Current issues illustrate that project planning requires better cohesion, communication, and tools to execute an organization’s efficient operations. Because the manager cannot create a project strategy by filling templates, the organization requires more from their scheme than in prior circumstances, and the way to achieve a sharp end is to use lighter, faster, and newer methods. As such, this report aims to observe currently available literature and material regarding project planning methods and tools in order to ascertain whether they have desired or practical outcomes. This report emphasizes PRINCE2 and Agile project methodologies, including their principles, themes, processes, and project delivery. Project monitoring methodologies are crucial since they can strengthen a firm by allowing it to share information across departments in an essentially a space that allows for the efficient exchange of information and process details. The relationship between modern tools and devices that influence project planning and the desired organizational changes and outcomes will be analyzed.
PRINCE2 is a project management approach widely used in Europe, Australia, and the United Kingdom. “PRINCE2” means “Projects IN Controlled Environments” (Shaw, Hughes, and Greenhalgh, 2019). It focuses on monitoring resources and dangers by dividing the process into manageable stages, creating responsibility and authority, and using seven processes to lead the project lifespan cycle. Before beginning a project, PRINCE2 requires a defined methodology with an ordered and regulated project timeline (Islam and Evans, 2020). Seven PRINCE2 procedures are implemented to maintain control (Marnada et al., 2022). All procedures that compose a venture, from the start to the finishing point, are included in these processes.
Agile emphasizes shorter production cycles, many iterations, quality improvement, and the ability to make changes as the project progresses (Gheorghe, Gheorghe and Iatan, 2020). End-users actively improve the final product’s efficacy by providing input, which the development team evaluates. Finally, the success of an Agile technique is primarily judged by customer collaboration with the end product, which necessitates listening to clients and continuously developing software to meet their needs.
As a result, it can be deduced that PRINCE2 can be efficiently administered in an organization that requires several sequential steps within its operations. It provides a number of advantages, such as presenting theoretical risks and solutions to a variety of situations. Hypothetically, it could also be applied within a scenario in which tasks or resources must be delegated among a number of departments within a firm. On the other hand, Agile prioritizes the use of shorter production cycles which could theoretically benefit smaller firms that require frequent sales in order to maintain operations and profits. Similarly, smaller firms benefit from customer feedback as they are more reliant on a small but loyal client pool than larger firms.
Critical Evaluation of The PRINCE2 Principles, Themes, and Processes
The first principle, continued business justification, refers to evidence that suggests that further investment in the project offers business advantages. Second, the project must provide a learning experience. Third, roles and responsibilities should be strictly defined within the planning of the project. Fourth, complex tasks are divided into reasonable stages. Fifth, management involvement is limited to situations in which issues occur. Sixth, the focal point of the approach is the development of the product. Seventh, the approach may be scaled and fitted for the context and environment of the project. A number of evaluations can be drawn from these principles, including the importance of sustainability, allegiance to company values, and the foundation of frameworks for future operations and projects. The most critical elements, especially for larger firms that may be difficult to navigate, are likely the formulation of archetypes of future projects and the prioritization of sustainable endeavors.
PRINCE2 is a methodology that follows several stages that are planned. The business operations, risks, and project strategies are revised between stages. Acceptances are established for each venture’s aim, creating limits and describing how authority is distributed. If the lenience is surpassed, the administration team must deliberate if the acceptance should be reinterpreted. Deliverables must meet certain quality norms. The project environment tailors the scheme from start to end, including size, complication, reputation, time, and danger. PRINCE2 covers several themes, including business case, change, organization, risk, preparation, progress, and quality (Marnewick and Einhorn, 2019). As such, the project planning method provides a number of critical elements to firm operations, including risk mitigation, task and resource allocation, and appropriate goal-setting. These are the essential components as they dictate relationships between departments as well as among employees and allow for seamless exchanges of information, tasks, and resources throughout the company.
PRINCE2 project supervision methodology comprises seven processes that are involved in managing projects. PRINCE2 defines the project executive, project panel, and client roles (Naik and Jenkins, 2019). Project boards’ major processes are divided into four essential sections, including stage boundaries, initiation, the direction of Ad hoc, and project closure. However, directing projects does not cover the daily processes of project managers.
Starting a project is the first PRINCE2 process designed to gather the requirements needed to execute the project. The processes established in starting projects should be short (Akhmetshin et al., 2019). They should ensure the availability of data needed by project teams, appoint and design the project control crew, and establish an initiation phase plan. Managing stage limitations offer project boards the key decision facts on if to continue working on the project. Its objectives include assuring project boards that each planned deliverable is accomplished as defined and providing data required for project boards to examine the project viability (Akhmetshin et al., 2019). Recording any lessons or measurements which can aid later project phases is part of its objectives.
The controlling stage oversees the day-to-day running of a project. In every stage of a project, there is a cycle comprising commanding work that should be done, collecting information about the progress of a task, monitoring the changes, reviewing the conditions, reporting, and correcting arising errors. The controlling phase tackles all these tasks together with ongoing change control and risk management work (PRINCE2, 2022). The main goal of the handling product conveyance stage is to guarantee all deliberate products are made and distributed by ensuring efforts on products owed to teams are efficiently authorized and settled to check and accept work correspondences.
Most work in the closing stage entails preparing project committee inputs (PRINCE2, 2022). It further aims at preparing the project’s end report, confirming that the operation and maintenance of arrangements are in place and notifying the host organization of the plan to disband the project resources and organization. Within the circumstance of a more prominent firm implementing PRINCE2 methodologies, a number of process fragments stand out. Primarily, this includes the controlling stage, which emphasizes proper and efficient use of resources and the improved process of task completion to ensure desired production and distribution. This stage is essential as it is much more concise and developed than the initiating stage, which may vary from industry to industry and even from company to company.
Critical Evaluation of the Agile Principles, Themes, and Processes
The Agile methodology represents a working mindset and framework that aids in responding to changing client requirements. It emphasizes conveying value against the priorities of a project within the permitted time and budget, mainly when the urge to convey the project is higher than the involved risks. Agile has various principles, including customer collaboration and constant integration (Malik, Ahmad, and Hussain, 2019). One of the twelve Agile development principles is software delivery. Agile accepts modifications in requirements and regularly delivers by using software cycles and iterations as part of the project process. Agile maintains constant collaboration between stakeholders, supervisors, and team members throughout the project and motivates groups so that they are more likely to distribute their best effort than disgruntled teams.
Agile methodology guarantees improved communication through face-to-face communications, especially when squads are co-located. Occupied software is a crucial indicator of progress for the client as Agile maintains a steady advancement rate. Great design and attention to detail increase agility and ensure that teams improve the product and adapt to change (Hayat et al., 2019). By giving teams decision-making power, self-organization encourages people to take ownership, communicate consistently, and produce high-quality goods. Finally, Agile ensures project managers take time to reflect and make changes to increase the team’s performance and efficiency.
Businesses will not adjust to shifting situations if they rely heavily on machines and products. This value aims at providing developers with the tools they need to complete their tasks without being overburdened. Customers should be included in all process phases, whether internal or external, to ensure that the final product meets their needs. Adjusting to change following a plan is the final theme of the Agile methodology. Agile project management enables changes during the project’s life cycle (Filippetto, Lima, and Barbosa, 2021). Each sprint gives project managers the chance to ponder the previous one and make route adjustments.
Agile project management is a remarkable five-stage phenomenon: The first step is to visualize; the project’s vision is formed during the envisioning phase. It covers the What, Who, When, and How of the project’s completion. This phase focuses on the result and the scope of the project. Conjecture is the second phase. The next phase is speculation; this stage encourages brainstorming, collaboration, and creative thinking about the project’s future direction. Everyone involved in the project discusses what is feasible and what is not while leaving enough room for change if necessary. Process three, investigating, denotes the research phase’s only goal to supply project features (Hidalgo, 2019). This phase consists of three essential steps: managing workload, sticking to best professional practices, and risk management procedures to finish the task.
Adaptation is the fourth phase; during the adaptation phase of the project management lifecycle, changes, modifications, and adjustments are made. This stage compares the actual results to the projected results. More importantly, considering what needs to be improved and re-planning the approach for the next version is vital (Almadhoun and Hamdan, 2020, p. 1152). Completion is the final stage; everybody involved selects the project’s endpoint during this phase.
Critical Evaluation of Both Methodologies
Within specific industries, suppliers can use Agile approaches to produce working software where PRINCE2 is beneficial for a client to justify a project. PRINCE2 is a valuable management technique that focuses on the upper management levels (Islam and Evans, 2020, McGrath and Whitty, 2020). Overall, PRINCE2 is more likely to benefit larger firms and similar contexts that require efficient communication between departments to ensure a steady improvement in general operations. Agile is a better fit for firms that require stability and the completion of smaller work cycles or product creation and distribution due to its focus on short-term efficiency. Industries that consist of large firms, such as agriculture, technology, and vehicle production, may benefit from the methods of PRINCE2.
Meanwhile, markets that consist of smaller firms that provide unique products at high price points, such as health products, luxuries, or non-mass manufactured goods, will likely require Agile methodology. Similarly, projects that target larger scopes and may not be cyclical are likely to be better served by PRINCE2 methodologies. Ongoing and repetitive projects could implement the feedback and practical characteristics of the Agile methods. PRINCE2 methods can be found implemented in public sectors such as health organizations, police forces, or in industries concerned with widely sold and highly demanded products such as gas, oil, and construction (Raharjo and Purwandari, 2020). Agile project planning methods are not restricted by sectors but are usually components of large or middle-sized firms. They focus on innovative projects that require sustainable and emerging outcomes.
PRINCE2 demands a specified methodology and an organized and controlled project timeline before starting a project. Evidence of this can be seen in the sequence of stages that is provided by the methodology, which leans on values that consist of adhering to company morals and long-term operations. The project’s structure is maintained throughout its life cycle by breaking it down into logical parts. The Agile methodology handles software processes that emphasize continuous deployments and customer feedback at each iteration. Shorter production cycles, several iterations, quality enhancement, and the willingness to develop as the project goes are all hallmarks of Agile. As such, the findings implicate that smaller firms which require loyal client populations and frequent improvements are more likely to benefit from Agile methodologies that support these priorities. Despite their differences, both techniques ensure that a project is completed.
Akhmetshin, E.M., Romanov, P.Y., Zakieva, R.R., Zhminko, A.E., Aleshko, R.A., and Makarov, A.L. (2019) Modern approaches to innovative project management in entrepreneurship education: A review of methods and applications in education. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education [online], v. 22, pp. 1-15. Web.
Almadhoun, W. and Hamdan, M. (2020) Optimizing the self-organizing team size using a genetic algorithm in agile practices. Journal of Intelligent Systems [online], v.29(1), pp. 1151-1165.
Filippetto, A.S., Lima, R. and Barbosa, J.L.V. (2021) A risk prediction model for software project management based on similarity analysis of context histories. Information and Software Technology [online], v. 131, pp. 106497.
Gheorghe, A.M., Gheorghe, I.D. and Iatan, I.L. (2020) Agile software development. Informatica Economica [online], v.24(2), pp. 90-100.
Hayat, F., Rehman, A.U., Arif, K.S., Wahab, K. and Abbas, M., 2019. The influence of agile methodology (Scrum) on software project management. In 2019 20th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD). IEEE [online]. doi: 10.1109/SNPD.2019.8935813
Hidalgo, E.S. (2019) Adapting the scrum framework for agile project management in science: case study of a distributed research initiative. Heliyon [online], v.5(3).
Islam, S. and Evans, N. (2020) Key success factors of PRINCE2 project management method in software development project: KSF of PRINCE2 in SDLC. International Journal of Engineering Materials and Manufacture [online], v.5(3), pp. 76-84.
Malik, R.S., Ahmad, S.S. and Hussain, M.T.H. (2019). A review of agile methodology in IT projects. In Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Advanced Computing and Software Engineering (ICACSE) [online].
Marnada, P., Raharjo, T., Hardian, B. and Prasetyo, A. (2022) Agile project management challenge in handling scope and change: A systematic literature review. Procedia Computer Science [online], v.197, pp. 290-300.
Marnewick, C. and Einhorn, F. (2019) The business case thrives on relevant information. South African Journal of Information Management [online], v.21(1), pp. 1-11.
McGrath, S. and Whitty, J. (2020) Practitioner views on project management methodology (PMM) effectiveness. Journal of Modern Project Management [online], v.8(1), pp. 188-215.
Naik, N. and Jenkins, P. (2019) A web-based method for managing PRINCE2® projects using trello®. In 2019 International Symposium on Systems Engineering (ISSE) (pp. 1-3). IEEE [online].
Prince2.com. (2022) PRINCE2 Processes: 7 Processes of PRINCE2 Explained | EUR. [online]
Shaw, S., Hughes, G. and Greenhalgh, T. (2019) Standardisation and its consequences in health care: a case study of PRINCE2 project management training. In the Projectification of the Public Sector. Oxfordshire: Routledge.
Raharjo, T. and Purwandari, B. (2020) Agile Project Management Challenges and Mapping Solutions: A Systematic Literature Review [online]. ICSIM ’20: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Software Engineering and Information Management, pp. 123-129.