let the eagle perch” because he felt that the two cultures could coexist as he tells Michael the he only needs to reopen the path and the quarrel will be over (Spack 115; Emenyonu and Uko 66).

Cultural differences The cultural differences in the text reveal the way the operations of the people. Through the story, the author shows that progress no matter how well intent it is cannot be forced down the throats of people. The people must be engaged in the change and if they support the idea then a change can happen. Michael, the head teacher fails because he is pushy and does not understand how deep the tradition is engrained in the village.

We will write a custom Essay on Dead men’s path by Chinua Achebe specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He tries to force the people to abandon their ways but his plan backfires on him as the villagers tear down the wall he had erected to block the footpath and ruin the gardens and the schools inspector finds the school in a mess and a writes him a bad report. His lack of respect for the culture of the Igbo people leads to the conflict as people retaliate. It shows that both cultures have failed to respect each other hence the clash.

The educated Africans consider their fellow less educated colleagues as backwards who need to be educated or given low jobs in the market. The educated people such as Michael consider themselves superior than their fellow blacks just as the whites consider themselves superior to the Africans. They consider their culture superior and a gift to humankind hence strive to pass it to the communities they consider backward and uncivilized.

They teach the Africans to loath their own culture as we see Michael telling the village priest that the school going children ought to be taught to laugh at the traditional beliefs. The school aims to eradicate the beliefs altogether and give the students new ideas based on the western beliefs. The Africans believe in spirits and thus they keep the footpath open according to their religion.

Michael fails to respect their religious beliefs and closes the path, as he does not identify with pagan rituals. He shows his lack of respect for the villagers’ religion by telling the priest that they should make an alternative path that skirts outside the school compound because he does not think that the spirits would mind the little detour.

Conclusion Finally, the two cultures clash in the story because of lack of tolerance. Michael is self-centered and uncooperative. He insists on having his way even in matters that require cooperation. He wants to make the school modern and he will do anything to make his project successful. Nonetheless, he fails in his ambitions because he sidelines the people he needs to help him succeed. People must learn to tolerate each other to coexist peaceful which is something that Obi fails to understand hence his failure.

Works Cited Emenyonu, Ernest and Iniobong Uko. Emerging Perspectives on Chinua Achebe: Isinka, The Artistic Purpose: Chinua Achebe And The Theory Of African Literature. Asmara, Eritrea: Africa World Press, 2004. Print.

Innes, Catherine Lynette. Chinua Achebe. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Print.

Izzo, David Garrett. The influence of mysticism on 20th century British and American literature. North Carolina: McFarland, 2009. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Dead men’s path by Chinua Achebe by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Spack, Ruth. The International Story: An Anthology with Guidelines for Reading and Writing about Fiction. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Print.

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How has rebellion or defiance of those in power been an integral trait of American essay help: essay help

Possessing certain power over the American colonies, the British government tended to control the processes going on in the new lands. However, as the national identity started forming within the colonies under the British surveillance, it became obvious that the process of independence shaping has been launched.

Creating a specific culture differing from the European one, the colonists also contributed to the formation of the American economics. In addition, they needed certain space to continue their economical growth, yet they were bound by the British Empire controlling their actions. Thus, rebellious ideas started brewing as soon as the settlers integrated into the new society.

Becoming an integral part of colonists’ character, rebellious ideas were put into practice as the British Empire lost its grip on the newly obtained lands. Although the American colonists were to wait for quite a while until they had the chance to fight powerful Britain, it is doubtless now that sooner or later, the rebellion would have taken place. However, what could be called a lucky coincidence finally caused the American resistance to the British colonial oppression. The last straw for the colonists, the new taxation laws made people act.

As King George came to reign in Britain, the country was troubled by the unstable government (Hughes 360), which in its turn resulted in slackening of Britain’s control over the American colonies.

Unable to trace both the political discord in Britain and the moods in the American colonies, King George chose England as the key priority, leaving the state of affairs in America for the further considerations, which the American colonists made efficient use of.

Brewing within the society since the first ideas of national identity and economical issues have been shaped, the rebellious ideas finally found their vent.

Resulting in the Revolutionary War, the resistance to the British influence finally ended in creating an independent state. Analyzing the past experience, on can say with certainty now that the dramatic events led to creating national culture and identity.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One of the most dramatic changes in the American society was the fact that the population started realizing the national problems and, which is even more important, was willing to eliminate them (Bessette 35). Thus, it can be considered that the Revolution had its effect on the shaping of national identity.

Another reason to think the Revolution as the beginning of the new epoch was the fact that the Revolution brought together the first thirteen states (Bessette 36). This can be considered as a major breakthrough in the American fight for independence and reunion.

Finally, the fact that the Congress suggested a more or less clear program for the further development of the country heralded a new epoch in the history of the continent. Suffering from the results of the devastating Revolution, country was rising from economical and political ashes and needed support from the Congress and the population.

Thus, it cannot be doubted that the defiance of the American colonies had a crucial effect on the further history of the land and the colonists. However, since it was impossible to take into account every single piece of the economical mechanism, certain layers of society were left forgotten. Among them, farmers were neglected most, which resulted in a number of rebellions in its turn.

Therefore, it becomes clear that the process of the American society foundation was rebellious and uneasy. Still the results of the Revolution show that this game was well worth the candles.

Works Cited Bessette, Joseph M., and John J. Pitney, Jr. American Government and Politics: Deliberation, Democracy and Citizenship. Stanford, CN: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.

Hughes, David. The British Chronicles. Vol. 1. Berwyn Heights, MD: Heritage Books, 2007. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on How has rebellion or defiance of those in power been an integral trait of American colonists since the founding of the colony by the British? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More

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Four Seasons Hotel’s Management Principles Report custom essay help

Byars (1991) emphasized Management entails harnessing the various management principles to generate revenues and profits. The research focuses on the importance of implementing the management principles in increasing the company’s revenues and profits. The research centers on the awareness, adaptation, and management changes aspect of achieving the company’s goals and objectives. The implementation of the different management principles catapults the company in generating higher revenues and profits.

I. Cultural awareness, adaptation and management changes been reflected in this case study. The company focuses the philosophy of offering “consistently exceptional service”.

Hallowell, Bowen, and Knoop (1) were right in stating the Four Seasons hotel focuses on delivering high quality, truly personalised service to enable guests to maximise the value of their time”. The firm’s top managers were at home in any diverse international setting. Antoine Corinthios, president of Europe, Middle East, and Africa, explained the cultural awareness, adaptation and management changes with the state “French in France, French in France”.

Baumueller (2007) theorized Corinthios’ leadership success is based on his “chameleon” leadership style. A chameleon is an animal that changes its color to blend with the color of the environment; it turns green in a green environment and turns brown in a brown environment to protect itself against predators and capture its elusive insect meals.

Likewise, Churchill (1995) insisted the company policy of “no bragging, no excuses” works wonders on the increase in hotel client loyalty. The hotel line and staff focus their services on being “very professional and not pretentious; detail oriented’ and interested in people”. Excuses for failing to meet the hotel’s standards in terms of customer service and other job performance standards were never options.

In addition, the line and staff had strong allegiance to the firm. Many of the company’s management team continues to work for the company for more than 25 long years. The line and staff classified the hotel employees and management as their “family”. The hotel family is coated with lots of rules, traditions, and love.

The changes are important in today’s management. Chapman (2007) proposed the cultural awareness, adaptation and management changes are important to the accomplishment of the Four Season’s approach to international growth. The growth is clearly stated in the Four Seasons founder and chief executive officer Isadore Sharp’s statement “Today, we have opened enough properties overseas that we can go in any city or town and pull people together to fulfill our mission”.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To accomplish the Isadore Sharp statement, Corinthios leads the entire hotel organisation to use its strengths to increase hotel occupancy and other hotel business –generating activities with the statement “ Our strength is our diversity and our singularity”. Accordingly, change management should be prioritized (Griffin, 2008).

II. There are worldwide company core values instilled in the Four Seasons team. According to Czinkota (2006), the company’s core values are grounded on diversity and singularity. The company implements globally uniform standards in all its hotel chains spread outside and inside the Canadian hotel industry landscape. The company’s core values include adapting to the local diverse culture of the foreign country where Four Seasons opens its doors to the discriminating hotel clients.

The core values focus on providing an international home way from home hotel atmosphere for the leisure and business travelers looking for comfort and service. Kreitner (2009) opines the core values include pampering the clients with the best quality service any time of the day or night from the time of registration at the front desk to checking out of the hotel’ premises. The company’s singular core value is to offer a singular universal service known as the “Four Seasons” international service standard.

The company’s international service standard includes getting the clients’ messages on time, cleaning the room on scheduled hours, offering a good breakfast, being pampered by an engaging, anticipating, and eagerly responsive hotel staff, and being able to partake of an exciting and innovative meal.

Further, the singular international hotel standard is fused with the local cultures to make the visitors have a “home away from home” cozy feeling. Specifically, the each hotel staff incorporates the clients’ culture such as including a Mexican touch for Mexican clients, a French touch for French clients, an Egyptian touch to an Egyptian client, a German touch for German clients, and a Japanese touch for Japanese clients.

The leading figures have been standing out in this process. How. The leading figures are successfully and profitably implementing a client-based service standard. The standard of the company focuses on harnessing all its scarce resources and personnel to implement a uniquely innovative service.

The hotel clients can easily distinguish the Turkish culture in the company’s Istanbul branch. The hotel clients can easily savor the Canadian atmosphere in the hotel chain’s Canadian branch. Unlike the Walt Disney name which speaks of a United States atmosphere, the Hotel’s Chameleon philosophy caters to “mimicking” the local culture in all its international branches. The hotel has been very fruitful in adapting to each hotel location’s environment.

We will write a custom Report on Four Seasons Hotel’s Management Principles specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Specifically, a Bali hotel client can feel the Bali culture while inside the hotel’s premises. This is the very essence of the hotel’s Chameleon core value. Crowl emphasised “Four Seasons learned from each country and property because we are an international hotel company, we take our learning across borders”. Specifically, the hotel’s Egypt branch incorporates the local Egyptian indigenous culture to its spa amenities.

The Egyptian element complements the hotel’s international quality service being implemented in its Bali hotel branch. For example, the universal core values include leaving the coffee pot on the restaurant table; the hotel guests are free to refill their coffee cup without need to call any restaurant employee. On the other hand, leaving the coffee pot on the hotel table is not culturally conducive in a hotel located in France.

III. The current internal and external environment affects managers to become more entrepreneurial in comparison to Four Seasons’ years of management in Paris.

As proof, Hengst recalls one of the satisfied hotel clients’ comments “We have been obsessed by the service standard. Each hotel line and staff personnel prioritise zealous compliance with preset local culture- influenced international hotel service standards. The internal environment focuses on compliance with standards. The external environment focuses on incorporating the local culture into the hospitality service equation.

In addition, Griffin (2009) reiterated the company’s management employs the five management principles in the Four Seasons Case Study to increase client patronage. First, the management employs the planning principle to the fullest. The company strongly emphasises the importance of fulfilling the organisation’s vision and mission.

Four Seasons hires the Pierre-Yves Rochon, an expert interior designer, to retain the Medieval palace atmosphere of King George V’s time to comply with the company’s policy of incorporating the local culture with the company’s international service standard. The metamorphosis of the original palace into a hotel takes into consideration the local French and French cultures.

The company does not infuse Canadian architectural culture on the French hotel to instill in the local residents that the company respects and incorporates the local culture in the construction and management of the hotel. The company enjoins each member of the hotel organisation to give their best shot in achieving the organisation’s goals and objectives. In addition, the company complies with the local laws. The laws include the employment laws, tax laws, environmental laws, and other related statutes.

Second, Mullins (2004) reiterated the management employs the organising functional principle seriously. Management fits each delicate job function with persons qualified for the job. For example management appoints some personnel as waiters. Another set of personnel are assigned a bell boys.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Four Seasons Hotel’s Management Principles by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Another set of personnel are assigned to perform housekeeping responsibilities. Another set of personnel are assigned as kitchen crew. Management coordinates the functions of the kitchen, housekeeping, room service, front desk, backdoor (accounting services), and other services.

Third, the management employs the controlling functional principle effectively. The company sets standards based on the company’s objectives of pampering the clients with a localised version of its international hotel service standard. Specifically, management requires each employee to have several sets of uniforms; each employ is trained to comply with basic job responsibilities (proper uniform decorum, avoiding absences, reduce costs and wastages to allowable levels).

Controlling includes taking corrective action to resolve any client complaints. Controlling includes resolving any variance that occurs between actual services done and preset service standards (suspension, seminar, termination, retraining, etc of lackluster performing line and staff employees).

Fourth, the management employs the staffing functional principle efficiently. Management recruits both local employees and Canadian employees to harness the company’s scarce resources to fill each discriminating client’s hotel wants, needs, and caprices. The company selects the cream of the crop or best of the entire organisation’s line and staff to take on delicate responsibilities in different departments and jobs of the hotel.

The company hires the recruitment applicant who hurdles all pre-job and on the job training persons who show promises in terms of achieving personal and organisational goals and objectives.

Crowl emphasised “A service culture is about putting what we all believe in into practice” (Hallowell, R., Bowen, D., Knoop, C. (2002;1). We learn it, we nurture it, and most important, we do it” (4). Management continually trains its line and staff each time they are transferred, promoted, or retained in different jobs within the Four Seasons hotel. The company retrains the employees who fail to muster enough strength, intellectual prowess, and interpersonal skills to surpass benchmarks.

Fifth, the management employs the directing functional principle successfully. Management offers perks and other benefits to effectively motivate its line and staff to go that extra mile in offering superb hotel service to the discriminating hotel clients. Management communicates its policies, benchmarks, and standards to its line and staff personnel in a vivid manner.

Management appraises the subordinates’ performance to determine if they have complied with company’s preset standards with flying colors. Management instills discipline among its subordinates by penalising lackluster performing employees. John Naylor (2004) emphasized lackluster performance includes poor client service.

Management steps in the way resolving conflicts among employees and between employees and the few disgruntled clients. Brigham and Houston (2002) theorized the financial statement analysis indicate the directing function contributes its own huge share to the company generating net earnings of $86,486 for the year 2001 and net earnings of $103,074 for the year 2000 alone.

Further, the different identified management strategies covered in class apply in today’s reality. The company generated an increase in revenues between 1996 to 2000 at 22.6% from 1996 to 2000. The Four Seasons operating profit grew by more than 65 percent (higher than the estimated prior 59 %) during the same accounting period.

House, R. (2007) emphasised culture plays a vital role in increasing new and prospective hotel client loyalty. The French hotel restaurant client would not like to hear the Mexican Waiter employee speaking in Mexican language or broken English. Likewise, a German hotel client would prefer talking a Canadian employee speaking in French.

Another French hotel client would prefer to order the local French breakfast food choices instead of Canadian food choices. Clients would prefer to return to clients where they are pampered and where all their requests, wants, needs, and caprices are being filled to the brim with exquisitely unique Four Seasons hotel hospitality.

Further, management’s hiring of below standard employees will result to lackluster service; lackluster service precipitates to a decline in revenues and profits because the disgruntled clients will surely not return. The absence of the planning, organising, controlling, staffing, and directing management principles covered in class will cause the hotel to decline to the brink of bankruptcy and economic gloom; disgruntled customer will surely abhor poor hotel services (food service and hotel client staff services).

Based on the above discussion, the setting into motion of the different management principles skyrockets the company into generating higher revenues and profits. Management maximises the benefits of the various management principles to enhance current revenues and profits. The management principles are important in improving the company’s current revenues and profits. Indeed, the awareness, adaptation, and management changes are effectively in hastening the achievement of the company’s goals and objectives.

References Baumueller, M. (2007). Managing Cultural Diversity. London, Lang Press.

Bernstein, J. (1993). Financial Statement Analysis. London: Irwin Press.

Brigham, E. and Houston, J. (2002). Fundamentals of Financial Management, New York: Thomson South-Western.

Byars, L. (1991). Strategic Management. Formulation and Implementation – Concepts and Cases. New York: HarperCollins.

Chapman, C. (2007) Handbook of Management Accounting Research. London, Elsevier Press.

Churchill, P. (1995). Marketing, Creating Value for Customers. Sydney: IRWIN

Czinkota, S. (2006). International Marketing. London, Wiley

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Differences between the America and Chinese Education Systems Research Paper custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction With the ever-increasing need for an educated society that can survive in the present competitive world, most nations have started to appreciate the need of a well educated citizenry. In addition, because education is the greatest promoter of culture, every country’s education system is a representation of its history and cultural values.

Therefore, although there may exist some similarities between different country’s education systems, each country’s education system has some unique features that give that country an added advantage in terms of developing its social, cultural, political, and economic systems.

These like differences are evident in the Chinese and American education systems, because of the varying importance given to different aspects of education by these two nations. China’s education system primary emphasizes on the input and accumulation of skills, promotion of learners’ appreciation of knowledge and the respect those in power. Contrary to this, the American education system primarily emphasizes on imparting in learners practical skills meant to help learners to question knowledge and authority (Si-jing 1).

Considering this, the American education system emphasizes not only on imparting basic skills such as reading and writing, but also emphasizes on the physical and mental wellbeing of learners, whereas the Chinese education system mainly focuses less on creativity, but emphasizes the need to impart in the necessary survival skills.

Differences between the U.S. and China’s Education Comparison of the social environment and culture tradition between China and America

As compared to China, the U.S is an open society that has abandoned most of its traditional practices to adopt a new era of education reforms to accommodate the diverse nature of cultures that comprise its citizenry.

In addition, because the American economy lays a strong emphasis on the significance of practical skills, its education system appreciates the significance of independence in thinking and creativity. Therefore, the American education system generally prepares individuals to be “social beings” who must endeavor to discover and put their talents into use in order to get material wealth.

In contrast to this, the Chinese empire is a historically rich economy that appreciates very much its cultural traditions; hence, the rigorous nature of its education curriculum that lays a strong emphasis on morals and attainment of education that is relevant to its needs. As compared to the U.S., the stress of living in China is bigger, because most jobs dictates that an individual must go to college and get the relevant education, failure of which can lead to a miserable life.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, the Chinese education system strongly emphasizes on laying a strong education foundation that is characterized by less thought and extra learning. Different to this, because of the significance of creativity in America, its education appreciates the need for more thinking and less forma learning, because of the readiness of the American society to adopt new concepts, so long as they have a positive impact on its citizenry (Rybak 1).

Differences between China and U.S’s Education Curriculum

Both in the U.S. and China learners must o through a total of twelve years elementary and high school that are broken into six years of elementary school, two years of middle school (in the U.S. it is called junior high), an finally three years of senior high school.

Although this similarity exists, China’s system is more rigid, because of the nature of its education principles; a case that is different in the U.S., where learners have the freedom of selecting lessons that that they should attend. In addition, unlike in the U.S. where wearing of school uniform depends on a school’s policies hence, not a must, in China wearing of special attires to school is compulsory.

Further, the Chinese education system is more competitive, because of the numerous and tough examinations that learners are supposed to take before proceeding to another level of learning. As results of this, learners in China always spend their entire school life preparing for exams; exams which in most cases are very tough as compared with the SATs taken in the U.S (Guihong 1).

Another disparity between U.S. and China’s education is in how students join their desired colleges. Although in both of these countries learners have to take some special test, whose results are used as the primary method of determining the type of college that one will join, in China these results are more important as they are also the primary determinant of the type of major that a learner will take.

In China learners are supposed to write a list of majors that they want to pursue, after which depending on their exam results their tutors will pick for them a major that fits them.

The scenario is different in America as learners are supposed to make applications to their preferred colleges, after which they will have to wait for feedbacks from these colleges, before making any decision on the type of major to pursue. Moreover, as compared to the U.S. where entry into a major and changing from one major to another is not a big struggle, in China getting into a preferred program is a very competitive endeavor and in most cases it is impossible to change from one major to another (Rybak 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Differences between the America and Chinese Education Systems specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition to these differences, because of the significance the U.S. places on the need for practical skills, learners in the U.S. spend a lot of time in labs, something that is a little bit different in China where rote learning and theory work is common. Although at some point learners in China practice their hands on work, most Chinese learners do not appreciate the significance of work experience before commencing their graduate studies.

It is important for individuals to note that, although this is the case in most learning institutions in China, because of the realization by the Chinese government about the significance of practical experience, the Chinese government is the process of reforming its education system to accommodate the ever-changing global educational needs (Li, Paranto and Rong 3-5). Additionally, when it comes to higher education, each of these countries’s higher education is a reflection of its economic needs.

The U.S. higher education is structured in way that it is supposed to respond to the ever-changing societal social, political, and economic needs. The scenario is a little bit different in China, because most of its specialty programs lack the required flexibility required for an education curriculum to be responsive to changing societal needs. Further, China’s higher education lays a strong emphasis on the significance of systematic study, as it is requirement for tutors to adhere to specific teaching programs.

Although to some level teacher-learner interactions are common in this type of teaching environment, such interactions are limited as compared to most typical classes in the U.S. where it is must to give learners the required autonomy and freedom to express their ideas (Mark Para. 8-13).

Conclusion In conclusion, although the American system of education shares some similarities with the Chinese one, because of the nature of varying cultures that are appreciated in these two nations, there exist numerous differences between two country’s systems of education.

As compared with the American system of education that is flexible and accommodative, the Chinese system of education is more rigid and although to some level it aims to build learners with the desired skills needed in the competitive world, it is less practical and sensitive to changing global educational demands.

Works Cited Guihong, Zheng. Education systems in China and the U.S. China International Information Center. 2003. Web.

Li, Ding, Paranto, Sharon, and Rong, Yihong. Management information systems curricula: a comparison between China and the USA. Research in Higher Education Journal. 2010. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Differences between the America and Chinese Education Systems by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mark, Klutcher. Te differences of higher education between China and U.S. U.S. Study Service. 2009. Web.

Rybak, Grace. Education differs in China and America. China Insight. 2009. Web.

Si-jing, Li. A comparative study of educational differences between U.S. and China. Journal Of Wuhan Institute of Shipbuilding Technology, 4.3 (2009). Web.

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The Apple iPhone: Commodity Chain Analysis Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

The world economic systems are driven by two main components namely production and consumption. These two components are interrelated through the dynamics of demand and supply relationship. The economic theory stipulates that a commodity once produced has to be consumed.

As such an equilibrium between production and consumption has to be established if the product is to survive the in the market. If there is any disequilibrium between demand and supply, then the commodity will have experienced market failure, as too much production will lead to wastages, increased storages prices and complicated warehousing logistics while underproduction of the commodity will lead to shortages and as possible price hike of the commodity.

Production and consumption are linked by the distribution chain that ensures that a commodity reaches the intended market. Production of a commodity involves several variables such as land labor capital and raw material. Firms have to reduce the cost involved in these variable especially labor and land.

Raw materials have to be sourced and prepared well so as to make sure that they meet best quality standards. The distribution of a commodity is facilitated by the extensive and complex transport and communication network, information technologies and the increased liberalization of world markets. As such, between production and consumption, there exists a chain of interrelated activities.

Commodity chain analysis is the inter related series of activities that involve production, trading and marketing and it also covers all activities from the processing of raw materials, the intermediate activities involved in valued addition of the semi finished good to the transportation of the final product to the market (Rodrigue 2011b).

These activities are interdependent and also sequential. Commodity chain analysis also involves other variables such as the pricing of the products, the laws regulating the ownership of the products, and also value addition to the product at every stage of production (Rodrigue 2011a). Commodity chain thus ensures an efficient production and supply of a commodity such as the Apple iPhone to the market with minimum hindrance for maximum returns.

Apple Inc. is an American multinational corporation that is involved in the designing, production distribution and selling of consumer electronics such as mobile phones, software’s, laptops, desk tops, and accessories. Some of the products include the the Apple brand of electronics such computer, the apple laptop, the iPod, the iPad, iMac ,soft wares such as the Mac OS X operating system, the Macintosh computer and the Apple iPhone (Apple 2011a).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The apple iPhone is one of its most popular commodities and offers some of the most advanced features in the iPhone market such as WiFi internet connection, inbuilt 2MB camera, touch screen technology, 2.5g edge network as well as a host of other functions (Apple 2011; Reading et al n.d.).

Designing the Apple iPhone is not a very complicated procedure. Apple designs the commodity and holds the exclusive rights for the designs. Apple designers take s great care examining the raw materials that goes into making its parts.

A lot of attention goes to understanding the properties of material so as to understand the best procedure to use in processing those materials before the final product is made (Abilla 2010). Most of the iPhone’s raw materials are environmental friendly and reduce environmental impacts such as the emission of green house gases. Such parts as the LCD screen is mercury free, the glass is Arsenic free while most of the packaging f materials are from recyclable sources (Aplle 2009).

The main raw material that goes into making the commodity are plastic, metals such as aluminum and silver, foam rubber and glass. Much attention is taken to reduce the levels of harmful chemicals in these materials such as lead, mercury, polyvinyl chloride, brominated flame retardants and phthalates (Davies 2011). Apple has gathered experienced designers for its iPhone. Designing is also a learning process where designers learn from previous designs and make necessary improvements.

The new iPhone 4 is thus the result of the learning experience from the previous design as it has a variety of new features that makes it stand out amongst its peers in the market. Some of the new values added features at the designing level are: the 9.3 mm enclosure making it the thinnest iPhone, the 326 pixels/ inch LCD screen making it the highest resolution screen in the market, a more powerful A4 chip that also guarantees longer battery life and better multi tasking efficiency for the new iPhone among others (Apple 2011b).

Apple does not design all the parts for the commodity and therefore has to source some of the parts from established manufacturers. The company sources almost all its material from Taiwan as a cost effective measure. These are the main components that Apple sources from Taiwan for its iPhone. The iPhone connectors are manufactured by Entery Industrial, Taiwan.

The iPhones Bluetooth sets are sourced from Cambridge Silicon, Taiwan while circuit boards and stainless steel metal casings are imported from Umicron Technology and Catcher Technology respectively both from Taiwan. Primax Electronics Taiwan makes the commodities Digital Camera Modules while the internal circuitry is made by Foxconn International Taiwan. Other main parts that go into making the commodity include CPU as well as the Video processing chips which are made by Samsung Singapore.

We will write a custom Essay on The Apple iPhone: Commodity Chain Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Infineon Singapore makes the Baseband Communications hardware while Broadcomm U.S makes touch screen controllers. All these parts are then shipped into the company’s Shenzhen manufacturing facility in china. The company also pays other manufacturers to manufacture its own designed parts. Such manufacturers include Samsung Germany, which produces Apple deigned applications processor (Abilla 2007; Barboza 2010).

Foxconn International is the company that is most involved in the production process of this commodity. It has been reported that it is involved in sourcing and supply of most of the parts that go in the production of the commodity. It is also involved in supplying other part such as the products outer Case and other mechanical parts.

Other than sourcing parts for iPhone Foxconn is also involved in production some of the cheap parts with the intention of reducing the cost of production. As such Foxconn also sources for raw materials for this parts from local mines and suppliers of such raw materials (Barboza 2010).

All this parts are shipped to Foxconn assembly pant in Shenzhen, China. Foxconn Shenzhen is the main assembler of Apple iPhones as well as other world major brands such as Dell and HP. At Foxconn Shenzhen, the plant management uses a military like precision and efficiency in assembling of these commodities.

Foxconn Shenzhen employs the Henry Ford model of production where the plant establishes a production line for the commodity. The result is that Foxconn Shenzhen produces high quality Apple iPhones that meets market demand (Barboza 2010). From Foxconn Shenzhen, the commodity is shipped to the market.

The figure below summarizes the commodity’s chain map

Source: Abilla 2007

Apple has adopted series of distribution techniques for its iPhone. This is intended to reach a wide market with its products. The company has an online distribution store where clients order commodities online. Online sourced commodities are shipped to the client in record time. Apple also has signed deal with mobile service provider in different countries. These service providers act as distribution outlets and retail points for the gadget.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Apple iPhone: Commodity Chain Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These mobile service providers get the commodity from regional logistic distributors. At the Apple online store, clients can create an online account and test the product before signing a contract to buy the phone (Slide Share 2011). The commodity has recorded increasing profits from the year 2008 and the company has even put higher limits on expected profits for the year 2011. The figure below shows the company’s’ profits analysis.

Source: Elmer-DeWitt 2010

Compared to other products of the same nature iPhone outsmarted them in the market in terms of revenues and percentage contribution to the makers overall turn over. The figure below reflects the commodities performance against other products of the same nature.

Source: Elmer-DeWitt 2010

Apple, in calculating is pricing factors in the cost of the parts sourced from suppliers before determining the final price of the commodity. The sourcing and manufacturing of the commodity is one of the less expensive aspects of production. Foxconn China therefore makes very little from the profits accrued from sales.

Most of the money goes to Samsung Germany and Broadcomm USA which makes and supplies the main parts such as the commodities internal processors. Apple Inc, being the patent owner of the iPhone also takes a considerable amount of profits while distributors and suppliers of the finished products also share in the profits (Barboza 2010).

In the process of manufacturing the commodity, there has emerged a number of ethical issue that may worry not only the consumer but also the parent company Apple Inc of America, foreign governments especially in china and human rights bodies.

Reports from its Chinese assembly plant in china indicate that there has been a number of bizarre suicides involving a number of Foxconn Shenzhen workers. These workers are under 26 years of age and are first time workers. The deaths have been connected to very poor working conditions and increased work place pressure to meet standards mostly associated with the scientific method of management employed at the plant. This, accompanied from pressure from family members has lead to the suicides.

It was reported that the assembly plant witnessed 9 suicides from workers who jumped from top floors of the assembly plant building in the year 2009. The highlight of the suicides has been the death of Sun Danyong, after being accused of loosing the iPhone 4 prototype and was also subjected to gross mistreatment by company security guards. Suffice to say that the workers earn the US $ 130 minimum wage per month payable in the state of Shenzhen, and as such they have to work overtime to increase their earnings.

The suicides have generated rebuke from various quarters including Apples CEO, who demanded a quick fix to the problem at Shenzhen. Foxconn Shenzhen responded by awarding an increase of 30% in wages to all workers, among other measures. It also promised to implement other measures and improve the working conditions at the assembly plant (Ramzy 2010).

Another of the ethical issue that would be of consumer concern especially in the UK is whether the commodity is envorormntaa friendly. It has been proved that electronic gadgets are some of the greatest contributor of increased level of carbon in the environment. The Apple iPhone is a considerable energy consumer because of its expanded consumption and as such emits greenhouse gasses into the environment.

The process of the production including the transport mechanism also produces carbon to the atmosphere. As a result the company has responded by incorporating various countermeasures to reduce the effects. The Apple iPhone is now being packaged in materials made by recycling wastes, while the material that make the products are free of harmful elements such as lead, mercury, PVC among others (Apple 2009).

Making the Apple iPhone begins in the parent company’s plant in America but it also involves several other companies which are involved in manufacturing various parts that are used to assemble the final products. Assembling of these parts involves and tens of thousand of workers. The Apple Inc. parent company only imports the designs to China’s Foxconn Shenzhen. Foxconn Shenzhen assembles the final product and ships it back to the US and other markets.

A lot of logistics goes into the whole commodity chain and sometimes delays have been experienced. However the Apple iPhone has not disappointed the user because of the care that goes into the whole [production chain from carefully examining the raw materials to sourcing parts from reputable makers such as Samsung. The assembly process is characterized by military like efficiency. The result is high quality product that has outperformed its peers in the market.

Reference List Abilla, P. 2007. The apple iPhone supply chain. Shmula. Web.

Abilla, P. 2010. Material informs form: the apple, iPhone 4. shmula. Web.

Apple, 2009. Iphone 3gs environmental report. Web.

Apple, 2011. IPhone: the future is in the details. Web.

BARBOZA, D. 2010. Supply chain for iPhone highlights costs in china. New York Times. Web.

Davies, C. 2011. What is apple’s manufacturing footprint for the iPhone, iPad and IPod? Global warming and climate change are big issues for apple. Web.

Elmer-DeWitt, p. 2010. IPhone gross profit margin nears 60%. cnn money. Web.

Ramzy, A. 2010. Chinese factory under scrutiny as suicides mount. Time. Web.

Reading, S., et al n.d. Apple iPhone. Web.

Rodrigue, J. 2011a. Commodity chains and freight transportation. Web.

Rodrigue, J. 2011b. Commodity chain analysis. Web.

Slide Share, 2011. Apple’s iPhone launch marketing strategy analysis. Web.

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Internet and E-Business Term Paper best essay help

Table of Contents Nature of E-business Communication

Business-Business and Business-Customer Communications

How Businesses Benefit from Websites

Message Transfer

HTML

Intranet, Extranet and Internet

Conclusion

References

Electronic business is no different from conventional types of businesses; only that, it heavily relies on the use of information technology (IT) to carry out business transactions. IT tools are often used to facilitate the exchange of information between businesses and external or internal parties such as suppliers, creditors and the likes (for external business communication) or departmental heads (for internal communications).

Managers have often attributed the success of their business to the adoption of IT and many more say that IT has helped their businesses grow and become more efficient because it integrates their data processing systems to provide better goods and services to their customers (Li 2007, p. 1).

Often times, e-business has been substituted with the term ‘e-commerce’ but the term e-business is broader than e-commerce because e-commerce is only a fragment of the overall e-business strategy. For instance, e-commerce has often been used by many companies to boost their sales because it works through the worldwide web where business relationships between organizations, customers and shareholders are enhanced through knowledge management systems.

In this light, when e-commerce is compared to e-business, we can see that the scope of e-business is much wider than e-commerce because e-business spans through all value chain systems including purchasing management, supply chain management, electronic order processing, customer service processes, cooperation with external partners (and the likes); moreover, special technical standards are normally needed for e-business operations to be materialized (for instance, the use of e-business software enables the synchrony of intra and inter business communications) (Li 2007, p. 1).

E-business communications works through the use of several modes including the web, internet, intranets and extranets (but in some cases, two or more of these modes can be combined together to make e-business a reality).

This study will focus on the concept of e-business and how it works in organizations today. Emphasis will be made on communication between businesses to customers, businesses to businesses and how businesses benefit from adopting the use of the worldwide web. These three elements will collectively provide an analysis of the nature of e-business.

In the final part of this study, an analysis of how messages are transferred through the internet will be done and a more critical analysis will be done on the languages used when communicating through the worldwide web, including how the HTML (which is commonly used in e business communications) works. Comprehensively, this study will conclude by describing the different modes of e-business including intranet, extranet and internet.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nature of E-business Communication E-Business communication has been known to create a lot of buzz in the corporate world, probably because it is not regulated (E-articles 2010). The deregulated nature of e-business communication is the basic framework through which e-business communication derives the nature of its other qualities. However, this excludes the lack of face-to-face communication between businesses and customers, or between the communicating parties.

E-business is different from other conventional corporate communication approaches because it lacks the ‘trust’ element between two people and evidently, there is very little ethical concern among communicating parties. The fact that someone cannot put a face to the communicator also gives e-business communication the aspect of being an impersonal form of communication which is coupled with many ethical concerns.

Ethical concerns are at the centre-stage of e-business communications because it is very easy to falsify information, impersonate a person or company (and such like vices) because one cannot prove the authenticity of a given piece of information. Close to ethical concerns are security concerns which have been voiced as some of the major problems of e-business communications (E-articles 2010).

E-business communications are deemed insecure because they lack the sense of privacy, especially where an unauthorized person hacks into a company’s system and extracts confidential information. However, companies and internet security experts have recently come up with security solutions such as access and data integrity, encryption, digital certificates (and the likes) to improve the security of business information in e-business (E-articles 2010).

Business-Business and Business-Customer Communications Businesses to customer transactions are usually defined by the exchange of goods and services between a business and its customers (Carroll 2008, p. 357). This can be explained by a person buying a car from a car sales man.

However, a business-to-business transaction normally occurs when there is an exchange of goods and services between a business and another business (Kurtz 2009, p. 1). For instance, in the above example, when the car sales representative buys several cars from the car manufacture, it constitutes a business-to-business transaction.

In e-business, these transactions are facilitated by ICT tools. For instance, in a business-to-business transaction, the car seller may import a given car from a car manufacturer using online means and have the car shipped to his location. The same situation is also evidenced in a business to customer relation where a customer orders for goods, say from a grocery shop, and have them delivered to his or her doorstep.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Internet and E-Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In both scenarios, we can therefore establish that the exchange of goods and services is done online for both business-to-business transactions and business-to-customer transactions. In a practical set up, business-to-customer transactions have been evidenced through platforms such as Amazon but recent times have seen the growth of electronic business-to-business transactions through online banking, online travel, online auctions and the likes.

Business-to-business transactions are normally evidenced when businesses intend to collaborate in a given venture or when they want to communicate among themselves (this includes the most recent trend in corporate circles – outsourcing) (Kurtz 2009, p. 1). Communication between one employee and another is also referred to as a business-to-business transaction because employees are fragments of the entire business.

Conventionally, sales and marketing companies have relied on business-to-business operations and though many service oriented customers are focused on business-to-customer interaction, it is estimated that the volumes of business-to-business transaction is more than business-to-customers (Kurtz 2009, p. 1).

How Businesses Benefit from Websites Many businesses have in the recent past adopted the use of websites in their businesses because of the growing advantages associated with websites. Top among the list of the benefits businesses enjoy when they have a website is the fact that websites are cheaper and more flexible to use when compared to other conventional modes of communication such as print media (Web World directory 2005, p. 1).

The difference is exposed by the fact that getting a space to advertise or communicate to business stakeholders in a website is cheap when compared to print media. Moreover, a company’s advertisement can be accessible by a wide audience for a longer period of time and the content of the advertisement is easy to change without necessarily having to contact a given authority, say a newspaper company.

Some researchers have however noted that other forms of communication such as print, television and radio should not be shunned for websites because it would be more beneficial for businesses to use conventional media channels to entice people to visit their websites because in this manner, they can reach a wide audience (Web World directory 2005, p. 1).

Businesses can also benefit from websites because websites help them easily break geographical barriers and access these markets from whichever country they are in (so long as they have an internet connection). Companies which have deeply explored the benefits of websites know that a website is not only a tool to represent the company because it can also be used to increase a company’s revenue stream by selling advertising space. Web World directory (2005) affirms that:

“A recent trend has risen where businesses feature their very own directory of complimentary services, where the visitor can search for information on a business that will enhance the use of their service. The business sells complimentary business listing in their directory. A good example is a catering company featuring a directory with businesses such as event co-coordinators, electronic equipment rental companies, and the likes” (p. 6).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Internet and E-Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Websites can also be beneficial to businesses because they can be accessed by customers any time of the day, week or year because they are not subject to closing business hours, like conventional business environments.

This means that customers can be able to get information or communicate with the company at whatever time they please. Websites also offer businesses an opportunity to add value to their services and products since they give businesses the chance to offer convenience where customers can access information, thereby making a great majority feel satisfied with the services offered by the company (Web World directory 2005, p. 1).

Businesses can also add value to their customers through websites because they allow businesses to entertain, give tips and offer free advice to their customers regarding various company contents (Web World directory 2005, p. 4).

Marketing and sales companies can also find websites very useful in using the highest pitch to interact with their customers instead of training its sales force to attain a high pitch all over again (Web World directory 2005, p. 4). In a more general platform, studies have shown that companies which have a website fare better than their counterparts who do not (in terms of company credibility).

This is true because websites are a platform for companies to introduce themselves and explain to their customers what value can they bring to the customers’ businesses or lives. Some researchers have even associated websites to viral marketing, whereby, if one customer becomes satisfied with a company or trusts a given company through its web content, he or she is likely to spread the word to other customers (Web World directory 2005, p. 11).

Websites are also noted to increase a company’s brick and mortar presence because they accommodate the publishing of a dummy map to their premises or locations and customers can in turn print these maps and use them to trace the brick and mortar premises of such companies (Web World directory 2005, p. 11).

Most companies usually include this provision as an advertisement in their websites, enticing their customers to visit a specific branch as brick and mortar premise. This advantage is usually compared to a directory because if a directory is used and a business changes location, it will have to wait for the next edition of the directory to change its address accordingly; however, websites provide an opportunity for businesses to change their locations instantly.

Finally, websites enable companies to receive instant feedback regarding their products or services and therefore they can easily improve their products accordingly. An associated benefit is the fact that businesses can also use websites to carry out cheap market research through customer feedback as opposed to going out into the field and getting such information (or through hiring a research agency to do the job on their behalf).

Message Transfer Messages are transferred via the internet through a number of ways. The most common way of transferring messages is through electronic mail where businesses and customers instantly send mails to each other, electronically. However, there are a number of concerns voiced over this communication tool (emails) and one of them is the fact that emails have the potential threat of bearing harmful viruses and spyware (Laganà 2004, p. 867).

Another disadvantage is the fact that emails lead to slow response in communication, especially when the respondent is not online. However, this disadvantage has led to the invention of the chat feature, where two businesses (or businesses and customers) talk in real-time. The internet also provides open discussion forums through discussion boards, blogs, video conferencing and the likes. New mediums are still invented to date and some are being rendered redundant as well.

HTML The Hypertext markup language (HTML) is one of the basic forms of web languages used in online communication (Hayes 2001, p. 1). This markup language is normally written in the form of opening and ending tags and is synonymous with the symbols ‘’.

The HTML is normally referred to as the basic element through which all websites are developed and it allows for the attachment of images and text, all of which are made in structured documents (Hayes 2001, p. 1). HTML is also synonymous with semantics for different texts and they are normally represented in the form of headings, paragraphs, links and the likes, although it can sometimes embed scripts in languages like JavaScript which is normally known to affect how basic HTML works (Hayes 2001, p. 1).

HTML works in collaboration with the internet protocol, which relays messages via the internet, or in simpler terms, it is used to deliver datagrams from the source to destination hosts (Mustell 2009). Their HTML addresses define the channel of communication using the internet protocol.

Intranet, Extranet and Internet The most significant difference between the intranet, extranet and internet is evidenced between the intranet and extranet (MWS 2004, p. 1). The intranet is used as an information portal designed for internal communication between employees working for any organizational size or sophistication (or between businesses or institutions of any kind).

Usually, intranets can be designed to suit the needs of the employees, businesses or institutions but in conventional business setups, main users have been identified to be members of the executive team, accounting, order billing, managers, directors, sales people, support staff, customer services, help desk and such like departments or individuals (MWS 2004, p. 1).

An extranet on the other hand bears close similarity to the intranet, only that it is designed for external access of a company’s computer files, information and systems (MWS 2004, p. 1). Normally, such sort of information is released to individuals or groups such as exclusive business customers, selected industry partners, specific suppliers, subcontractors and the likes.

Carefully designed extranet connections are likely to increase a business’s operations but both intranets and extranets are known to: use secured internet access to external parties, significantly reduce company costs associated with company communication and use identification codes and passwords to access or control company information, or systems (MWS 2004, p. 1).

The major distinction between the intranet and internet is the fact that the internet is meant for public communication while the intranet is strictly meant for private communication (Newman 2009, p. 117). However, the intranet is normally accessible through the internet, but with the administration of passwords and identification codes, it is almost impossible to access such information. In other words, only authorized users are allowed to access information on the intranet.

If the intranet is accessed within a company, it is much faster in response when compared to how a website would be accessed from the internet. Normally, it is assumed that the internet responds in this manner because it is quite vulnerable to traffic spikes, server breakdowns and other problems that are likely to slow down internet speeds (Newman 2009).

The basic advantage of the intranet over the internet is the fact that within a company context, users have more bandwidth while the network hardware maybe more reliable when compared to the internet, making it easier to serve higher bandwidth content (including audio and video content) over the intranet (Newman 2009).

Most intranets block the access of videos, social networking sites or any other content that may be deemed “fun” because it derails employee performance. Contrary to what most people believe, the extranet is only apart of the intranet and it is only a medium to enable authorized, external business partners to access company information (but not the entire company information).

Conclusion This study explains the scope of e-business through an understanding of the fact that e-business works in the context of business-to-business communication or through business-to-customer communication. The main channel through which e-business operates is though websites and through this medium, businesses can endlessly gain a lot of advantages in the corporate world.

However, in comprehensively analyzing how the internet works, it should be understood that each company needs to know whether to use the intranet, extranet or the internet in undertaking its activities, depending on the nature of its activities. Regardless of the advantages e-business brings to the corporate environment, companies should take caution of the risk associated with e-business communications.

References Carroll, A. (2008) Business and Society: Ethics and Stakeholder Management. London, Cengage Learning.

E-articles. (2010) The Changing Nature of E Business. Web.

Hayes, D. (2001) Sams Teach Yourself HTML and XHTML in 10 Minutes. New York, Sams Publishing.

Kurtz, D. (2009) Contemporary Marketing. London, Cengage Learning.

Laganà, A. (2004) Computational Science and Its Applications: ICCSA 2004, International Conference, Assisi, Italy, May 14-17, 2004: Proceedings, Part 3. New York, Springer.

Li, F. (2007) What Is E-Business? How The Internet Transforms Organizations. London, Wiley-Blackwell.

Mustell, E. (2009) Internet Protocol Version 6: The Next Generation? New York, ProQuest.

MWS. (2004) Difference between Intranet

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Demand and supply Report essay help: essay help

Introduction The February cyclone which hit most of the fruits farms between Caddwell and Innisfail in Australia has greatly affected the demand and supply of bananas in the markets compared to previous years. From the article it is clear that after the catastrophe, the supply of this crop lowered greatly leading to a rise in its prices as well as its demand. It also showed how the increase in the prices facilitated to more supply for more income.

Background Study Theory: Increase in supply of a product or service leads to reduction in its demand and price, while decrease in its supply leads to a higher demand and price. When the supply of a commodity lowers, its demand lowers due to acceleration in its prices. More often the increase in demand of a commodity leads to an increase in its supply due to the higher prices it is accorded. When there is an over-supply, the demand and the prices are very low. This is the case in Australia after Yasi Cyclone destroyed banana farms affecting their supply (Weekly Times 2011, 2).

Models: In economics, it is fundamental to understand the concept of demand and supply of a commodity or service in the market. Usually, this concept is primary as it is seen as the backbone of economics. Demand can be defined as the quantity of a product or a service required by the buyers while supply is the much that is available in the market at a given price. Supply and demand will always reflect on the price. Graphs have been used as models to explain this concept.

Law of demand; as the price of a commodity increases, its demand decreases. People are not always ready to forgo other valuable products or services at the expense of others that see their prices go up due to their lower supply (Baumal

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Ethical and Social responsibility issues in IHRM Report cheap essay help

Executive Summary There are several issues be it ethical or social responsibility that are involved in Human Resource Management on the international platform. It is usually upon the decision makers to ensure that the welfare of the society is improved. Every decision made within the organization has an effect on people. These include; automation, outsourcing, laying-off some of the employees, closing down an existing branch or opening a new one.

It is therefore important for decision makers to put the interests of the society in mind while making any decision. There is need for multinational firms to consider ethics as well as corporate social responsibility in their operations. Despite the fact that different scholars hold different opinions about ethics and corporate social responsibility, there is need for a multinational firm to include the two in its operations so as to create a good business environment and benefit the society.[1]

Introduction A human resources manager within a multinational firm has the responsibility of overseeing the human resource issues within his organization as well as in the overseas operations. An international firm is usually prone to more challenges concerning their operations as well as decision making.

Human resource managers within multinationals are usually challenged to ensure the overall economic development particularly in the countries where they are situated, carter for the needs of the employees as well as their families and ensuring that the society benefits as well. Business ethics are supposed to be observed for the organization to succeed.

Legal procedures are to be observed in the operations of the organization. In the case of an international firm, the societies that benefit from the firm are not just local but different people across the globe. There is therefore need to put into consideration different issues like environmental protection, the protection of people’s human right, creating employment as well as fighting and preventing HIV/AIDS. The firm needs to empower the people economically hence improving their living standards.[2]

Main Body International Human Resource managers have a great task in ensuring that as much as an international firm aims at maximizing the profits, they have they responsibility of ensuring that the people are not rendered jobless due to its operations or the adoption of technology in its operations. The firm is supposed to have a qualified workforce with efficient processes of administration that are transparent.[3]

Demand Conditions The firms are usually faced with the challenge of providing quality goods and services to the customers that are scattered across the globe. It is usually a requirement for the firm to provide quality goods or services so as to satisfy the needs of the local as well as international customers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The firms are usually pressured to go by the current technological advancements so as to ensure quality production and service delivery. A company might for instance adopt social responsibility techniques by starting projects for the communities in the areas where they are situated so as to market its products.

Apple for instance managed to expand its consumer base by offering computers to schools across the globe so as to make its applications known to the market and this improved the sophistication of the students as well as tutors. This was therefore an example of corporate social responsibility not just at the local but at the international level as well.

Related/Supporting Industries Before a firm opts to outsource its services, it is always good to consider options that are cost effective like using a taskforce and machinery that is less costly. This usually ensures responsive and cost effectiveness. The transportation costs are supposed to be reduced and it should have many benefits to the locals as well as the international population by providing employment hence improving their living standards. It should be easy to exchange information as well as innovation.

Strategy and Rivalry Multinational firms are usually prone to issues of unfair competition as well as issues of corruption. They face the challenge of fighting corruption as well as opening up the market and encouraging fair competition hence an environment that is productive and transparent is encouraged. Most of the firms have for instance supported organizations like Transparency International in their efforts to fight corruption in organizations across the globe. The society is therefore able to benefit as well as opening up the market for such firms.[4]

Corporate social responsibility for a multinational is therefore beneficial not only to the firm but to the society at the local and international level as well. The sole purpose of a firm should be to benefit all the people involved and not just a few. Any business organization is supposed to benefit the society. If this is not the case then the organizations charter can be amended or revoked as the community will be having no reason to have it around if its needs are not met.

With globalization and internalization of most corporations, such firms have been able to expand their operations to countries that have lower economic developments and living standards. Most of them have therefore engaged in corporate abuses.

Most of them have engaged in irresponsible activities that lead to environmental pollution among other vises. Oil companies for instance have engaged in water, soil, sound as well as air pollutions issues that affect the community negatively. This has resulted into the need for social action so as to ensure that these companies engage in responsible actions.[5]

We will write a custom Report on Ethical and Social responsibility issues in IHRM specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Corporate social responsibility at the international level usually ensures that the contribution of the firm is positive towards the community in which it is located and this result in a good relationship between the firm and the community. This makes it easy for the firm to get employees across the globe and the cost of retaining the workforce is usually lower.

There is a significant reduction in absenteeism and turnover. The firm is therefore in a position to thrive. Bettering the environment usually results in a better working/business environment. Less money is therefore spent on ensuring that the firm is secure as well as the executives of the firm.

Argument against Corporate Social Responsibility Several people have argued against corporate social responsibility each giving their own reasons for their stand. Milton Friedman who is an economist for instance has argued against corporate social responsibility basing his argument on social, legal as well as economic perspectives. Arguing on the economic perspective, he argued that allocating the funds of a firm to other areas rather than those meant to increase the profits, or ensuring efficiency in the market only result in misallocation of resources within the economy.

He argued that managers are legal representatives of the firm’s stakeholders and allocating funds on something else rather than maximizing the profits amounts to stealing from the stakeholders. He states that if the stakeholders had the interest of spending money on social purposes, then they need to do so personally using the dividend. He argues that social responsibility is a sign of short sightedness and it is suicidal.[6]

An international firm is posed with the challenge of ensuring that a firm maintains high standards, the firm has to ensure that the compensation as well as the benefits of the workers are met.

The policies and practices of these firms are supposed to be abided by and all the records of the employees in various branches of the firm be kept well. The firm has the responsibility to ensure that its activities are carried out in an ethical way and etiquette is observed. The company employees across the various nations are supposed to be updated over the same so as to avoid embarrassing situations.[7]

The firm is supposed to ensure that the issues like drug and substance abuse among the employees as well as the communities in which they are situated are prevented. The firm is endowed with assisting the employees as well as ensuring spirituality and diversity among the workforce. The firm must ensure that the laws and standards set by the respective countries are followed to the later.

It must channel its effort towards ensuring job creation in the countries where they are based and not causing job loses. It is usually a challenging task for the firm to ensure that its human resource is fully utilized. The firm’s management has to ensure that there is effective resource planning, carrying out training and development of the staff as well as ensuring there are positive labor relations, the employees are safe and healthy. It is also responsible for the management of change and culture.[8]

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethical and Social responsibility issues in IHRM by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most firms usually find it difficult to adapt to the new environments in which they are situated be especially due to the cultural differences between the new environments and the places where they are situated. Their human resource practices tend to differ. It becomes a big challenge for these firms to align themselves to the new economic, political, legal as well as cultural environments.

It has particularly been a big challenge to come up with a global approach to Human recourses given that different regions have their own approaches and policies governing the issues of human resources management. There is therefore for no consistency or integrity in the issues of Human Resource Management on the international platform.

The management of cross-boarder alliances has proved to be a very tasking endeavor given that the cost of production across boarders is a big challenge due to the issues of cost as well as hardships in penetrating new markets.

Conclusion Multinational firms face different issues which include ensuring that the firm maximizes its profits, the employees’ needs are met, the environment is protected, there is efficiency within the firms and they have a competitive advantage over the other competitors. Above all these it is usually upon the firm to ensure that its operations are carried out in a way that is ethical and responsible.

The firm needs to be accountable to the community around as well as other stakeholders. The firm is supposed to benefit the society by improving their living standards through provision of employment opportunities as well as starting programs that benefit the community like educating the community against substance abuse as well as HIV/AIDS.[9]

With the increase in globalization, many firms have found the issues of observing corporate social responsibility as a huddle and have resorted to activities that have negative impact on the society.

Human Resources Management at the international level is therefore aimed at ensuring that companies or firms that have their operations across boarders adhere to the set standards and they obey the law besides raising the living standards of people that are linked to them in a way, for instance the communities around or the employees. They are supposed to engage in activities that are environmental friendly and ensure a good working or business environment.

International Human Resources is aimed at ensuring that a check is put on the activities of the firms and ethics as well as etiquette is observed in the operations of these firms. Companies or firms are supposed to ensure that corporate social responsibility is at the center of their objectives. At times they might have to use corporate social responsibility consultants or expertise in ensuring that its activities are beneficial to the society.[10]

Firms must have strategies in place to ensure corporate social responsibility within their operations. Through ensuring corporate social responsibility, a firm creates a good business environment hence helping in the success of its operations. Although corporate social responsibility has been encouraged at many levels, there are those who perceive it as a misallocation of resources and a way of stealing from the stakeholder.

Recommendations Any multinational needs to do several things so as to ensure success in its operations for instance, firms need to;

Reward its hardworking employees and adopt compensation systems for its employees in the various nations.

Carry out training to ensure that the employees are updated on the skills as well as technological advancements.

Monitor the performance of the employees to ensure accountability.

Ensure they stick to the set standards of quality.

Adhere to etiquette and ethical ways of carrying out their operations at the places where they are situated.

Focus its efforts towards ensuring that the problems of the society are solved. Its impact must be felt not just in their environments but in other places.

Promote multiculturalism by coming up with ways of eliminating cultural boundaries given that multinationals employ people from different cultural backgrounds.

Bibliography Hofstede,G. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill. 1991.

Ibarra,H. “Personal networks of women and minorities in management: A conceptual framework.” Academy of Management Review, 18 no.1 (1993): 56-87.

Legge,K. Human resource management: rhetorics and realities. London: Macmillan.1995.

Liff,S. “Diversity and equal opportunities: Room for a constructive compromise?.” Human Resource Management Journal, 9 no.1 (1999): 65-75.

Marini,M. and Fan,P. “The gender gap in earnings at career entry.” American Sociological Review, 62 no. 1 (1997): 588-604.

Pfeffer,J. Competitive advantage through people: unleashing the power of the work force. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. 1994.

Ragins,B. and Scandura,T. “Gender differences in expected outcomes of mentoring relationships.” Academy of Management Journal, 37no.4 (1994): 957-971.

Shappiro,G. “Quality and equality: Building a virtuous circle.” Human Resource Management Journal, 9 no.1 (1999): 76-86.

Sparrow,P. and Hiltrop,J.M. European human resource management in transition. New York: Prentice Hall. 1994.

Storey,J. “Equal opportunities in retrospect and prospect.” Human Resource Management Journal, 9no.1 (1999): 5-8.

Footnotes Hofstede,G. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill. 1991.

Storey,J. “Equal opportunities in retrospect and prospect.” Human Resource Management Journal, 9no.1 (1999): 5-8.

Ibarra,H. “Personal networks of women and minorities in management: A conceptual framework.” Academy of Management Review, 18 no.1 (1993): 56- 87.

Legge,K. Human resource management: rhetorics and realities. London: Macmillan.1995.

Liff,S. “Diversity and equal opportunities: Room for a constructive compromise?.” Human Resource Management Journal, 9 no.1 (1999): 65-75.

Marini,M. and Fan,P. “The gender gap in earnings at career entry.” American Sociological Review, 62 no. 1 (1997): 588-604.

Sparrow,P. and Hiltrop,J.M. European human resource management in transition. New York: Prentice Hall. 1994.

Pfeffer,J. Competitive advantage through people: unleashing the power of the work force. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. 1994.

Ragins,B. and Scandura,T. “Gender differences in expected outcomes of mentoring relationships.” Academy of Management Journal, 37no.4 (1994): 957-971.

Sparrow,P. and Hiltrop,J.M. European human resource management in transition. New York: Prentice Hall. 1994.

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