Psychological Problems: The Social Phobia Report (Assessment) Argumentative Essay Help

Table of Contents Research Question

Research Analysis

Psychology Competencies

Professional Requirements in Psychology

References

Research Question Nowadays, the psychological and behavioral problems are common. A person who experiences such problems faces challenges in his/her daily life pursuits, social performance, and interactions with other people. The societal norms and standards of behavior put pressure on the human psychological state and well-being. When a person fails to meet high demands of the society, can’t comply with all the rules and requirements, or experiences conflicts and abuse in childhood, the different forms of anxiety occur.

No matter what causes provoke the disorder development, the psychological therapy addresses all the multiple issues of human behavior and psychological problems: from the slightest to the most severe ones. The given research is devoted to the investigation of social phobia and its impacts on the performance in the various aspects of life. The main question of the research is as following: how does the social phobia affect the individual’s social functioning and quality of life?

Nowadays, social phobia is one of the most prevalent psychological disorders, and the public and clinical attention to the issue is continuously growing. Nevertheless, the analysis of the previous literature has demonstrated that the investigation of the disorder’s causes and the potential methods of treatment are insufficient. The evaluation of the problems relevant to the topic is based on the review of the claims and findings in the peer-reviewed articles by Wong, Sarver, Beidel, Kessler, Marteinsdottir, Svensson, Svedberg, Anderberg, Knorring.

“Social phobia is characterized by extreme fear in social or performance situations in which the individual may be exposed to embarrassment or scrutiny by others, which creates occupational, social and academic impairment” (Wong, Sarver,

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US National Security Policy Research Paper college admission essay help

Topic What are the challenges USA faces when developing a coherent US National Security Policy inside the four-year presidential cycle and the failing role of ‘think-tanks’ in National Security Policies affect national policy-making?

Hypothesis/Thesis The working thesis statement for this research is that, numerous challenges have been witnessed when developing National Security Policies and the challenges are more complex in the four-year presidential cycle. This situation or scenario is likely to affect the National Security Policy-making process and in the end, developed security policy may not be effective.

The situation is made more difficulty by presence of many think-tanks or group-tanks who for a long time tend to fail in their policy-making security strategies, a situation that later affect the entire national policy-making process. The four-year presidential cycle is largely limited in terms of time to enable the development of a coherent national security policy.

Given the nature of USA security needs and priorities that have persisted for many decades, the process of security policy-making requires enough time. For example, it is impossible and always difficulty to capture the multiple elements of security priorities in the four-year presidential cycle.

Security priorities for the USA are dynamic, fluid and changing everyday and this situation makes the process of making coherent national security policy a flexible one.

Moreover, the role of think-tanks and group-think tanks for a long time has been presented to be neutral. But in nature, think-tanks tend to have political leaning in their process of policy advice, a situation likely to make the entire process more difficult and challenging. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that,

Since the national security policy-making process is likely to take place in a four-year presidential period, numerous challenges are likely to emerge which will affect the functionability of the national security policy.

Think-tanks and Group think-tanks have for a long time been involved in national security policy-making process and majority tend to take partisan position, a situation that has in the past and in future it is likely to results into failure of national security policies.

Purpose Statement The US is a country that has experienced and continues to experience both sides of positive and negative history1. The positive side is fostered by economic, political, social, and cultural development of the country, which is also accompanied by unequivocal freedom and rights. Moreover, the US has become victim to terrorism activities, frequently aided by rogue states, and failed democracies2.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, the security needs of the country have been compromised, provoked, and abused by terrorists. Unlike in the past, the issue of terrorism is no longer a complacent concept for ignorance as far as security needs, and a safe environment remains priority.

There is a need to improve the overall security requirements and, at the same time, actively participate in international activities that aim to promote and establish worldwide peace3. In all these circumstances, the US has a huge role to play in the international arena and at home as well.

The country has the duty to defend the nation, its states, territories, and boundaries in a way that breeds confidence and trust among its citizens. At the same time, the country has to inspire a sense of international security, calmness, and peace by actively pursuing security goals that aim at eliminating all possible sources of threats and, at the same time, creating an environment for democracy and security to thrive.

All these aspects have to be fulfilled, but when one analyzes the uncertain nature of the international environment, it becomes clear that more efforts are required, especially in developing a national security policy that addresses these multiple needs and concerns in a precise and satisfying manner.

The role played by different players who in one way or the other participants in the development of national security policy is critical. From the role the president and the administration play, to the role Congress plays, to the role of think tanks, and the public play, it can be seen clearly that coordinated efforts and abilities are required to ensure the security policy achieves its goals.

In other words, it can be said that the US well being depends a lot on foreign defense and national security policies that are developed and implemented in such a way that aspects of organization, coordination, and articulation are not absent4. Developing a national security policy in four years is not an easy task given such a policy has to operate on a long-term basis.

Therefore, it can be suggested that transforming the current situation of developing a US national security policy is necessary. There is a great need to have elements of national security dedicate their efforts in developing and implementing a policy that is long term irrespective of political and administration change.

We will write a custom Research Paper on US National Security Policy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At the same time, it can be observed that the role that has been played by think tanks in the entire process of national security policy development has been diluting, confusing and at times conflicting. As a result, there should be clear established guidelines in which the participation and contribution of think tanks in the development of national security policy are clearly outlined and communicated.

Given that international and national security needs to remain paramount for the progress of American society and the international community at large, it is necessary to have national security policies that are effective and address the needs holistically. Research in this area is therefore appropriate and can be utilized in the decision-making processes.

Furthermore, the large amount of available literature concentrates on national security policy development without adequately exploring the role of think tanks and the challenges posed in developing policy inside the four-year presidential cycle. These two critical aspects cannot be ignored or underestimated as far as formulation and implementation of national security policy are concerned.

In other words, it can be observed that for the national security policy to be effective and functional, it has to reflect multi-dimensional approach input, which does not only regard and perceive security policy in a singular dimension but also in a holistic dimension. Lack of adequate literature can, therefore, is associated with the inadequacies and difficulties reflected and experienced in national security policy development.

As a result, this research paper aims at generating information that is objective in nature and relatively complete in spectrum, which, in turn, can be used by various stakeholders involved in the process of developing and implementing national security policy.

This research project is significant in many. For instance, the research project is premised on the need to evaluate the challenges likely to impact the process of developing a national security policy in the four-year presidential cycle. This four-year cycle is perceived to be a relatively short time for any genuine security policy to develop strengths and thereafter, be able to achieve its goals.

Security issues facing the US today are long-term and transcend many structures, systems and institutions, and therefore, cannot be addressed comprehensively in a four-year term. As a result, it has been established that the domestic, inactive, and sometimes dysfunctional nature of a US national security policy is likely to arise from the four-year presidential cycle, which is likely to partially impact the policy.

At the same time, new administrations come in with new policy-makers and create a situation likely to witness constant change. As a result, the entire process of security policy-making is likely to be affected by these changes and political dynamics.

Not sure if you can write a paper on US National Security Policy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More There is a need to identify how well a national security policy can be formulated and developed amidst these challenges. Formulating an effective national policy needs to be everyone’s concern, especially that of stakeholders close to making or influencing security policy.

Other key players, such as the public and academic scholars need to have knowledge of how the challenges in the security policy development process can be dealt with in a more productive manner. This knowledge cannot be attained by using current literature or information, but by undertaking objective research projects.

Research is likely to lead to the generation of more appropriate information and is likely to answer the pertinent research questions in the most concise way that addresses the needs of new challenges of developing national security policy.

At the end of this research, an adequate knowledge base will be developed from the findings and analysis of key aspects, which will be vital to a number of stakeholders involved in developing and implementing policy. This knowledge base will also be crucial and inevitably important in future research processes as it will provide necessary and critical secondary information resources.

Significance of research can only be achieved when there are specific set objectives. The primary objective of the research project is to establish and ascertain challenges that impact or are experienced in developing a coherent US national security policy inside the four-year presidency cycle.

A related objective will be to ascertain how the issue of ‘Think Tanks’ or ‘Group Think Tanks’ impact and results in the failure of national security policies and the policy-making process.

As a result, through the research, it will be possible to establish how the four-year presidential cycle is a relatively short period to put in place a concrete national security policy. Moreover, the role of think tanks will be established as well as how they may fail the policy-making process. More importantly, research objectives are realized through research questions that a researcher would want to answer.

In this case, research questions, unlike ordinary questions, are somehow more inquisitorial in that they expect an answer5. Moreover, research questions must be answerable in that they should have some achievable objectives in form of answers. In this regard, this research project will be premised on the following research questions:

How does the nation security policy-making process take place?

What factors influence the national security policy-making process?

How does the four-year presidential cycle impact the national security policy process?

What role do ‘think tanks’ play in the national security policy process?

In which ways may ‘think tanks’ fail the national security policy process?

The USA is faced with numerous challenges in the 21st century. Some of these challenges have increased the security needs of the country, a situation that has forced security requirements to become one of the more critical priorities the US passionately pursues. These issues are further made complex by increased technology and communication, globalization, economic interdependence, and more.

At the same time, it has been established that in order to effectively address the security issues the country faces, there is a need to develop and implement an effective national security policy.

An effective national security policy is one that is seen as addressing the diverse and multiple needs of various stakeholders both at local and international levels, whose security needs, affect or influence the US directly or indirectly. However, it has been established that this process of developing an effective security policy is a difficult one that faces numerous challenges.

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework Achieving success in any research work process requires appropriate development or analysis of theoretical or conceptual frameworks. Research work constitutes investigation of variables and the relationship among the variables. As a result, theoretical framework provides a clear way to conceptualize and analyze the relationship between variables where in most cases, there are independent and dependent variables.

Independent variables are autonomous in that, they are not affected or influenced in any way, but dependent variables are constantly affected by influencing factors. National security of the USA is affected and influenced by many factors. The factors are both internal and external and influence the national security policy process in diverse ways.

As a result, developing a coherent national security policy is likely to be affected by numerous factors and actors. In one way or the other, the factors and actors tend to influence the policy in profound ways. In most cases, there are three main influences to national security policy, which are, international political and military developments, domestic priorities, and technological advancement6.

Therefore, the current research fit in this model since, the four-year presidential period and role of think tanks can be categorized under domestic priorities. The figure below shows the interaction of national security policy process variables, which have been identified as international political and military developments, domestic priorities, and technological advancement.

As it can be seen from the model, the three groups of variables are interrelated; hence, each one influences and is likely to affect the other. As a result, the process of developing national security policy is likely to be influenced by these groups of variables.

Background The United States is regarded as the only country in the world that possesses unprecedented and unequaled strength and influence. The US is a world superpower, a fact that the country itself and outside nations acknowledge easily and reluctantly. The position the country holds in the world today is largely sustained by faith in the principles of liberty and the need to have a free society.

As a result, the US has found itself bestowed with numerous responsibilities, obligations, and opportunities that have invited security threats to the country as it tries to execute its role. In an attempt to play its role, the US has largely come out as a country interested in promoting a balance of power that favors and accommodates freedom.

The 21st century presents the US with numerous challenges that require balanced, timely, and objective response. There are numerous forces shaping the national and international front, which can be described to be complex and contradictory.

Today the world is seen to be characterized by numerous turmoil; increasing changing patterns of state-to-state relationships; and increased intra-national conflicts fueled by ethnic, religious and nationalistic differences7.

At the same time, the world is confronting issues addressing aspects of international terrorism, drug trade, and threats arising of information-age technology. Prior to the turn of the century, these issues were invisible and no one thought they would evolve in to the major threats they are today. The world was perceived to be peaceful and this sense of optimism changed drastically after the events of September 11, 2001 by terrorists.

From that time, the US was abruptly awakened and things could no longer be assumed. The country came face to face with reality, obligating the country to devise new security strategies to confront and respond to terrorists activities.

Even as the reality dawned on the country to have superb security strategies in place both internal and external, it has become clear that war against security threats is influenced and intermixed with globalization, economic expansion, homeland security and the need for the US to pursue its strategies in a more peaceful manner8.

Given that the US has established itself as a world superpower, there exists an obligation the country has to assume in the global governance environment, it is imperative to state that in order to safeguard its security needs, the country has an effective security policy.

All attempts need to be directed at developing an effective and comprehensive national security policy that addresses the multiple needs of the country. However, developing such a policy has proved to be challenging, especially in a four-year presidential term. As previously highlighted, there are many reasons for this therefore; it becomes increasingly difficult to create an effective long-term policy strategy.

The issue at hand which this paper is interested in researching revolves around identifying and analyzing the challenges presented in development of a comprehensive national security policy and the role ‘think-tanks’ play in accelerating these challenges.

As it has already been established, think tanks constitute interest groups, who in one way or the other would want to influence national security policy and, in the process, become active players in influencing the origination, development and implementation of the same.

As a result, there is need to investigate and analyze how domestic priorities in terms of key players, institutional arrangement and policy structures are likely to affect formulation of a coherent national security policy.

Analysis This section will involve analyzing into deeper perspectives the basic facts that have been highlighted in the backgrounds section.

National Security Strategy National Security Strategy (NSS) constitutes the collection of security, economic and political strategies enacted to enhance and devise how best to pursue national security and create an international order as far as security matters is concerned9.

This process involves both aspects of planning that incorporates the use of various implements of state power and primary focus is directed to the domestic policies needed to produce and maintain them over a relatively long period of time. As a result, in order to attain consensus, the National Security Strategy is likely to reflect a mixture of governmental and administrative pursuance of policies and strategies10.

It has been hypothesized that the dysfunction of some of the previous National Security Strategy policy framework has emanated from the perception that the policy framework is formulated in a rational and systematic process.

A fact that has been observed before in the majority of National Security Strategies is that the processes of security policy formulation, emerges from both within the executive branch and Congress 11. The entire process is characterized by intense political maneuvering, compromise, and frequent bargaining.

After the Second World War (WWII), many changes were witnessed across different nations especially with regards to security matters. Nations prioritized security as a vital and primary concern for both domestic and international relations. The US was one of the nations that after WWII identified security as a critical and basic consideration requiring a concise approach and strategic consideration.

However, one characteristic that has defined US policy-making is that each administration that has come to power has endeavored in developing appropriate and reliable institutions that have the ability and capacity to manage national security policy12.

One of the evident characteristics of US presidents is that each one that has assumed power has tried to develop individual policies that are totally different from that of their predecessor with the aim to pursue policies devoid of problems and deficiencies of previous administrations13.

In the end, the president in office comes up with a national security policy-making and coordination system that in large measure reflects his personal and individualized management style. The national security policy-making process is spearheaded by the National Security Council, which has been the primary organization bestowed with the responsibility of formulating national security policy for the country.

The composition of the council is a process that the incumbent president undertakes and, as a result, the members have changed many times in order to conform to the needs and inclinations of the new political administration in place.

As it can be seen in the USA, the president as the head of the National Security Council has the power to influence and possibly direct the National Security Policy process. Even as the position of the president becomes more pronounced in the national security process, it has been observed that the role of the president is regarded as fluid and least predictable as compared to other primary actors involved14.

In both the constitution and institutional understanding, the president is the pivotal point of the national security policy process and assumes a critical role. However, as it has been observed, the patterns of presidential involvement have varied in accordance to the style and experience of each president, a situation that has further dictated the way national security policy is developed and implemented15.

In some cases, the president may decide to be personally intertwined in the details of policy-making and in the implementation process. In such cases, the president becomes an active player or participant in the entire process.

On the other hand, presidents in the past have also tried to play a more passive role while deferring a more active one to senior officials. Regardless of the case or circumstances, what remains clear is that US presidents have and are likely to continue impacting the national security policy-making process in one way or the other16.

However, the president’s role has been limited through time in the past. This time is reflected in the minimal time the president has to carry out massive national security policy structuring and re-structuring in the presidential cycle. Given the nature of national security policy and its diverse elements it has to contain for it to be successful, it can be said that a four-year period is short to initiate any long-term security policy.

The difficulty of this situation becomes more problematic when it becomes clear that the security policy initiated by the previous administration has to continue into the period of the new administration since eliminating it may detrimentally affect national security. Take, for example, the case of President Barrack Obama’s ascension to the White House.

When his administration assumed power, the Bush administration had put in place some specific national security policy initiatives as a result of the events of 9/11. In their nature, President George Bush’s national security policies were premised on the relatively long-term understanding of fighting terrorism and rogue states perceived to support terrorism.

It is clear that Obama’s effort to establish and implement a concrete national security policy is likely to be delayed by these events. Therefore, in the four-year period, it is possible to find that the role that the incumbent president has played on the development of national security policy is minimal and even if that were possible, the implementation process for such policy is likely to be hampered by many factors and is likely to be delayed.

In other words, during the four-year presidential cycle, presidents are often constrained in implementing a major national security policy since the time required to study and analyze the existing policies as well as to implement new ones is limited.

Think- Tanks in National Security Strategy Richard N. Haass observes that many aspects contribute and influence the formulation and development of the US policy process17. One of the influential elements the author outlines is the role of think tanks in the entire process of policy formulation. According to the author, think tanks provide five critical benefits to the process of policy formulation, development, and implementation.

Some of these critical benefits include generating and fostering ‘new thinking’ among the various persons involved in the decision-making process.

Specifically, those actively involved in providing expert guidance that serves and helps the administration and Congress create opportunities for policy-makers to build and share an understanding concerning policy option and development while providing a critical mediating role in policy development18.

The rise of think tanks in the US has a parallel with the rise of US position in global leadership and, for many years, think tanks have executed their mandate as avowed apolitical groups that are determined to advance public interest by largely providing government officials with unbiased and balanced positions as far as matters of policy formulation are concerned.

Think tanks in the US, especially their role in national policy formulation process can be seen to play a critical role. For example, think tanks possess the ability to participate both directly and indirectly in the policy-making process and many policy-makers in the country turn to think tanks for policy advice.

As a result, think tanks today in the larger American society and world at large have become avenues and instruments of shaping public policy.

The role and broad impact of think tanks in the process of policy formulation is likely to be affected by the political and philosophical orientation of the think tank19. It has been observed that although many think tanks differ in terms of organizational structures and other aspects, almost all think tanks can be classified into categories of conservative, libertarian, centrist and progressive20.

There have been instances when think tanks have assumed and propagated a liberal or conservative position and no ideological ground has been spearheaded. As a result, it can be said that the political and philosophical basis of a majority of think tanks does not only affect the perspective from which the wider research of national security policy is conducted but also its overall outcome21.

In some cases, some think tanks have provided the larger public with reasons as to why ‘ideological bent’ occur but, in other cases, think tanks have appeared to have no particular political orientation.

In formulating national security policy, think tanks can either assume a conservative or progressive position and the activities of each of these positions are likely to have a significant impact.

In the past, non-performance or missed opportunities in national security processes have resulted largely from divergent positions; these two categories have undertaken the national security policy process of implementation whereby, with a new president coming to power, security policy orientation seems to change.

This, in turn, has led to a scenario, whereby the majority of national security policies lack a firm and permanent foundation upon which they can be built and implemented for an unforeseeable amount of time.

A conservative administration is likely to adopt a policy formulation structure that leans greatly to conservative views and, as a result, the security policy is likely to ignore new developments and dynamics, which may be explained to be critical in understanding and explaining the security scenario.

This position is again likely to be replicated by the progressive-leaning government and its president who upon assuming power is likely to do away with the conservative-based national security policy and adopt a progressive-based national security policy.

In this entire process, it has to be recognized that major critical developments are likely to be limited by time since the period the president and his administration are in office is likely to be inadequate to put in place a more permanent and long-term policy.

How to Establish a Long-term National Security Policy The process of developing national security policy is not an easy task that should be left to an individual or one group of decision-makers. The process should incorporate diverse input of expertise and interests groups22.

For example, national security policy cannot be regarded to be only a set of well-integrated subject matters arranged in a long, single and consistent policy continuum but rather, should be viewed to be a complex set of diverse subject matters that cross many different policy lines.

This scenario further raises the different issues and concerns that have to be factored in the entire process of policy formulation and such factors include institutional interests and costs of such policies.

Leadership from the president is seen to be critical in developing and implementing a successful national security policy23.

The president, unlike other institutions like Congress, heads a unitary hierarchical system that has less divergent opinions and interests and it is from this basic fact that, as the head of the National Security Council, the president has an opportunity to provide necessary leadership to foster the national security policy-making process. Meanwhile, the president should not ignore other related agencies and institutions.

In establishing a good relationship with key institutions and agencies, the president has to employ different styles of leadership and approaches that have the ability and capacity to garner formidable support for the national security policy process24.

In this way, the president has to build and develop relationships that support, encourage, and foster trust and confidence. In doing so, the president should be in a position to organize the National Security Council in a manner that convinces Congress it has the ability, knowledge, skills, and critical support in matters of national security policy25.

On the other hand, there should also be mutual trust and confidence among the president and the national security staff, the military and intelligence bodies that have great ability in influencing national security policy development and implementation.

In addition, in building a strong relationship with Congress, the president has the duty to execute his leadership and inspire confidence and trust among the diverse members of Congress 26. As a result, the president has to consult Congress frequently in developing or modifying national security policy and in doing so; the president should invite the contribution, opinions and suggestions of the members of Congress.

Conclusion The above-described environment has had great impact on US national security policy and priorities, which have become complicated, ambiguous, and inconsistent. At the same time, developing and implementing national security policy and priorities have largely been dictated by the incumbent presidential administration, a situation that has led to constant changes.

In this situation, each president prefers, and would want to pursue a unique policy strategy, perceived appropriate among the various interests groups of his administration. It is known, however, that developing a US national security policy and priorities is not an easy task.

It constitutes a process that is road-blocked and derailed by the existence of unpredictable, uncertain, and confusing characteristics in the international arena, disagreements and frequent disputes within the national security establishment, Congress, and the public at large, and the evolving political environment in the country.

The international political environment remains fluid and uncertain and the situation has greatly complicated the process of national security policy-making. For instance, the concerns of the US in Iraq, Afghanistan, Iran, and North Korea, remain and reflect how the US faces challenges in developing a comprehensive and effective national security policy.

At the same time, the role of ‘think-tanks’ or ‘group think-tanks’ in the entire process of national security policy-making has been established as another source that compounds the process of developing an effective policy as well.

Regardless, the US will be able to develop an effective and workable national security policy that reflects its capacity and ability to address the pertinent issues such as US national interests, national security concerns and needs, US’s role in global matters, terrorism threats, and the increased availability of nuclear weapons technology.

Bibliography Andrews, Richard. 2003. Research Questions. NY: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Bartolotto, John, K. 2004. The Origin and Developmental Process of the National Security Strategy. NY: USA Army War College.

Bolt, Paul, J., Coletta, Damon, V.

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Cognitive Errors and their Impact on Research Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Impact of Cognitive Biases on Research Process Cognitive bias refers to in-built mistakes in persons’ thinking processes committed while processing data (Pereyra, 2000). Such mistakes make humans unable to form the correct view of reality despite the availability of all the data necessary to form such a view and all human thoughts are subject to systematic faults (Mineka, 1992).

Theories of Cognitive Biases There have been formulated various theories which attempt to explain human cognitive biases.

The Fundamental Attribution Error Theory

According to this theory, cognitive biases result from human over reliance on inherent characteristics of a person to explain his/her behavior while failing to consider the situation in which the behavior took place (Mellers, Hertwig and Kahneman, 2001).

On the flip side, cognitive biases may also arise from placing too much reliance on the event situation in explaining behavior and failing to consider behavior associated characteristics of the person.

Therefore, according to the theory of fundamental attribution, cognitive errors can be avoided by considering both personality characteristics and the environment when explaining certain behavior. In the case of research, fundamental attribution error may be seen where a researcher attributes certain behavior of subjects to the environmental situation without considering their personality characteristics, and vice versa.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

The theory was advanced by Leon Festinger in 1957 and it relates to the association between the sets of knowledge in a person’s mind. According to this theory, people always strive to avoid cognitive dissonance, which is a conflict between cognitions held in mind (Nesse and Williams, 1998).

Thus, a person will try to avoid any piece of information from the environment which is inconsistent with his existing set of knowledge in order to reduce cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance has a great influence on research as researchers tend to select only that information that is consistent with their background knowledge.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Heuristics Theory

This theory is based on the notion of judgmental probability. In making decisions or judgments, people apply judgmental probability most of the time, failing to consider all the available pieces of data.

Application of judgmental probability in decision making may be attributed to the shortcomings of the mind’s information processing ability as well as the time limitations that individuals face (Nisbett and Ross, 1980). In research, a researcher may also apply judgmental probability in making conclusions instead of relying on all the available set of data relevant to the making of such conclusions.

Forms of Cognitive Biases and their Impact on Research Anchoring

Anchoring involves relying on a single characteristic or piece of evidence to form a conclusion during the decision making process (Piatteli-Palmarini, 1994). This characteristic or piece of evidence acts as the point of reference for the decision being made. Anchoring leads to the disregard of other traits or pieces of evidence that may be relevant to the particular decision making situation.

Selective Perception

Selective perception relates to the researcher’s expectations. Before carrying out a research, a researcher usually has some expectations regarding the research outcomes (Pinker and Bloom, 1992). Therefore, while conducting the actual research, he/she may gather the information that supports the prior expectations disregarding other important information in the process. This obviously leads to inaccurate research results.

Information Bias

It refers to the inclination to search for data including that which has no relevance to the research. When gathering research data, researchers face the risk of gathering too much information on the research subject such that the objective of the research becomes obscured (Real, 1997).

To avoid information bias, therefore, it is necessary that a researcher gathers only that information that is relevant to the research topic and which helps to solve the research questions at hand.

Self-serving Bias

In real life, people are attracted to information that supports their interests and are more likely to discounts information that is contrary to their interests (Pinker, 1997).

We will write a custom Essay on Cognitive Errors and their Impact on Research specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, a researcher conducting a research on the relationship between smoking and lung cancer may be prejudiced to consider the information that connects smoking to lung cancer if he or she is a non-smoker. On the other hand, if the researcher is a cigarette smoker, he or she may choose those pieces of evidence which disassociate smoking from lung cancer.

Illusory Correlation

Sometimes researchers are led by personal bias to conclude that a relationship exists between variables where none exists. Such a conclusion is often based on inaccurate evidence and results from a prior belief by the researcher that an association exists between the variables under investigation (Ross and Sicoly, 1979).

Conclusion Cognitive errors are real; they are usually the cause of inaccurate results in research. This form of errors is difficult for researchers to control since they are inherent in the mind of a researcher. Thus, they are systematic in nature. However, attempts should be made to reduce these errors during research mainly by applying scientific methods.

References Mellers, B, Hertwig, R

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CVP Analysis and Pro forma Statement for Prime Component Report college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Cost-Volume-Profit

Fixed cost and variable cost

CVP for Compnet/Prime Compnet

Notes

References

Cost-Volume-Profit Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis refers to financial management tool used to predict and determine the level of production, sales and profitability of the business. In essence, the tool enables corporate managers to ascertain the probable changes in profit with respect to variations in sales price, fixed cost or variable cost. As such, these changes directly affect the contribution margin of a firm in pursuit of the targeted sales volume.

On the other hand, the knowledge of CVP is crucial in computing the expected break-even point with critical considerations of the market forces such as competition, technological advancement as well as the market and product mix (Cunningham, Nickola

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Organizational Learning and Decision Making Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Decision Making Models

Efficiency of the Model

Explorative and Exploitative Learning

Levels of Involvement

Knowledge Management System

Cognitive Structures and Biases

Conclusion

References

Introduction This paper covers an organizational analysis focusing on organization’s decision-making process, learning methods and knowledge management systems. The cognitive structure and biases that affect the decision-making process is also analyzed.

The analysis took place with the organization’s director and SV supervisor, who participated in an interview. The interview was well organized and structured following the professional interview rules and regulations.

Organizational learning and decision-making are different aspects that complement each other and necessary for growth and competence of a company. For organizations to achieve the objectives that they desire, proper decision-making is essential. In most cases, decision-making becomes a difficulty because it involves multiple organizational divisions. This makes it have varied implications for every division.

Obtaining an agreement from all stakeholders is also a challenge. The organization’s overall support is always critical when the organization’s overall strategy relies on the support of all divisions. Because decision-making is strategic and crucial, together with the complexities associated with the process, there are various models that assist managers to aid in the decision making process.

Decision Making Models A proficient decision-making process includes a series of steps that need contributions from different people, at different stages, as well as a feedback process. A good decision making model allows the decision maker to explore alternatives, review solutions, consider inputs and permits implementation and evaluation of the desired option.

In the rational models, the decision maker relies on cognitive processes, involving a sequence of steps. These models consist of five common steps including definition of the decision, identification of criteria for the process, consideration of possible solutions, calculations of the consequences associated with the proposed solutions and selecting the best option (Jennex, 2007).

The models under the rational model include Vroom-Jago model and bounded rational model. In this organization, the directors use an ideal decision making process with eight distinct processes. The first step is problem definition. The director or manager receives notification of an existing problem in the organization and investigates it, before declaring it a problem.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Once the director categorizes the issue as a true problem, he defines it by stating the nature of the problem, departments and publics affected and its perceived origin. The second step is determining the problem’s requirements that would later assist in formulating solutions. In this step, the manager considers the requirements that he needs to establish an ideal solution.

These include conducting a research or proposing discussions with the affected divisions. Once this is done, the manager informs those involved in the process, of goals that their solutions should accomplish. The following step identifies alternatives that enable them solve the issue.

After this, the manager, with the help of the decision making team develop a criteria relying on the goals that they had earlier set. In the sixth step, they select a tool for making the right decision, after which they apply the tool in selecting a decision (Picot, 2008).

Efficiency of the Model The director claims that this model is remarkably efficient because it makes it possible for them to reflect on all possible options as well as comprehend future consequences of all solutions, by negating emotions in the process. The only disadvantage with it is that the decision maker’s cognitive abilities limit the outcome of the decision. In most cases, the decision maker’s memory and imagination affects the outcome of the decision.

In addition to this, model requires a lot of information and time in order to remain effective. The supervisor also argues that because their decision making process involves all departments and the appropriate publics. Because of this, the decisions that they make are always effective in problem solving.

By involving many people into the process, they usually gather superior facts and solutions. The process is also efficient in enhancing communication among participants hence preventing the possibility that employees would reject the decisions.

Explorative and Exploitative Learning Organizational learning is a strategy that both the director and the SV president are passionate. This is because it is enables employees to work efficiently in order to improve productivity. Because of this, implementing change and decisions also becomes easy. Improving employees’ knowhow benefits the organization in various ways especially as a retention strategy.

We will write a custom Essay on Organizational Learning and Decision Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The SV president emphasizes on exploitative learning rather than explorative learning. The organization provides specific and detailed information about tasks that it needs employees to learn. The director and managers break down these tasks into for ease of management and allocates resources for all the goals appropriately. This makes it easy for employees to learn faster hence improving their overall production.

The director provides explicit rules, which disciplines everyone involved in staying focused, utilize resources well and help maximize the prospective learning process. In addition to this, the director claims that the learning process enables them achieve a setting where employees adhere to rules, bringing improvements by structuring desire, trust and mutual understanding.

However, the director emphasizes the importance of explorative learning too. He claims that the organization can only grow and posse innovations through explorative learning. Because of this, the organization invests in explorative learning by encouraging employees to undertake research and take risks (Ferrell, Fraedrich

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Competitive advantage and relationship marketing-Cirque du Soleil Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online: essay help online

Introduction The ability of an organization to generate and maintain a competitive advantage forms one of the most critical elements in supporting its internal and external mechanisms for further growth and expansion. Benderly posits that high market competitiveness acts as an indicator of an organization’s progress and assessment in comparison to others dealing with the same products (30).

Besides, as this paper analyzes using Cirque du Soleil, relationship marketing is an effective means of maintaining, developing and establishing market relationship with consumers. It has been hailed as one of the most effective ways through which businesses can achieve and sustain competitive advantage.

Competitive advantage The concept of competitive advantage has its roots well entrenched in the historical era of industrial revolution when demand for markets and increasing focus on quality became critical.

However, Suliyanto and Rahab indicate that the concept became more profound with the development of globalization and intensification of international trade which further diversified its overall scope in view of production and consumption of different products and services (136).

The concept of market competitiveness has further been intensified by the onset of information technology which strongly links market with the management and production units in the society.

In his article Anatomy of competitive advantage: a select framework, Ma points out that “competitive advantage arises from the differential among firms along any dimension of firm attributes and characteristics that allows one firm to better create customer value than do others” (709).

His argument hinges on the view that consistent provision of superior value and high-quality products to consumers is an attribute determined by a firm’s ability to establish strategic business decisions as well as strategic capabilities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Due to intensive competition and increasing uncertainty, companies that have sustainable advantage make tremendous gains because they have competencies and resources that are non-substitutable and unique that their competitors lack.

Agha, Alrubaiee and Jamhour concur with Ma’s argument and posits that through these, successful organizations have maintained customer satisfaction, achieved overall strategic goals and increased their production processes (200).

Additionally, capabilities have these companies have been witnessed in the manner in which they have combined organizational knowledge, integrated technology and coordinated production skills in provision of value.

Aremu and Bamiduro point out that the affect of relationship marketing in developing and sustaining competitive edge has from ancient times grown to become hyper-competitive through established relationships between suppliers, buyers and sellers (211).

Different businesses have for along period of time developed unique and different customer relationship capabilities that have aided them in gaining a competitive edge over their competitors. This relates with Ma’s argument in the sense that the uniqueness of a firm in carrying out relationship marketing is an attribute which adds customer value.

However, it is imperative to note that an inception of great directional change has been witnessed in the past decade in both marketing practice and theory.

David and Motamedi point out that this genuine paradigm shift has been termed by marketing analysts as a move towards relationship marketing which as a concept encompasses relational marketing, working partnerships, relational contracting, co-marketing alliances, strategic alliances, symbiotic marketing and internal marketing (369).

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Competitive advantage and relationship marketing-Cirque du Soleil specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Their argument, which adds another angle to Ma’s position, indicates that competitive edge can also be attained through partnerships. In fact, currently in global business, the practice of predatory and flat out competition is over and has been replaced by collaboration between companies both at local and multinational level as gaining a favorable competitive edge requires that businesses cooperate.

Lyndall Urwick, an influential thinker and consultant in business management argued from the business reengineering theory’s perspective that relationship marketing is a shift adopted by businesses intending to establish long-term relationships that are mutually satisfying with key-parties such as distributors, suppliers and customers for mutual gain and to retain them in their businesses.

His argument echoes Ma’s argument on competitive advantage in the sense that relationship marketing creates a mutual bond that connects a company with suppliers, distributors and customers while ensuring that they all benefit.

However, the uniqueness of attributes and characteristics must not be different for a company to gain a competitive edge because relationship marketing also extends to partnerships with other business to gain resources and boost performance.

Gilaninia, Shahi and Mousavian point out that effective relationship marketing companies have arisen within functionally specialized organizations, and have networks whose interrelationships are not only driven by norms but are coordinated and held together by organizations whose marketing methods are based on trust, commitment and sharing.

Cirque du Soleil Cirque du Soleil is one of the fastest-growing entertainment companies in Canada based in Quebec (David

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Prevention Science: Substance Abuse Essay college admission essay help

Table of Contents The Role of Prevention Science

Cause and Impact of Substance Abuse

Prevention Strategies/Programs to Combat Substance Abuse

References

The need for successful mental, emotional and behavioral (MEB) health services for children cannot be overemphasized. According to the recent studies carried out in the United States, one of the major health dilemmas that families and children are grappling with is substance abuse.

It is important to note that the prevalence of substance abuse in the US is on a steady rise. However, only a privileged few can afford effective mental health services to address the problem (Agarwal et al., n.d., p.1).

The Role of Prevention Science In light of the proposals of the President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health, there is an urgent need to create and sustain practices and services that lend credence to early identification, prevention and interventions for health promotion. It is against this backdrop that prevention science fits the bill.

Clinicians not only strive to reduce the occurrence and relapse of substance abuse but also encourage positive change and adaption for the population at risk.

Some of the salient aspects of an effective prevention program include: designing an all-inclusive conceptual model to spot etiology of substance abuse, malleable risk and protective factors that contribute to this behavioral problem; devising trials to control assumed risk and protective factors to ascertain their causal role; choosing causal factors and carrying out efficiency trials; and ensuring continuity of successful programs (Agarwal et al., n.d., p.1).

Cause and Impact of Substance Abuse According to Hosman et al., over 400 million people worldwide are victims of some form of mental and behavioral disorders, including substance abuse (2005, p.13). Some of the causes of substance abuse include peer pressure, lack of parental guidance, school violence and inadequate educational achievement (Agarwal et al., n.d., p.1).

Substance abuse not only increases the risk of physical illness but also represents a massive socio-economical and psychological burden to the families as well as the society at large. In light of the abovementioned risks and consequences, prevention science is the only effective and sustainable way for alleviating the burden brought about by substance abuse (Hosman et al., 2005, p.13).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Prevention Strategies/Programs to Combat Substance Abuse There is an urgent need for the adoption of effective prevention strategies to combat substance abuse among children. This calls for a closer collaboration between families, school management and community leaders since the impact of substance abuse is not only felt by the affected family but also friends and the society in general.

There have been extensive studies carried out in the last two decades to ascertain prevention strategies that can effectively minimize substance abuse. These strategies have common benchmarks: enhancing protective factors, for example, strong family unions, acute social skills and attachment to school (Reno et al., 2000, p.1).

Caring School Community Program (CSCP) is an example of research-based intervention program. It is a universal program that entails closer collaboration between family and school to alleviate risk of substance abuse and promote protective factors among school-going children. This program gives priority on bolstering students’ connection or sense of community to school.

Studies have found that this sense of community has turned out to be a critical aspect in alleviating substance abuse among children at the same time promoting academic achievement. This program comprises of a set of mutually supporting school, classroom, as well as family participation strategies. Consequently, this program encourages positive student-teacher, peer, and home-school affiliations.

It also fosters the development of emotional, social and behavior-related skills among children. What’s more, it provides comprehensive guidelines and implementation instruments as well as staff development (Bierman et al., 2003, p.26).

Previous studies have emphasized on the importance of applying research-based intervention strategies to reduce substance abuse among children. Future studies need to provide a clear direction with respect to the adoption of effective interventions. They must also design novel prevention and promotion strategies that make constructive link between research and policy.

References Agarwal et al. (n.d.). The Role of Prevention Science in Promoting Children’s Mental Health: A Model for School Psychologists. Columbia: University of Missouri.

We will write a custom Essay on Prevention Science: Substance Abuse specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bierman et al. (Eds.). (2003). Preventing Drug Abuse among Children and Adolescent: A Research-Based Guide for Parents, Educators, and Community Leaders. Maryland: National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Hosman et al. (Eds.). (2005). Prevention of Mental Disorders: Effective Interventions and Policy Options. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Reno et al. (2000). Promising Strategies to Reduce Substance Abuse. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

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Apple Inc.: Customer service Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Customer service is referred to as the overall activity in identifying customer needs and satisfying customers in terms of such needs (“Operations Theory” par. 1). It plays an important role in the profitability of a business. The quality of products and services is directly related to the satisfaction level of customers.

When customers are satisfied with the products and services offered by a firm, customer loyalty is born. Profitability comes from such because customers are willing to pay for good quality products and services. This paper aims to better understand the relationship between customer service and customer satisfaction. I have chosen Apple Inc. to be the subject of evaluation in this paper.

In the highly competitive and innovative world of the IT industry, the value of customer service can be seen in the after sales support companies provide their clients.

Among its competitors, the products of Apple Inc. have been the most expensive with the resistance of the company to release low-end product lines. Satisfied customer and blogger Jon Buys defended Apple’s positioning of expensive product lines by pointing out the quality customers enjoy when buying Apple products.

“It’s not that Apple doesn’t have an interest in the low-budget market, it’s that Apple refuses to create a product that doesn’t live up to their expectations of what a Mac should be” (Buys).

Unlike its competitors that market products’ functionality and specifications, Apple’s marketing strategies involve promoting their computers and gadgets in terms of the Apple experience customers will receive when choosing the company’s products. This experience is “something that encompasses every part of owning an Apple product” (Buys).

The company ensures customers that by owning their products; customers havethe best products in the market with top of the line quality and superior customer service and support. The Mac experience is known to be something different and is more than just owning a PC. Apple’s commitment to quality is evident with its latest gadgets namely the iPad and iPhone.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The iPhone for example was praised by John Gruber despite it being more expensive compared to its competitors from brands such as Nokia, Samsung, HTC, and Black Berry.

“There is no better phone, at any price” (Gruber). Apple is different from its competitors namely Lenovo, Dell, HP, Acer and/ or Asus because most of the said brands have the same basic components, run on the same software, and are powered by only one company, Microsoft. Apple products on the other hand have precision engineered products and run on Mac OS which was developed by the company themselves.

Throughout the years, Apple has developed a legion of loyal customers with its somewhat radical innovations and campaigns. Most believe that the company provides a breath of fresh air from the typical PC most brands in the market provide. The continuous innovation of the company has led to its capture of the music industry with the creation of iTunes and the Apple Store.

The birth of gadgets such as the iPod, iPhone and iPad has revolutionized the electronics and communications industry where everything is now functioning on wireless internet. The proliferation of touch screen technologies was due to Apple’s revolutionary innovation of creating products without the use of traditional keyboards and keypads. Apple’s technical support department, Apple Care, provides excellent support.

The customer service attendants and engineers are willing to repair customers’ Mac computers, provide sufficient answers to customers’ inquiries regarding hardware and software problems and immediately change defective parts.

Apple Care is also easily reachable via phone or the internet around the world. The customer service attendants of the company can easily walk customers through from setting up their Macs to troubleshooting at the comforts of their home.

“Apple’s stigma cannot be explained by generous return policies or coverage. Both Dell andHP offer more lenient return policies, each allowing 21 days to return the product compared with Apple’s 14 days. HP and Dell also offer accidental damage protection, something lacking from the otherwise excellent AppleCare“(Buys)

We will write a custom Essay on Apple Inc.: Customer service specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Buying a Mac or any product from Apple is more expensive than getting a regular PC by Dell, an MP3 player from Sony or a phone from Nokia but the company was able to pull through because of the superior quality of the products they provide and the top of the line after sales support customers receive. Once an individual purchases a certain product of the company, they are welcomed into a club of exclusivity.

For a high price in availing products of Apple Inc. customers can upgrade their entire experience rather than just upgrading their computers and gadgets. In terms of buying a computer, Apple has cited several reasons why it is beneficial to get a Mac over a regular PC (“Why you’ll love a Mac”). Below are the reasons cited by the company:

It’s designed to be a better computer.

It goes with software you’ll definitely enjoy using.

It comes with the OS which is considered to be the most advanced one.

It comes with “award-winning support”.

It runs Office as well as works with PC files.

It’s “compatible with your stuff”.

It doesn’t get PC viruses.

It has the latest technology incorporated.

It runs Windows and Windows applications.

Customers expect to receive all the following advantages and benefits Apple declares in promoting their products. The most crucial claim in the following privileges stated in the company’s official website is their award-winning support system.

Every claim stated in their website is considered tangible except for the quality of their after sales services. Apple’s award-winning support includes the moving of files from the customers’ old PC to their new Mac computers by specialists.

By purchasing a One to One membership, customers can avail a year’s worth of one-on-one training sessions with a specialist to help them get a head start with his computer (“Why you’ll love a Mac”). Contacting Apple’s technical support team has been made convenient for customers because an Apple specialist can be reached via phone, live chat or in person at an authorized Apple retail store.

In any Apple retail store, a Genius Bar is present to accommodate customers on their technical questions about their Mac. The place gives out free advice and insights to customers who wish to troubleshoot their Macs and improve their computers’ performances. Appointments at the Genius Bar can be scheduled online at the convenience of the customers’ homes.

Apple’s technical support team also conducts complementary workshops where first time Mac users are taught by experts. Beginners learn the basics of operating Mac computers at the same time discover how applications work. Experts also provide tips and tricks to workshop attendees who make their Mac experiences enjoyable and worthwhile. Customers can also learn about operating their Mac computers online by watching video tutorials via iPhoto, iMovie, GarageBand, Mac OS X and/ or via the internet(“Why you’ll love a Mac”).

Apple Inc. is one of the leading technological American multinational companies founded by three college drop outs in the summer of 1976. The company was formerly known as Apple Computer Inc.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Apple Inc.: Customer service by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It designs and markets personal computers, consumer electronics and software with its popular product lines include the Macintosh personal computers, MP3 players called the iPod, iPhone mobile phone device and its recently launched tablet line, iPad. Apple Inc. software line include the Mac OS X for personal computers’ operating systems, iTunes which is a media browser that enables users to download, listen and transfer music files, iLife suite for multimedia and creative works, iWork suite for office work functions, Aperture for professional photographers who wish to edit and manipulate their photos, Final Cut Studio suite for people who are involved in the professional audio and film industry, Logic Studio suite for music production enthusiasts, the Safari web browser for surfing experience and iOS as the iPhone’s operating system.

Apple Inc. operates over 357 retail stores worldwide as of October 2011 in 10 countries (“Apple Store”). The company has also developed an online store where products and services can be bought at the convenience of the customers (“Apple Store”).

In September 2011, Poornima Gupta and Rodrigo Campos cited that Apple Inc. has become the largest publicly traded company in the world by market capitalization (Poornima and Campos). Its market value as of August 9, 2011 is $341.5 billion (Poornima and Campos).

Apple Inc. was founded on April 1, 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve, Wozniak and Ronald Wayne. The company’s headquarters is based on Cupertino, California.

It was incorporated on January 3, 1977. On January 9, 2007 (US SEC) after 30 years of being known as Apple Computer Inc. the company decided to remove “Computer” to be in line with the company’s expansion strategy in the electronics market in addition to its primary focus on the personal computers industry (Markoff).

According to the United States Security and Exchange commission “As of September 25, 2010, the Company had approximately 46,600 full-time equivalent employees and an additional 2,800 full-time equivalent temporary employees and contractors and annual sales worldwide is $65.23 billion” (US SEC).

Over the years Apple has developed an exceptional reputation in the consumer electronics and mobile technology industry due to its broad artistic design philosophy and unique advertising campaigns.

The company has established a devoted and loyal customer based especially in the United States which patronizes the company and its brand (macnn.com). Among the numerous achievements of Apple Inc. is being named the most admired company from years 2008 – 2011 and was branded as the most valuable public limited company by Fortune magazine (Fisher 65-67).

Apple Inc.’s product strategy for the past years has always involved the creation of innovative products and services which complement its digital hub strategy.

In the said method, Apple’s Macintosh products serve as digital hubs for other electronic devices such as the iPod, iPad, personal digital assistants, mobile devices, digital cameras, and video cameras to name a few. The main focus of Apple Inc.’s product strategy is the customers’ experiences with Apple products.

The company’s main competency and advantage among other companies in the industry is its ability to deliver outstanding experience to its customers through excellent user interfaces. Apple based its product strategy with the said competence they possess through its products such as iTunes, iPhone, and the Apple Apps store.

Apple focuses on the emotions and feelings of its past, present and future customers in marketing the brand. Its brand personality is all about the lifestyle it may provide to its prospects. Apple’s brand personality revolves around the notion of being imaginative, free, innovative, passionate, as well as the one having hope, dreams, passion and aspirations. The brand’s general theme is about people attaining power through technology.

“The Apple brand personality is also about simplicity and the removal of complexity from people’s lives; people-driven product design; and about being a really humanistic company with a heartfelt connection with its customers” (“Apple’s Brand Strategy”).

Apple’s primary marketing strategy is not about selling products but the provision of exclusivity among its customers. There is a sense of community among Apple users who remain loyal to the brand. The brand equity and customer franchise exemplified by the company is very strong.

Its strong customer based has been essential to the company’s success over the past decades especially during the economic crisis of the 90s and it has also helped the company maintain its premium pricing compared to its competitors. Apple’s pricing strategy on its products has enabled it to survive against the low prices brought about by other IT competitors.

The Apple brand is centralized on its promise of providing the best customer experience and satisfaction through its products and technology. In order to have more control of the brand’s image together with its product distribution and services, Apple has opened its own Apple Stores in strategic locations such as in high end malls and quality shopping venues to cater to the needs of its customers.

“Apple provides Apple Mac-expert retail floor staff to selected resellers’ stores (such as Australian department store David Jones); it has entered into strategic alliances with other companies to co-brand or distribute Apple’s products and services (for example, HP who was selling a co-branded form of iPod and pre-loading iTunes onto consumer PCs and laptops though in retrospect this may now just have been a stepping-stone).

Apple has also increased the accessibility of iPods through various resellers that do not currently carry Apple Macintosh systems (such as Harvey Norman), and has increased the reach of its online stores” (“Apple’s Brand Strategy”).

Apple Inc. has built a powerful brand with a cult of loyal followers admiring products produced by the company. The company has thrived and managed its way in becoming one of the top companies today. The company’s success lies in its powerful technical service support which was able to win customers’ loyalty. Apple promotes its company through creative branding and backs it up with a powerful support for customers.

This support can be seen through their experience walking through retail shops where customers are greeted enthusiastically with respect, prompt and accessible answers are given to their inquiries and programs are also offered to customers where they can further maximize their Mac computing experiences.

Apple should continuously provide advanced product lines and should further improve their customer service supports by providing prompt responses to customer inquiries and problems. Customers are always willing to pay for value. The company’s job is to make sure that customers feel their moneys’ worth when purchasing Apple products in order for the company to grow the number of their loyal customers.

Works Cited Apple’s Brand Strategy.n.d. Web.

Apple Store 2012. Web.

Buys, Jon. Apple Customer Satisfaction: It’s the Experience. 6 May 2009. Web.

Fisher, Anne.”America’s Most Admired Companies”. Fortune 157.5 (2008): 65–67. Print.

Gruber, John. The iPhone 3G. 2008. Web.

Markoff, John. New Mobile Phone Signals Apple’s Ambition. 2007. Web.

Operations Theory 2012. Web.

Poornima, Gupta and Campos, Rodrigo. Apple Inc. briefly edged past Exxon Mobil Corp to become the most valuable U.S company on Tuesday, displacing an old economy stalwart and heralding an era where technology holds sway. 2011. Web.

US SEC. Form 8-K SEC Filing.United States Security and Exchange Commission. 10 January 2007. Print.

Why You’ll Love a Mac 2012. Web.

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Simulation and modeling Coursework essay help

Research indicates that computer simulations as opposed to other media like print, video, film or lectures have a claimed primary advantage, which is, increased transfer of learning (Allessi. Trollip1985). Transfer of learning simply means the students having the ability to apply what they have learned during instructions level, to the real performance or a new situation.

Simulations are assumed to boost transfer better than other media or books. However, this paper focuses on a particular area of simulation research, by the name fidelity, which has received a significant attention in relation to non computerized simulation.

This is a critical variable in general when it comes to design of simulations. Fidelity on the other hand, refers to how direct a simulation imitates reality. To elaborate further on this fact, transfers of learning in plane simulators have revealed that the initial training in simulators is more efficient as opposed to that of a real plane.

Many military preparation studies by means of mechanical simulators shows no difference at all, and if there is, then very little in transfer, or learning due to fidelity. Reviewed study on the motion fidelity in flight training found that it does not considerably affect learning.

While some other authors have concluded that fidelity motion was of some significance for experienced pilots and not for beginners. However, studies of fidelity in military school came to a conclusion that, there is no proof of learning discrepancy due to low fidelity.

Fidelity effects are largely dependent upon the learner’s instructional level. During the primary stages of learning, high fidelity illustration may confuse a learner due to the speedy representation of the compounded sequence.

The same circumstance may not be found challenging by the student who has advanced to a higher level of consolidated skill. Other theories for fidelity effects are related to the definition of fidelity and transfer.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The complexity of explanation result to the hypothesis like relationship of fidelity and learning is non linear and depends entirely upon instructional rank of the student. For high level fidelity the quantity of learning decreases.

It appears that we are facing a predicament when we narrow it down simulation design. Increased fidelity should increase transfer theoretically; this may hinder initial learning and again in turn slows down the transfer. Consequently decreasing fidelity can enhance initial learning, but what the students have learned may not necessarily be transferred to the application scenario if proved dissimilar.

My take in this is that, the solution to this problem lies in ascertaining proper level of fidelity based on current instructional level of the student. However the question I would ask is what mechanism of simulation should vary on fidelity, and, under what circumstance should it be so.

As a conclusion we realize that whilst simulation take lead as one of the most promising in regards to computer based instruction, there is still a whole lot more we still need to learn concerning their design.

Common sense may be in appropriate concerning the high value fidelity relating to instructions simulation. Since learning differ by fidelity, like the u-shaped curve that is overturned, it applies to the new student who is just starting, and as they advance they will indeed benefit from the rising fidelity.

Reference Allessi, S. M.

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Homosexuality, Religion and Atheism Essay argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature review

Conclusions

References

Introduction Homosexuality draws mixed reaction from across the globe. Issues like cultural values, religious context, atheism, political stability, and economic empowerment of the people in a particular setting would play a pivotal role in accepting this sexual orientation. These factors determine homosexual acceptability in the society, although other forces would have a significant role in the determination of its acceptance.

This topic is common in most popular cultural setting although there is little literature work on the same to dissect adverse opinion and ways of embracing diverse opinion on the same. In this context, the conservatives draw their arguments from religious teachings whereas the atheists or the liberals embrace the need to have a society of diverse cultural orientation.

The debate experiences opposing views from philosophers, most of whom are Christian and Muslims. These conclusions come from their spiritual perspective and thus do not clearly stipulate the desire to accommodate diverse religious inclinations on the same ground.

Literature review A decade ago religion was the most important predictor in defining the attitude of homosexuality in the society, Adamczyk and Pitt (2009) bring an elaborate diverse opinion on the debate. They believe that acceptance of homosexuality depends on the existing laws that regulate the same sex marriages, possible penalties when viewed as social misfit, and diversity in national or cultural orientation.

This last aspect shows the importance of religion in explaining the attitude on the debate. In fact, macro and micro support survival and personal beliefs that carry weight in defining the attitudes of homosexuality (Olson et al., 2006; Yip, 2005). It is from this context that one draws the importance of opinion as the best alternative in formulating law, shaping the direction of cultural inclination and thus religion.

Homosexuality, in respect to religion, is unnatural in the eyes of the Supreme Being; the same philosophy holds this as an impure act. The fear of divine punishment shapes the cultural orientation concerning the direction of a community. Deep rooted-ness to religion would draw disapproval attitudes as opposed to those not deeply rooted in a religion.

Muslims are the worse in making such opinions concerning the debate; they have a strong disapproval attitude, unlike members from other religions. This holds true to the cultural orientation in which atheists from this background would disapprove strongly homosexuality than atheists from other cultural background (Adamczyk

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Evidence based decision making and policy making Report college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Key Concepts of Evidenced-Based Policy making

Key Concepts of Evidenced-Based decision making

The Importance of Using Data

Conclusion

References

Introduction Fundamentally, evidence-based policy plays a key role in developing a holistic framework for policy and decision making. Basically, its approach is rigorous and empirical because it involves experimentation, proper data collection, qualitative and quantitative analysis.

As a result, the outcome becomes reliable. The report presents the key concepts of evidence-based decision making and policy making. It also explores the advantages of using data in both cases.

Key Concepts of Evidenced-Based Policy making One of the key concepts used here is prioritization of the issues (Pawson, 2006). Since the policy affects many people, the issues to be included in the policy document have to be systematically discussed depending on their level of importance. This makes the formulated policy serve the interest of majority, thus remains uncontroversial (Webber, 2011).

According to Terry Dunworth and others (2008), data gathering is another key concept in formulating a policy. From the collected data, the policy makers can formulate objective guiding principles, which are replicable (Dunworth et al., 2008).

Neutrality is another concept of applicable in evidence-based policy making (Dunworth et al., 2008). For instance, the policy makers would turn research findings to conventional wisdom that helps in shaping the policy.

Furthermore, they would take neutral ground during policy making to understand and admit the unfairness that could have characterized data gathering (Webber, 2011). Neutrality also helps them overcome any biasness when selecting and analyzing the data (Pawson, 2006).

The concept of ideology is widely used in policy making since the process is largely political, thus there are losers and gainers (Dunworth et al., 2008). The interplay between those who support a particular political ideology, and the ones against, come out prominently during policy formulation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, even if the ideology is politically acceptable, it does not translate to being viable, affordable or effective (Dunworth et al., 2008). Therefore, policy makers should concentrate on viability, affordability and effectiveness.

Key Concepts of Evidenced-Based decision making The use of appropriate methodology is another key concept in decision making (Dunworth et al., 2008). When approaching a particular problem, or analyzing the collected data for making decision, it is vital to use an appropriate method.

This is fundamental because the methodology is an agreeable form of reaching a compromise (Pawson, 2006). Therefore, decisions arrived at through consensus are more appropriate to the people.

In evidence-based decision making, affirmative action is an important concept (Webber, 2011). Essentially, the decision makers would use affirmative action to realize economic, social and institutional capability of solving the problems and making dependable decisions.

Through affirmative action, goals proliferate, promises inflated, and responsibility diffused (Dunworth et al., 2008). Therefore, the decision made using affirmative action would serve the majority.

Objectivity is another concept of evidence-based decision making (Dunworth et al., 2008). Through objective measurement and data collection, the decision makers would consider the impacts, effectiveness, cost, and unprecedented effects. This enables decision makers make informed and reliable choices, which appeal to the affected people (Pawson, 2006).

Notably, some decisions are costly, forcing the concerned parties to review the data and negotiate on better compromise so that the decision does not affect the vulnerable people. Therefore, such decisions have to be based on evidence, social and ethical considerations (Webber, 2011).

We will write a custom Report on Evidence based decision making and policy making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Importance of Using Data In both cases, using data is important because it makes the decision objective, appropriate and reliable (Dunworth et al., 2008). Indeed, the data provide adequate information for making proper statistical inferences about the policy issue or decision to be made.

The data also add value and evidence that the decision is made through analytical process and informed consent (Pawson, 2006). In fact, such decisions are largely empirical and non-controversial, thus acceptable to the public. Often, the policy makers and other decision makers do whatever would ensure public confidence so that they could eliminate unnecessary distrust (Pawson, 2006).

Conclusion Evidence-based decision making and policy making should be all inclusive and rely on experimentation and empirical data. This would be a sure way of creating confidence among the public who stand affected by the policies and decisions.

References Dunworth, T., et al., (2008). The Case for Evidence-Based Policy, (Revised Edition). Web.

Pawson, R. (2006). Evidence-Based Policy, (A Realist Perspective). London: Sage Publications.

Webber, M. (2011). Evidence-based Policy and Practice in Mental Health Social Work. Exeter: Learning Matters Publishers.

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Business in Ghana Report (Assessment) writing essay help

Introduction In justification of the case for Global Ventures PLC business idea on production and processing of Cocoa, the company has focused on Ghana as the country of choice for the business idea.

Currently, Ghana is the second leading African country in the world cocoa production after Ivory Coast with an 11% market share in cocoa production (“2011 Investment Climate Statement”). Many large companies, which produce cocoa such as Nestle and Cadbury, focus on Ghana as the country of choice.

Though traditionally the country was involved in farming cocoa and then exporting it as beans. In the recent past, it has strived for increasing its earnings from the export by setting up facilities for processing the cocoa beans. While Ivory Coast is the leading world producer of cocoa, the preference for Ghana over Ivory Coast was due to the constant political instability associated with Ivory Coast.

Justification As stated in part 2, lack of corruption was key to choosing the country of choice for setting up the new business. While no case can be made for an African cocoa producing country that is free of corruption, there is clearly a case to make on the level of corruption in Ghana being minimal as compared to other African countries involved in cocoa production and manufacture such as Ivory Coast or Nigeria.

Therefore, it is important to investigate the situation on the ground while establishing the base for conducting such a business.

One significant milestone occurred when Ghana achieved success in fighting corruption, which resulted in the establishment of the Serious Crime Office in 1999; thereafter, it has been involved in investigating corruption.

In addition, though the country has not signed a treaty for its commitment with OECD Countries for fighting bribery, the law on procurement laws of 2004 helped in conformance with the World Trade Organization principles.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Professional marketers; Marketing was clearly a key ingredient of success of any company In Ghana, The Cocoa Marketing Company is owned by the Government and responsible for marketing and selling a significant portion of cocoa in Ghana.

This was a justification for the establishment of the company in Ghana due to the availability of professional marketers. As such, this ensured marketing for the company not only at the national boundaries, but also at a global level.

In addition, the company was impressed by the efforts by the chartered institute of marketing, Ghana (CIMG) (“2011 Investment Climate Statement”). Having a strong base in the country since 1991, and having been certified by Board on National accrediting, the company has help in nurturing strong base in Ghana.

Genuine Reforms The ability to uphold genuine reforms is one of the most outstanding characteristics of Ghana as a country, such as strong leadership, local ownership and political will within the country. Ghana upholds democracy more than any other African country, and is considered to be mother to key leaders within the African continent.

For instance, key Ghanaian personalities, such as the retired President Kuffuor and retired UN Secretary General Koffi Annan, gained credits for restoring peace in Kenya after the 2007 post election violence. Moreover, the country has been the leading one in initiating education and health reforms while, at the same time, using soccer to promote peace.

Observance of labor laws Labor laws have been highly violated in some cocoa producing countries; in fact, many countries violate children rights by employing children in cocoa farms, as well as processing industries. In addition, many of the cocoa producing countries have highly violated human rights through noncompliance to labor laws such as minimal wages (“2011 Investment Climate Statement”).

In Ghana, there is moderate observance of labor laws with few cases of children labor being reported and being compared to Ivory Coast whose poverty level is much higher hence motivating the violation of labor laws. Many organizations and trade unions in the country are responsible for ensuring that labor laws are observed.

We will write a custom Assessment on Business in Ghana specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In fighting child labor in Ghana, organization such as ILO/IPEC, the government, the media, international organizations have helped in achieving the proposal of 2001-2002 “National Plan of Action for the elimination of Child labor in Ghana” through campaigns education programs and involvement of inspectors and the police.

Organization in Sacco Schemes Ghanaian farmers are not left behind when it comes to forming groups that enhance their collective decision to being heard and implemented. In the pilot study to justify the establishment of the company in Ghana, the company was impressed by the presence of the international NGO Technoserve that has played a remarkable role in helping cocoa farmers obtain greater results from their crops.

Instead of selling cocoa immediately after it is harvested, the organization helps farmers to store it in a warehouses managed by the cooperation. In exchange, the farmers are able to obtain loan depending on the amount of cocoa that they have stored.

Sacco’s such as Kuapa Kokoo Limited and Farmer Organization Network have been particularly prominent in some areas of Ghana. These are prominent in mobilizing farmers and in fighting child labor among cocoa farming and production industry.

Infrastructure/Logistics In justifying the case for the establishment of the company in Ghana, a strong analysis of the transport sector was necessary. As stated in part two, this would ensure efficiency and presence of movement and infrastructure facilities to transport beans from producers to the processing factory and from the finished goods to global consumers.

Many African countries are lagging behind in terms of the transport sector, and Ghana has never been an exception. In an effort to improve the sector, the Ministry of Transport in the country has been on the forefront in implementing projects to enhance the transport sector of the country.

In 2009, there was established a project that has been active in enhancing mobility of goods and services and in reducing the cost of production. The first role of the 2009 project was directed at the road sector and engaged in vigorous feasibility studies coming up with a geographical system.

Open market system In the modern society, many nations that have achieved a mileage in their economic systems have embraced the private sector and have strived to eliminate government system in the financial control system. In the recent past, Ghana has drastically grown in terms of the freedom of its economic system especially in terms of labor freedom and money freedom.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Business in Ghana by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This year the country has climbed to number 9 of the 46 Sub-Saharan African countries with a 60.7% score in economic freedom. With a 6% annual growing economy, the country is number 84 in the world in terms of a free market (“Global Research Report”).

Cocoa supply in Ghana As it has been stated earlier, Ghana is the second supplier of cocoa in the world. With over 90 years in cocoa production, the supply of cocoa by the six areas of Ashanti, Brong Ahafo, Eastern, Volta, Central and western region the supply of cocoa are highly guaranteed. Though many of the farmers of cocoa are small holders with 4-5 acres, there is a guarantee of production of cocoa since it is a main source of livelihood in the country.

Regulatory framework The regulatory framework in Ghana is effective in promoting new investment and competitiveness of a new company. The Global forum on transparency and exchange of information is the guiding tool for Ghana’s legal framework, it has been effective in promoting new investment companies.

Industry policy Industry policies include the principles, policies, rules, regulations and procedures that regulate industrial enterprises within the nation; hence, determine the direction of key development. In June 2011, Ghana trade and industry Minister, Ms Hanna Tetteh launched the industrial policy for the country to be implemented within the period of the subsequent five years.

Key issued the policy that justified the establishment of Global Ventures PLC in Ghana included the increase of industrious employment in the production sector and marketing of Agriculture based industries (“Ghana launches Industrial Policy” 3).

Export policy According to the ministry of Trade and Industry which is in charge of all the export policies in Ghana, the sector is geared to ensure the implementation of a self-fulfilling export sector.

The country is improving its international presence so as to improve the export value of its goods, which are mainly the Agriculture processed or partially processed export goods. The country is likely to gain stable and fair prices for its exports by increasing its multilateral presence with other countries.

In addition, Ghana has a positive image when it comes to the quality of its cocoa. Since 1947, Ghana has been the sole nation with the government established institution (Ghana Cocoa Board) among all cocoa producing countries in West Africa (“Ghana launches Industrial Policy” 2).

Alliance, trade, navigation, and taxation agreements are mainly concerned with offering security for trading rights, as well as eliminate situations of double taxation.

In Ghana, there is a fair business environment where all competing companies are treated equally without discrimination in the enforcement of laws and regulations. This was a key justification for the establishment of the country in Ghana as it was not exposed to unnecessary discrimination because it was a foreign company (“Global Research Report” 7).

We identified the country because the pricing of cocoa beans was left to the market determinants of supply and demand, but not controlled by the government. Though several economies are not isolated from the world market fluctuations, in economically powerful countries such as the US as well, the floating exchange system in Ghana was a justification for the establishment of the company in Ghana.

Monetary Policy This refers to all those activities and interventions that aim at establishing an even supply of credit for business and advancement of trade, as well as industry. The effectiveness of a monetary system is based on a thorough investigation on how the policy will affect and diffuse into other factors of the economy of the country (“Heritage Research Institute: Global Research Report” 5).

In Ghana, the monetary system has been remarkably effective with the Bank of Ghana keeping a thorough check to ensure intervention in the monetary system is on time.

Social or cultural factors Culture is a combination of the tangible and intangible factors which influence how a certain group makes its decision (“2011 Investment Climate Statement”). In justification of the company establishment within the country, it was adequately necessary to investigate the social norms that influenced consumer behavior.

Since Ghana is an African country, the consumer behavior was highly influenced by what family and friends thought about the product; hence, it was necessary to use this as a key strategy for marketing the company. Individual purchasing decision was influenced by what their friends and relatives thought about the product.

An Integrated supply chain was necessary so that the product could be produced and sold to the relevant markets; in choosing Ghana, the presence of ports, malls and mass retail outlets were a key justification in the choice for the establishment of the company.

Unlike a country which is landlocked, the presence of ports exporting the goods to the outside and enabled a fast reach of the global market (“Heritage Research Institute: Global Research Report” 7). The mass retail outlets established over the years were also a key justification for the choice.

Government contracts and large corporate orders Since 1947, the government of Ghana has been in the forefront in promoting cocoa farming in the country. The country has a Board dealing with cocoa that is responsible for making purchases and then selling it internationally. With the government involvement in Ghana, the company will be assured of the government assistance in the sale of its products.

Niche market This refers to a selected group or class that the company wants to concentrate on selling its products. Cocoa farming and production will not be something new in Ghana and subset group will be easy to form.

Forming a niche market will be remarkably easy since the company is dealing with a product that the local people already know (“Heritage Research Institute: Global Research Report” 7). At a global level, forming a niche market will be quite easy since Ghana cocoa products are distinct, as well as famous for their outstanding quality.

Potential global market size It is no doubt that Ghana is well known all around the world for cocoa production. Establishing a global market will become easy. While the quantifiable characteristics such as the population size and GDP per head might have been hard to estimate, other characteristics such as, cheap labor and semi-skilled labor for farming and skilled labor for processing justify the case for Ghana as the country of choice.

In conclusion, when it comes to the country of choice in Cocoa farming, Ghana outdoes all other countries. The respect for democracy, peace and its record in stability, favorable legal framework, as well as outstanding economic growth and production of cocoa makes it the best country for making key investments.

Works Cited 2011 Investment Climate Statement – South Africa. Bureau of economics energy and business affairs. March, 2011, Web. .

Ghana launches Industrial Policy, 2011. Government of Ghana, Web. .

Global Research Report 2012. Heritage Research Institute. Web. .

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Langston Hughes Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction Langston Hughes was a renowned icon in the world of African American literature. He wrote numerous poems, plays, novels and newspaper articles during his career’s lifespan. His social activism was focused on creating a voice for the African American people.

Having lived momentarily in Harlem, he was quite familiar with the racial friction that existed at the time. He hence plays a major role in the Harlem renaissance movement of the 1920s and 1930s. The Harlem renaissance was a period in which various African American writers exploited literature to push for civil and political equality.

There is a jazzy/ blues tone in a number of his poems as they circulate around themes of racial oppression within the early American society. The main contributing factor to these chosen themes was his personal experiences. We shall thus explore how these experiences are expressed in some of his poems.

Negro The poem speaks about the writer’s identity as a Negro. The tone of the poem is one of anger and, at the same time, pride. He voices the grievances of the enslaved black community throughout history by making references to their afflictions under several masters.

The poem has been written in the first person’s point of view and there is repetitive use of the words ‘I’ve been’ (“Negro”).

This serves to emphasize the manner in which the black race has been subjected to various experiences in each verse. It portrays the black man’s positions as a victim of these experiences. The writer also uses similes such as ‘black as the night is black’ and ‘black like the depths of Africa’ to create illustrations of different views of the African race (“Negro”).

Cross The poem Cross voices the writer’s personal experiences of living in a cross racial family. He conveys the ideal of racial reconciliation amongst white and black people by showing his remorse and apologies for wishing the worst to his parents. His parents came from different races. He contemplates their contrasting fates wherein one died in a place of fortune and prosperity while the other died in an environment of poverty (“Cross”).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More He then ponders his own fate by linking it to his mixed race. The message that is driven here is that racial background ultimately affects one’s fate due to the social setups that favored one over the other. The poem uses rhymes and meters in its structure thus setting up a rhythmic flow in its narration.

The Weary Blues This poem is written in a very sad tone. It describes the poet’s encounter with a blues musician who, tired of his life, was contemplating suicide. The theme of death is prominent in this piece as it is featured in several lines. The song Weary blues contains the line ‘And I wish I had died’ which captures the theme of death (“The Weary Blues”).

The final line ‘He slept like a rock or a man that’s dead’ clearly presents another instance of this theme. The message that the reader is left with is that the singer discussed in the poem had died deep down because of the loneliness he has been forced to live with.

Lenox Avenue: Midnight The setting of this poem is a high traffic street on a rainy day. This can be seen from the references of rumbling street cars and rain in the second stanza. It seems to be a poem that speaks in second person to a lady. This may be explained by the use of the term ‘Honey’ in referring to the person addressed (Bass

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Does the founding of the UN represent a radical departure from the system of international law or international society prior to 1945? Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

The UN System The UNO is not just an inter-governmental organization located in New York and comprising of key political organs such as the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the General Assembly and the Security Council. The UN body is made up of about 16 UN specialized agencies with independent Assemblies and Councils-including Secretariats and budgets (White 281).

These agencies deal with global issues such as: international telecommunications; merchant shipping; financial crises; and diseases. These agencies have also produced several subsidiaries bodies. For example, the UN General assembly has created several bodies such as the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) to address children’s welfare and economic issues respectively (White 281).

The UN Values The values that the UN promotes are enclosed within the Preamble of the system’s foremost treaties. Most of these core values (self-rule, human rights protection and peace) symbolized a new departure for the international community in 1945. These values are used as benchmarks for assessing the failure or success of the UNO.

They also provide goals that can be pursued by the UNO. What’s more, other values have been integrated with the core values. For example, environmental protection was added to the core values following the UN Conference on Human Environment held in Stockholm in 1972 (White 288).

The swift development of agencies and mechanisms for use in alleviating further destruction of world’s environment underlined the need for entrenching environmental protection as a core value (White 288).

Apart from environmental protection, the promotion of democratic system has been entrenched as a core value (derived from self-rule principle). Nevertheless, the UN’s promotion of democratic system should not be construed to mean the triumph of liberalism over communism after Cold War ended (Fox and Roth 532).

The establishment and consistency of these principles are in harmony with the UN’s core value of protection and promotion of human rights which the organization has promoted ever since the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. For example, the self-rule principle was recognized by the UN in 1945 and it has been promoted since then (White 288).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Other core values established by the UN are socio-economic comfort, justice and law, and peace and security (Falk 208). Although peace and security are pursued by the principal organs set up by the UN Charter, other values are promoted by specialized agencies as well as supplementary bodies and programmes.

Consequently, there is a general perception that peace and security is the principal value pursued while other values are deemed secondary in the pecking order (White 288).

The Nature of the Founding Law The UN is not just an organization characterized by a convoluted structure of conference. It is a system based on law. The question that emerges then relates to the character of this law. Following the establishment of the League of Nations Covenant in1919, there have been numerous attempts to suggest the existence of a considerable distinction between constitutional multilateral agreements and normal multilateral treaties (Johnston 889).

This suggestion represented a paradigm shift from the observation that international law was, in reality, a private law between compliant states acting as equals as opposed to any type of public law. The balance in this argument can be traced back to when Max Huber asserted that the legal nature of the League of Nations Covenant was “neither contractual nor constitutional (Zimmern 290).

According to Huber, the Covenant had a dissimilar disposition from the typical contractual agreements and exchanges that had taken place before. It is worth mentioning that inter-governmental organizations-such as International telecommunications Union (ITU) founded in 1865 and the Universal Postal Union (UPU) created in 1874- existed before the League of Nations (White 290).

As a matter of fact, the treaty that created UPU was considered a constitution. The ITU and UPU established a union of services which implies that the legal framework developed by member-states of these organizations was a contractual one (Crawford 6).

The UN and Constitutionalism If we shift from the post-1919 world order to the post-1945 order, the portrait presented above is one made up of societal values that shape, inform and regulate the functioning of an intricate set of organizations within a structure enclosed by legal instruments of foundational importance (White 291).

We will write a custom Essay on Does the founding of the UN represent a radical departure from the system of international law or international society prior to 1945? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is obvious that the UN structure is not only managed by a series of accords/treaties but also by a composite constitution, with the UN Charter at the centre. The UN Charter is aptly characterized by Schachter who asserted that:

The Charter is surely not to be construed as a lease of land or an insurance policy; it is a constitutional instrument whose broad phrases were designed to meet changing circumstances for an undefined future (189).

It appears that in 1945, the UN Charter was interpreted as a constitutional document and not merely as an international accord/treaty. This assertion is aptly reflected in the Preamble of the Charter-We the Peoples of the United Nations (Fassbender 555). Therefore, no one can dispute the fact that the UN Charter is the basis for constitutional document in the United Nation structure.

There is no doubt that the institutional system of the UN is imperfect. Nevertheless, this phenomenon does not prevent the UN from having a constitutional foundation. For instance, the UN General Assembly is a weak legislative body.

Nonetheless, the resolutions made by the General Assembly form a conjecture of legality in favour of behaviours that conforms to them as well as an assumption of illegality when such behaviours contradict them (Schreuer 118). What’s more, these decrees can function as a mechanism and as an expression of traditional international law.

Contrary to the basic recommendatory nature of UN General Assembly decrees, the UN Security Council boasts of legislative influence with regard to joint security (White 292).

What’s more, the Security Council functions as an executive unit which implements those resolutions. Although there is no clear separation of powers within the UN system, both the executive and legislative roles are allocated uniformly between the key political organs (White 292).

As a matter of fact, the UN Security Council has not only executive and legislative powers but also possesses partial quasi-judicial authority to propose settlement terms as well as to establish whether there is an act of aggression, breach of peace or a threat to the peace (White 292). In addition, there is the International Court of Justice’s arbitrative role (although it is weak compared to state jurisdictions).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Does the founding of the UN represent a radical departure from the system of international law or international society prior to 1945? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Security Council’s authority regarding legal disagreements between states is based on approval from UN agencies and organs (White 292). The Council’s role as a constitutional court is therefore susceptible to inquiry although its jurisprudence is somewhat moving in that direction (White 401).

There is clearly lack of separation of power within the UN system. The problem is also prevalent among its specialized agencies. The major benefit associated with separation of powers is the enhancement of the rule of law. For example, the separation of power averts the enactment, application and enforcement of laws by one body.

As a result, the absence of institutionalized judicial review within the UN system weakens the rule of law in the same manner the concentration of power (under joint security) in the hands of the UN Security Council does (White 293).

This means that the UN Security Council is effectively allowed to function as legislator, judge and enforcer with regard to the sphere of joint security (Gwynn 1). Thus, the apparent lack of separation of power in UN system is likely to result in power misuse.

In spite of the apparent structural shortages within the UN system, the Charter as well as the constitutional documents of the specialized agencies creates an intricate constitutional pecking order. Nevertheless, it can be argued that they merely represent a weak constitutional dispensation.

It can also be argued that the UN Constitution is synonymous with the rudimentary rules that govern a local golf club given that both constitute an organization. However, opinions about this issue vary among different scholars. For example, Bernhardt asserts that “the Charter has become the constitution of the international community” (1117) while Arangio-Ruiz claims that “the Charter is a mere inter-state compact” (9).

However, other scholars have adopted a cautious approach by enumerating the shortages prevalent in the UN’s constitutional structure as well as the organization’s achievements in securing conformity with its resolutions.

For example, the UN’s remarkable success in averting Iraq’s antagonism against Kuwait in the early 1990s is contrasted with its failure to secure peace in Rwanda (in 1994), Somalia (1992-3) and the former Yugoslavia in 1992-5 period (Dupuy 20).

The UN Legal Structure There is no doubt that the UN structure is based on law. The UN’s legislative capacity has broadened over the years as the international community shifts from a horizontal structure that relies on state approval towards a purely hierarchical one (Kirgis 274).

For instance, the decrees by IAEA, ICAO, ITU and WHO are generally acknowledged and implemented as sets of laws for the international community (Schermers 117). The UN legal system can be evaluated from three phases: legislative; interpretation and application of law; and enforcement and compliance.

The Legislative Phase

The UN agencies generate laws in remarkable ways. Most of these laws transcend the conventional foundations of international law (i.e. customs and treaties).

These laws include: quasi-judicial pronouncements; guidelines; codes of practice; declarations; binding regulations; and excellent decrees with reporting requirements as well as enforcement systems (White 295). Most of these laws represent a paradigm shift from the conservative ways of making laws in the international arena.

The Interpretation and Application Phase

The interpretation and application of law occurs on a continuous basis all over the UN structure via the agencies, bodies and organs in light of the principle of effectiveness (White 296).

As the UN’s structure and legislation broadens, in terms of quality and quantity, the likelihood of some agencies and bodies transcending the constitutional laws which define their operations is apparent (White 296). However, there are several rudimentary laws that deem certain activities by the UN as unconstitutional or ultra vires (White 296). Nevertheless, the real issue at hand is the absence of a suitable judicial review system.

Compliance and Enforcement Phase

Compliance and enforcement is usually the last phase in any legal structure. White asserts that the major huddle experienced by the UN legal structure is the compliance and enforcement phase (296). Although the UN has enacted a number of legislations, little attention has been given with regard to the strategies of ensuring compliance (White 296).

Nevertheless, the UN is striving to improve compliance and enforcement of its laws at different levels. For example, the UN’s specialized agencies have adopted reporting and supervision as a common strategy to ensure compliance with the law (White 296). States are now obligated to submit reports on their compliance endeavours for inspection by a UN body.

The naming and shaming strategy is occasionally complemented in the human rights sphere whereby states (under elective protocol) permit certain persons within their authority to assume cases of human rights abuses executed by the state before a UN agency (White 296). Nevertheless, these strategies are usually ineffective when dealing with unrelenting offenders.

Consequently, the UN has considered adopting a number of intrusive strategies in order to decrease incidences of human rights abuses in many countries. An armed peace-keeping force is an example of an intrusive strategy adopted to ensure compliance with UN declarations.

UN peace-keeping force has evolved into a multi-dimensional strategy that encompasses the conventional blue-helmeted force as well as human rights and development element (White 297). The Sierra Leone case is a clear demonstration that the UN peace-keeping force is in dire need of reforms although this should not undermine the successful operations undertaken by UN forces in Mozambique, Nicaragua and Namibia (White 297).

Other coercive strategies adopted by the UN include conditional loans and aid that are granted to those states that respect UN decrees and suspension of delinquent states from UN membership (White 297).

The Security Council has also invoked article 41 of the UN Charter to impose other non-military enforcement actions such as economic sanctions on rogue states (White 297). In addition, the Security Council has sanctioned the use of armed forces on several occasions in countries such as Kosovo, East Timor, Bosnia, Somalia and the Gulf region to enforce compliance (White 297).

The UN judicial system represents another major hurdle in the enforcement system. It is worth mentioning that the International Court is somewhat weak with regard to judicial enforcement. The Rome Statute, which established the International Criminal Court, represents a significant step with regard to holding accountable and punishing individuals who commit war crimes, genocide and other crimes against humanity (White 298).

However, the ability of the International Court to discharge its functions is severely compromised by the UN Security Council which focuses its judicial enforcement efforts at individual level rather than at the state level (White 298). Thus, there is an urgent need to evaluate whether the UN’s judicial enforcement, at individual level rather than state level, is the most successful strategy to guarantee respect for UN principles.

Works Cited Arangio-Ruiz, Gaetano. “The Federal Analogy and UN Charter Interpretation: A Crucial Issue.” European Journal of International Law 8.1(1997): 9. Print.

Bernhardt, Rudolf. The Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. Print.

Crawford, James. The Charter of the United Nations as a Constitution. London: British Institute, 1997. Print.

Dupuy, Marie. “The Constitutional Dimension of the Charter of the United Nations Revisited.” Max Planck Yearbook of UN Law 1(1997): 20. Print.

Falk, Richard. The United Nations and a Just World Order. Boulder: Westview, 1991. Print.

Fassbender, Bardo. “The United Nations Charter as a Constitution of the International Community.” Columbia Journal of Transnational 529(1998): 555. Print.

Fox, Gay and Brad Roth. Democratic Governance and International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Print.

Gwynn, Barbara. The Meaning of the Separation of Powers. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1965. Print.

Johnston, Douglas. Structures and Processes of International Law. Dordrecht: Nijhoff, 1983. Print.

Kirgis, Frederic. International Organizations in their Legal Settings. St. Paul: West, 1993. Print.

Schachter, Oscar. “Review of Kelsen: The law of the United Nations.” Yale Law Journal 61(1951): 189. Print.

Schermers, Henry. “We the Peoples.” Max Planck Yearbook of UN Law 1(1997): 117. Print.

Schreuer, Christoph. “Recommendations and the Traditional Sources of International Law.” German Yearbook of International Law 20(1997): 118. Print.

White, Nigel. “The United Nations System: Conference, Contract or Constitutional Order?” Singapore Journal of International

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Quality Management Awards Report essay help online free

A key symbol, of the growing appreciation of management as an area of vast significance, has been the increase, in the late twentieth century, of awards that a range of governments gives their most stupendous organizations.

This official acknowledgment of management practice and quality mirror the principle, at the top levels, that excellent management practice may be learned and cultivate d by supporting recognition of innovative procedures and best practices. This section will discuss and compare various frameworks of quality management.

Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award

The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality became established, in 1989, by the United States. This establishment of this prize became motivated by the successes of Japan industrial sectors, due to the introduction of Deming Prize.

The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality award seeks to acknowledge successful quality management systems and enhance total quality management, in America. The award gets administered by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (Brown 2004; Vokurka et al. 2000).

MBNQA focuses on seven criteria including “Leadership, Strategic Planning, Customer Focus, Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge management, Workforce Focus, Process management, and Results” (Pryor et al. n.d. p. 7).

These centers on the following values “ customer-driven excellence, visionary leadership, organizational and a personal learning, agility, focus on the future, managing for innovation, valuing partners and employees, focus on results, creating value, management by fact, social responsibility and systems perspective”(Pryor et al. n.d. p. 7).

MBNQA resembles and differs with the Deming award, in several ways. The Malcolm Baldrige National Award, similar to the Deming Prize, gets applied to corporations owned by aliens (Khoo and Tan 2003; Zairi1994). However, MBNQA can only be applied to alien corporations that have half of their assets in America, unlike the Deming award.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More MBNQA stresses on customer focus, through its seven criteria (Hui and Chuan 2002). Hence, MBNQA centers on certain objectives, unlike the Deming award, which is system-centered.

Besides, MBNQA uses several professionals in determining the corporations eligible for the award, while the Deming Prize relies, entirely on the JSU, in making decisions..

Lastly, MBNQA is apt to disclosing information of a winning company to others, unlike the Deming Prize, which keeps secrets of the winning company.

The Deming Prize

The Deming Prize, the Japanese management award, became formed in 1950, by Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers and became first awarded in 1951 (Gabor 1990; Vokurka et al. 2000). The award recognizes reliability and quality of commodities, in Japan.

The standard assesses a corporation, in the fields of quality improvement, sales, profits, productivity enhancement and cost diminution. Also, it evaluates quality-assurance procedures, with the overall goal of determining the level of total quality control commitment, in a company.

This prize can be administered n two forms including the Deming Application Prize and the Deming Prize. Whereas the Deming Application Prize gets based on achievements related to TQC implementation, the Deming Prize may be issued to persons or companies that appreciate TQC, and show progress, in its practice.

Also, those eligible for the Deming Prize must have received the Deming Application Prize earlier. The Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers expects the Deming final award to encourage award holders in enhancing quality control of earlier recipient of the award. However, all Deming prizes become awarded at the same time of the year.

We will write a custom Report on Quality Management Awards specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Deming awards may be awarded other countries, apart from the factory and individual medal.

The European Quality Awards

The European Quality Award became established, in 1992, after the establishment of the Deming and MBNQA. The structure of the award resembles the MBNQA. However, the first awards went to large, profit-oriented corporations, until 1996, when the award adjusted to suit small and medium sized enterprises.

A group of six assessors, comprising of quality experts and academicians, assess the practice of the program.

The European Quality Awards bases on nine criteria including “people management, leadership, resource management, policy and strategy, customer satisfaction, process management, impact on society, business results and people satisfaction” (Vokurka et al. 2000 p.43).

Most of these criteria resemble those of the MBNQA. However, The European Quality Award stresses on the impact on society and individual s perceptions, which lack in the Deming and MBNQA.

The European Quality Award, unlike the Deming and MBNQA, vary in the criterion for qualified corporations. Besides, The European Quality Awards vary, in the group of award assessors, as it includes quality experts and academicians.

The European Quality Award matches with MBNQA in that it can only be rewarded to companies that have at least half of their dealings in Europe. However, the European Quality Award is applicable to more nations, than the Deming and MBNQA awards.

The Canada Awards for Excellence

Canada established the excellent award, in 1983, so as, to credit the practice of management. In the initial phases, the Canadian government became responsible for administering the award (Funk 2004). Ten years later, the National Quality Institute, took direction over the award.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Quality Management Awards by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Since inception, the Canada Awards for Excellence varied from Deming Prizes in significant ways. First, this award focused more on results than the Deming Prize. Consequently, MBNQA decided to imitate this result perspective into its structure. Similarly, MBNQA adopted the seven criteria just like the Canada Awards for Excellence. Therefore, most criteria in MBNQA can also be found in the Canada Awards for Excellence.

The award has seven drivers including “organizational performance, leadership, customer focus, people focus, planning, supplier focus and process management” (Vokurka et al. 2000 p.44).

The Canada Awards for Excellence, equally, differs with the European Quality Awards. While the Canadian excellent award remained applicable to both private and public sectors, the European award could only be applied to for-profit firms. However, the European award later expanded to incorporate corporations in the public sector (Stading and Vokurka 2003).

Although Canada Awards for Excellence are valuable, just like the European Quality Awards, Deming Prize and MBNQA, they operate on a small span because Canada’s population is not large.

The Australian Quality Awards for Business Excellence

The Australian Quality Awards became established in early 1990s. The award gets issued by the Australian Quality Council. The aim of the award is to develop best practices and quality principles (Vokurka et al. 2000).

The award follows seven groups of criteria including “leadership, people, information and analysis, strategy, policy and planning, customer focus, quality of process, product and service and organizational performance” (Vokurka et al. 2000 p.44).

According to the model, information, people, strategy, analysis, planning and policy and categories have supreme impact on the quality of processes (Vokurka et al. 2000). While the Australian award resembles MBNQA, it stresses more on the importance of multicultural management. It, also, stresses on people and processes, unlike the Deming and other awards.

China Quality Award

China Quality Award became established in 2001, by the China Association for Quality (CAQ) (Pompeo, 2010). The award gets offered to businesses that promote quality management, develop the general quality and competitive capacity, in order to serve the people and community. China Quality Award follows the Baldrige criteria (Pompeo, 2010).

Similar to other awards, for instance, European Quality Award, Deming Prize and MBNQA, beneficiaries of China Quality Award become selected following a lengthy assessment (Pompeo 2010; Tan 2003).

ISO 9001:2000

ISO 9001:2000, refers to quality management practices that seek to meet “customer’s quality requirements and applicable regulatory requirements, achieve continual improvement of performance, and enhance customer satisfaction in pursuit of these objectives” (Pryor et al. n. d. p.8).

ISO 9000 becomes founded on 8 principles including “ Customer Focus; Leadership; Involvement of People; Process Approach; System Approach to management; Continual Improvement; Factual Approach to Decision Making; and Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships” (Pryor et al. n. d. p.8).

Hence, ISO 9001:2000 eight principles resemble MBNQA, and other related awards Criteria, in some ways.

How “ISO 9001:2008” framework gets implemented in a real organization operating in the “United Arab Emirates

In this part, we shall focus on the preparation and implementation of the ISO 9001:2008, in UAE, by Organization X. Organization X is a real security firm in UAE, known as First Security Guard. The following is a discussion of the steps that First Security Guard (referred to as organization X), follows in implementing the ISO 9001:2008.

Preparation

Organization X makes preparation by attempting to understand the ISO 9001:2008 standard.

Organization X, then appoints a ISO 9001 “Management Representative, or the Quality Manager, who is responsible for the preparation and implementation of the appropriate procedures and Quality Manual to guarantee quality at every phase, beginning from acquiring the order to after sales service.

Organization X then prepares training for the quality manager, in accordance with the manual. Subsequently, the organization ensures that the executives back the ISO 9001 and necessities that may be associated with this implementation. Also, the founder of Organization X informs all the workers about the significance and feasibility of ISO 9001, so that they do not fear the changes.

Quality Manual, Quality Policy and Procedures

Organization x prepares various documents including Six Quality Procedures, Quality Objectives, Quality Manual, Process Flowchart and Quality Policy. Organization X ensures that all these documents meet all the necessities of the ISO 9001:2008 standard. In addition to the above documents, the organization formulates work instructions, with detailed steps on how processes will function.

Implementation, Training and Work Instructions

Organization X introduces the novel requirements incorporated in the organization’s Implementation Manual. The organization, through various departments, instructs workers regarding implementation of the standard, and ensures that they fine-tune their methods of working to the new requirements.

Internal Audits

Organization X hires Abdul, a subcontractor who audits the implementation of the standards. Organization X presents Abdul with the implementation manual of the organization. Abdul examines whether organization X meets the provisions of ISO 9001:2008 as described in the organization’s Implementation Manual.

Certification

Organization X, then selects an appropriate registrar, who can award the certificate. The manager of organization X structures an evaluation form, in an effort to find the best registrar.

After the certification audit, organization X uses the new ISO 9001 certification as a marketing tool.

The manager of organization X sends announcement cards to its clients, prepares a press release, print the certification blot on letterheads, exhibits a banner outside the organization and adds the ISO 9001 certification mark in its advertisements. Also, the manager of the organization appreciates all workers for their hard work, towards implementation of the standard.

Finally, Organization X recognizes the need to maintain the standards, as the registrar of the ISO 9001 certificate must conduct inspection audits several times, in every year, to confirm sustained ISO 9001 fulfillment. Therefore, organization X encourages its workers not to relax, so that they can maintain their excellent position. Also, the Organization maintains its internal audits, so as, to correct any inconsistencies.

Organization X recognizes that the first manual, which details the first Quality

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African American Soldier in American Revolution Dissertation essay help: essay help

In 1775, the black American’s constituted of about 20 percent of the entire colonial population, yet only 5 percent of the African-Americans were engaged in the Continental Army1. This presented worrying statistics on the American Revolution history. The black soldiers mainly originated from the Northern states, which constituted of many Freedmen.

Historical findings ascertain that these blacks from the Northern states were accorded some liberty for enlisting. During these times of the American Revolution, it was witnessed that some regiments were mainly composed of black men, but the officers in charge were the whites2.

For example, this kind of arrangement was witnessed in Rhode Island, where most solders went to the battle fields and fought with conviction as well as valor. Indeed, Edward Hector was among these little known heroes of the American Revolution, who took part in the Battle of Brandywine. Edward “Ned” Hector was a black solder who came from Pennsylvania.

Hector was appointed to be a wagoneer under the leadership of Captain Courtney. The Captain was under Colonel Proctor who was manning the third Pennsylvania’s Artillery Regiment3. Besides, it was witnessed that the unit positioned itself next to Chad’s Ford, and this could be somewhere on the ridge that was after John Chad House.

On September 11, Hessians as well as the British started overrunning the positions of the Americans, especially on the Eastern Brandywine. This event took place in the afternoon, and the Americans were ordered to abandon their horses, wagons, and guns in order to save their lives4.

Indeed, during this dreadful attack, Edward Hector strongly came out to protest against the threats of the enemy by arguing that he would save his team, horses and himself5. Hector made some remarkable achievements during this war when he ensured that all the abandoned arms were grabbed, thrown into his wagon, fended off the enemies, and escaped with his salvage wagon6.

In fact, this was one of his remarkable achievements because the salvaged items were critically required by the army’s operation in the coming days. It can as well be argued that Hector regarded both the wagon and the team as his personal property, and losing them would mean the loss of his personal livelihood7.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Moreover, Ned Hector’s activities during the America’s war with the British were very remarkable in the American political history since the white people had never heard of black heroes. Therefore, it is important to realize that the story behind Hector’s heroism could break certain stereotypes, build bridges, and even create links among individuals8.

This story provokes historical scholars’ thinking that many people and individual groups are excluded from history, and are unrecognized as heroes and heroines for their remarkable achievements towards political freedom.

Indeed, these groups of unrecognized heroes and heroines have never been rewarded by the society for the good work they did9. This would provoke scholarly thinking on whether Hector was fully rewarded for his good service at the battle front10.

In sum, it should be realized that those who took part in the American Revolution were not fully rewarded, yet this was an important event that led to independence. It was revealed that the blacks were behind the American’s liberation from the British colonial rule, and this was witnessed with Ned Hector’s brevity to salvage his army at the battle of Brandywine.

References Bennett, Lerone. Before the Mayflower: A History of the Negro in America 1619- 1962. Chicago, IL: Johnson Publishing Co., 1962.

Ciment, James. Atlas of Africa-American History. New York, NY: Facts on File, c2001.

Gutman, George. The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1825. New York, NY: Pantheon Books, 1976.

We will write a custom Dissertation on African American Soldier in American Revolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hope, Franklin. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans. New York, NY: Knopf, 1967.

Reich, Steven. The Negro in the Civil War. Boston, MA: Little Brown Pub., c1953.

Schubert, Frank. On the Trail of the Buffalo Soldier: Biographies of African American Soldiers in the US Army, 1866-1917.Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1995.

Uarles, Benjamin. “Afro-Americans in the Revolutionary War Era”. The Journal of the Afro-American Historical and Genealogical Society, 7.1 (1986):3-11.

Weir, William. The Encyclopedia of African American Military History. New York, NY: Prometheus Books, 2004.

Westwood, Howard. Black Troops, White Commanders and Freedmen during the Civil War. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1992.

Wilson, Joseph. The Black Phalanx: A History of the Nero Soldiers of the United States in the War of 1775-1812, 1861-65. Hartford, CT: American Publishing Co., 1892.

Footnotes 1 Bennett, Lerone. Before the Mayflower: A History of the Negro in America 1619-1962. Chicago, IL: Johnson Publishing Co., 1962.

Not sure if you can write a paper on African American Soldier in American Revolution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More 2 Wilson, Joseph. The Black Phalanx: A History of the Nero Soldiers of the United States in the War of 1775-1812, 1861-65. Hartford, CT: American Publishing Co., 1892.

3 Gutman, George. The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1825. New York, NY: Pantheon Books, 1976.

4 Schubert, Frank. On the Trail of the Buffalo Soldier: Biographies of African American Soldiers in the US Army, 1866-1917.Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1995.

5 Hope, Franklin. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans. New York, NY: Knopf, 1967

6 Uarles, Benjamin. “Afro-Americans in the Revolutionary War Era”. The Journal of the Afro-American Historical and Genealogical Society, 7.1 (1986):3-11.

7 Westwood, Howard. Black Troops, White Commanders and Freedmen during the Civil War. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1992.

8 Reich, Steven. The Negro in the Civil War. Boston, MA: Little Brown Pub., c1953.

9 Weir, William. The Encyclopedia of African American Military History. New York, NY: Prometheus Books, 2004.

10 Ciment, James. Atlas of Africa-American History. New York, NY: Facts on File, c2001.

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Warfare in the Age of Gustavus Adolphus Through the Lens of the Western Way of War Analytical Essay argumentative essay help

Introduction Background

Of all Swedish kings, Gustavus Adolphus is, perhaps, the most famous one. A straightforward thinker and an innovator, he redesigned the very foundation of the military tradition accepted at the time. The changes that he made to the army, including consistent training, change of values, technological and economic innovations, etc. created premises for the development of a strong army and led to the further acceptance of a new Western way of war as later explained by Parker (2008).

Thesis Statement Despite failing to develop the “punctuated equilibrium” (Parker, 2008, p. 6) model due to the obtrusive politics of the royal power enhancement, Gustavus Adolphus managed to not only win numerous armed conflicts with his opponents but also alter the very concept of warfare by reinforcing the significance of technological advancement and consistent training of the soldiers.

Military Tradition and Faith: A Winning Combination

One could also argue that the emphasis on the importance of religious beliefs, particularly, the promotion of the traditional Protestant values among the soldiers. Fueling people’s emotions my supporting their battle spirit with the idea of fighting for a noble cause was promoted by Gustavus Adolphus actively and quite successfully as a military tradition, which the Thirty Year War is a graphic example of (Knox

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Warfare in the Age of Gustavus Adolphus Through the Lens of the Western Way of War Analytical Essay argumentative essay help

Introduction Background

Of all Swedish kings, Gustavus Adolphus is, perhaps, the most famous one. A straightforward thinker and an innovator, he redesigned the very foundation of the military tradition accepted at the time. The changes that he made to the army, including consistent training, change of values, technological and economic innovations, etc. created premises for the development of a strong army and led to the further acceptance of a new Western way of war as later explained by Parker (2008).

Thesis Statement Despite failing to develop the “punctuated equilibrium” (Parker, 2008, p. 6) model due to the obtrusive politics of the royal power enhancement, Gustavus Adolphus managed to not only win numerous armed conflicts with his opponents but also alter the very concept of warfare by reinforcing the significance of technological advancement and consistent training of the soldiers.

Military Tradition and Faith: A Winning Combination

One could also argue that the emphasis on the importance of religious beliefs, particularly, the promotion of the traditional Protestant values among the soldiers. Fueling people’s emotions my supporting their battle spirit with the idea of fighting for a noble cause was promoted by Gustavus Adolphus actively and quite successfully as a military tradition, which the Thirty Year War is a graphic example of (Knox

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Human Growth Discussions Report (Assessment) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Attachment and Culture

Socio-Cultural Influences on Education

Socio-Cultural Influences on Relationships

Views of the Elderly

Works Cited

Attachment and Culture Socio-cultural factors have a strong influence on attachment at various stages. One of the socio-cultural beliefs among many people around the world is that a fatherly figure is a sign of security (Dasgupta and Hauspie 45). This creates a unique bond between a father and other members of his family. The secure attachment created in this context is based on the belief that the father is able to counter any threat that may face the family.

His presence means security not only to the children but also other members of the family who believe that the father has the power to make the home environment safe. Whenever a child is forced to spend some time away from the parents, either for educational purposes or a tour, the primary concern of all the family members is always on its security.

Given that the father will not be present to offer protection, the child will feel very insecure (Artwelle and Wislon 71). The attachment to the father can sometimes be so strong that a child may completely refuse to part from its family for fear of what may happen. This socio-cultural factor is responsible for the unique bond that children, especially girls who often feel insecure, have with their fathers.

Socio-Cultural Influences on Education Social integration is one of the major factors that have significant impact on student’s achievement, especially in higher education. According to Cameron and Bogin, success in higher education is achieved through intensive research and sharing of knowledge (43). Students in higher education institutions stand a better chance of achieving success when they work as a team.

The United States has been struggling to fight racial and other forms of discrimination, especially in institutions of learning, because of its negative consequences. Social integration brings together learners from different social background into a single system where they can easily interact and share the research findings for their own success. Daun says that students who have learnt to accept their colleagues from different social backgrounds have higher chances of achieving academic success than their colleagues who are antisocial (112).

Appreciating other people the way they are expands one’s thinking beyond the narrow sense of racism. Graduate students spend a lot of time testing theories and principles to determine their applicability in a real world situation. They can make better progress if they work as a unit irrespective of the socio-cultural differences they may have. Undergraduate students also stand to benefit a lot if they embrace social integration in the education setting.

Socio-Cultural Influences on Relationships The religion that I embraced has largely shaped my own relationship behavior with my friends. I came from a family of Christians and we strongly believe in loving and caring for people around us. At school, these beliefs have strongly influenced how I relate with my friends. Baumeister and ‎ Bushman note that it is the responsibility of all Christians to offer support to those who are in need of it (43). I have been keen to support my friends in various areas when they are in need.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More I also try to avoid engaging in activities that may hurt my colleagues because I always want to share in their happiness. Compassion is another factor that has influenced the way I relate with my friends. As Daun notes, it is ethically important to be compassionate when it is necessary (122).

I have often faced a situation where I have to sacrifice my personal happiness to help a friend who is facing a given problem. It gives me a special satisfaction to see someone happy because of my actions. Sometimes it may not be easy to make major personal sacrifices, but in the long run one realizes that indeed the sacrifice was worth making because of the long-term psychological benefits.

Views of the Elderly The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is largely an Islamic state with an overwhelming majority professing Islamic faith. In this socio-cultural environment, the elders are viewed as the leaders who have the absolute power to make critical decisions in their families and society. In an Islamic setting, elders are seen as the custodian of wisdom. They know when it is appropriate to go to war, and when the community should refrain from war.

They are revered and their instructions cannot be disrespected. Unlike in Western nations where elders are cared for in homes for the elderly, in Islamic settings the elderly remain with their family members as the head (Kahn and Wright 92). They have the responsibility to guide the younger generation and to show them the right paths they ought to take in order to achieve success.

According to Baumeister and Bushman, elders in this setting remain very active, especially mentally because they are often called upon to make critical decision (78). Instead of the old age being a weakness as is the case in most American families, it becomes a resource revered by the society. In this setting, the government recognizes and respects the role of the elders in the society and the need to consult them as frequently as possible when making major policies.

Works Cited Artwelle, George, and Francis Wislon. New Human Growth Hormone Research. New York: Nova Biomedical Books, 2012. Print.

Baumeister Roy, and ‎Brad Bushman. Social Psychology and Human Nature. New York: Cengage Learning, 2016. Print.

We will write a custom Assessment on Human Growth Discussions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cameron, Noël, and Barry Bogin. Human Growth and Development. Amsterdam: Academic Press, 2012. Print.

Dasgupta, Parasmani, and Roland Hauspie. Perspectives in Human Growth, Development and Maturation. Dordrecht: Springer, 2011. Print.

Daun, Kenneth. Humanivity – Innovative Economic Development Through Human Growth. Norderstedt: Books on Demand, 2013. Print.

Kahn, Jack, and Susan Wright. Human Growth and the Development of Personality. Burlington: Elsevier Science, 2014. Print.

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Internet Purchasing Portal to Facilitate Better Online Electronic Commerce Transactions in China Proposal a level english language essay help

While China’s rapidly growing economy has facilitated wholesale purchases using credit cards via B2B transactions and platforms, a majority of the population still has limited access to credit cards that can facilitate international and, in some cases, domestic purchases (Xinsheng and Qi 33).

This is in part due to the restrictions placed by the Chinese government on its internal financial systems due to its desire to have greater control and limit foreign volatility from affecting local markets.

However, with the increase in internet usage, higher demand for smartphones and greater consumer interest in owning a PC, this has created an ever increasing level of localized demand for EC (Electronic Commerce) transactions as more local consumers within China realize the advantage of online purchasing. To meet this demand, it is recommended that an online purchasing gateway be created that allows local Chinese buyers to purchase products online yet make payments locally via a payment center or a bank using a product code.

China has experienced an exponential growth in internet subscribers with more than 18 million being added on a yearly basis. Combined with greater purchasing power as a result of China’s booming production based economy, this has resulted in more local consumers developing consumption habits outside of merely subsistence (Liu 266).

Convenience, novelty and, in some cases, luxury have become the factors by which local consumers within the country base their purchases (Stanworth, Warden and Hsu 461). The ability to accommodate these factors via EC has been at the forefront of the developing online marketplace within China and, as such; requires immediate attention in order to take advantage of this opportunity.

It is recommended that an internet portal be created that allows online transactions to be funneled via this gateway. All local consumers within China would have to do is create their own account and use this as a means of paying for all online transactions with merchants that also have accounts via the same gateway.

In order to process payments, a barcode or a serial number is sent to the client’s email account once a transaction has been initially processed online (Yali, Yang, and Beixin 24). The client would then take that serial number and barcode to the nearest authorized payment center or bank, have them scan the barcode and pay the amount indicated on the transaction.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Once the amount has been paid, the transaction is then completed with the item being sent to the address indicate on the internet portal account. If the customer has a credit card, the internet portal can process the transaction via agreements with the local bank that the card belongs to.

The advantage of this method is that it allows individuals without credit cards to make online transactions. Also, customers that do have credit cards yet are unable to use them to purchase goods internationally can use the merchant portal as a middle man in order to process the transaction for them (Chang, Chen, and Dobbs 73).

Given the sheer size of China’s economy and the number of consumers within it, it is likely that many online merchants, both local and international, would have very few reservations about opening their own online accounts via the payment portal in order to make their goods and services more accessible to local buyers in China.

Number of Internet Users Vs Number of Credit Cards Issues in China

Number of Internet Users Number of Credit Cards 2012 564000000 270000000 2013 617580000 320000000 2014 641601070 360000000 2015 650000000 390000000 (Zhang, Bian and Zhu 304)

What this data shows is that the number of internet users increases at almost the same pace as the number of credit cards available within China. This shows that as more people have credit cards and access to the internet, they need a reliable method of online payment processing for the local and international goods that they want.

Works Cited Chang, Elsie, Yougang Chen, and Richard Dobbs. “China’s E-Tail Revolution.” Mckinsey Quarterly 3 (2013): 70-77. Print

Liu, Ying. “Online Purchaser Segmentation And Promotion Strategy Selection: Evidence From Chinese E-Commerce Market.” Annals Of Operations Research 233.1 (2015): 263-279. Print

We will write a custom Proposal on Internet Purchasing Portal to Facilitate Better Online Electronic Commerce Transactions in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Stanworth, James O., Clyde A. Warden, and Ryan Shuwei Hsu. “The Voice Of The Chinese Customer.” International Journal Of Market Research 57.3 (2015): 459- 481. Print

Xinsheng, Ke, and Sun Qi. “Study Of CSF In China’s B2C E-Commerce Based On Expert Evaluation.” Journal Of Electronic Commerce In Organizations 12.2 (2014): 31-45. Print

Yali, Shen, James G.S. Yang, and Lin Beixin. “Current Status Of Internet Commerce And Taxation Problem In China.” International Tax Journal 40.2 (2014): 17-47. Print

Zhang, Yu, Jing Bian, and Weixiang Zhu. “Trust Fraud: A Crucial Challenge For China’S E-Commerce Market.” Electronic Commerce Research

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Cross-Media Communication in Advertising: Exploring Multimodal Connections Synthesis Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Article Summary This article initiated by scientists from Aalborg University, Denmark provides the reader with the information on the research of cross-media communication in advertising. The research was inspired by latter studies connected to this area. It focuses on the television commercial and the website as two separate advertisings connected with each other.

Three dimensions comprising announcements, participants, and address strategy were studied. Besides, authors have “examined multimodal connections between texts in terms of different degrees of similarity or dissimilarity between what is represented and how it is represented” (Jessen

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Transportation Standards and Environmental Regulations Term Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

The rapid growth of global economy and the rise of globalization in the past decade led to the increase in products consumption as well as the expansion of goods distribution streams worldwide. The outburst of the global economic development and manufacturing could not but have a robust impact on the natural environment, and global warming has become one of the most significant matters of concern resulting from the growing interdependence and interconnectedness of economic and manufacturing systems at the international level.

As shown in the recent statistics, more than 50% of greenhouse gas emission is caused by cross-national transportation, and the further expansion of the international trade will provoke even more significant increases (Abe, Hattori,

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Port Security Analytical Essay online essay help

Despite the tremendous efforts in the field of port security, U.S. ports remain vulnerable to the threat of the terrorist attacks due to the complexity of their functional systems and the wide range of stakeholders responsible for the different aspects of safety measures development and implementation.

The following discussion will analyze and critique the safety and emergency management structures in the port environment. In addition, it will address the supporting plans and programs and the legislative policies developed to prevent and respond for a WMD attack at a major port.

The safety and emergency management structure found in the port environment can be evaluated as quite effective with some considerable issues that still remain. The weak points include the following omissions: (1) vessel identification system is not available for every port; (2) omissions are identified in port security assessment procedures; (3) security issues related to foreign vessels; (4) IT technical issues in the port security systems; and (5) inconsistence of emergency management practices in some ports to the general guidelines and regulations provided by the government (U.S. General Accounting Office, 2003a; U.S. General Accounting Office, 2003b).

The supporting plans and programs typically found in a major port operation complex structure of ports amount to ensuring that the brought to ports cargo is safe (U.S. General Accounting Office, 2005). The major components of these plans and programs include the principle of “reporting about every cargo assessment result within the 24-hours period” and “integrated training for all port security workers to ensure their professionalism as for the technical aspect of protection systems” (U.S. General Accounting Office, 2004).

Evaluating the legislative policies developed to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from a WMD attack at a major port, considerable progress since the year 2001 is noted. Legislators did not fail to notice the limitations the port security systems had. Since the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, the government systematically draws closer to the exalted objective to secure safety in ports.

The remarkable achievements include refining the Automated Targeting System regulations and designing the national standards for the port security workers’ attestation (Congressional Research Service, 2004; U.S. General Accounting Office, 2004). However, as far as I am concerned, the current legislative security policies are insufficient to secure and protect US ports due to the complicated system of port authority distribution between the public and private stakeholders, and interference from multiple governmental and private agencies.

The reality of a terrorist nuclear threat to America’s seaports is high. The situation is getting worse because of the sheer size of cargo being operated in ports every day and absence of the well-designed system of the central authority overseeing the maritime system (Cruise et al., 2013).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a final point, the vulnerability of the U.S. ports to the terroristic threats remains of high concern to the government and commercial institutions due to a variety of complex issues connected with the port security. The most complicated issues relate to the complexity of ports authority.

Analysis of facts demonstrates that there are too many stakeholders involved in the process of port security control. These stakeholders have problems with implementing the unified security systems developed by the governmental agencies and, as a result, some of the major ports appear vulnerable to a WMD attack due to the existing unifying protection violations.

References Congressional Research Service. (2004). Border and transportation security: Overview of congressional issues. A Report to Congress. Web.

Cruise, R. J., D’Erman, V. J.,

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Personality Tests and Employee Selection Report (Assessment) college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Personality Tests

Projective and Objective Tests

Behavioral Measures

Standardized Personality Tests

APA Guidelines

References

Personality Tests According to Krilowicz and Lowery (1996), “the determining force behind the effectiveness of an organization is the quality of its human resources” (p. 55). The personality tests are the techniques that enable organizations to make a reasonable decision regarding the employee selection and, therefore, they are beneficial to a significant extent.

According to research findings, personality affects the job performance and work productivity significantly (Krilowicz

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Porter’s Five Forces and Best Buy Analytical Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Rivalry

Substitutes

Buyer Power

Discussion

Barriers

Conclusion

References

Introduction The model that has been developed by Michael Porter can be viewed as incredibly efficient and still can be used by modern companies. The need to have an understanding of the firm’s strengths and weaknesses should not be disregarded during the development of their strategies, and it could lead to a significant competitive advantage in most cases (Porter, 1991).

Rivalry Best buy is one of the most well-known corporations that operates all over the globe and is focused on consumer electronics. Such retail companies as Radioshack and Circuit city may be viewed as direct competitors because they offer similar services and are aimed at the same target market. Also, it is important to note that the company has to deal with indirect competitors such as Amazon, E-Bay, Wal-Mart and others.

Another issue that should not be overlooked is that the popularity of online sales has been increasing over the years, and many companies may use this approach to minimize unnecessary expenses.

However, Best Buy is capable of using this aspect to its advantage. For instance, an individual may make a purchase, and the product will be delivered to a particular address or may be picked up at a store. It is necessary to mention that the second choice is beneficial for both parties because a customer will be able to avoid shipping fees, and a company will not have to deal with possible issues (Rao, Goldsby,

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