The article in question deals with the issues related to unpaid internship. Hananel (2013) notes that many companies abuse internship and get free labor rather than providing coaching to the interns. The article highlights flaws in the system of internship. The author also provides arguments of both sides.
The major issue related to the internship is whether companies should pay interns. Hananel (2013) notes that educators and interns claim that companies should pay minimum salaries, whereas companies are reluctant to pay interns who often fulfill unskilled tasks. The author also stresses that the result of the case with Fox is only the start and soon the issue will have to be solved at the national scale.
It is necessary to note that the present article is a valuable source as it provides insights into the problem which relates to two major aspects of the American society, i.e. education and employment. Hananel (2013) highlights internship as it is supposed to be and internship as it is in reality. Internship should be a beneficial practice for both the intern and the companies.
Fitzgerald and Jayachandran (2012) claim that interns benefit from internship as they gain the necessary experience and are able to understand what their responsibilities will be and the way the business works. Interns are also able to list the internship on resume, which can be helpful for looking for better jobs and higher salaries.
Noteworthy, companies also benefit as they can potentially hire a young and motivated employer who will be loyal and effective. However, Fitzgerald and Jayachandran (2012) also note that companies should be responsible and provide adequate coaching and give certain projects which can facilitate the interns’ learning.
However, major rules of internship are often abused as companies are struggling with economic issues. Even though companies can afford paying interns, companies are reluctant to do so. One of the major reasons for that is the present situation in the world.
Lots of companies are facing numerous financial constraints and they are trying to reduce their expenditures. Unpaid internships are a golden opportunity for many companies. Admittedly, this is unethical but it is a common practice.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is necessary to add that the movement to diminish companies’ abuse has already started. Perlin (2013) notes that numerous organizations and groups have started campaigns to make the companies pay minimum salaries to interns. Admittedly, this is a fair practice as interns are often young people who need money. Interns may not be as experienced as other employees.
Interns require attention and companies’ employees have to provide certain coaching; this can be distracting for the fulltime employees. Nonetheless, interns still complete certain tasks which help employees. Thus, interns’ work should be paid.
In conclusion, it is possible to state that the article provides insights into the causes of the tension between companies and interns. It draws people’s attention to an important issue which can affect the US economy in the long run. Thus, companies are often reluctant to pay more to employees. Clearly, businesses tend to support unpaid internship as it means free labor force.
Nonetheless, the vast majority of interns need salaries and simply cannot afford unpaid internships. As a result, many talented young people do not have an opportunity to gain experience and show potential employees the knowledge and skills obtained at the university.
Reference List Fitzgerald, B. A.,
The development in Abu Dhabi and Dubai Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Issues and Concerns
Research Ideas and Aims
Introduction Historically, the UAE used to have a variety of issues concerning housing projects. Othman (2008) stresses that numerous projects were unsustainable and inefficient. At present, the governments of Abu Dhabi and Dubai have announced that a number of initiatives will commence (Sheikh Zayed housing programme 2013).
For instance, the government is committed to provide each Emirati family with a proper house (Emirati housing programmes 2013). Eligible Emirati citizens will be able to get more than Dh3bn in loans (Malek 2013). It is also necessary to note that the construction will be held in terms of social, cultural and environmental sustainability (Cityscape Abu Dhabi 2013).
Admittedly, this is a positive initiative that will lead to development and sustainability in the society. For instance, a member of the FNC (Federal National Council), Dr Qubaisi claimed that the housing programme could provide “the society and people of the UAE and Abu Dhabi with stability” (Malek 2013).
It is also necessary to add that such projects as artificial islands reveal the existing trend, i.e. the desire to astonish and attract people. Of course, Emirati people welcome the new initiatives. However, there are certain concerns.
Issues and Concerns For instance, Dubai and Abu Dhabi have been changed considerably. The two emirates have become more modern and efficient. For instance, the city of Masdar can be regarded as an illustration of the government’s commitment. The city is the first carbon-free urban area and it is an example of sustainable development (Stilwell
Water Quality Exploratory Essay cheap essay help
Table of Contents Coagulation and Flocculation
Coagulation and Flocculation These are the initial procedures during treatment of water. Chemical substances possessing a positive charge are added to water in this compartment. The positive charge neutralizes the negative charge from dirt leading to the formation of huge fragments known as floc.
Sedimentation Floc is heavier than other particles present in water. Therefore, this process allows floc to remain at the base of the tank.
Filtration After the sedimentation process, the transparent water at the top of the tank moves across filters consisting of assorted components such as sand, charcoal or gravel. These components have different pore sizes that facilitate the removal of dissolved particles such as dust, microorganisms, and chemicals.
Disinfection Disinfectants such as chlorine are then added to the filtered water in the disinfection compartment to eliminate any remaining contaminant. The chemicals also safeguard the water from germs during storage and transportation to homes.
Storage Clean water is then stored in reservoir tanks from where it is piped to consumers.
In the U.S.A., chlorine is generally preferred as a disinfectant over ozone because it has a residual. The presence of a residual is important because it shows that water contains an adequate quantity of chlorine to kill all microorganisms. It also provides defense against recontamination in the course of storage.
The existence of free residual in treated water is associated with the absence of harmful microorganisms. Consequently, it is an important factor that gauges the potability of water.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In recent years, ozone has been replacing chlorine as the primary disinfectant in the U.S.A. One key advantage of using ozone to treat water is that there are few byproducts released into the water from the process. The release of many byproducts into treated water usually puts such water at risk. During chlorination of water, additional steps are usually required to get rid of these byproducts.
However, ozone treatment of water evades these additional procedures. One other benefit of ozone water purification is that there are no added chemicals that interfere with the natural taste of water. Therefore, the resultant water does not have the characteristic taste of chlorine.
However, ozone treatment of water also has disadvantages. It is thought that this procedure releases little quantities of bromate, which is thought to be a carcinogen. In addition, ozone treatment does not offer any residual effect. Therefore, any harmful organism that endures the oxidation procedure evades the entire treatment process.
Water Quality cheap essay help: cheap essay help
This reflective report analyses New York City’s drinking water quality and the treatment process. The paper identifies the contaminants in New York City water and analyzes these contaminants through a broad spectrum approach.
The New York City Water Report The fluoride contaminant violated the maximum requirement level in the New York drinking water. The fluoride content of 2.2 mg/L in this water is almost double the concentration level of 1.0mg/L as situated by the New York City Health Code.
The calcium contaminant was very close to violating the maximum contaminant levels in the New York City drinking water. The concentration of calcium contaminant was recorded at 5.3 mg/L against an average of between 4.4 and 6.7 mg/L.
Contaminant detected: Nitrate
Name of the Contaminant MCL Physical properties Sources of contamination Health effects Treatment methods Nitrate 0.12mg/L Molecular formula is NO3−. The weight is 62.0049 g/molecule. It is soluble in water. Overspill from used fertilizer. Leakage from water treatment tanks. Sewage runoff. Natural erosion from deposits. Toxicosis: may lead to methemoglobinemia (blue baby) condition characterized by lack of enough oxygen in the vital body organs. May lead to death of animals when the concentration in drinking water over 70%. Oxidation of excess nitrate is necessary in water treatment. The oxidizing agent that can be used is the ozone. The ozone will oxidize all the nitrites in into the less toxic nitrates. Water Treatment Plant Configuration Water in its natural source is often subject to fecal contamination, primarily derived from processes of decomposition of organic nitrogenous material present in water.
While ammonia (ammonium) and nitrites indicate an organic contamination, there are several harmless contaminants present in water such iron and calcium among others. The diagram below represents a typical water treatment plant summarizing the processes involved in water treatment.
Schematic water treatment diagram
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Steps involved in the water treatment Step 1: Screening
The raw water is passed through a sieving screen to eliminate relatively large pieces of foreign material such as rocks, leaves, and sticks. At this stage, Potassium permanganate chemical may be used when the raw water has traces of algal bloom.
Step 2: Coagulation
This involves passing the raw water into a coagulation tank where visible particles that remained after the screening stage are separated and channeled to an ejection tank for farm use.
Step 3: Sedimentation
The water is then moved to a special tank that is designed to allow for any remaining particle in the water to patch up at the base of the sediment tank.
Step 4: Filtration
The dual media in the filtration tank consisting of anthracite and sand ensures that all the visible pollutants are eliminated.
Step 5: Disinfection
Regulated amount of chlorine is passed into the water to inactivate any pathogens that might have passed through the previous steps. At this stage, controlled quantity of fluoride ingredient is added to the disinfected water to reduce incidences of tooth discoloration and decay upon use of this water.
Step 6: Storage and distribution
The fully treated water is then channel to storage tanks for a while before being distributed to the final user.
Conclusion Water treatment is carried out by using special purification equipments that measured the 4 parameters of contamination (nitrates, phosphates, chlorides and sulfur). However, the concentration of each parameter detected varies due to the conditions and flow of water from its source. There are significant differences between the parameters, pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen in different water sources.
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Solving ethical dilemmas in public relations Research Paper best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Ethical dilemmas in public relations: case study
Possible solutions for case study
Introduction The profession of public relations involves the control and dissemination of information in a corporate setting. It also involves control of information to the public from individuals or a company. The main objective behind this profession is to ensure that the public maintains a certain image of an individual or company’s products, governance, or policies through persuasion (Smith 62).
However, during the process of persuasion, it is important for professional communicators in the public relations field to maintain some level of ethics to prevent tarnishing the very image they hope to create through the dissemination of certain information to the public. Ethics are rules that comprise notions on individuals, corporate morality, and best practices, which are usually dependent on societal views (Seitel 88).
Although most laws do not govern business ethics directly, they provide for the creation of codes of conduct specific to a company or an individual with which the corporate relationship should comply. Ratification of codes of conduct enables a party to have justifiable cause to seek legal redress in case there is a breach of the code of conduct by the involved parties.
Ethical dilemmas in public relations: case study In the case study, the main problem arises from the client’s deceit concerning the independent nature of the scientist testing the products in a bid to ensure a favorable public image of the products to the distributor’s stakeholders. Although the problem is clear, some dilemmas rise in how to deal with the issue appropriately in a bid to obtain the best solution for all parties involved.
Patricia J. Parson, in her book, Ethics in Public Relations: A Guide to Best Practice, identifies the issue of morality as one of the reasons such dilemmas occur.
In chapter two of the book, Parson analyzes the concept of truth and the role it plays in the decision-making process (15). She explains that in order for a public relations communicator or firm to maintain integrity, the communicator should develop the habit of telling the truth starting from an individual level.
Article 1 of the International Association of Business Communicators (IABC) reinforces this concept by stating, “Professional communicators should uphold the credibility and dignity of their profession by practicing honest, candid and timely communication and by fostering the free flow of essential information in accord with public interest” (IABC Para. 4).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Article 12 further states, “Professional communicators are honest not only with others but also, and most importantly, with themselves as individuals; for a professional communicator speaks the truth first to the self” (IABC Para. 6). Although the concept is straight forward, establishing what truth is often leads to a dilemma, as truth is a subjective concept dependent on individuals and circumstances.
Truth also changes when factors such as additional information come into play. For instance, in the case study, the PR firm conducted the press conference according to the information that the distributor gave and this aspect formed the truth at the time.
However, circumstances changed when the firm received additional information indicating that the alleged independent scientist was actually an employee for the distributor working under its manufacturing section. In addressing the issue, the firm should investigate the matter and establish all the facts before making a determination on the truth.
Various possibilities arise including the fact that the alleged scientist may actually be an independent scientist hired by the distributor for a specific period or he may not even be a scientist, but just a mere employee at the company.
Another dilemma that Parson identifies is the conflict between personal perceptions of morality and corporate perceptions codified in codes of conduct. The different levels of morality exist amongst different individuals depending on their social background, prevailing circumstances, and their interpretations of the codes of conduct.
Utilitarianism is one of the theories that individuals apply in their interpretation of actions that comply with the concept of morality. Parson refers to utilitarianism as the “Robin hood ethic” (44). In essence, the theory suggests that moral behavior constitutes acts that result in the greater happiness for the largest number.
John Stuart Mill, the main proponent of the theory, states that individuals should do what results in the greatest happiness and the least pain for people living in a community (Mill 31). For instance, if a person decides to burn his or her own house, the act is moral if it does not harm the rest of the people neighboring the house.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Solving ethical dilemmas in public relations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is noteworthy that the theory bases its premise on the outcome of an act instead of the intention. Therefore, application of the theory to the case study involves an evaluation of the outcome rather than the intention of the action available to remedy the situation. According to the theory, the firm should choose a course of action that results in the greatest happiness for everyone involved, including the public, the firm, and the client.
For instance, the favorable results on the products might be authentic even though the distributors lied on the independent nature of the scientist. In addition, Code 4 of the Canadian Public Relations Society (CPRS) states, “a member shall deal fairly with past and present clients, fellow practitioners and members of other professions (CPRS Para.4). Therefore, it is imperative that the firm seeks redress that is fair to the distributor regardless of its deceit.
Parson (67) also mentions the theory of moral relativism and explains the dilemma it creates for individuals who subscribe to the theory in consideration to rules. Article 5 of the IABC holds, “Professional communicators should refrain from taking any undertaking which the communicator considers to be unethical” (IABC Para.4).
While rules make it easy for some people to make decisions, they create dilemmas for others, especially in relation to morality. Parson states, “The trouble with rules is their specificity to situations and people’s relative views on which circumstances certain rules should apply” (38).
The theory of moral relativism, as proponents such as William Sumner explain, suggests that there is no universal right or wrong as such concepts depend on individual circumstances and factors such as culture (Lukes 32).
For instance, some cultures take legalizing prostitution as a moral act, while others view the same as immoral. In the same way, some individuals in the firm may view the distributor’s actions as moral, thus negating the need for any further action.
Parson refers to the act of withholding bits of information in order to create a favorable outcome as a ‘spin’ and she adds that the morality and subsequent legality of ‘spinning’ information is relative to individual perceptions (Parson 163). Others may view the situation as immoral, thus leading to a need for remedial action through the application of the codes of conduct.
For instance, a person who chooses to view the entire scene from the point of view of the distributor and its need to increase sales through the legal use of a PR firm may view the company’s need to retain information on the independence of the scientist as moral.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Solving ethical dilemmas in public relations by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, a person who chooses to focus on the introduction of new information concerning the alleged scientist and its effect on the firm may regard the same situation as immoral.
Application of a code of conduct is voluntary. Oliver (56) suggests that individuals should seek objectivity by exploring all available factors and looking at the entire situation as opposed to specific scenes when forming a decision coupled with seeking advice from independent sources with no stake in the matter.
Thirdly, determination of codes of conduct that apply to specific situations may result in dilemmas, especially when a PR practitioner subscribes to different codes. Cohen (138) points out that sometimes, ethical dilemmas develop out of technicalities in situations.
For instance, if the practitioner subscribes to the IABC rules and a client to the CPRS rules, sometimes provisions in the rules create a conflict that presents difficulties in resolving, especially if the two parties have conflicting views on the ethicality of a situation.
For instance, in the case study, if the firm and the client turn out to have conflicting views on the morality of withholding information or the course of action appropriate to the situation, they may need to seek legal assistance to resolve the stalemate.
However, the move would require an analysis of the relevant code of conduct. In case both parties happen to use different codes of conduct, it would be necessary to find a way of establishing which one applies, usually by choosing the one that best favors either sides or the application of an international code of conduct neutral to both sides.
The same dilemma may also occur if the firm subscribes to more than one code of conduct. Choosing the appropriate code may require the application of the one that is most favorable to the client.
Parson (120) suggests an analysis of each case on an individual basis when making decisions as each case thrives on different merits, involves different individuals, and different circumstances. Although cases regarding ethics sometimes bear certain similarities, some details in the cases vary and in the same case, circumstances differ, often requiring a change in approach.
For instance, in the case study, the PR firm finds out about the client omitting information, which may have a significant impact on the public’s view of the distributor’s products. Under similar circumstances, had the firm discovered the information before the press conference, it would have taken a different approach.
Even with cases bearing identical facts, a PR practitioner should look at the entire situation, including external circumstances such as the political atmosphere. Trevino and Nelson (104) suggest that weighing the costs and benefits of disseminating information to the public assist practitioners in making objective decisions in chaotic situations.
For instance, while revealing the truth about the scientist may clear the firm from future blame in case the products exhibit harmful effects on the population, the same information may cause panic to members of the public, especially considering the sensitivity of drug-related issues attracts.
It may also cause a rise in fraudulent claims against the distributor, thus ruining the reputation of the company and future business opportunities for the PR firm.
Possible solutions for case study The appropriate solution for the case study depends on several elements, including the PR firm’s objectives and priorities. Proper consideration of the outcome of every possible option is dire. One of the firm’s possible solutions is to hold another press conference and correct the era. The firm would need to do it in a sensitive way that does not attack the client, viz. the drug distribution company, for omission of information.
The main reason behind this decision is compliance with codes of conduct such as Article 2 of the IABC, which urges professional communicators to, “disseminate accurate information and promptly correct any erroneous communication for which they may be responsible” (IABC Para. 3).
Further, Article 6 of the same Act calls for professional communicators to “obey laws and public policies governing their professional activities and, should any law or public policy be violated, [they] should act promptly to correct the situation” (IABC Para. 4).
In addition, Code 5 of the CPRS states, “members shall be prepared to disclose the names of their employers or clients, on whose behalf public communication is made. Members shall not associate themselves with anyone claiming to represent one interest or professing to be independent or unbiased, but who actually serves another or an undisclosed interest” (CPRS Para.5).
In the case study, the distributor presented the scientist to the public, through the press conference, as an independent scientist with full knowledge that he was not what he claimed. It is the firm’s duty to present the truth to the public as a matter of public interest in order to ensure that the public makes an informed decision.
Presenting the truth to the public would also exonerate the PR firm from blame and a possible ruin of its reputation in the instance that the drugs present harmful effects on uses in the future.
The second possible solution involves the use of another form of media announcement other than a press conference by the firm. The benefit of this move is that it allows the firm to present the truth in an appropriate manner that does not result in an attack on its efficiency in carrying out its responsibility.
Some of the questions that may arise in a press conference situation involve matters of due diligence, which require the firm to investigate the truth of information before sharing the same with the public. Preparing a well-thought announcement would allow the firm to explain its viewpoint without distortion of information famous with press conferences.
Thirdly, the firm may choose to settle the matter with the client and request its management to make the announcement to the public as a damage control measure that allows the client to defend its credibility. Although presenting the information may result in an attack on some of the drug company’s policies, it also gives the company the opportunity to explain its position to the public.
In addition, this option exonerates the PR Company from blame and situations that cause dilemmas in deciding which information is appropriate for the public to know.
Lastly, the firm may choose to institute legal proceedings against the client for misrepresentation. However, this decision should be the last resort as court cases sometimes drag on for years, thus costing the client and the firm valuable time and money. It may also cause negative or dark PR for the firm.
Conclusion Choosing a decision depends on various elements and sometimes it results in dilemmas that make decision-making strenuous. However, it is advisable for PR practitioners to look at situations in their entirety when forming decisions and make decisions that appear most favorable for all parties without compromising the practitioner’s credibility, dignity, and goals for the firm.
Works Cited Cohen, Martin. 101 Ethical Dilemmas, New York: Routledge, 2007. Print.
CPRS: Code of Ethics 2013. Web.
IABC: IABC Code of Ethics for Professional Communicators 2013. Web.
Lukes, Steven. Moral Relativism (Big Ideas/ Small Books), London: Picador Publisher, 2008. Print.
Mill, John. Utilitarianism, New York: Dover Publications Inc., 2007. Print.
Oliver, Sandra. Public Relations Strategy, London: Kogan Page, 2009. Print.
Parson, Patricia. Ethics in Public Relations: A Guide to Best Practice, London: Kogan Page, 2004. Print.
Seitel, Fraser. The Practice of Public Relations, Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2010. Print.
Smith, Ronald. Strategic Planning for Public Relations, New York, Routledge, 2009. Print.
Trevino, Linda, and Katherine Nelson. Managing Business Ethics: Straight talk on how to do it right, Hoboken: Wiley, 2011. Print.
The Story of Viet Nam: From Prehistory to the Present written by Shelton Woods Critical Essay writing essay help
The history of Vietnam is one of the most controversial subjects for historians and researchers interested in the Asian Studies because of a lot of associated political and social events, religious and cultural aspects which are interdependent.
The historians’ task is to provide a comprehensive narrative about the history of the country in order to reflect and discuss all the historical events which are characteristic for the development of Vietnam during the centuries.
The book The Story of Viet Nam: From Prehistory to the Present written by Shelton Woods is an attempt to represent the prolonged history of the nation in a concise edition where the Vietnamese history is discussed not only from the perspective of the country’s political and social development but also from the point of Viet Nam’s cultural and religious progress which influenced the Vietnamese people’s vision of the nation’s identity significantly.
Thus, the main issues which are examined by Woods in the book are the particular features of the Vietnamese people’s identity, the role of the nation’s character in the country’s economic and political progress, and the impact of the colonial rule on the identity with references to the current development of the country as the reflection of the Viet Nam’s history.
The book The Story of Viet Nam: From Prehistory to the Present can contribute significantly to the readers’ knowledge in relation to the history of the country because Woods describes the historical events from his point and relying on the social and religious contexts while explaining the causes and consequences of certain events.
The book is useful to provide the audience with the opportunity to evaluate the historical events through the lens of the country’s cultural and religious progress and with references to the Vietnamese people as the critical point to understand the history of the country (Woods 23-24).
Many political situations and discussed economic events are presented as the background for describing the unique nation and the role of the Vietnamese identity informing the country’s rule.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, Woods operates specific theoretical and topical approaches to represent the history of Viet Nam. Woods discusses all the main political, military, and social events associated with the history of the country while demonstrating the Vietnamese people’s reaction to the circumstances and their role for the development of this or that scenario.
From this point, Woods is inclined to discuss the prolonged history of the country which is divided by the author into significant periods with references to the critical social, cultural, and religious structures which influenced the country’s progress.
In spite of the fact that the author uses the traditional chronological method to organize the narrative about history of Viet Nam, the history of the country should be discussed as the history of the nation because the theoretical approach of Woods is based on using one aspect such as the Vietnamese people’s identity to analyze all the historical events.
To provide the complex picture of the country’s historical progress and the analysis of the presented events, the author uses a range of empirical and theoretical concepts which are necessary to represent the history of Viet Nam with the required details.
Thus, the main concepts are ‘identity’ as the complex of specific cultural, ethnic, and religious attributes and qualities which can be used to differentiate the Vietnamese people among the other nations; ‘social patterns’ as the set of rules or specific behaviours used predominantly within the Vietnamese society as the reaction to definite situations and events caused by the Vietnamese people’s cultural peculiarities and features; ‘domination’ as the statement of the other countries’ power over Viet Nam as a result of the wars and other military and political conflicts; and ‘colonial rule’ as the characteristic for the periods when Viet Nam was dominated by such countries as Japan and France because of impossibility to oppose the imperialist states’ forces (Woods 20-38).
Woods develops the argument that in spite of the prolonged periods of the other countries’ domination in Viet Nam, the Vietnamese’s people preserved the particular features characteristic for their identity and did not change the approaches to the social, cultural, and religious aspects of the life. Thus, the main changes were associated only with the political, military, and economic spheres of the country’s growth.
The book describes the history of Viet Nam in the chronological order, and the author divides the story into nine chapters while providing the country’s history from the legendary and ancient times to the modern history in about one hundred pages. From this point, the narrative is rather concise, and it is focused only on the key points which are essential to understand the nation’s development from the Prehistory to the modern times.
We will write a custom Book Review on The Story of Viet Nam: From Prehistory to the Present written by Shelton Woods specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The first section of the book provides the fascinating Prehistory of Viet Nam to state the origin of the nation. The early outside influences are discussed in the second chapter (Woods 5-24). However, the author pays more attention to describing the Viet Nam’s independent dynasties, which are associated with the period of stating the nation’s identity and principles of its development.
The impacts of Colonialism and Imperialism for Viet Nam are discussed in the next chapters with references to the role of the colonial rule for the Vietnamese society. The author states that the colonial government could not contribute to replacing the people’s visions and morals with the new Western patterns because of the string traditions.
Woods also claims that the two Viet Nam wars influenced the development of the nation significantly because of accentuating the central values for the country.
The next chapters present the details of the historical development in the twentieth century, and the author focuses on such important aspects as the attempts to regulate the military conflicts in the country and the role of the population in the process, the role of the Vietnamese women in the society in relation to providing education and job opportunities, and the contemporary progress of the Vietnam’s economy in relation to the impact on the community and people’s status (Woods 58).
While summarizing the content of the book’s chapters, it is possible to note that the narrative of Woods is rather logical and detailed to support the author’s central claim and demonstrate the historical development of the country from the point of the nation’s cultural and social progress.
Woods builds his argument with references to the evidences found in a lot of historical documents and primary sources used for writing the book. The author examined and analyzed a range of the historical documents, statistics, and data along with the historical researches on the book’s main topics in order to provide the detailed discussion of the Vietnamese people’s history.
It is possible to state that the argument claimed by the author along with the supportive evidence is somewhat credible and convincing because it is the result of analyzing a lot of materials on the issues presented in the book.
Moreover, the author’s vision of the main events in the history of the country is convincing because it is based on examining the issues with references to the Vietnamese people’s identity as the key concept to discuss the progress of the country.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Story of Viet Nam: From Prehistory to the Present written by Shelton Woods by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although the text of the narrative lacks many details to describe thoroughly this or that point mentioned in the book, the story is somewhat practical to explain and develop the argument because the author is focused on the chosen approach, and this method helps the readers in following the main ideas of the book.
Following the facts mentioned above, it is necessary to determine the strengths and limitations in relation to The Story of Viet Nam: From Prehistory to the Present written by Shelton Woods. Thus, the strong feature of the book is the concrete and limited context in which the history of the whole country is discussed.
Thus, to present the whole history of Viet Nam, the limit of one hundred pages is not enough, but Woods focuses on the main events and significant points in the history of the country in order to analyze them with references to the concept of the Vietnamese nation, the identity of the Vietnamese people, and specifics of the society’s development.
That is why the weaknesses of the book are in attempts to represent the history of the country developed during the centuries in short chapters given as summaries. However, the book can be interesting and useful for the audience because of its concise format when it is necessary to make some glimpses in the history of Viet Nam and its nation.
Works Cited Woods, Shelton. The Story of Viet Nam: From Prehistory to the Present. Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Asian Studies, 2013. Print.
The Migration of the Jews: Problems, Significance and Benefits Proposal writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction Massive persecution of the Jews in the 19th century marked the genesis of the Middle East conflicts. Since the persecution became a world issue, world leaders agreed to establish a Jewish state in the Middle East. Tabarani argues that, since the British Empire had a mandate over Palestine from 1920 to 1947, it was convenient to impose the Jewish people on the Palestinians who had peace and tranquility for several years (42).
Hence, the central argument of the proposal is that the migration of the Jews contributed to the instability in the Middle East between. As a preview of the main points, the proposal will examine the problem, significance of the study, research plan, limitations, benefits, and eventually provide a conclusion.
The Body Problem Statement
Western countries, particularly the Britain and Germany, created the instabilities in the Middle East just after colonialism. According to Tabarani, while Germany through Ottoman Empire supported the creation of new states such as Palestine, the British foreign minister, Lord Balfour, supported the creation of the Jewish state through the Balfour Declaration (43).
On this basis, colonial legacies, increased poverty, conflicts over resources, and the imposition of Jews on the Arabs are the major causes of conflicts in the Middle East.
Many historians and scholars of international relations confirm that the conflicts in the region are associated with resource allocation and division of the Arab land. In this view, the major objective of the paper is to prove through research that problems, which humans experience in the Middle East, require leaders to resolve because they are the cause.
Rationale and Significance
The paper presents some of the causes of conflicts in the Middle East that have continuously affected the performance of states in the region. The study is very important as it sheds some light on one of the global problems that is associated with terrorism.
Although many people believe that terrorism is part of the Islamic ideals, the reality is that “the frustrations compel Palestinians to engage in acts of extremism and suicide bombing” in the Middle East (Penslar 21). Therefore, the study presents a new perspective of understanding conflict system in the Middle East.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research Plan
In the research plan, the study will employ the reasoning of Toulmin, which respects the views of all people. Based on the reasoning, the study will explain the underlying assumptions that define general argument of conflicts in the Middle East. The paper will support the argument using primary and secondary sources from other scholars.
Lack of sufficient data and adequate studies on the topic are the major limitations of the study. The insufficiency of the primary and secondary sources is a limitation of the study because studies regarding conflicts in the Middle East are limited.
Additionally, given that many people have linked Islam with extremism and terrorism, there is a tendency that scholars have some biases when performing and presenting their research findings. Hence, biases limit the validity and reliability of primary and secondary information.
Benefits of the Study
The research findings have significant benefits as they enhance understanding of the conflicts in the Middle East and formulation of effective solutions. With the enhanced understanding of the causes of conflicts, policy makers can formulate effective solutions to end and prevent conflicts.
Moreover, the study is of great benefit as it disputes the common assumptions that Muslims are to blame for the conflicts that happen between Jews and Palestinians in the Middle East.
Conclusion The conflicts in the Middle East center on the migration of the Jews from Europe and other parts of the world into Israel. The migration of Jews coupled with the interests of western countries fueled the conflicts between Palestinians and Jews in the Middle East.
As sources of conflicts range from conflict over resources to religious differences, misconceptions depict Muslims as extremists and terrorists. Hence, the study aims to enhance the understanding of the conflicts and demystify misconceptions with the objective of defining effective solutions.
We will write a custom Proposal on The Migration of the Jews: Problems, Significance and Benefits specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Penslar, Derek. Israel in History: The Jewish State in Comparative Perspective. New York, 2007. Print.
Tabarani, Gabriel. Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: From Balfour Promise to Bush Declaration: The Complications and the Road for Lasting Peace. London: AuthorHouse, 2008. Print.
Modern Architecture In China Exploratory Essay essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Modern Architecture In China
Introduction Nowadays the level of technology and the achievements in the design practice allows creating the real masterpieces both in the design of the exterior and interior. It goes without saying that the modern techniques facilitate the realization of even the most bold and creative ideas which seemed to be impossible in the past.
The aim of this paper is to describe two examples of the modern design.
Modern Architecture In China The first example of the modern design progress which I am going to present to you is the Wuzhen Theatre created by the Chinese designers headed by Kris Yao. The construction has been built in Zhejiang in China. The project represents a bright example of the modern architecture. It is an amazing building embodying in itself both the contemporary architecture style and the elements of the traditional Chinese architecture.
The structure of the building is the reinforced concrete and steel framing (“Wuzhen Theatre” n.pag.). It has two floors above ground and one floor below ground (“Wuzhen Theatre” n.pag.). The façade of the theatre is zig-zag fan-shaped (“Wuzhen Theatre” n.pag.).
The panorama windows, although framed into the sash decorated with the creative bars, contribute to the substantial transparency of the building admitting the sun rays through the glass of the old gold color. As a whole the windows are associated with the traditional Chinese design which assumes the use of the gold and black color. In my view, the bars represent the bamboo which takes an important place in the Asian culture.
The theatre has been built nearby the river. If you take a look at the theatre from the side of the street with the traditional Chinese houses, you can see the contrast between the old Chinese architecture and the contemporary one. It is worthy to mention the beautiful illumination of the theatre at night when the golden lights are reflected in the river water.
The interior of the theatre also attracts the attention. It is made in the beautiful deep blue color which creates a calm atmosphere inside. A ceiling is also made in the blue color with white decoration elements. The walls inside the theatre are decorated with screens which are traditional in the Chinese culture.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The design of the interior can be described as the successful mix of the innovative surrealistic design and the Chinese authentic traditions of decoration.
“Using the culturally auspicious “twin lotus” as its metaphor, which functions perfectly with two theatres sharing one stage area, the design is composed of two oval shapes interlocking one another, one of them transparent and the opaque in form” (“Wuzhen Theatre/Artech Architects” n.pag.).
In my opinion, the design of the new theatre is useful as it represents one more place of interest in China. Besides, the new theatre is aimed to host the international theatre festival. Besides, it is planned that the fashion shows and even the wedding ceremonies will take place at the theatre.
Conclusion In order to sum up all above mentioned, it should be said that the contemporary design embodies the high level of the design techniques and construction technologies development. Furthermore, it encompasses the creativity and mastery of the designers and architects. The examples of the contemporary design described in the essay are the bright examples of the achievements in the sphere of design and architecture.
Works Cited “Wuzhen Theatre by Artech Architects Rises out of the Water” 16 October 2013. Designboom.com. Web.
“Wuzhen Theatre/Artech Architects” 23 May 2013. Archdaily.com. Web.
Frank Conroy’s Memoir: Life Experiments Essay essay help: essay help
The life events and situations which can be discussed by some persons as minor or insignificant often influence the people’s life more obviously than any other important and serious event because minor details can provoke people’s thinking of their life, personality, intentions, goals, and visions of the world.
Frank Conroy’s memoir Stop-Time (1967) includes a lot of descriptions of events and situations which influenced the process of Conroy’s growing and development as an individual. The author focuses on definite stops in describing the time of his childhood and adolescence.
To emphasize the stop and to draw the readers’ attention to it, Conroy uses the present tense, and the readers become involved in the situation because of observing it through the eyes of a boy whose considerations and emotions are presented and described in detail.
In spite of the fact that there are many significant events and incidents presented in the memoir, it is important to refer to the minor events which are preserved in the author’s memory because of their impact on the writer’s personality.
From this point, the chapter “A Yo-Yo Going Down, a Mad Squirrel Coming Up” provides a description of an important stop when Conroy perceives the principles of life and his role in the world and society focusing on yo-yoing.
Conroy uses the whole chapter to describe his experience in relation to yo-yoing and observed tricks with yo-yo. Thus, this situation can be discussed as minor and insignificant by many persons, but the boy at the age of thirteen can notice the significant principles of the life in the world with references to yo-yoing, and this knowledge can change his cognition and vision of the world and his own personality.
While noticing two yo-yo tricksters, the boy “stared open-mouthed as a yo-yo was thrown down and stayed down” (Conroy 112-113). As a result, the boy decided to perform yo-yo tricks which could be lovely and rather difficult because Conroy was sure in relation to his success.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although all the yo-yos are the same, Conroy states, “My yo-yo … was a perfectly balanced construction of hard wood, slightly weighted, flat, with only a sixteenth of an inch between the halves” (Conroy 113). Using such a perfect yo-yo, the boy focuses only on the success while performing some tricks.
Following the boy’s considerations and thoughts on yo-yoing, it is possible to state that the successes of Conroy in yo-yoing as well as his observations of yo-yo’s movements made the boy think about the rules of the world and people’s reactions to the world strings.
Conroy explains the importance of this stop in memory claiming, “the yo-yo represented my first organized attempt to control the outside world” (Conroy 115). Thus, such important things were learnt by the writer not through the dramatic experiences of his childhood, but because of playing with the yo-yo.
Referring to the example of Conroy’s use of stops in life, I can rely on such a stop as the moment of understanding the impact of the people’s opinion on the other persons’ life and the role of envy in this process. Conroy’s attempts to perform yo-yo tricks can be discussed as a kind of envy in relation to the other boys’ skills while performing different yo-yo tricks because this fact is associated with the rule in the situation.
The similar situation occurred when I was at the age of twelve. The desire to prove the fact that I could be better than the other children in the classroom made me agree to participate in a lot of extracurricular activities and orient to the best results.
I can make the stop in my memory and recollect my emotions in relation to the situation when my classmate told me that he could achieve the best results in the swimming competition than I could achieve.
Today, I understand that those words were rather provocative and demonstrated the classmate’s envy. Furthermore, I could not predict the results of the competition. However, I remember that during the conversation I decided to win in spite of any barriers because I was sure in my successes and skills.
We will write a custom Essay on Frank Conroy’s Memoir: Life Experiments specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The importance of that experience is stop in my life in the fact that I can return to that stop every time when I feel helpless in a difficult situation. Recollecting the situation of being a consistent child with the strong will and desire to win, I can focus on achieving the higher goals today and in the future.
The importance of such stops is in opportunities to refer to the intrinsic motivation and true desires hidden under the mask of everyday considerations.
The above-mentioned experience and the example of Conroy’s stop are also important in the context of my culture and aspects of the social development because the concentration on the inner power is highly valued in our society.
The ability to focus on stops in the life time is necessary to evaluate the results and investigate the particular features of the personal psyche. Thus, stops made by Conroy are important to look at the author from the new perspective.
Works Cited Conroy, Frank. Stop-Time: A Memoir. USA: Viking Press, 1967. Print.
Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commissions Term Paper writing essay help: writing essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Establishment of CRTC
Purpose of CRTC
Scope of CRTC Operations
Impact and the Future of CRTC
Introduction The 20th century is characterised by a lot of political activities that led to democratization of many societies. People have gained significant access to certain rights and privileges. One of the most important rights that people enjoy today is the access to information, which is essential because it enables people to identify and demand for other rights.
Although the advocates of the right to information insist that everyone should be well informed, some people have claimed that such rights can cause serious challenges if not regulated (Edwardson, 2008). For this reason, several governments have put in place measures to ensure that rights are enjoyed in a manner that protects other aspects of life.
This paper discusses the functions, composition, scope of operation, financing and source of authority of the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) (Edwardson, 2008).
Establishment of CRTC CRTC was created in 1976 after the parliament of Canada enacted the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Act (1976).
Before CRTC came into being, its functions were performed by the Canadian Radio-Television Commission established in 1968 to take over from the Board of Broadcast Governors. CRTC is answerable to the Minister for Heritage who in turn reports to parliament (Dunbar
Singapore Airline Research Paper a level english language essay help
Introduction Overview of the Company
Singapore Airline (SIA) is a widely recognized and celebrated brand name in the air transport industry for over 50 years. This is attributable to its route network that covers over 90 cities in more than forty countries and up to date air transport system.
In addition, SIA is a member of the Star Alliance which has increased its global presence to roughly 140 countries. All in all, the company’s strong brand name is mainly attributed to its excellent customer service (Singaporeair.com, 2013).
For nearly four decades since SIA was detached from Malaysian Airway Limited it has continued to grow rapidly to become a world class airline. Experts attribute this to the company’s values and culture. Singapore Airline has impressed many people due to its creativity, diversity and constant growth.
In addition, the company has been able to meet customers demand as well as gaining competitive advantage in both local and international market (Singaporeair.com, 2013; Ayob, 2004, P. 2).
However, the journey has never been smooth throughout. The company has experienced numerous challenges both internal and external. The most notable predicament was the Asian economic crisis created by the outbreak of the SARS virus in 2003.
The crisis forced the company to cut down wages and lay-off nearly 500 workers. As a matter of fact, this was considered as the largest number of employees to be ever laid-off in the company’s history. As a result, the relationship between the top management and the labor union started to worsen (UK Essays.com, 2012).
So as to attain a world class status SIA went through the following chronology: SIA was established in 1947 under the name Malayan Airways; in 1963, SIA was rebranded to Malaysian Airways owing to the formation of the Malaysian Federation.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The name was later changed to Malaysian-Singapore Airline when Singapore became independent; in 1972, the company acquired the current name when it splits up from Malaysian Airways. In 1986, the girl wearing sarong kebaya (the company’s famous logo) was born.
The young elegant, friendly and kindhearted girl on the SIA’s famous logo represents the culture that the company forever wants to devote to its customers (Singaporeair.com, 2013).
From 1990 to 2001, the company purchased 178 aircrafts and expanded its route networks extensively. In 2004, Singapore Airline broke a world record by launching the longest ever commercial flight from Singapore to Los Angeles and New York. In 2007, SIA broke another world record by purchasing the largest passenger plane-A380.
At the moment, SIA’s route networks spans more than 90 destinations and nearly forty countries. In addition, the company has the most modern fleet in the industry and dominates the South East Asian market (UK Essays.com, 2012).
SWOT Analysis of the SIA SWOT analysis is an instrument that is often used to assess an organization and the environment. SWOT is an abbreviation for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. SWOT analysis is commonly used in business studies to explore the existing conditions in order to come up with possible solutions or strategies of addressing both internal and external challenges (OCBC Investment Research, 2011, p. 11).
In this case, SWOT analysis will focus on Singapore Airline. The main objective of the analysis is to have firsthand experience of the problems facing the company and gain knowledge concerning probable developments and potentials.
Strength and Weakness
The main foundation of any company is their staff (Kotler, 2001, p. 6). SAI boasts of highly trained and disciplined personnel whose main focus is passengers comfort and satisfaction. Service quality and customer satisfaction have always been the core of SAI as enshrined in its vision and mission statement. The company has managed to achieve all these because of its highly competent staff, which includes the pilots and mechanics.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Singapore Airline specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This has benefited both the company and the customers. For instance, SIA’s service quality has attracted other users like institutions, tourism sector, VIPs among others. In addition, the company also has state of the art training facility for its human resource (OCBC Investment Research, 2011, p. 11).
SIA is a well established airline with a very sound background. The company has always remained profitable despite of numerous challenges both internally and externally. Most of the company’s profits have always been invested back to expand the business. In addition to the strong financial base, SIA also has numerous other resources that have given it an edge over its rivals.
For example, SIA has one of the leading freight handling facilities in the region. The company also has over 95 aircrafts and communication systems which are replaced after every five years.
In addition, SIA’s flight kitchen based in Changi is one of the largest in the world. Last but not least, the company’s brand quality is in all probability the most potent resource. The brand has been nurtured for over three decades to be the most acknowledged and distinguished in the aviation industry (Ayob, 2004, p. 3).
Singapore airline is devoted to the idea of open skies where consumer demand determines the flight destination. However, the company has been unable to access certain countries and airports due to their protectionist policies.
For instance, it took the company a lot of years to access Heathrow and Manchester airports. At the moment, it is still struggling to access transatlantic routes from the United Kingdom. Other weaknesses include lack of growth opportunities for the Flagship Singapore Airline and agility to deal with global crisis (OCBC Investment Research, 2011, p. 11).
Threats and opportunities
The main opportunity for Singapore Airline is the growth of passenger and cargo transport in South-East Asia and the world at large. At the moment, much smaller and remote places are becoming open to the globe. This provides an opportunity for SIA to expand its services. The introduction of lost-cost carrier (LCC) is aimed at capturing this new market segment (UK Essays.com, 2012).
The major threat facing SIA is the increased competition from the Middle East airlines, for example, Tiger Airways and Jestar Airlines. The airline also faces restrictive regulations in certain countries, for instance, the United Kingdom. Another threat is the probable economic depression and pressure on fuel prices (OCBC Investment Research, 2011, p. 11).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Singapore Airline by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Porter’s five forces analysis of the SIA This model is based on the comprehensive outlook on the company’s strategies that meets the opportunities and threats within and without the industry.
The five forces as identified by porters include: threats of new entrants, bargaining power of suppliers and customers, threat of substitutes, and the rivalry within the industry. Porter’s five forces analysis not only offers a significant foundation for strategic analysis but also examines the viability of the industry to come up possible course of actions (Porter 1980, p. 3).
Singapore Airline is regarded as a distinct industry in Singapore market. As a result, the Porter’s five forces and other externalities have considerable impact on the airline. Regionally, the airline is regarded as the market leader because of its outstanding service delivery and distinguished brand.
However, over the recent past, Singapore Airline has been faced with stiff competition from the Middle East airlines and other news entrants. For that reason, industry analysis is very crucial for the company in order to cope with the current and prospective challenges (Singaporeair.com, 2013).
The ease of entry into a market dictates the level of competition. The threat of entry significantly depends on the barriers put in place to ward off the new entrants (Kotler, 2001, p. 33). SIA controls the largest share of the South East Asian market to a near monopoly.
Despite of the fact that Singapore has not restricted access to its route networks, smaller airlines have always found it very difficult to access this market. Nevertheless, the rapid development of the region’s economy and the tourism sector has attracted global airlines into the market (UK Essays.com, 2012).
Customer’s bargaining power in the airline industry are very high. This is due to the fact that buyers have numerous options to choose from. Therefore, Singapore Airline needs to focus most of its attention on consumer satisfaction and provision of exceptional services.
The power of the supplier in the airline industry is also important and has significant impact on the company’s competitive capacity. For this reason, Singapore Airline has established strong ties with its suppliers and other airline companies (UK Essays.com, 2012).
The airline industry has highest threat of substitutes, particularly Singapore where the sole means of international movement is air transport. The threat increased with the introduction of the low-cost carriers. Therefore, SIA must take notice of the threats in different market segments (UK Essays.com, 2012).
Lately the company has been experiencing stiff competition not only from the Middle East airlines but also from major global players, for instance, Cathay Pacific Airways, British Airways and Fly Emirates among others.
However, Singapore Airline has been able to maintain a competitive edge over its rivals by improving its apparatus, increasing fleet network, offering exceptional services and promoting its brand (Singaporeair.com, 2013).
Conclusion Industrial analysis of the Singapore Aviation industry provides an empirical overview of how external factor impacts the operations of the Singapore Airline. The main purpose of this analysis is to explain the external business environment, its dynamics and forces that propel the changes.
The fundamental idea behind the two tools of analysis is that businesses have to adjust to the externalities. This reflects the idea that business strategies and goals have to fit in between the capabilities and externalities and therefore it is necessary for an industry/ entity to adjust to the changes.
References Aaker, D.A. (2005). Strategic Market Management. Hobeken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.
Ayob, A.M. (2004). Singapore Airlines Limited: Building a Culture of Service Excellence. Web.
Kotler, P. (2001). Kotler on Marketing: How to Create, Win and Dominate Markets. New York: Free Press.
OCBC Investment Research. (2011). Singapore Airlines Limited. Company Report (MITA No. 022/06/2011). Singapore: OCBC.
Porter, M.E. (1980). Competitive strategy: Techniques for analyzing industries and competitors. New York: Free Press.
Singaporeair.com. (2013). Singapore Airline: Our History. Web.
UK Essays.com. (2012). Pestel and Five-Force Analysis of Singapore Airline. Web.
“Winning” by Jack Welch Evaluation Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
Strengths, weaknesses and assumptions in Jack Welch’s framework for differentiating employees In his book “Winning”, Jack Welch (2005) provides a well-developed framework for managing people in an organization through employee differentiation. The ‘20/70/10 Differentiation’ framework is primarily a way of breaking down employees into three groups based on their performance (Welch, 2005).
The purpose of the framework is to determine a good of way of rewarding and treating employees. The framework has a number of strengths, but it has some negative aspects because it is based on some assumptions.
Welch believes that every company has only three groups of employees. The first the 20/70/10 framework is effective because it provides managers with a simple but effective way of dealing with employees. It ensures that the company retains its best performers in the first 20% group, which allows it to reduce costs and enhance management (Welch, 2005).
In fact, this group is made up of top managers who have experience and positive attitude towards the company and their work. If not treated well, they are likely to leave the company or work below standards, thus affecting corporate performance. Secondly, this framework allows managers to increase performance by encouraging and motivating employees to rise to the top 20% group.
As employees strive to join the group, they improve their performance, thus improving the corporate performance. Thirdly, it ensures that managers reduce cost by eliminating majority of employees in the bottom 10% group.
Since most of these employees are the individuals with records of poor performance and negative attitudes, they are likely to reduce performance while increasing cost. They must leave the company. Using this framework, the company is able to reduce employee redundancy.
Welch’s framework assumes that all employees, regardless of the nature of a company, industry or economy, can fit into one of the three categories.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Secondly, it assumes that employee performance can only be increased by rewarding and motivation, leaving out other factors such as talents and personal interests. In addition, it assumes that forcing out poor performing employees from a company is the best way of dealing with poor performance.
Welch’s ideas seem to assume that employees in the top 20% group are perfect and must be maintained in the company. This is a bad assumption because this group could include employees who are interested in personal gains rather than corporate gains. Heavy rewards and recognitions given to these employees could create resentment among the lower groups, which could destroy employee-employee relationships.
In addition, it can affect employee-employee and employee-manager communication. In addition, the 10% group might feel threatened because they are not provided with enough time to rectify their mistakes and learn to perform.
Workforce Differentiation Welch’s framework seems to be an effective way of differentiating employees. In fact, I would suggest that companies use employee performance as one of the main criteria for employee categorization.
For instance, companies should analyse employees based on individual performance within a given time such as one year. Employees who perform poorly and do not strive to improve should leave the company. Those who perform well or improve their performance need rewards and appraisal.
Mission, Vision and Values Using Welch’s ideas, it is evident that missions define the future of a company. To develop mission, the company needs values. Values define the required or appropriate behaviours or set of behaviours that must be followed in order to reach the desired destination.
For instance, positive attitudes, teamwork, proper and effective communication and focus on goals are good examples of behaviours that employees and their leaders should consider (Becker, Huselid
Project Management for Small to Medium Enterprises Evaluation Essay argumentative essay help
Work breakdown structure, critical path and costed time strategy The chart below illustrates the project’s work breakdown structure. This goal has been achieved by identifying the task, the duration, and the resource requirement in order to execute the task effectively and within the set time.
Chart 1: WBS
Task name Duration [days] Start time Finish time Resource Analysing the green fashion market in Australia 12 4thOct. 2013 1 5thOct.2013 Marketing manager Selection of store location 12 4thOct. 2013 1 5thOct. 2013 Entrepreneur Developing the project business plan 15 4thOct. 2013 19thOct. 2013 Entrepreneur Compliance with legal and environmental 3 17thOct. 2013 19thOct. 2013 Entrepreneur Seeking sponsorship from charity organisations 18 4thOct. 2013 19thOct. 2013 Entrepreneur Furnishing and decorating the store 15 17thOct. 2013 31stOct. 2013 Project team Attracting consigner 12 20thOct. 2013 15thNov. 2013 Entrepreneur Finalising the shops self-owned system 26 15thNov. 2013 26thNov. 2013 Project team Implementing the green fashion concept will play a critical role in minimising the rate of environmental pollution. In a bid to establish the Green Fashion Store, effective time management is essential. Approximately, the store will take 70 days to be completed. It is projected that this duration is sufficient to complete the project.
However, taking 70 days will lead to increase in the resource requirements, which are scarce. Thus, effective time scheduling is paramount. The project manager will reduce the project duration with 20%, which means that the project will take 56 days to be implemented. Crashing strategy will be used in order to arrive at the critical path as illustrated by chart 2 below.
By crashing the time, the Green Fashion Store will be completed within 56 days and the likelihood of the entrepreneur conforming to the time constraint will increase. The areas shaded in black illustrate the critical path that will result in optimal resource utilisation.
Chart 2: the critical path
The Project Manager estimates that the project will require $19,200 in order to be successfully implemented.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Budget and resource allocation In establishing the new business, the entrepreneur is focused towards ensuring that resources are effectively utilised. In this project, the resource that the Project Manager is mostly focused on relates to time. The green fashion project is time constrained. The Project Manager intends to complete the green fashion project in 56 days. Thus, the entrepreneur will ensure that time is effectively utilised.
Levelling resource allocation technique will be used. This will aid in effective utilisation of slack time by delaying non-critical activities. Moreover, the levelling technique will aid in reduction resource demand, peak resource demand in addition to minimising the amount of resource fluctuation. Some activities will be undertaken concurrently in order to eliminate slack time.
Chart 3: Estimated budget before crashing the amount of time by 20%
Work package 1stOct.- 15thOct 17thOct-19thOct. 20thOct.-31stOct. 1stNov. -15thNov. 16thNov- 26thNov. Total by activity Market research $2,000 $2,000 Developing the store’s blue print. $500 $200 $700 legal and environmental analysis $1,000 $1,000 Seeking sponsorship $600 $400 $1,000 Furnishing the store $8,000 $4,000 $12,000 Attracting consigner 1,000 1,000 Finalising the self-owned store system 1,500 1,500 Cumulative 19,200 However, reducing the amount of time required to complete the project with 20% is expected to increase the amount of financial capital required. Thus, it is estimated that the project budget will increase by 20%. Thus, the green fashion project will require $ 23,040 in order to be completed.
Quality management and control
A number of elements quality management elements as illustrated the chart below will be taken into account in the green fashion store. The project will be implemented as a one-off expense hence eliminating the need to revisit the project upon its completion. The chart below illustrates the variables that will be taken into account in ensuring effective quality management.
Figure 1: quality control
A comprehensive cost-benefit analysis will be undertaken in order to maintain the project within the desired quality. This will be achieved by controlling the prevention cost, external and internal failure, control, and appraisal cost. This will improve the quality of the project.
We will write a custom Essay on Project Management for Small to Medium Enterprises specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Project Manager will ensure that the green fashion store addresses the customer’s needs adequately. To achieve this, a substantial amount of appraisal cost will be incurred. The appraisal cost will entail product audits, product inspections, and reviews.
Some of the elements that will be integrated in assessing the appraisal cost include evaluating whether the process of implementing the store takes into account the desired conditions. For example, an appealing store ambience will be ensured in order to develop unique customer experience.
Moreover, the Project Manager will conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the green fashion products collected from the sponsors to ensure that they are aligned with the specified environmental requirements.
One of the ways through which quality of the products collected will be ensured is by conducting an intensive training on the parties charged with the responsibility of collecting the second hand products. Moreover, the appraisal cost will also entail assessing whether the green fashion store is effectively designed.
The Green Fashion Store entrepreneur is cognisant of the fact that the project may be affected by to lack of sufficient support from the sponsors. For example, customers might not adopt the concept of green fashion as expected. A comprehensive project quality plan will be developed to minimise the adverse effects of quality costs.
The quality plan will outline the standards that the project manager will be required to adhere to in order to satisfactorily fulfil the quality requirement. Regular meetings involving all the team members will be conducted to generate ideas on how to deal with contingencies that arise in the process of implementing the project. The above quality control chart will be used.
Project team performance
The entrepreneur is aware that the Green Fashion Store will depend on the input of all the team members. Consequently, it is imperative for the project manager to ensure that effective team performance is attained.
Optimal team performance can be achieved by incorporating the principles of team management such as organising, leading, controlling, and planning. In a bid to attain optimal team performance, the project manager will take into account a number of issues as illustrated in the table below.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Project Management for Small to Medium Enterprises by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Chart 4; project team performance
Approach Strategy Significance to team performance Leadership Transformational leadership style will be adopted The style will provide team members an opportunity to share ideas on how to improve the project. -Transformational leadership will lead to development of a sense of inclusion amongst the team members. Communication Horizontal, vertical, upward, lateral diagonal and downward channels of communication will be adopted. Formulating an effective feedback mechanism Communication will ensure that the team members are adequately informed about the project and their roles. Establishment of an effective working relationship Optimal conflict resolution The feedback mechanism will lead to development of optimal understanding of the project. Decision making Inclusive team meetings Team meetings will give the manager insight on the team members’ perception and attitude regarding the project. Including employees in the decision, making process will provide the manager insight on how to minimise employee resistance. Including the team members will lead to development of a sense of project ownership amongst team members. Developing a strong project team Effective selection of project team members and integration of volunteer part-time team members Effective volunteer management Formulation of an optimal volunteer training programme The manager is cognisant of the fact that unforeseen forces may affect completion of the project. For example, multitasking amongst the project team members may limit their effectiveness. In a bid to deal with this challenge, the Project Manager is focused towards attracting volunteer part-time team members. This goal will be achieved by designing an effective volunteering programme. Currently, individuals are embracing the concept of volunteering in different organisations in an effort to develop a wide range of knowledge and skills. Sufficient awareness on the contribution of the green fashion project to environmental conservation will be undertaken. The training will be aimed at ensuring that the volunteers are acquainted with the project objectives and goals. The Project Manager will educate the volunteers the contribution of the Green Fashion Store in minimising climate change. Reward management Comprehensive and continuous appraisal of the team members’ performance Recognising project team members with optimal performance The appraisal will aid in the determination of the team members effectiveness in executing the duties assigned Reward management will lead to increased level of motivation towards achievement of the set project milestones. By implementing the above strategies, the project manager will be able to improve the outcome of the project.
Project team meetings
In a bid to ensure that the project is successful defined, planned, and executed, a number of project team meetings will be conducted. A number of issues will be discussed during the project team meetings as illustrated by the figure below.
Project team identity
In a bid to ensure that the project team members are committed to the green fashion store, the project manager will ensure that adequate team identity is established. Developing team identity will contribute towards development of a high level of commitment amongst the team members. The team members will identify with the green fashion store.
Thus, their efforts will be focused at achieving the project’s goals. The project manager intends to create team identity by conducting frequent meetings. The meetings will lead to improvement of the team members’ attitude and opinion towards the project. Consequently, the likelihood of developing team behaviour will be increased.
Team identity will also be developed by nurturing a high degree of interaction and information sharing amongst the team members. This goal will be achieved by utilising the co-location technique. Virtual teams will not be used in the project. Thus, the project team members will have an opportunity to interact with another thus developing a strong working relationship.
The phrase ‘green fashion’ will be used as the project team name. This name will make the project team more tangible. Moreover, an appealing team logo will be designed. The logos will be designed on T-shirts and caps that will be worn by the project team members. As a result, the project team members will love being associated with the project.
In addition to the above strategies, the project manager will ensure that effective team rituals are developed. The rituals will lead to establishment of strong and unique team identity. One of the rituals that will be developed entails giving the team members a T-shirt inscribed with the milestones achieved.
Monitoring and evaluation
This process improves the project outcome by identifying areas that require adjustments. Furthermore, monitoring and evaluation allows the project manager to evaluate the achievements that have been accomplished.
The process of monitoring and evaluating the Green Store Project will take into account a number of issues, which include the project costs, resources, project sponsors, and the entire project management team. Participatory monitoring and evaluation strategy will be adopted and this strategy will entail taking into account all the project stakeholders.
The project sponsors will be evaluated in order to determine whether they are providing the necessary project guidance. On the other hand, the project team members will be monitored in order to determine whether their actions are positively influencing the completion of the project. Monitoring and evaluating resources will play a critical role in ensuring that the project resources, which are scarce, are optimally being utilised.
By integrating effective project monitoring and evaluation, the project manager will be in a position to promote the development of positive behaviours amongst the team members. The entrepreneur intends to complete the Green Fashion Store within 56 days. Consequently, optimal monitoring and evaluation with regard to how time is utilised in implementing the project will be undertaken.
The project will monitor the project’s progress by tracking the Gantt chart by incorporating a baseline Gantt chart. The respective activities in the Gantt chart will be tracked. Periodic reports regarding the project process will be formulated by developing a control chart.
Consequently, the project manager will be in a position to determine the project’s trend. For example, the project manager will assess whether the project progress is ahead or behind schedule, and hence report to the stakeholders more effectively.
In addition to the above types of evaluation, the project manager will also evaluate the customers’ opinion regarding the green fashion store. One of the elements that will be taken into account entails assessing whether the target customers have integrated the concept of green fashion in their consumption processes.
Consequently, the project manager will be able to determine the likelihood of obtaining support from the customers. To evaluate the performance of project amongst potential customers, the entrepreneur will conduct a market survey through the green fashion website that will be established. Moreover, emerging social media platforms will also be used.
Projects have a definite timeframe and must be completed within the set deadline and transferred to the owners. Consequently, it is imperative for project managers to ensure effective project closure. The project manager is of the opinion that the project will be successfully completed. Consequently, normal project closure technique will be undertaken. The closure will comprise a number of activities, which include,
Conducting a post project audit to determine the degree of project success
Undertaking wrap-up closure activities [which include paying out the bills and closing the project accounts]
Conducting individual and team evaluation
Preparing a final report that summarises the entire project. The final report will be comprised of a number of elements which include;
Project performance review- This will be achieved by reviewing whether the project is in conformity with the set standards.
Lessons learnt and recommendations on how to improve future projects
The project team members and the volunteers will be acknowledged and thanked for their effort. The acknowledgement will be undertaken by identifying each of the team members’ contribution to the establishment of the green fashion store.
The project life cycle will be comprised of three main stages, which include the start, project life, and finish. A number of activities, which include project definition, planning, execution, and project delivery, will be undertaken during the project life cycle.
However, various obstacles might affect project implementation and success adversely. Consequently, it is imperative for project managers to adopt effective preventive measures. Some of the risks potential obstacles that might be experienced in this project are discussed herein.
Implementation challenges– One of the major obstacles that might affect the project relates to lack of commitment amongst the team members. Such occurrences may limit the likelihood of the project being completed within the set timeframe. The project team members may lose momentum, hence drifting from the set project goals.
Development delays- The entrepreneur intends to cut the amount of time required to complete the Green Fashion Store project with 20% and to achieve this goal, the project manager will adopt the crashing strategy. Considering that the Green Fashion Store is a new entity, the firm does not have adequate staff.
Consequently, the likelihood of some project team members multitasking is high as some activities and assignments will have to be completed within the same time. Multitasking may limit the effectiveness with which the project team members undertake their duties. Moreover, excessive multitasking may lead to time loss hence affecting the project completion.
Cost increment- Existence of resource bottlenecks is another major obstacle that might affect the project.
Risk management Occurrence of risk might hinder the project implementation. Consequently, comprehensive risk management process will be adopted. Four main risk management aspects, which include risk identification, risk response control, risk assessment, and risk response development will be incorporated. The project manager will integrate the following risk management strategies.
Assessment of the milestones- The project manager will evaluate whether the set milestones are achieved.
Balancing project activities with personal activities, the project manager will integrate optimal time management strategies to prevent the team members’ infectiveness because of multitasking.
Effective allocation and control of project resources; this will prevent deviation from the predetermined project budget.
Summary and recommendations Implementing the above project plan will improve the likelihood of the Green Fashion Store succeeding. The feasibility of the project is enhanced as the project will contribute towards environmental protection and the project will promote consumption of ‘green fashion’, hence minimising environmental pollution and climate change.
Moreover, the project feasibility is enhanced by the fact that customers are increasingly becoming conscious of the environment. Therefore, project sponsors will be committed in supporting the project. The success of the project will depend on the effectiveness with which the available project resources are managed. Time is one of the most important resources in the process of implementing the Green Fashion Store.
By implementing the time crashing strategy, the project manager will minimise the duration within which the project has to be implemented. As a result, the amount of resources required will go down. The project manager will be required to assess the work breakdown structure in order to determine the most effective way to crash the project time. Analysing the WBS will enable the project manager to define task durations effectively.
In a bid to improve the project outcome, effective quality management, and control should be integrated, by formulating optimal quality standards. Through effective quality control, the project manager will eliminate non-conformities.
Non-conformities underscore aspects that add no value to the project but they might be inevitable in a project management process if the project manager fails to observe effectiveness for optimal results. The success of the Green Fashion Store project will be determined by the commitment of all the team members, which underscores the importance of optimal project team management.
The project manager can achieve this goal by integrating effective team formation and development strategies such as effective conflict management and communication, which will improve the effectiveness with which the project team members interact.
The project manager should ensure that effective monitoring and evaluation mechanisms are developed by integrating Gantt charts, which should be tracked continuously to improve the likelihood of identifying and adjusting deviations that occur. Upon its completion, the manager should ensure that effective project closure is undertaken by conducting an audit of the project in order to determine its success.
The success of the project might be subject to various internal and external challenges. Consequently, it is imperative for the project manager to integrate effective risk management strategies by ensuring that risks are identified effectively in a bid to address any challenge that might arise during the project management process.
Problems in Implementing a New Project Research Paper college essay help
Introduction In today’s business climate, implementation of projects requires high level of creativity and innovation from the executive and employees of organisations.
The process of implementing projects requires application of innovation management in which firms cut cost as a way of remaining relevant in today’s competitive business environment.
Managers have to use appropriate tools of innovative management in order to influence workforces to work towards achieving organisations’ common goals.
Since organisational projects always aim at helping firms in realising their goals, the inclusion of innovation management is necessary in allowing managers to have joint understanding of objectives and procedures in implementing such projects.
Project managers must have wide management skills to forecast on the challenges that may arise during the implementation stage and even draw possible solutions to the same.
Project Implementation Process The process of implementing new ideas within an organisation requires managers to influence perceptions of stakeholders to support the concept.
Cultures of other organisations may hinder innovation and creativity from the argument that the management only accepts ideas that are in line with the daily operations of the firm and maintain the status quo (Watad 1).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In such firms, employees are passive in their positions, as the management holds the key to all new ideas. However, the current globalisation rate forces firms to adjust changes in order to remain relevant in the market.
Therefore, the management has to convince every person in order to support the implementation of new programmes. In convincing stakeholders, managers have to get the majority on board through consensus building to implement new ideas successfully.
Resistance to Project Implementation In innovation management, even employees have to contribute creatively and innovatively to the progress of a firm. For instance, in a situation where clients’ demands and wants are not met, innovation management helps in finding solutions to those needs.
Resistance in an organisation that originates from company’s beliefs and practices poses great challenges to implementation of projects. Managers should be flexible in their management styles in order to alter the culture of their organisations.
Since implementation of a project does not guarantee achievement of the goals and objectives of the firm (Kilicoglu and Yilmaz 14), most stakeholders develop resistance to such changes.
Inclusive implementation of a new project remains a challenge to most organisations, hence the need for innovative strategies in managing diverse stakeholders’ positions and views.
Companies that desire to gain competitive advantage over their competitors in the market have to employ innovative management in their operations (Collins 8).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Problems in Implementing a New Project specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such firms set up training and development departments to help in training all staff members. Project managers involve themselves in designing, developing and executing of training programmes through practical in-house training.
Organisational Culture A key problem that arises during implementation of projects majorly comes from organisational culture. This involves rigidity of corporate cultures, as some executives are always resistant to accept change that may occur after implementation of a project (Kilicoglu and Yilmaz 20).
Some projects do bring changes to a company’s organisational culture. Organisational culture is the collective way by which employees interact at the workplace. It encompasses life experiences, values, and beliefs that unite employees within the firm.
Organisational culture is also the way employees in an organisation behave, and the connotation that people attach to their behaviours and life experiences. There are essential aspects of culture that firms have to consider in their management processes within an organisation.
The evaluative element involves the social anticipations, prospects, and principles that companies follow in their daily operations.
Lastly, the social interaction element involves the means of communication within a firm. For instance, the language of communication and communication methods within an organisation constitute social interaction as an element of organisational culture.
Culture brings people together. The concept of corporate culture drives employees in an organisation towards achieving a common goal, hence making them develop a sense of unified responsibility.
As an initiator of unity, culture helps in developing consensus between employees and the management. For example, organisations can conduct training for their employees in order to inculcate the corporate culture in employees.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Problems in Implementing a New Project by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In this aspect, all stakeholders within the organisation strive to work towards achieving the centralised goals. The whole concept of culture within an organisation brings out the image of a firm that the management would like to project (Watad 3).
It remains the role of the HR executive to design ethical organisational behaviours so that employees be able to reinforce the whole system in unison.
It becomes difficult to reshape an organisational culture where unethical practices are manifested at the topic as compared to one, which manifests from the bottom. Clearly, implementing new projects in an organisation that has morally upright executives is quite easy.
The HR should also foster good working relationship and ethical culture within the organisation. Project managers have to make employees and the entire management think differently in order to see the need for such cultural changes.
Organisational and Individual-Level Resistance Since stakeholders cannot have the same perception on the impacts of a project in the organisation, managers have to instil changes in mind-set to the rest of the team. Currently, organisations are experiencing numerous changes in their systems of management and operation.
Resistance within organisations can transpire in three different forms that are at the organisation, group and individual levels. If a project is meant to benefit one department within the firm, resistance can arise in a form of power and control.
The process can create conflict among departments in a firm, as some may feel disadvantaged even after being involved in the entire process of project initiation, implementation and evaluation (Kilicoglu and Yilmaz 15).
At the same time, constant technological updates and demographic characters force organisations to manage change and resultant resistance in order to survive. Organisational-level resistance can also emanate from differences in functional orientation given that departments can view changes within the organisation differently, thus having difficulties in arriving at an irrefutable agreement.
In addition, changes that occur during implementation of a project can alter the norms and values within an organisation. Some corporations have conservatism nature in their cultures, hence focusing less on change as attempts to do it may affect others (Watad 8).
In this aspect, resistance to the changes can arise from the organisation, as the process attempts to disrupt organisational culture.
Simultaneously, cultures that support implementation of new projects can accept lucrative projects, and end up having minimal or no positive effects on the operation system of an organisation if they lack adequate skills and resources to see the project through the phases.
Identifying, planning and financing projects require potential funding backed by necessary skills. In the identification stage, the innovative team identifies ideas that work and those that do not in order to avoid failure during introduction in the market.
This process requires designing of exit strategies to help in conducting viability assessment on potential projects during the early stages.
Group-Level Resistance Employees can also have resistance at group level if they expect the change to interfere with the group cohesiveness and norms. According to Kilicoglu and Yilmaz, changes that tend to alter interactions between groups owing to changes in tasks are likely to receive mass resistance (18).
Moreover, an employee may resist implementation of a project if he/she is uncertain of his/her job security after the changes. Therefore, fear of the unknown can make workforces become resistant to any change that may take place within the company.
In addition, an employee’s economic concern can result in resistance to a project that may reduce the management cost for a firm.
For instance, introducing technological applications within a firm can lower the income level of employees or result in lay-offs. From this dimension, an employee will oppose out-rightly projects that tend to automate services within a company.
Remedies to Resistance Education
Practical in-house training instil required skills into workforce, thus eliminating instances of inadequate knowledge and information management. In project implementation processes, there are instances of lack of training and communication among all stakeholders.
This mostly occurs when there is no training or the training failed to touch on the significance of information flow among stakeholders (Macdonald 16).
The lessons should capture the communication chain and process so that stakeholders understand the formal process of reporting findings. Such seminars create strong awareness among the executives, thus increasing tolerance of uncertainty in introducing new ideas.
In implementing IT innovations within organisations, uncertainty is always predominant. Therefore, managers are to handle external pressures by creating technology awareness in the firm (Austin and Claassen 22).
This move helps in building consensus in a team, as learning is an inclusive affair. Commitment by the executive is vital in implementing IT-enabled innovations given that the management can influence employees’ attitudes to a given project.
Consequently, training can be a great investment in a firm if the facilitators have expansive knowledge in the field where they are conducting the exercise. The organisation had to put into consideration the different dimensions of training apart from just conducting the training.
There should be a need to achieve competitive advantage over other firms after the training period. Through this process, the organisation can generate new knowledge that can have immense impacts on their operations.
Communication and organisational learning
The inclusion of ICT in this process advances the whole process and increases the adaptation of organisation to the rapidly changing environment. Notably, thorough quality analysis enriches an organisation’s strategic planning.
Moreover, ICT can increase communication between the line staff and managerial of a company, thus enhancing greater employee involvement in decision-making processes.
Companies that inculcate regular training sessions in their programmes, find it easy to introduce new changes in their systems, hence gaining competitive advantage over their competitors, which are adamant at introducing such training programmes (Austin and Claassen 27).
Therefore, organisational learning has a direct impact on competitive advantage of an organisation. Firms that constantly engage their employees in training, seminars, and workshops realise massive growth. Businesses should be proactive and remain focused on achieving their strategic objectives.
As a result, such organisations must be open to learning new ideas to advance their knowledgebase. Obviously, organisational learning starts with individual learning that provides a favourable environment for general learning.
The development of knowledge foundation culminates into organisational learning (Collins 7). It is from this foundation that an organisation develops its competitive advantage.
In implementing IT projects, managers identify the nature of interactions that affect the process and impact the effectiveness of the innovation. The framework identifies threats, weaknesses, and opportunities of an innovation project (Bhatti par. 1).
Staff can demonstrate resistance to change passively, actively or aggressively. Resistance from stakeholders can be the threat, while weaknesses can be lack of awareness among stakeholders in supporting the project.
Strengths can be the trainable workforce that only requires well-planned training content on the essence of adopting new ideas. Opportunities can be the inputs and outputs or results that come after implementing the project.
In a passive resistance, employees may accept supporting the implementation process of a project, but end-up not doing so, while active resistance involves blatant actions like engaging in strikes and absenteeism.
The above framework sets a clear path for implementing new projects with minimal resistance from stakeholders given the inclusion of their thoughts and ideas in the whole process.
In addressing resistance to change in an organisation, innovation management becomes necessary for instilling the essence of implementation into the new project in employees and other stakeholders.
Management can employ numerous actions to minimise resistance that may cause insecurity and uncertainty. Education and communication are the aspects that firms can use to communicate with employees in order to enable them to see the sense in implementing a new project.
Resistance that can emanate from groups that supervise substantial amount of resources in a firm is likely not to occur, as their contention with the situations will not be logical in comparison to the new changes.
Communication is essential within a firm, and resistance can even become stronger due to poor communication among stakeholders.
In resolving this challenge, innovation management comes into practice to alter a group’s threat perception of new changes within the firm (Austin and Claassen 29).
Besides, management-employee relations must be based on mutual trust so that there is minimal resistance at the project implementation stage.
Involving all stakeholders in the change process helps in overcoming resistance that can be detrimental to achievement of an organisation’s goals and objectives since it is less likely for individuals to oppose implementation of the decision that they supported.
The stage of making decision requires creativity and innovation to address issues raised by those opposed to the change.
Even though the process consumes a lot of time, inclusive decision-making encompasses the ideas of all stakeholders and, consequently, results in successful implementation of a project.
Employee cancelling and therapy helps in facilitating adjustment among stakeholders on the new project. If resistance emanates from an extremely powerful source, negotiation becomes the best tactic to handle the situation.
Information and knowledge management Information and knowledge management is critical in influencing thoughts and perceptions of organisational members. Introducing new IT system requires strong organisational learning process.
Organisational learning is a process where an organisation creates a favourable environment within its premises to enhance knowledge, improve standards and efficiency by making use of its employees (Macdonald 17).
KM sets a platform that helps in reducing resistance to new projects since employees and other stakeholders will be aware of the impacts of such ideas. Even though some projects may come with limitations, employees will accept them given the varied benefits that accompany the projects.
With constant market dynamism and introduction of new technological advancements, it is critical for organisations to ensure that their employees are updated on these changes.
Moreover, firms can develop a well-organised knowledge network and relation to understand the continuously changing economy. Knowledge management, therefore, is essential in offering organisations with potential or capability to grow and expand their operations.
This will come with speedy response and increased profitability. According to Watad’s research, businesses that have well-organised and managed data improve customer satisfaction and minimise IT costs, thus increasing revenue and improving operational efficiency (7).
This enables organisations to serve their clients better and retain most of them. Consequently, stakeholders will support the implementation of a new project that tends to address clients’ needs and increase customers’ satisfaction.
KM helps in adding value to information that a firm already holds and influence human resource to enhance performance in the organisation. Knowledge acquisition reduces organisational resistance as it ensures efficiency in using resources and effectiveness of a firm.
In setting up a platform that is ready to accept new ideas, firms must be able to create and apply new knowledge in order to bring new ways of behaving in the organisation.
For instance, in implementing IT in an organisation, managers have to educate employees on the importance of tools like e-mails, bulletin boards, and video conferences.
In IT-enabled innovations, system thinking coupled with information and knowledge management put a company above others when implementing such projects. Tacit Knowledge (TK) is crucial in a workplace since it promotes sharing of ideas among stakeholders.
With the current employee diversity in terms of demographics, sharing of information is essential in creating awareness on the need to inculcate recent technological developments in the management process (Macdonald 20).
Organisations with strong KM experiences less resistance in case they introduce and implement a project.
Content of the Learning Sessions The process of educating or training stakeholders as a way of altering the culture of an organisation to accept implementation of a project should take place in a well-coordinated manner in order to facilitate successful delivery of innovation management outcomes.
The plan should capture the cultural issues of an organisation, as this helps capture the true picture of the resistance. Afterwards, employees will join the change process with less or no resistance.
When a training process analyses the historical aspects of a firm, the delivered content does not become subjective in criticising the culture of the organisation, but objective on the content.
In addition, understanding the opinions employees hold helps in applying an inclusive learning approach that easily alters the perceptions of employees on change and innovation processes.
Training makes employees become diverse in their thinking instead of having fixed minds on the given issues.
Resistance to changes or implementation of new ideas reduces if an organisation hires a flexible management team, which reciprocates by instilling the spirit of dynamism and flexibility in employees.
The training process develops a framework that makes an organisation ready to implement a new programme at any time.
Research and Development Companies that set a culture of dynamism are less likely to meet resistance during project implementation phase (Anderson 6). As a result, organisations are to promote research and development as it sets a learning culture within the firm.
Such firms are always ready for any change, and, in the process, make employees receive and implement new ideas. Therefore, research and development play a significant role in facilitating implementation of innovative concepts.
Companies that do not invest in research and development rely on new ideas that their competitors discover. In the end, they lose competitive advantage among their competitors in the market, given that they play catch-up tactics in the operations.
Research and development prepare organisation to accept and apply new ideas that can be beneficial to the market (Anderson 10).
From the aspect of research and development, managers have to work with all staff and the innovation team in identifying good ideas and developing products that will create positive impact on the entire market.
Proper coordination of each stage requires effective management in order to help a great idea reaches to increase its potential. The management process requires establishing policies and procedures that the innovative team follow during implementation of concepts.
Developing workable plans as well as implementation processes are crucial in realising success of a project.
Organisations should create innovation culture so that the environment and people can offer required foundation for occurrence of innovation. Innovative organisations have been able to sustain their innovation levels.
For instance, the Coca-Cola Company has enticed consumers by introducing the Coca Cola Free Style machine that helps consumers mix and produces its own beverage of different flavours (Bhatti par. 5).
This innovative idea has made it difficult for competitors like the Pepsi Company match the levels of this company. This strategy, coupled with the differentiation strategy, will continue making the company profitable even if several beverage companies enter the market.
Therefore, the management at the Coca-Cola Company has been able to instil innovative culture in the entire staff successfully, thus creating experiencing less resistance in implementing such new projects (Bhatti par. 7).
Conclusion and Recommendations Innovation management is necessary in successful implementation of key projects in all organisations. Due to rigid culture, challenges of organisational resistance can put a company at a disadvantaged position in the current global and dynamic market.
Dynamism within an organisation should start from the executive down to the employees, and not in the reverse manner.
This form of resistance has been a major challenge in most firms, given the differences in age between the ambitious young employees and the old senior management staffs who desire to maintain the status quo.
Corporations have been engaging in management overhaul to absorb pro-change executives. KM, organisational learning, and information management have been applicable in altering the cultures of most organisation and the mind-sets of many employees.
These approaches should encompass innovation management practices in their contents as well as the market dynamics that necessitate the need for new ideas, which can be of great help to organisation sustainability.
Even though the discussed measures cannot completely remove resistance to implementation of projects, they assist in creating stakeholders’ awareness, which is extremely vital in minimising huge resistance.
In addition, these programmes ought to inculcate the view of a global market in their analysis as a way of minimising resistance that can emanate from stakeholders.
Works Cited Anderson, Donald. Cases and Exercises in Organization Development
Monetary Policy and Impact on Economic Stabilization Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Introduction Countries, like businesses, control their economic positions to maintain a healthy economic stance regarding their financial resources.
Often, the nations establish their respective central banks that act as the finance department in the country to regulate both the money, as well as the credit system.
The central banks use varied policy tools, including bank reserves, federal funds market, open market operations, discount rates, and foreign currency operations, to achieve their objectives of maximum employment and stable price levels, among other goals (Rose
Alternative Energy Sources for Saving Planet Research Paper essay help site:edu
Table of Contents Introduction
Understanding the issue of alternative energy
Pros and cons of alternative energy
The present and future of nuclear energy
Introduction The heated debate about the dangerous effects that come from the continued use of fossil fuels as the main sources of energy has resulted in a number of recommendations (Kowalski 5). Among the recommendations is the suggestion for other sources of energy, instead of the fossil fuels.
These are known as alternative energy sources. As of today, a lot of resources are being diverted to projects and programs that aim at popularizing alternative energy sources not only at household level, but also at the industrial level.
However, the most important question when it comes to the different forms of renewable energy that have been devised concerns the sustainability of these forms of energy in terms of the quantity and minimal impacts on the environment.
This paper argues that the alternative forms of energy seem not to offer a perfect solution to the demands of energy in the contemporary world. The paper explores alternative energy.
It also focuses on the pros and cons, as well as the contemporary and future developments concerning the subject of alternative energy.
Understanding the issue of alternative energy It is common to hear a lot of people mention the topic of alternative energy when it comes to the issue of sustainable development. Alternative energy sources are sources of energy that are different from fossil fuels. For a long time, fossil fuels have been highly deployed in the production of energy.
However, concerns have been raised about the level of pollution in the environment that is caused by the increased emission of greenhouse gases, like carbon dioxide, which harm the environment. Greenhouse gases are broadly classified into two.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More These are chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (Metz 165). A larger percentage of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are emitted from the burning of fossil fuels.
It is important to note that the subject of sustainable development brings into picture the realities about the dangers of continued use of non-renewable forms of energy, the most common being fossil fuels.
Therefore, most people agree with the argument that it is important to tap energy from alternative sources. Different from the non-renewable forms of energy, most of the alternative sources of energy are renewable. This is an aspect that embraces sustainability.
Common alternative energy sources include hydroelectric energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, wind energy, biomass energy, and nuclear energy.
However, Hore-Lacy and Hore-Lacy (7) observe that there is a volatile discussion about the efficient development and use of nuclear energy to generate power. The debate emanates from the politicisation of nuclear energy.
Research shows that billions of dollars have already been pumped into different projects as part of the global initiative of minimizing the use of non-renewable forms of energy, while ensuring that the energy production meets the energy demand.
In this sense, it is important to mention that the index of industrial growth globally is quite high. This indicates the increased demand for energy.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Alternative Energy Sources for Saving Planet specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, the most critical question that needs to be answered at this juncture concerns the ability of people to balance between reduction in the consumption of non-renewable energy and the introduction and use of alternative energy (Ravilious 21).
Pros and cons of alternative energy As observed earlier, alternative energy is the form of energy that is free from the substances that pollute the environment. More often than not, people refer to the substances as greenhouse gases.
These gases that originate from the non-renewable forms of energy are responsible for the pollution of the environment. They include carbon dioxide, chlorinated fluorocarbons, nitrogen dioxide, methane, and sulphur hexafluoride.
One of the advantages of alternative energy is that it is clean because it does not release the pollutant gases into the environment.
The use of alternative forms of energy as opposed to the use of non-renewable energy results in a significant reduction in the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Balat and Kırtay (7146) observe that the gasification of biomass offers an efficient and economic alternative route to the production of one of the most desirable energy; that is, renewable hydrogen.
Levin (50) observes that one of the advantages of most forms of alternative energy is that they can be recycled. Therefore, it is possible to continue getting significant amounts of energy from the same sources when funding is adequate.
The issue of recycling is important now that a lot of environmentalists show concern about the issue of the depletion of natural resources. This goes hand in hand with the issue of cost.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Alternative Energy Sources for Saving Planet by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More From the outset of things, the costs of establishing alternative energy systems may be high, but the benefits are worthwhile in the long run.
While alternative energy generation receives a lot of support from stakeholders across the board, fears and concerns are also raised about the possible risks associated with different forms of alternative energy.
Moura, Barbosa, and Costa (33) ascertain that there are a number of hazards that are associated with the wind turbines that are used to generate wind energy. It is, therefore, important to observe that the continuous supply of most of the alternative forms of energy depends on nature.
Examples are the wind, hydro-generated electricity, and solar energy.
Picturing this from the perspective of demand and supply of energy, most commentators argue that alternative energy only serves the role of supplementing the non-renewable forms of energy because the quantities of energy generated based on the changes in nature cannot sustain the energy demand.
This means that some forms of alternative energy can only be produced in certain regions where the natural conditions are favourable (Belsie 1).
According to Yuanan and Hefa (3044-3045), alternative forms of energy require people who desire to use them to acquire high levels of technical knowledge, as well as the development of technical systems that support the functioning of the systems.
Taking the example of solar, biomass, and nuclear energy, nuclear plants and solar energy panels have to be in place for the energy to be generated.
It is quite expensive to set up and maintain nuclear plants because it requires a high level of technical competence to manage the plants effectively.
Moreover, such a form of energy is potentially hazardous in case of internally and externally derived risks and uncertainties (Yılmaz and Selim 420-421).
The present and future of nuclear energy It is apparent that zeroing down the production of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere requires an increase in the development and deployment of alternative forms of energy.
However, a lot of developments that happen in the energy industry point to the lack of complete objectivity when it comes to the exploitation of alternative energy sources.
One of the issues that come up here is that the nuclear energy, which is a non-renewable energy source and has the potential of boosting the supply of energy, is subjected to debate.
It is critical to observe that most of the issues raised about the development and use of nuclear energy as an alternative energy form are hefty.
While nuclear energy is the best option in terms of the supply of a large number of alternative energy units, such energy can be equally lethal to the living creatures when it comes to managing the production of the energy (Schiffman 360).
Quatro and Sims (169) note that the use of nuclear energy presents an ethical dilemma that revolves around the possible commercialization of nuclear energy and the dangers that are associated with poor handling and use of this form of energy.
It can be argued that that the fears over the authorization of the development and use of this form of energy are justifiable in the sense that this nuclear energy has proven to be harmful if not handled cautiously.
Examples include the Chernobyl disaster and the recent earthquake in Japan that saw the discharge of radioactive substances into the atmosphere, thereby posing a danger to life. The technical aspects of handling nuclear energy are real.
These aspects are likely to dominate the issue of alternative energy as governments continue to seek for means of increasing the consumption of alternative energy and reducing the consumption of forms of energy that are non-renewable (“Government and Nuclear Energy” 65).
In their research on the future of nuclear energy, Elena et al. (61) observed that there is a need to deliberate on the possibility of reducing the health impacts of nuclear energy. Most of the health concerns revolve around the release of radioactive substances that harm life.
However, this possibility can only become a reality if all the players embrace objectivity. This means that the debate on nuclear energy should focus on the enhancement of the capacity of nations to develop and use nuclear power.
It is possible to boost the supply of alternative energy supply through supporting other countries to develop their potential to generate large volumes of nuclear energy (Araj, Fahmy and Sompon 14-15).
It can be noted that the demand for oil, which is the leading source of energy, continues to rise even as people focus on alternative energy.
However, most countries continue to embrace diversity in terms of sustainable energy supply, a factor that points to the continued development of alternative energy generation. Here, two questions come into the minds of environmental commentators.
The first question concerns the availability of oil, while the second question revolves around the ease of use and cost of oil (Maczulak 5-6). It is obvious that the demand for energy continues to rise as industrial development and the consumerism culture continue to dominate the globe.
The implication here is that the new forms of energy cannot help in meeting the demand for energy (Belsie 1). Moreover, alternative energy sources are not readily available and accessible to people.
This leaves people with the option of non-renewable forms of energy that are readily available, even though they are expensive and destructive to the environment in the long run (de Oliveira, Carlos and Devezas 764).
Another critical thing that is bound to dominate the subject of alternative energy is the possibility of minimizing the risks that are associated with the development and use of these energy forms (Moura, Barbosa, and Costa 34).
Conclusion From the research conducted in the paper, it can be concluded that most people agree with the fact that alternative energy is desirable in combating environmental pollution.
However, it is apparent that the amount of such energy is still far much low in the contemporary economy due to the challenges that are associated with the production and use of large volumes of alternative energy.
Future research needs to focus on the modalities of subsidising alternative energy production to increase the volumes of such energy, thereby replacing non-renewable energy.
Works Cited Araj, Kamal J., Nabil Fahmy, and Chongkum Sompon. “Why Go Nuclear?” Bulletin of The Atomic Scientists 64.4 (2008): 14-19. Print.
Balat, Havva, and Elif Kırtay. “Hydrogen From Biomass – Present Scenario And Future Prospects.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 35.14 (2010): 7416-7426. Print.
Belsie, Laurent. “Is The Boom Over For Alternative Energy — Or Just Getting Started?” Christian Science Monitor 14 Apr. 2008: 13 . Web.
de Oliveira Matias, João Carlos, and Tessaleno Campos Devezas. “Consumption Dynamics Of Primary-Energy Sources: The Century Of Alternative Energies.” Applied Energy 84.7/8 (2007): 763-770. Print.
Elena, Bobric, Bucur Cristina, Popescu Ion and Simionov Vasile. “Nuclear Power Generation Alternative For A Clean Energy Future.” Progress Of Cryogenics
Supporting Learning and Leadership with Technology Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help
The world has come to embrace technology, and learning institutions are currently finding it very important to use this technology to support learning and leadership.
For this reason, many learning institutions have been making an effort to integrate the use of technology into their system (Spiro, 2011). This research seeks to redesign the approach that can be taken in implementing technology in learning and leadership process in a school setting.
The focus is on a higher learning institution with a school of computing and informatics.
The school has an intake of about 60-80 students per year, and as the head of ICT department, I have the responsibility of ensuring that this institution develops an appropriate program that can be used to support learning and leadership with the use of technology.
Given the fact that the school has about twenty teachers, and six technologists, it is in a prime position to implement this strategy.
The Instructional Design Principle that would be used in this case is based on ADDIE Model. The choice of this model is based on its popularity in this field, and ease of implementation.
The first stage when using this theory is to analyze the needs. This would involve determination of current organizational needs at this institution and performance gaps (Barone
Public administration in theory Essay (Critical Writing) college essay help: college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction The late 1990s and early 2000s are characterized by attention to holistic approach. Public administration theorists noted that it was crucial to analyze a variety of aspects to be able to come up with effective strategies to make the government effective.
Notably, lots of theorists provided specific strategies which could be employed by politicians and public administrators as well as educators. It is possible to single out two major directions theorists moved, i.e. ethics and structural improvements.
Ethics In the first place, it is necessary to note that the majority of theorists addressed issues related to ethics, but some of them paid special attention to this aspect.
For instance, Lewis stressed that unethical behavior among public administrators will increase in the future due to creation of new groups with certain interests (Shafritz
The Effect of Technological Advancements of Management Practices Proposal best essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Contributions of Don Tapscott to Manufacturing Productivity
Literature Review of Published Work by Don Tapscott
Introduction Technology and innovation are two hybrid components, which while embraced by manufacturing firms, can help to drive their productivity. Fundamentally, innovation means the introduction of something new, especially in a business setting. Innovation takes place when “new products or services are introduced and successfully commercialised” (Tidd
Rural–urban migration and youth in Bhutan Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Background: Rural-urban migration and youth in Bhutan Rural-urban migration is a universal concern across the globe. Just like other nations, Bhutan is experiencing mass movement of people, especially youths from rural to urban areas. The bulk of Bhutan’s population is composed of the youth. Actually, more than half of Bhutan population is aged below 25 years.
Due to the increasing youth population, the government faces a challenge of ensuring equilibrium between contemporary beliefs and modernity. Bhutan is experiencing massive changes in its personnel due to rural-urban migration. In addition, the mass movement of people to urban areas has led to unemployment and poverty in urban centers.
According to the 2012 labor survey, over 0.7% of the rural populace migrated to towns. Further, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization showed that about 33% of Bhutan populace is in deficiency of food safety. The poverty analysis report (2007) exhibited that approximately one-third of the rural populace is poor compared to 2% in the urban areas.
Over the last fifty years, Bhutan has experienced rapid growth of its urban areas due to mass movement of populace from the countryside to urban areas. This trend is a major public concern to the state and the government has experienced a number of obstacles in tackling the challenge of rural-urban migration (Rinzin et al., 2005). A number of factors have been proposed in explaining the trend (Yeung, 2005).
Bhutan’s urban populace augments at a yearly rate of 6.5 percent. The prolonged rural-urban inclination is expected to grow four-fold in the coming twenty years, among which a significant proportion are youth. Studies contend that increased need for education by youth has been a significant factor in influencing the movement of people to towns as well as the growth of urban settlements within Bhutan (Kasarda, 2001).
Rural-urban migration has affected negatively on the development of the rural economy. For instance, a number of youths who migrate to urban centers deprive the rural economy of productive labor that is a significant factor of production leading low agricultural performance and high production costs (Kasarda, 2001).
The movement of youths to towns can also be attributed to Bhutan landscape that ranges from subtropical plains to sub-alpine Himalayan Mountains as well as rugged geographical terrains making farming difficult.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the Human Development Report (2009), Bhutan accounts for the highest rate of rural-urban migration in South Asia. The government acknowledged the positive impact of the trend since it alleviated the pressure on agricultural land that only composes approximately 9% of nation’s overall area.
However, with steady increase in rural-urban migration over the last fifty years, diverse views have been devised to address the issue. For instance, mitigation of rural-urban migration involves the investment of explicit initiatives such as linking rural development with tourism as well as encouraging youths to go back to the villages and help in the transformation of the economic landscape through farming.
The National Statistical Bureau Report (2005) showed that majority of youths migrate to urban centers to pursue employment prospects as well as better education. Further, the increased inclination of the youth towards moving to urban areas arises from the challenges that the youth face in rural areas such as poor health facilities, unemployment, poor living standards as well as poor lifestyles (Kasarda, 2001).
However, in moving to cities, youth encounter a number of challenges including discrimination, unwelcoming communities, financial deficiencies, lack of parental guidance and harassment. According to Zurick (2006), sexual exploitation, as well as emotional and psychological trauma, poses serious concerns for the youth.
Factors for rural-urban migration in Bhutan Education
The need for education by the youth has been identified as a major concern contributing to mass rural-urban migration in Bhutan. Due to an inadequate number of secondary and tertiary institutions in rural areas, a large population of youth move to urban centers to pursue educational needs (Frame, 2005).
In essence, education is significant in the acquisition of skills and training that provide a path for the youth to develop their skills leading to securing of jobs in the industries and factories. In fact, a number of youths in the urban vicinities of Bhutan attend training school offering computer, technology and construction courses, thereby increasing their chances of being employed.
Lack of social amenities and facilities in the village
Yeung (2005) asserts that the pace of rural-urban migration in Bhutan is a serious anxiety for the government, owing to its implication on the socio-economic aspects. Several factors play significant roles in encouraging mass movement of populace to urban centers.
We will write a custom Essay on Rural–urban migration and youth in Bhutan specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Firstly, developments experienced in infrastructure in terms of hospitals, housing, road connectivity and transportation facilities continue to encourage mass movement of populace from rural to urban areas (Radcliffe, 2006). In fact, the UNDP’s human development report (2009) found Bhutan forms the bulk of annual rate of urban migration in South Asia at above five percent.
Family issues have been a major factor contributing to rural-urban migration. For instance, families move to cities due to job transfers. In addition, marriages in cities have influenced urban migration. Moreover, relocation desires by family members to settle in urban areas to escape monotony and poverty has shown an increasing trend over the recent past (Radcliffe, 2006).
Poverty is a major concern for the general Bhutan population accounting for over thirty percent. Over ninety percent of the population in Bhutan resides in the rural areas.
Further, the country’s topography is mainly composed of mountains and valleys, which constrain the prospects of producing food as well as the generation of cash proceeds. Moreover, the rugged terrain leads to deficiency in accessing good quality land resources and diminishes the prospective irrigation facilities (Radcliffe, 2006).
In addition, the rural populace is faced with scarce external inputs and services together with low farm expertise. Therefore, many people have no option but to move to urban areas to search for better livelihoods. Further, Bhutan is characterized with natural catastrophes, including landslides that increase the cost of goods.
Employment prospects and new experiences
Since the bulk of jobs in the rural vicinities of Bhutan are majorly agricultural-oriented, many youths are moving to the cities in search of white-collar jobs. As such, farming activities in the rural neighborhoods compel the youth and other members of the society to move to urban areas in search for employment prospects (Rinzin et al., 2005).
Moreover, a number of people move to towns to fulfill their spirits of adventure and experiences. Through migrating to the urban locations, the people are presented with diverse prospects of arts, living standards, foods as well as leisure activities.
The high population in the rural areas is a major aspect contributing to rural-urban migration. The large percentage of youth (15-24) in Bhutan accounting for over 22% continues to rise steadily. The implications of the rise in the rural areas include poor provision of education services, poor health amenities and unemployment (Frame, 2005).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Rural–urban migration and youth in Bhutan by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The factors put pressure on the youth to move to urban centers to look for better services. Further, the increase in the rural youth population increases the pressure on the need to acquire secondary and tertiary levels of education.
However, the pressure results in deficiency of space as well as teachers prompting many people to move to urban vicinities to gain education services.
Impacts of rural-urban migration in Bhutan Swelling of urban populace
A larger percentage of Bhutan population resides in the rural vicinities accounting for approximately seventy percent. However, over the recent past, the tempo of urbanization has been alarming.
According to the Bhutan Nation Urbanization Strategy 2008, the urban populace has significantly increased over the last decade (1994-2005) by over 100%. The increase in the urban population presents twice the growth of the national population experienced in the same decade (Rizal, 2002).
The rapid growth of population in urban areas comes with its disadvantages. For instance, the unprecedented growth strains the exploitation of the urban services leading to propagation of shanties, inadequate medical facilities, and inadequate drinking water.
Further, the increasing urban population, rates of unemployment, environmental problems including and poor sewerage systems are common in the cities of Thimphu and Phuentsholing.
Land dilapidation and pollution
Bhutan continues to face a serious concern of land dilapidation resulting from human activities as well as innate occurrences such as landslides and floods. In fact, the increasing youth population in the urban centers in search of employment prospects in the industries wields pressure on the ecological and the innate resources in the town vicinities.
For instance, there has been escalating encroachment to forestlands as the populace numbers swell in towns leading to internal biophysical and chemical corrosion (Potter et al., 2004). Further, the increasing populace of the youth in the urban neighborhoods contributes to the emergence of new industries. The industries, in turn, release dangerous emissions into the atmosphere, posing dangerous health concerns to the urban society.
Actually, Bhutan cities continue to record an augmenting inclination of respiratory ailments among its urban populace. Further, the escalation of land fragmentation has increased the deficiency of economies of scales among the youth, thereby blighting their prospects of attaining self-reliance.
Increasing health concerns and social crimes among the youth
The prevalence of early marriages, teenage pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted diseases have been on the increase among the youth in urban cities (Kasarda, 2001). Most importantly, increasing trends in HIV/AIDS infection prevalence have been realized over the past among the youth in Bhutan towns.
Further, due to the increase in the dominance of the HIV/AIDS scourge in the international arena and the neighboring states of Bhutan, the predominance of the virus is expected to increase. Moreover, the increasing rates of unemployment in the urban centers has prompted a number of youths to engage in acts of prostitution thereby posing their lives to the danger of acquiring HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.
Increased cases of substance abuse by the youth in the urban vicinities of Bhutan also contribute to the predominance of the malady.
For example, the statistical yearbook 2007 reported that crime occurrences related to drugs and narcotics tripled within four years jumping from twenty cases in the year two thousand and one to sixty-five cases in the year two thousand and five. Additionally, unsafe abortions have been on the rise among the urban youths leading higher maternal deaths.
Increasing unemployment rates among the youth in urban centers
Unemployment levels have been on the increase within the urban vicinities of Bhutan. In other words, the large number of people from the villages has created pressure on the available job prospects, waste disposal systems, as well as housing (Zurick, 2006). As a result, many people compete for the inadequate number of jobs rendering a higher percentage of the populace unemployed.
Government initiatives to curb rural-urban migration The royal government of Bhutan has made remarkable steps to counter the menace of rural-urban migration. First, the government recognizes the constrictions that the increasing urban populaces pose to the resource limits in the towns.
To stem out the increasing rate of rural-urban migration, the production-access-market policy has played significant role in improving living standards within the countryside neighborhoods (Rizal, 2002). In essence, the policy tries to get better rural education systems as well as introduction of market-receptive crops.
Additionally, the initiative aims at improving the access to local road networks, thereby enhancing living standards and retention of larger proportion of populace in the rural areas. Improving the education facilities in the local areas prevents many youths from moving to urban centers since education is the major factor contributing to rural-urban migration among the youth.
The policy also attempts to eliminate factors that encourage movement of families into urban areas through promoting the development of urban centers in vicinities with large number of people as well as commercially feasible areas (Frame, 2005). Further, the government has made tremendous steps in expanding and relocating the rural neighborhoods into new local towns, thereby absorbing the large populace moving to towns.
For instance, the development of Khuruthang town, a commercial and education hub is a success of the initiative. In fact, the center has been significant in absorbing migrants from rural vicinities (Frame, 2005).
Bhutan’s national urbanization strategy has also been invaluable in stemming out the increasing number of youths in urban areas. The policy focuses on improving the well-being of poor rural populace as well as maintaining the sustainability of the ecology.
Further, through the construction of roads in different parts of the country, linkages between different areas of Bhutan have been efficient leading to development of new urban centers (Frame, 2005).
The government has increased awareness among the members of the public on the effects of population growth. Actually, the government has disseminated data related to population growth implications to the citizens through publications as well as electronic media channels.
In addition, the government has increased its focus on the provision of accessible education services and reproductive health services to the youth in both urban and rural vicinities preventing mass movements to urban areas (Frame, 2005).
The creation of an enabling environment where the rural populaces have access to financial and investment opportunities has proven invaluable in containing rural-urban migration. In fact, there have been increased systems that have tremendously expanded employment and benefits to the rural fraternity slowing down the rate of rural-urban migration.
The dynamism experienced in the global fraternity has forced the government to provide solutions to the problems affecting youths and keep them posted on the contemporary issues in the society. A large proportion of Bhutan youths abuse drugs such as marijuana and inhalants as well as alcohol.
The porous frontier of India and Bhutan has increased rates of drug trafficking among youths. The government is addressing the concern of drug abuse through the establishment of treatment and rehabilitation centers. For instance, the youth development fund supports several one drop-in centers.
Education is a major aspect influencing the migration of youth to urban centers. The Bhutanese government is tackling this concern through a number of initiatives. For instance, the government is posting more graduates in the rural education facilities. Further, the government also encourages the media coverage on challenges experienced in urban areas to bring out clearly the real picture of turban environment.
The escalating joblessness in urban centers has occasioned a number of youths to engage in petty crimes and prostitution. However, the Bhutan Foundation has played major roles in countering such concerns. The foundation engages the youth through offering scholarships and education prospects, promotion of sports, music and arts as well as employment opportunities.
The royal government of Bhutan also continues to focus on improving vocational education among the youth in the rural areas through expansion of science, information technology as well as crafts (Rinzin et al., 2005). In addition, strengthening of the training institutions’ capacities in the rural population has proven significant in the prevention of further migrations to the urban centers.
Unemployment among the youth has been found to be one of the major factors contributing to rural-urban migration (Rinzin et al., 2005). As such, the government has focused on a number of initiatives to reduce unemployment as a way of curbing rural-urban movement. For instance, the government is diversifying job prospects across the country.
The development of coordinated and planned urban expansion systems that are equivalent to the rate of migration has been invaluable (Rinzin et al., 2005). Further, the government has been encouraging regional equality through provision of quality services and employment prospects across the country.
Through the establishment of the rural livelihoods funds, the government has been able to mitigate rural-urban migration by initiating programs that improve rural revenue and livelihoods through agricultural development (Frame, 2005).
In fact, the program has realized massive achievements concerning poverty alleviation through the construction of revenue-generating enterprises in the rural areas such as Lamtang and Pam-Chaibi, among others.
References Frame, B. 2005. “Bhutan: a review of its approach to sustainable development,” Development Practice, vol.15 no.2, pp.216-221.
Kasarda, JD 2001, “Third world urbanization: dimensions, theories, and determinants,” Annual Review of Sociology, vol.17 no.3, pp.467-501.
Potter, RT, Elliott, BJ
The Boston Beer Company Case Study cheap essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Samuel Adams – the Boston Beer Company
Structure and Control System of Samuel Adams
Introduction The case study on Samuel Adams, the Boston Beer Company, has been developed using information from the company’s annual reports, the website, and articles from mass media.
The case presents a background of the company, and then shows the present problems faced by the company and how they are related to the centralized hierarchical structure. Further, the case study will attempt to understand if such a structure is affecting the company’s performance and strategy.
Samuel Adams – the Boston Beer Company The company under consideration is one of the largest brewers of handcrafted beer in America . The founder of the company Jim Koch maintains the traditional method of brewing which makes the company distinct in style. It brews 30 different styles of beer and has won numerous prizes.
The beer brewing industry has undergone considerable changes over the last several years. The Boston Beer Company is a leader in the better beer segment in the US and sells almost 18 percent of the beer in the country’s field . It also covers 1.3 percent of the overall sales in the American beer market .
Since its inception in 1984 the Boston Beer Company has been micromanaged by the founder Jim Koch who went bar-to-bar to promote Samuel Adams beer as well as appear in TV ads for the product in order to convince customers to purchase it.
Though many believe that Koch was a brilliant marketer, but the fear of an entrepreneur to micro-manage the company was evident in the operations and the strategy making of Samuel Adams. However, the Boston Beer Company went public in 1995, but the top-down approach of making strategy in the company remained with Koch leading the centralized decision-making process.
The next section shows how the strategy has been affected by the structure and control system of the company. Further, an analysis of the income statement of the company over the last three years shows that the net income of the company has fallen from 2011 to 2012 from $66,059 to $59,467 .
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Structure and Control System of Samuel Adams The BBC breweries have around 900 employees in Boston, Pennsylvania, and Cincinnati. The risk the company faces presently is the expansion of the market both in domestic and international markets. This results in no assured growth of the company making its future uncertain.
In addition, the company has increased its brands and products offering at the risk of eroding the sales of its already existing products. There is also a risk of the company owned breweries not to meet production target in future. Such problems that are impending on the company show that there are certain inherent challenges within the company that must be addressed immediately to remove the coming risks .
The first factor that we will consider in analyzing the internal problem of the Boston Beer Company is its structure. The organization’s control system is unpredictable, which has affected its stock prices. The company endeavors to make substantial expenses in marketing and promotional activities to promote its brand.
However, these expenditures have not resulted in higher sales in case of BBC. The increased expenditure in this sector has led to higher expenditures but sales have not picked up as expected. This has adversely affected the income amounts of the company.
It should be noted that the Boston Beer Company changed its strategy since 2008. Before 2008, it had employed a production-oriented strategy, which included that the company owned breweries worked in close coordination with the third party breweries that worked for the company.
The arrangement with the third party brewers allowed the Boston Beer Company to utilize excess capacity that gave the company flexibility to maintain full control over the brewing process, which its competitors could not. Nevertheless, since 2008 the company has acquired all the other third party breweries, increasing the company owned breweries’ production from 35 percent to 100 percent of its sales.
Though the management believes that this increased control over the production process will give them an edge over their competitors, it should be considered that such production complexities has led to “operation inefficiencies and control deficiencies” .
We will write a custom Case Study on The Boston Beer Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such inefficiencies may have a negative effect on the company’s business. Moreover, this may affect the growth of the company and its performance as changes in its operations would lead to increased capital investments and increased complexities.
Another problem that the company faces is its dependence on distributors. Changes in the control of the company’s ownership in the distributorship network could hamper the distribution channel.
The CEO heads the company and the management include the CEO (Chief Executive Officer) and the CFO (Chief Financial Officer). The company structure of the executive body is presented below.
Figure 1: Structure Strategy, Structure and Control System
The structure and control system that the company utilizes to implement its strategy is highly centralized. The control system is becoming more and more centralized as the company has aimed at gaining complete control over all its breweries. This move is carried out by putting the production process under direct control of the CEO of the Boston Beer Company.
Further, the organization’s structure, as presented in Figure 1, shows that the CEO and the President of the company directly control the whole functioning process. The operations and the sales are under the supervision of the CEO and the CFO. Now, any of the operations of the breweries for any particular label are managed by the VP operations and the VP sales.
This demonstrates the degree of centralization in the operations and control of the company. Such increased supervision over the production and marketing processes is helpful when the company operates in a small market. However, when expansion is a strategy that the organization aims to employ, such a structure may become a hindrance.
It is caused by the fact that it operates on the basis of micromanagement, which is not possible in case of a larger company. Instead, it must be outlined that the company should operate with less centralization.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Boston Beer Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Hierarchical Structure The structure of the company is hierarchical in nature, which enables the company management to have close control over the financial and operational processes of the company. However, the centralized structure of the company deterred its operations. Further, the hierarchical structure prevented the Boston Beer Company from expanding its operations.
The control structure and centralized structure adversely affected the performance of the organization. Hence, it can be said that the company needs to decentralize its operations to help expand its operations scale and gain a greater market.
The Boston Beer Company not only continues to succeed in their niche market but also thrives as a miracle. The article drills into the industry and the company’s evolvement, and discovers the secrets that make the company sustainable in three aspects: culture revolution, marketplace innovation, and operational innovation.
Works Cited Coffey, Brendan. “How Boston Beer’s founder became a billionaire.” 16 September 2013. The Boston Globe. Web.
Samuel Adams. The Boston Bear Compny. 11 October 2013. Web.
The Beer Company. Annual Report 2012. 2012. Web.
US Securities and Exchange Commission. The Bostoon Beer Company FORM 10-K. 2012. Web.
Yahoo Finance. The Boston Beer Compnay. 2013. Web.