Introduction Eating disorders form the bulk of the society’s health concerns across individuals’ lifetime. Data from the National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders (ANAD) indicate that over twenty million individuals residing in the United States experience an eating disorder that entails excessive reduced food intake by individuals and weight loss driven by the unfounded fear of gaining weight (Crow 440).
The condition also occurs where individuals deny hunger as well as restrict energy and nutrients to levels that are minimal and inadequate to maintain the functioning of the normal body health and mass (Crow 440). Additionally, patients often develop the illusion of being fat, as well as a strong fear of adding heaviness.
In other words, anorexic patients exhibit excessive body dissatisfaction. Another common feature of anorexia nervosa entails purging as well as excess exercises through self-induced vomiting, laxative abuse, diuretics and the abuse of enemas to achieve weight loss.
Essentially, anorexia nervosa is more common in females compared to males (De la Rie 1512). Specifically, the disorder is often dominant in adolescence females in comparison to the males.
Individuals suffering from the eating disorder often endeavor to reduce weight always to the point of malnourishment. The people suffering from the disorder normally show signs of malnutrition due to self-imposed undernourishment that leads to harsh snags in various body organs.
Studies indicate that the dominant signs for patients experiencing the eating disorder encompass various symptoms, including the snub by patients to maintain the standard body mass index for age, irregular menstrual cycles and the skin becomes unhealthy as well as turns yellow (Haines and Neumark-Sztainer 780).
Additionally, the patients exhibit soft and fine hair developing on the body as well as being preoccupied with the content of calories and fats in food. Further, the patients keep on cutting down food intake in spite of being skinny.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Sings of depression, seclusion and swollen cheeks due to enlarged salivary glands emanating from unwarranted vomiting are normal to patients suffering from the disorder (Crow 440). Moreover, thinning, fatigue, mood swings, abdominal distensions and terrible breath are common among patients suffering from the eating disorder.
The eating disorder has several medical complications ranging from growth retardation due to chronic malnutrition and weight loss to pubertal delay resulting from the suppression of the growth hormones (Haines and Neumark-Sztainer 780).
Anorexia nervosa can cause fatty infiltration of the liver, heart diseases and neurological disorders such as tremors as well as death. In fact, the eating disorder has unprecedented death rates considering psychological disorders (Crow 440). Therefore, the paper seeks to discuss the psychological causes and effects of anorexia nervosa (Haines and Neumark-Sztainer 780).
Causes of anorexia nervosa Anorexia nervosa is caused by various psychological conditions. In other words, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety and depression are psychological factors that cause the eating disorder. In addition, perfectionism, impulsivity, low self-esteem, hopelessness, inhibition as well as trouble in handling emotions are serious psychological concerns causing anorexia nervosa.
Low self-esteem The scales to which individuals assess own worth to gratify ambitions commence from childhood. However, the self-esteem gets harder and gains force during adolescence periods. The puberty stage is critical considering the self-esteem factor.
In this epoch, the adolescents are looking for individuality. Therefore, in the event that that the process of searching for identity goes off-center, the adolescents many develop negative sensations regarding identity leading to low self-worth (De la Rie 1513).
Based on this hypothesis, studies indicate that one’s confidence can occasion a number of psychological conditions, including anorexia nervosa. Several types of research have empirically proved the significant tasks played by low self-esteem regarding the numerous multi-factorial theories of the etiology of eating disorders.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Psychological factors underlying anorexia nervosa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The utilization of various questionnaires and interview showed that low self-worth is frequent in patients with eating disorders. In fact, in several occasions, the connection between anorexia nervosa and low self-esteem leads to the conclusion that low sense of worth is an essential precondition for disordered eating habits.
Impractical high ambitions, insecurity, negative mood, depression, poor body image and poor adaptation skills are components of low self-esteem (Crow 439). The attributes are prevalent in individuals exhibiting anorexia nervosa.
Coping with emotions and anxiety The thoughts and behaviors applied by individuals in the management and bearing both the internal and external requirements often cause eating disorders among individuals. In essence, handling of emotions is considered a multidimensional model that comprises problem-solving situations and responses to self-oriented conditions, including emotional reactions as well as self-preoccupation.
Studies postulate that patients exhibiting anorexia nervosa often face numerous hurdles in managing unease. In principle, the poor management of stress leads to eating disorders in individuals (Crow 440).
Considering eating disordered individuals and normal eating persons, studies indicate differing anxiety management skills. Actually, individuals with anorexia nervosa exhibit higher degrees handling emotions. Moreover, researches assert that patients with the eating disorder have active stress management strategies.
Hopelessness and inadequacy Millions of individuals over the world are affected by depression. Hopelessness leads to unrelenting alterations in an individual’s mood, behavior as well as feelings. When individuals undergo depression and inadequacy, their education, employment and family lives are affected (Haines and Neumark-Sztainer 779).
In addition, individuals are habitually unable to give attention to work, food, feel culpable and often become bad-tempered over petty issues. Other signs of hopelessness involve loss of energy, loss of concentration in sex, restlessness as well as thoughts of suicide and death. Depression deprives people of the pleasure and enthusiasm as well as appetite thereby leading to eating disorders.
Perfectionism Many studies postulate strong correlation between perfectionism and anorexia nervosa. In fact, the blend of precision and eating disorders is injurious to individuals’ health (Haines and Neumark-Sztainer 781). Actually, the quest of idealistic objectives stemming from the conviction of the existence of a state of excellence is highly linked to eating disorders.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Psychological factors underlying anorexia nervosa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In most cases, perfectionist individuals are often self-critical as well as reliant on achievements to gain pleasure. For example, in occasions where perfectionist individuals identify impracticable values for physical charm as well as beauty in the society, the likelihood of unrealistic goals is imminent (De la Rie 1522).
As such, the individuals develop anorexia nervosa due to the desire of ideal body. Such unrealistic goals always progress to anorexia nervosa because individuals associate consumption of any food for the failure of achieving the impracticable goals.
Scientific studies assert the strong connection existing between perfectionism and anorexia nervosa (Haines and Neumark-Sztainer 780). First, a study examining the function of perfectionism as phenotypic attributes in eating disorder on women found that anorexic women are more likely to crave presentation of precision by hiding emotions and covering up imperfections.
Impulsivity Individuals diagnosed with anorexia nervosa normally exhibit spontaneous actions, including substance abuse, stealing, and sexual promiscuity and suicide attempts. To begin with, people who involve themselves in stealing practices have high tendencies of disordered eating. Additionally, pragmatic studies put forward that stealing is strongly connected to individuals suffering from eating disorder (De la Rie, 1519).
Concerning sexual activity and perceptions of sex, studies show that impulsive women are more sexually active and have higher experiences of eating disorder. Further, researches assert that individuals who exhibit signs of anorexia nervosa epitomize elevated levels of sexual intercourse (Haines and Neumark-Sztainer 780).
In addition, the study showed that individuals obsessed with the consumption of extremely low amounts of calories had high masturbation rates of recurrence.
Spirituality Researches show coexistence between spirituality and anorexia nervosa. To begin with, spirituality refers to the distinctive, creative and collective aspect in which the inner subjective awareness of people and within communities and social classes relate to in living life (Levine and Smolak 80). Studies have proven that anorexic patients often exhibit spiritual actions.
For example, anorexia nervosa patients always show several spiritual signs, including being ascetic and having difficulties in maintaining relations with other members of the society (Haines and Neumark-Sztainer 780).
Actually, studies also postulate that anorexic patients believe that in treatment of the eating disorder, their religious beliefs must be taken into account (Levine and Smolak 80). To counter such beliefs, psychotherapies, including cognitive-behavioral therapy and family therapy are applied to deal with the anorexic patients’ spiritual beliefs surrounding food intake.
Available literature traces eating disorders to holy anorexics and religious ascetics who showed self-denial through starvation. The act of self-denial was in response to the labeling of greed as a deadly sin. As such, people starved themselves to allow purification of the spirit.
Search for power Search for power is also critical in the analysis of causes of anorexia nervosa. For instance, in the case of Catherine of Siena, going without food was the only way of showing her disapproval for her intended marriage ceremony. In other words, virgins gained power, freedom and respect among members of the society (Levine and Smolak 78).
As such, Catherine was able to remain virgin as well as chase her dream of becoming one of the theologists in the convent. In fact, fasting was considered as a form of control that gave powers back to individuals. The case is similar to the various fundamental factors in anorexia nervosa currently.
Effects of anorexia nervosa The highest morbidity as well as mortality rates experienced in psychiatric disorders emanate from eating disorders. Specifically, anorexia nervosa accounts for approximately eight percent of mortality rates. Data from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders show that the rate of prevalence of anorexia nervosa is approximately 0.3% among women (Levine and Smolak 80).
The occurrence rates of anorexia nervosa have had far-reaching psychological effects on individuals. First, anorexia leads to alteration in cognitive improvement (De la Rie, 1519). In reality, studies reveal that patients suffering from anorexia nervosa exhibit complexities in learning institutions as well as communication with colleagues and parents.
In addition, deficiency of calories and nutrients in diet and disproportionate and persistent training often cause excess sleep (Haines and Neumark-Sztainer 780). Further, dispossessions of cognitive and social stimuli are also effects of anorexia nervosa as individuals’ social events in school and with friends are always neglected.
Rise of mortality ratios has been a common effect of anorexia nervosa due to suicide attempts (Crow 439). In reality, suicidal ideation is widespread among people with the eating disorder. In addition, death arises due to starvation as well as arrhythmias.
Most importantly, the likelihood of recovery from excessive starvation always shows an inverse relationship with the severity of weight loss together with psychiatric disorders, including depression as well as personality disorders.
Moreover, teenage females with anorexia nervosa characterized by weakness and fatigue often face difficulty in managing the switch of puberty to adulthood, recognition of puberty transformations, peer group involvement and sovereignty(Crow 439). In essence, the vicious cycle of the eating disorder contributes to starvation as individuals undergo extreme exercising to attest distinctiveness, independence and acceptance from peers.
Anorexia nervosa results into medical complications that have adverse psychological effects on the patients (Haines and Neumark-Sztainer 782).
For instance, the loss of subcutaneous fat tissues, orthostatic hypotension and impaired menstrual function as well as hair loss present the victims of anorexia nervosa with psychological torture, including feelings of anxiety, depression and difficulties in managing painful emotions (Haines and Neumark-Sztainer 780).
In fact, when the patients undertake excessive exercise and restrict food consumption in order to remain young, stress is often experienced.
Individuals with anorexia nervosa often exhibit signs of despair because such people develop feelings of unimportance in the society (Le Grange and Lock 76). In addition, anorexia nervosa leads to the development of self-destructive actions such as self-mutilation.
In other words, individuals with the eating disorder often hurt themselves either through burns or through cuts as a way of managing agonizing sensations. Withdrawals from circumstances concerning food and relationship are common to the anorexic.
In fact, the anorexic patients are repeatedly guarded on the amount of food they consume and get exasperated whenever people comment on their weight (Le Grange and Lock 77). Moreover, lackadaisical attitude towards activities formerly enjoyed is common among anorexic patients.
Conclusion Anorexia nervosa continues to affect millions of individuals across the globe and the effects are greatly felt (Haines and Neumark-Sztainer 781). The eating disorder is characterized by excessive restricted food consumption as well as weight loss. Low self-esteem, perfectionism, impulsivity, hopelessness and anxiety are some psychological factors that cause anorexia nervosa (Levine and Smolak. 80).
The effects of the eating disorder range from changes in cognitive development to withdrawals from circumstances concerning food and relationship. In order to deal with the effects of the disorder, professional treatment comprising medical care and mental health care are significant.
In addition, public policies should be put in place to tackle the menace of anorexia nervosa. For instance, improvement in screening and treatment of eating disorders as well as increased support for the prevention and intervention initiatives aimed at providing health care settings to communities and schools to address concerns of eating disorders is critical (Haines and Neumark-Sztainer 781).
Most importantly, proper comprehension of the issues raised by individuals with anorexia nervosa is critical to the physicians. As such, the utilization of all-around methods in handling anorexia nervosa is necessary.
The psychological aspects of treating anorexia nervosa should aim at improving the psychological nature of the patients (Le Grange and Lock 77). The physicians should comprehend the diet and social history of the patients before making any anorexic treatment.
Works Cited Crow, Stang. “Medical complications of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.” Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 19.4 (2006): 438-443. Print.
De la Rie, Sau M. “Quality of life and eating disorders.” Quality of Life Research, 14.6 (2005): 1511-1522. Print.
Haines, Jess and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer. “Prevention of eating disorders and obesity: A consideration of shared risk factors.” Health Education Research, 21.6 (2006): 770-782. Print.
Le Grange, Daniel and James Lock. “Anorexia nervosa: The cost of long-term disability.” Eating
The Common Law Background of the Fourth Amendment Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Most of the legal declarations that make up the Bill of Rights, including the Fourth Amendment, were founded on the Common Law, which existed in the 16th and 17th century in England. As a matter of fact, three British law-related cases prompted the Fourth Amendment. Two out of the three cases were tried in England, and the other, adjudicated in America during the 17th century.
The two cases adjudicated in England, Entick v. Carrington in 1765 and Wilkes v. Wood in 1763, were about similar issues. In both cases, Entick and Wilkes were accused “of seditious libel” for indirectly condemning the king by criticizing his ministers.
The men disseminated written statements criticizing actions of the king. The king therefore passed a warrant that allowed his agents to search the residences of the men, and seize every written statement found. This action incited Entick and Wilkes to file lawsuits against the king for damages.
They claimed that it was not right for the king’s agents to search their residences in a forcible manner and impounded all their written properties.
Lord Camden, the judge in charge of the case, concurred with the plaintiffs and thereby made a pronouncement that the warrant issued by the king to carry out the search, as well as the actions of his agents were indeed wrong on the grounds that the issued warrant permitted the agents to confiscate all their written belongings instead of confiscating only the written materials that were pertinent to allegations, and that the warrant was passed in the absence of a reasonable cause.
Also, the Fourth Warrant was inspired by the case between English Monarchs and American colonies. British Crowns imposed taxes on colonists in order to clear war debts. This action forced American traders to smuggle goods in a bid to dodge exorbitant taxes.
As a result, the British crown issued General Warrant, also referred to as Writs of Assistance, to their custom officers, which empowered them to search and impound possessions of people suspected of smuggling items. The Writs of Assistance, permitted government officials to search and impound virtually anything without reasonable cause. Writs of Assistance attained loss of right in 1763, when the French and Indian War ended.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This event led to the extinction of General Warrant. The Fourth Amendment was therefore incorporated into the United States Constitution in 1791 upon the enactment of the Bill of Rights. Even after acceptance of the Fourth Amendment, issues of search and seizure were not well recognized until 1914 when the Supreme Court case, Weeks v. United States, instituted the “exclusionary rule”.
As determined by this rule, the court will not recognize any evidence presented by the government that is contrary to the Fourth Amendment rights of the suspect, and such evidence is not sufficient to declare that person guilty.
In recent times, legal and political pundits have debated about the advantages of the exclusionary rule. Those against the rule argue that it abuses justice, and defends the guilty. Others in support of the rule are of the opinion that it prevents violation of human right by overzealous officers of the law.
Rich couples have lower divorce rates Research Paper essay help free
Table of Contents Abstract
Results and findings
Abstract Divorce is the termination of relationships between married couples. Divorce could be decided through a court litigation or mediation. Several factors have been shown to lead to increased rates of divorce in the society. This paper introduces the divorce topic by discussing the types, causes, and impacts of divorce. It presents three models for assessing whether the independent variables lead to lower rates of divorce among rich couples.
The paper discusses the anticipated data and how it would be collected and quantified for statistical analysis. Finally, the paper discusses the significance of the anticipated findings and offers a conclusion based on the research question.
Introduction Divorce refers to the termination of a union between the married couple. It involves ending all legal marital obligations. In many countries, divorce cases are sanctioned by courts through legal processes. However, the Philippines and the Vatican City are the only countries that do not allow divorce.
Divorce has been proven to be a stressful event that has influence on finances, lifestyles, and schedules of both people. The proposed study aims to answer the following research question:
Do financial stability, faithfulness, and sexual satisfaction contribute to lower divorce rates among rich couples?
Divorce cases among young and old married couples have been on the increase around the world in the recent decades. Several factors have been cited to cause the increase in divorce rates. It would be essential to understand the various aspects of divorce cases among couples so that measures could be implemented to help save marriages in the future.
Literature review There are many types of divorce across the world as stipulated by national laws. Contested divorce cases are taken to courts so that a judge can decide on the disputed issues. A divorce case is taken to court if a couple is not able to agree on some issues like child uptake and property sharing. Such cases take long periods of time to be concluded by judges, and the couple has to pay for legal representation in courts.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Once a verdict is given, a partner can feel dissatisfied and file an appeal. An appeal could be rejected or upheld based on the legal evidence produced in court. At-fault divorce requires one partner to allege that his or her partner has committed an act that is not acceptable in marriage. The acts committed by the partner could be unfaithfulness, abandonment and/or cruelty.
No-fault divorce does not require a partner to prove that his or her partner has committed one of such acts. Spouses could decide to part ways because they felt that their union could not work any longer. Still, a judge can consider factors like past violence and marital irresponsibility issues when deciding on division of property and children’s upkeep.
A summary divorce requires spouses to fulfil some legal requirements before they can be allowed to end their union. The legal requirements can be short marriages as defined by the law, minimal real property, and absence of children, among others. Uncontested divorce is the termination of marriage whereby both spouses agree on children’s upkeep, division of property and support issues without the use of mediators or lawyers.
A collaborative divorce is a termination of marriage whereby spouses are helped to reach a resolution with the assistance of attorneys. A mediated divorce is a termination of marriage which involves the use of mediators to facilitate sharing of marital property and children’s upkeep.
A mediated divorce is cheaper than a divorce which is taken to a court for litigation. Mediators can be financial analysts and counsellors who work to help a couple to understand and accept divorce issues.
Polygamous marriages have been shown to have more cases of divorce than monogamous marriages (Brinig
Neocolonialism and Global South Research Paper best essay help: best essay help
The term neocolonialism was coined by Kwame Nkrumah, a former President of Ghana to explain the political, social and economic control which can be propagated culturally, linguistically and economically.
The overall objective of the control is to enhance and promote the culture of the neocolonialist state(s) among the citizens of the targeted countries so as to get access to markets, labor and raw materials for corporations based in the neocolonialist state(s).
The key pillars of neocolonialism therefore include globalization, capitalism and imperialism. Neocolonialism is contrasted with colonialism, which implies direct military and political control of one state by another in a ruler-ruled relationship (Bauer and Holowinska 72).
Neocolonialism goes hand in hand with the concept of global divide which divides the world into global north and global south. The powerful nations popularly known as the first world make up the global north.
Such countries include the United States (US) and its allies who control the United Nations (UN) and are also members of the G8. The global north accounts for a quarter of world’s population but controls three quarters of world’s income. The citizens of such countries have access to education, health and shelter (Sartre 18).
The global south on the other hand comprises the developing or undeveloped countries majorly in Africa, Asia and Latin America. These countries account for three quarters of world’s population but they only control a quarter of the world’s income. In the global south, the access to health, education and shelter is usually a privilege of the few.
However, the global divide is not mainly influenced by geographical location of a country. If a country in Africa is able to compete economically with other western powers, it is put under the category of global north. Similarly, if a country in Europe is poor, it is put under the category of global south. In other words, the defining criteria is the economic stability of a country, not its geographical location.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Theoretical models for explaining neocolonialism Idealism theory
In international relations and foreign policy, idealism is a political philosophy which entails the advancement of a particular ideology (political, social or economic) both at home and abroad, with the aim of promoting and safeguarding the interests of citizens of a country and those of citizens in other countries.
Examples include the fight against poverty, HIV/AIDS and advocacy for democracy instead of dictatorship or authoritarianism as well as safeguarding of human rights.
This is a state centered international relations theory which looks at states as the key actors in international politics. The theory is based on the works of historical writers such as Rousseau, Machiavelli and Thucydides (Edkins and Vaughan-Williams 43). The main argument of realism is that international relations are characterized by anarchy, in which nations interact for their selfish interests.
Realism therefore negates the mutual understanding of nations in their relations and puts more emphasis on the struggle of nations to amass as much resources as possible in order to advance their own interests. With realism, economic success is the leading interest in international relations.
The US and its allies are known to promote democracy in many parts of Africa. However, a critical look at the issue shows that in most cases, the US is only interested in having democratic leaders who can help it gain access to markets and raw materials. Leaders who are not ready to cooperate are labeled as criminals, terrorists and unfit to hold office.
Such leaders and their countries are eventually slapped with economic sanctions and are also isolated by the international community. A good example is Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe whose country has been isolated by the international community.
Globalization and neocolonialism Globalization can be defined as the minimization of the differences between people of the world and the maximization of their similarities through interactions, cooperation and communication.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Neocolonialism and Global South specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Before the world wars, the world was characterized by minimal interaction, communication, cross-border movements and language homogeneity. However, after the world wars, this situation changed. The changes were mainly triggered by the desire of nations of the world to unite in various spheres of development, mainly the economy, education, employment, environment and governance.
The main driving forces of globalization were however the advancement in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), improved transport systems, liberalized trade as well as liberalized immigration policies. Globalization has made it possible for any person to work, study, marry and stay in any part of the world irrespective of his or her culture.
After the world wars, a new form of globalization emerged. This was triggered by the new desire to unite the world through the three main development pillars, namely social, political and economic pillars.
Many states thought that the world wars were mainly caused by poor interaction between the nations, arguing that many countries did not care harming others as a result of the old economic philosophy which pegged development on elimination of rivals rather than the cooperation between stakeholders.
The contemporary form of globalization is characterized by the liberalization of trade, the emergence of multinational corporations as well as emergence of global institutions like the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and other UN affiliated institutions.
The advancement in ICT has transformed the world into a global village. Through ICT and improved means of transport, people are more than ever able to do business with each other without any form of barriers.
The developed countries have been in the forefront in propagating the idea of globalization. These countries led by the US usually view the developing countries as their imperial territories. They always ensure that there are in place rules and regulations governing the economic, social and political endeavors of the developing countries (Gills and Thompson 175).
They know that with a global culture in place, they are able to remain ahead by using resources from the developing and the undeveloped countries for their economic, social and political progress (Baylis, Smith and Owens 90).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Neocolonialism and Global South by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The developing countries are known as the markets of the western culture. Culture in this context is taken to mean business, educational, political and governance ideas. Many developing countries in Africa are known to have embraced what is referred to as export based agriculture at the expense of subsistence agriculture. This has led to recurrent food shortages in many developing countries (Buckman 42).
The trend began in early 1980s through what were referred to as Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPS), which required countries in Africa and Asia to embrace economic development at the expense of social and political development (Kelsey 95).
This led to the ever rising levels of poverty and population growth rates in the developing world, forcing them to comply with the policies of the new world order for the fear of economic and political sanctions from the developed countries (Konadu-Agyemang 219).
The undeveloped countries are those which have high poverty levels and illiteracy. Most of these countries are found in Africa and are described as living in the wrong civilization or being uncivilized. These countries are the best dumping sites for western culture. Most of the undeveloped countries are characterized by poor governance, ethnic strife and lack of basic social amenities.
Many analysts have however argued that the poverty and lack of infrastructure in the undeveloped countries can be attributed to the imperial nature of their relationships with their developed counterparts.
Forms of Neocolonialism Colonialism was very popular during the 19th century when the British, the US and other western powers scrambled for resources for their industries in the developing and undeveloped countries.
They used the ideas of religion and education to penetrate and gain control over the countries especially in Africa where there were no formal governments and institutions. Some western powers even went ahead to use the Africans as slaves due to ignorance of the African people.
With time, colonization was slowly brought to an end following the end of world wars. However, what the Africans and the developing countries did not know was that only flags of their countries changed.
Some political analysts have described the independence of many African and Asian countries as “independence of the flag”, meaning that even though the countries are independent, they can only exercise that independence to the extent of self governance alone.
What this means is that the countries are literally colonized but through ideas. It can therefore be argued that even though many developing countries were granted permission to govern themselves, their former colonies still maintained high economic, social and political dominance in their former colonies.
One of the ways in which neocolonialism has been propagated is through what is referred to as the odious debt. This is a debt which is incurred when a loan is given to a poor country but fails to benefit the citizens due to corruption by the leaders. Such countries also lack a clear economic policy to regulate investment, taxation and foreign debt.
The developed countries benefit from the debts because they charge high interest rates on the loans, which are not used for the economic progress of the poor countries but are misappropriated by the corrupt leaders. These dictators in return become loyal to the countries which give them the loans and thus the developed countries get an opportunity to exploit the markets, labor and raw materials of the developing countries.
There are also double standards even on genuine loans when it comes to repayment. When a country like the US gives a loan to another country like Germany or France, the loan is repaid with very little interest or even interest free.
However, when the same loan is given to a developing country, it is repaid with interest which is three to five times higher than what France or Germany would pay. The aim is to ensure that the developing countries do not become economically independent.
Neocolonialism is also propagated using international institutions like the IMF. This institution was formed with an aim of liberalizing the world’s economy to enable the developing countries get loans for their development (Kegley 46).
However, the problem with the IMF is that it gives loans to the developing countries with strings attached. One example to illustrate this is Jamaica, which was given a loan by IMF in 1977 to reconstruct the economy which had disintegrated in 1970.
However, the condition of the loan was that Jamaica was supposed to eliminate all labor laws and especially the law on minimum wage. This paved way for exploitation of the citizens by multinational corporations which underpaid the citizens of Jamaica.
The idea of International Law and neocolonialism International law refers to the set of laws or principles which govern the relationships between sovereign states (Fichtelberg 76). It was initially formed to govern the manner in which nations related to each other with a view of improving their relationships in regard to specific issues. International law initially took the form of treaties and agreements between states, which were either bilateral or multilateral.
The protection of human rights moved the international law to create the international criminal court to try the perpetrators of crimes against humanity.
Since its formation, the court has investigated several perpetrators of crimes against humanity like Charles Taylor of Liberia, Slobodan Milosevic of Yugoslavia and has issued a warrant of arrest against Sudanese president Omar Al Bashir for the chaos and atrocities in the Darfur region of the Sudan.
However, the court has attracted criticism from political analysts who have accused it of double standards in that it only targets the developing countries.
The super powers of the world like the US, which refused to be a signatory to the Rome statute which formed the court, have never been subjected to the court’s jurisdictions despite the fact that they have committed crimes of aggression against other states like the Iraq invasion in 2003.
My prescription on how the international community should deal with the issue of neocolonialism is for international institutions such as the UN and its affiliated institutions to ensure that the international law is followed to the letter.
The UN in particular should seek to empower the developing and undeveloped countries with social, political and economic resources for them to resist any attempts of neocolonialism by the US and its allies.
Works Cited Bauer, Franziska, and Magdalena Holowinska. Colonialism and Neo-Colonialism. München GRIN: Verlag GmbH, 2009. Print.
Baylis, John, Steve Smith, and Patricia Owens. The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
Buckman, Greg. Globalization: Tame it or Scrap it? : Mapping the Alternatives of the Anti-Globalization Movement. London: Zed Books, 2004. Print.
Edkins, Jenny, and Nick Vaughan-Williams. Critical Theorists in International Relations. London: Routledge, 2009. Print.
Fichtelberg, Aaron. Law at the Vanishing Point: A Philosophical Analysis of International Law. Farnham GU9 7PT: Ashgate Publishing, 2005. Print.
Gills, Barry, and William Thompson . Globalization and Global History; Rethinking Globalizations. London: Routledge, 2006. Print.
Kegley, Charles. World Politics: Trend and Transformation. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
Kelsey, Jane. International economic regulation. Sheffield: Ashgate Publishers, 2002. Print.
Konadu-Agyemang, Kwado. IMF and World Bank Sponsored Structural Adjustment Programs in Africa: Ghana’s Experience, 1983-1999.Voices in Development Management. Sheffield: Ashgate Publishers, 2001. Print.
Sartre, Jean-Paul. Colonialism and Neocolonialism. New York: Routledge, 2001. Print.
A Critical Review of The Realm of God’s Providence from the Arminian and Calvinist Perspectives Research Paper best college essay help
Introduction All religions in the world respect the existence of a divine nature or order of things in the universe. In such an arrangement, humans interact with the Supreme Being that is God.1 In this regard, providence is taken as the manner in which God intervenes in the world. There are certain events and occurrences in the world that suggest the intervention of a Supreme Being.
Such events include the existence of the universe itself, the interaction between the world and the rest of the entire solar system, and the existence of life on earth. As a theological concept, providence is divided into two categories. The two categories are special and general providence.
In both cases, the link between God and man is explained. However, like all philosophical issues, debate on the realm of God’s providence has always been looked at differently by various players in theological circles.
In the current paper, the author acknowledges the fact that there are multiple variables that bring about debate in the providence of God’s realm. Towards this end, the author looks at two particular variables in the providence debate.
According to Boyd and Eddy, the two main perspectives of God’s providence are the Calvinist and Arminian views.2 In this paper, the author examines each of the two perspectives at length. In this regard, the paper examines their respective merits and demerits.
The objective of this paper is to determine whether or not there are alternative opinions that respect the two perspectives, based on their merits. To this end, the author restricts their arguments to God’s control over occurrences in the world.
Lutzer affirms that the world acts as the habitat for humans. The various choices made by humans are based on, among others, the various occurrences in the world.3 In this paper, the author associates God’s interventions in the world to the choices that man makes on a daily basis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Realm of God’s Providence: A Critical Analysis Wilson observes that providence is an avenue through which God provides divine guidance to mankind.4 The doctrine is one among the many associated with Christianity. Most of these doctrines are not explained in scriptures, but are alluded to in the various passages that make up the Bible.
Wilson adds that the Word, when observed from a grammatical perspective, allows one to comprehend the omniscient nature of God. In this regard, there is the introduction of the concept of a ‘hidden hand’ that is responsible for providing help to mankind.5 The hidden hand is divine in nature, and it is seen as informing the decisions made by mankind in the world.
The providence of God is controversial in contemporary society. Different religious scholars have adopted different views with regards to this concept. Such diverging viewpoints are informed by the individual scholars’ personal, religious, and professional orientations. Boice argues that there are numerous aspects of the secular world that are not in agreement with the belief in an all powerful God.
According to religious adherents, such secular views allow calamity to befall man.6 In this regard, Boice makes a secular observation that there is evil in the world despite the world being under the rule of a good and all knowing God.7
There are several calamities in the world that afflict mankind. Some of the calamities are natural. They include drought, floods, and earthquakes. However, some of them are manmade. They include wars, crime and such others. Boice makes reference to past encounters with such calamities and how they are referred to as acts of God.8
However, it is important to note at this juncture that some people refer to these calamities as the work of God, while others try to explain them from a scientific point of view. The great debate about providence revolves around the control that God has over man and other creations that exist in the universe.
Is God to blame for the calamities that befall man, or has He allowed the events in the world to happen without His interference? That is the big question. Thus, it is important to understand the various variables and nuanced positions around this subject matter.
We will write a custom Research Paper on A Critical Review of The Realm of God’s Providence from the Arminian and Calvinist Perspectives specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Variables and Nuanced Positions in the Realm of God’s Providence Overview
According to Boice, providence implies that the universe and all that is in it was created by God.9 In this regard, Boice introduces a school of thought that presupposes creation. According to this school of thought, God has not abandoned His creation. Such a presupposition is opposed to the secular insinuation that God has no control over the afflictions that befall man.
To counter this secularist position, providence implies that God is still in charge and relies on His own counsel to govern the affairs of man. Consequently, there are several variables around this topic which help shed some light on this debate.
Does the Universe exist on its own Elements?
The debate on providence is usually triggered by sentiments that allude to God being an absentee administrator of the earth. However, Boice observes that even though nature is in a constant state of change, there seems to be an ordered pattern to these events.10
In essence, there seems to be some uniformity in nature. That notwithstanding, there is no scientific explanation as to the source of the uniformity. In a nutshell, the developments are baffling to man.
In their argument, Boice makes reference to the Bible. Boice quotes Hebrews Chapter 1 verse 13. The verse is used to suggest that the uniformity in nature comes from God.11
The perspective brought into light is that providence cannot be explained by the physical characteristics of the world. In this light, the omniscient and omnipotent ability of God is used to prove that He still runs the world, albeit beyond human understanding.
The Rules of God
In the opinion of Emerson, God has ascribed several rules through which man’s actions are governed.12 To this end, God’s providence is observed in the consequences associated with the act of going against the rules He has put in place.
The implication, in this regard, is that God is a sovereign Being and His providence extends beyond one’s obedience to His rules. Emerson makes reference to a passage in the Bible, where Jonah disobeyed a direct instruction from God. That notwithstanding, God was able to intervene and ensure His instructions were met.
Not sure if you can write a paper on A Critical Review of The Realm of God’s Providence from the Arminian and Calvinist Perspectives by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Conflicting Perspectives in the Providence Debate
In the opinion of Boyd and Eddy, the raging debate on God’s providence revolves around two major topics.13 As aforementioned, the two conflicting perspectives are the Calvinist and Arminian views on providence. In this section, the paper examines each of the perspectives in terms of their characteristics and merits.
However, Boyd and Eddy affirm that both perspectives agree on the fact that the world is governed by God.14 Lutzer points out that the divergence in the two perspectives is in the ‘how’ God’s authority is felt in the world.15
The Calvinist View and the Providence Debate
Boyd and Eddy point out that the Calvinist perspective on providence in God’s realm is unique in itself. According to this view, God has ultimate control over the affairs of man, including his actions and their outcomes.16
The Calvinist view was advanced by John Calvin at the time when Christians were breaking ranks with the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church. The principles underlying this theological perspective are summarized under the acronym TULIP. The principles make up the merits of this perspective.
Lutzer outlines each of the letters in the acronym TULIP as follows:
Lutzer uses the outcomes of Adam and Eve’s disobedience to God to explain this point. According to Lutzer, the outcomes of this act were passed on to subsequent generations.
Consequently, the ability to commit sin was passed on to all humanity. As a result, man is rendered helpless with regards to comprehending the teachings of God, hence the need for salvation.17 In this regard, God’s providence is seen in the way He eventually sends the Holy Spirit to act as a helper in understanding the scriptures and in growing in salvation.
Pink associates this principle to the concept of predestination. The implication here is that there is a group of people whom God has already elected.18 Their election qualifies them to understand the teachings of God. On the other hand, there is a group of people who are destined to spend their eternity in hell with the torture therein.
Similar to the natural occurrence of things in nature, unconditional election assumes that God made the aforementioned selection before creation.19 In this regard, the wayward nature of sinners is considered part of the grand scheme of God’s plans. God knew that they will turn out the way they did.
Calvin argues that the death of Christ was meant to save the whole of mankind.20 The theologian’s implication is that the death of Christ acted as a sacrifice for sins of persons believed to have been saved.
Calvin points out that the individuals that God has elected for salvation are under a calling.21 Calvin adds that the elected cannot escape the knowledge of God.
Perseverance of the Saints
Calvin advances this principle to imply that salvation is a one- off occurrence in the life of an individual.22 To this end, salvation continues as a result of God’s intervention to make an individual perfect to occupy space in heaven.
Arminian Views and the Providence Debate
Prussic points out that these perceptions were advanced by a Dutch theologian named Jarcobus Armenius.23 Prussic points out that the Arminian perspective of God’s authority over the world makes reference to choices. To this end, choices are inevitable actions to mankind. Consequently, God is the one who dictates for the existence of that choice.24
The significant merit in this perspective is that humans have a free will to make decisions on various actions. In this regard, God is not viewed as the cause of sin since He has no control over the choices made by an individual.
However, the Arminian perspective on God’s providence elicits debate due to a number of factors. That choices are judged by God imputes that His authority is secondary to man’s.25 The argument, in this case, questions why a Super Being like God would judge the actions of His creation.
In addition, whereas the Arminian perspective on God’s authority over the world respects Him as being in charge, it belittles His ability of being an all knowing figure. Prussic argues that this perspective implies that God relies on man as the source of His knowledge.
Other merits of this perspective include the fact that depravity does not, in any way, inhibit mankind from making choices based on their free will.26 Further, the Arminian view suggests that people are not pre-elected into salvation like argued in the case of the Calvinist view.
Rather, this perspective introduces faith as the requirement for election into eternal salvation.27 The Arminian view also suggests that everyone is eligible to be called the child of God, only if they accept to be saved.
Arminian view of God’s reign over the world suggests that since people have free will to exercise their choices, it follows then that they can resist the help of the Holy Spirit.28
To this end, man is capable of resisting conversion that results from salvation. Finally, the Arminian perspective relies on man’s free will to guarantee him salvation. In this regard, man is allowed the freedom to believe in the promises of God in order to be saved from eternal damnation.
Notwithstanding the free will that is characteristic of the Arminian view, Prussic cautions that this perspective appears to be an avenue for reducing the power of God.29 The scholar argues that,
God works ALL things after the counsel of His will. See, the Bible exalts God’s will over man’s. Arminianism turns this on its head, exalting the will of man over God’s. Indeed, Arminianism SUBJECTS the will of God to man’s will. It makes God’s knowledge dependent upon men. Does this Arminianism sound like the religion of the Bible? Not for a second. It smacks of humanism. (Prussic 2010, par. 7).
The aspect of free will in this perspective lowers the place of God in the hierarchy. It subordinates God to man. Consequently, His intervention in the affairs of man is not given much attention owing to the perceived inability on His part to dictate what man should and should not do.
Conclusion In this paper, the author examined the two main perspectives that elicit debate on God’s providence. The author affirms that there are alternative views to both perspectives. For example, the doctrine of humanism is brought into light by the mere fact that man has the freedom to do as he pleases. It is expected that man will make choices that guarantee his salvation from damnation.
Humanism also incorporates some elements of Calvinism in that man is qualified to become a child of God. Consequently, the perspective implies that man can choose to become a child of God by accepting Jesus as the Savior. Thus, providence of God’s realm is all about the opinions that people formulate around His position as a ruler of the world.
Bibliography Blanton, Gregg. “Integrating Postmodern and Christian Contemplative Thought: Building a Theoretical Framework.” Journal of Psychology and Christianity 27, no. 1 (2008): 73.
Boice, James. “God’s Providence.” The Highway. 2013. Web.
Boyd, Gregory, and Paul Eddy. Across the Spectrum: Understanding Issues in Evangelical Theology. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2009.
Calvin, John. Institutes of Christian Religion. Philadelphia: McNeill, 1960.
Emerson, Tyler. “The Role of the Providence Debate in the Theory and Practice of Counseling.” Yahoo Voices. 2008. Web.
Eric, Johnson. “Describing the Self within Redemptive History.” Journal of Psychology and Christianity 19, no. 1 (2002): 5-24.
Lutzer, Erwin. The Doctrines that Divide: A Fresh Look at the Historic Doctrines that Separate Christians. Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1998.
Pink, Arthur. The Sovereignty of God. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 2000.
Prussic, Tim. “An Arminian View of God.” Word Press. 2010. Web.
Wilson, Kevin. “The Providence Debate – Calvinism Vs Arminians.” Scribd. 2013. Web.
Footnotes 1. Gregg Blanton, “Integrating Postmodern and Christian Contemplative Thought: Building a Theoretical Framework,” Journal of Psychology and Christianity 27, no. 1 (2008): 73.
2. Gregory Boyd and Paul Eddy, Across the Spectrum: Understanding Issues in Evangelical Theology (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2009), 67.
3. Johnson Eric, “Describing the Self within Redemptive History,” Journal of Psychology and Christianity 19, no. 1 (2002): 5.
4. Kevin Wilson, “The Providence Debate – Calvinism Vs Arminians,” 2013.
5. Wilson, “The Providence Debate.”
6. James Boice, “God’s Providence,” The Highway.
7. Boice, “God’s Providence.”
8. Boice, “God’s Providence.”
9. Boice, “God’s Providence.”
10. Boice, “God’s Providence.”
11. Boice, “God’s Providence.”
12. Tyler Emerson, “The Role of the Providence Debate in the Theory and Practice of Counseling,” Yahoo Voices, 2008. Web.
13. Boyd and Eddy, Across the Spectrum, 67-89.
14. Boyd and Eddy, Across the Spectrum, 67-89.
15. Erwin Lutzer, The Doctrines that Divide: A Fresh Look at the Historic Doctrines that Separate Christians (Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1998), 64-76.
16. Lutzer, The Doctrines that Divide, 65.
17. Lutzer, The Doctrines that Divide, 66.
18. Lutzer, The Doctrines that Divide, 67.
19. Arthur Pink, The Sovereignty of God (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 2000), 91-120.
20. John Calvin, Institutes of Christian Religion (Philadelphia: McNeill, 1960), 73-75.
21. Calvin, Institutes of Christian Religion, 74.
22. Calvin, Institutes of Christian Religion, 75.
23. Tim Prussic, “An Arminian View of God,” Word Press.
24. Prussic, “An Arminian View of God.”
25. Prussic, “An Arminian View of God.”
26. Eric, “Describing the Self,” 18.
27. Eric, “Describing the Self,” 24.
28. Prussic, “An Arminian View of God.”
29. Prussic, “An Arminian View of God.”
Managing Organizational Change by Graetz, F., Rimmer, M., Lawrence, A. and Smith, A. Essay (Book Review) college essay help near me
The relationship between strategic planning and strategic thinking in relation to the management of change Strategic planning involves analysis, establishment, and formalization of procedures and systems. Strategic thinking synthesizes and encourages creativity and intuition across all organizational levels. It aims at innovating and imagining a better future that may cause an organization to redefine its major strategies and/or industry.
Strategic planning, on the other hand, aims at realizing and encouraging strategies initiated in the strategic thinking processes. Formulating and implementing strategic thinking is interactive, whereas strategic planning involves specialization. In strategic thinking, subordinate managers participate directly in strategy-making.
However, in strategic planning, senior managers gather information from subordinate managers and apply it in creating a plan that all managers use for implementation. Graetz’s study of the “Communications Co.” indicates that an organisation needs leaders with emotional intelligence to lead the way in strategic thinking. This is because the process requires full concentration on details.
The two thought processes maintain each other in order to promote effective strategic management. The sphere of strategic planning is deliberate, rational and analytical. Strategic thinking involves intuitive, creative, and emergent thinking. Good planning encompasses both strategies.
Balancing between the two helps in avoiding problems related to the adoption of either over-rationalistic, prescriptive schemes, or unrealistic designs, which have high chances of failure.
Differences between leadership and management in relation to management of change Leadership triggers action that initiates change while management aims at making change operations effective. Change leadership focuses on aligning people to the vision of the organization.
Leadership is the ability to communicate, inspire, and influence employees to work toward the realization of the organization’s goals. Leadership in the 21st Century seeks to understand and manage situational and follower attributes, rather than to divide and control them.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Change management involves a set of fundamental processes aimed at controlling any development effort. These processes weigh performance, staffing, budgeting, planning, and problem-solving in cases where the outcome is not as expected. Effective running of an organization requires proper balancing between leadership and management. The target-setting approach works well when there is good leadership.
Target-setting is useful in focusing attention on individual operations. Successful operations require organizations to demonstrate leadership by placing emphasis on the significance of the operation. Leaders should inspire employees by demonstrating the manner in which set targets contribute toward the organization’s aims.
Whereas leadership and management are different, the skills required in both concepts naturally overlap. Great managers are also leaders. A manager must also demonstrate great leadership skills when managing a team. Emotional intelligence is a key requirement for leaders in the contemporary business world.
Reward and performance management strategies that change employee behavior There are different reward and performance management strategies that organizations use to leverage change in employee behavior. HRM strategies are a major function of human resource professionals and managers. The types of strategies applied determine the quality of employees for an organization and the degree of performance of work.
Performance management focuses on the processes designed to manage the performance of the organization, group, and individual against the objectives of the organization. The organization’s objectives should relate to departmental, team, and individual objectives.
Communication of the objectives in all levels of organizational change enables all employees to embrace change. The organization and employees need a chance to weigh the intended and actual impact of the objectives. Managers and leaders should take necessary steps to improve performance.
Reward management is about allocation of rewards such as promotion and pay for desired outputs. Human resource professionals and managers should ensure that appropriate benefits and rewards reinforce the desired behaviors and outcomes.
We will write a custom Book Review on Managing Organizational Change by Graetz, F., Rimmer, M., Lawrence, A. and Smith, A. specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rewards should focus on encouraging the business and change objectives and the desired culture of the organization. In addition, they should meet the concerns and needs of employees, including purchasing power, equity and need satisfaction in terms of influence, appreciation, recognition, and career development.
Change Tools Lean production refers to operations management approach driven by three targets: zero waste, zero inventory, and zero defects. Zero waste and zero defects relate to consistent improvement designs that are dependent on multi-skilled teams. Zero inventory depends on timely supply chain management in which the order of operation sets off production.
Learning development tools include double-loop learning, single-loop learning, and haphazard learning. Double-loop learning concerns feeding staff input on learning to guide the objectives of performance. Single-loop learning goes in line with performance objectives. Haphazard learning lacks the process of reinforcing positive lessons.
Total Quality Management (TQM) is an established change technique. TQM focuses on the needs and concerns of customers. There are three approaches to quality: quality circles, quality assurance, and statistical quality control. TQM puts emphasis on team-work, communication, cultural factors, and group problem-solving techniques.
The condition of the environment
Best practice and partnership involve consistent improvement in delivery, quality, and cost. The organization develops closer links to clients and suppliers. The organization utilizes technology for strategic advantage. There are human resource policies that ensure consistent flexibility, participation, teamwork, and learning.
Strengths and weaknesses
Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) eliminates structures developed around narrow functional tasks. It recommends integrated business processes whereby new processes replace old processes.
The Wisconsin Cooperative Movement Essay essay help free: essay help free
The agricultural sector plays a very important role in any economy. It is important to note that no country has ever developed without first strengthening its agricultural sector. However, agricultural products are not easy to market and they usually attract low prices compared to other goods.
On the same note, value addition for agricultural products requires heavy capital investments which are out of reach for most individual farmers. However, collectively farmers can have influence over prices and also be able to bargain for increased market share (Janus, 2011, p. 135). Consequently, farmers in many parts of the world have organized themselves into cooperative unions.
These cooperatives have been very influential in the fight for better prices as well as technically supporting farmers. It is important to note that Wisconsin farmers have not been left behind as far as cooperatives are concerned.
A cooperative is defined as a group of people with similar interests who have pulled resources together for their common benefit. It is important to note that cooperatives are non profit making organizations and their main aim is to advance members’ welfare. Historically, cooperatives have been depicted to be autonomous groups of people who aim at mutual social, economic and cultural benefits.
In this regard, cooperatives are supposed to act as collection centers of products from farmers. Cooperatives also help in streamlining the supply chain system to ensure efficiency. On the same note, cooperative societies organize marketing of the products of farmers at good prices (Monaghan, 2008, p. 93).
Additionally, cooperatives help farmers by giving them inputs of production. It is important to note that while small scale farmers find it difficult to individually produce commodities for commercial purposes, cooperatives easily achieve this because several producers bring their products together.
In this regard, people join cooperatives because of various reasons. Producers want to have a steady market for their products and joining cooperatives is one way of achieving this. On the same note, people seek better representation in legislative and regulatory boards, a function which cooperatives achieve effectively.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More More importantly, producers will always go for the best terms of trade. Consequently, they will be willing to join cooperatives since by joining hands with others they are able to bargain for better terms of trade.
The history of cooperatives in Wisconsin dates back to 1800’s when people decided to work together. However, the specific date when cooperatives started is a subject of debate. In the early 19th century, there were several groups of milk farmers who acted collectively in various aspects. The first group that was recognized as a cooperative for production of cheese in United States was started around 1841 in Jefferson County, Wisconsin.
Due to the success of the cheese cooperative, there was formation of many other cooperatives in the years that followed. In the beginning, people came together strictly for cooperative purposes (Hubbell, 2007, p. 49). However, private enterprises invaded the field and changed the spirit of communal activities.
Initially, every factory sold its products on its own, either to individual people or to a group of people. These people, either from the local area or from other counties, came to the factories where prices were bargained and agreements reached. This system led to many problems including price variability. Consequently, cheese boards were developed to assist in negotiation of prices between buyers and sellers. Through this system, a base price was set which was used to pay farmers for their products.
As a result, there was uniformity across the industry. Unfortunately, large cheese dealers and packers used their influence to manipulate the industry and fixed low selling prices which negatively impacted the producers (Monaghan, 2008, p. 87). This was achieved through the board of Plymouth, Wisconsin. Farmers then decided to form another group that would work for their benefit.
This led to formation of the Sheboygan County Cheese Producer’s federation by forty three cheese factories under the leadership of Henry Krumrey. The main agenda of this formation was to sell cheese of member factories. The federation was started in 1914 and has tremendously grown with its members increasing from 43 to over 400. The federation suffered a set back when it was prevented from selling on the Plymouth board while at the same time penalties were imposed on its members.
Moreover, the federation faced opposition from dealers, packers as well as cheese makers. Despite all these, the federation has evolved to become very influential. It also changed its name to Wisconsin Cheese Producers Federation and later to National Cheese Producers’ Federation (Torgerson, 2006, p. 153). The federation strives to ensure that consumers and producers of cheese trade fairly. In this regard, the federation ensures enhancement of quality and efficiency in supply chain.
We will write a custom Essay on The Wisconsin Cooperative Movement specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the other hand, butter producers have also been organizing themselves into cooperatives. While butter production started mainly as a small scale affair, increase in demand led to the need to increase production. Consequently, factories were built to help in large scale production of butter (Janus, 2011, p. 141). This led to rapid increase of butter production in Wisconsin State.
Due to the increase in production and the emergence of the factory system, it became necessary to combine forces. This led to the emergence of cooperative creameries that aimed at enhancing efficiency in production and distribution. The Wisconsin Cooperative Creamery Federation is one of the cooperatives that were formed. The cooperative’s main aim was to inform people on the importance of pulling forces together to improve quality and reduce expenses by cutting some costs (Torgerson, 2006, p. 314).
Other butter producers joined together to form the Land O’Lakes Creameries. This was a relatively larger cooperative with members drawn from Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Iowa. The Creameries aimed at ensuring uniformity in quality of butter sold across the region. Conquering the market through insistent marketing was a vital strategy for the Land O’Lakes Creameries.
It is important to note that other dairy products like condensed milk and market milk have also had their cooperatives. However, these cooperatives have been consolidated in the recent years. Nevertheless, cooperatives continue to reorganize with time due to the changes in the business environment.
Cooperatives are started with the aim of increasing bargaining power in the market. This vision is achieved by ensuring that there is a wide variety of products under the control of cooperatives. In this regard, many cooperatives have grouped together to form mergers. These large scale cooperatives always control supply through membership and contract agreement. On the same note, these cooperatives engage in continuous research to increase market for their products.
They also keep buffer stocks to ensure smooth supply of products throughout the period thus avoiding seasonal interruption in supply (Hubbell, 2007, p. 63). Moreover, cooperatives usually aim at increasing the quality of products that pass through their supply channels so as to enhance demand. Besides increasing the numbers of customers, high quality products are known to attract high prices.
If every single producer is left to sell his or her products, it would be very difficult to get good prices. The small quantity of output that each single farmer gets will not enable them to have any influence in the market. Similarly, delivery of the products to respective customers would be impossible due to the large transportation costs involved.
As a result, cooperatives come in handy to assist producers especially farmers. By collecting products from different farmers, quantity increases thus enabling cooperatives to have high bargaining power.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Wisconsin Cooperative Movement by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the same note, cooperatives ensure that members effectively get information about the markets. Moreover, cooperatives arrange for distribution which is usually efficient. In addition, cooperatives are able to minimize costs by eradicating some unnecessary expenses.
There are various factors that affect performance of cooperative movements and the cooperative spirit. To begin with, cooperatives are known to be involved in aggressive marketing in a move that is meant to increase their market share. This may involve discounts, promotions and offers that are meant to attract customers. All these reduce the income of cooperatives and end up reducing the income of producers.
It should be noted that the overall outcome is against the reason of joining cooperatives, which is to increase returns on products (Hubbell, 2007, p. 49). On the same note, research has shown that prices are usually lower in markets dominated by cooperatives. This is because distribution is efficient and any increase in demand is satisfied without the consumer having to strain.
Similarly, sometimes cooperatives find it difficult to balance between the need for efficiency and democracy. While cooperatives are formed on the principle of democracy, efficiency is their main aim. Unfortunately, both democracy and efficiency cannot always be achieved at the same time.
Moreover, though cooperatives are formed by producers to benefit them, people have to be employed to run their day to day affairs. Additionally, cooperatives work through agents who help in the channels of distribution. This relationship brings about the problem of who should benefit first. In many cases, cooperative members are pushed to the back and are only given what remains after others have been satisfied.
Despite the global shift towards large scale and fewer dairy cooperatives, Wisconsin continues to have smaller but successful dairy cooperatives. However, the farmers are changing their mode of operations as well as their demands.
Consequently, cooperatives will need to undergo structural changes to meet the dynamic needs of members (Monaghan, 2008, p. 112). On the same note, cooperatives will need to advance their services to cater not only for their members, but also the highly selective customers due to technological advancement.
Wisconsin is among the states with the highest number of farmers. Consequently, the state plays a crucial role in the United States of America’s dairy industry. It is also crucial to note that agriculture, and more specifically dairy farming, contributes highly to the economy of Wisconsin.
In this regard, dairy cooperatives play a major role in the economy since they are involved with the collection and marketing of dairy products. As a result, efforts should be made to ensure that the main aim of joining cooperatives is met.
References Hubbell, J. W. (2007). Minneapolis: Urban-environmental Change in the Upper Mississippi, 1824-1924. Ann Arbor: Proquest.
Janus, E. (2011). Creating Dairyland: How Caring for Cows Saved Our Soil, Created Our Landscape, Brought Prosperity to Our State, and Still Shapes Our Way of Life in Wisconsin. Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society.
Monaghan, P. (2008). Wineries of Wisconsin and Minnesota. Madison: Minnesota Historical Society.
Torgerson, R. E. (2006). Truman Torgerson: Leadership Straight from the Shoulder. Bloomington: AuthorHouse.
The painting “Planting Chrysanthemums” Term Paper college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Sense of Space
Delicateness of the Lines
Shading and Coloring
Depiction of Land, River and Sky
Introduction In examining the painting “Planting Chrysanthemums” by Lu Zhi, it can be seen that it possesses stylistic elements found in the types of hanging scroll paintings during the Ming Dynasty. It is interesting to note that this particular painting was a gift to Lu Zhi’s friend Tao Yuanming (considered one of the greatest Chinese poets) who, at the time, had recently gone into seclusion/retirement when this painting was given.
The reason behind this, as indicated by historical accounts and his own poems, was his aversion towards his career in the military and the sordid politics of the Jin dynasty.
The painting was thus meant as a means of reinvigorating the mind of Yuanming by show casing a calming and ethereally peaceful scene. Lu Zhi’s “Planting Chrysanthemums” invokes a sense of openness through the depiction of a vast clam space in which the viewer observes a land devoid of conflict where peace and calmness reign.
Sense of Space When examining the painting, one cannot help but see the disparity between the clustered trees, rocks and objects at the bottom to the huge expanse of open space on the top. I believe that this stylistic element was intentional on the part of the artist to enhance the feeling of openness and space within the work wherein the viewer cannot help but attempt to imagine what lies beyond the open expanse that has been showcased.
The result of such introspection is a feeling of insignificance wherein one things that the problems that they have experienced through their life is insignificant compared to the vastness of the world in front of them.
Delicateness of the Lines In the case of “Planting Chrysanthemums” a heavier shading style on the lines of the painting is eschewed in favor of a lighter and more delicate appearance in the formation of the lines and the shading of the mountains and trees. As it can be seen, a considerable degree of detailing was done in the foreground (i.e. the rocks and trees) and fades as one looks up and to the clouds.
This is of course a recurring element in a large percentage of ancient and modern artwork that depicts vast landscapes, however, in the case of Planting Chrysanthemums” this helps to expand on the feeling of calm openness that the painter was attempting to accentuate. Another facet of the work that should be pointed out is the level of detail that went into trees and rocks.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even though the painting is supposed to merely depict a landscape and such level of detail is not necessarily, the fact that it is there helps to accentuate the work as a whole by making it seem like a faded picture rather than a mere painting. It was likely the artist’s intent to make the painting seem as a realistic as possible to further enhance the sense of openness as the viewers eye’s shift from the detailed bottom to the open sky and mountains on top.
Shading and Coloring The painting primarily uses tones of brown and green to help enhance the realism of the trees and mountains, however, these colors are applied in a very light and soft manner thereby creating a more surreal image which does not force its realism onto the viewer but rather transitions them into an appreciation of the quiet nature of the both the painting and the scene it is trying to depict.
The different levels of light tones and shading which grow considerably less pronounced as one views up the scroll is, I believe, an intentional aspect of this painting wherein the rubbed out and light shading effect was meant to depict some form of mist like setting in the foreground and background of the painting.
This helps to accentuate the ethereal quality of the work which many art scholars apparently relate to Lu Zhi’s interpretation of an ever distant utopia that is eternally peaceful.
Depiction of Land, River and Sky Another facet of the painting that should be explored is the apparent transitory nature of land to river. In the very middle of the painting we can see what appears to be the home of Lu Zhi yet as you look up it seems to take on the characteristics of a river. In fact, from a top down perspective it even seems to be a river from the mountains flowing down.
This can actually be considered as an abstract concept being incorporated into an early Chinese work of art wherein the normal boundaries depicting a separation between land, river and sky is removed. I believe this is an intentional aspect of the work since based on the inscription of the author the home of his friend is near the sea.
As such, the seemingly combined nature of land, river and sky can be considered a subtle message saying that despite the distance between them they will always be connected.
We will write a custom Term Paper on The painting “Planting Chrysanthemums” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion ” Lu Zhi’s “Planting Chrysanthemums” invokes a sense of openness through the depiction of a vast clam space in which the viewer observes a land devoid of conflict where peace and calmness reign. This, I believe, is one of the reasons why “Planting Chrysanthemums” is a more celebrated work of Chinese art from this time period as compared to other examples since its is both different, in the sense that it uses a lighter style of outlining and shading, but familiar due to the thematic elements seen within which were prevalent in the Ming Dynasty.
Review: What is this “Mother Fxxker with a Hat” All About? Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Whenever someone sits down to watch a play that has such a controversial title, one does so expecting anything. The performances in “The Mother Fxxker with the Hat” live up to this expectation. The play is mostly a high-octane shouting match that has the actors’ foaming mouths showering the front row audience with spit.
The shouting matches aside, the comedy rich play is still a beautiful ensemble of talent. The title of the play should not lead anyone into thinking that the performance in this play is reckless.
“The Mother Fxxker with the Hat” was scripted by Stephen Adly Guirgis and it is now showing at the San Francisco Playhouse. The staging at Playhouse marks the West coast’s premiere of Guirgis’ play. The play premiered on Broadway in 2011 featuring a star-studded cast. The production is done under the direction of Bill English.
In the production’s program, the director notes that Guirgis’ characters are always meant to be on the path of discovering their spirituality. English makes references to actors in another of Guirgis’ production known as “Judas Iscariot”. In this latest production, the supposedly spiritual characters are struggling addicts who are embroiled in a fusion of jealousy, love, and addiction.
The performances in this play are supposed to be comical all through save for some moments near the end of the play. The cast of this play is magnificent to say the least. The actors bring out Guirgis’ comedy with starling prowess.
The main character is Jackie a former drug dealer who is being released from prison after a two-year sentence. Gabriel Marin presents a very likeable Jackie who is determined to finish his parole without incident. To accomplish this, Jackie joins a twelve-step rehabilitation program.
Gabriel Marin is able to shift his performance from the calm Jackie we first meet to the out of control Jackie who suspects his girlfriend of cheating. The shifts in his emotions are seamless and he is able to carry his audience through a journey of emotions, anger, and raw comedy. As the performer who has to interact with most of the other characters, the success of other performers depends a lot on his performance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In this play, Marin the main performer is taking a comically charged and adventurous journey. He is on a quest to look for the “mother fxxker” left a hat at his girlfriend’s house after a probable illicit liaison. The lovable Marin’s first lively performance is witnessed when he goes to see his addiction sponsor about this matter. When he gets to Ralph’s place, he discloses to him that Veronica has been having an affair behind his back.
Even though Veronica is still the one doing drugs, her overall composure seems better than that of both Jackie and Ralph. Marin and Lumbly’s performances are top notch as far as their explosiveness is concerned. Jackie is going to seek his sponsor’s help because he suspects that a shock like this is enough to make him relapse. However, when Jackie gets to Ralph’s place, Lumbly delivers a very mixed performance.
On one side, he presents the audience with a caring sponsor who has his life in order. On the other hand, he is still able to communicate his innermost struggles to the audience. When this play premiered, Ralph’s role was assigned to Chris Rock, a very seasoned actor. This initial casting might have been by chance or by design. However, it is clear that this role is very important to the play. Ralph is by all means the epicenter of all the themes in this play.
For instance, through Lumbly’s Ralph the audience is able to grasp the two-sided nature of addiction. Ralph exemplifies those people that do not get into drugs because of their under achievement. His performance also shows that addiction is mostly as a result of inner struggles as opposed to outer struggles. Through this scene, it is also clear that although both Lumbly and Jackie are on the right path, their battle is far from over.
Carl Lumbly’s Ralph is one of the people who interacts with Jackie the most. As Marin’s sponsor, Lumbly has to tune his performance with that of Marin. Ralph’s character is akin to the play’s success. When the play premiered, Chris Rock took up this role and it has remained popular since then.
The expletive-filled conversations between Jackie and Ralph are supposed to be both emotional and comically vulgar. The actors portraying these emotions try their best to maintain this balance but eventually their performances end up being more vulgar than comical.
The supporting cast in this play does a good job that warrants a nod of approval from the audience. In most productions, the performances of the supporting cast are easily overshadowed by those of the main players. “The Mother Fxxker with the Hat” features a supporting cast that bears striking resemblances with the main cast. Julio is the only supporting actor whose performance stands out.
We will write a custom Essay on Review: What is this “Mother Fxxker with a Hat” All About? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the supporting performers in this production is Isabella Ortega who assumes the role of Veronica, Jackie’s long time girlfriend. Veronica and Jackie have been on a journey of love since the eighth grade. When Jackie is arrested for selling drugs from their New York apartment, Veronica waits for him to serve his two-year sentence. Ortega’s performance is good enough to confuse even those who are keen among the audience. She is able to exemplify a loyal and faithful girlfriend until the hat incident.
This is where she is able to deliver a confusing performance. Half of the audience believes her performance as a faithful girlfriend while the other half questions her faithfulness. Her foul-mouthing techniques are also hard to forget. The most notable performance by a supporting actor is by Ruddy Guerrero who plays Julio. He is able to deliver a macho performance and at the same time deliver the play’s funniest performance.
The scene with Jackie and Ralph seeking his help when they are hiding a gun is exceptionally funny. His performance is basically the “other type of performance” in this play. Margo Hall who plays Victoria, Ralph’s wife was billed as one of the most seasoned actors in the play. However, her performance did not have a lasting impression on me. It is mostly lukewarm and a bit too procedural.
The director of this play is blessed with a huge stage that can make any stage-designing dreams a reality. English does not let this advantage slip through his fingers. Instead, he makes use of the huge stage by putting together three different scenes. All three scenes are at different places. One is a bedroom, the other is a living room, and the third one is the scene of a balcony.
The stage is designed to depict New York in the most realistic way possible. The exterior brick-wall design on either side of the stage makes it feel like a real city. The difference between Ralph’s middle class apartment and Veronica’s colorful low-income house is emphasized by the stage’s design.
Although these two live in different worlds financially, they both have to deal with the demons of addiction. The placement of Julio’s apartment is meant to liken him to Jackie’s guardian angel. This is because Julio is always prepared to offer his help to Jackie.
“The Mother Fxxker with a Hat” is a play that focuses on the addiction theme. Guirgis meant to portray addiction as the unifying factor in this play. Jackie paints the picture of a lovable under achiever while Ralph is a diligent man who has accomplished a lot. Both men are judged differently from the outside but they still have to fight similar battles.
The playwright does not wish to engage the audience in an emotional roller coaster. Instead, he knows that after all the laughter dies down, deep thoughts will inadvertently take over. This play is like one of those movies that have you laughing at one moment, and then have you depressed the next.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Review: What is this “Mother Fxxker with a Hat” All About? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This production is almost like a comedy marathon because its emotional bits are very few. During the entire show, the performers use gestures, loud voices, and physical expressions of emotions. The elegant nature of this stage makes this production seem elegant. The wideness of the stage and the height of the ceilings seem to be the only things protecting the audience from the type of language being exchanged at the stage.
English’s superb directing is mixed with accurate portrayals of Veronica’s highs, Victoria’s repressed anger, Jackie’s controlling nature, Ralph’s slyness, and Julio’s good nature to make this play a success.
Apple Function and Form Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Apple Inc. is a publicly listed American company specializing in the production of high technological electronic products, computer hardware, and software. The company sells software, Smartphone, e-Book readers, Electronic music, Computers, and other consumer electronics. An entrepreneur named Steve Jobs started up the corporation in the fiscal 1977 (Rich, 2012).
Even though many products urbanized under his watch including PowerBook G3 and iMac online store, the company continues to rely on electronics and box computer to prevail in the market and make sales. The company has been bringing out cut-price versions of its Smartphone.
Looking even further, the company is staking its future on new products that could take electronics and computing power even deeper into everyday lives of consumers (Antràs
Marketing Management Report college essay help near me
Introduction Al Ahlia Gulf Line (AGL) is a leading manufacturer and marketer of soft drinks in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Some of brands marketed by AGL in the UAE include Fanta, Arwa, Burn, Coke, and Sprite. Coca Cola is a leading company in the world. Coke’s brand equity is also strong in the UAE. The parent company began in 1892 after Charles Candler incorporated the organization.
The company originated in the United States. Today, Coca Cola markets its soft drinks to consumers across the globe. The company’s background dates back to 1886 when Candler’s father, John Pemberton, came up with the original “Coca Cola formula”. By 1899, Coca Cola was a leading company in America.
In the past years, the company has promoted the best business practices thus becoming a leading player in the global soft drink industry. In the UAE, Coca Cola (AGL) began its operations 1989. The company has succeeded in the region due to its quality bottling operations and distribution systems.
Marketing Environment There are different macro and micro environmental factors that affect the performance of a business. Micro-environmental factors are the “internal” aspects affecting a business. Macro environmental aspects are those factors that a firm cannot control. In the UAE, Coca Cola has been considering such macro and micro environmental aspects in order to emerge successful.
Micro Environmental Factors Organizational Aspects
The company embraces the best managerial strategies. This makes it easier to establish the best internal policies, objectives, and strategies.
Consumers and Suppliers
The company has to consider the bargaining powers and expectations of both its suppliers and consumers in order to remain profitable. The managers should consider the best principles in order to ensure the company is on the right path towards success.
There are different “fast food” companies in the region. These companies produce fruit juices and mineral water. As well, Pepsi is a leading marketer of soft drinks in the UAE market. These competitors might affect the company’s performance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Marketing Mix
Al Ahlia Gulf Line (AGL) uses the best marketing mix in order to remain successful. The marketing includes aspects such as “price, place, promotion, advertising, and quality of its products”.
Macro Environment Factors: PESTEL Analysis Political Factors
Al Ahlia Gulf Line (AGL) operates in a politically stable country. The region has a reliable political climate and labor practices. However, insecurity is also common due to terrorism and insurgencies.
The UAE is definitely portraying a positive economic growth. This explains why the company should always consider the economic factors in order to remain profitable. The company can succeed in the long term.
The region is experiencing a socio-cultural change. The MNC should consider such changes in order to succeed in this market.
The company should consider new technologies because they influence logistical operations, product development, and service delivery. These are critical aspects for the company.
The world is presently becoming aware of the environment due to climate change. AGL should consider the best practices in order to safeguard the environment.
There are certain legislations affecting different companies in the UAE. These range from ethical practices, business policies, environmental legislations, and food safety measures. It has been necessary for the company to reconsider such legal aspects.
We will write a custom Report on Marketing Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Segmentation
One of the company’s favorite products is “Coke”. The use of segmentation can make Coke successful in the UAE. In order to make this particular product successful, AGL should consider the idea of “multi-segmentation” as detailed below.
Al Ahlia Gulf Line (AGL) can target different regions whereby more individuals will consume the product. The main regions will include the major urban centers and cities in the country.
The company can target the population based on income levels, gender and age. For instance, the company should target individuals between 16-45 years of age. This population has a good income and is willing to spend money on luxury products.
Many consumers are conscious about brands. That being the case, more consumers will be willing to consume Coca Cola’s products.
Current Target Market There are certain values that describe the target market for Coke. Most of the consumers have similar needs and expectations. The first thing to consider is the issue of geographic location. The potential consumers are in the urban areas. As well, the company should consider certain issues such as demographics, lifestyles, and behaviors. Most of the targeted consumers are between 16 and 45 years of age.
The company can use “socioeconomic segmentation” in order to market its product successfully. The issues to consider include gender, occupation, personal expectations, and education level. The company will also have to consider the attitudes, lifestyles, and behaviors of its consumers.
Description of the Market Opportunity The existence of a “marketing opportunity” makes it easier for a company to realize its goals. To begin with, the company has a unique brand equity thus making it a major competitor in the industry. The country is today receiving more tourists and investors.
The UAE is also experiencing a robust growth in terms of economy and political stability. More consumers are becoming financial stable and aware of their expectations. This has contributed to a “lifestyle change” thus presenting new opportunities to market Coke to the consumers.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Marketing Analysis The study focused on key aspects such as “economic position”, consumer expectations, and public awareness. The study also examined the past and current position of various soft drinks in the UAE market. After conducting the survey, the gathered information presented the behaviors of the potential consumers.
By so doing, it was possible to establish the existing opportunities for the company. As well, the respondents provided a “detailed description of the existing opportunities for Coca Cola” in the market. This made it easier to come up with a clear description of the marketing opportunity for the company.
Proposed Product Al Ahlia Gulf Line (AGL) can successfully introduce a new product in the UAE. The best product to introduce in this market is “Diet Coke”. Based on the existing marketing opportunities, AGL can market Diet Coke successfully to the consumers. The marketer needs to use the “three levels of the product”. The first one is the “core product”. Coke’s brand equity will make this level successful.
The second level is the “actual product”. Diet coke can help people address their health problems and benefit from the product. Finally, the company needs to use the best marketing mix, promotions and advertisements to add value to this new product in the UAE market.
Diet Coke SWOT Analysis Strengths
The product is healthy and tasty.
Diet coke has succeeded elsewhere.
It is competitive in the market.
The company’s “brand equity” is unique.
It is a new product.
Marketing incentives are lacking for Diet Coke.
Can be described a “foreign product”.
More consumers are sensitive about their health.
More people are consuming soft drinks.
Coca Cola dominates the market.
There are stable economic and political factors.
There is competition from substitute goods such as “fresh juices”.
There is competition from Pepsi.
Proposed Pricing The pricing strategy for Diet Coke should be in accordance with the existing competition and consumer expectations. The product’s price will be slightly higher than that of the competing products. The approach will make Diet Coke a “superior product”. The price should also be sensitive to the prices of other competing companies such as Pepsi.
Proposed Distribution Process After introducing the product and identifying the targeted consumers, the company will use its effective supply chain system. The approach will ensure equal distribution of the product across the UAE.
The marketers and distributors will be monitoring the level of consumption in order to promote a steady chain supply for the new product. The supply system will include distribution centers, convenient stores, shopping malls, and customer outlets.
Proposed Promotion Mix Promotion is an important aspect of marketing mix. AGL should employ the right personnel to market the product directly to the consumers. As well, sales promotions will sensitize the people about the benefits of the new product. The company will also use sporting events to increase awareness.
The company will also use different media and celebrities to advertise Diet Coke in the country. The use of internet-based promotion will make the product successful. For example, AGL can embrace the use of different social media in order to market its new product.
The Nature of Managerial Work in the Contemporary Business Essay college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Understanding managerial work
Overview of research in managerial work
Research in managerial work and evaluation of the findings
Introduction Management is often termed as a wide area of study by a substantial number of people, including managers, managerial experts, researchers, and the wider section of the modern population. A substantial number of people in the modern society are still highly involved in managerial research. Diverse aspects of management, for instance management skills, are given much attention in modern research in management.
Management is an old field of study that has attracted a lot of researchers. It can be said that all activities that are conducted in the modern economy revolves around aspects of management. It is good to explore how the field of management has changed over time. This can only be done through an explicit exploration of the course, which management has taken especially from the 19th century onwards.
However, it is vital to note that the foundations of the studies and practice of management in the 19th century were derived from the developments in management in the 18th century (Willmott 1987: 249). In order to make an explicit comprehension and acknowledgement, or even criticism of modern managerial work, one must understand the methods that have been deployed in management research over the past five decades.
A lot of empirical explanations and models of management have been developed out of the wide research that has been and is still being done in the field of management. The modern managers are faced with complex organizational tasks due to the needs and demands of the work environment (National Research Council 1999: 161).
The changes that are seen in the nature of managerial work in the contemporary business landscape are highly dependent on the findings of research studies that have been conducted by managerial experts (Mintzberg 1998: 27). This paper carries out an analytical evaluation of the studies that have been done in the field of management for the last five decades.
The paper analyzes the findings of the researches in order to bring out the most critical findings. The paper begins by developing a brief overview of managerial work, after which an exploration of diverse studies in managerial work is done.
Understanding managerial work According to Tengblad (2012: 312), the concept of managerial work is quite broad. It is critical to understand what entails managerial work before exploring research work and findings that have been derived from the research. Managerial work comprises of a set of activities and practices that are developed and implemented by organizational leaders who are at times referred to as organizational managers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As used in this paper, managerial work refers to a number of practices that are desired in administration of organizations and institutions. This includes the setup of work environments and the skills that are demanded for setting up such environments. Therefore, managerial work as used in this paper revolves around the issue of skills and skill requirements and developments by both managers and subordinates in diverse organizational setups.
There is a need to explicate diverse studies about managerial skills, and to what level the findings in these studies point to the relevance of certain managerial skills in contemporary management. A wide section of people point to the need for the advancement of managerial skills of modern managers. These skills cannot be effectively advanced without a look into the previous research findings on managerial work (Tengblad 2012: 312-313).
A critical look into these researches can help modern managerial experts understand areas that need improvement through the establishment of further research in new forms of management. A lot of attention is being paid to the nature of managerial work in contemporary organizations. It is argued that there is insufficient empirical research on the nature of managerial work that is exercised by modern managers.
While this is looked at as a crisis by a section of experts, a number of people see this as an opportunity to explore other research findings in order to come up with empirical findings on the nature of work and the managerial skills that are demanded of modern managers (National Research Council 1999: 161).
It is critical to observe that managerial work is deeply rooted in education. Managerial education is oriented towards equipping learners with the moral requirement in diverse contexts of management. Managerial education is critical in the advancement of various fields of research in managerial work (Burgoyne 1995: 92).
Overview of research in managerial work As noted earlier, managerial work is the pillar of the functionality of almost all organizations that operate in the contemporary environment. Therefore, it is easy for one to conclude that there is a lot of research in managerial work. While this seems to hold some logic, it is vital for people involved in the field of management to ascertain the existence of research and research findings in managerial work.
This can help to categorize the findings in managerial work over time, thus making it easy pattern the methods utilized in the researches with the findings of the researches. Research work in the field of management can be traced from the ancient times, when a number of managerial theories and models were developed. These include the theory of bureaucracy by Weber and the principles of management by Fayol. These theories and models fall in the classical times (Thomas 2003: 38).
We will write a custom Essay on The Nature of Managerial Work in the Contemporary Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is argued that there has been a paradigm shift in managerial work, which has been witnessed from the mid years of the 20th century to date. The shift is likened to the changing nature of the work environment, marked by things like increased competition between business organizations, decrease in the amount of resources, and the rise in the number of external factors that affect organizational existence and operation.
These findings from the recent research work have been critical to the development of new models of management, which captures the changing demands in organizational management. The questioning of the classical theorists of management is the denominator for the development of modern research in managerial work.
Modern research in management is quite elusive and captures all the critical issues that appertain to management in organizations. Modern research focuses on the roles of managers, employees and other organizational stakeholders in the shaping the managerial environment in organizations (Lee
Incremental innovation Thesis essay help site:edu
Table of Contents SWOT analysis and Porter’s Forces
The Thought Process
Business Situation and Virtuous team
Small and gradual improvements on a product, service, or process are incremental innovations that add value and lead to sustained customer benefits, satisfaction, growth, quality of services, and maintains and improves a service or product’s position in the market. Innovations can be incremental, radical, and disruptive. However, this paper will emphasize on sustained incremental innovation.
This approach is integrated in an organization to goes through the transformation stages of growth that include fluid, transitional, and the specific stage of innovation to competitively remain and maintain a strong market position (Innovation Zone 2006).
In addition, organizations integrate SWOT and other competitive forces identified by porter as rivalries, threats of substitutes, buyer’s power, supplier’s power, and threat of entry in service provision in the incremental innovation process. (Porter 2004).These approaches may include relationships tailored to march a company’s strategic objectives and service delivery relationships.
The innovation process entailed working in a team with each member assigned different roles and responsibilities towards innovatively attaining improved service delivery at every stage of the company’s growth. Integrating incremental innovation and sustainability came with derived benefits of reduced transaction costs, good will, and effective problem solving methods. These lead to improved performance in services deliveries in line with the organization’s strategic vision in a dynamic business environment as illustrated on diagram 1 below.
Incremental innovation is a tool that has transformed companies and enabled them to stay competitive in a dynamically changing business environment and to maintain their lead in the market. In addition, team involvement enhances incremental innovation as the team employed various approaches to service innovation and problem solving skills illustrated on diagram 1 and 2 below.
SWOT analysis and Porter’s Forces The researcher actively participated in the innovation process in the capacity of Optus DSL team leader. One of the qualifying factors for success in incremental service innovation and sustainability included a SWOT analysis and integration of Porter’s forces within the service provision of the company (Porter 2004).
Incremental service innovation included active participation by team members with new and dynamic approaches within the organization’s structure (Innovation Zone 2006). These included conducting a SWOT analysis by identifying the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats facing Optus DSL.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Optus DSL’s strengths lay in its strong capital base, a strong and common brand name, a wide and strong market position, well trained and skilled technical team, a strong and experienced management team, reliable suppliers, clear and well specified communication channels both in the vertical and horizontal directions, and a clear organizational vision.
Different kinds of teams may be designed and incorporated in the innovation process. These may include virtual teams, virtuoso teams, and common teams, a virtuous team’s elements characterized the team the researcher was involved in. The team leader identified culture and language as factors that made the team to work cohesively with trust as fundamental tools for team work in the innovation process.
While a healthy team works towards achieving a common goal, members, must be characterized by a shared understanding, fully committed to the pursuit of the business organization’s goals while abiding by the team rules.
A successful team must also be characterized by commitment to a common business purpose, in this case service provision. According to the article Innovation Zone (2006), it was critical for the team members to hold the same values and to work with the same views integrated in the pursuit of the same business goals.
One of the critical success factors included a clear comprehension of the organization’s culture and working environment. A team leader, characterized by high achievement, time management, personal effectiveness, problem solution and decision making, and effective communication skills, in liaison with the organization’s management was selected to provide leadership and guidance when carrying out incremental service provision in line with the organization’s vision and business strategy (Innovation Zen 2006).
Successful service innovation was a characterizing hallmark for the team. The strategic approach to success was characterized by a functional approach that thrived on an in-depth analysis of the service problem which relied on an excellent decision making process in the innovation process (Burnett 1996).
Baumgartner (2009) argues a comprehensive innovation structure should be embedded in an organization where the innovation team should identify the actual problem or challenge at hand. In-depth analysis of the problem was done through a brainstorming session. The problem included declining customer numbers, dissatisfied customers, declining profits, and poor service delivery. The project commenced and ended as illustrated on figure 2 below.
We will write a custom Thesis on Incremental innovation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The creative abilities of the team members were effectively and efficiently utilized through team and management collaborations. The problems were identified and through these collaborations, a number of potential solutions were generated. In addition to that, the team’s effectiveness was identified when new data about the problems were presented.
Baumgartner (2009) asserts that a number of these new data and ideas were combined while the team went further to consider the potential solutions. A satisfied team emerged with team members entirely satisfied with the problem definition, their inputs, and solutions suggested for the problems.
Baumgartner (2009) identifies a Scientific Peer Review Evaluation approach to service innovation as the basis of service innovation. This stage was identified by intense discussions on the best approach to service innovation. Team members did not participate equally though disparities were always kept checked. Uneven participation in the discussion was identified with the potential create uneven participation in the innovation process illustrated on diagram 4.
In addition, gender and organizational culture were critical issues considered in the discussion. Success in the team evolved around the leader and team members’ abilities to recognize varied viewpoints as conflicts that stemmed from a healthy approach to problem solutions could be amicably resolved.
The Thought Process The innovation process went through a period of intense discussions on appropriate solutions by team members. According to the article The Thought Process (n.d), team remember went through a mental process characterized by reasoning by inferring on previous experience and available data and knowledge, deductive reasoning where logical analysis was done on available information, inductive reasoning, and adductive reasoning where actions that cause results were critically evaluated.
Then team members entered the problem solving stage of finding solutions to problems on service provisions and sustainability based on Gestalt’s theory illustrated on figure 5. The theory asserts problem solving draws on both insight and experience. The discussion also centered on conducting a gap analysis on the company’s services delivery to identify service provision gaps.
Business Situation and Virtuous team Selecting a virtuous team depended on the business situation of the company in question. According to Lovelock, Patterson, and Walker (2007), the business organization was characterized by a wide area of coverage and customer base. While the virtuous team, a variant of a face-to-face team, could operate in a confined environment, interaction between virtuous team members was highly accelerated as the business environment was in a dynamically evolving technological environment (Lovelock, Patterson, Walker,
The use of stream-of-consciousness technique in The Dead and in The Heart of Darkness Essay college essay help online
One of the most peculiar characteristics of now famous literary works, published throughout the 20th century’s early phase, is that the themes and motifs, contained in these works, reflect the essence of what was a predominant socio-philosophical discourse of the time.
In its turn, this discourse used to be largely concerned with the fact that, throughout the mentioned historical period, the newly emerged science of psychology started to people with an in-depth insight into the workings of their psyche (Kessen and Cahan 640).
Consequently, this was causing intellectually advanced individuals to assume that the particulars of how they assess the surrounding reality cannot be discussed outside of what happened to be their socially suppressed unconscious anxieties.
This, of course, created objective preconditions for many writers, to decide in favor of taking a practical advantage of the so-called ‘stream-of-consciousness’ narrative technique, when readers are being exposed to the flow of seemingly random semi-conscious thoughts, on the part of the featured characters – hence, gaining a better understanding of the motivations behind the concerned characters’ behavior.
In my paper, I will discuss the particulars of this technique’s deployment in James Joyce’s short story The Death and in Josef Conrad’s novel The Heart of Darkness, while elaborating on how it accentuates the discursive significance of both literary masterpieces.
Nowadays, it became a commonplace practice among literary critics to refer to Joyce’s The Death in terms of a ‘modernist story’. One of the reasons for this is that, unlike what it is being usually the case in ‘Victorian stories’, the manner in which the story’s main character Gabriel addresses life-challenges, has very little to do with his ability to rationalize the emanations of the reality around him.
Unlike Victorian characters, Gabriel does not strive to adjust his behavior to be consistent with the provisions of the conventional morality, but rather allows his highly subjective perception of the world around him to affect the manner in which he behaves.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The validity of this suggestion can be well illustrated in regards to the scene, where overwhelmed with the sensation of an emotional discomfort towards the idea that there can be a good sense in exploring one’s ‘cultural roots’, Gabriel simply tells Miss Ivors that he hates the country in which he happened to live.
Nevertheless, the way in which Gabriel acts makes a perfectly good logic. This is because, throughout the story’s entirety, Gabriel is being represented as an individual that never ceases to remain in a close touch with his irrational emotions. In their turn, these emotions appear to derive out of the character’s memories of the past, which of course justifies the author’s deployment of stream-of-consciousness technique, as yet additional instrument of ensuring the perceptual plausibility of the plot.
For example, while contemplating upon what may have contributed towards his sensation of an existential inadequateness, Gabriel cannot help recalling the past-images of himself: “He (Gabriel) saw himself as a ludicrous figure, acting as a pennyboy for his aunts, a nervous, well-meaning sentimentalist, orating to vulgarians and idealising his own clownish lusts, the pitiable fatuous fellow he had caught a glimpse of in the mirror” (Joyce 20).
Even though that, formally speaking, exposing readers to Gabriel’s self-reflective images may be considered as such that does not make much of a sense, since there is no any way for the latter to relate to these images cognitively/emotionally, this is far from being the actual case.
The reason for this is apparent – while provided with the opportunity to catch the semantically unrelated glimpses of Gabriel, throughout his life’s different phases, readers are able to gain a better understanding of the main character’s state of mind.
There is even more to it – the deployment of stream-of-consciousness technique in The Dead, was also meant to encourage readers to consider the possibility that, contrary to the philosophical conventions of the 19th century, the particulars of how people indulge in a rational reasoning are predetermined by the working of their unconscious.
Therefore, it will not be much of an exaggeration to suggest that, apart from adding to the plot’s plausibility, the application of stream-of-consciousness technique in the story also intended to serve the purpose of enlightening readers on how one’s mind actually works. That is, after having formulated a particular conscious thought, people unconsciously seek to confirm this thought’s soundness, in regards to what used to be the emotionally relevant circumstances, at the time of its formulation.
We will write a custom Essay on The use of stream-of-consciousness technique in The Dead and in The Heart of Darkness specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This explains their tendency to assess the validity of abstract ideas through the perceptually subjective lenses of their past-memories/experiences: “He (Gabriel) wondered at his riot of emotions of an hour before. From what had it proceeded? From his aunt’s supper, from his own foolish speech, from the wine and dancing, the merry-making when saying good night in the hall, the pleasure of the walk along the river in the snow” (22).
As the above-quote suggests, it is specifically the sphere of their irrational unconscious, in which people’s rational thoughts actually ‘reside’. Even though that, as of today, the validity of this suggestion is being commonly deemed self-evident, at the time when Joyce was working on his story, the idea that one’s behavior sublimates his or her essentially unconscious angsts, was considered truly innovative.
This explains the ‘modernist’ status of the story in question – its themes and motifs, made even more recognizable by the author’s deployment of stream-of-consciousness technique; do extrapolate Joyce’s anticipation of modernity. Therefore, there is nothing odd about the fact that even today, The Death continues to be referred to, as such that constitutes a particularly high literary value.
Whereas, in The Death, the utilization of stream-of consciousness technique serves primarily the function of emphasizing the plot’s plausibility, the deployment of the same technique in Conrad’s novel The Heart of Darkness appears to serve the function ensuring the structural integrity of the narration, concerned with Marlow’s quest in the primeval jungles of Africa.
After all, Marlow’s voyage into the ‘heart of darkness’ has a strongly defined metaphorical significance, which in turn allows us to discuss Conrad’s novel, as such that it is being subliminally reflective of one’s semi-conscious voyage into the dark depths of his or her unconscious psyche.
Therefore, it is fully explainable why the motif of darkness appears to be present in many of Marlow’s lapses into ‘consciousness-streaming’, such as the following one: “I saw him extend his short flipper of an arm for a gesture that took in the forest, the creek, the mud, the river – seemed to beckon with a dishonoring flourish before the sunlit face of the land a treacherous appeal to the lurking death, to the hidden evil, to the profound darkness of its heart” (Conrad 10).
Apparently, one of the reasons why Conrad used the stream-of-consciousness technique repeatedly, throughout the novel’s entirety, is that it helped him to advance the idea that one’s prolonged self-reflexing is being potentially capable of driving the concerned individual towards insanity.
This the reason why, while exposed to Marlow’s ‘day dreaming’, readers often experience a hard time, while trying to separate the de facto reality, which surrounds the character, from the one he had already been faced with (or reflected upon) in the past.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The use of stream-of-consciousness technique in The Dead and in The Heart of Darkness by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The following quotation is particularly illustrative of this statement’s legitimacy: “The broadening waters flowed through a mob of wooded islands; you lost your way on that river as you would in a desert, and butted all day long against shoals, trying to find the channel, till you thought yourself bewitched and cut off for ever from everything you had known once -somewhere – far away – in another existence perhaps” (11).
After all, it does not represent much of a secret to psychiatrists, that mentally deranged individuals do seem to perceive the objective reality, as such that has the mind of its own – hence, their tendency to seek a ‘hidden meaning’ in just about anything they happened to focus their attention upon.
Moreover, while self-reflecting, these individuals often become overwhelmed by their deep-seated irrational fears, which in turn undermine the actual legibility of how they express their thoughts: “The reality – the reality, I tell you – fades.
The inner truth is hidden – luckily, luckily” (11). Thus, even before being introduced to the character of Kurtz, readers already have a good idea, as to what kind of person he actually is. This is because, after having been provided with a glimpse into the Marlow mind’s stream-of-consciousness, they naturally conclude that the very paradigm of living in the midst of primeval wilderness, naturally affects the concerned individual’s mental well-being.
Even though that the narrator’s reflections upon the surrounding ‘darkness’ do not contain an explicit clue, as to what accounts for the actual difference between ‘savages’, on the one hand, and ‘civilized men’, on the other, readers nevertheless do come to recognize this difference’s roots.
This is because the author’s deployment of stream-of-consciousness technique does suggest that, as opposed to what it is being the case with civilized individuals; savages tend to objectualize themselves within the natural environment. Allegorically speaking, they live but what they see, without being able to engage with what they see cognitively, as it would undermine their chances of a physical survival (Segal 637).
The same can be said about civilized individuals that are the path of becoming savages – they simply acknowledge what they see, without bothering to reflect upon the meaning of their visual experiences.
As Marlow noted: “We were wanderers on a prehistoric earth… as we struggled round a bend, there would be a glimpse of rush walls, of peaked grass-roofs, a burst of yells, a whirl of black limbs, a mass of hands clapping, of feet stamping, of bodies swaying, of eyes rolling, under the droop of heavy and motionless foliage” (13).
Therefore, it will not be much of an exaggeration to suggest that it was namely Conrad’s masterful use of the ‘stream-of-consciousness’ narrative technique, which helped his novel to attain a cult-status, more than anything else did. This is because, as it was shown earlier, the deployment of this particular technique in the novel, created objective prerequisites for Conrad’s literary masterpiece to be considered well ahead of its time, in the discursive sense of this word.
Works Cited Conrad, Joseph 1997, The Heart of Darkness. 6 Mar. 2012.
Joyce, James 2010, The Dead. PDF file. 6 Mar. 2012.
Kaplan, Robert. “Madness and James Joyce.” Australasian Psychiatry 10.2 (2002): 172-176. Print.
Kessen, William and Emily Cahan. “A Century of Psychology: From Subject to Object to Agent.” American Scientist 74.6 (1986): 640-649. Print.
Segal, Robert. “Jung and Lévy-Bruhl.” Journal of Analytical Psychology 52.5 (2007): 635-658. Print.
The Iliad Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
A hero in the society can be defined as an individual who is admired and emulated by everyone because of his superior virtues and character that the culture or the society has. A Hero has virtues and attributes that are adored, valued and desired by many.
The ideals of a given culture are determined by the social –cultural conditions of a society or can also be greatly influenced by the views and the perceptions of the author. The motivations and the actions of a hero greatly determine the society view towards them.
The Iliad is one of the ancient literatures that date between 900 and 750 B.C. The events took place in the ancient Greek Bronze Age. During the time, the Greek region was filled with strife and there was need for strong men to provide defense to the community.
One of the heroic acts was to become a great warrior who feared nothing. In the Greek Dark Age, most of the rulers were the warrior class and they had to show the ability to defend the land and its populace.
In the Iliad, the two main heroic characters were Achilles and Hector. These two were drawn from the two main armies, that is, the Greek army and the Trojan army. These two warriors share some commonalities as well as differences (Samuel 5).
The two heroes share some common features that distinguish them as heroes. Both were great warriors from both sides. The two warriors were strong and had high confidence in themselves. During the duel between the two warriors, they were confident that they would beat each other. The two warriors were also men of honor and had pride.
Hector refused to retreat when ordered by his father Priam while Achilles decided to avenge the death of Patroclus. Both warriors also wanted glory and everyone to respect them. Another similarity is that both warriors are faithful to their family and friends. Achilles decides to forget his differences with the Agamemnon so as to avenge the death of his friend. He also wept bitterly for the loss of his friend Patroclus (Samuel 25).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Ilaid also shows a number of differences between the two warriors. Prince hector is viewed as an epitome of the humane warrior and a fierce fighter. He is courageous and even fights the Greek giant Ajax. He is humane and is portrayed as been a father and a loving son to his aging parents. He also loves to his wife Andromache.
On the other hand, Achilles is depicted as a rough cruel and unmerciful warrior. He only has her mother and Patroclus his friend. Even though hector pleads with Achilles to allow him get a decent burial, Achilles kills hectors and drags his body on his chariot as a sign of dishonouring and disrespecting him. Achilles is mostly portrayed as a man of rage and furious. His anger towards the Agamemnon made Achilles to stop fighting for the Greeks and decided to fall back (McKenzie, 6)
Unlike hector, Achilles fights for the glory and honour of his name. He has excessive pride and has no regard or love for his countrymen. This is seen when he withdraws from the war leaving the Greek venerable to death. Achilles is also very individualistic and full of vengeance. Hector is an honourable and patriotic man. He fights to defend his own kingdom and the people of Troy as well as his honour.
Achilles is also depicted as a traditional epic hero. The Iliad discuss him as a superhuman that cannot be conquered but having a weakness only in his kneel. Hector is not deemed as invisible but as a person who can be conquered. The king urges hector not to fight Achilles indicating that Priam feared his son would be defeated.
Works Cited Samuel, Butler. Homer’s The Iliad. New York: Orange Street Press. 1998. Print.
Greece in a Utopian Economic Paradigm Essay writing essay help
Introduction Greece is a European country located in the Southeast part of the continent. Many have described Greece as one of the most developed nations in the world. The country is ranked position 34 in the world as far as economy is concerned. In addition, the country’s population is found to enjoy fairly good standards of living.
The term ‘utopia’ is used to describe an ideal society. The idea of a utopian society has, however, been viewed by scholars as unrealistic. Paradigm, on the other hand, is a term used to refer to a line of thought or concepts. Leaders across the world use the ideas held in relation to a utopian society to put in place the necessary plans to improve the lives of the people.
The title of this paper, Greece in a Utopian Economic Paradigm, alludes to a fictional description of the country. The writer describes the idea of Greece as an ideal economy. Like many other countries, Greece has several economic challenges, the most common one being the debt crisis.
Over-borrowing by the country has forced the government to spend beyond its means (Cohen
Spinoza’s Views on God Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
The philosophy of Benedict Spinoza can sometimes be complex especially to upcoming scholars. In these readings, Spinoza expounds his views on God in detail. The readings on Spinoza’s views on God represent a complex philosophy. However, the author’s explanations make this philosophy very understandable. This philosophy addresses the author’s views on unity of everything.
In addition, the readings explain how God fits into this unity. Then Spinoza outlines the impact of the above knowledge on human beings. The first part of Spinoza’s readings on ethics addresses God as the main subject. This paper will break down this subject into three parts. The first part will explore God as an infinite subject. The second part will investigate God as a cause while the third part will explore Spinoza’s views on determinism.
According to first part of Spinoza’s readings, God is an infinite subject. The author’s general view is that there is no being that does not express God’s existence. The first statement in these readings starts with the expression that all substances are “by nature prior to their modification”. This means that no substance appears without having existed even though it was in another form.
This statement by the author helps us explain the nature of the universe. Human beings have the tendency to go through a lot of trouble when trying to discover origins. However, each of the discovered origin points towards another origin. For example, this “nature prior to modification” is the weak point in the theory of evolution.
This is because even if it can be explained that human beings previously existed as monkeys, it cannot be explained what monkeys were prior to their modification. The author also claims that when two things have nothing in common, none of them can cause the other. This can also be put into context using the evolution theory. Those advocating for evolution may take issue with this view.
This is because the interrelation between species can be faulted by this argument. The independence of species only proves the existence of a higher power. In this case, it seems like the author meant that God’s idea of different species eliminates confusion. This is why it is not possible to get a different species from the same species. The counter argument of this stand would be that some species are too similar.
According to the author, no two different substances in the universe can have identical nature and attributes. This would mean that the differences in attributes are the defining factor. Therefore, similarity does not amount to exactness. What all these arguments mean is that all substances are infinite. This is because they have neither origin nor destiny.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The author claims that this analogy explains the infinity of God’s existence. In addition, there is no God’s equal because there can never exist two substances with the same attributes. The author continues to explain the fallacies that are associated with God’s existence.
The article forwards a very interesting argument concerning where God came from. According to the article, the origin of God cannot be explained by exploring other origins. God is an origin and this means He can only cause His own existence. Following this line of thought, the article concludes that God is the first cause. This can be translated to mean that God is the origin of God.
In addition, it means that because God is the first cause, everything else must have originated from Him. This particular argument touches on other various issues. It can also help answer some frequently asked questions pertaining to God’s existence, origin, and, actions. For instance, most kids and adults alike have often found themselves confused when it comes to the origin of God.
Simply put, the question on most people’s minds is where did God come from? Spinoza answers this question by aligning several facts. Firsts, he poses the question about whose intention it was to make God exist. The answer to this question is that it was God’s intention to have God exist. Therefore, unlike many people speculate, there was no big event or accident that caused God’s existence.
It is also an accurate guess that God being the first form of existence holds the key to all other subsequent forms of existence. The other popular concern about God has to do with His actions. Given that all other forms of existence are answerable to a higher entity, people question who or what forces and laws control God’s actions.
Spinoza’s article answers this by noting that God is governed by “laws of his own nature”. According to this article, God is the reason why all things come into existence. Furthermore, the essence of all things can be explained through God. This puts God at the beginning and at the end of every other existence. The article also offers insight into God’s essence.
The discussion in this article brings us to the third part of this philosophy. Spinoza argues that all things are trained to act in a certain manner. Their trainer is the God to whom they owe their essence and existence. This means that all things are conditioned by God and consequently nothing in this world has the ability to condition itself.
We will write a custom Essay on Spinoza’s Views on God specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This philosophy raises a storm with the common folk. This is because everybody wants to associate God with only the good actions. Whenever things happen because of negative conditioning, most people are reluctant to attribute this conditioning to God. To add to this debate, Spinoza notes that something that is conditioned cannot reverse its conditioning.
This would mean that those with conditioning that is undesirable to fellow humans do not have the capacity to change for the better. This is in spite of their efforts to try and change their conditioning. However, Spinoza addresses this presumption by arguing that God is not necessarily the source of individualistic behavior. The only reason God propagates such behavior is to offer examples of behaviors that are contrary to his own propagation.
This means that the reason evil exists is so that it highlights God’s nature. Therefore, it is up to God’s subjects to determine which behaviors are propagated for the sole reason of highlighting God’s effects. Nevertheless, it is true that the cause of all behaviors can be attributed to God. The only difference between these behaviors is that some of them are supposed to compliment God’s nature while others are supposed to contrast it.
The philosophy of causes of behavior is very dear to many people. This also touches on what causes some people to be good while others remain bad. In addition, some of the shocking behaviors that are associated with people could be explained using this philosophy. Spinoza’s article indicates that not all behaviors reflect God’s nature. Some ill or negative behaviors are meant to contrast God’s nature and make it more valuable.
Evaluation of the Bank Ethical Actions Essay college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Necessity of Ethics Training
Business Culture and Ethics
Code of Ethics
Introduction As I am sure you are aware of, some of the executives of Goliath National Bank have been accused by the Financial Standards Authority, the Bank of England and the Government of engaging in fixing inter-bank rates.
Further investigation into this issue reveals that their accusations do have substantial merit albeit the fact that such forms of “fixing” has existed informally to a certain extent in the banking industry for years. When examining the situation at hand it is recommended that the bank focus on preserving the reputation of the organization.
To ensure continued consumer trust well into the future, the following plan has been developed:
Mention that the bank was not aware of the activities of the executives
State that their method of “fixing” the inter-bank borrowing rates was purely informal
Emphasize that the bank would put stop gap measures to ensure this will not be repeated
State that the bank will do all it can to cooperate with authorities to investigate this issue.
While such actions will help to resolve the bank’s current problems in the short term, they do not address the possible problems it will encounter in the long turn given that this incident has cast serious doubt on the ethical and moral conduct of the bank’s executives.
It is based on this that it is recommended that aside from the recommended actions to address the concerns of the media, the company should also revaluate its current corporate culture and implement a better and more ethical business environment.
Necessity of Ethics Training Various studies on corporate culture have emphasized the importance of ethics training as a means of encouraging and facilitating proper ethical practices within the workplace (Schwartz 2002, pp. 27-43). Furthermore, they indicated that ethics training allows a workforce to be more aware of the ethical codes of conduct that a company abides by and as a result enables them to be far more likely to conduct themselves in a manner that is in line with the highest standards of moral and ethical behavior (Ethics cannot be ignored 2002, p. 4).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Even organizations with the best ethical codes in the world often fall prey to instances of unethical conduct within its ranks (as seen in the current incident) and as such it is important to constantly re-evaluate whether the executives and employees that we have at the present have the necessary ethical and moral compass to do what is right for both the business and the general public (Ethics cannot be ignored 2002, p. 4).
In order resolve such issues for the company, it is recommended that the use of ethical training sessions be implemented as a means of building up on the framework of actions initially established by the ethical codes of conduct emphasized by the company (Gasorek 2003, p. 24). Based on what has happened at the present, I believe that ethical codes are not enough to dissuade unethical actions, it is often necessary to create an even greater emphasis on ethics in order for employees to feel the correlation between ethical action and the company culture that they are a part of.
Business Culture and Ethics The fact is that ethical behaviors from employees are influenced by business culture and the corporate environment that they are exposed to (Eleftherlou-Smith 2011, p. 1). The more ethically oriented the business culture and corporate environment is, the more likely employees are to display ethical behaviors (Eleftherlou-Smith 2011, p. 1). The reverse is also true wherein the more unethical the environment the greater the potential for employees to show unethical behaviors.
I feel that the bank itself is at fault in this regard wherein in the pursuit of profit we have failed to pursue the moral highroad on how such profits are made in the first place. It should be noted though that even if ethical codes of conduct and ethical training sessions are implemented to create ethical employees, this does not mean that the end result will create an ethical company (Pactwa 2006, pp. 3-9).
Even the most ethical of employees with the best code of ethics and ethical training possible can fall prey to unethical actions within a business culture when it concerns either the performance of the company or the necessity of implementing measures connected to competitive survival (Pactwa 2006, pp. 3-9). This was seen in the case of the outsourcing industry wherein many companies outsourced various aspects of their operations to other countries such as India and China.
On the surface such companies stated that they stuck to the strict environmental rules and regulations established by the EPA within the U.S., however, since such regulations do not apply to outsourced operations in other countries these companies can in effect flagrantly degrade the environment through their operations while still stating that they were not the ones directly responsible for the incidences, rather, it is all the fault of one of their suppliers.
This is just one of the numerous examples of corporate double standards that exist in organizations that supposedly have high ethical codes of standards and undergo ethical training sessions. In order to avoid falling into such a state we must be wary that profits alone do not dictate the way in which we choose to operate.
We will write a custom Essay on Evaluation of the Bank Ethical Actions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Code of Ethics There is an old saying that states that “the left hand doesn’t know what the right hand is doing”, in the case of the bank this takes on a more significant meaning due to the proliferation of various departments, operational sites and standards of doing business in particular areas which allowed the actions of the executives to happen in the first place (Magnet
Early Netherlandish Painting: Triptych of Madonna and Child with Angels; Donor and His Patron Saint online essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Description and Analysis of the Painting
The Historical Framework and Relation to the Other Paintings
Early Netherlandish Painting: Triptych of Madonna and Child with Angels; Donor and His Patron Saint Peter Martyr; and Saint Jerome and His Lion by the Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy
Introduction The period of 1420-1550 in the European art is characterized by the development of the early Netherlandish painting. In their works, the early Netherlandish painters focused on the religious motives and the sacred plots and subjects. These elements became the typical features of the early Netherlandish or Flemish painting. The artists chose the complex forms of diptychs and triptychs in order to depict the religious objects, symbols, and images.
The most famous Netherlandish artists belonging to the painting school are Jan van Eyck, Hans Memling, and Gerard David1. Nevertheless, to analyze the particular features of the early Netherlandish religious painting, it is necessary to pay attention to Triptych of Madonna and Child with Angels; Donor and His Patron Saint Peter Martyr; and Saint Jerome and His Lion painted by the anonymous author known as the Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy because of his work in Saint James’ Church in Bruges.
The triptych can be discussed as one of the most characteristic representations of Madonna in the early Netherlandish painting which was reflected in the works of the other Netherlandish painters; that is why, the analysis of this work is important to understand the particular features if the early Netherlandish religious painting.
The Description and Analysis of the Painting In spite of the fact, the author of Triptych of Madonna and Child with Angels is anonymous, the researchers are inclined to agree that the works of the author of the Legend of Saint Lucy in Saint James’ Church in Bruges can be characterized by a lot of features which help distinguish the author’s paintings and speak about the characteristics of the artist’s hand. These characteristics are the usage of intense and contrast colors, strict compositions, and the focus on expressionless faces2.
Triptych of Madonna and Child with Angels; Donor and His Patron Saint Peter Martyr; and Saint Jerome and His Lion is an oil painting made on the oak panels. It is possible to admit that the work was painted before 1483. Triptychs were the typical form for the early Netherlandish painters to represent the religious plots in symbolic and sacred paintings3.
The triptych depicts Madonna with a child as the central figures and Saints Peter and Jerome as the side figures of the painting. Thus, the idea of the triptych is presented clearly, and the principles of the strict compositions are followed.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Each part of the triptych represents two figures. The central figures are Madonna and Christ, the left figures are the donor and Saint Peter Martyr, and right figures are Saint Jerome and the lion. It is rather easy to recognize the figures because of much detail provided.
Madonna as the main figure of the triptych is depicted with Christ sitting on the throne. Madonna’s position accentuated the importance of the figure in the triptych. Being depicted in the centre of the panel, Madonna is rounded by two angels portrayed rather symmetrically while standing at the left and right sides in relation to Madonna.
Thus, Madonna is dressed in red clothes, and the symbolic dark blue mantle reflects the clothing typical for a lot of Madonna’s images presented in paintings. Christ is depicted naked, and it seems that his right hand is reaching to the flower in the hand of one angel. The other angel is depicted as reading sacred texts.
The faces of the figures have the extremely oval shape, and they are rather expressionless. These features are discussed as the characteristic of the artist’s style in painting. The composition of the central panel makes the audience think about the placid religious picture.
The donor and Saint Peter are depicted on the left panel of the triptych. The donor is kneeling in prayer and looking at Madonna, and Saint Peter is placing the hand on the donor’s shoulder and is holding the sword in the other hand. The representation of the sword as the certain symbol accentuates the protective role of Saint Peter.
The donor and Saint Peter are dressed in black clothes to present their religious roles. It is possible to see the contours of some religious buildings at the background of the left panel. Thus, the artist uses the elements of the two dimensional technique. On the right panel, Saint Jerome is depicted with a lion. Saint Jerome is holding a book in one hand.
The lion is snuggling to the saint, and it is holding the saint’s other hand. The background is presented in soft and naturalistic green colors. Saint Jerome is dressed in red clothes which reflect Madonna’s clothes in relation to the color and its intensity.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Early Netherlandish Painting: Triptych of Madonna and Child with Angels; Donor and His Patron Saint Peter Martyr; and Saint Jerome and His Lion by the Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is possible to note that the artist paid much attention to the colors presented in the triptych. The most vivid colors are characteristic for the dresses of Madonna. Thus, Madonna’s clothing is depicted in deep and intense bold colors. The mantle is dark blue to accentuate Madonna’s integrity. Saint Jerome is also dressed in deep red clothes.
The white clothes are typical for two angels presented on the central panel and for the drapery of Christ. The white color is associated with purity and this symbolic meaning is depicted with the help of the color in the painting. The gold colors are used to depict the throne on which Madonna is sitting.
Thus, all the main colors typical for religious paintings are presented in the triptych4. However, it is important to note that the artist is inclined to utilize the intense bold colors, and different tones are used to emphasize the deepness of the basic color.
The figures and objects depicted in the triptych are rather realistic in their features, but the lack of balance in the figures’ sizes can be observed. Moreover, the figure of Madonna is accentuated, and it is presented in the centre of the main panel providing the centre for the whole symmetrical composition. The painter focuses on the central figure of Madonna making the other figures be turned to Madonna and Christ while looking at them.
The Historical Framework and Relation to the Other Paintings The Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy is discussed as one of the most significant early Netherlandish painters. As the other painters working during the period, the Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy concentrated in his works on the religious plots and provided the depiction of symbols along with the realistic objects to emphasize the connection of the religion and the real everyday life5.
The subject of the triptych is the representation of Madonna with Christ accentuating their purity, integrity, and their influential religious role with providing them as the central figures of the triptych in comparison with the figures of saints depicted.
The composition with the centralized figure of Madonna was typical for the iconography of the period. Moreover, triptychs were usually used by the early Netherlandish painters to represent the definite religious subjects and plots. The image of Madonna was portrayed in many paintings accompanied with different figures6.
The Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy chose the figures of Saint Peter and Saint Jerome to portray them in the triptych. It is important to pay attention to the symbols depicted along with the figures of saints. These symbols could be easily recognized by the audience basing on the religious legends and stories, and they helped determine the personalities of the saints presented.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Early Netherlandish Painting: Triptych of Madonna and Child with Angels; Donor and His Patron Saint Peter Martyr; and Saint Jerome and His Lion by the Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, Saint Peter is depicted with the symbolic sword used to protect Christ, and Saint Jerome is depicted with a lion which is snuggling to the saint to demonstrate his obedience because, according to the legend, Saint Jerome helped the lion remove a thorn from the paw. It is important to note that the question of patronage is closely associated with the work by the Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy.
The figures of saints and a donor in the triptych are identified with references to the symbolic objects accompanied these figures7. The tradition to use symbolic objects is characteristic for the early Netherlandish painters.
The idea of the religious triptych with accentuating the central figure is typical for many Netherlandish painters. Referring to the works which were painted earlier than the work by the Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy, it is necessary to pay attention to Hans Memling’s oil triptych made on wood known as Last Judgment (1466-1473).
Many researchers agree that Hans Memling’s works influenced the style of the Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy significantly8. Moreover, the elements of the Spanish painting school are also observed in relation to the artist’s works. It is possible to compare the Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy and Hans Memling’s works because the artists used the similar techniques, the colors are compared in relation to their deepness and usage of tones, the depiction of figures is also similar.
However, it is also possible to discuss the impact of the triptych painted by the Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy on the works of the other painters belonging to the early Netherlandish school of painting. Thus, Gerard David’s The Virgin among the Virgins (1509) in its composition, figure of Madonna, her face expression, figure of Christ, and clothes is similar to Triptych of Madonna and Child with Angels9.
The Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy specialized in painting the religious works, but the discussed triptych took a special position in the artist’s career because it is possible to speak about reflecting the artist’s style and manner of depicting Madonna in the works of the other painters. The triptych is significant because of the subject chosen to depict as the main one and because of the associated elements.
Thus, the work was created under the influence of the social tendencies and reflected the importance of the religious motives and sacred subjects in the people’s life. That is why, the presentation of many symbolic objects at the background of rather real things was characteristic for the early Netherlandish painting as the combination of the secular and sacred worlds.
The work by the Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy reflects the main tendencies in art influenced by the definite historical conditions typical for the period of 1420-1550. The main patron of the arts at the territories was Philip the Good. He supported the works made according to the naturalistic trends and sacred works accentuating with the help of definite symbols.
Moreover, the orientation to both sacred and secular worlds along with the naturalistic details led to the combination of these elements in painting. The patronage of monarchs and their interests in art contributed to the development of the painting school, and the early Netherlandish painters received the opportunity to develop their approaches to presenting the symbolic sacred world along with naturalistic pictures and portraits10.
Much attention was paid to details that is why the early Netherlandish painters are characterized by meticulousness which is also typical for the work painted by the Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy. Thus, the historical conditions in which the triptych was created can be discussed as rather favorable.
Conclusion The triptych painted by the Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy is the example of the traditional early Netherlandish painting with references to the religious motives and subjects used. The role of the Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy in developing the early Netherlandish painting school is significant because the artist not only followed the set standards but he also contributed to the development of the deeper mergence of the sacred and secular elements in the works of the early Netherlandish painters as it is possible to note with references to the later works painted by Gerard David.
References Ainsworth, M. (2005). Intentional alterations of early Netherlandish paintings. Metropolitan Museum Journal, 40(10), 51-65.
Social Networks Application in Smartphone Research Paper essay help: essay help
In the recent years, researchers have expressed concerns over the alarming rate in the spread of the use of social network applications. Most researchers agree that the issue deserves attention, which could be attributed to the widespread use of mobile phones due to their availability. With the recent developments and innovations on mobile phones, more social networks applications have come into use.
With Smartphone being one of the recent mobile technologies, widespread use of various social networks applications has been inevitable. In addition, the technology through the utilization of social networks applications has eased our day-to-day operations in various ways.
Just as the name suggests, social networks applications are sort of programs that enable or even enhance communication among individuals regardless of the geographical distance separating them (Goldenberg et al., 2006). However, these social networks applications have had impacts across various aspects of the society in general. This paper shall be based on the application of social networks in Smartphone coupled with my personal social media experience.
Apart from the aspect of interacting with friends, the social media technology can be utilized to achieve many other goals that include soliciting funds and an avenue through which one can find a job among other aspects. My social media experience will be based on the use of social media applications to maintain a long distance relationship. The paper shall also highlight some of the implications of utilizing these applications both to an individual and to the society.
After John, my closest friend, went to Australia for studies, I could not stand the loneliness. The available few modes of communication were quite expensive and inefficient, especially for the long distance communication. At times, I felt as though our relationship was falling apart as communication was curtailed by the geographical distance between us.
Notably, for a relationship to remain steady, communication should be put into consideration and should be consistent. However, we kept on exchanging gifts and communication was through phone calls and other means such as emails and telegraphs. These modes were quite expensive and unreliable at times. For instance, it would take such a long time for John to reply my fax messages and emails, especially if I had sent them without informing him first.
On the other hand, we spent a lot of money sending parcels through air couriers. Telephone calls also proved to be expensive since they were international and the call rates were quite high. It even came a time we had to stay for weeks without communicating due to unavailability of funds since we had no jobs and thus we depended on parents for our upkeep.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Currently, the trend has changed a great deal and we can communicate any time we want. With the latest development of Smartphone among mobile technologies, communication has been eased significantly. Smartphone is a type of mobile phone that has additional features and programs, thus making it better than other mobile phones.
A Smartphone can perform different functionality at the same time, which is missing in other normal phones. For instance, a Smartphone comes with a feature that lets the user to divide the screen into different portions and run different tasks on those compartments at the same time.
With the introduction of these smart phones into the market, communication between us eased as we were in a position to utilize both free and paid social networks applications that come along with a smart phone (Goldenberg et al., 2006).
Apart from G-chats and short messaging applications, we also learnt to utilize other social networks applications to enhance our communication, thus, shortening the distance between us. Through invitations for TV nights, we were able to watch our favorite shows through the Skype together. Through this application, John remained updated on commercials that were being aired back here at home. Meeting new friends and introducing them to each other was quite an easy task.
For instance, through the Google hangout application, we managed to arrange for double dates. With social media applications, life seemed normal for us as we were in a position to do most things together.
Playing games as scrabble was not such a big deal, as we could still communicate as the game proceeded as though we are physically together. Boredom is one aspect that creeps in when repetitive activities happen for quite a long time, and thus to break away from the monotony of social networks, we could send manual packages to each other.
Many couples and friends find themselves in a dilemma due to geographical distance separating them. Appreciably, it can be quite cumbersome to maintain a long distance relationship. With the emergence and widespread use social networks applications, the challenge of distance should no longer be a hindrance in a relationship, especially in the wake of Smartphones.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Social Networks Application in Smartphone specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, various Smartphones support these applications, hence making communication easier. Social network applications are sort of programs that enable communication through additional modifications that include sharing of pictures, status updates, playing games, and sending messages among many others. Face- to- face communication can be enhanced through Skype, which is an application that allows you to see the other person as you communicate.
Many other activities can be performed through the application, viz. preparing meals together and having dinners through the Internet. In addition, other applications let the communicating parties to send voice notes and video messages if they are not available for a chat. Facebook and Twitter are other types of network applications that allow people to share their feelings through status updates, photographs, and comments among others. However, these applications do not allow face-to-face communication, as they do not support such features.
Currently, a myriad of social networks can be utilized to keep a long distance relationship. In addition, social networks can be utilized for other purposes other than maintaining relationships. For instance, in the political arena, politicians utilize social networks to launch their manifestos and make them available to citizens.
In the field of medicine, there exist social network applications that can be utilized by medics to treat patients in other countries and regions. On the part of education, social networks are used to convey reading materials and other academic information to students; therefore, enhancing electronic learning (Goldenberg et al., 2006). In maintaining long distance relationships, the concept of creativity on the usage of social media plays a key role in ensuring effective and exciting communication.
Although social networks have played a significant role in enhancing communication, they have had both positive and negative impacts to individuals and the society in general. Conventionally, social networks have helped in making the world a global village. With just a click, information can be relayed to persons quite far away from each other.
Through these social networks, people have been in a position to create identities whereby people can search a person’s profile through the social media. Connecting with people in the community has been enhanced through these social networks, hence maintaining relationships (Hill et al., 2006).
Although conversation could take place through phone calls, connecting to many people at the same time was such a difficult task. In addition, one could only speak to people familiar to him or her, since not all people were willing to share their numbers. With the emergence of social networks, the idea of friendships changed as one could make many friends within a short time and communicate with multiple individuals simultaneously.
Researchers have established that loneliness can result into people taking actions that lead to destruction of their own lives in addition to stress and depression. However, through social networks, people can socialize and thus do away with loneliness (Boyd, 2008). Through social media, people share life experiences, hence depicting a sort of group therapy.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Networks Application in Smartphone by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The point is, by people sharing their experiences, they can empathize with each other and one can easily find solutions to his or her problems. One person may have gone through such an experience previously and can inform the other on how he or she went through the whole situation. Social media enhances the speed of communication, thus ensuring speedy and efficient communication. Currently, time is never enough to most people because of work and commitments to family.
Social networks offer a chance to this class of people to communicate with other efficiently and effectively. For instance, it takes an individual less than a minute to post updates to one social network, say Facebook, and with the help of a feature that allows cross posting to other social networks, the updates reaches all intended parties instantly.
The social media opens up the world to an individual through making it a smaller place as opposed to the earlier days when these applications were inexistent. Social networks have also created the aspect of equality towards everyone regardless of the geographical location. For instance, families living far apart can remain in touch with the rest of the family members living in the hometown. One can also connect with school friends that have relocated to other towns or states.
Sharing one’s interests is one of the ways through which social networks can be utilized to create identity (Goldenberg et al., 2009). For instance, some social networks allow a person choose people with similar interests for friendship. On the other hand, others like Twitter will let a person follow those with statuses of interest, thus making connections with people with similar interests, which would be hard to establish if socializing offline.
The aspect of socialization can be viewed in different dimensions including the economic dimension through marketing and other aspects of commerce. Social network applications enhance network-marketing techniques that help marketers identify influencers and predict variables affecting the behavior depicted by various consumers (Hill et al., 2006).
Depending on how people behave on various social network sites, marketers can easily identify characteristics of various individuals, demographics of a certain state or region, and any form of existing constraints, hence leading to identification of market gaps that depict a marketing opportunity.
Just like most issue in life, social networks also have positive and negative impacts attached to them. On the part of education, the social media has a direct impact on the value of information (Acquisti
Two Activities for Motor Skills Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online free
Table of Contents Motor skills
Motor skills A two year old child requires assistance in all aspects. These include body movement and language development. Body movement all any kind of movement that the child learns is referred to as motor skills. As indicated, motor skills refer to movement of muscles and this may be categorized as either gross or fine motor skills.
Gross motors skills in a two year old child generally refers to the general movement of body muscles, while fine motor skills are masterly skills required by a child in aspect such as writing or drawing objects using a pen. According to Charlesworth (2010), the following two activities can be used by the child’s parent to improve the child’s motor skills.
Games Games have continually been used to engage two year olds in coordinated movement. Soft games such as touching body parts can help a child learn how to balance body parts. For example, a child may learn how to stand on one leg. Another aspect of coordinating body movement in a child is through closing one eye, touching the nose and such.
A two year child can also be introduced into games that require jumping and hopping. In general, games help a child to develop other important skills. For example, a scrabble game can help children start learning about animals, animal names and language comprehension.
Drawing By using drawing activities, a two year old child learns the skills of using hands and eyes in a well coordinated manner. For example, a parent can let the child use tracing lines to draw an object.
The perfection of this activity by the child shows that the child-eye coordination is developing. Nonetheless, this skill is also critical in helping a child learn how to read. This is possible, since the child can observe and comprehend the meaning of a shape and trace the pen along the lines to draw a shape.
Language development Providing a two year old with language development skills is essential in growth and development of a child. The following activities can be used in fostering language development skills in a two year old child.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Puzzles A parent can construct puzzles or buy puzzles with bright colors. Bright colors are attractive to young children, and conversing with them while working on puzzles can be playful. For example, a parent can ask a few questions that are direct and expect the child to answer. However, such questions should be based on the puzzle colors, design and shapes.
A puzzle is also essential in promoting fine motor skills in the child, since a lot of coordination between the hand and the eyes is involved. In this process, children are able to name shapes of animals and object in the puzzle and even tell imaginary stories on the same.
Matching games Matching games activities involves the use of pictures and objects that are brightly colored. Nonetheless, such matching games should be simple and easy to understand by children. Most importantly, the use of matching games should also involve the parent in instructing the child in various tasks on the matching game. In this process, fine motor skills are also developed as the parent assists the child in hand and eye coordination tasks. In the process, children also develop cognitive skills by narrating and recalling the last time they saw such pictures or objects.
References Charlesworth, R. (2010). Understanding child development. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Chesebrough, E. (2004). A blueprint for the promotion of pro-social behavior in early childhood. New York, NY: Springer.
The Justice Process for a Felony Criminal Charge Research Paper best college essay help
Introduction An offense that is punishable by death or imprisonment for more than one year is known as a felony (Johnson, 2008). A felony is considered by law as one of the severest crimes in the criminal justice system (Johnson, 2008). This paper is intended to explicate the entire justice process for a felony criminal charge filed in a state court. In this regard, the New York court system will be used as an illustration.
It is important to note that a felony criminal case does not have to go through all these processes since it can end before it reaches the trial stage. The thesis of this paper is that the process of handling felony criminal cases in a state court is efficient as to ensure justice for both the accused and the complainant.
The Criminal Justice Process for a Felony Criminal Charge in a State Court Initiation of charges by a complainant
This is the first process in dealing with a felony crime in a state court. This stage consists of an arrest of a suspect, complaint and booking of a felony case; it also involves conducting investigations. A felony criminal case often commences with an arrest of a suspect by a police officer.
Important to note is the fact that a person accused of having committed a felony crime may be arrested, but not necessarily held in detention (Johnson, 2008). Alternatively, the person may be issued with an appearance ticket or a Desk Appearance Ticket in the case of New York State courts (Johnson, 2008). After the issuance of the ticket, the accused can be released from detention. Interestingly, a person issued with an appearance ticket may be freed without bail.
Following an investigation, a criminal case may start with the filing of a felony criminal offense charge. Otherwise, it may commence with information provided by a prosecutor or police officer (Cohen, 2006). In other cases, this comes after an indictment by a grand jury (Gibeaut, 2001). After an arrest is made, defendants are often booked at a local police station or other relevant detention facilities.
During this process, fingerprints and photographs of the defendant are taken; these are important in determining any prior criminal activity of the defendant (Cole
Growth and Development of Children Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help: college essay help
The bodies of children change in their measurable characteristics during the period of infancy, early childhood, and adolescence significantly. Moreover, children can develop their abilities and skills and achieve different results while growing. Thus, it is necessary to concentrate on different concepts of growth and development in order to examine all the possible changes associated with the children’s progress in body size or in gaining more skills.
The children’s growth is discussed when the changes in body size, proportions, height, and weight are obvious. These changes can be measured and compared with the definite set standards. The concept of development is used to evaluate the changes in children’s acquiring new skills, performing new actions, and forming new social interactions. Thus, a child develops when he or she improves definite skills and abilities and gains some new knowledge.
The concept of the children’s growth is based on physical changes. It is important to pay attention to the fact that the characteristics of the children’s growth are measurable, and it is possible to refer to the certain rate in growth in order to compare the measures with the age standards. The body of a child changes significantly during the first years.
Thus, the most rapid growth can be observed during the periods of infancy and early childhood when the proportions of the children’s bodies change according to their sizes. Furthermore, the rate of the children’s growth is not significant during the school age, but it can become extremely rapid during the period of adolescence when the growth is associated with the hormone changes (Hendry, Farley,
Week 3 Essay scholarship essay help
Discussion Objective: (CO2) Analyze the scholarly works of scientific researcher with respect to emergency and disaster management.
Discussion Overview: Use Drabek as your guide to this discussion. As an emergency and disaster management professional you will encounter many questions/assertions that you may have to respond to. These important questions/assertions may impact how you conduct your day-to-day business. Think about the following questions/assertions and provide a substantive scholarly response.
What are the differences between the way conservatives and progressives view the federal role in emergency management? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?
What is meant by ‘blaming the victim’? Provide examples of victim blaming. How does this concept influence the way our society responds to disaster?
What is the interface between emergency management and homeland security? Which is the ‘parent’ concept? Justify.
Discussion Instruction: Respond to each question/assertion with a substantive and scholarly response, use Drabek as a guide to your posting.
YOU HAVE TO USE THE SOURCE I PROVIDED TO ANSWER THE QUESTIONS. WHICH IS ATTACHED.
This video was additional reading for the week https://embed.ted.com/talks/peter_haas_haiti_s_disaster_of_engineering
Child Development Essay (Critical Writing) essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Child development is an essential process that takes place in the life of an individual. This process commences immediately after birth when an individual highly relies on others for sustenance and ends towards the end of adolescence when the said individual approaches independence (Graham, 2010). In the process of child development, there are various factors that determine the cognitive and psychological development of an individual.
The genetic constitution and prenatal care are some of the factors that influence the development of an individual during this phase of development. Consequently, ecological factors also play a significant role in child development. This paper will therefore focus on the impact that ecological factors have on child development.
Ecological Factors In the process of development, there are various factors that determine the rate of development in a child. According to Urie (2006), ecological factors play a significant role in the process of child development since a child responds to various environmental cues that surrounds him/her. Thus, there are various environmental systems that a child interacts with that are influential in his/her development.
The microsystem is the first environmental system that determines child development. This system comprises of the institutions and groups that immediately surround a child. The family is perhaps the most influential segment of this system. The behavior and personality of a child highly depends on the influence that arises from his/her family (Urie, 2006).
In this respect therefore, family members have always been encourage to offer support and positive guidance to children to support their process of development. Consequently, educational and religious institutions also play a significant role in the process of child development especially in setting up their values, morals, goals, and beliefs. The influence that a child gets from his/her peers also determines his/her process of development.
In most cases, children tend to imitate or adopt behaviors from their peers. For instance, the interaction that children have plays a significant role in speech development (Graham, 2010). Thus, a child who interacts more stands a high chance of learning how to speak fluently as compared to a child who does not interact with children of his/her age.
The macrosystem is another environmental system that affects the process of child development. The macrosystem highly concentrates on the culture in which a child is brought up in. The level of economic development in the nation/region that a child is brought up in plays a significant role in determining his/her level of development.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, a child who is brought up in an industrialized country that is economically stable is expected to be different in terms of cognitive and psychological development as compared to a child who is brought up in a third world country. The child in a developed nation has a lot of resources and opportunities that will enhance his/her process of development.
Ethnicity and cultural background are also significant factors in the process of development. An African American child is expected to have different values and beliefs as compared to a White American child despite the fact that they might be living in the same neighborhood.
The chronosystems involves the transitions that a child experiences in the process of development. It has been identified that transferring a child to a new school or moving him/her to a different neighborhood, state, or nation will have a psychological effect that will definitely affect his/her development. Consequently, issues such as divorce, separation, and death will have effects that will affect the psychological and cognitive development of a child.
Conclusion This paper has therefore identified that there are several ecological factors that affect the development of a child. It is therefore essential that necessary measures are taken to ensure that a child is exposed to the right environmental cues to ensure that his process of development is effective. This will play a significant role in ensuring that the child grows to be a morally and psychologically stable individual as an adult.
References Graham, D. (2010). Environmental Factors Affecting the Growth of Children. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2(1), 44-50.
Urie, B. (2006). Ecology of the Family as a Context for Human Development: Research Perspectives. Developmental Psychology, 22(6), 723-742
Incident at Morale Case Study essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Step 1: Determine Facts of the Case
Step 2 and 3: Stakeholders and Their Motivations
Step 4: Formulate Possible Solutions
Step 5: Evaluate Alternatives
Step 6: Additional Assistance
Step 7: The Best Course of Action
Step 8: Implementing the Solution
Step 9: Monitoring and Assessing the Outcomes
Introduction The case under analysis called Incident at Morale focuses on ethical responsibilities and decisions that are highlighted in engineering practice. In particular, the video demonstrates that good and conscientious people can sometimes face situations, leading to unfortunate and unethical outcomes.
Therefore, the main aspects of the case rely on ethical considerations, overview of codes of ethics affecting the decision-making process, and evaluation of obligations that engineers should fulfill while concluding an agreement with a customer.
Step 1: Determine Facts of the Case Incident at Morales involves a range of ethical issues that the company confronts while building a plant and launching a new chemical product to sustain a competitive edge. Phaust Chemical manufactures a paint remover that is considered the leader at the market. Chemitoil plans to launch a new product to capture the market dominated by Phaust.
On learning that, Phaust’s executives have decided to work out a new highly competitive product and build a new plant in Mexico. In order to develop a new paint remover, the company employs a chemical engineer that had previously been working for Chemitoil. As the project begins, Phaust’s parent firm located in France reduces budget by 20 %. Under these circumstances, the vice president tells the newly hired engineer Fred to decrease the construction costs.
However, Fred encounters a number of ethical contradictions that play an important role in discussing expenditures, budget plans, environmental issues, management issues. In order to produce paint removal, Fred has to buy pipes and other devices that are made up of either of high pressure alloy or stainless steel.
Due to the fact that the major conception of Phaust’s new product lies in delivering the remover requiring higher pressures and temperatures, it can cause significant problems in terms of technical process and ethics. As a result of reduced terms and challenging conditions, an unfortunate accident occurs, causing serious problems.
Step 2 and 3: Stakeholders and Their Motivations Both Chuck, the head of engineering department, and Dominique, the head of the parent company in France, were interested in immediate construction of chemical plant in Mexico to produce a new product and capture new markets. Under these circumstances, they also have the opportunity to outstrip to the indices of their competitor – Chemitoil.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The main responsibility imposed on Mr. Martinez lied in designing a new firm within the established deadline and budgeting, which is a serious challenge. These terms, however, prevented the new engineer from taking environmental and safety issues into consideration and considering the responsibility for the personnel and quality of equipment.
Finally, Wally, the official representative of the Mexican department, exposed significant pressure on Fred who attempted to make certain amendments to the construction plan. The role of Wally, therefore, lied in convincing Mr. Martinez of using his own experience in creating the chemical manufacture. Ignorance of safety measures and inspection process could be the main reason for the accident at the plant.
Step 4: Formulate Possible Solutions While evaluating the main premises of the case, specific emphasis should be placed on such aspects as responsibility distribution, accountability, and corporate culture. To begin with, the Mexican official should have considered the role of responsibility in handling such issues as inspection control, human resources management, and adherence to quality standards.
Negligence of the construction plan procedures was explained by Wally excess attention to the outcomes of the venture. At this point, Wally should have been more careful before choosing the supplier for delivering details to a new plant and accelerating the process by all means.
Aside from the security measures, Fred should have been more strict and accountable for the construction process before making decision. In particular, Mr. Martinez should reconsider the budget and insist on development of new alternatives for construction process. This is of particular concern to purchasing alloys, which the plant could not afford.
Second, the new plant designer was under the pressure of environmental contradictions because most of the regulations were not followed. At this point, the solution here should involve assessment of ecological situation before analyzing the possibility for purchasing new equipment.
Step 5: Evaluate Alternatives Strict allocation of responsibilities should be introduced to the new team of constructors and engineers. Chuck should be more concerned with moral codes and corporate culture before deciding on the new chemical plant project.
We will write a custom Case Study on Incident at Morale specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, the attention also requires external environment evaluation, including social and political challenges that are predetermined by other environmental organizations and governmental authorities. The case with Wally’s power overuse demonstrates increased pressure and serious violation of ethical norms, which can result in negative consequences for the welfare of the personnel
Step 6: Additional Assistance Environmental protection and social corporate responsibilities should be the pillars of any business organization operating at the global market. Therefore, the company should, first of all, rely on these concepts before launching a new business venture. Second, the head of the engineering department should be aware of the professional obligations that each employee should observe.
Step 7: The Best Course of Action Adherence to ethical values, such as civility, respect, fairness, and kindness, is crucial for the managers to succeed in monitoring and administering the entire business project. In order to avoid complication and disagreements with environmental organization, the head of the engineering department should take greater control of inspection, testing, and reliability of the plant design to avert damage and ensure security issues.
This is of particular concern to personnel testing, analysis of legality and publicity, as well as common practice test, which identifies the reasonability of the implemented practices.
Step 8: Implementing the Solution Before implementing the above-proposed solutions, the managerial staff should conduct a performance test to evaluate emotional, psychological, and cultural aspects in the employed environment. All these issues are urgent for ensuring productivity and ethics in the workplace.
In addition, all actions carried out during the construction process should be transparent and, therefore, the public relation department should be more concerned with constant reporting. Information related to the environmental aspects of construction, as well as employees’ ethics should not be concealed because it prevents from fulfilling the main objectives of an international company.
Step 9: Monitoring and Assessing the Outcomes Open Door policy should be beneficial for introducing amendment to ethical and moral issues of the project. At this point, the manager should constantly monitor the fulfillment of and compliance with existing legal and ethical regulations to avoid complications. Such a policy can contribute greatly to company’s reputation and attract larger customer base.
While assessing the outcomes, the managers and engineers should pay closer attention to testing procedures, including performance procedure and employees’ engagement into the production process.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Incident at Morale by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
The Title IX Decision against the Quinnipiac University Essay a level english language essay help
The question of gender is actively discussed in relation to sport with references to providing the equal opportunities for female athletes. According to Title IX, any discrimination regarding the sex or gender issues is prohibited (Thornton, 2010). The Title IX Decision against the Quinnipiac University of 2010 became one of the most controversial cases associated with the question.
It was stated that the Quinnipiac University intended to eliminate the women’s varsity volleyball team because of the lack of funding and to develop a competitive cheerleading team instead. The volleyball team’s players and their coach insisted on trying the case in court because of violating Title IX in relation to providing the equal opportunities for university athletes.
According to the injunction provided by the Judge Stefan Underhill, the volleyball team was allowed to continue the activities during the next season when the development of the competitive cheerleading team could not be discussed as the alternative to the female sport team to meet the Title IX requirements.
To evaluate the effectiveness of Underhill’s decision, it is necessary to pay attention to the details of the case. The volleyball team of the Quinnipiac University and the team’s coach accentuated that the plan to eliminate the team violates Title IX because the proportion of the male and female athletes would be defied.
From this point, it is possible to speak about the direct violation of Title IX in relation to providing the equal opportunities for male and female athletes. Underhill stated that the fact of discriminating female athletes’ rights was presented, and the Quinnipiac University was obliged to provide the opportunities for the team to perform during the next season (The Quinnipiac University Case, 2010).
Thus, the legal strength of the argument was accentuated, and the team could be discussed as winning the case. However, there are two visions of the decision. On the one hand, the rights and interests of the women’s varsity volleyball team were met, and the fact of discrimination was stated.
On the other hand, the team was allowed to perform only during the 2010-2011 season, and the question was discussed again in 2012. Thus, the decision provided by the judge lacked some details.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Furthermore, Underhill concentrated on the fact that it was impossible to refer to the cheerleading team as the competitive team and to discuss that team as the alternative to the volleyball team to meet the Title IX requirements. The decision provided by Underhill was rather effective while discussing the cheerleading team as inappropriate alternative to the female volleyball team.
Nevertheless, the controversy was associated with the fact that Underhill focused on the standards of the competitive sport teams and judged about the relevance of the standards and cheerleading team’s features to discuss it as the sport team. Underhill supported the decision in relation to the definition of the varsity sport with references to the Title IX standards (The Quinnipiac University Case, 2010).
It is important to pay attention to the fact that the position of the judge as the advisor or an expert to determine the standards for the varsity sport is rather controversial, and it could be more effective to focus on violating the Title IX requirements regarding the women’s volleyball team rather than on discussing the features and standards of the varsity sport.
In spite of the general win of the women’s volleyball team of the Quinnipiac University in relation to Title IX, the judge’s argument cannot be discussed as strong and effective because it was important to concentrate on the issue of discrimination to determine the position of the team not only for one season but for the long period of time.
References The Quinnipiac University Case. (2010). Retrieved from http://courtweb.pamd.uscourts.gov/courtwebsearch/ctxc/KX330R32.pdf
Thornton, P. K. (2010). Sports law. USA: Jones
Poly-Substance Abuse in Adolescent Males with Depression Research Paper essay help: essay help
Abstract It is projected that poly-substance abuse is the major cause of depression because there are high chances that a depressed individual is a frequent user of poly-substances. Poly-substance abuse forces people to abandon their social roles, which lead to depression. This paper looks at the ways in which poly-substance abuse is related to depression.
The paper looks at the way in which poly-substance abuse brings about depression in adolescent males. The essay suggests a quantitative study that would be critical in gathering relevant data related to the relationship between depression and drug abuse. In the subsequent section, the proposal suggests a data analysis method that uses statistics
Introduction Poly-substance abuse in adolescent males with depression is common in many societies. Winters and Latimer (2004) conducted a study, which established that poly-substance abuse affects all ethnic groups meaning that it does not affect only certain cultural groupings. This quantitative study focuses on the relationship between poly-substance abuse in adolescent males and depression. By definition, poly-substance abuse refers to the patterned intake of a substance (drug) that is usually taken either in large or small quantities.
The substance has the ability to affect the behavior and actions of individuals. The substance is usually used illegally using unapproved methods meaning that it would definitely change the attitude of the individual. It should be noted that poly-substance abuse is not restricted to those that change the mood of the individual or those that activate the psychological processes.
Athletes are usually reported to using drugs that stimulate their muscles and give them additional energy. This is also considered drug abuse because it changes the functioning of the body and the brain, which affects the psychological processes. Ksir (2002) observed that the use of illicit drugs such as narcotics, stimulants, and depressants are some of the examples of poly-substance abuse.
Poly-substance abuse is directly related to depression because those who use drugs are always miserable as compared to non-users of drugs. People suffer emotionally due to the intake of illicit drugs. For instance, athletes are usually snatched their medals due to suspicion of poly-substance abuse. Research gaps in literature, which is related to the relationship between substance abuse and depression, exist.
In human life, there are moments that an individual feels confused and sad. This is a normal feeling, but its persistence is considered a sign of depression. Depression occurs when a male adolescent loses something that he values so much in his life. Sometimes, an adolescent could be depressed after going through a stressful event or event.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At times, depression affects the normal life of the adolescent male because he cannot execute his duties in a way that befits him. This may lead to a psychological disorder referred to as the major depressive disorder (MDD), also referred to as clinical depression. Therefore, there is need of establishing the extent at which poly-substance abuse is related to depression.
It is clear that adolescent males engage in poly-substance abuse because of a number of reasons. Depression is the major cause because many feel frustrated to an extent of engaging in poly-substance abuse as a way of reducing stress.
Statement of Purpose
A number of studies have been conducted to ascertain the relationship between poly-substance abuse and depression. Each study has been focusing on particular groups, depending on the choice of the researcher. In this proposal, the effects of poly-substance abuse in adolescent males would be evaluated.
The main purpose of the proposal is to suggest a relevant method that would achieve desired results. The proposal gives some of the articles that would be critical in understanding the relationship between poly-substance abuse and depression in adolescent males. Apart from suggesting some of the articles in the literature review section, the proposal suggests a quantitative method that will utilize the questionnaires in gathering relevant data.
The use of questionnaire enables the researcher to collect adequate information that is relevant to the study. In doing this, the proposal seeks to answer a number of questions, including the following:
Is poly-substance abuse the only cause of depression among male adolescents?
To what extent does substance abuse influence the behavior of an individual
What are some of the substances that the adolescent males frequently abuse
Male adolescents go through various challenges, one of them being poly-substance abuse, which affects their behavior and mood. Poly-substance abuse is a major cause of depression in adolescent males because it affects their psychological and social processes. This causes depression because the adolescent might not be able to achieve the expected results owing to poly-substance abuse.
Literature review Depression is the most crucial aspect that makes young males to indulge in poly-substance abuse. Male adolescents express their depression in various ways. Poly- substance abuse lowers an individual’s level of judgment making him or her to indulge in risky behaviors such as premarital sex or even becoming homosexual an aspect that increases their risk to diseases such as HIV/AIDS among others.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Poly-Substance Abuse in Adolescent Males with Depression specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the studies that Boys, Marsden, and Strang conducted in 2000 concluded that poly-substance abuse has a tremendous effect on the life of young males. The study utilized a snowball sampling technique to reach at the conclusion. The respondents noted that some of the commonly abused substances include alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine.
The majority of the participants confirmed that they had actually utilized the above substances to fulfill their measured substance use functions. In another study conducted by Huba and Lisa (2000), it was established that poly-substance abuse increases the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. In their study, young Hispanic males were more likely to abuse poly-substances while the Native American females were prone to poly-substance abuse.
Moreover, the study established that those who abuse drugs are likely to engage in unprotected sex, which predisposes them to the risks of contracting HIV. It is noteworthy that their research results are representative of findings in clinical gay-bisexual male adolescents and may not hold for the same group of male adolescents in the general societal setting.
Additionally, different ethnic groups exhibit varying frequencies of the involvement of depressed adolescent boys in poly-substance abuse. This was established through a study carried out by Winters and Latimer (2004) in their attempt to find the relationship between Alcohol and other drugs abused in adolescent boys from different ethnic groups in the U.S.
Poulin (2004) and other scholars investigated the relationship between depression and poly-substance abuse in male adolescents in the four Atlantic provinces of Canada as far as gender is concerned. Poulin’s sample consisted of 12,771 students in both junior and high schools of the public schools in the four provinces.
They found out that adolescent males were consistently at a higher risk of depressive symptoms, depressive disorders since they tend to internalize their problems more than others do. According to their study, the prevalence of very elevated symptoms among male adolescents was 8.6% while that of the males was 2.6%. However, male adolescents are at a greater risk of substance use disorders than the adolescent females.
Poulin (2004) found out that different substances are used at different rates among male adolescents with depression. The findings were similar to those of Nolen-Hoeksema’s (2001) who carried out a study to describe how the different genders have different experiences as far as stress in male adolescents is concerned. They identified most of the abused substances among male adolescents. They include alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis.
They associated the increased use of these substances with an increasing probability of depressive disorder. They also noted that smoking was the least controllable substance among the males. They established that depressive symptoms and disorder are the major predictors of smoking uptake not only in adolescence but also in adulthood. Early onset smoking poses a greater risk for severe depression symptoms than later onset smoking. On the other hand, cannabis abuse was associated with males with had a history of depression disorder.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Poly-Substance Abuse in Adolescent Males with Depression by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More An approximated 16% of those who had used cannabis at least once in their life were diagnosed with depression compared to 6% of the male adolescents who had never used cannabis. They also found out that most of the students had depression symptoms while others already had depression disorder but they had not received much help form the society. Only 10.3% reported that they had received help for depression.
Their findings show that for the different levels of depression only 12% of the students with somewhat elevated depressive symptoms had received help so was 22% of the students who had very elevated depressive symptoms. Major depression is one of the most common and serious disorders among male adolescents.
The estimated prevalence of the disorder is between 2.8% and 8.2%. Depressed adolescents are highly vulnerable to poly substance abuse such as engagement in multiple illegal activities (Poulin 2004).
No study proves that defective genes cause major depressive disorder. However, a relationship between genetic makeup and susceptibility to major depression disorder exits. This is based on the idea that some families are known to commit suicide while others have the ability of handling stress very well.
In one of the studies performed on twins, a relationship between genetics and major depression disorder was eminent (Smoller, Sheidley,
Chapter 2, 3, essay help online
Book – Managerial Accounting for Managers By: Eric Noreen
– After reading Chapter 2 in the Noreen text, complete the following exercises/problems: Exercise 2-7, Exercise 2-13 Submit your work preferably in spreadsheet format (Excel)
– After reading Chapter 3 in the Noreen text, complete the following exercises/problems: Exercise 3-16 Submit your work preferably in spreadsheet format (Excel)
– After reading Chapter 4 in the Noreen text, complete the following exercises/problems: Exercise 4-16, Exercise 4-17 Submit your work preferably in spreadsheet format (Excel)
Problems are attached
Fishery Industry: UAE Term Paper online essay help
Introduction For centuries fish has been a mainstay of the diet of the people within the U.A.E. and, as a result, has brought about the creation of numerous industries which focus on harvesting, processing and delivering seafood to a vast consumer market within the region.
However, it should be noted that researchers such as Zoubir and Yahia (1999) state that industries such as these are not given carte blanche to do whatever they want in terms of harvesting the waters in and around the U.A.E. (Zoubir and Yahia, 1999). Certain limitations have to be implemented due to the potential for these industries to wipe out a finite ocean resource (Groeneveld et al., 2012).
What must be understood is that supplies of fish and other aquatic organisms take a certain amount of time to replenish. Unfortunately, due to the subsequent increase in demand for seafood as well as the advanced methods of capture that are being utilized at the present, unrestricted fishing practices often result in unsustainable local aquatic populations which subsequently die out (Groeneveld et al., 2012).
Evidence of this can be seen in the case of the blue fin tuna species as well as the North Atlantic salmon which have experienced considerable population declines to the extent that the W.T.O. as well as several advocacy groups have been protesting their continued use as a food product due to the very real possibility of extinction.
Due to instances such as this, the necessity of implementing proper policies and guidelines to create catch quotas has been at the forefront of present-day government legislation involving the local fishery industry within the U.A.E.
It is based on this that this paper will examine the current policies being utilized for fish within the U.A.E. and what these policies have achieved in terms of creating the necessary catch limitations to ensure sustainable fishing practices.
Through this study, it is expected that readers will develop a greater understanding of current import/export practices within the U.A.E. involving fish as well as whether there exists any potential problems within the fishery industry that the government should focus on in order to increase the effective and efficient utilization of aquatic resources in order to reduce cost and wastefulness.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Background of the Study Fish as a Staple of the Human Diet
For a large percentage of the current global population fish represents a readily available and above all affordable means of sustenance when compared to other food types. Based on comparative global prices it can be seen that certain species of domesticated fish such as milkfish, cod, and dory are actually consumed by the metric ton on an almost daily basis due to their relatively low prices.
While it may be true that beef, chicken and pork have a relatively higher rate of consumption the fact still remains that in most markets fish that are either caught on the open sea or produced through aquaculture have a relatively lower price as compared to most cuts of beef, chicken or pork.
In some cultures, particularly those in the Middle East, fish is actually consumed more than beef, chicken or pork due to their geography, which places them near larger sources of fish as compared to cultures located in Central Europe or the central states in the U.S.
Taking this into consideration it can be seen that fish has a different value depending on the geographic location of the culture that consumes it. For some cultures various dishes based on fish can be considered an integral part of their cultural tradition, while for others fish can be considered nothing more than a miscellaneous option between chicken, beef, pork or vegetables.
Sustainability refers to the utilization of resources and the production of goods/services in a manner that takes into consideration not only the impact of a company on the environment but also its ability to ensure that the resources it utilizes are sourced in a manner that ensures that they can be renewable.
By doing so, this creates a system where costs are reduced, efficiency is increased and the company presents a far better public image due to the general consensus that implementing sustainable practices creates a beneficial effect for the general public.
As such, sustainable supply chains implement the aforementioned principles into a cohesive whole in every aspect of the supply chain, whether it is the sourcing of raw materials, the manufacturing of goods/services or the distribution of such outputs to consumers. From the perspective
We will write a custom Term Paper on Fishery Industry: UAE specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Abbasi and Nilsson (2012) an organization with a truly successful sustainable supply chain could theoretically remain in business forever (depending on continued consumer demand for its products of course) which lends credence to the beneficial effects a sustainable supply chain could have for a company (Abbasi and Nilsson, 2012).
One example of a sustainable supply chain is when a company’s management orientation is evidenced by a business model where economic goals are compatible with environmental and social goals. In this particular version of a successful supply chain a company does not focus entirely on a competitor oriented approach (though this is also important) rather what is being accomplished is that it focuses on developing a business model that utilizes Corporate Social Responsibility (C.S.R.) as the basis behind its actions.
Since C.S.R. is a form of internal self-regulation, a company that implements this focuses on reducing adverse environmental practices while at the same time develops positive social effects. A second example of a sustainable supply chain is when sustainability becomes integrated in the organization where the organization has both a managerial orientation toward sustainability and an innovation capability.
This means that internal developments within the organization focus on developing methods wherein processes become more efficient, waste is reduced, resources are obtained from renewable sources and the focus of the company is towards the development of practices that result in positive environmental effects.
Objectives The main objectives of this study consist of the following:
To examine the current policies for fish and fisheries involving seasonal and species limitations.
Determine the extent by which the policies that have been developed are actually effective in ensuring sustainable fishing practices.
Examine the current import/export regulations of fisheries.
Investigate whether there are any inherent problems/discrepancies in government policies and regulations.
Create a means by which any identified problems can be succinctly addressed with an effective strategy that would resolve the issues.
Methodology Introduction to Methodology
This section aims to provide information on how the study will be conducted and the rationale behind employing the discussed methodologies and techniques towards augmenting the study’s validity. In addition to describing the research design, this section will also elaborate on instrumentation and data collection techniques, validity, data analysis, and pertinent ethical issues that may emerge in the course of undertaking this study.
The primary method of data analysis for this study will consist of document analysis. As described in the book “Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation” by Merriam (2009), document analysis primarily consists of examining academic articles, journals and books as well as various analytic and statistical reports in order to investigate a particular topic or issue.
This method of analysis primarily concerns itself with the presentation of data in support of an argument through a summary and subsequent explanation of all the literature and statistical references collected by the author.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Fishery Industry: UAE by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This method of analysis was chosen since it would enable the most efficient investigation of the data necessary for this study as well as enables the researcher to easily present the needed data without undue complications such as scheduling issues or noncompliance with the objectives of the research which is often seen in interview/questionnaire-based studies.
Data collection for this study will actually be quite straightforward, the researcher will collect information from a variety of online databases such as EBSCOhost and Jstore as well as through other sources such as published books and articles (when available).
Online statistical databases created by the U.A.E. will also be utilized in order to collect data over the past 60 years regarding catch rates and present-day catch limitations that are being imposed on local fisheries within the U.A.E.
It is expected that through these databases an accurate representation of the current state of the fishery industry within the U.A.E. can be created.
Possible ethical considerations that may arise through this study consist of the following:
The potential for unintentional plagiarism through verbatim lifting of information, arguments and points of view from researched source material.
The use of unsubstantiated information taken from unverifiable or nonacademic resources (ex: internet articles).
The use of a biased viewpoint on issues which may inadvertently result in an alteration of the data collection results.
Presentation of data without sufficient corroborating evidence or a lack of citation.
Falsifying the results of the research for the benefit of the initial assumptions of the study.
Using views and ideas without giving due credit to the original source.
According to various research guides, “Ethics refers to the appropriateness of your behavior in relation to the rights of those who become the subject of your work, or are affected by it”. It is based on this that the researcher will attempt to perform proper research ethics on this paper by actively avoiding all the listed possible ethical issues that may arise in order to ensure the validity and veracity of the study results.
Results and Analysis Fishing within the U.A.E
It is quite interesting to note that despite being one the richest and technologically advanced regions within the world, the U.A.E. actually has little in the way of large scale local fisheries. Most of the vessels utilized for fishing within the waters off the Emirate are relatively small scale with technological developments such as trawling through the use of large nets being banned.
While from a certain perspective the U.A.E. does not rely on its fishery industry due to its rich oil reserves, the fact remains that the region considers fishing as a form of regional heritage and, as such, various policies have been enacted which have created a state of rudimentary management as compared to the state of affairs that existed 40 years ago where no effective methods of management were implemented.
Despite the artisanal (i.e., heritage-based) fishing that exists within the U.A.E., it has been shown that nearly 90 percent of its fish stocks have experienced a significant decline in the past two decades.
Not only that, combined with the fact that vessel registration within the Emirate has seen a 25% decline is indicative of the fact that not only is there a decline in the availability of local species, the local fishery industries have actually noticed this and, as a result, have scaled back their operations resulting in a scant number of vessels actually fishing the local U.A.E. coastline.
In trying to understand the decline of fish stocks within the region it is important to note that within the past 30 years, the U.A.E. has actually experienced phenomenal growth in terms of industrial and commercial property development. This has impacted not only the region’s interior but has actually encompassed aspects of its coastline as well wherein various land reclamation projects have in effect significantly altered the bio-system of established aquatic species.
Researchers such as Tourenq and Launay (2008) have pointed out that the artificial expansion of the U.A.E. coastline without heed for the possible environmental ramifications would definitely have had some form of impact on the local fish population (Tourenq and Launay, 2008).
As Tourenq and Launay (2008) explains, coastlines act not only as breeding areas and sanctuaries but are also the local of a vast percentage of the local migration patterns of aquatic sea populations. The development that has occurred within the U.A.E. has upset such a balance resulting in the declining fish populations that are seen at the present (Tourenq and Launay, 2008).
Current State of the U.A.E Fisheries Industry
Based on an examination of recent catches, it can be seen that the following fish species are the primary catches caught off the local coastline by the fishery industry:
Groupers – consists of 24.7 percent of all caught fish
Jacks- consists of 16.5 percent of all caught fish
Emperors – consists of 25 percent of all caught fish
Sweet lips – consists of 10.5 percent of all caught fish
Scads – consists of 5.2 percent of all caught fish
While it may be true that artisanal fishing vessels in the form of dhows (wooden vessels that are 15 meters in length) or outboard powered vessels “tarads” (normally 8 to 10 meters in length) are the primary means by which the local fishing industry gets its “catch” the fact remains that combined with the current state of coastline development within the country, the means by which the local fishery industry catches fish is contributing significantly to the continued reduction of fish species within the Emirate.
The reason behind this is quite simple, in combination with traditional practices the local fishery industry at times attempts to utilize banned methods of fishing, which results in considerable reductions in the local population to such a degree that the methods utilized are in effect unsustainable in the long run.
First and foremost, the use of traditional fixed stake rake nets, which are called “hadra” has lead to the catch of fish that are less than the optimum size. These fish, usually juveniles, have yet to spawn and contribute to the local fish population and, as such, their capture is incredibly detrimental towards the continued survival of local species.
The problem with hadra’s is that the netting they utilize in catching fish has not changed in design in well over 100 years. This type of netting is usually meant to catch as many fish as possible without heed for size and, as such, has holes which do not let juveniles pass through as compared to a majority of modern-day fishing nets which are more discriminate in the type of fish they are able to catch.
While the Environmental Research and Wildlife Development Agency (ERWDA) has attempted to establish a variety of new regulations limiting the types of netting utilized as well as the size of fish caught the problem really boils down to the fact that there is an insufficient means of enforcement within the region to facilitate and effective means of enforcement for the agency’s policies.
Aside from the use of hadras, there has been a significant increase in the use of illegal trawling nets in order to catch Spanish mackerel during its fishing seasons.
The main problem with trawling is similar to that of the hadras since they are indiscriminate in the types of fish caught, however, unlike the hadras trawling nets are able to catch thousands of pounds of fish at a time and, as a result, this has lead to further reduction in local fish stocks since insufficient numbers of fish have been left behind in order to help boost the population.
Another problem with the local fishery industry is related to the fact that no official numbers have been collected regarding the amount of catches per fishery vessel within the Emirate.
Despite the fact that most of the fish caught is funneled through Abu Dhabi, there has been an insufficient level of investigation at the local level in order to determine whether local fisheries are staying within the catch allotments assigned to them by the government.
As a result, there is a very real possibility that overfishing is occurring which contributes to the current decline in the local aquatic species.
Discussion Management Efforts in Resolving the Identified Issues
Some environmental management efforts to resolve to the identified issues initially came in the form of freezing the amount of licenses granted to new fishermen in 2003, yet by 2004 licenses were allowed to be issued again despite the fact that there has been no sufficient recovery on the part of the local ocean life.
Other such limitations have come in the form of a limitation on the number of fishing traps (called gargoor) to 100 per boat (Al-Qaydi, 2008). However, despite this limitation on the number of traps, there was no limitation set on other types of fishing gear per vessel (i.e., nets), which enabled the fisheries to continue fishing with no apparent reduction in the amount of fish caught.
Other restrictions attempted by the local government came in the form of requiring a U.A.E. national to be on board the boat when it attempted to fish. While such a tactic worked initially, the lack of enforcement on the part of the government when it came to ensuring that U.A.E. nationals were actually on the boats themselves resulted in subsequent “ghost fishing trips” occurring wherein nationals claimed they were on the boat but were in fact nowhere near the boat in the first place (Al-Qaydi, 2008).
While the U.A.E. was able to introduce legislation to resolve the identified issues with its local fishery industry in the form of Federal Law number 23, the fact remains that there is an insufficient structure for enforcement and investigation at the local level. Catches are not monitored on a per boat basis but rather on the amounts found within the drop off centers and declared by the boats themselves resulting in the very real possibility of catch falsification in order to show compliance with local regulations.
Not only that, with no search and seizure mandates as well as sufficiently harsh criminal prosecutions on individuals who violate the established mandates on catch limitations within the coastlines of the Emirate, this shows that the current means by which the local aquatic environment is being protected is only a “show”.
There is no means by which enforcement is created and established with various public ministries merely patching up the damage rather than directly addressing the issue.
As a result of such actions, despite the attempts of the local government to create a sustainable fishing environment within the U.A.E., the fact remains that the lack of government willingness to actually establish concrete measures of enforcement and compliance has made it so that it is likely that fish populations within the U.A.E. will continue to plummet as a direct result of overfishing and the continued rapid development of construction projects along its coastlines (Al-Qaydi, 2008).
Resolving the Problems
Aside from implementing more stringent management and regulatory procedures on local fisheries, the U.A.E. government, along with various private enterprises, has actually actively sought to help address the problem of overfishing through alternative methods. One of these methods actually involves the raising of juvenile fish by the thousands at onshore facilities, which are then released into the wild to help address the issue of dwindling supplies of fish.
This program, which was enacted by the Ministry of Environment and Water’s Marine Resources Research Center has been effective in helping to temporarily curb the decline of various fish species within the past few years. Unfortunately, despite the fact that the fishing catch within the U.A.E. ha decline from 118,000 metric tons in 1999 to 90,000 tons at the present, the fact remains that the rate of reproduction of local species has yet to reach a sufficient level to become sustainable in the long run.
Adding to this problem is a general lack of public concern surrounding the issue of declining fish populations within the Emirate. What must be understood is that a vast majority of the current fish stock within many of the U.A.E.’s markets and grocery stores are actually imported from other countries and regions.
As a result, the general public has not “felt” so to speak the declining fish availability since they are used to having a large and prolific choice of fish as a direct result of international importers.
The end result of such a state of affairs is a slow and at times redundant introduction of new juvenile fish species by the Ministry of Environment and Water’s Marine Resources Research Center which do not have the desired impact due to the lack of general public support for a respite in the amount of fish caught locally (Fujiwara, 2012).
Other attempts at reducing the amount of fish caught have come in the form of establishing small fishing farms within various areas along the U.A.E. coastline in order to help raise the needed fish in a more sustainable fashion. Such attempts have actually proven to be immensely successful and have even led to the introduction of new types of fish species being introduced into the Emirate as seen in the case of the various.
Summary and Conclusion The defining factors of a successful society in the modern-day era has been the level of industrial and technological achievement from which that society derives a certain degree of economic success and creates the trappings of what is known as the “modern-day lifestyle”.
Societies all over the world continue to strive to reach this supposed pinnacle of success; yet, the price for reaching such a goal often comes through significant environmental deterioration as seen in the case of the U.A.E.’s local fishery industry. The inherent source of the problem is not the process of industrialization itself, but the attitudes many societies have developed in response to the supposed “necessity” of reaching the goal of “modern-day success”.
People are not concerned whether or not the continued development of the U.A.E. coast leads towards the destruction of the local aquatic ecosystem nor are they overly concerned with the impact of overfishing on the local marine life, instead they are more than happy to relegate such responsibilities to the local government which itself is unwilling to take the necessary actions in fear of being labeled “too harsh” by local critics.
This is particularly troublesome when taking into consideration the difficulties involved in a conjoined societal effort to implement new practices of sustainability for the fishery industry when there is mutual distrust as a direct result of the social stratification brought about by industrialization.
Based on the various arguments presented, it can be seen that it is not the process of industrialization itself that has lead to unsustainable fishery practices and the deterioration of the local coastline environment, rather, it is the perspective of U.A.E. society at the present wherein people believe that it is necessary to industrialize in order to achieve what is perceived as a modern-day lifestyle regardless of the possible costs that is the main culprit behind the problems seen today.
Recommendation As the demand for fish grows so too will the necessity of increasingly larger means of fish extraction and delivery to supply such a demand. The inherent problem with this is that the price of finite resources continues to increase over time as demand grows. There will eventually come a time where the U.A.E. will have to deal with the dwindling supply of fish and the aftereffects that continued construction and overfishing have caused on the environment.
There are already squabbles breaking out between India, China and Egypt regarding sharing the aquatic resources that feed into their respective territories with no end in sight in finding an effective solution. It is based on this that the researcher for this project advocate better methods of aquatic species conservation as well as a certain degree of self-imposed limitations on demand growth through the following methods so as to ensure that fish resources are not completely depleted within the coming years:
Use of Propaganda to Incite Public Opinion Towards Conservation
Propaganda is a method of communication which is used to influence the attitudes of specific groups of individuals towards a particular cause or position. In essence, instead of a sense of impartiality propaganda actually presents information in such a way so as to influence an audience through selective dissemination of information in order to create an emotional rather than a rational response to certain issues.
What must be understood is that propaganda utilizes elements such as loaded questions, partial synthesis or even lying by omission in order to gain the desired response. On the other hand, propaganda is also used in various public information campaigns by governments for positive effects such as the Australian governments fight against illegal downloads connoting their use with stealing and its use by the U.S. during the invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq as a supposed “war on terror”.
In essence, the use of propaganda and its effects can be associated with the ethical reasoning behind its usage. It is based on this that a strategy utilizing propaganda can be utilized in order to help generate awareness and action among members of the general public within the U.A.E. in order to help them understand the current problems that the local fish population face and the sacrifices that must be done in order to resolve such an issue.
It is expected that through the proper propaganda campaigns general awareness will increase to such an extent that the government will have no choice but to implement far more stringent measures of control over the fishery industry to appease the clamor from the local population.
Implementing Methods of “Green” (i.e. Sustainable) Construction and Development
The term “green” means the utilization of technologies, ideals or concepts that put environmental stewardship at the forefront of one’s actions. In other words it is an attempt at modifying one’s behavior towards a more environmentally “friendly” course of action.
This means pursuing strategies involving the utilization of recyclable material, conserving resources rather than wasting them through negligent use, and finally advocating the pursuit of methods of environmental stewardship both in technologies used and in social action.
In a way going “green” can be described as a form of ethos, the concept of ethos can be described as a form of guiding beliefs that are an inherent part of a community or nation’s character. It is used as a guide that influences a person’s behavior to such an extent that by examining the ethos behind a culture you can determine how they will react based on a given situation.
It is based on this that it can be assumed that going “green” is an ideology that one attempts to follow due to it possessing characteristics that are appealing to a person’s inherent character and set of ideals. Such an aspect can be implemented in the case of the U.A.E. when it comes to the construction and development of its various coastal projects.
A variety of ecological sustainable practices can be implemented, which help to promote the continued health of the environment rather than destroy it. It is expected that should such “green” project developments occur, it can help to reduce the damage done by the recklessly destructive coastline construction that had occurred previously.
Reference List Abbasi, Maisam, and Fredrik Nilsson. 2012. “Themes and challenges in making supply chains environmentally sustainable.” Supply Chain Management 17, no. 5, pages 517-530. Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost .
Al-Qaydi, Saif S. 2008. “Tradition, Change, and Government Policy in the United Arab Emirates East Coast Fishing Community.” American Geographical Society’s Focus On Geography 51, no. 1: 1-6. Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost .
Fujiwara, Masami. 2012. “Demographic Diversity and Sustainable Fisheries.” Plos ONE 7, no. 5: 1-14. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost .
Merriam, S. 2009. Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation, John Wiley
Slowdown in U.S housing market Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Slowdown in U.S housing market
The government’s rent control and rental regulations
The minimum wage laws
Slowdown in U.S housing market During the period between 1998 and 2008, the prices of housing in the United States rose dramatically. In some part of the country, the prices increased by more than fifty percent (Roberts 25). This process can be explained by different factors such as deregulation, tax policies, low interest rates, and the firm conviction of many people that real estate will never depreciate (Roberts 25).
Nevertheless, in 2006 U.S. housing market began to slow down. The prices on housing declined in different regions of the United States. Despite the efforts of the government, the situation has not changed much, and the real estate market of the country remains stagnant even at the beginning of 2013.
This problem will be discussed can be attributed the fact that modern economy has become extremely interconnected, and the failure of one sector can adversely influence other areas of economy.
It is particularly important to speak about the context of this issue because in this way one can better understand its impacts. First of all, before 2006 the value of housing was important for the purchasing power of many people in the country. Furthermore, the sustainability of many banks depended on the price of housing since these institutions used real estate as a form of mortgage or collateral (Roberts 12).
Additionally, the financial performance of stock could be affected by the housing market. Thus, one can argue that different elements of the economy were extremely interdependent. This is the reason why the collapse and subsequent stagnation of the housing market produced far-reaching consequences.
There are several implications of this crisis. In particular, one can speak about the diminishing availability of credit for the population since many banks expect to receive some collateral from the borrowers. The problem is that real estate has long been the most conventional form of collateral, and currently it has become less valuable.
Furthermore, in the U.S housing market, the supply significantly exceeds the demand for real estate. Moreover, a great number of financial institutions and governmental agencies face a significant challenge. In particular, they should avoid numerous foreclosures since this trend increases the supply of the housing. These are the main challenges that should be overcome.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One can identify several consequences that are very important. For instance, the revenues of many real estate companies dropped dramatically. These organizations have to lay off many of their workers. At this point, the sustainability of these firms is under threat. Furthermore, one should remember about the difficulties faced by homeowners.
At this point, these people do not know whether their real estate can retain its value in the future. This issue is very urgent when the rate of foreclosures increases. Furthermore, one should remember that many communities have been affected by this slowdown. Many of them have become almost abandoned because of many people had to leave their houses. This is another issue that should not be overlooked.
These examples suggest that the recession of the U.S housing market has affected various stakeholders such as homeowners, financial organizations, real estate companies and sometimes even entire communities. The most important challenge is the lack of stimulus that can revitalize this industry. This is the main problem that policy-makers and business leaders should address in order to boost the development of the American economy.
The government’s rent control and rental regulations Another issue that should be discussed is the rent control that is aimed at making housing more affordable (Rowley and Schneider 188). In many cases, governmental regulations are supposed to act as price ceilings that prevent the price of rent from increasing. Furthermore, they are designed to protect the rights of clients who often fall victims of information asymmetry (Rowley and Schneider 188).
Apart from that, these laws are designed to benefit many families since it may be difficult for them to find a new apartment. This is the main rationale for adopting this strategy. It is important to determine the implications of this policy, especially its impact on the market.
One can say that this intrusion into the market can create difficulties for tenants and renters. However, these regulations are vital for people with low levels of income.
First, it should be noted that these regulations have become extremely important at the time, when the price on housing was gradually rising. Some people could not afford to purchase a real estate, and rent was probably the only option available to them. This situation was very widespread among low-income people who could not receive a mortgage from a bank.
We will write a custom Essay on Slowdown in U.S housing market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Nevertheless, one should also remember about people who choose to rent their houses. These individuals and organizations can be affected by inflation, while price-ceilings do not always reflect the changes in the inflation rate. Moreover, it should be kept in mind that these stakeholders can invest capital in the redevelopment of the housing that they possess (Euchner and McGovern 168).
Nevertheless, they may be unable to recover these costs by increasing rent prices. These are some of some of the main circumstances that should be considered. These factors can explain some effects of governmental intervention in the housing market.
There are several consequences and implications of this issue. First of all, researchers believe that this policy decreases the mobility of people. In other words, they are willing to stay in those cities, where they can find more affordable housing. This means that they can be deprived of many economic opportunities, for instance, when they have to find a new job (Rittenberg 100).
Additionally, economists warn policy-makers about the existence of the so-called shadow market that are hardly regulated by the government (Euchner and McGovern 168). The problem is that in state-controlled markets the demand for housing will eventually exceed supply.
The property owners, who have to work in such an environment, can rely on the backdoor payments while dealing with customers (Rittenberg 100). For example, one can mention the use of large security deposits (Rittenberg 100). This is the main danger that legislator should be aware of while designing their policies.
Yet, one should remember about another effect of price controls. They create more security for many occupants are dependent on the availability housing and the stability of prices. These people cannot be easily evicted from houses. As it has been noted before, for many families it is extremely challenging to find a new accommodation.
The rent control is supposed to uphold the rights of these people. Thus, one should not forget about the possible benefit of this strategy. Economists believe that government can give some tax relief to the property owners who have to operate in state-controlled market (Rittenberg 100). In this way, they can reconcile the interests of different stakeholders.
Therefore, one can argue that the governmental regulations can create many difficulties for people who need to rent an apartment or a house. In particular, this strategy can eventually decrease the supply of accommodation. Nevertheless, it can increase the security of many tenants. Thus, it has both advantages and disadvantages that should be taken into account by policy-makers in the United States.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Slowdown in U.S housing market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The minimum wage laws The economic development of a country is also influenced by the existence of the minimum wage laws. According to these regulations, private companies and governmental organizations are obliged to pay a certain minimum amount of money for their hourly work (Mathis 371).
Overall, it is possible to argue that these laws are important for protecting the rights of employees in the workplace. Moreover, they are important for increasing the purchasing power of the population. This is why they can be regarded as a positive force. This is the main argument that should be examined in more detail.
It should be noted that minimum wage law has a long history in the United States. For example, they can be traced to 1933. In turn, the most recent piece of legislation is Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007 (Mathis 372). Overall, these protective measures are particularly important for young and often unskilled people who often lack experience and expertise.
These workers are most likely to become the victims of unscrupulous employers. This danger is the most important rationale for enacting minimum wage laws in the United States. Nevertheless, one should not forget about the interests of companies that are now driven by the need to reduce their operational costs and labor expenses.
This conflict of interest is one of the reasons why these regulations are so often debated. The task of policy makers is to find some form of compromise. It is vital to look at the possible consequences of this strategy and its long-term implications.
Overall, one can say that nowadays the existence of minimum wage laws influences various kinds of businesses. These organizations can be engaged in different economic activities such as construction, hospitality, fishing, retailing, and so forth. The workers, who benefit from the legislation, often lack professional education, and their labor is not very expensive (Mathis 373).
The most important benefit of this policy is that the purchasing power of low-wage employees remains relatively stable. Some critics of this policy believe that minimum wage laws can decrease the demand for the labor of young workers. However, this hypothesis has been fully confirmed (Mathis 373).
Therefore, there are no adverse consequences of this regulation; at they have not demonstrated in an empirical way. This is one of the main points that can be made.
Thus, it is possible to argue that minimum wage laws have already become an inseparable part of the modern economic life. These regulations are important for a great number of workers in the United States.
Although some companies can be reluctant to accept these laws, they remain vital for ensuring the compensation of workers and the purchasing power of American people. This is the main reason why this initiative can be supported by the government.
Works Cited Euchner, Charles and S. McGovern. Urban Policy Reconsidered: Dialogues on the Problems and Prospects of American Cities. Philadelphia: Routledge, 2003. Print.
Mathis, Robert. Human Resource Management, New York: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
Rittenberg, Libbie. Principles of Microeconomics, Boston: Flat World Knowledge, 2008. Print.
Roberts, Lawrence. The Great Housing Bubble, New York: Monterey Cypress LLC, 2008. Print.
Rowley, Charles, and F. Schneider. The Encyclopedia of Public Choice, New York: Springer, 2004. Print.
Exploration of Thomas Paine’s theory Essay a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Understanding the theory of ‘common sense’
The state of equality of mankind and the government
Introduction Several theories have been advanced by a significant number of theorists, who seek to use these theories to explain the functionality of institutions within political realms of the society. One such theorist is Thomas Paine, who coined the theory of ‘common sense’. Paine is one of the ancient theorists in history.
He developed this theory back in 1776. The theory seeks to criticize the actions of individuals and authorities. Paine’s theory has a number of empirical justifications that can help in inspiring the actions by governments and individuals concerning issues of governance (Larkin 88). This paper explores Paine’s theory of ‘common sense’.
The paper expands on the subject of equality of people in governance as poised by Paine’s theory. The paper also carries a critical evaluation and the worthiness of the arguments that are postulated by Paine.
Understanding the theory of ‘common sense’ As observed in the introductory notes, the concept of ‘common sense’ was developed in the latter years of the 18th century. During this period, the accolades of British imperialism were still prevalent in the United States.
A substantial number of modern political theorists have argued that this concept by Paine posed the first major challenge to Britain’s Authority in the United States by critiquing the actions of the British administrators in the United States. The theory is strongly founded in the development of governance in the society and the implications for which it has on the interaction of people and the government.
Common sense as brought out by Paine entails passages that appertain to natural rights; human rights made humans equal and should, thus, be treated equally. The main argument of the theory, which is the abuse of power by the political authority, is often easily justified. However, the main concern is whether the justification of such abuses warrants to be given attention by the society.
The society is built by the common demands of the citizenry, while governments are often built on the grounds of exploitative thoughts. Therefore, Paine argues that the foundations of the society promote the equality of human beings through the aspect of common needs, while the foundations of governance kill the recognition of human equality through cultivation of wickedness for gains (Paine and Philp n.p.).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In his exploration of the origin and existence of government in the society, Paine argued that the government is often the source of miseries that befalls man. He makes a comparison of government with the existence of a society in the earth, which does not have any attributes of governance.
He notes that such a population would be quite united and respectful of the rights of each other since human beings are united by their needs under what is known as ‘society’. He made reference to how power is molded in governance, where he noted that people fear power because of its negative attributes. Therefore, the fact that the government is molded along power makes it harder for people to trust the government.
The issue of power and its subsequent exercise is a complex issue altogether and increases the difficulty of embracing the state of equality. Power is molded by both the subjects and the rulers.
While it is claimed that the subjects have a role to play in shaping the exercise of power, the rulers take advantage of the loyalty and the respect accorded to them to abuse the power vested on them. What ought to be asked is whether power can be guarded and utilized for the benefit of enhancing natural equality of human beings (Paine para. 2).
The state of equality of mankind and the government It is critical to note that the subject of equality is one of the most debatable subjects in the philosophy of governance. One thing that comes into the minds of people concerning the argument of the ‘common sense’ theory is whether the argument provides rational ideas about the issue of equality in governance. Can equality of human beings exist in the political setup?
A number of people argue that some of the arguments that are advanced in the theory of common sense can be justified because of the nature and structure of the society. However, other people find the argument to be logical by citing instances that denote the importance of the embrace of human beings by governments (Aldridge 47).
The society is wide and the question of rights and equality of human beings in the society cannot be easily explicated. This is a pointer to the fact that the passages in the common sense that appertain to natural rights are not certain, thus they are subjected to a lot of critics.
We will write a custom Essay on Exploration of Thomas Paine’s theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To begin with, the publication of the theory of ‘common sense’ elicited a debate about the black population in the United States and the status or the level at which the black population had rights over the black population. It comes out that the blacks were considered to be lesser human beings than the whites. This can be blamed on the government (Paine para. 6).
What comes out here is that the issue of equality begins with the manner in which people look at each other and treat each other within the society. Racial discrimination existed in America long before independence and has continued to reign. The only difference today is that it is not done openly as was done before.
The cases of racial discrimination are still rampant and widely reported in a substantial number of states in the United States and other regions of the world. Therefore, it is quite irrational to blame the government for failing to respect the equality of human beings, while the society itself, which is considered to be a neutral entity, does not respect the equality of human beings.
However, what should be asked here is whether the government can shape the society and make it embrace human equality. Based on the foundations on which the government is built, it is doubtful to trust that the government can help the society to embrace equality of human beings (Paine para. 6-7).
Paine sought to understand the most critical thing between independence and reconciliation in the development of a nation. He noted that reconciliation is quite complex and difficult to attain, yet it is most critical in the embrace of the equality of mankind in nations. According to Paine, most nations prefer independence over exercising of independence and reconciliation.
The pursuance of independence by governments is argued to be the leading factor to the growth of dependency of nations. In the pursuance of independence, man remains to be a victim of the channels and steps that are put in place in order to attain the most sought for status by nations in the world. It makes more sense to put this argument in the contemporary political economy.
The question that needs to be asked is whether countries in the contemporary political economy pursue the doctrine of independence of the doctrine of reconciliation, and how each course promotes the equality of human beings.
Most analysts seem to be of the opinion that both doctrines are being practiced by countries, though on totally varying scales. Each country prefers to pursue dependency, which is the reason why there is a lot of competition between nations in the world today.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Exploration of Thomas Paine’s theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Under such intense competition, the respect of equality of all human beings is often ignored. Reconciliation often comes out as an alternative doctrine after the interests to attain dependence have resulted in actions that raise an alarm on the respect of the rights of human beings (Paine 57-60).
The other thing that comes out in Paine’s theory is the issue of absolutism in governments. Paine opines that governments lack moral virtue. This resonates from the manner in which governments are formed. The lack of moral virtue in governments is a hindrance to the respect of human nature and the equality of human beings.
Pain applauds absolute governments by arguing that the citizens in these countries are often aware of the source of disgrace to human equality. The implication of this statement is that even the governments that claim to embrace the rights and equality of human beings are found committing atrocities, which questions their commitment to enhance the doctrine of human equality (Paine 11).
Conclusion According to the argument in this paper, the theory of common sense by Paine has been subjected to criticisms by a substantial number of people. As postulated in the paper, it is quite daunting for governments to embrace natural equality because of the foundations on which government is built. The exercise of power by governments is cited as the main impediment to the embrace of natural equality.
Works Cited Aldridge, Alfred O. Thomas Paine’s American Ideology. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1984. Print.
Larkin, Edward. Thomas Paine and the literature of revolution. Cambridge University Press: New York, 2005. Print.
Paine, Thomas, and Philp Mark. Rights of Man, Common Sense, and other Political Writings. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. Print.
Paine, Thomas, Common Sense: Introduction. n.d. Web. https://www.varsitytutors.com/ebooks/earlyamerica/CommonSense/3755.txt
The Natural Resource Curse Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
The natural resource curse affects countries with abundant natural resources. Studies done to investigate this phenomenon reveal several paradoxical issues relating the presence of natural resources in a country.
For instance, countries that rely on natural resources for budgetary financing seem to have an inverse economic growth in relation to the percentage of the national budget financed using natural wealth. This paper looks at the issue of the natural resource curse with a view of uncovering why some countries suffer from it, while others do not.
Natural resources refer to endowments in mineral wealth, or naturally occurring plant and animal life. Mineral wealth in this case refers to mined substances such as precious metals, gemstones, or oil wealth. Some of these resources occur near the surface of the earth. In this case, the resource may not require mining in the conventional sense.
Timber is one of the most valuable natural resources extracted from naturally occurring forests. The worldwide demand for timber is growing mainly because of increasing control and restriction on logging by authorities concerned with the conservation of nature.
To a certain extent, the presence of animals such as elephants and rhinos makes a country vulnerable to natural resource issues related to the ivory trade. However, the significance of animal related natural wealth is reducing because of greater enforcement of animal protection legislation.
The natural resource curse refers to the paradoxical situation where countries endowed with natural resources tend to suffer from poor economic growth, war, and poverty, more than countries not endowed with these resources. This is counter intuitive because the presence of natural resources should mean the availability of finances to bankroll development projects in a country.
However, many countries that have vast amounts of natural resources tend to suffer from slow economic growth, resource wars, and disproportionate levels of corruption. Scholars present various reasons for this situation that range from corruption, to weak governance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Why Some Countries Suffer From the Natural Resource Curse There are many reasons why many countries suffer from the natural resource curse. This section examines the role of corruption, resource dependence, weak central governments, and the international business environment surrounding trade in natural resources.
The nature of natural wealth is such that it is difficult to track the exact quantities produced and then delivered to markets. In addition, after the sale of the resources, it is difficult to track with accuracy the exact amount of money that eventually ends up in projects that are for the benefit of the country. Many times, governments do not control the actual mining or extraction operations of the natural resources in their territory.
For instance, oil companies such as BP control mining operations in many territories around the world. This means that the governments cannot know with complete accuracy whether the quantities of oil mined by oil companies are the actual ones. It is also possible for a minister in charge of mining to collude with the company to defraud the country.
Since the government trusts the minister to control and report on the operations of the company, the country ends up losing revenue. On the other end, after the mining companies extract and sell minerals in the international market, the money may not reach development projects in the country because of corruption within government.
The second cause of the oil curse is resource dependence of countries endowed with natural resources. This especially affects oil-producing nations. A good example is Nigeria where the country relies on oil and gas exports to fund more than eighty percent of its recurrent expenses. This overreliance on mineral wealth makes it difficult for the government to develop a sustainable tax base.
Studies show that countries that do not have an effective tax net also tend to lack the capacity to address social issues in the country. Nigeria’s reliance on its oil wealth is part of the causative factors of the social challenges espoused by the conflict in the Niger Delta.
In addition, Nigeria is in no position to challenge the activities of oil companies when they fail to meet environmental stipulations simply because the government relies on these companies to generate its operating revenues.
We will write a custom Essay on The Natural Resource Curse specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This situation, compared to the America for instance is appalling. America took strong action against BP after the Deep Water horizon oil spill. America does not rely on oil in the same terms as Nigeria. Therefore, it had the liberty to enforce its laws after the spill.
Thirdly, weak governments amplify the negative effects of the resource curse. A weak government does not have the capacity to address the social ills in the country. This usually comes from ineffective planning, or inconsistent implementation. Any government that cannot guarantee the territorial integrity of the country, or does not have the power to manage social order, is weak.
Countries with mineral wealth also tend to have rebel groups seeking to control mineral rich areas. For instance, rebellion in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) takes place around mineral centers. No government in the DRC has gained control over the entire territory of the country. The fact that natural resources tend to occur in one region makes the resource rich areas easy targets of armed groups since they are easy to seize and control.
Finally, the resource curse is a product of tilted international trading terms. For instance, OECD countries encourage the importation of raw material such as crude oil, but it discourages the importation of processed products. Importing processed products to the OECD is difficult because of a raft of tariff and non-tariff barriers.
The net effect is that any country that wants to sell its natural resources to the OECD countries cannot establish a strong local manufacturing sector. The result is that the country remains dependent on the export of natural resources, while it imports equipment and finished products from its natural resource export destinations.
How Countries Avoid the Natural Resource Curse Despite the strong indication that natural resources tend to bring more problems for some countries that solutions, there are examples of countries that seem to have avoided the curse. In this section, we look at three factors that contribute to avoiding the natural resource curse. These factors are the presence of a strong central government, diversified economies, and diversified markets.
Saudi Arabia is one of the largest oil producers in the world. Oil accounts for about fifty percent of its national budget, and is responsible for about ninety percent of its export revenues. As such, Saudi Arabia should be suffering from the oil curse. This is not the case. The country has one of the most stable governments in the Middle East.
It did not suffer during the Arab spring and it does not have any formidable rebel groups operating within its territory. Its only exposure is from terrorists who loath the presence of American bases in the country. This is an ideological issue, rather than a resource one. The case of Saudi Arabia shows that a strong central government can avert the resource curse.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Natural Resource Curse by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The ability of the government to maintain territorial integrity is a key part of the process of avoiding the natural resource curse. It is also instructive to note that Saudi Arabia is not a western democracy. Rather it is a monarchy. Its laws are some of the harshest in the world especially in regards to issues of social harmony.
The point here is that avoiding the resource curse is not a question of the type of government in place. Rather it is a factor of how strong the government is in the management of the country.
The second way in which countries can avert the natural resource curse is by diversifying their economies. A good case in point is Dubai, which is part of the UAE. Dubai struck oil in the mid twentieth century. The rulers of the city-state soon recognized that while the oil wealth was a great resource for the country, reliance on oil was not sustainable.
This led to the development of economic plans that sought to transfer the oil wealth to other sectors of the economy. The goal of this move was to diversify the economic base of the country. The result of this is that Dubai is now an international trade hub, known more for its free port that for its oil. Oil is still an important part of the economic mix of the country, but even if the oil sector collapsed, the country will still be operational.
Apart from its famous free port, Dubai is becoming a financial capital, a tourism hub, and a transport hub. Emirates Airlines, which is currently one of the largest airlines in the world operates from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Apart from the diversification of the economic base of the country, the UAE makes efforts to maintain social stability by ensuring all the citizens have access to quality education and healthcare.
The third pillar in the effort to avoid the natural resource curse is diversifying the markets for the primary natural wealth. Diversifying the market for a country’s natural wealth makes it possible for the country to develop other sectors of the economy, and to control the prices of the natural wealth.
Instead of relying on exports to regions with many tariff and non-tariff barriers, it is better to develop new markets for finished products to create jobs locally. Kenya exports processed oil to its neighbors after importing crude from the Middle East. If Kenya had its own oil, then it would have the full benefits of oil extraction.
In conclusion, the natural resource curse is not impossible to deal with. However, it takes strong leadership on the part of the country endowed with natural wealth to deal with the associated issues. In this sense, the natural resource curse is really the product of bad leadership in the midst of abundance.
Works Cited Bannon, Ian and Paul Collier. “Natural Resources and Conflict: What We Can Do.” Bannon, Ian and Paul Collier. Natural Resources and Violent Conflict: Options and Actions. Washington DC: The World Bank, 2003. 1-16. Print.
Chapin, Rosemary. Social Policy for Effective Practice: A Strengths Approach. New York: Francis
Does it matter what business the firm is in; and does it matter for China? Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Analysis of Chinese economy and businesses
Introduction One of the long-standing questions amongst economists relates to whether management practices adopted by firms explain the difference in the level of their productivity especially in emerging economies (Bloom, Eifert, Mahajan, McKenzie, and Roberts 1). According to Green (8), every industry and economic sector is subject to external changes, which are in most cases uncontrollable and unpredictable.
However, the expertise and quality of management developed by a firm determines its ability to develop sustainable competencies and sufficient internal dynamic capabilities, thus enhancing its ability to cope with the external factors. International corporations are increasingly facing macro-environmental changes, which have profound and long lasting effects on their internationalisation processes.
Moreover, environmental changes also affect the management of international operations. The international aspect of business and management has changed significantly due to globalisation. Consequently, international management has become an important consideration in firms’ operations (Faria and Guedes 1).
As one of the emerging economies, China has notably been incorporated into the global economy. Most investors are considering the country as one of the optimal investment destinations. Consequently, the country has experienced a substantial increment in the volume of foreign direct investments over the past few years compared to Japan, Germany, and the US (Faria and Guedes 1).
In an effort to attain high economic growth rate, it is fundamental for the Chinese government to be concerned with how firms are implementing international management concepts. Thus, stakeholders should appreciate the significance of international management.
Various international management theories have been developed and they apply to different economic sectors. In light of this insight, this essay evaluates whether the economic sector within which a firm operates matters with reference to international management theory and its impact on China’s catch-up prospects.
Analysis of Chinese economy and businesses Following the strategic transformation undertaken by China during the 1970s, the country’s economy has undergone rapid economic growth. Its average Gross Domestic Product [GDP] for the period ranging between 1978 and 2010 was 9.8 per cent, which was the highest during that period (Fung and Peng 5).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Over the past three decades, China has changed from being a planned economy to one of the most dynamic world economies. Some of the factors explaining the country’s high rate of economic growth include economic globalisation, adoptions of economic division of labour, adherence to market rules, and its active pursuit for a market economy (Fung and Peng 5).
Most Chinese firms are a new force within the world economy. Consequently, a significant proportion of firms are in their growth phase. However, they are experiencing innate deficiencies such as human resource management difficulties. Considering the fact that the country is in its growth stage of economic growth, most firms in China are copying and imitating their production processes.
A high rate of imitation and copying of products and services cuts across firms in diverse economic sectors in China. One of the factors promoting product imitation in the country is lack of adequate implementation of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) mechanisms by the government.
Abraham, Konings, and Shootmaekers (8) assert that imitation of foreign products in China is widespread in all sectors such as the car, music, health care, luxury products, and the fashion sectors. However, imitation is prominent with regard to innovation and technology.
The ascent of the country to the World Trade Organisation has forced China to amend its legal framework with regard to IPR in order to promote foreign direct investment. However, this aspect has not deterred counterfeiters and pirates due to ineffective enforcement of the measures instituted to prevent massive violation of property rights (Abraham, Konings, and Shootmaekers 8).
One of the major limitations in the country’s effort to fight counterfeiters arises from the fact that the country relies significantly on administrative mechanisms rather than judicial mechanisms.
The manufacturing sector is one of the largest economic sectors in China. Most Chinese firms are investing in low-cost manufacturing in an effort to attain sufficient market leadership and stimulate the country’s economic growth (Fung and Peng 4). The manufacturing sector contributes a significant proportion to the country’s economic growth by creating employment and enhancing productivity.
We will write a custom Essay on Does it matter what business the firm is in; and does it matter for China? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The adoption of low-cost manufacturing by most firms is necessitated by the fact that the country is experiencing high savings rates, high exports, and a low rate of consumption. On the other hand, developed economies such as the US are characterised by a high rate of consumption and imports and a low savings rate.
Due to its over-reliance on low-cost manufacturing, China has been in a position to promote its exports hence leading to accumulation of a substantial volume of foreign exchange.
In a bid to stimulate the country’s catch-up prospects, firms in the manufacturing sector should consider undertaking their own innovation rather than imitate foreign technologies. This move will culminate in the creation of a substantial competitive advantage. One of the aspects that the firm’s management team should consider in its planning relates to investing in research and development.
This move will create an opportunity for the firm to exploit optimally the opportunities presented within and without the Chinese business environment. Despite their economic sector, Chinese enterprises should consider investing in new technology in order to be competitive and catch-up and surpass their competitors.
Some of the technologies that the firm should invest in include information technology such as cloud computing, investment in sustainable and green energy technologies. Over the past decade, the technology industry has become intensely competitive. This case highlights the need for firms to institute optimal competitive strategies.
To remain competitive, TCL, which specialises in development of consumer electronics such as television has been consistent in undertaking research and development thus enabling the firm to sustain its competitiveness over the past 30 years.
In addition to research and development, the Chinese enterprises should consider investing in development of a domestic ecosystem that fosters innovation and increased productivity. This aspect will aid firms in diverse economic sectors to cope with the competitive nature of the business environment.
International management International management has undergone significant transformation over the past decade. Its development reflects the divergent context within which firms operate within the global business environment (Kriek, Beaty, and Nkomo 126). Currently, most Chinese firms have not been adequately globalised.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Does it matter what business the firm is in; and does it matter for China? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Fung and Peng (7) are of the opinion that globalisation of most Chinese firms is directly influenced by their respective goals, intensity of competition in their respective industry and the organisational capability developed. Consequently, businesses in different economic sectors have incorporated diverse globalisation strategies in line with their needs and strengths.
However, one of the major challenges that the firms will face relates to the fact that they will have to develop a strong network in order maximise their sales. The firm’s management team will be required to formulate strategies that will contribute towards optimal exploitation of their low-cost advantage (Fung and Peng 8).
In a bid to stimulate the country’s catch-up prospects, it is paramount for the firm’s management team to consider the option of incorporating international management (IM) theories. This element will enhance the country’s competitiveness in the global market. One of the IM theories that the firm should consider in its operations relates internationalisation (Zhou and Li 456).
Considering the role of information technology in improving firms’ productivity, it is fundamental for both large and small enterprises in China to consider investing in IT. However, one of the greatest hurdles that will be faced relates to the existence of sufficient knowledge and skills with regard to IT.
Thus, Chinese firms do not have sufficient comparative advantage with regard to technology, which explains why most firms in China imitate technologies from developed countries in an effort to develop their own products.
Imitation of products and services is not only limited to the technology sector but has also spilled over to the fashion industry such as the fashion shoe and apparel sectors. Currently, China leads with regard to textile and shoe exportation. Additionally, it hosts dynamic fashion weeks in Shanghai and Beijing annually.
However, the textile and shoe sectors face a major challenge from foreign high-end firms such as Nike and Addidas, which are venturing the industry. This case has presented a major threat with regard to the promotion of creativity amongst Chinese fashion designers.
Lack of creativity has adversely affected the competition of Chinese fashion products such as shoes due to imitation thus leading to the development of a perception that poor quality fashion products are made in China (Girod 2).
In the attempt to deal with this challenge, Chinese firms should consider incorporating the concept of outsourcing. Outsourcing entails the process through which a firm seeks the services of another fir to undertake a certain task on its behalf. The outsourcing process will provide the firm with an opportunity to develop sufficient skills and knowledge regarding utilisation of the identified technology in their production process.
As a result, firms will be able to ensure that the produce competitive products and services. The concept of outsourcing should not only be limited to manufacturing services, but should also extend to service firms. In their internationalisation effort, firms’ management teams should consider
In the attempt to improve their productivity and catch-up prospects, Chinese firms should adjust their operational models by incorporating the most effective internationalisation model. Through internationalisation, the Chinese firms will be capable of creating an avenue for positioning themselves as globalised entities hence enhancing their contribution to the country’s economic growth.
Some of the strategic options that the firms’ management teams should consider in their internationalisation management practices include exportation, licensing, franchising, adoption of contract manufacturing, and foreign direct investment. Exportation will provide the firms in various economic sectors such as the manufacturing and services sector with an opportunity to venture into the identified foreign market and sell their products or services.
However, it is paramount for firms to possess a comprehensive understanding of the foreign market prior to entry. This aspect will provide the firm with sufficient knowledge to avert possible challenges that might hinder their success.
Alternatively, Chinese firms in the manufacturing sector such as Semi conductor manufacturing companies should incorporate the concept of licensing in their effort to venture the international market. One of the ways through which the firms can achieve this goal is by leasing their IPR to a firm operating in the same industry in the host country.
Licensing will enable Chinese firms to incur minimal risk in the international market while at the same time create a sufficient platform for its products to be manufactured. Consequently, the Chinese firms will be in a position to pursue their low-cost manufacturing strategy and at the same time increase profitability via increased sales.
However, prior to licensing, the Chinese firms should ensure that the host country has an effective legal framework that ensures protection of IPR (Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt 159).
Franchising is another option that Chinese firms should incorporate in their internationalisation efforts. Firms especially in the services sector such as hospitality should consider incorporating the concept of franchising in their internationalisation efforts.
A comprehensive market research should be conducted in order to identify and select the most favourable partner to undertake franchising with for business continuity and prosperity. Franchising will provide Chinese service firms such as hotels and restaurants with an opportunity to maximise their profitability.
Chinese firms in various sectors such as the fashion industry, semi conductor manufacturing, and services sector should enter cooperative agreements with other partners. The incorporation of cooperative strategies will provide the firms’ management team with an opportunity to deal with the technology gap that the firms might be experiencing.
This assertion emanates from the fact that the firm will be in a position to gain access to sophisticated technology possessed by the partner. As a result, the firms will be capable of dealing with the challenge of having to copy or imitate another technology, which is a major hindrance to the firms’ competitiveness in the international market (Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt 159).
In addition to the above international management practices, it is fundamental for Chinese firms to consider investing in a green venture. The green venture will provide the Chinese firms to exploit the opportunities presented in the international market effectively. Green venture will entail the firms establishing subsidiary firms into the international markets.
This move will provide the firm with an opportunity to undertake full control of all the activities that the subsidiary firm is involved in during its operations. In their foreign direct investment efforts, the firms will be required to ensure that operational responsibility of the subsidiary firm rests upon experienced expatriates.
The expatriates deployed to the foreign market should possess sufficient knowledge and skills to ensure that the firms gain competitive advantage in the foreign market. This aspect highlights the importance of the Chinese firms conducting a comprehensive market research in order to indentify the prevailing market trends.
The incorporation of international acquisition is another strategy that management teams of Chinese firms should take into account. The Chinese firms should incorporate a comprehensive market research of the host country in order to identify potential firms to enter a merger and acquisition partnership.
However, the Chinese firms should incorporate formation of mergers and acquisition when venturing a foreign market whereby the countries have significant cultural differences (Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt 159).
By incorporating the above strategies, there is a high probability of the firms in different economic sectors enhancing the country’s economic growth prospects. However, the success of Chinese firms in their internationalisation effort will not only be dependent on the choice of the internationalisation strategy, but also on its implementation.
Additionally, business executives of Chinese firms in different economic sectors should be concerned on how effectively the model selected will contribute towards the firm attaining effective business operation considering the specific industry dynamics. In a bid to improve the probability of survival, effective international management models should be incorporated.
Some of these models relate to leadership, ensuring that the firm has quality personnel, and integration of effective organisational processes, technology, and organisational structure. Additionally, an effective mechanism to determine the effectiveness and performance of the strategy should also be incorporated (Fung and Peng 7).
According to Ireland, Hoskisson, and Hitt (159), monitoring the internationalisation strategy incorporated is essential in identifying challenges that the firm might be experiencing hence creating an opportunity for improvement (Bloom, Eifert, Mahajan, McKenzie, and Roberts 7).
Conclusion The analysis conducted shows that China has undergone a significant economic growth over the past three decades. Some of the factors that have contributed to the high rate of economic growth include economic liberalisation adopted by the firm during the 1970s and the political reforms in the country. Consequently, China has become incorporated within the global economy.
Despite the high rate of economic growth, the country continues to lag behind in its economic development compared to other developed economies such as the US , Japan, Britain, and Germany. One of the factors hindering the country’s rate of economic growth arises from the fact most economic sectors especially the manufacturing sector have not developed sufficient competitiveness.
Therefore, the contribution of a majority of the economic sector to the country’s economic growth is through imitation and copying. This aspect illustrates the fact that the country has not developed sufficient comparative advantage to attract foreign investors. Additionally, the country does not have an effective legal framework to enhance innovation and creativity.
This trend is replicated across all the economic sectors. In a bid to break up from this trend, it is fundamental for the Chinese government and firms’ executives to invest in strategies that will contribute towards the development of the country’s competitiveness. Firstly, the Chinese government should ensure sufficient enforcement of the intellectual property rights.
On the other hand, business executives should consider incorporating strategies that contribute towards development of their enterprises competitive and comparative advantage. This move will contribute towards improvement in the survival rate of respective firm.
The analysis has also shown that competition due to the high rate of globalisation is one of the biggest challenges that Chinese firms are facing in their effort to contribute towards their country’s catch-up prospects. In a bid to deal with these challenges, Chinese firms irrespective of the economic sector should consider incorporating international management practices.
One of the strategies that they should incorporate in their management practices relates to internationalisation. Some of the internationalisations strategies that firms should consider while planning include the formation of strategic alliances such as joint ventures, mergers, and acquisition. Other strategies include franchising, exportation and licensing.
The success of Chinese firms in the international market is paramount in promoting the country’s catch-up prospects. The profitability of the firms will determine the country’s capability to develop a strong foreign exchange reserve base. In summary, one can assert that the economic sector within which a firm is does not matter, but what matters is its contribution to the country’s economic growth.
Works Cited Abraham, Filip, Jozef Konings, and Veerle Shootmaekers. FDI spillovers in the Chinese manufacturing sector: evidence of firm heterogeneity? Leuven: Catholic University of Leuven, 2008. Print.
Bloom, Nicholas, Benn Eifert, Aprajit Mahajan, David McKenzie, and John Roberts. “Does management matter? Evidence from India.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 128.1 (2013): 1-51. Print.
Faria, Alex, and Ana Guedes. What is international management? A critical analysis, Rio de Jeneiro: Pria de Botafogo, 2009. Print.
Fung, Edwin, and Yali Peng. Forces driving Chinas economic growth in 2012: New thoughts, new strategies, new initiatives, New York: KPMG, 2012. Print.
Girod, Stephane 2012. Five lessons for the Chinese fashion industry from the French. PDF file. 23 Feb. 2013. https://www.accenture.com/us-en
Green, Roy. Management matters in Australia, Sydney: Department of Innovation, Industry, Science, and Research, 2009. Print.
Ireland, Duane, Robert Hoskisson, and Michael Hitt. Understanding business strategy: concepts and cases, New York: Cengage, 2010. Print.
Kriek, Harun, Dave Beaty, and Stella Nkomo. Theory building in international management research: an archival review of preferred methods, Cape Town: University of Pretoria, 2009. Print.
Zhou, Kevin, and Caroline Li. “How does strategic orientation matter in Chinese firms?” Asia Pacific Journal of Management. 2. 24 (2007): 447-466. Print.
Debate about Real ID in the New Media Essay (Critical Writing) essay help online
Certainly, the urgency of the debate of anonymity versus real ID is on the current agenda because, on the one hand, introducing real names online makes users more responsible for posting comments and photos. On the other hand, disclosing real names can threaten the privacy of the user, causing problems in a real life.
Therefore, in order to understand the shortcomings of placing real names and define the benefits of anonymous communication online, specific emphasis should be placed on reconsidering the concept of online behavior and responsibility, defining the situation when placing real names are irrelevant, and developing arguments against real ID names during online transactions.
Online behavior and responsibility for the information placed online does not actually depends on validity and credibility of user’s personal data. There is no guarantee that placing real name enhances the users’ responsibility for the comments, videos, and photos posted online. In fact, most of the users are not confident enough about the security of the private information.
Therefore, concealing their real names does not influence the responsibility users take while uploading new information. Besides, there are many other means for detecting the ID of the person, in case cyber crime is committed (Good, 2005).
Besides, while surfing various websites and databases, most of the users prefer staying anonymous because it might negatively affect their reputation. Hence, there is no actual connection between online behavior and person’s ID on the Internet.
On the one hand, placing real names increases the chances to find friend sall over the world in case a person has lost his/her close friend’s number. Nevertheless, there are many other ways to find the person, especially if this person is the one you really know. Apart from this case, there are no obstacles for user’s intent to communicate online and expand the level of involvement in the social media.
As a proof, the studies conducted by Lee (2011) have discovered that anonymity can be regarded “…as a measure to promote the viewpoint diversity in cyberspace” (p. 2). The right of anonymity is available to everyone because it is considered the main mechanism for sustaining online community. Although placing real ID seeks to alleviate such cyber crimes as copyright infringement and defamation, anonymity must still be used for secure purposes.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More While carrying out online transactions, there is a threat of fraud because clients with concealed IDs could rescue from payment. One the other hand, the information about clients’ real IDs can have serious consequences for them. The point is that financial establishment could unveil their clients’ private information to use for their own purposes.
Under these circumstances, anonymous communication online can enhance user’s safety, as well as reduce the frequency of illegal invasions to user’s accounts. To support the argument, Papacharissi (2002) states, “anonymity online assist one to overcome identity boundaries and community more freely and openly, thus promoting a more enlightened exchange of idea” (p. 16). Thus, carrying out transaction does not always involve the presence of real IDs.
In conclusion, the benefits of concealing real names are more persuading in the light of the currently increased rates of cyber crimes. Communicating online anonymously provides individuals with stronger confidence in their security and privacy. It also makes their behavior more open and friendly. Besides, anonymity can be used to search for databases and websites where name identification function is presented.
References Good, R. (2005). Anonymous Surfing: What the Benefits and Issues of Making Yourself Invisible Online? Web.
Lee, J.-Y. (2011). An Old Regime for Viewpoint Diversity of the New Media: Protecting Anonymity for a Functioning ‘Masterplace of Ideas’ in Cyberspace. Performance and Participation. 10(13), 1-20. Web.
Papacharissi, Z. (2002). The Virtual Sphere: The Internet as a Public Sphere. New Media and Society. 4(9), 9-27. Web.
Total Spending on Medicare and Medicaid Report (Assessment) essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Trend of total spending on Medicare and Medicaid Spending on Medicare and Medicaid has been on an upward trend since 1962. In 1962, the spending on Medicaid was $103billion. This increased to $272,771 billion in 2010. Similarly, total spending increased from $2,525 billion in 1967 to $446,477 in 2010. The spending on Medicare and Medicaid has been on an upward trend.
This can be attributed to the fact that spending on Medicare and Medicaid is a mandatory spending in the US government. These are part of entitlements given to people who meet certain eligibility requirements. These spendings form a major component of the federal budget. They account for about 52% of the total budget. The Medicare and Medicaid is directly proportional to GDP and population.
As population increases and GDP increases, the spending on Medicare and Medicaid also increases. Further, an increase in the number of unemployed citizens and retirees also contributes to the increase in total spending on Medicaid and Medicare because they receive substantial amount of the mandatory spending.
Further, increase in pricing of medical services necessitates the state to increase the allocation on Medicaid and Medicare that can match the increases in pricing. The graph below shows the trend of spending on Medicare and Medicaid.
From the graph is is evident that spending on Medicare and Medicaid had an upward trend since 1962 to 2016. The values have increased gradually from 1962 to 1986. Thereafter it started increasing rapidly over the year.
The trend after 1986 is characterized by the steep upward slope. Also, it is evident that spending on Medicare is greater than spending on Medicaid over the period under review. The graph below shows the trend of total spending on Medicare and Medicaid.
From the graph, the spending on Medicaid and Medicare put together took a similar trend as the individual spending. There was slow growth from 1962 until 1977 thereafter it experienced a steep increase. The graph below shows the trend of the percentage change of total spending on Medicaid and Medicare.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More From the graph it is evident that the percentage change in total spending from year to year has been erratic since 1962 to 2016 (estimates). This can be attributed to the dynamics in the economy ranging to from changes in GDP, changes in population structure, changes in the unemployment rate among others.
The total spending on Medicare and Medicaid can also be analyzed as a percentage of total spending on mandatory programs in the economy. In 1962 the percentage of total spending on Medicare and Medicaid as a percentage of total spending was 0.37%. The percentage increased to 37.6% in 2010.
The value has been gradually increasing over the years. The graph below shows trend of increase in total spending on Medicare and Medicaid as a percentage of total spending on mandatory programs.
In the graph, it is evident that the total spending on Medicare and Medicaid as a percentage of total spending on mandatory programs has been increasing steeply over the years. It is mainly attributed to increase in cost of medical services in the country and many more factors. As at 2015, the state estimates that it will be spending more than 40% of the total allocation for mandatory programs on Medicare and Medicaid.
Finally spending on Medicare and Medicaid can be compared with current and constant prices. The total amount of spending on Medicare and Medicaid in constant dollars is less than $1,000billion for all the year. When plotted together with total spending in current dollar, the values are negligible as shown below.
When total spending on Medicare and Medicaid in constant dollars shows an upward trend as plotted in the graph below.
Apple Inc Market Entry Audit: The Entry of Apple Inc into a New Market with an Existing Product or Service Essay best college essay help
Executive summary Apple Inc. is a publicly listed American company specializing in the production of high technological electronic products, computer hardware, and software (Apple Inc, 2010). The company products include personal computers, media devices, mobile communication, and portable-digital music players. However, during its international market operations, Apple faces various challenges and opportunities.
The company is nonetheless committed towards bringing the best user experience to all clients around the world through its innovative hardware and software. The peripherals and services have driven the company to open up its operations in the major emerging markets.
Thus, this report analyses Apple Inc market entry using frameworks such as Porters five forces, PESTEL, and SWOT. It concludes recommendation on what Apple should do to remain competitive.
Apple Inc Market Entry Strategy. Company overview Apple Inc. is a publicly listed American multinational company specializing in the production of high technological electronic products, computer hardware, and software (Apple Inc. 2010). Under the electronic hardware category, the company products include personal computers, media devices, mobile communication, and portable-digital music players.
In addition to high tech hardware devises, the company produces a variety of software applications including third-party digital content applications and networking solutions. Within the mobile communications category, the company has launched into the market a variety of Smartphones including iPhone and other android Smartphones that have significantly hit the world Smartphones market.
The company is currently the market leader in the android smart phones and computer technology market. The company operations are based on geographical locations. In fact, the operations of the company are segmented based on the nature and location of its customers. The research report analyzes the external and internal environment where Apple Inc operates using various frameworks.
Main Findings Current Market Situation: External marketing environment. PESTEL analysis
Apple Inc. is a multinational company operating in many countries especially in North America, Europe and Asia. Thus, its products are sold in a wide spectrum of political environments. Moreover, its Smartphones consumers are spread across the political divide found in all parts of the world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, political consideration is very important factor especially when introducing a particular product in the foreign country market. Thus the company marketing strategies must be in line with the country policy in which its products are sold (Herzog, 2010).
The current economic situation around the world has a profound effect not only on the company products but also on the general production capacity. The recent economic downturn experienced in America and Europe has a considerable consequence on the Smartphones domestic market. Sales for the Smartphones reduced as majority of consumers switched to other essential products as their income reduced.
Reduction in sales was also experienced in many parts of Europe as well as in many countries around the world. However, this presented an opportunity for the company to introduce cheaper Smartphones in the market (Wernerfelt 172).
Social and cultural factors
The company Smartphones is sold in an open cultural environment. Moreover, its target market of younger generation pursue vogue and like cultures. Their lifestyles are similar in almost all parts of the world. Moreover, the company Smartphone’s process designs are simplified to meet the needs of all cultures.
The company Smartphone’s designs combine simplicity and beauty, the logic that is praised highly in all parts of the world. All the Smartphones that the company has launched into the market has been popular among the younger generation, which has revolutionized the generation cultures (Blomstermo, Sharma
The World’s Most Ethical Companies: a Case of PepsiCo Research Paper college application essay help
Introduction Corporate concern about ethics has grown in prominence in recent times as business entities strive to incorporate moral values and principles into their operations. Companies no longer focus singly on profit maximisation and expansion of their businesses, but they also explore ways of treating the consumers, employees, and the environment in a morally praiseworthy manner (Shaw, 2011).
It is a common practise in the contemporary organisations to find special departments that are exclusively established to cater for the ethical needs of the organisations. As a matter of fact, various independent bodies evaluate the extent to which organisations employ ethical management and practise with the view of recognising their efforts and influencing improved services.
Companies are also realising the connection between their ethical practices and management, on the one hand, and the profit margins they register each financial period, on the other hand (Shaw, 2011). This paper seeks to discuss the ethics concept in business by specifically analysing PepsiCo’s practise in the same area.
Pepsi’s Morally Responsible Actions Environmental management
PepsiCo has an established elaborate policy on the environment, health, as well as safety management. The policy seeks to ensure that the company caters for its immediate business environment effectively. The policy comprises of eight critical points that include ownership culture, business integration, regulation compliance, as well as resource allocation (PEPSICO, n.d.).
It additionally entails the aspects of performance measurement, continual improvement, together with stakeholder collaboration and annual review.
In terms of ownership culture, for instance, the company’s policy identifies the need to build and sustain a proactive culture through driving environmental ownership, individuals’ health and safety, and managing the overall environmental aspect at the organisational level. The company engages, consults, as well as trains its people to influence active participation to enable these plans achieve realistic goals.
Another important aspect of the environmental management programme is the issue of stakeholder collaboration. PepsiCo works in collaboration with its business partners, such as the contractors, suppliers, licensed bottlers, along with the local communities and customers to limit the health, environmental, and safety outcome related to its daily operations (PEPSICO, n.d.).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More PepsiCo also works with a different group of stakeholders that comprises of governments, academia, other interested stakeholders, in addition to business associations and non-governmental organisations for purposes of striving to widen effective and sustainable resolutions with regard to health, environmental, and safety confrontations or challenges, all of which face the company’s operations.
Ethical Consumer Treatment
PepsiCo also strives to ensure that it treats its customers in morally acceptable ways without allowing inhumane practices to penetrate through its corporate human resource practises. The beverage and food company definitely deals with a large number of consumers that may prove too tricky to handle or manage effectively because it is a large multinational firm with a presence in almost all the continents in the world.
The firm has established a global code of conduct that generally identifies the main objective of conducting business in the right way as a part of its corporate mechanism aimed at ensuring that customers of the firm are treated in a moral way (PEPSICO, n.d.).
Employees are expected to adhere to these codes of conduct and embrace the underlying principles as a way of ensuring that the company achieves and sustains its objectives for long (PEPSICO, n.d.).
The code includes a requirement to show total respect at the workplace, an obligation to always act with integrity within the marketplace, as well as the expectation that all workers ensure ethics in the business activities that they undertake.
Additionally, and more importantly, workers are required to perform their respective tasks in more responsible ways for the purpose of fulfilling the shareholders’ expectations effectively (PEPSICO, n.d.). The company revises its acceptable practises more often to incorporate changing laws that may, in one way or the other, affect on its corporate operations as a way of making the corporate code of conduct more effective.
Moral Action towards Employees
PepsiCo fully supports and expresses a commitment to its entire workforce. The company encourages a diverse corporate culture where any qualified individual from whatever race, tribe, nationality, or gender can apply for job positions in the firm and be considered for employment without any discrimination.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The World’s Most Ethical Companies: a Case of PepsiCo specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The company looks at this goal as an important one that encourages creativity amongst the workers, while also offering a chance for benefitting from new and unique perspectives (PEPSICO, n.d.).
Pepsi realises the key role that its employees play towards ensuring that the company attains its objective towards the customers. In particular, its corporate philosophy identifies the importance of the firm maintaining mutual respect, workplace safety, and integrity.
Pepsi’s inspiration of a collaborative culture focuses on recruiting, as well as retaining world-class talent by ensuring that its workers achieve employment satisfaction or what the company refers to as “Talent Sustainability” (PEPSICO, n.d.).
A perfect example of actions employed by the firm in encouraging employees to speak out entails the provision of an Organisational Health Survey that is conducted every two years with a view of obtaining opinions concerning the organisation and the general workplace.
Effects of the Morally Conscious Decisions on the Company’s Bottom line Customers. Trust
The morally acceptable practices and decisions of the company are likely to enhance customer trust and confidence towards the company.
Because the employees are showing greater dedication in serving the customers, the latter feel comfortable to conduct business with the firm than would be the case had the workers not been considering ethical and moral practises.
As this trust is developed and maintained by many potential customers, the company eventually succeeds in enlarging its profit margins because of high sales that translate into higher revenues.
The moral actions directed towards the workers by the firm enhance the level of their motivation. The workers feel they are highly valued and consider themselves as owners of the firm. They are willing to increase their output because they are aware that their collective hard work will, in turn, mean that they will receive more benefits from the employer.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The World’s Most Ethical Companies: a Case of PepsiCo by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As the employees’ motivation increases and they express their willingness to work even harder for the firm, they enhance the chances of profitability because more consumers get served satisfactorily. This increases their trust towards PepsiCo.
PepsiCo is likely to achieve a workforce that is highly satisfied with its mandate due to its continued employee moral programmes. Workers who are fully aware that their needs, both material and emotional, are well taken care of are less likely to consider changing employers. Instead, a huge percentage of them would prefer working with the same satisfying employer until they attain their retirement ages.
This is critical for PepsiCo because it will no longer face the need for undertaking employee recruitments after every short while. As a matter of fact, high employee turnover rates disrupt the overall planning and operation of the firm because the management has to keep training new employees who only last for a short while before quitting in search for better employers.
The firm is likely to receive greater support and positive collaboration from the societies because PepsiCo is expressing a willingness to support the local communities through numerous environmental management programmes.
For instance, foreign governments will be willing to issue the firm with operation licences in their respective territories because they realise the benefits that the society will achieve in the long run. This kind of goodwill from the communities allows the company to expand its market and improve its revenue capabilities.
Critical Review of PepsiCo’s Ethical Policies
PepsiCo identifies six critical guiding principles that form the basis of its ethical policies and management. They include care for customers, the sale of products that attract pride, speaking the truth, and balancing the short-term plans with the long-term ones (PEPSICO, n.d.). Additionally, the firm emphasizes diversity and inclusion, while highlighting the need to respect others as a way of achieving success as a whole.
The company has divided these six critical guiding principles to address all its significant areas of business. In particular, the principles address issues about customers, products, verbal communication with the shareholders, and overall future ethical plan of the organisation (PEPSICO, n.d.).
It also addresses the issue of employment with regard to a diverse workforce and the employee conduct and behaviour not only towards the customers, but also towards the employees (PEPSICO, n.d.).
Ethical Areas Needing Improvement
Given its wide array of products, PepsiCo also uses a lot of packaging materials that end up impacting negatively on the general environment (Wilburn
Food Ethics Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
The Responsibilities of the Government in Food Ethics
The Responsibilities of Producers in Food Ethics
The Responsibilities of Consumer in Food Ethics
Introduction Food ethics has gained relevance in the recent past, especially following the increase in food-related health problems. We have a responsibility to various stakeholders, other than ourselves, to be healthy. Government spends a lot of money in the health sector, especially due to the rise in lifestyle diseases. Cardiovascular diseases and diabetes account for the highest expenditure for the government in the health sector.
We have a responsibility to the government to be healthy. This is so because by being healthy, we will reduce the expenditure in the health sector, and this finance can be channeled to other sectors of the economy. Government depends on its healthy working population to earn its revenues. When we remain healthy, we will be able to work, and government will earn its revenues by taxing our income.
When we get sick and unable to work, we will not earn any taxable income, and this would deny the government opportunity to earn its revenue from us. It is also important to note that we work for the government in various positions, especially those of us working in public institutions. When we do not remain healthy, it means we may not be able to carry out some of the activities for the government.
This may paralyze its operations. We have a duty to remain healthy for the sake of our family members. When we get sick, a lot of money is always spent by the family in treating us. We should remain healthy in order to eliminate the need for this expenditure.
If we are healthy, we will be in a position to work and provide for these families. It is therefore, a fact that we have a responsibility to the society to remain healthy in order to play various roles assigns to us.
The Responsibilities of the Government in Food Ethics The government has the biggest responsibility in safeguarding the health of the food industry. According to Gottwald (92), consumers are not always able to determine the ingredients of food that is presented to them. Most of the food manufacturers would always want to avoid revealing the true contents of their products once they realize that they could be containing some forms of contaminated substances.
For this reason, they would give a false list of the ingredients in their products. Consumers do not have specialized instruments that they can use to determine the quality of foods presented to them. Pojman (45) notes that the government has enough resources and manpower to monitor operations of various food processors and determine the health conditions of the food they present to the public.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is therefore, their responsibility to ensure that they safeguard the health of food industry. As was explained in the introduction above, government is always affected when its citizens fall sick after eating unhealthy foods.
It would be forced to treat them, besides losing the income that would have been generated if the population were to remain healthy. Given that it has all the instruments that can enable it monitor food industry, it should do all that is within its powers to ensure that food industry is responsible enough to provide healthy foods.
The Responsibilities of Producers in Food Ethics For a long time, there has been an argument that the corporate responsibility of business units is to make profits in order to give shareholders good returns. This may be true to some extent because firms can only exist if they remain profitable.
However, taking this as the central or the only corporate responsibility is an act that is not only unethical, but also illegal in case the process of gaining the profits affects other parties negatively. According to Burgan (31), corporate institutions in the food industry are in the best position to understand the ingredients that are put in the foods they produce.
These institutions know the types of ingredients that pose health problems when consumed. They also understand the quantities of specific ingredients that may pose health problems to people when taken. For this reason, they have the responsibility of ensuring that products they deliver to the public is safe enough for consumption. According to Vandamme (118), consumers love tasty foods.
They will therefore, go for such food items that have been prepared with a lot of calories or sugar. They enjoy eating such junk foods just because of the sweetness or their good taste. However, they fail to appreciate some of the health consequences they expose themselves to by eating such foods. It is the responsibility of the corporates to inform consumers of the contents of what they eat.
They can issue warnings as appropriate to the consumers, especially in relation to the volume that each product should be consumed per given period. As Farnworth (72) notes, the business units should develop a clear labeling systems that specifies the quantities of every ingredient they use. This will ensure that consumers understand the kind of elements they expose their body to when they consume such food items.
We will write a custom Essay on Food Ethics specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Alcoholic companies have accepted the responsibility of warning their consumers against excessive drinking. These institutions should also warn their customers against excessive consumption of some types of food. They should explain to the consumers the most appropriate amounts that should be taken and inform them why it is important to take these amount. This should be done through labeling.
As part of their corporate social responsibilities, these institutions should use media and other channels of communication to educate consumers on healthy eating. This way, they shall have met their obligation to the consumers and to the government. They will not be held liable when a section of their consumers decides to ignore the warnings.
The Responsibilities of Consumer in Food Ethics Consumers have a major role to play in food ethics. According to Pence (46), illiteracy levels have gone down in various countries around the world, and most of the consumers are always aware that the type of food they eat poses serious health consequences to them.
Hamburger is one of the most popular snacks, especially among the youth. Grilled chicken and red meat are also very popular. These consumers know, from their learning experience or the articles they read, that these are some of the most dangerous foods because of their levels of cholesterol.
However, they still go ahead to consume these products because of the sheer pleasure they generate from them. This is not only being irresponsible to their own health, but also exposing their families and the government into unnecessary expenditures when they fall sick. For this reason, consumers have a major responsibility in ensuring that they maintain healthy eating.
The responsibility of the consumers’ lies in understanding the type of food they eat in order to avoid what is considered unsafe. As mentioned above, many people around the world are literate. This means that they have the capacity to analyze the type of food they eat in order to ensure that they are safe.
They can take the initiative of analyzing all types of food they eat in order to determine their safety levels. Time and resources taken in such analysis are always much less as compared to the resources that are spent when one falls sick. Through this initiative, they will be able to plan their diets in order to ensure that they eat safe foods.
Consumers also have the responsibility to demand to know the true ingredient of every food they take. Food processors have ignored the request that all their products should be labeled because their consumers are always willing to buy the unlabeled foods. Consumers should reject any food that lacks proper labeling of the ingredients used to prepare them.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Food Ethics by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Food industry is one of the most important industries in a country’s economy. It is important for all the players in this industry to ensure that they maintain high levels of ethics in order to avoid cases where unhealthy foods are presented to consumers.
Government has the regulatory responsibility to ensure that producers use safe ingredients and label all their products. The producers have the responsibility of using safe ingredients and labeling their products. Consumers have the responsibility of questioning the products presented to them, and ensuring that they only take safe products.
Works Cited Burgan, Michael. Ethics of Food. London: Raintree, 2012. Print.
Farnworth, Cathy. Creating Food Futures: Trade, Ethics and the Environment. Aldershot, England: Gower, 2008. Print.
Gottwald, Franz-Theo. Food Ethics. New York: Springer, 2010. Print.
Pence, Gregory. The Ethics of Food: A Reader for the 21st Century. Lanham: Rowman
American Television History Research Paper essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Understanding the Origins of the Shift
Integration into Television Programming
Mass Media and Commercialism
Advertising and the Depiction of Ethnic Minorities
Understanding the Origins of the Shift Entertainment programming, as we know it today has undergone numerous iterations over the past 70 years ever since its inception during the early days of radio. In this instance, what will be focused on are the transitions in programming brought about through the influence of advertisers and sponsors.
What must be understood is that radio and television programming is “free” only from the perspective of the viewer/listener. Behind the programs is an assortment of contractual obligations that beholden a network to a series of brands and corporate sponsorships that pay to have their brand or company at the forefront of the public consciousness.
Schwoch (1990) explains that unlike the early years of radio broadcasting, which were characterized by little to no thought being placed on advertising sponsorship or commercialism, television programming from its very inception focused on the use of commercial support from the very start (Schwoch, 56).
This was one of the early signs of the transition where commercialism would dictate entertainment programming given the level of control that was developed into television network culture at its very onset.
On the other end of the spectrum, the culture of radio broadcasting advertising was far different wherein the approach was less “aggressive and bombastic” and instead focused on a softer and more cautious approach (Schwoch, 57).
Instead of the desire to control, what was present was a form of careful “reverence” involving advertising through radio as a medium wherein it was thought that an overly aggressive attitude would have resulted in a negative reaction not only from the audience itself but from the broadcasters.
Not only that, early advertising culture involving radio broadcasts were thought of as not only vehicles for the promotion and sale of products, but actually enabled a certain manner of self-improvement on the part of the listener through the broadcasted message.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Examples of this can be found on classic advertising spiels (i.e., scripts) utilized during the 1920s to the 1930s wherein the brand name of a company was mentioned after which it was followed by some manner of uplifting message (ex: Kellogg’s cereal wishes you a pleasant evening, drive safe and be sure to kiss your children goodnight).
The culture of broadcasting was less “in your face” and more focused on the projection of a positive brand image through association with a respectful and caring company. This changed in the coming years as advertisers transitioned from utilizing uplifting messages to aspects related to the present-day materialistic culture (i.e., utilizing visual mediums to show the use and advantages of products.
Due to the lack of sufficient early network infrastructure for television during the early 1940s (i.e., no major networks, stars, performers, etc.), this necessitated more “drastic” means of wooing advertisers to switch to television.
What you have to understand is that advertising agencies at the time became more accustomed towards having major roles in the production process of radio commercials through with their own sets, equipment, talent, etc. (Schwoch, 58).
When it came to television and the high costs associated with building their own advertising sets with no means of determining whether the ad would be effective or not (i.e., there was no means of measuring the number of television viewers at the time), this created a considerable degree of hesitance among advertisers to utilize television as a medium.
It was only when technological improvements arrived that improved the ability of broadcasts to reach a larger audience range and the fact that broadcasters mentioned to advertisers that television broadcasting was the “wave of the future” and would be thought of as “new, hip and exciting” that advertisers entered into mainstream television broadcasts.
When examining this section, it can be seen that the fundamental infrastructure for commercialism to be the driving force behind American television was laid out at the onset of creating television as a broadcasting medium.
We will write a custom Research Paper on American Television History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More By making the system more “beholden” to advertisers and ensuring that the advertising culture at the time focused more on product advertisement and less on uplifting messages as seen during the prime years of radio broadcasting, this in effect changed the entire system.
As it will be shown in the succeeding sections, the culture of electronic advertising changed wherein advertisers became increasingly aggressive with their product placements and means of getting the public to be more aware of the company to the extent that they in effect dictated television programming to a certain degree.
Integration into Television Programming In American television history, one of the most pivotal examples of how commercialism became the driving force behind television programming can be seen in the 1950s sitcom “The Goldbergs”.
From its early success a radio sitcom, the series branched out into television programming at which point the style and message of series changed from being a working-class sitcom to being a television series that in effect glorified materialism and focused on “keeping up” with neighbors and friends alike in terms of having a certain lifestyle and being able to purchase particular types of products.
As explained by Brook (1999), while advertising during radio programming was expected by audiences during the 1920s to the late 1940s, it was not as overt as the process utilized in television programming by the 1950s. When it came to radio station programming, advertisements acted more as by-lines or even an afterthought to the main program itself.
While present, it was not at the immediate forefront of the perception of the listener at the time and could be considered as being relatively passive.
However, Brook (1999) explains that during the early iteration of television sitcoms, commercials became more integrated into the very show that was being presented as evidenced by the manner in which Molly, one of the titular characters from the Goldbergs, openly advertised a particular product at the start of every show with various types of product placement being integrated into scenarios as deemed fit by the producer (i.e., coffee cans with brand labels, pictures of the product, etc.) (Brook, 47-48).
Television stars in effect became hawkers of products with the programming often shifting in order to accommodate the type of product that was being hawked at the time.
Not sure if you can write a paper on American Television History by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For example, when the sponsors of “The Golbergs” shifted from the Sanka coffee company to Rybutol (a division of a vitamin company) the normal opening scene of Molly presenting a product on a window sill immediately shifted to looking at a vitamin bottle that was placed on a window sill with a sudden close-up of the bottle with a line of dialog extolling its virtues.
This type of “in your face” advertising signified a distinct shift in the advertising culture at the time wherein instead of being camouflaged, skillfully integrated into the storyline of the program or hyper-realized in some way, the consumerist aspect of it now became openly embraced and forced directly into the forefront of the viewing experience.
Brook (1999) explains that while standalone commercials did eventually come into being wherein direct product advertisements were not as obvious in television programming, the fact remains that this just gave way to passive advertising in programs wherein the materialistic culture espoused by advertising was integrated into their scripts (Brook, 49 -53).
Brook (1999) points to the episodes of “The Goldbergs” wherein a distinctly materialistic orientation can be seen where the actors extol the virtues of particular consumer goods, present the notion that materialism is a social concept that is normal and should be lived up to and that excess consumption was no longer the domain of the rich and famous, rather, it extended to ordinary people as well (Brook, 51-55).
From a certain perspective, it can be stated that television programs in effect became one long commercial program which employed subversive and indirect means of bringing a particular product or lifestyle to the forefront of the thoughts of the American public that was viewing the program.
Evidence of this can be seen in glorification of certain types of suits and leisurewear, showing characters as having a distinct patronage towards particular types of products as well as showcasing how particular products became symbolic emblems of particular social classes (i.e. fur coats for the rich, petticoats for the middle class, as well as different models of cars, etc.).
This degree of cultural symbolism can be considered a manifestation of influences of advertisers in getting their respective brands and products out there in order to develop greater consumer interest through symbolism (Nelson, 333-340).
What this entailed was that when consumers saw a particular product being utilized and extolled by the social class that they belonged to, this in effect created a reaction wherein the came to associate that product as a symbol of their class and actively attempted to incorporate such a status symbol in their own lives.
This is one of the primary reasons behind the development of particular types of fashion trends over the years wherein items associated with “the working man”, “the hipster” and “the rich” were inspired by their counterparts on television that caused people to believe that they needed such products in order to be associated with their respective social class.
In a rather apt analogy regarding the shift towards commercialism controlled programming, Brook (1999) had stated the following:
“They were no longer a bridge to the white suburban middle class; they had become that class. The American Dream they had so ardently sought-and sold-had enfolded them, The Goldbergs, in its 1955-56 season, was for all intents and purposes a new show.” (Brook, 55-56)
While such a phrase was meant to encapsulate the change in the show “The Goldbergs”, it is also a rather apt way of showing how television programming had in effect “shifted” towards a more “overt” means of direct advertising where, through control of the creative process, advertisers in effect helped to shape television programming towards a method that influenced consumer purchasing decisions by presenting methods of product symbolism, cultural analogy and showcasing how a materialistic culture was perfectly acceptable.
Mass Media and Commercialism From the perspective of MacDonald et al. (1980), mass media whether in the form of radio or television showcased a profound effect on influencing the culture that it was set in (MacDonald et al., 303-14).
This came in the form of cultural predilections, social terminologies, ideas regarding social conditions and even themes associated with politics becoming aspects that could invariably be influenced through mass media and how viewers associated their everyday attitudes with what they heard on the radio or saw on television (MacDonald et al., 303-14).
In effect, their concept of social identity was influenced by what they saw on television and this had a profound impact on the development of American culture at time. Television and radio (to a certain extent) became a source of emulation and it still is as a matter of fact.
Popular culture (pop culture), as it is known today can be considered as a manifestation of mass media that was intentionally created by producers for the sole purpose of selling and advertising particular goods and services.
While on the surface, there may not seem to be any overt forms of advertising being done through pop culture, what you have to understand is that there are usually extensive systems in place meant to monetize nearly every single aspect of it.
For example, one of the classic icons of mass media popular culture is the average music star. Showcasing himself/herself as being hip, trendy and popular on television is a type of pop culture entertainment; however, what you have to understand is that such an individual is for all intents and purposes a product that was meant to be displayed to the general public in order to create a certain desire for emulation among viewers.
As a result, people that view the program are likely to purchase that music star’s records, pay for tickets to go to their concert, buy their merchandise, purchase the products they endorse and an assortment of other activities that puts money into the pockets of television producers and advertising executives.
Mass media has been recognized by advertisers as a perfect tool for creating public interest for whatever product they deem necessary and, based on the popularity of pop culture, showcases how yet again commercialism is one of the driving forces behind the development of American television as we know it today.
Advertising and the Depiction of Ethnic Minorities Lipsitz (1986) states that “Television delivers audiences to advertisers by glorifying consumption, not only during commercial breaks but in the programs themselves “ (Lipsitz, 355).
He attempts to showcase this by showing how despite ethnic working-class households being an inappropriate setting for depicting indulgence in materialism, a program’s producers during the 1950s get around this by showing ethnic families in urban working-class neighborhoods during historical periods where there are rising standards of living and better conditions for the working class and the rich alike (Lipsitz, 356-358).
In effect, the glorification of materialism is justified under the context that the conditions that the ethnic urban working class find themselves in are conducive towards such a means of consumption.
Lipsitz (1986) implies that ordinarily such a depiction would normally be counterintuitive to how ethnic working households at the time were really like given the economic hardships encountered by immigrants during this period. Shows such as “Mama” and “The Goldbergs” exemplified consumerist characteristics that advertisers wanted to depict.
The focus on consumer spending on some episodes, of conforming to the particular ideals of a social class as well as usage of particular types of products were all meant to do one very basic thing: sell products. The shows, while hilarious up to a certain point, were basically cleverly crafted commercialized advertisements meant to sell products and a particular lifestyle choice that advertisers wanted viewers to emulate (Nelson, 333-340).
Works Cited Brook, Vincent. “The Americanization of Molly: How Mid-Fifties TV Homogenized.” Cinema Journal. 38.4 (1999): 45-67. Print.
Lipsitz, George. “The Meaning of Memory: Family, Class, and Ethnicity in Early Network Television Programs.” Cultural Anthropology. 1.4 (1986): 355-387. Print.
MacDonald, Fred, Michael Marsden, and Christoper Geist. “Radio and Television Studies and American Culture.” American Quarterly. 32.3 (1980): 301-317. Print.
Nelson, Richard. “Sources for Archival Research on Film and Television Propaganda in the United States.” Film History. 3.4 (1989): 333-340. Print.
Schwoch, James. “Selling the Sight/Site of Sound: Broadcast Advertising and the Transition from Radio toTelevision.” Cinema Journal. 30.1 (1990): 55-66. Print
Bullying in the Workplace Research Paper college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Table of Contents Abstract
A culture of workplace bullying
Bullying in the workplace and its ethical connection
Laws of leadership and bullying in the workplace
The law of Respect
The Law of Influence
Abstract Bullying in the workplace has been a huge challenge that most organizational leaders have been struggling to contain. A common feature in most organizations is a workforce where members lack mutual respect for each other, fail to cooperate, intimidate each other, and constantly looking down upon weaker members.
Workplace bullying refers an unswerving pattern of bodily, psychological, or collective behavior subjected to an employee, which has the ability to compromise their dignity, cause harm or any form of threat. Promotion of ethical practices is very crucial for success in any organization, as people learn to respect each other, cooperate, and remain faithful to their duties and responsibilities.
Bullying within the workplace has many effects on the overall performance of an organization, such as poor employee retention rates and high cost of operation.
Everyone has the responsibility of stopping this culture of bullying within the workplace. Organizational leaders have an ethical obligation to ensure that they deal with cases of bullying within the workplace in a professional manner that demonstrates equality, honesty, and high sensitivity to the needs of others.
Introduction One of the greatest challenges that organizational leaders have today, is the need to create an ethical and cohesive workforce. The human resource department in an organization plays an important role in promoting ethical behavior within a workforce (Thompson, 2012).
Recruitment and selection is one of the crucial processes in every organization, because it determines the nature and character of people that form the workforce team. A common feature in most organizations is a workforce where members lack mutual respect for each other, fail to cooperate, intimidate each other, and constantly looking down upon weaker members.
One of the unethical practices common in most workplaces is bullying. Bullying refers to the act of intimidating a weaker person to make them do something (Needham, 2003). Bullying is a behavior that many people associate with a playing field. However, the unethical practice is slowly elbowing its way into the comfort of various workplaces.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This character trait compromises the objective of the ethical principle of the common good. This principle argues that in order to achieve the benefits of the common good, everyone has to play their part and ensure they look out for the welfare of others.
Workplace bullying refers an unswerving pattern of bodily, psychological, or collective behavior subjected to an employee, which has the ability to compromise their dignity, cause harm or any form of threat (Thompson, 2012).
The tactics applied in workplace bullying can be either verbal or non-verbal depending on nature of messages sent, the recipient, the sender, and the environment under which it happens. Bullying in the workplace is unethical and unacceptable.
A culture of workplace bullying Bullying is a culture that has slowly developed among various workplaces, as the organizational leaders struggle to develop effective strategies for human resource planning and management. Bullying within the workplace has a close link to the behavior of culprits during their school days, where such unethical habits develop among many people (Chekwa
Marketing Manager Research Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Introduction Marketing refers to the “management process through which goods and services are developed and sold to customers”. Marketing activities include product development, setting prices, identification of distribution channels, and implementing promotional strategies. These activities are often executed by marketing managers in most companies.
This paper will highlight the marketing principles that can be used to market Ford F-150 SVT in the United States and China. Ford F-150 SVT is a truck model manufactured by Ford Motor Company in the United States. Ford F-150 SVT can gain market share in China because it provides the four utilities of customer value and the demand for trucks in China is high.
Description of Ford F-150 SVT The four utilities of customer value include “functionality, time, place, and ease of possession”. Functionality refers to the tangible attributes of a product such as its durability, color, and safety.
Ford F-150 SVT has several in-built safety mechanisms such as front and rear cameras to ease navigation and hill descent control to prevent accidents when driving on steep terrain (Ford Motor Company, 2013). The truck is also available in several colors to satisfy the tastes and preferences of different customers. Similarly, the truck has manual and automatic gearbox options to ease its use.
Time utility refers to customers’ ability to access a product whenever they need it. Ford Motor Company has established a global distribution network to ensure that Ford F-150 SVT gets to the market at the right time.
The company also focuses on mass production of trucks to avoid delays in fulfilling orders (Ford Motor Company, 2013). Ford Motor Company has also partnered with independent distributors in countries where it does not operate to sell Ford F-150 SVT.
Place utility “includes where and how the product or service is delivered”. Ford F-150 SVT is sold through the company’s website and show rooms. Once the truck is purchased, the company arranges for shipment to the customer.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ease of possession utility refers to the procedures that lead to acquisition of a product. In order to ease possession, Ford Motor Company allows its customers to acquire the truck in several ways. These include leasing, cash purchase, and hire purchase. Moreover, the truck has a warranty to encourage customers to purchase it.
Ford F-150 SVT’s Target Market In the United States, the target market for the truck includes construction companies, security companies, and individuals. Construction and security companies use the truck to transport equipment and materials to various sites (Ford Motor Company, 2013).
The truck’s off-road capabilities enhance travelling to construction sites in remote areas that have poor road network. Since Ford F-150 SVT is a low cost model, its target market among individuals includes middle-income earners who are interested in both comfort and extra space to carry their luggage when travelling.
The truck is also popular among individuals with large families, as well as, people who prefer to travel to remote areas such as wild parks and forests during their holidays.
In China, Ford F-150 SVT’s target market includes companies in the construction and manufacturing industries. Moreover, the truck can be used by farmers and medium-sized businesses that are not able to purchase large trucks. Farmers are likely to prefer the truck because of its ability to travel in the country’s rough terrain (Ford Motor Company, 2013).
Competition in Ford F-150 SVT Truck Category Ford F-150 SVT competes with several truck models in the United States and China. In the United States, the truck’s main competitors include Toyota Hilux, Isuzu Dmax, and Nissan Navara. Toyota Hilux and Isuzu Dmax are competing based on price. Their manufacturers are low cost producers who are able to charge competitive prices.
Besides, Toyota Hilux has a strong brand image that is known for durability and reliability. Isuzu Dmax is known for both comfort and low prices in the United States. Nissan Navara competes with other models based on quality and price. In this regard, Ford F-150 SVT faces high competition in the United States since most producers of medium-sized trucks are focusing on product differentiation.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Marketing Manager specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The competition faced by Ford F-150 SVT in China is very high. The Chinese car market has several medium-sized truck models whose prices are very low. This reduces customers’ switching costs since they can easily shift from one model to another.
The Chinese market is also characterized with price sensitive customers. This makes local models more competitive than Ford F-150 SVT. In this regard, Ford F-150 SVT competes based on its qualities that are superior to those of the Chinese truck models.
Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning Segmentation is the process of using shared attributes to classify or categorize customers in a given market. Demographic and psychographic segmentation are relevant to the Chinese market since the customers’ purchasing behavior is mainly influenced by their income levels and perception of products.
Demographic segmentation involves categorizing customers according to attributes such as sex, age, income, and occupation. In this context, the Chinese market can be segmented according to customers’ income and their occupation in order to identify the group that is likely to purchase Ford F-150 SVT.
Psychographic segmentation involves categorizing customers according to their interests, activities, lifestyles, perceptions, and opinions. In this case, the Chinese market can be segmented based on customers’ lifestyles and perceptions.
Targeting refers to the process of selecting the right market segment. In demographic segmentation, the right group to target includes the high and middle-income earners in China. This choice is justified by the fact that high and middle-income earners are not likely to be sensitive to price changes. Consequently, they are likely to consider the non-price attributes of Ford F-150 SVT in their purchase decisions.
In addition, occupation is a relevant factor for choosing the right market segment. In this case, the segment that should be targeted includes owners of small and medium-sized businesses who are able to afford high quality trucks. In psychographic segmentation, the right group includes the customers who believe that American trucks such as Ford F-150 SVT are superior to local trucks.
Additionally, individuals who are interested in outdoor recreational activities such as visiting tourist attractions are likely to purchase Ford F-150 SVT because it offers comfort, style, durability, and off-road capabilities.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Manager by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Positioning refers to the process of “identifying the most appropriate marketing mix for a given target market”. Customers in the Chinese market are interested in product quality and price. Thus, the most appropriate elements of the marketing mix for the segments identified in the foregoing paragraph are product and price.
In this regard, Ford F-150 SVT will be positioned as a high quality, luxurious, versatile, and durable medium-sized truck. Given the high competition in the industry, it will be important to position Ford F-150 SVT as a truck that offers superior qualities at affordable prices.
Environmental Facts and Trends in the Chinese Market In the microenvironment, the factors that are likely to influence the sales of Ford F-150 SVT are high competitive rivalry and high bargaining power of the buyers (customers). The competition in the market is very high because there are very many sellers of medium sized trucks. The competition is also high because firms are focusing on product differentiation and cost leadership.
The high competition is likely to affect the sales of Ford F-150 SVT negatively. Customers have high bargaining power because their switching costs are low. Specifically, the customers can easily change from one truck model to another in order to enjoy benefits such as low prices and high quality. Thus, Ford F-150 SVT might not penetrate the market if its qualities fail to satisfy the needs of the market.
In the macro environment, the factors that are likely to affect the sales of Ford F-150 include social, political, and economic variables. China has experienced rapid economic growth in the last two decades.
This has resulted into an increase in business activities, emergence of a large middle-class, and improved purchasing power among citizens. This can be illustrated by the fact that China is the largest market for cars in the world. Thus, high economic growth in China is likely to boost the sales of Ford F-150 SVT.
High regulation is the most important political factor that is likely to affect the sales of Ford F-150 SVT in China. The government of China has imposed high import duties on imported vehicles in order to protect its automotive industry. In addition, foreign car manufacturers that intend to produce vehicles in China must partner with local producers in order to be licensed to operate.
Thus, exporting Ford F-150 to China will reduce its competitiveness due to the high import duties. Although collaborating with a local producer seems appropriate, the partnership can lead to a brand war that will ultimately reduce the competitiveness of Ford F-150 SVT.
The social factors that are likely to influence the sales of Ford F-150 SVT include customers’ perception of imported cars and customers’ lifestyles. The low-income earners believe that foreign trucks are more expensive than local brands.
This perception is likely to discourage the purchase of Ford F-150 among the low-income earners. By contrast, the middle and high-income earners believe that imported trucks have superior qualities.
Thus, they are likely to purchase foreign brands even if they are sold at a premium price. This will boost the sales of Ford F-150 SVT in China. The rising demand for tourism products such as park visits is also likely to boost the sales of Ford F-150.
Marketing Campaign for Ford F-150 in China Marketing promotion refers to the “coordinated series of steps that are taken to promote a product”. The four elements of marketing mix can be used to promote Ford F-150 SVT in China in the following ways. Ford F-150 SVT will be positioned as a high quality brand.
In order to keep this brand promise, the design and production team will take into account the needs of the Chinese market such as fuel efficiency. In addition, the sales team will organize free test drives to enable customers to verify the qualities of the truck.
Penetration pricing will be employed to enable the truck to gain market share in China. This will involve setting relatively low prices in order to attract customers. Discounts will be provided to encourage cash and bulk purchases. These strategies are important because customers in China are price sensitive. Thus, charging low prices will help in overcoming competition.
Selecting the most appropriate distribution channel (place) will be integral in the process of marketing Ford F-150 SVT in China. In this regard, the truck will be distributed through Ford Motor Company’s retail outlets and independent distributors. The rationale of this strategy is that China has a vast geographical area.
Thus, partnering with local distributors will help in reducing distribution costs. Moreover, local distributors have a good knowledge of the market, which will enable them to sell the truck easily. Ford Motor Company’s retail outlets will also be used to train local distributors on the truck’s qualities and capabilities. Undoubtedly, having adequate product knowledge will improve local distributors’ ability to sell the truck.
Promotional activities will also help in marketing Ford F-150 SVT. The promotional activities that will be used include advertising, public relations, and providing free after-sales services such as repairs for a limited period. The objective of the promotions will be to increase product awareness and sales.
The effectiveness of the marketing campaign will be measured by predefined sales metrics. These include the generated sales leads, sales volume, and market share.
Ethical Marketing Considerations The ethical concerns that will be addressed in the marketing plan for Ford F-150 SVT will help in promoting fair competition and protecting the truck’s brand image. Unethical marketing activities such as price fixing, price collusion, and predatory pricing will be avoided since they are illegal and discourage competition.
Moreover, marketing promotion will focus on the use of adverts with appropriate content. Thus, inappropriate content such as sex messages will be avoided in the truck’s adverts.
Conclusion Ford F-150 SVT can gain market share in China since it provides the utilities of customer value. In addition, robust economic growth will boost its sales in China. However, an effective marketing plan must be developed in order to take advantage of the opportunities in the Chinese market.
In this regard, Ford F-150 SVT should be positioned as a truck that provides superior qualities at low costs. This will help in overcoming competition, thereby enabling the truck to gain market share. Moreover, the marketing campaign should focus on creating brand awareness in order to increase sales in China.
References Cant, M., Strydom, J.,
The Taxi Driver and the Dance with Wolves films Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction A movie is a visual medium and normally attempts to portray certain parts of written piece of thoughts of characters not explicitly expressed. The film Taxi Driver by Martin Scorsese displays the frustrations of an ex-marine officer in New York City who becomes a taxi driver to contain his chronic insomnia condition. The customs in the city are too much for this driver who served in the just concluded Second World War.
Produced in 1976, this movie was met with criticism and support in equal measure. On the other hand, the film Dances with Wolves by Kevin Costner is often described as a classical masterpiece of the early 1990s due to its unique theme.
The unique cinematography and performances have perfectly fused to express the main theme especially when the characters interact showing emotions and mood in every scene. This analytical treatise attempts to explicitly compare and contrast the cinematic themes creates by the two directors.
The themes Recognizing the themes of loyalty and moral crisis, Scorsese brings this movie to life. He creates a very human action thriller that combines stories of both self-discovery and love for the taxi driver called Travis. Scorsese convincingly mingles the ‘futuristic’ and the ‘realistic’ imaginations to create a world of exotic reality in the busy city life.
There is a lot of violence and prostitution in the New York City. Travis has to adopt very radical actions to try and restore order. He shots the little Irish ‘pimp’ and his friends for encouraging the young lady into prostitution.
On the other hand, Costner in the film Dance with Wolves revises roles as defined by traditions of the Indians and Cowboys. As depicted in the film, tradition and religion control the lives of characters. Specifically, the Sioux tribe is depicted as a unique and traditional society. The American soldiers are portrayed as imperfect, genuine, viciously brutal, and semi thoughtless.
Traditions control the mourning of Elgin who is a lieutenant and Stone. Despite attempting to quantify historical events into context, the film has little on reversal aspect. The movie commences with a civil war featuring antagonists and protagonists of tradition as both teams attempt to create a diversion.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the Native Americans are painted as traditionally united group who appreciate peace, with strong family bonds and are desperate for opportunity of survival in the strife.
Unlike the film Taxi Driver, the film Dance with Wolves misses the truly poetic orchestrations of actions and heroic displays of bravado. The film Taxi Driver has an intriguing premise: heroism after dejection.
In the film Dance with Wolves, the director seems to be unable to convey the poetry and philosophical inclinations of the colonial masters and the natives of India. At the end, the underlying fear and destabilizations of the imaginative explorations mere summarized the plot rather giving it a poetic identity.
The Plots The film Taxi Driver has the urban plot and the story revolves around a single actor. The actions of the taxi driver affect other actors directly in this action packed piece. Reflectively, this creates a feeling of imaginative casting. Scorsese even goes ahead to include slow motion pictures, yet the film is a high speed genre.
Travis is a character in the movie and always is worried of what will happen next. His character is associated with the unfortunate events when he loses his ‘girlfriend’ after his strategy to take her to a sex movie fires back.
In comparison, the film Dance with Wolves revolves around ‘the kicking bird’ and ‘Wind in His Hair’ that come to the society of the Sioux. The new society’s of the Sioux philosophy is to “take without asking”. During the film, characters display a clear caricature hint which defies traditional stereotyping. At the climax, Dunbar defects from traditional culture to new culture.
To align to the traditional setting aspects on production design and the society, this film heightens hyper-real palate of emotional expression. Moreover, this choice of setting was essential in the need for a proper balance of production aural, sound accordion, and scenes characterized by traditional practices such as sharing of pipe. Subsequently, this balance has facilitated the addition of decadent love and hatred feelings in the film.
We will write a custom Essay on The Taxi Driver and the Dance with Wolves films specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion The endings of the two genres are quite different. The taxi driver realizes that the item that he never valued turns about to be a necessity for his survival. After being arrested and interrogated by the police, he walks out a hero. On the other hand, the ending of the film Dance with Wolves paints the indigenous Sioux community as people united by shamanism religion and tradition.
The film ends with these people still in the bondage of neocolonialism. The two directors adopt totally different approaches and settings in the two films. Scorsese adopts the urban setting and modern way of life, while Costner adopts the traditional setting and the traditional way of life.
Marketing Plan; Southwest Airlines Report college essay help: college essay help
Executive summary Southwest Airlines was established in 1967 and incorporated in 1971 in Dallas, Texas as a low cost airline company. The firm has developed an optimal market position over the past decades. By the end of 2012, Southwest Airlines had a fleet of 576 aircrafts and operated in 89 destinations. The firm is committed in providing customers with unique experience.
One of the ways through which it achieves this is by nurturing a warm and friendly working environment. Furthermore, the firm ensures that its customers are provided with high quality services. This has played a critical role in developing a high level of customer loyalty.
In an effort to maximize its level of profitability, the firm intends to launch a new service which will entail establishing a new route. The new route will entail travelling between Atlanta, GA to New York LaGuardia.
The firm intends to dominate the new route by offering high quality services. The route will be characterized by short turnaround duration. This will ensure that consumers achieve a high level of flexibility with regard to air travel.
Southwest Airlines intend to achieve the following objectives by launching the new route.
To offer competitive low cost carrier services to consumers in the US airline industry.
To increase the firm’s sales revenue by 20% within one year after launching the new route.
To increase the firm’s market share by 15% within one year after launching the new route.
Situational analysis According to Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson (65), it is critical of firms to analyze the environment in which it operates by taking into account the internal, customer and the external environments. Therefore, firms should consider conducting a comprehensive environmental analysis by integrating the Porters five forces, PESTLE analysis and the SWOT models.
The Porters’ five forces
The US airline industry is experiencing an increment in the intensity of competition. This has made the industry very volatile. The firm faces intense competition from a number of low-cost carriers such as JetBlue, Easyjet, United Airlines and the American Airlines. These firms have adopted similar operational strategies to those of Southwest Airlines.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Threat of entry
The low- cost carrier airline market in the US is experiencing an increment in the number of new entrants as a result of its high profitability potential. New firms are venturing the industry in an effort to exploit the prevailing market potential.
Consequently, the degree of industry concentration is increasing at an alarming rate. Moreover, the Deregulation Act of 1978 has made it easier for foreign low-cost carriers to enter the industry.
The threat of new entrant has made it difficult for Southwest Airlines to successfully differentiate its services. This arises from the fact that most of the entrants are focusing on price as their market competitive variable. As a result of the high threat of new entrant, the industry is experiencing a decline in its profitability.
However, the threat of new entrant is likely to decline as a result of the high cost of operation and high start-up cost (Hawkins, Misra
Erik Erickson. Trust versus Mistrust Essay (Critical Writing) writing essay help
Table of Contents Biophysical Dimension
This paper explores the life of a 15 months old child using the biophysical, psychological and the social dimensions of child development. This is done using examples of scenarios where the child might experience Erik Erickson’s trust versus mistrust using these three dimensions.
According to Erik Erickson’s theory of psychosocial development, human beings undergo through eight key developmental stages in their life from infancy to old age. All these stages occur in a gradual process, meaning that one stage is succeeded by another (Ashford