Introduction It is very important to understand the cultural values of existing persons in certain societies in order to understand their way of living. The study of cultural anthropology is therefore very fascinating as it brings awareness to an existing culture hence capturing a unique cultural disparity among individuals (Nowak
Fitness for Use in Operation Management Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Definition: The satisfaction of a customer in relation to this or that product or service depends on the quality of the product, its usability, and on such important aspects as the speed of delivery and consistency. These aspects are closely associated with the concept of fitness for use as the ability to satisfy the needs of customers (Collier
Love in Boys Don’t Cry Research Paper college essay help online
Boys Don’t Cry denotes an American independent drama film of 1999 whose director is Kimberly Peirce and its co-writer is Andy Bienen. The movie is a performance of the actual-life account of Brandon Teena, acted in the movie by Hilary Swank. In the movie, there is raping, assaulting, and murdering of Hilary Swank by his male friends prior to their discovering that he is actually female.
The film discusses the themes of liberty, empowerment, bravery, and identity. A majority of the performers in the film campaigned for the best actor over the duration of three years. A then unidentified Swank shone, as her character appeared comparable to that of Teena. Many of personalities were anchored in actual-life individuals, while several were composites. Boys don’t cry movie has been mentioned as among the most controversial and discussed movies of 1999.
The movie was released concurrent with the killing of Matthew Shepard, a youthful gay man, which ignited further public concern (Blackman 12- 17). The film brings out the hardships that teenagers experience due to taking part in love affairs. In accordance with the film, love causes people start a long journey of harassment, laughter, and tears. Love in the 1999 American independent drama film Boys Don’t Cry is depicted through desperation and suffering as explicated in this paper.
Brandon (acted by Swank) signifies a youthful ‘man’ who was actually Teena Renae Brandon. At the time that Brandon was identified as a female by a sibling of a lady he at one time dated, he turns out to be a prey to physical dangers. In a short while, Brandon is entangled in a bar war and is thrown out from the trailer of his cousin.
In this regard, Brandon relocates to Falls City where he builds comradeship with ex-prisoners John Lotter (acted by Peter Sarsgaad) as well as Tom Nissen (acted by Brendan Sexton). Brandon also builds a friendship with pals of the ex-prisoners namely Candace (acted by Alicia) and Lana (acted by sevigny).
In the film, Lana turns out romantically engaged with Brandon (Blackman 18- 21). At this point, Lana is not aware of the actual sex and rotten past of Brandon. Both Lana and Brandon decide to relocate to Memphis. Later, Brandon is imprisoned for accusations that came into being before his moving to Memphis and was locked up in the women’s part at a jail in Falls City. Luckily, Lana pays a bail for the release of Brandon.
When Lana inquires from Brandon as to his reason for being locked up in the women’s section, Brandon deceives her that he was a hermaphrodite and that she would soon obtain a sex alteration to become a male. Lana affirms her affection for Brandon at whatever cost. Tom Nissen and John Lotter build suspicion when they find an article in a newspaper concerning Brandon that calls him Teena Brandon. Following their suspicion, Nissen and Lotter compel Brandon to take out his underwear, disclosing his genitals.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After attempting to make Lana have a look at it, she covers her eyes in refusal. Following the conflict Nissen and Lotter take Brandon to a secluded place, where beat, and aggressively rape him (Blackman 22- 24). Later, Brandon was taken to Tom’s residence. Despite injuries, Brandon flees through a window. In spite of threats from his attackers and warning against reporting the assault to the police, Lana is nevertheless able to persuade the troubled Brandon to file a case.
One evening after taking a lot of beer, Nissen and Lotter thought of killing Brandon. In spite of efforts to bar them, Nissen and Lotter head to Candace’s isolated residence where they get hold of Brandon. Brandon has been in a hideout in a shed at the residence of Candace. Lotter shot Brandon at the chin while Nissen shot at the head of Candace. In the meantime, Lana makes efforts to fight them as she shouts in a bid to stop them.
Lotter jabs the already dead body of Brandon while Nissen attempts to shoot at Lana. Luckily, Lotter prevents Nissen from shooting. After this act Lotter and Nissen escapes from the scene. Lana is left lying on the lifeless body of Brandon. The following morning, Lana woke up on the lifeless body of the scene and she carried her psychologically stressed daughter away (Blackman 25- 27). At the conclusion of the movie, Lana leaves Falls City and a correspondence written to her by Brandon is read.
Brandon chooses to leave his original residence subsequent to his thinking that people were aware of his criminal actions. In spite of Brandon being a female, it is hard to understand why he chooses to act like a male. Shockingly enough, Brandon as well lacks a proper explanation as to why he acts like a male. Nevertheless, Brandon is faultless at it and he is decided in dealing with possible gainsay. He chooses to relocate to Falls City where nobody is aware of his actual gender.
In Falls City, Boys Don’t Cry illustrates the element of love through desperation, which suppresses most of the ladies there. Most of the ladies in Falls City are in search of a man who could quench their thirst for love and companionship. In this city, Brandon meets Lana in her desperate state. Lana is in dire need of a man who could satisfy her sexual craving. After evaluating Brandon, Lana finds him kind and handsome. Never before has Lana been so sexually aroused by a man as Brandon does.
In this regard, Lana declares to go after Brandon at whatever cost. After realizing that Brandon is as well desperate for love, they both agree to settle for love and give it a chance to blossom (Blackman 28- 30). Despite learning that Brandon is truly a female, Lana is so desperate that she cannot succumb to this certainty. In spite of the confusion, Lana opts to believe and support Brandon; completely giving him her trust.
Fischer brings about a new reason as to why individuals fall in love (Fisher 23- 26). After evaluating a group of individuals that are totally in love, Fischer wraps up that love is extremely impressed in the brain of an individual. She speculates that sentiments do not portray love through feelings.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Love in Boys Don’t Cry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More An individual could be under puppy love and still be sentimental. Nevertheless, puppy love does not mean that an individual is in true love as it may come out of desperation. In Boys Don’t cry, Brandon and Lana are somehow sentimental. However, this does not signify their love. Sentiments just function as a byproduct of their desperation (Swan 89- 92). Both are in a state of deep infatuation, which makes them sentimental. At some point both Lana and Brandon agree to flee even following their being together for a short time.
Lana is angered by the act of Lotter and Nissen humiliating Brandon. Lana and Brandon are so much in each other’s mind that they cannot wait to fall in love. The two lovebirds do not take time to assess if any of them is true to the relationship. They desire to stay together despite the circumstance. This appears evident when Brandon promises not to disappoint Lana in spite of the pressures from Lotter and Nissen. On the same note, Lana promises to be by Brandon’s side in spite of all abnormalities.
In the end of it all, Lana and Brandon suffer because of love. Lotter and Nissen humiliate Brandon publicly following their realization that Lana cannot give in to the claim that Brandon is neither a male nor a hermaphrodite. Their reason for humiliating Brandon is not based on his claiming to be a male but on the fact that he is able to win the heart of Lana; something that Lotter had tried to no avail for a long time.
On his part, Brandon is totally determined to bear every kind of suffering and he declares not to vacate Falls City without Lana. Boys Don’t Cry illustrates a bitter end of individuals who seek to go beyond all odds in a bid to gratify life craving through love (Blackman 31- 36).
Hatfield and Walster affirm that during a love incidence everybody is skillful (34- 45). They maintain that in a bid to be in love with someone of the opposite gender, individuals regard aspects such as money, individuality, and physical look. They affirm that love and affection could be either obsessive or companionate. Obsessive love is sentimental and full of uncertainty and concern (Hatfield and Walster 34- 45).
On the other hand, companionate love is illustrated by a strong affection and connection towards a person. In the film Boys Don’t Cry, love is illustrated through suffering and confusion. As Hatfield and Walster (34- 45) affirm in their publication, obsessive love is packed with suffering. These aspects emerge almost entirely in the movie. Lana in reality is aware that Brandon is not a male after being in love for a long time. Throughout the entire period, Brandon has been deceiving Lana and taking her for granted.
Nonetheless, Lana talks about how she takes pleasure in their affection and is confused. Lana is so obsessed with Brandon that she cannot discover deserting him at this time even following such obvious actuality. For a long period, Lana had never encountered a man who would make her experience love or one that would treat her with affection.
Brandon comes into view and he satisfies all that Lana had been longing to have for a long period (Blackman 38- 43). After some time in love, Lana comes to know that Brandon is a female. This result in Lana’s confusion as to whether to let go all the happy instances she has with Brandon or to disregard the allegations and progress with their relationship.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Love in Boys Don’t Cry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Her alternative to stay devoted to Brandon, in spite of the betrayal depicts the condition of confusion and suffering that is brought by love. When people fall in love, they turn out to be so obsessive that they are not able to the way existence could be without each other. In addition, it becomes almost impossible for persons in love to believe that they could ever again fall for such a wonderful individual (Karen 34- 38).
Having sought for a man that makes her satisfied, Lana believes that she may never find another individual like Brandon. Therefore, Lana suffers with the notion of ending their love or continuing in it.
Love is depicted through suffering and desperation. Suffering is what makes Brandon relocate to Falls City and search for a lover in a bid to forget concerning his past. His past life is filled with negativity and he desires to forget concerning it and progress in life.
Despites his awareness of what Tom Neisser and John Lotter are capable of, Brandon suffers between deserting Lana and maintaining the love. Brandon has aided him to overlook a lot things and he has a feeling that deserting her could cause him relapse to his past life. Boys Don’t Cry illustrates the suffering of Brandon on whether to confront Nissen and Lotter and spare his love or desert Lana.
The suffering heightens more with the raping, beating, and murdering of Brandon. The affirmation to stay in the city if he cannot relocate with Lana depicts an element of desperation. A state of desperation is also evident when Lana vows to remain with Brandon even after learning of his deceit. The two believe they are the reason for each other and that life would be worthless without their togetherness.
Works Cited Blackman, Malorie. Boys Don’t Cry, New York: Corgi Children’s, 2011. Print.
Fisher, Helen. Why We Love: The Nature and Chemistry of Romantic Love, London: Holt Paperbacks, 2004. Print.
Hatfield, Elaine and William Walster. A New Look at Love: A Revealing Report on the Most Elusive of all Emotions, New York: University Press of America, Inc., 2003. Print.
Karen, Robert. Becoming Attached: First Relationships and How They Shape Our Capacity to Love, New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Print.
Swan, Rachel. “Boys Don’t Cry.” Film Quarterly 54.3 (2001): 47-52. Print.
New Constitution of USA in 1787 Essay essay help online: essay help online
The US new constitution was drafted in 1787 at a convention held in Philadelphia. The constitutional convention comprised of 55 delegates who were given the responsibility to revise some articles of the congress confederation.
However, instead of amending specific articles, the delegation decided to adopt Edmund Randolph proposal to write a completely new constitution. In the process of drafting the new constitution, two different proposals plans emerged. One plan was called the Virginia plan while the other one was called the New Jersey plan. This paper compares and contrasts the two proposed constitutional plans.
Virginia vs. New Jersey Constitutional Plans
The Virginia plan called for a government with three separate arms including the legislature, executive, and the judiciary. The national congress was to comprise of two houses namely: the senate and the House of Representatives.
Furthermore, the plan proposed that representation in both chambers was to depend on the population of each state. According to this plan, members of the House of Representatives were to be elected directly by the voters of each state. Later, they would select the members of the senate from the lists of people nominated by the state legislatures.
In terms of congregational power, the Virginian plan provided that the congress would retain its earlier powers, but on top of it add the power to make laws for the states, override state laws, and coerce states to obey national laws in all circumstances. The congress was also accorded powers to select members of the judiciary and the president, who would stay in power for a term equal to seven years. Finally, it provided that both the executive and the judiciary would have the power to veto, subject to override.
On the other hand, the New Jersey plan advocated for a government with three branches just like the Virginia plan. It gave the central government power to enforce national laws, raise taxes, and regulate trade. According to this plan, the laws set by the congress were to be more powerful than state laws.
Contrary to the Virginia plan, the New Jersey plan called for equal state representation in the congress regardless of the size of the state. The congress was to have one house consisting of members elected by the state legislature. In addition, the congress would choose the federal executive which, in turn, would choose the federal judiciary. In summary, the two plans differed in structure, congregational representation, and congress power as highlighted above.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Benefits of each Plan
Each plan appealed for representation in the congress as well as advocated for a powerful central government. This is beneficial because initially, representation was biased and the congress lacked enough powers to control the affairs of each state and make powerful national laws.
Alexander Hamilton vs. Thomas Jefferson
Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson are important features in the history of the US government and economy. They both concurred that the government needed major changes. However, they deferred ideologically on matters pertaining to governance and the economy. Hamilton advocated for a strong central government, a federal bank, and a stable financial system. On the contrary, Jefferson called for a weak central government and an agrarian economy.
Jefferson’s views were democratic because he held that the commoners be given more opportunities in the government while Hamilton’s views were undemocratic because he held that the commoners were ignorant, and thus were incapable of supporting self-governance. Hamilton would support the New Jersey plan because it called for the minority government while Jefferson would support the Virginia plan because it called for the government of the majority.
How the Finished Constitution Impacted Slavery
The final constitution weakened the institution of slavery. The northerners wished to abolish the slave trade, but the southerners were against the claim because the trade was their source of income. However, after the new constitution was implemented the congress took at least 20 years to abolish the trade because the congress held that it was inhuman.
As a citizen of the new American republic in 1790, Jefferson’s view would be better because it honoured the commoners and supported democracy. In addition, Virginia constitutional plan would be selected over the new jersey plan because it advocated for democracy and equitable representation.
TV News Role in Citizens Life Essay a level english language essay help
The media have a vital role in promoting the awareness of citizens by relaying valuable information regarding various events at multiple levels including the community, country, and world at large. The television is a vital means of passing this information through TV news. This paper attempts to address the concern of the quality of news due to the recent increase in sensationalism of news content in news programs.
TV news provides citizens with unbiased information that helps to shape their thinking, as well as, their comprehension of various events. The two primary classes of TV news are those that focus on issues, and those that prioritize sensationalism and gossip. News items that focus on issues relay information that is relevant to both home and international audiences.
The issues that make up TV content are dependent on the strategies used by the media channel to enhance their commercialization and popularization. Such trends have resulted in the relay of mild forms of issues pertaining to education, environment, trade, crime, calamities and accidents, which are thought to be relevant to a large audience.
The tendency of news items to focus on sensationalism has been changing since the 1990s. Initially, sensationalism and human interest news content involved the coverage of information involving crime, violence, natural disasters, accidents and other issues pertaining to politics. The concept of sensationalism TV news was started with the view to spreading amusing, shocking, and heartwarming content to viewers.
However, the elements of sensationalism began to be employed in hard news. This was further enhanced by the development of new technologies and consumer-driven journalism that permitted the development of flashy and lavish formal production features. These elements were aimed at enhancing the participation of audiences during the viewing process of a variety of content including sex, scandal and celebrity news.
While various sensationalism elements such as flashy subtitles, decorative effects and video maneuvers enhance the entertainment aspect of news and increase the interest of viewers, it may, on the other hand, compromise the objectivity of the reporting. It is necessary for TV news to retain its credibility as a source of information, public debate and scrutiny of various concerns. Media stations should take a take a pragmatic approach in formulating the news agenda so that it takes into consideration multiple content including political events, sports events, crime reports, and accidents among others.
The primary coverage for TV news involves violent events such as riots, civil unrest, accidents, disasters and terrorism. This category is followed by a need for information pertaining to constitutional politics, which involves state visits and political meetings. Other categories of interest to the public include crime and corruption, health and environment, culture, entertainment and sports, and economics and trade.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More People expose themselves to various kinds of media content in order to satisfy multiple social and psychological needs. The primary need for news content is surveillance. This implies that a majority of people are motivated to tune into TV news in order to acquire information regarding various events in the world.
As such, TV news should prioritize the delivery of such information in order to meet the primary market requirement. Other motivations include emotional release from certain events, and social function through interpersonal chat of occurrences. This implies that issue based standard news are more gratifying to viewers compared to sensationalism of gossip or entertainment news since the former is more believable than tabloid news, which focuses on viewer enjoyment.
Life of Prisoners Report a level english language essay help
Most people may not differentiate between a jail and a prison. In fact, some people use the two terms interchangeably. When a person is said to be in jail or prison, they are denied the freedom to move freely. Life in prisons is characterized by restrictions that avert the occurrence of crimes. Further, there is a range of rights and freedoms that inmates are deprived. However, there exists a significant difference on the detainees in the two places.
Comparison of jail and prison inmates
Jail inmates are sentenced for a remarkably short duration. This would range from a few weeks to months but, less than 1 year. In most cases, during that time, inmates await trials. Jail inmates have temporary housing and are always transferred to other places after their trials. Jail inmates are entitled to housing, safety and food requirements. In addition to providing basic needs, a jail has fewer amenities than a prison.
Inmates in a prison are already convicted for crimes. Their sentences are usually longer than those of jail inmates. Prison inmates are convicted for doing or taking part in felonies (Ruiz, Strain
Significance of a Male Role Model for Forming Tomas and Gabe’s Personal Essay college essay help: college essay help
Identity in Brian Ascalon Roley’s American Son Filipinos migrate to the United States in order to become closer to the better life, to realise their dreams, and receive the chance to change their reality. In fact, Filipinos become the victims of the racial discrimination and begin to suffer from the impossibility to determine their national and cultural identity. From this point, those children who are born in multicultural families also begin to suffer from inability to find the right place in the society where people are not ready to discuss them as the real Americans.
Furthermore, the problem of identity and transnationalism is often associated with a range of other problems typical for teenagers and young adults. Tomas and Gabe are the protagonists of Brian Ascalon Roley’s American Son. These young men experience the difficulties of being the children of the American father and Filipino mother while living in the USA and observing the other Americans’ making their dreams real.
The situation is complicated with the fact that boys are brought up without their father. Thus, Tomas and Gabe have no opportunities to orient to the male role model developed in the family because those behaviour patterns which they remember as typical for their father are rather violent and racist, and as a result, boys have the erroneous vision of masculinity.
It is possible to pay attention to Tomas and Gabe’s visions of masculinity referring to the ideas developed by Tomas in relation to the question, to the opinion which is characteristic for Gabe, and to the male role model which is typical for the behaviour and attitudes of the boys’ father.
On the one hand, the image of Tomas can be discussed as the embodiment of masculinity because of his appearance. Thus, the young man’s muscles are covered with “gangster tattoos”, his head is “shaved down to stubble”, and moreover, Tomas is “really half white, half Filipino but dresses like a Mexican” (Roley 15).
On the other hand, the brutal behaviour of Tomas and his attitude toward his relatives and other people cannot be considered as the embodiment of the real masculinity. Tomas is inclined to misinterpret the notion of masculinity and act as a cruel man. The actions of Tomas can be explained from the point of his desire to determine his role in the society which is rather holistic in relation to the minorities. Moreover, brutality is the only behaviour pattern which is associated with the boys’ father.
Tomas as the elder brother should become the main man in the family. That is why, Gabe is affected significantly by the particular features of the elder brother’s influence (Roley 18). Later, Gabe even reflects the peculiarities of the young man’s behaviour in spite of the previous disapproval of the position supported by Tomas.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In spite of the fact that the life conditions and environments are the same in relation to both brothers, Gabe grows as a quiet boy who does not want to create new problems for his mother because she has to bring up two boys without the help of her husband. However, Gabe also has no correct vision of masculinity.
Gabe is inclined to act under the influence of his brother Tomas, and his image becomes the embodiment of masculinity for Gabe in spite of all his attempts to reject these behaviour patterns. Gabe experiences brutality, hostility, and discrimination almost in all the spheres of his life.
From this perspective, the absence of the male role model and the racial issues make the young man find his own identity and place within the American society. The particular features of the family relations and the problematic racial questions affect Gabe’s vision of masculinity which becomes the reflection of the visions which are characteristic for Tomas.
Tomas and Gabe are brought up by the Filipino woman, but they do not want their peers to see her communicating with the boys. The problem is in the boys’ perception of their identity and ethnicity. Nevertheless, the problem is also in the vision of the role of woman in the house and in society. This vision is the heritage of observing the definite male role model used by the boys’ father.
Gabe describes the situation when “dad stood over her making fun of Filipinos and her family and looked as if he was about to hit her, and my brother dragged him outside and tossed him onto the acorn” (Roley 24). Tomas and Gabe cannot define masculinity correctly because even those insignificant details remembered about the attitudes of the father toward the Filipinos and women cannot provide the boys with the examples of the behaviour which should be characteristic for the real man.
As a result, Tomas and Gabe experience a lot of difficulties, trying to find their place in the American society. These young men are not ready to adopt their ethnicity, and they are inclined to feel shame because of their mother Asian ethnicity (Roley 24). Furthermore, Tomas and Gabe have no male role model to help them to survive in the world full of ill-wishers. The only way to survive in this society is to act brutally and reveal the masculinity with references to violent actions.
That is why, Gabe is inclined to follow the life of violence because this model is more familiar for him depending on the experience of his father and brother. The inability of many Filipinos as any other migrants to build the life of their dream within the American society makes them feel frustrated, especially in comparison with the more successful representatives of the American majority. Thus, aggression becomes the only way to demonstrate the people’s dissatisfaction regarding the situation.
We will write a custom Essay on Significance of a Male Role Model for Forming Tomas and Gabe’s Personal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In Brian Ascalon Roley’s American Son, Tomas and Gabe have no opportunity to reflect the male role model of their father because the boys are not brought by the man. That is why, boys are unable to create their vision of masculinity which can be based on the positive examples of their father behaviours. As a result, Tomas and Gabe develop their vision of masculinity with references to the realities of the American society which is rather unfriendly and even hostile toward Filipinos.
Thus, Tomas is inclined to mask his problems choosing brutality and referring to the ‘gangster’ image, and Gabe intends to hide his difficulties with identity using the advantages of the non-Asian appearance. The young men’ behaviours cannot be discussed as the reflection or embodiment of masculinity, but they are affected by the absence of the father in the boys’ life.
Works Cited Roley, Brian Ascalon. American Son. USA: W. W. Norton
Media Propaganda Essay scholarship essay help
Media Propaganda refers to a message that aims at changing people’s opinion on issues by providing only one side of an argument. Propaganda is widespread in the media especially in advertisements and magazines (Baran and Davis 76). In this paper, we will consider a poster advertisement.
This poster contains an advertisement for a body spray, Axe. In the advertisement, there is a couple walking down the street along window displays. The advertisement shows a man cut into two halves, the lower half and the upper half. The lower half of the man’s body is lagging behind, standing by a window display with a female mannequin dressed in lingerie.
On the other hand, the upper half continues walking alongside the woman. In addition, the poster contains a written message at the bottom of the page. This message reads, “Part Good. Part Bad. That’s Man’s Essence.” Further, at the lower right corner, the poster has a picture of the spray under consideration and the name of the spray: “New Axe Essence”. This message appeals to the audience to use Axe body spray.
The audience of this advertisement is men. This advertisement is simply appealing to men, especially from teenage upwards. Men relate to this idea of walking together with a woman while at the same time admiring other women. This makes them feel integrated (Bhasin 1).
The message contained in this poster appears to be appealing to men to use this body spray to get a double deal. It implies that axe gives men an advantage of attracting women who are sexually appealing and at the same time keep their girlfriends. Men have added integrated egos when they attract such beautiful women and seem to have successful relationships. This will translate to the men being content and happy.
The man in the poster looks comfortable and confident. Further, the woman in the advertisement seems impressed, happy, and relaxed. The advert makes it appear that the man is the one making the woman happy. Therefore, this implies that men who use axe appear relaxed and composed manage to impress their girlfriends.
These influence choices of men who want to impress their girlfriends and make them happy. In addition, the poster portrays the given location as luxurious with lovely shop displays without people. This implies the unique and distinct nature of Axe. Obviously, the properties given to the spray add class to it and allow the spray to select rich and classy men as prospective buyers.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This advertisement portrays Axe body spray as being appropriate for use at any time. For instance, for casual time, at work or anywhere, the casually dressed couple in the advertisement seems to be admiring shop displays’ probably on their way to a casual meeting after work.
The man used in the poster is young emphasizing that axe body spray is convenient for young men. He is young and needs to feel happy and successful. The smile of the man in the poster portrays his happiness probably because of his youth. This contentment associates with the audience’s needs and attract their attention.
Additionally, the poster uses tranquil and non-screaming colors. Advertisers use blue and grey colors on the spray and the background respectively. These colors are passionate, serene, welcoming and can accommodate diverse moods and occasions. These colors attract the audience and encourage them to use the spray.
This advertisement is exceptionally convincing and can attract many people. However, ideological analysis of this advertisement reveals the presence of unintended cultural messages dotted all over the poster (Sproule 130). Cultural aspects that come out can discourage prospective users of Axe spray if they paid deeper attention to the advertisement.
This advertisement suggests that a man who uses axe essence will have more than one woman at his disposal. It assumes that men are happy when they have multiple women. Further, the advertisement stereotypes men as being sex oriented. The lower part of the man’s body staring at the mannequin shows this stereotype.
One would wonder why the lower and not the upper half of the body was staring the mannequin considering that it is the one with eyes. What does the lower half of the man’s body use to see the mannequin? Clearly, the body part that substitutes the man’s eye is his phallus. This shows that men view women as objects for their sexual desire, which is not completely true.
The message and pictures in the advertisement pose another cultural controversy. The picture indicates that the lower half of the man remains behind while the upper half continues walking together with the woman. The girlfriend does not seem to notice that her boyfriend’s lower part is lagging behind staring at other feminine figures.
We will write a custom Essay on Media Propaganda specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The man continues walking as if nothing is happening. This brands men as cheaters and unfaithful spouses. The advertisers seem to know this when they write that man is partly good and partly bad. However, they dismiss it referring it to as man’s essence. This is against cultural norms, which advocates for fidelity among spouses.
This advertisement for axe body spray portrays women as sex figures. The lower part of the man’s body lagging behind to admire the mannequin proves this. This act emphasizes on extreme sexuality of women and the power those feminine figures posses to the extent of splitting a man into two.
This is obvious in the lower part of the man’s body admiring a displayed mannequin wearing red lingerie. This shows that men prefer women who dress skimpily to casually dressed women. These women appear to be extra sexually appealing and attract men. Consequently, this advertisement perceives women as sexual objects and displays women in a negative way.
This advertisement is not completely true. For instance, the street appears to be vacant allowing the couple quality time alone. There are shops as shown by the displayed mannequin wearing lingerie. However, we know that shops need clients to keep them functional. The poster neglects this fact and creates an illusion that Axe body spray allows people to be completely alone in the street. The advertisers use this fallacy to create emotion and influence buyers.
In conclusion, we are justified to say that this advertisement is effective. The poster effectively uses graphic display and words to convey the intended media message (Jowett and O’ Donell 280). They achieve this by using physically attractive people, using a quiet and serene setting.
Further, the advertiser’s choice of colors and creativity help them to attract a larger audience. The advertisers capture audience’s attention well and consider their needs. They conform to the audience’s need of being happy, having integrated ego and using distinguished products. Therefore, the use of media propaganda assists the advertisers to achieve their goal.
Works Cited Baran, Stanley and Dennis Davis. Mass Communication Theory: Foundations, Ferment, and Future 6th ed. London: Wadsworth, 2011. Print.
Bhasin, Kim. How Axe Became The Top-Selling Deodorant By Targeting Nerdy Losers. 2011. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Media Propaganda by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Jowett, Garth and Victoria O’ Donell. Propaganda and Persuasion 4th ed. London: Sage Publications, 2005. Print.
Sproule, Michael. Propaganda and Democracy:The American Experience of Media and Mass Persuasion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Print.
Race, Inclusion, Exclusion, and Segregation Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Discussion and analyses
Introduction The significance of race has always been evident in the social practices of human beings. Biology was used to explain racism before the 20th century. Currently, racism is only viewed from a social point of view. The concept of racism was developed in the European region by the whites who viewed themselves as a “superior race”.
This ideology was enhanced by biblical explanations that were used by the whites to support their arguments. After the migration and settlement of the whites in many parts of the world, racial hierarchy and discrimination came into being.
The race factor has always been a central issue in controlling how several issues are handled in the United States. The race factor has also affected myriads of activities in the American history. The analysis of the positive and negative effects that accompany racism demonstrates that the race factor has negatively affected social integration in the U.S. Besides, there are numerous cases of segregation and exclusion that have emerged from the race factor.
Discussion and analyses The whites have always been the most influential race in the United States. The Anglo-Saxon ideologies that people with white skin are god chosen and are supposed to rule the world made them to dominate in the United States. The white culture has been taken as the basic American culture for many years. Besides, there are other Americans and immigrants who prefer adapting the white cultural practices. It is perceived as the best way of fitting in American society.
This has resulted into the conversion of many white skinned Americans to whites. On the other hand, the dark skinned people are sometimes self-driven to lighten their skin. For instance, they use plastic surgery to make their complexion to appear white as they struggle to adapt to the American culture.
The whites have completely absorbed the Mexican Americans. This scenario was driven by various reasons. It is factual that their skin complexion is almost the same as those of their white counterparts bearing in mind that were easily accommodated by the whites. However, the Mexicans are still a minority race in the US. They were afraid of being segregated. This fear was enhanced by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo that promised American citizenship to the native Mexicans.
This never came to pass until the mid twentieth century. Before then, Mexicans were forced to pass as whites in order to enjoy the privileges enjoyed by the whites. They preferred to be integrated among the whites rather than undergo segregation. Therefore, the Mexicans in the United States are treated as whites to some extent. Other minorities in the United States with a skin complexion that is similar to the whites have also opted to be integrated as the white population.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They believe that being whites is accompanied by improved social, economic, and political security. The inclusion principle however could not be effective on African Americans and other minority races that have a darker skin complexion. The skin color factor favored the Mexicans while it completely segregated other American races. The language factor was not of much significance when the principle of inclusion came into play.
There are several fears associated with race mixing and cultural contamination. For instance, some minority ethnic groups fear being alienated on the basis of their small population segment. It is against this backdrop that several amendments have been made in the constitution with the aim of ensuring equality in the US.
The level of racism has subsided although there are some cases of racial segregations, inclusion and exclusion that have been witnessed in some areas in the United States. The most significant segregation was witnessed between the blacks and white. During the 1960s, courtship and marriage between whites and blacks was prohibited. Furthermore, the blacks and the whites attend different schools.
In the 19th century, African Americans were completely separated from the whites. The constitution recognized the whites as being superior with higher social statuses than the blacks. The public facilities were to be offered to both the two groups. However, this was done in a very different manner.
There are currently two major groups that are identified in the US. These are the whites and the blacks. Since these are the major classifications of the Americans, it has resulted into the disregard of other minority groups especially when classifying the American societies. The non-white Americans are the most affected.
The Spanish, Jewish, and the Germans among are generally classified as the whites. During the 19th and early 20th centuries when the constitution treated the whites differently, the other communities that were white enjoyed the privileges meant for the whites. African Americans on the other hand have never been confused and the race factor has always resulted in the segregation of the blacks and the red Indians.
The race has played a major role in classifying the American society. People from the same communities tend to occupy the same area. The African Americans normally occupy the central parts of the American cities that are densely populated. The whites on the other hand occupy the suburbs of the cities that are well spaced although the habitants are mainly the white communities. The race factor has therefore hastened assimilation of the whites into the broader white American population.
We will write a custom Essay on Race, Inclusion, Exclusion, and Segregation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Furthermore, it has enabled the acceptance and peaceful coexistence among the white Americans. African Americans are also known to easily accommodate immigrants who have a dark complexion without necessarily investigating the background and the origin of these people. Race has helped in the Americanization of many immigrants who come into America. Racism is a major factor that defines American culture. It has promoted integrations as well as segregation.
Worse still, racism has compelled several minority ethnic groups in America to be assimilated by the whites. As a result, it has created a larger integrated white society. The whites decided to occupy the suburbs of the cities to avoid the large African American populations that occupy the city centers of major cities.
Covering the outskirts of the city is one of the ways in which this could help regulate the urban migration of the African Americans. Any other non-whites who want to coexist peacefully must adopt the cultures of the whites in order to ensure good neighborhood.
In cases whereby the natives were treated as whites, their ethnic groups were undermined. The whites assumed their cultural practices are the most advanced and civilized. They were introducing these practices to others as a form of civilization.  Natives were expected to adopt the cultural practices of the whites. Besides, their cultural practices were perceived to be barbaric and as such, undermined the other white skinned people in the United States.
The race factor in this case completely excluded the natives from their cultural practices. The natives who did not observe these regulations were alienated from the rest of the white community in the United States. The Mexican farming practices of the natives such as those around Texas who were nomadic farmers were completely discouraged. These people were forced to become whites in order to live comfortably in the United States.
The school environment has suffered the segregations that are associated with racism. Pupils tend to group themselves in terms of race. The Latinos are the worst hit by the effects of segregation. The number of Latinos who attend the white schools has greatly reduced due to the fear of segregation that is apparently high in the white schools. The learning process of these Latinos is greatly affected by racial segregation.
The African Americans are also segregated in the education sector as a result of racial differences. In most of the schools attended by the majority whites, it is rare to find the African Americans in such schools. The African Americans have ended up embracing the American society. This has in some cases created a social distance between the African Americans and the whites.
The minority American races have always been radicals. They have often been associated with democrats. On the other hand, the white Americans have preferred to maintain the status quo and as such, prefer to be republicans.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Race, Inclusion, Exclusion, and Segregation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion In summing up, it is worth to note that racism has defined the American society. Any person with a light skin complexion is taken to be “white” while the dark complexion is a “black”. Any person who is in America has to choose where to belong. Deciding to be white implies that an individual has to learn the white culture. The same principle applies to the assimilation process of African Americans.
Footnotes Winant, “Race and Race Theory,”1
Menchaca, “Anglo-Saxon Ideologies in the 1920s-1930s:The Impact on the Segregation of Mexican Students in California,” 229.
Roediger, “Whiteness and Ethnicity in the History of White Ethnics in the United States. Towards the Abolition of Whiteness,” 181.
Roediger, “Whiteness and Ethnicity in the History of White Ethnics in the United States. Towards the Abolition of Whiteness,” 184.
Griswold del Castillo, “War’s End: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo,” par, 11
Martinez, “Mexican Americans and Whiteness in Critical White Studies,”212.
Martinez, “Mexican Americans and Whiteness in Critical White Studies,” 213.
Menchaca, “Anglo-Saxon Ideologies in the 1920s-1930s:The Impact on the Segregation of Mexican Students in California,” 235.
Africanamericans, “Segregation: The Fights Between Blacks and Whites”, par, 3
Menchaca, “Anglo-Saxon Ideologies in the 1920s-1930s:The Impact on the Segregation of Mexican Students in California,” 229.
Macías, “Bringing Music to the People: Race, Urban Culture, and Municipal Politics in Postwar Los Angeles,” 697.
Roediger, “Whiteness and Ethnicity in the History of White Ethnics in the United States. Towards the Abolition of Whiteness,” 193.
Macías, “Bringing Music to the People: Race, Urban Culture, and Municipal Politics in Postwar Los Angeles,” 701.
Macías, “Bringing Music to the People: Race, Urban Culture, and Municipal Politics in Postwar Los Angeles,” 706.
Macías, “Bringing Music to the People: Race, Urban Culture, and Municipal Politics in Postwar Los Angeles,” 706.
Menchaca, “Anglo-Saxon Ideologies in the 1920s-1930s:The Impact on the Segregation of Mexican Students in California,” 223.
Menchaca, “Anglo-Saxon Ideologies in the 1920s-1930s:The Impact on the Segregation of Mexican Students in California,” 224.
Menchaca, “Anglo-Saxon Ideologies in the 1920s-1930s:The Impact on the Segregation of Mexican Students in California,” 228.
Competing Theories of Economic Development Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
According to Contreras (n.d.), there are four major theories of economic development (1). They include:
Neo-Marxist dependency model
Neoclassical revival model.
According to the structuralism school of thought, economic development can be achieved by expanding the internal economy of a give nation (Contreras 16).
To achieve this goal, it is essential for the state to transform its economy from relying on a traditional based economy that relies heavily on agriculture to a modern economy that is industrialized and comprises of a high urban population. Application of modern technology is one of the main conditions that has to be met.
This school of thought views modern technology as a tool that can be used to increase the production of a given nation, especially in the industrial sectors that might be using outdated technologies of means of production. Consequently, for economic development to be achieved, the concept of dualism has to be eliminated in developing nations.
This will ensure that these nations do not act as a source of cheap raw materials and market for finished products from developed nations. Therefore, it is essential for the government of developing nations to impose strategies such as the import-substitution policies that impose tariffs on imports to protect local industries and encourage the government to invest on local enterprises.
The Linear Stage-Growth model was applied in Western Europe as a means of reviving the economy of this region that had collapsed after the Second World War. According to the Marshall plan, economic development in this region could only be achieved through intense industrialization activities (Contreras 31).
However, unlike the structuralism model that viewed the internal environment as the key for economic growth, this model viewed the internal environment as an inhibitor of economic growth as a result of the pressure that would arise from a local institution and social ignorance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Rostow’ Stages-of-Growth model was an influential tool in transforming the economy of Western Europe. According to Rostow, developed nations enjoyed high rates of economic growth due to the fact that they had passed through a series of stages to reach the take-off stage that is characterized by a self-sustaining growth. These stages include:
The traditional society
Preconditions of take-off
Drive to maturity
The age of high-mass production (36)
On the other hand, developing nations have not yet passed through all these stages. Therefore, they cannot sustain their won economies and had low levels of investments and savings unlike developed nations that concentrated highly on investments and savings hence supporting economic growth and development.
This assumption led to the failure of its application in developing countries where the governments encouraged foreign direct investments as a source of savings and investments. However, these nations failed to prosper as compared to developing nations since they lacked a human capital that was skilled and experienced.
The Neo-Marxist approach was a modification of Karl Marx surplus doctrine applied on a global scale. This approach viewed developed nations as the capitalists who were extracting excessive value from developing nations.
According to the scholars who believe in this theory, developed nations buy raw materials from developing nations at a low price. However, the finished products from these raw materials are sold to developing nations at high prices hence bringing about debt and poverty as a result of the negative effect on the balance of payments.
Consequently, developed nations are reluctant to support industrialization activities in developing nations since this move would reduce the surplus they are gaining. However, this theory has been criticized since it stated that developed nations solely depend on developing nations to propose. Consequently, it states that achieving capitalization and industrialization in developing nations is impossible.
The neoclassical revival model dismissed the claims of the structuralism and Neo-Marxist models. Instead, it states that developmental challenges that are experienced in developing nations are due to poor policies and government intervention.
We will write a custom Essay on Competing Theories of Economic Development specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To averse this situation therefore, the government of developing nations should develop policies that encourage free trade, an efficient market, privatization of state owned enterprises. Most importantly, this model recommended that government intervention in trade and investments should be limited.
Millennial Development Goals Millennial Development Goals (MDGs) are eight different goals that were set at the Millennial Summit that was attended by United Nations (UN) member states in the year 2000. The aim of these goals is to improve the overall well-being of individuals all across the world.
To achieve this vision, these goals focused on the social and economic factors that affect an individual and the overall global economy. Poverty eradication is one of the main goals that have to be achieved for this vision to be realized. In developing nations, poverty is a predicament that prevents economic growth and development. The inhabitants of these nations usually live under $1 per day.
However, poverty not only concerns itself with the income an individual earns but also the opportunities that he/she faces given the social and economic conditions of a given state. In most developing nations, the level of poverty has been enhanced as a result of social constraints that deprives individual the access of basic amenities such as shelter, education, and healthcare. Therefore, poverty can be regarded as a state of capability deprivation that hinders individuals from realizing their full potential.
Education is an essential component in achieving economic growth and development. It is essential for a nation to have a human workforce that has the skills and expertise to handle various economic, social, and political requirements. Education thus supports the realization of this requirement. Thus, it is the priority of every government in the world to provide primary education to its citizen.
It has always been stated that a nation is as healthy as its citizens. Thus, to achieve the MDGs, it is essential for governments especially in developing nations to ensure that its subjects have access to high quality medical services. The life expectancy of individuals in developing nations is slightly lower as compared to developed nations.
Consequently, the rate of maternal deaths and infant mortality are higher in developing nations as compared to developed states. Therefore, it is the duty of developing nations to come up with measures and policies that would ensure that its subjects have access to healthcare. In Cuban government for instance has set up universal entitlements to support education and healthcare.
Developed nations in Germany and North America on the other hand spend massively to support their education, healthcare programs, and social security. The USA for instance spends approximately 35-45% of its GDP to support these activities (Dreze and Sen 43). Therefore, developing nations need to increase their public expenditure to support education, healthcare, and social security programs.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Competing Theories of Economic Development by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Finally, MDGs aim at sustaining the global economy. To achieve this goal, the governments of member states have to ensure that their nations exhibit positive economic development and growth. To achieve this goal, it is essential for these nations to ensure that there is equitable distribution of resources within the economy.
Consequently, it is essential for member states to have positive diplomatic relations that would encourage trade and foreign investments. This will ultimately increase the level of savings and investments among member states hence supporting economic growth.
Works Cited Contreras, Ricardo. Competing Theories of Economic Development. n.d. Web.
Dreze, Jean and A. Sen. India: Development Participation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Print.
Software Reuse Strategies Research Paper cheap essay help
Introduction Software reuse is the process by which organizations leverage on knowledge found in code components, test cases and functional designs in order to increase productivity and the quality of their products.
It has become a popular alternative for organizations that want to increase their productivity of their software development efforts. Companies may not always reap the rewards of software reuse at the beginning. As a result, it is essential for them to understand the reuse strategies available to them as well as the effort they must put into those choices.
Overview of reuse strategies Reuse as part of company work organizations
Reuse may be considered as part of a company’s work organization. In this regard, firms must plan and improve their software development efforts regularly. They need to have a plan in order to determine project requirements ahead of time. Some trade offs will need to occur between cost and time. When companies utilize this reuse strategy, they must incorporate consumer needs within the development process.
Companies ought to have a disciplined path in which they can incorporate software reuse modules and the new products. Continuous improvement should also be a critical aspect of this reuse strategy. Software developers and organizational leaders should get feedback about the outcomes of software reuse so as to improve in the future. All measures should include tasks in software development like component integration, retrieval as well as production (Eduardo et. al. 266).
In this strategy, companies often try process improvements on a small scale then use the knowledge acquired to go full scale. At the small scale level, developers often consider the process as an exploratory one. Any lessons learnt will be documented and applied in future scenarios. Organizations applying this strategy also have a standard process that assists inexperienced developers to succeed in reuse by depending on standardized practices.
Formalization of these processes ensures that participants understand their responsibilities and the relationship between the different aspects of software reuse. In such companies, people are fully aware of the steps between coding and testing so they are able to carry out the process effectively. Structuring ensures that project outcomes have certain standards. Additionally, it helps provide for desirable outcomes (Slinger et. al. 187).
In this strategy, firms need to provide strong management support. They can demonstrate this by allocating sufficient human and financial resources to provide software use. Management support also comes in the form of policies and practices that support reuse. Management needs to ensure that employees have the right training and preparation needed to reuse the software (Eduardo et. al. 264).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Creating libraries of components
In this software reuse strategy, companies will have a software repository from which they build new software and customize code. Since they can easily change existing components to meet new requirements, then high levels of reuse are prevalent using this strategy (Agresti 51).
Flexibility is also gained because developers have the choice of several components. On the flipside, companies cannot share software artifacts or may find it difficult to do so as reuse is mostly restricted to the organization. The repository approach has less risk since companies control the quality of the components in use. Businesses can only recover their investments once they reach a critical mass of components within their libraries (Slinger et. al. 190).
Companies that want to create their own libraries of components must do this in a systematic manner. They often employ parts from real systems to create new ones. These stakeholders make such decisions in order to increase maintainability of the software as well as the time it takes to develop them.
Perhaps most importantly, firms will engage in these endeavors in order to minimize the cost of software development. When a company intends on creating a library of components, then it must exert more effort than if it were writing code for conventional, non reuse purposes (Agresti 55). In this regard, developers ought to create code generically such that users can apply the components in different settings.
Organizations should know that the process of building a software library using reusable components will consume a lot of their resources, and that positive results may only be evident in the future. Additionally, they must be ready to deal with management issues when component libraries start growing exponentially. At that level, duplicated versions of components may arise, so they need to be controlled (Slinger
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Essay (Book Review) college essay help online: college essay help online
Introduction The Central Intelligence Agency emerged during the reign of President Harry Truman in 1947. Truman signed the National Security Act (NSA) which led to the creation of the Central Intelligence Agency amongst other entities. This replaced the existing Central Intelligence Group (CIG) formed by the State’s Secretary in conjunction with secretaries of war and navy in 1946 under Truman’s orders. By replacing CIG, the CIA absorbed most of the components like the Office of Reports and Estimates (ORE).
The functions of ORE were diverse; creation of the national, economic, scientific, and technical intelligence, and coordination of the national estimates. The CIA introduction faced much hostility particularly from the military who considered that it is a tremendous threat and competitors for their operations and resources, respectively (Richelson, p. 40). This paper examines the CIA evolution and development including descriptions of how the organization could have been more effective.
CIA Evolution and Development The evolution of the CIA did not take place haphazardly. Likewise, others systems such as the National Security Council, CIA development is understood based on three interrelated dimensions. These are the initial design, political actors influence and the exogenous events.
The structural laws contained in the 1947 National Security Act removed of the development options at the expense of others. In addition, the political influence of the president, bureaucrats as well as the policy makers helped in narrowing further these possibilities. Furthermore, the events acted as a reinforcement which entrenched the whole agency alongside the route. All together, these dimensions ensured that the concealed capabilities of CIA prospered while the coordination capabilities lapsed (Richelson, p. 39).
Internal Design CIA development emerged from the schizophrenic design. The CIA provisions in the NSA provided the foundation upon which the agency evolved. With these provisions, the covert activities developed as the coordination capability and functionality diminished. This prevailed as the NSA concealed the whereabouts of the covert activities. Interestingly, this was boosted by additional of two other vital provisions by the NSA.
To begin with, the act empowered CIA to take control of common activities that are of concern since the NSC worked more in centralized, manner. Next, and most important, the act authorized it as a new agency mandated with power to perform functions and duties about intelligence touching national security as NSC would recommend from time to time (Richelson, p. 48).
Political Actors Influence The original CIA’s design ensured ease in creating of covert capabilities but experienced hardships in centralizing the intelligence analysis. In this respect, the political actors influence changed this into reality. The political forces, which were instrumental in this success, included the president, bureaucrats and policy makers (Richelson, p. 46).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Presidents Presidents are amongst the significant players in CIA evolution. The presidents of all calibers have promoted and protected the clandestine operations of the CIA, for instance Truman. Truman had no faith in covert operations, but he became the first president to embrace them in war. On the other hand, President Kennedy is most renowned for his increased emphasize on the use of covert activities during and after the Bay of Pigs catastrophe. Additionally, Ford is hailed for his greater efforts in protecting the agency during the 70s. Ford strived to fend off investigations by the Congress by forming his own commission which he restricted to certain extents. This included only the abuses which had already been publicized by the press. According to him, disclosing all CIA’s abuses would diminish the effectiveness of which he feared (Richelson, p. 45).
There are which are two reasons attributed to why each and every postwar president supported as well as relied more on the CIA. First, the presidents had a stronger natural incentive for directly developing foreign policies on their own without interference from the Congress. This indicates that presidents were held responsible for the successes and failures of foreign policy. Secondly the rise of the Cold War triggered the use of covert operations. With the heightened conflicts between the Americans and Soviets, each power sought the alternative to the other without using military intervention. This urgency rose with the anticipation of the nuclear war. To counteract such aggression called for a new tactic to balance between war and diplomacy. Covert operations solved this problem (Richelson, p. 36).
Bureaucrats The bureaucrats in the larger intelligence community wanted their freedom. In this respect, they strongly advocated for decentralization of the intelligence system in 1947. Moreover, they endured the long development of the CIA system as it did not interfere with their own affairs, budgets and their people at large.
Although greater autonomy is preferred by all, intelligence was necessary to maintain their independence. As of 1948, Ferdinand Eberstadt echoed that each and every organization required intelligence based on their needs, for example, military intelligence (Richelson, p. 3).
The military has the defense intelligence which can only be interpreted by qualified military personnel. Therefore, such organizations like the military amongst others allowed the development of the CIA freely. Notably, they even supported CIA in getting the covert capabilities. However, the bureaucrats admitted that they never hoped that the CIA covert capability would grow powerful or large as it did (Richelson, p. 45).
Law/Policy Makers The lawmakers played a role in the evolution of the CIA, though it was complex. In the first half of the evolution process, the legislators blissfully ignored the covert operations and the management challenges in the CIA. In addition, the oversight committees and subcommittees like of the Armed forces awarded the CIA little attention.
The onset of 1970s saw the law makers’ active participation in matters regarding the CIA such as investigating the abuses. This was boosted by the selection of new oversight committees and intensified efforts to pass reform laws on CIA particularly in covert operations and management. In regards to abuse investigation, the lawmakers relied mainly on reports from the media and the public which they then investigated but changed (Richelson, p. 44).
We will write a custom Book Review on Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Exogenous Events The exogenous events were instrumental in propelling the CIA evolution. These events included war, threats, incursions and scandals. As noted above, the prevalence of the Cold War and other alarming was on the way contributed to the evolution and development of CIA. All these events catalyzed formation of covert activities. By the late 1940s, the American foreign policy adopted covert operations as one of the major weapons of war.
In regards to war, the Cold War was the primary war that influenced the creation of covert operations. However, other wars like the Korean War played a part. Indeed, the Korean War contributed to CIA expansions on a fourfold coupled with newer emphasis about the paramilitary operations. According to Ray Cline, former Deputy Director of CIA it is during the Korean War that the CIA gained total authority, funding and real CIA mercenaries (Richelson, p. 44).
CIA operations were faced with many scandals. The Soviet threats contributed to uncovering the dirty tricks and scandals in the CIA. This puts CIA into the spot from where the covert operations were highly questioned particularly in these three events; Bay of Pigs, 1970s scandals and Iran-Contra.
However, none of these events affected the CIA covert activities but rather intensified their use. Moreover, the collapse of the Soviet Union did not affect the CIA covert operations. Instead, the agency’s operations remained intact and shifted priority to other areas (Richelson, p. 47).
Increasing of CIA’s Effectiveness Since the inception, the CIA had been continually furnished to improve its effectiveness. To begin with, the CIA would have been more effective by embracing the latest technologies. This highly helped the CIA to adjust to the environment impacted by advances in science and technology. 1963 saw the creation of the Directorate for Science and Technology (DDS
Air Pollution and Health Policy in China Proposal best college essay help
The proposed study aims to critically assess the health impact of various forms of air pollution arising from overreliance on coal so as to inform current and future health policy directions in China. Towards the realization of this specific aim, the study will be guided by the following research questions:
1. What are the factors that are influencing the current state of China’s coal production and use?
Some of the factors that influence the high production and use of coal in China include enormous population, rapid economic growth, urbanization, and high demand for energy due to rapid industrialization (Kuby et al 795; Zhang
World War 1 Origins (How and Why the War Started) Essay essay help
Introduction Since time immemorial the world has witnessed wars between different groups, states, countries, and allies. Initially, the motive behind wars was survival. Ancient people fought in order to usurp land for cultivation. Gradually, as the world population grew, the motives behind wars became multifarious.
Different groups and countries started fighting with each other in order to gain control of areas where there were natural resources such as gold. Another reason for war was to gain access to routes generally used for movement of commodities from the starting place to the consumption areas.
It is understood that after a war, one group prospered at the cost of another. Religion also has been an instigating factor for many wars. However, in all the wars, the motive was to gain advantage of some sort.
During the past years, when countries came together as allies, there have been instances when allies of a particular group had to go to war just because they wanted to safeguard themselves from the disadvantages of not participating in the war. In this paper, we shall discuss the reasons that led to World War 1. “World War 1 began in eastern Europe. The war started when Serbia, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Germany decided that war or the risk of war was an acceptable policy option”.
Causes of World War 1 General Causes
1879 onwards, the world witnessed formation of alliances between nations having similar interests. Following are some of the major alliances that took place:
The Dual Alliance: Germany and Austria-Hungary entered into an alliance in 1879 in order to defend against Russia.
Austro-Serbian Alliance: Austria-Hungary and Serbia entered into an alliance in 1881 in order to prevent Russia from asserting power in Serbia.
The Triple Alliance: Germany and Austria-Hungary entered into an alliance with Italy in 1882 so that the latter could not favor Russia’s moves.
Franco-Russian Alliance: Russia and France entered into an alliance in 1894 in order to protect their countries from the Dual Alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary.
Entente Cordiale: France and Britain entered into a formal agreement in 1904 in order to protect each other’s interests.
Anglo-Russian Entente: Britain and Russia entered into a formal agreement in 1907 in order to protect each other’s interests.
Triple Entente: Russia, France and Britain entered into an alliance to counteract Germany’s growing threats. Later, in 1914 and under the same alliance, all the three countries concurred that they will not sign any peace treaty without mutual consent.
All these alliances (from 1879 to 1914) forced some countries to go to war just because they were in some alliance.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Imperialism
Imperialism is a term used for instances where any country usurps any other country’s land and asserts its supremacy and power. Due to the incessant progress of industrialization, countries felt the need of venturing into fresh marketplaces.
By the year 1900, Britain had extended its empire in five continents and France controlled major parts of Africa. The increase of both these countries’ power did not go well with Germany; Germany had only small areas under its rule. Following is a map that depicts the colonies of these three major European players in 1914.
William Anthony Hay claims that according to McMeekin, a tutor of international relations, “The war’s real catalyst lay in Russia’s ambition to supplant the waning Ottoman Empire in the Near East and to control the Turkish straits – the Bosphorus and Dardanelles – linking the Black Sea and the Mediterranean”.
But Richard Evans contradicts this opinion by stating that “In the end it was the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia that set off the process that ended in the outbreak of World War 1, not Russian ambitions in the Straits. But if we think logically, no country will enter into a war without personal interests.
Alliances were also made to serve individual interests. So it is wrong to say that Russia did not have any interest or ambitions in the Straits. Russia was an industrialized nation and needed to sell its products to people in other nations. For this purpose, it needed a safe passage and new markets.
We will write a custom Essay on World War 1 Origins (How and Why the War Started) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Militarism
When any country gives preference to its army, it is said to be following militarism. The growing alliances among various nations prompted nations to empower their army with more arms and ammunitions. France and Germany doubled the strengths of their respective armies.
Britain and Germany seemed to be in a competition of better sea control. In 1906, Britain launched the ‘Dreadnought’, considered to be a very efficient battleship. Following the footsteps, Germany also launched its own version of impressive battleships. The following illustration shows how Germany planned to attack France in case Russia attacked Germany; France and Russia were allies. So due to the alliance, Russia was bound to retaliate when one of its allies was attacked.
“A military revolution occurred in the seventeenth century. The most important of the many changes was a considerable growth in the size of the armies. Those large forces could no longer live off the land: steal supplies from the populace”.
We all have love for our respective countries. So did the people of that period. Austria-Hungary and Serbia had different radical groups trying to free their states from foreign involvement. Both Italy and Germany were divided. People of these countries wanted unification. “Along with the history of imperial machinations, however, World War 1 should be understood in the context of the popular imagination and the growth of nationalist sentiment in Europe”.
As part of an understanding, Britain gave control of Morocco to France in 1904. The Moroccan people wanted freedom. Germany, in order to take an advantage of the situation, proclaimed its support for the freedom of Morocco. A conference was held that allowed France to continue its control over Morocco and a war was averted. Again, in 1911, Germany started pronouncing its support for the Moroccan independence but again it was persuaded to compromise its stand on the issue.
Not sure if you can write a paper on World War 1 Origins (How and Why the War Started) by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Bosnian Crisis
Bosnia (a Turkish province) was taken over by Austria-Hungary in 1908. This action of Austria-Hungary did not go well with the Serbians. The Serbians thought Bosnia was under them. As such, a conflict aroused. Serbia proclaimed war over Austria-Hungary. Russia supported Serbia and Germany supported Austria-Hungary. A war was about to start but at the nick of the time Russia backed off and the war was averted.
But tensions were still mounting up between Serbia and Austria-Hungary. “It is true that during July the German decision makers sometimes expressed the hope that the conflict would be localized: in other words that Austria would be able to vanquish Serbia without Russian Intervention”. Dale Copeland argues that “Germany actively sought war in July 1914 and that German leaders by the end of July preferred world war to a negotiated peace, even to one that gave Austria most of what it wanted”.
The Immediate Trigger
World War 1 started in the year 1914. The assassination of Austria’s Archduke, Franz Ferdinand, acted as a trigger to World War 1. Franz Ferdinand and his wife were murdered in 1914 by Gavrilo Princip, member of a Bosnian radical group. “The crumbling Austro-Hungarian Empire decided, after the assassination on 28 June, to take action against Serbia, which was suspected of being behind the murder”.
This was considered to be an immediate reason for the war but the real reasons seem to be more complex and are still topics of debate among various historians. According to William Anthony Hay, “Germany bears responsibility for the war, in this view, because its leaders deliberately turned a regional clash between Austria-Hungary and Serbia into an existential Struggle of rival alliances”.
Hay is right in his opinion because history reveals that there were other options with Germany that could have averted the war. But since Germany wanted to gain on its own interests, it forced other countries to plunge into a war that they did not intend. “The size and wealth of the conquered Eastern territories easily outweighed what would have been lost had the Germans withdrawn from Belgium and France. Had they done so, France might have made peace and the anti-German coalition collapsed”.
Conclusion All these instances make us to believe that Germany was behind waging the World War 1. In its ambitions to usurp power, Germany was thought to have instigated the war. But it is to be understood that down the years, historians put an end to the controversy as to which country was responsible for the World War 1.
Historians from the two main countries (Germany and France) came to an understanding that none of their countries should be blamed for instigating World War 1. It was the policies of militarization of each of the participating countries that led to the war.
But certain facts still point the finger towards Germany. After the war started, some confidential documents were discovered that suggested that the German government had vast plans of extending its territory due to the economic requirements.
Bibliography Copeland, Dale. The Origins of Major War. New York: Cornell University Press, 2001.
Evans, Richard. “The Road to Slaughter.” New Republic. Last modified 2011. Web.
Fergusan, Niall. “Germany and the origins of the First World War: New Perspectives.” The Historical Journal 35, no. 3 (1992): 725-752.
Hamilton, Richard and Holger Herwig. The Origins of World War 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Hay, William. “Ambition in the East.” The Wall Street Journal. 2011. Web.
Merriman, John. “The Origins of World War 1.” Yale University. 2013. Web.
Sheffield, Gary. “The Origins of World War One.” BBC. 2011. Web.
Williamson, Samuel. “The Origins of World War 1.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18, no. 4 (1988): 795-818.
Footnotes Samuel Williamson, “The Origins of World War 1,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18, no. 4 (1988): 795.
William Anthony Hay, “Ambition in the East,” The Wall Street Journal, 2011.
Richard Evans, “The Road to Slaughter,” 2011.
Richard Hamilton and Holger Herwig, The Origins of World War 1 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 5.
John Merriman, “The Origins of World War 1,” Yale University, 2013.
Niall Fergusan, “Germany and the origins of the First World War: New Perspectives”, Historical Journal 35, no. 3 (1992): 731.
Dale Copeland, The Origins of Major War (New York: Cornell University Press, 2001), 79.
Gary Sheffield, “The Origins of World War One,” BBC, 08 March 2011.
William Anthony Hay, “Ambition in the East” in The Wall Street Journal
Gary Sheffield, “The Origins of World War One,” BBC, 08 March 2011.
Travelling across English Colonies Report (Assessment) a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
If I had an opportunity to travel across English colonies, I would have traveled to Jamestown because this was the first place that had been conquered by the British invaders. Besides, I could have become a witness of remarkable and historically important events that happened during the English colonization.
Located in Virginia, I could also chance to take part in establishing and developing colonies, as well enjoy the benefits of geographical location. There were also many other interesting events, including introduction to the indigenous culture, development of agriculture in the area, as well as acquaintance with the most influential figures in the history of colonization (Davidson et al. 6).
Finally, I could also have traced the origins of the historic survival of the newcomers on the Indian lands, particularly when the indigenous population rescued colonizers from hunger. However, I would prefer settling this territory after the years of hunger because these times were the most difficult ones for aristocratic population. Hence, I chose to stay at Jamestown for 15 years –from 1610 to 1624 – to trace economic, political, and cultural changes in the colonized region.
At the beginning of seventeenth century, many newcomers conquering Virginia were of aristocratic origins and, therefore, the main purpose of their expansion consisted in increasing the profits of the Virginia Company, the first enterprise established on the colonized territories.
Therefore, I could also have learnt much about the main underpinnings for the company’s activities, as well as their influence on the development and welfare of the colonized area. The significant economic progress would have allowed me to find a prestigious job and fulfill my professional goals.
Moreover, it could have become a marvelous opportunity for me to explore how ancient Americans adjusted to new economic conditions. Despite the rapid economic development, I would still be more concerned with cultural background of the period because this was an excellent opportunity to explore the history of Native Americans, as well as define why they had to confront the pressure on the part of the English colonists.
To increase the Virginia Company’s revenues, the new settlers tried a variety of small industries, including wood production, glassmaking, and potash production. However, none of the ventures had been successful until the production of tobacco was introduced by the colonist John Rolfe, an English newcomer who married Pocahontas, an indigenous girl.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During this period, tobacco was among the most popular plants that had been growing in the New World and, therefore, it brought in considerable revenues. Living at the beginning of the seventeenth century could have provided me with new business opportunities for expanding commercial relations.
Economic progress, therefore, could have created new ways for promoting my business and establishing fruitful relationships with Native Americans, who possessed valuable experience in cultivating land. Further expansion and growth of tobacco business allowed the settlers to carry out first export of the product to other countries and continents. The development of tobacco production influenced the decision of King James I to dissolve the Virginia Company and focus on other fields of potential growth.
Continued expansion and planting activities on the conquered had led to rapid development of agriculture. As soon as Indian tribes and English newcomers managed to establish peaceful relationships, the first assembly in Jamestown had decided to create the government of Virginia that could ensure justice and wealthy existences of all the inhabited people. This government was called the House of Burgesses, the precursor of the Virginia General Assembly.
The created group consisted of such influential figures as Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and Patrick Henry. All these political and economic activists lived at the beginning of the seventeenth century and, therefore, I could have had the possibility to gain knowledge about their policies, reforms, and activities. I could also have witnessed the development of four districts in the city that the colonist introduced to take greater control of the territory.
The representative government of English in the New World introduced a number of laws, causing numerous confrontations with indigenous population. In particular, a 1622 war with Indians, as well as multiple rebellions of the Indian population against the government is presented as the most abhorrent event in American history. As a result of such confrontations, the company had been destroyed in 1624 and the king of the colony had made the district royal.
from significant political development, I could also have traced the first arrival of African-American workers who had been originally recognized as servants. Based on the agreement, the workers had to work on the land for several years to be able to own it in future. Therefore, this period could also be considered successful because the agreement did not imply slavery or limitation to immigrants’ freedom.
With regard to the above-presented events, the last years of my staying at the colonies would have been the most difficult ones because the Indian population resisted the development of English colony. As a result, the events of 1622 related to the most horrible ones because they were connected with Indian Massacre, when more than 300 new settles had been killed.
We will write a custom Assessment on Travelling across English Colonies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More I believe that rapid spread of Christianity and economic development as a means of demonstrating power and influence of England was not a good policy because most of the explorers failed to express tolerance to religion and culture of the Indian tribes. However, abundance of resources that could contribute to the colonists’ wealth, as well as reluctance to cede the positions to the native population, had become the main reason for the emerged conflicts.
Jamestown continued controlling social and political life in Virginia, although the legislature and excess pressure of the newcomers made the Indian population constantly encounter segregation and violent treatment. Despite the fact that the period from 1610 to 1624 had a great number of hardships for the English colonist arriving to the coasts of Northern American, the new settlers managed to overcome the difficulties and create a powerful commercial, economic, and political infrastructure.
Therefore, Jamestown could be regarded as the most successful and prosperous centre at the beginning of the English colonization. Most of the events occurred to the region were connected with economic and commercial progress and, therefore, I could have had marvelous opportunities for carrying out business activities in case they were connected with agriculture.
Tobacco production was also among the most profitable ventures and, therefore, the New World during the period was also considered as the place for establishing commercial and business ventures. Finally, due to the fact that most of clashes between the Native population and the newcomers were based on religious discrepancies, I would have expressed more tolerance to their culture and traditions.
Works Cited Davidson James West, Delay Brian, Heyrman Christine Leigh, Lytle Mark, and Michael Stoff. Experience History: Interpreting America’s Past. US: McGraw-Hill Humanities, 2010. Print.
The Islamic Societies History Essay college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Territorial expansion of Islam
Introduction Islam plays a significant role in lives of many believers. It has been the unifying factor for many Muslims due to belief in one God and Muhammad as His Prophet. This essay explores the views of Muslims on the role of religion, politics, and military affairs, and how did this play out in the territorial expansion of Islam.
Religion Prophet Muhammad founded Islam in the seventh century AD. The religion spread through trade routes of the time. He claimed that he was getting messages from God. Muhammad claimed to be a prophet just like Moses and Jesus. However, Muhammad fled to Mecca and established a state of Medina where he found Pagan Arabs.
Muhammad engaged in assault of traders by attacking merchant caravans from his base in Medina. Pagan Arabs reacted by using armed soldiers on their trade routes. However, in the Battle of Badr, Muslims defeated Pagan Arabs, and this marked the spread of Islam. He expanded his territory in the following decades in which he fought both Pagan Arabs and other Arab tribes.
Muhammad guaranteed his soldiers everlasting life if they defended their faith. Muhammad became powerful and expelled the two tribes Medina due poor relationships. He massacred the third tribe of Banu Qurayza in Medina. He proceeded to take control of Mecca and establish control over other Pagan Arabs. He forcefully converted these Pagan Arabs to Islam.
The role of Islam depends on the five Pillars of Quran. Muhammad and Quran traditions have the fundamental rules directing Muslims. Islam controls believers’ right actions and rules. The religion has five pillars. The foremost pillar is the witness or shuhuduh, which highlights the existence of only one God and Muhammad is God’s prophet.
Therefore, any believer who does not recognize God, or has more than one God and rejects Muhammad as the prophet is an apostate. This is punishable by killing. The second pillar is the worship or salat or ritual prayer, which believers must conduct while facing the Kabah in Mecca and recite Quran. Salat is a way of cleansing and worshipping God.
The third pillar is fasting or saturn, which Muslims perform during the month of Ramadan. The fourth pillar is giving or zakat of tithe or alms. Zakat serves the purpose of helping the needy. It encourages Muslims to share whatever they have with the poor in society. The fifth pillar is pilgrimage or Hajj to Mecca. Muslims should visit Mecca at least once in a lifetime.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Apart from the five pillars, there are also other aspects of teaching that guide Muslims. Jihad in reference to war has been one of the most controversial pillars of Islam. According to Muslims, jihad wars are for God. However, others consider jihad as fundamentalism and a reaction to non-Muslims and other religions (Armstrong 169).
Muslims consider fighting against people who do not believe in God as right. Believers also fight people who have rejected the teachings of Prophet Muhammad until they can recognize both God and messages from Muhammad. Scholars have noted that Muslims attribute various meanings to jihad based on various contexts (Habeck 108). Some consider jihad as a fight against Jews, Christians, or Arab pagans. Other Muslims view jihad as a means of protecting Islam against external aggressors.
Politics Most states find it difficult to balance religious and secular aspects of rules. However, religion and politics have fundamental roles in states. A study in teachings of Muhammad reveals that Muhammad and his successors and followers introduced politics into Islam.
When Muhammad went to Medina in 622 CE, he used Islam to conquer and establish political territories. The warring tribes of Khazraj and Aus gave Muhammad an opportunity to rule as a neutral outsider. He wrote the Medina Charter, which gave him the power to rule, and it referred to him as the prophet of God.
Muhammad established the Medina Charter based on Quran and his actions. These are the Islamic laws or Sharia. They have been the cornerstone of Islamic movements and territorial expansions to present day. Muhammad used these Islamic laws to spread his power by capturing Mecca and other Pagan Arabs. He used the army and followers to fight Arab Pagans and Jewish. In some cases, Muhammad used diplomacy to conquer regions.
In the contemporary society, we have several Islamic democratic societies and parties. At the same time, we also have Islamic fundamentalists in various countries across the globe. Islamic fundamentalism is a term many non-Muslims used to refer to radical approaches most Muslims use to support or defend their religion. Such political and religious ideas have also found formidable support from terror groups and militant Islamic movements.
States are political vehicles for the actors or political leaders. However, secularism defines a religious state from other states. In other words, secular states welcome ideologies from religious bodies for creating fundamental laws that govern a country. We can understand the role of Islam and politics from this point.
We will write a custom Essay on The Islamic Societies History specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More We can consider “human rights, aspects of civic responsibilities, constitutionalism, and citizenship” (An-Na’im 4) in order to understand the relationship between Islam and politics. It is important to note that Islam and politics have their origin in history. Sharia laws allow people to have debates and reach consensus.
This is why Islam accepts some views, which Muslims formerly regarded as dissent. Islamic teaching of reciprocity or mu’awada also encourages debates, which should accommodate differences and guarantee individuals’ rights. This is the Golden Rule of the religion.
However, in the mainstream Islamic law fails to separate issues of states and the religion. It is Islamic laws that have applied in most cases. Studies have shown that contact with the West brought some secular ideas into Islamic, but reactions were different among various states.
For instance, some Islamic nations like Turkey and others have operated as secular countries. On the other hand, the Iran Revolution of 1979 replaced secularism with Islamic laws. Secularism has been a major uniting factor among different communities of Islam nations. This is because it favors minimal moral obligations on believers (An-Na’im 23).
Muhammad used Islamic laws as a constitution to run Mecca and conquer new states. Today, constitution aims at protecting Muslims by ensuring that rulers follow and engage in acceptable practices. Muslims have a right to create their own constitution to serve their needs. However, the only challenge is that a constitution should serve majorities who do not have control over a nation.
Politically, Muslim culture should advocate for human rights and today, most Muslim nations have started to adhere to human rights practices across the world. This aims at protecting individuals from harsh laws, which Islamic fundamentalists impose on the perceived offenders.
It is also necessary for Muslims to accept both teachings from international conventions and teachings from Quran. This approach does not undermine both conventions. As Muslims advocate for citizenship, they must rely on the principle of the Golden Rule. This gives all citizens equal opportunities. Therefore, political leaders must act with responsibility and honesty toward citizens.
In modern states of Islam, secular nations should be neutral with regard to political affairs. However, the state must understand the role of Islamic religion in shaping public affairs. In this context, civic reasons should work alongside religion principles in order to shape public policies. This is because religion alone cannot serve diverse interests of people. According to early historians in the Islamic religion, civic reason is a part of Islamic principles, which evolved with Islam (Feldman 9).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Islamic Societies History by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Civic reason tends to show the line between the state and religion. This aims at protecting Muslims so that they can express their different views without attacks. In this regard, the state should not control the functions of civic reason. Instead, the state should support fundamental principles to guide civic reason for inclusive purposes.
Islamic scholars have supported the place of Islamic religion in politics. They also noted that Western civilization slowed the spread of Islamic ideologies (Feldman 79). Therefore, effects of Western colonialism in Islamic states have shaped political ideologies in such states.
For instance, in current Islamic states, Mostapha Benhenda notes that democracy within “Islam often means democracy within Islamic limits” (Benhenda 1). This implies that Muslims have shaped their current governments to reflect Islamic ideologies. However, different states have different approaches of defining their Islamic ideologies based on the prevailing circumstances.
Most democratic Islamic groups, such as Muslim Brotherhood and Jamaat-e-Islami have noted that democracy can help them achieve their goals through cooperation with other like-minded political movements. On the other hand, fundamentalists like al-Shabbab, al-Qaeda, and Taliban have embraced radical and militant Islamic principles to punish perceived offenders of the religion.
Military affairs Prophet Muhammad encouraged his followers to fight jihad. This meant that the fight was in the way of God. Therefore, Muslims had to use their power, exert efforts, and endeavor in order to overcome forms of social disapproval. However, the application of jihad differs based on the perceived sin, enemy, or one’s sinful ways.
Based on these various usages of jihad, scholars concur that when the term jihad lacks a qualifier, then it takes its military usage. Others have viewed jihad in terms of a struggle to achieve religious and moral obligations (Esposito 56). Still, there are Muslims who prescribe to the ultimate jihad, which only focuses on spiritual well-being of believers. On the other hand, we also have a jihad that drives warfare ideologies.
Most Islamic states consider jihad as a military exertion against enemies, non-believers, and non-Muslims. This is mainly in cases where Muslims need to expand their territory or Ummah or in the defense. Scholars have debated the ultimate aim of jihad. Others consider it as a way of protecting Islamic religion or territory with no offensive motives. Conversely, others view jihad as a way of conquering the entire world.
According to many scholars, “jihad is the only form of warfare permissible in Islamic law and may be declared against terrorists, criminal groups, rebels, apostates, and leaders or states who oppress Muslims or hamper proselytizing efforts” (Habeck 108). As a result, many Muslims believe that jihad is the only form of war that is suitable for defense. It also applies in cases where a society must operate under Sharia or Islamic laws.
Among Muslims, jihad is not an individual’s responsibility, but rather a collective one. It is only among people with important positions who must consider jihad as an individual’s duty. Therefore, people who have great duties to declare jihad must mobilize the rest of the population in order to participate in jihad.
It is the responsibility of spiritual leader to declare offensive jihad on others. However, offensive jihad is rare. Some scholars also note that jihad has its limits. For instance, Muhammad did not allow killing of women and children during jihad. Besides, the Quran does not make jihad a compulsory affair.
Muslim armies stayed away from cities in order to avoid corruption of cities. The second Caliph, Umar did not want desert soldiers to adopt corruption in cities. Umar did not want soldiers to learn behaviors of Roman and Persian elites. As a result, soldiers had to stay in isolated camps away from cities. Caliph argued that the attraction of wealth and luxury would corrupt the soldiers. This was also a method of keeping soldiers away from the general population in order to avoid struggle for control with other authorities.
Territorial expansion of Islam Initially, Islam was mainly in cities and among some nomads. The armies of Muhammad established garrisons, which grew into cities. These conquerors spread the religion forcefully and by diplomatic means. The religion attracted other nomads as it gained economic power too. Later, Muhammad allowed imperial expansion of Islam (Karsh 19).
Muhammad died in 632 AD. Caliphs took over the leadership of Islam. Caliphs were close to Muhammad. Rashidun Caliphs adopted the Muhammad’s method of acquiring new territories. Abu Bakr became a Caliph after the death of Muhammad. His major assignment was to eliminate rebellion of Arab tribes, which renounced the religion after the death Muhammad.
This was the beginning of the War of Apostasy, which aimed at suppressing rebels. After the end of the War of Apostasy, Caliph started to attack powerful empires of the Byzantine Empire and Sassanid Empire. These two empires did not provide much resistance to Muslims because they were weak from war between themselves.
The second wave of Islamic territorial expansion used both persuasion and military force. Military expansion became the preferred method of expanding the territory of the religion. According to scholars in Islamic history, the Arab or Turkish conquerors applied force in “North Africa, Anatolia, the Balkans, and India” (Lapidus 198).
In other areas, such as West Africa and Indian Ocean regions, they used peace to spread the religion. In other cases, rulers or urban dwellers decided to adopt the religion. It is necessary to note that most coverts of Islam also resorted to forceful methods in order to expand their territories (Spencer 150).
Conclusion Muslims expanded their territories through persuasion and wars. However, Muslims relationships depicted of invasions, conquests, and destruction. Muslims’ powerful leaders also rose and fell as some of them committed atrocities against non-Muslims and people who resisted the religion. Islamic religion managed to maintain its stability and spread in most areas of the despite these cases constant wars. Roles of Islam are important for followers. However, the forceful and radical approaches make Islam feared and controversial.
Works Cited An-Na’im, Abdullahi Ahmed. The Future of Shari`a: Secularism from an Islamic Perspective. Atlanta, GA: Emory School of Law, 2007. Print.
Armstrong, Karen. Islam: A Short History. New York: Modern Library Publishers, 2002. Print.
Benhenda, Mostapha. “Liberal Democracy and Political Islam: The Search for Common Ground.” Politics, Philosophy
A Discussion on the Effects of Geography online essay help: online essay help
The assigned reading demonstrates how history is filled with various accounts of man’s conquest at the sea. Through the act of piercing together various evidentiary accounts dating back to prehistoric times, the reading brings into the limelight some of the factors that came into play to favor the development of sailing in the Arabian shores and beyond. The present paper relies on the reading to demonstrate how geography and climate favored the development of Arab seafaring.
In terms of geographical orientation, it can be argued that Arab seafaring benefited a great deal by virtue of the Arabian physical location at the crossroads of important commerce routes that not only necessitated oriental trade with the Mediterranean world but also ensured easy flow of goods via the Arabian Peninsula, the Gulf of Suez and the Persian Gulf.
It is clear from the reading that owing to its physical location at the epicenter of these natural waterways, that Arabian commerce with neighboring countries was invited to the west by the long shores of Northeast Africa and to the Northeast by the long shores of Iran.
Additionally, owing to its physical location, the Arab world was in direct contact with some of the most ancient centers of wealth and civilization, including Egypt, Iran, and Mesopotamia, implying that more commerce passed its way as goods were being transported from these centers to far away countries such as China and India.
Wares from China and India also passed through the Arab world into these centers because Arabs had easy access to the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. The Arab world also benefitted substantially from the Red Sea, the Nile, the Euphrates and the Tigris, which were natural channels that could be used for through traffic of goods between the Mediterranean basin and Eastern Asia. These geographical factors favored the development and growth of Arab seafaring.
In terms of climate, it can be argued that Arab seafaring benefited a great deal from the monsoon winds, which, according to the reading, assisted voyages both to Africa and to India.
However, it should be noted that Arab ships could not stand the vigor of the southwest monsoon winds which started in July and terminated in October due to the fact that the boats were made of skins and hollowed coconut trunks, not mentioning that they were sewn with stitches of coconut fiber instead of being secured with large iron nails as was the case with Greek ships.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Additionally, it is imperative to mention that the Persian Gulf not only lacked craftsmen to build strong ships, but the area produced little suitable timber for shipbuilding, necessitating Arab seafarers to build their boats from coconut trunks that could easily fall apart in high seas.
Consequently, owing to the unstable shape of the Arab ships as explained above, the reading suggests that Arab seafarers used the northeast monsoon to sail to countries such as India as it was not as vigorous as the southwest monsoon.
All the same, it is evident that Arab seafarers benefitted a great deal from the monsoon winds as they later employed the services of the Phoenicians to build strong ships from timber fetched from Nineveh. These new ships could withstand the strong southwest monsoon winds to directly sail from Arabia to India and then return in winter using the northeast monsoon winds.
Faith and Family: Video Review Essay (Movie Review) essay help online free: essay help online free
The significance of a family as a building block of the community is enormous because it is important for each individuals to have a feeling of connection. Indeed, family shapes our attitude to morale, divorce, religion, and beliefs. It provides a deeper understanding of people’s future goals in life. While looking at the videos on family and faith, it is possible to construct the basic values that a human should pursue to become a moral and full-fledged member of society.
At this point, understanding morally right beliefs and behavior should serve the basis for developing worldviews. Family relationships provide individuals with a meaning of parenting and upbringing through enhancing our religious commitment and faith. Increased awareness of the role of family’s ethnic heritage is important as well because it affects people’s attitude toward their cultural backgrounds. Finally, the ethnic and social values influence the religious responses of family members to social and cultural challenges.
In the first video, much attention is given to the role of religion and faith in family life. In particular, traditional beliefs systems that family follows are premised on social environment in which it is placed.
In fact, deep commitment to and faith in family’s power influences their interest in such aspects as social justice and belief systems. At this point, the majority of families realize that religious has always had a strong influence on them because members of society are regarded as future representatives of generation that should preserve family traditions.
Certainly, the religion accepted in a family is likely to influence children’s future belief systems. Within this perspective, the fact that religious parents have a strong impact on their children’s choices is not always approved.
However, children should not be under the pressure of parents’ preferences and stereotypes because there is greater probability that they would rebel. Imposing limitations on their choices does not contribute to children’s normal emotional and psychological development. Therefore, providing freedom in their actions is the best way for parents to control their children.
The fact that ethnicity influences considerably family’s culture, values, and environment is undeniable. Therefore, such challenges as racial discrimination, inequality, and limited freedom are among the most serious ones that families from minority groups can face. In the video, there is much concern about the difficulties that African-American communities encounter due to the crisis of social and ethnical values. In fact, the historical past has a tangible imprint on black families who strive to lead a normal life.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result of social and cultural pressure, African American communities also have problems with children’s upbringing who often lack communication skills. The majority of kids do not posses the sense of family belonging because of their ethnical ancestry. Nevertheless, the community should strive to reduce the consequences of racial discrimination and harassment to build a healthy community.
Finally, in order to build a strong family with high moral values, the emphasis should be placed on religious responses to the social challenges. In particular, the video focuses on the achievements and contributions that religious communities and church made to improve the situation.
Introducing mentors who could encourage frustrated families is a step forward toward restoring the utmost family values and developing a new ethical and moral framework. In such a manner, it is also possible to reduce the number of divorce and bring up a happy nation.
Economic Analysis of Germany Case Study college admissions essay help
Major macro-economic indicators 2010 2011 2012 2013(f) GDP Growth (%) 3.6% 2.7% 3.1% 0.9% Inflation (Yearly average) (%) 1.1% 2.2% 1.99% 1.3% Budget balance (% of GDP) 4.2% 0.8% 0.2% 0.4% Current account balance (% of GDP) 6.11% 5.63% 5.65% 5.69% Public debt (% of GDP) 83.4% 81.5% 83% 81% Strengths Germany is characterized by a thriving export industry, strict discipline on fiscal matters and industrial relations and welfare policies which are driven by consensus among all parties. The country is specifically associated with goods of high quality and goods that are high-tech. It also practices a social market economy which is characterized by a combination of free enterprise and competition that concentrates on high level of social services.
Germany’s economy is ranked third largest in the world in terms of market exchange rates and fifth largest one in terms of purchasing power parity. There is social understanding and cohesion among employers and employees, and the workers’ union representatives negotiate with executives of corporate companies in boardrooms. This system is referred to as co-determination.
Germany is also credited with having the largest coal deposits among the European Union countries, estimated at 7.4 billion short tons. This state has also put in place a highly developed transport and communications network which helps in transportation of goods and services (Merikas
Psychology of Business Essay best college essay help: best college essay help
Literature Review Situational Questionnaires
While filling out the situation questionnaire, specific emphasis is placed on the analysis of situations the interviewees could face in various settings. At this point, Deinzer et al. (1995) assert that situation has a potent impact on the individual’s traits and behavior. Latent forms of expression and exposition, therefore, could be revealed by means of situational questionnaire.
In addition, Isaksen et al. (2001) focuses on the role of situational outlook questionnaire in improving or hampering the creative thinking among learners. The findings have revealed that learners rely on their experience while presenting their attitude to an academic process.
Behavioral psychology has a long history because it allows the researchers to identify the main aspects of social cognition. Therefore, introducing behavioral questionnaires provides a greater understanding how individuals respond to certain factors (Rath et al., 2013). Introducing behavioral questionnaires to the participants of the study contributes to self-evaluation of performance and other characteristics.
Analysis of spatial intelligence is also crucial for understanding which skills, experiences, and abilities could be measured by means of behavioral questionnaire (Eliot
Toy Story 1: An animation legend Research Paper custom essay help
Before Toy Story 1, Pixar previously worked on commercials and individual sequences of feature films and produced such short pieces as the 1988 Oscar-winner Tin Toy, which John Lasseter took on behalf of Pixar.
When it turned out that he was the one to direct Toy Story, it became a legend and revolutionized an industry. As a production director, he advanced the animation technology to produce an animation movie in a period of two years, integrating skills of more than 110 people, including 28 animators and 30 technical directors. (Robertson “A Triumph of Animation”)
Animation development is done through several techniques including stop motion, computer generated imagery (CGI) and hand-rendered art, among others. Stop motion involves the use of physical objects, photographing them and creating an illusion of movement through moving the object over a series of separate photography frames and then playing these frames sequentially.
Computer generated imagery involves the use of computer graphics, while hand-rendered art involves drawing scenes physically. An animation can be performed through a combination of such techniques. Exclusive production of Toy Story 1 is done by Computer Generated Imagery. Computer Generated Imagery involves three basic steps.
First, it is necessary to develop a wire frame geometric model for every object of the animation. Secondly, defining surface appearances, such as textures, color and reaction to light, is needed. The last step to perform is to execute the scenes, which is done by animating objects, integrating sound and light (Mitchel “Impact of CGI on Animation”).
Considering animation production of Toy Story 1, it should be noted that it is performed completely by computers, then computing power is of top priority. Pixar developed a unique computing room for Toy Story 1. The 24-hour operating room, named Sun farm after its excessive use of Sun Microsystems hardware, was created.
It had 294 processors running from Sun SPARC station 20s–87 dual-processor and 30 quad-processor SPARC stations. With the use of exceptional software for modeling, creating texture and colors, animating objects, integrating sound and lighting, the production included 1700 shots. It is the running of these frame animations which creates this computer-animated film, Toy Story 1.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first step in Computer Generated Imagery animation is generating animated objects. With over 366 objects, it required a dedicated team of artists to use this proprietary shelf software.
With the exception of the digitization of the clay model of dog Scud, all other objects were designed by sole use of Alias and Men V software. The latter is procedural modeling environment fourth generation Pixar software, which was used to create a five-block neighborhood with immense details, so that each house has its own driveway and landscape or even the cars and telephone poles.
The software used revolutionized the way of creating animated characters, such as designing a manufactured look for Woody. In creating some objects, modelers used some parts of the objects to make other ones; this practice came into play in creating things and humans through appropriating sizes and magnitudes. To create hair in animations, such as Andy’s hair, is quite a complex task; it took Pixar 6 years, after finishing Toy Story 1, to perfect this technique to produce Monster Inc in 2001. (Robertson “A Triumph of Animation”)
After modeling the underlying object skeleton; step two is the next to be followed. In this step of computer generated imagery animators, it is necessary to define the surface appearance of each object like color, texture and transparency. This involves the use of a specialized animation-computing tool, Shaders. Apart from describing outlook of object’s surfaces, it defines their reaction to light. An added twist to this mix was using top animation painters to paint splotches to incorporate into the software set.
This created a realistic effect of surface change in the occurrence of actions on the object and creating a background disparity and depth. An integral development of this software enabled the Pixar team to reduce the number of models needed, instead of creating models for providing minor details on existing objects; the result of complex software development was ability of Shaders to create a rich texture, such as scuffmarks on the walls. Further modification of this software was crucial to handle close-ups.
Third step was in parts animating the objects, lighting, inclusion of sound and finally, film shooting. In Toy Story 1, the animation of all the 50 characters including main characters, other toys and humans was needed. Human toys were complex to animate, especially due to clothes, which require a lot of details to be taken into account.
Characters’ animation was accomplished by Men V, implementing animation controls into the models, such as Buzz’s 800 animation controls. This software uses an inverse standard animation toolset. The assignment of characters was to multiple animators, each animator was working on a movie frame. (Robertson “A Triumph of Animation”)
We will write a custom Research Paper on Toy Story 1: An animation legend specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Animation is quite a tedious yet still stimulating activity. The first step was analysis of the characters make-up, such as rigidity, then repeatedly listening to the dialog track in order to grow an imagination of their expectations of character’s movement in a given frame. After character’s animation is done, facial animation and lip sync came in; it included the development of character faces with pull points for facial muscles, which were essential to depict emotions and lips’ move in tandem with voice. (Calhoun “Toy Story”)
With animated models and sound built in, one detail was missing, lighting. Galyn Susman, a long standing Pixar employee, was the lighting director. With Man V, modelers created objects’ reaction to the light, which was quite essential development for this stage.
Importance of lighting cannot be underestimated because this is what creates drama, interaction, environments as well as hides animation flaws. The dramatic environment, such as a shower of rain and light streaming out, is a good example where lightning plays the major role. Animation of humans was a challenge; covering any of their animation flaws in shadow was a necessary action.
For Pixar, much used to just creating commercials, movie production required a different form of management. A team of Heidi Stettner and Peter Nye led by Karen Robert created a tracking system for the production. The system had complete information of everything in the movie. It was an all-inclusive system, which had versions of all details of the production work and the updates. The string tied the production all together.
The Pixar team succeeded in turning imagination of children’s book to a real movie. In the process, it built a new world for us, a world filled with animated humans and living toys. On November 22, 1995, launch of Toy Story 1 took an industry by storm by becoming a clear box office winner through gaining $361 million.
Years later, 2010 to be exact, after much tweaking with the software in areas, such as lighting and Shaders, though not under Lasseter’s wing, Toy Story 3 became the tenth all time grossing animated film and the most grossing animation, with unfathomable $1 billion at the box office (Mitchel “Impact of CGI on Animation”).
Works Cited Calhoun, John. “Toy Story”. TCI. February 1996. Print.
Mitchel, David. “Impact of CGI on Animation” zenoshrdlu, 2002. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Toy Story 1: An animation legend by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Robertson, Barbara. “A Triumph of Animation”. Computer Graphics World Magazine – August 1995. Print.
Death Lore: Texas Rituals, Superstitions, and Legends of the Hereafter Essay (Article) college application essay help
Table of Contents What does Death Lore entail?
What does death encompass?
Is the research done in the field of Death Lore enough?
Untiedt looks at some of the key aspects that encompass death, dying and other aspects. He affirms that death is familiar and universal to all societies in the world. Thus, this has ensured that there are tales, activities and even beliefs that involve death. These aspects cannot be separated from each other because they encompass uncertainty and anxiety.
Most people do not talk about death because it is perceived as a taboo. In fact, conversations avoid death aspects. Besides, it is a topic that fascinates all people in all societies. Although, writers have written on aspects of death, there are many aspects unknown to people.
What does Death Lore entail? Therefore, fear, mystery and familiarity make death the focus of most folklore. This has seen the writing of many articles that try to address the issue of death. For instance, in Texas, publications on the same topic have facilitated folkloristic appreciation and understanding of the same.
Besides, this is aimed at educating the people of their culture without interfering with values that are upheld in society. Hence, Death Lore encompasses a number of articles, recollections and other topics on death from other parts of the world (Untiedt, 1). Further, it links the same to the beliefs and values of the people of the state of Texas.
Untiedt also explores the resting places of the dead people. For instance, he enlightens the people of Texas on the graveyards and all that go around them. Further, he looks at the challenges involved in cemetery space allocation. Besides, Untiedt brings out some of the bizarre wishes that are made by families of the dead people.
What does death encompass? Moreover, the Untiedt highlights some of the death process and the ceremonies that follow thereafter. Besides, he addresses some rituals that are done for the dead. This is achieved through the use of narratives. He also incorporates the work of other authors such as Massingills and Oden to highlight the worth of death lore for the people in various societies.
In fact, death Lore highlights different perspectives about death in various societies. Therefore, there is the likelihood of raising many questions rather than giving answers. It has not been able to address some of the aspects that encompass the Texas Death lore. For example, death has not been explored in the computer age (Untiedt, 288). However, this does not deter a person from appreciating all that has been done by authors like Ward and Rushing.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Is the research done in the field of Death Lore enough? What is more, there are gaps regarding the Texas Death lore. This has been intentionally left to facilitate other researches on the same topic. This would also act, as a motivator, to ensure that people are involved in carrying out research. Furthermore, this will ensure that there is extra exploration in the field of death. Thus, there will be more sources with appropriate and valid data to be used than before.
In summary, Untiedt’s literature highlights the relationship between the fascination and taboos regarding death. This forms the foundation for further research on issues of death. Therefore, it gives other authors a challenge that needs to be solved. In fact, his work encourages others to find anecdotal and analytic issues that underpin deaths in societies.
Works Cited Untiedt, Kenneth. “Death Lore: Texas Rituals, Superstitions, and Legends of the Hereafter.” Journal of American Folklore (2008): 288- 290. Print.
Company Analysis between FedEx and US Postal Service Term Paper essay help online: essay help online
Table of Contents Overview of the USPS and FedEx
Overview of US Postal Service
Overview of FedEx Corporation
Competiveness between US Postal Service and FedEx
Overview of the USPS and FedEx The contemporary economy provides both opportunities and challenges for the logistics companies in the United States and the entire world. Most companies are, therefore, coming up with competitive strategies that are meant to help them withstand the challenges, thus enhancing their competitiveness in the logistics sector.
FedEx and the United States Postal Service (USPS) and FedEx are examples of companies that operate in the larger US logistics sector. The last two decades have witnessed a significant rise in cross border trade. This has been enabled by an increase in the number of shipments of goods from one region of the world to the other. Also, the volumes of trade within countries keep swelling, thus enhancing the significance of the companies that deal in delivery of goods to customers.
Overview of US Postal Service The USPS is a logistics company that deals in the provision postal services across the United States. The US Postal Service is a government owned agency that has dealt in the provision of postal services for over two centuries. The most unique feature between the US Postal Service and FedEx is the size of US Postal Service. The US Postal Service is the largest postal service company in the world. It should be noted that though it is government owned, the agency operates independently. With over a half a million employees and over a quarter a million fleet of vehicles, the company supplies and delivers mails across the entire United States.
Being the main government owned agency in the logistics sector in the United States, the main competitors for the company are private companies like FedEx. In order to enhance its capacity to deliver services, the US Postal Service contracts most of its activities to other companies. Contracting eases the competitive scale for the company, besides increasing efficiency in the discharge of services, particularly in business areas like overseas freighting in which the company is disadvantaged (Team, 2012).
Overview of FedEx Corporation FedEx Corporation is a United States based global courier that delivers services across the United States. FedEx began its operations in the year 1971. However, the real stature of the company today is based on the developments in the company from the 1980s up to today, where the company made a series of acquisitions in order to gain the status it has today.
FedEx is organized into diverse units, which makes it easy for the company to attend to diverse business operations. FedEx operates as an international carrier, unlike the US Postal Services that largely operates in the United States and contracts most of its foreign shipment services to other companies. At the beginning of this year, the company was listed in the Fortune Magazine as the most attractive companies for employees (Rushton
Understanding Technology Management Fundamentals Research Paper essay help online
Introduction Acquisitions, mergers, and or strategic alliances make it possible to create values that are attributed to some forms of synergies. Although such an advantage is beneficial for the American Airlines and the US Airways, “statistical findings show that the benefits that look so good on paper often do not materialize” (Stahl, 2004, p.3).
Mergers may at times produce value destruction. Literature on acquisitions and mergers record failure rates in the range of 50 to 70 percent with exceptions where the failure rate may even be higher (Stahl, 2004). This paper argues that, in the proposed merger of American Airlines and the US Airways, companies should put in place strategic measures to resolve internal challenges for the merger to be successful.
Problem Analysis Fare regulation and Labor integration challenge
One of the substantive impacts of the merger between the US Airways and the American Airlines is that competition in the industry would be reduced. Portillo (2013) supports this challenge by reckoning, “the combination will reduce the number of competitors, which would otherwise suggest that higher fares are in the offing” (Para.11).
Even if this challenge is crucial, the American Airlines and the US Airways have had little overlaps since the two companies have established strong brand names. Merging the two companies would mean putting efforts to establish a new brand. Portillo (2013) exemplifies the overall internal impact of this case by arguing, “the merger will result in the loss of one airline brand name though the net to the consumer will not be some octopus-like monopoly that chokes fares upward” (Para.13).
In the airline industry, competition is one of the magnificent factors that make companies build their brands based on low fares. Merging the companies translates into a reduction of the industry’s competition. Hence, it is more likely that fares would go up across the entire firms operating in the industry. More effects are perhaps expected in the routes where the American Airlines and the US Airways have been dominating together.
Past research indicated that mergers fail because of poor strategic fits. Research that is more recent disapproves this position by holding that mergers and acquisitions find themselves in trouble due to poor execution processes related to “instances of insensitive management, lack of trust building, communication, slow execution, power struggles, or a leadership vacuum following the deal” (Stahl, 2004, pp. 3-4).
As an internal challenge facing mergers, leadership manifests itself for reasons stemming from the fact that the merger firms had some existing hierarchical leadership structures, which cannot be filled with dual person in the new firm. For the merger between the American Airlines and the US Airways, the above issue surfaced even before the execution of the merger deal took place.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, it has already been agreed upon, “Tom Horton, chief executive of American Airlines’ parent company AMR Corp., will serve as the company’s chairman for about a year, and Parker will become the chairman upon his resignation” (Portillo, 2004, Para. 2).
While the deal for the leadership top positions seems to have already been arrived at, the criteria for allocation of leadership positions in the lower hierarchical structures of management in the merger may create challenges thus often truncating into internal organizational conflicts.
Still in the domain of mergers’ leadership, different organizations establish different organizational cultures. Therefore, a challenge arises in the integration of different corporate cultures into one culture (Klein
International Pressure and Sanctions Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
How International Action Contributed to Ending Apartheid
Introduction The apartheid system, which was in place from the late 1940s to the early 1990s in South Africa, was one of the worse examples of discrimination and racism by a government against its citizens. This system divided South Africans into first class and second-class citizens based on their racial orientation.
The minority white South Africans were afforded all the political privileges and given the status of “first class citizens” while the other races were treated as inferior. The South African government tried to justify this discriminative system to its citizens and the international community. However, local and international condemnation of the system grew over the 1960s with calls been made for the government to end this oppressive system.
The relative importance of the domestic and international in bringing an end to apartheid is debatable with some people arguing that black South Africans political participation in anti-apartheid movements played the biggest role while others argue that actions by the international community where the most significant in dismantling apartheid. This paper will argue that international pressure and sanctions were the most important factors in ending apartheid in South Africa.
How International Action Contributed to Ending Apartheid The economic sanctions imposed on the apartheid government led to economic difficulties that made the apartheid system unfavorable. The goal of imposing sanctions against South Africa was to reduce the economic welfare of the rich white minority in the country and hence diminish the willingness of the country to persist in maintaining apartheid.
In spite of the country’s mineral wealth and valuable geographic position, the international community was not willing to downplay apartheid (Thomson 114). Western powers encouraged their citizens to disinvest in South Africa. This disinvestment by capital by foreigners led to a significant reduction in the wealth of the white minority therefore raising the costs of apartheid for the group that had benefited from the system.
Kaempfer and Lowenberg note that the economic sanctions against South Africa resulted in a reduction of the GDP of the country (377). These negative economic outcomes led to a change in the behavior of the South African government in the desired direction. Economic sanctions contributed in the dismantling of apartheid by reducing the economic welfare of the white minority who were the main beneficiaries of the apartheid system.
The isolation brought about by international pressure decreased government efficiency and the local support for apartheid. Led by the United Nations, many countries condemned the policy of apartheid and called for its end. Lulat (364) notes that many newly independent African countries put pressure on the Western powers to take action against the South African regime.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Efforts by the international community to pressure the South African Government to end apartheid were in play as early as 1963 when the US sort ways to “induce the South African government to remove the evil business of apartheid from the continent of Africa” (Duncan 38).
The US and some European countries restricted the granting of travel visas to high-ranking political and military personnel within the South African government. In 1977, the US government recalled its Ambassador to South Africa and subsequently joined the rest of the world in condemning apartheid (Thomson 113). In addition to the effect that international pressure had on the white South African community, it also raised the expectations of black South Africans.
International pressure demonstrated to the black community that the rest of the world supported their efforts towards ending apartheid. It showed that the international community supported the determination of the Africans to win full status and dignity in their country. The government therefore had a harder time maintaining and defending apartheid institutions in light of this anti-apartheid sentiment from the international community.
International efforts against the Apartheid regime led to the imposition of an arms embargo that reduce the military capability of the South African government and increased the cost of equipping the military. Due to the perceived injustices of apartheid, the non-White groups in the country founded protest movements to fight for equal rights and freedoms with the whites. The government reacted aggressively to this protests using military force to suppress any opposition.
Duncan observed that the growing government oppression in South Africa could only be countered by external pressures (42). The international community therefore intervened to stop the government from getting the arms that it needed to form a well-equipped army to counter this growing African militancy. Its efforts to acquire this arms from the international market where thwarted by a UN Security Council resolution in 1977 that banned the shipment of arms to the South African Government.
The United States, which is a major weapons trader in the world, adopted a complete embargo of military equipment to South Africa. Duncan notes that the US stopped supplying the South African government with all lethal goods and even terminated the sale of all military spare parts to South Africa (115). The South African government tried to counter this arms embargo by manufacturing its own arms.
However, the locally produced weapons were costly and of a lower quality to those available in the international market. In addition to this, the cost of research and production led to financial strain by the government as funds were diverted from important public institutions. This decreased the popularity of the apartheid policy even within members of the White population.
We will write a custom Essay on International Pressure and Sanctions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More International pressure forced the South African government to enter negotiations with the oppositions groups that were demanding political representation and justice. The apartheid policy had denied the non-White population any political power and the white minority were unwilling to reach a compromise.
The prominent anti-apartheid South African cleric, Archbishop Desmond Tutu declared that while the objective of the African opposition movements was negotiation, the apartheid regime could not “get to the table without concerted international pressure” (Lulat 364).
Through this pressure, the government was forced to listen to the troubles of the majority and react to them in a favorable manner. Without the involvement of the international community, the South African government had no incentive to negotiate with its non-White population.
Conclusion This paper set out to argue that international pressures and sanctions played the most significant role in ending apartheid in South Africa. To this end, it has highlighted the ways in which the international community contributed to the collapse of apartheid.
Through international pressure and the use of punitive measures such as investment sanctions and trade restrictions and embargoes on supply of key goods, the international community was able to accelerate the ending of apartheid in South Africa.
If the international community had not involved itself in South Africa’s affairs, the oppressive apartheid system would have continued for longer. Because of this international pressure and sanction, South African abandoned apartheid and adopted a system that ensured majority rule based on justice and equality.
Works Cited Duncan, Patrick. “Toward a World Policy for South Africa”. Foreign Affairs 42.1 (1963): 38-48. Web.
Kaempfer, William and Lowenberg Anton. “A Model of the Political Economy of International Investment Sanctions: The Case of South Africa”. KYKLOS Journal 39.3 (1986): 377-397. Web.
Not sure if you can write a paper on International Pressure and Sanctions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lulat, Yuni. United States Relations with South Africa: A Critical Overview from the Colonial Period to the Present. Peter Lang, 2008. Print.
Thomson, Alex. “The Diplomacy of Impasse: the Carter Administration and Apartheid South Africa”. Diplomacy
Anti-same-sex Marriage Laws and Amendments Violate the Constitutional Guarantees of Equality for all Citizens of the United States Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Definition of key terms
Criteria for value judgement
Application of the criteria
Introduction Over the years, marriage has been thought to be a private affair between two partners who express love and commitment to each other. However, this has grown to be referred to as a public institution. Marriage originates from time immemorial where the Christians profess that God created man and woman and put them in the Garden of Eden to reproduce and take care of the garden.
Therefore, the marriage institution has existed for a long time now. However, different scholars have emerged with various definitions of the term marriage. The marriage bill in the United State has had various amendments as different leaders considered it a sensitive issue in the country. The issue of gay marriage has always been brought about by lawmakers in the country since the 1970s where they advocate for legalization of the same sex marriage.
This paper brings into light several amendments to the Marriage Act where it guarantees the constitutional right of all citizens in the country. The Defense of Marriage Act is abbreviated as DOMA was enacted on September 1996 by the United States Congress. This legislation was enacted under President Bill Clinton, and it recognizes the marriage institution. According to DOMA, marriage refers to a union between a man and a woman that is legal under law that give the right of each partner in the marriage.
However, the law does not acknowledge the existence of the same sex marriage, and this has brought about legal cases to the government by aggrieved parties. The act signed into law by President Clinton raised a lot of questions about the Marriage Act where different lawmakers failed to acknowledge homosexual marriages under the law. The failure to recognize same sex marriage brought a lot of legal action to the government by aggrieved parties (Perkins, 2).
Definition of key terms Federal law refers to a state regulation of Acts that each citizen is supposed to follow without fail. The Federal bills are passed by the Congress and signed by the President before being gazetted into law.
The laws provide guidelines of how citizens should carry themselves under the legal framework of the given country. The law protects the citizen from arbitration or any breach of their right and freedom either by the state or any citizen (Cott, 73). Marriage can be defined as a legal union between two individuals who express love and commitment to each other.
The union is recognized under the country’s legal framework as a binding agreement where benefits to both individuals are paramount. Under a common law, marriage is a legal union between a man and woman who come together to express love, sacrifice and commitment to each other under the law. This union is guarded by a legal document signed by the couple in front of a witness. There are different kinds of marriage that exist. This includes the Christian marriage that permits only one man and woman to have a marriage union.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The other kinds of marriage include civil union, which is officiated by the Attorney General. Over the years, debate about legalizing the same sex marriage had challenges following what is seen as a breach of the public view on the moral standards and especially in the church and family setting. In the past, most churches could not ordain gay priests as they were considered to have gone against the Biblical teachings.
Criteria for value judgement Under the DOMA agreement enacted on September 1996, no state or even political subdivision can recognize same sex marriage for federal reasons including benefits to government employees or even social security for survivors’ benefits (Perkins, 2). Under the Clinton government, the law was put in the letter, and this raised a lot of questions and cases castigated towards the government.
As the government tried to criminalize homosexuality in the country, the homosexuality conduct law brought a case of Lawrence and Texas in 2003. The case was a follow up of the country in a move to overturn any same sex marriage where the parties to the marriage had no right under the law to conduct such an act.
The case was decided that brought power to the gay rights community in the state of Texas. The sodomy laws had criminalized many gay and lesbian couples before the Lawrence v Texas case in June 2003, which overturned the implications that the same sex marriage couple suffered under the sodomy laws. Before this case was brought out into the public domain, the homosexuals had been criminalized for their acts.
The same sex marriage law had extended to the military where the soldiers were not supposed to indulge in these acts. The law also sought to remove the children from their lesbian mothers’ home as a justification of these harsh laws against gay marriage. The Texas case impacted on the Marriage Bill in that the exclusion of gays from the military was now seen as a breach of their right to join the army and serve in the country’s military as they deemed fit (Duncan, 623-663).
Application of the criteria In declaring the sodomy law unconstitutional in the country, the court that ruled the Lawrence v Texas case the court sought clarification of the Georgia sodomy statute that banned the same sex marriage in the country (Chauncey, 509-538).
Sodomy laws were thought to be the ideological, but they never considered the rights of the rising outcry by the gay community that sought the court orders to deem their marriage fit under the law. The anti-gay legislations that were eminent before had to be criticized to enable the observation of the rights of the different people who wanted to indulge in same sex marriages and relationships.
We will write a custom Essay on Anti-same-sex Marriage Laws and Amendments Violate the Constitutional Guarantees of Equality for all Citizens of the United States specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Following the election of President Obama into power, the Congress was mandated to look into the matter regarding same sex marriage and whether to legalize the union of the same sex partners. The DOMA act that was signed by President Clinton had to be investigated to allow for more public opinion about the same sex marriage in the country. The Massachusetts court granted several follow up with the same sex marriage bills seeking to allow for civil union of the same sex couple in the country.
The Supreme Court held meetings to discuss the implication of legalizing the same sex marriage, and various issues were raised that necessitated the need to legalize the bill into law. By the year 2009, most states had legalized the same sex marriage and started to issue certificates to the couples. States like California legalized the same sex marriage, and it was seen as a win for the gay community as their constitutional rights were finally recognized and considered (Condit and Lucaites, 56).
Conclusion The anti same sex marriage laws has over the years seen as abusing the constitutional right of many citizens in the United States. The law criminalizes against gay and lesbian marriages. However, the trend seems to be changing with many people coming out to declare their sexuality. This has led to the public outcry to amend some of these laws. The sodomy law in the State of Texas was criminalizing gay couples and made it difficult for the gay community to serve in the military.
Works Cited Chauncey, George. “What Gay Studies Taught the Court: The Historians’ Amicus Brief in Lawrence v. Texas.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 10.3 (2004): 509-538. Print.
Condit, Celeste and John Louis Lucaites. Crafting Equality: America’s Anglo-African Word. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. Print.
Cott, Nancy. Public Vows: A History of Marriage and the Nation. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University, Press, 2000. Print.
Duncan, William. “The Litigation to Redefine Marriage: Equality and Social Meaning.” BYU, Journal of Public Law, 18 (2004): 623-663. Print.
Perkins, James. Defense of Marriage: Does It Need Defending? New York: Novinka Books, 2004. Print.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Anti-same-sex Marriage Laws and Amendments Violate the Constitutional Guarantees of Equality for all Citizens of the United States by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More
The Perfect Generosity of Prince Vessantara Essay college admission essay help
Jataka describes Prince Vassantara as one of the reincarnations of Buddha. It is possible to note that Prince’s all actions are driven by his desire to give away. This desire makes him give away his treasures, his kingdom and even his family. More so, he is ready to give away his self if it is necessary.
This is seen as the highest manifestation of virtue and Jataka describes last reincarnation of Buddha in this way to stress one of the major values of the religion. Admittedly, liberality is seen as one of the most important characteristics of a righteous man. Jataka tells the story of Prince Vassantara to give people the model to follow.
The desire to give away appeared in Prince Vassantara when he was in his mother’s womb making his mother crave “to have six almshouses built” and give a lot of gifts, “every day to give six hundred thousand gold coins” (Cone
Divergent Social Worlds Essay (Book Review) custom essay help: custom essay help
“Divergent Social Worlds” reflects a culmination of the in depth study of the linkage of race, place and crime. The book brings into light new aspects and advanced analytical approach to research on the cyclic problems of neighborhood, race, and crime. The authors explore and answer lingering questions of how violent and property crimes differ across neighborhoods that are composed of different ethnic and racial clusters.
The authors begin by postulating an operational theory of the ethnic and latitudinal distribution of crime by enunciating a broad variety of sociology theories; physical race theory, communal disorganization theory, and theories of suburban separation. The authors contend that a key operational mechanism by which cultural orders have been replicated in America is suburban isolation.
In turn these have led to racial spatial divide in which racial-ethnic minorities find themselves compelled to the bottom strata and the privileged whites find themselves at the top strata. This unequal stratification has led to social disparities in which led to the creation of varying interests located in distinct neighborhoods, ultimately leading to unequal rates of crime.
The book has integrated this theoretical perspective meticulously and combined information from urban sociology, criminology, racial and ethnic stratification. Mainly throughout its skeletal body, residential segregation is the major factor that connects the overall racial order with dramatic racial and ethnic differentials in crimes across communities.
Theoretical integration is achieved by the book as it reinforces the complex intertwine of social and institutional inequities that better place white neighborhoods in contrast to those of the African American, Latino and other arrays of neighborhoods. Intrinsically, segregation is the backbone of divergence between the social world of people in the United States in relation to color and as to why neighborhood crime is so radicalized.
Empirical evidence has been brought out by the authors in order to substantiate their theoretical claims. They test their theoretical claims using data from the National Neighborhood Crime Study (NNCS), where they compiled crime and related data of about nine thousand six hundred neighborhoods in approximately ninety-one large cities in the year two thousand. The large database created an unlimited and unbiased source of information, which made it easier to identify the relation between race, place and crime in the United States.
Previous research was conducted in a single city and thus by cutting across different cities, Peterson and Kivro have been able to explore how these patterns of neighborhood crime vary across communities of different races. In the initial analysis, they document how crime rates differ significantly across neighborhoods that consist of different ethnic and racial groups.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The book clearly illustrates the dramatic nature of the racial-spatial divide and helps us fathom how entrenched social and economic disparities in America’s neighborhoods are. In subsequent analysis, they outline the magnitude to which differences in relative advantage and disadvantage are sources of unequal crime rates across the various types of neighborhoods. They use multivariate models to examine both neighborhood and city characteristics as indicators of crime rates.
The book lays to rest the prevalent misunderstanding that persistently high crime rates in less privileged societies is as a result of individual ethical decadence or pathologies or worse a culture of group criminality.
The book exonerates the people living in impoverished societies of the earlier misconceptions of crime activities in these societies and brings to light the silent externalities that are a key factor to molding these societal inequalities. The book tends to close the gap for organizers, policymakers and future researchers and creates an insight in these cyclic issues.
How to Motivate Your Employees Essay college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Need for Employee Motivation
Relationship between Employee Motivation and Success of a Firm
Employee Motivation in the 21st Century
Strategies of Employee Motivation
Recommendations on How to Motivate Employees
Introduction Employees form the most important part of any organization. According to Chopra (2002), employees are the most important assert within an organization. Employees will determine success or failure of an organization based on the approach they give to the various tasks assigned to them.
Employee motivation is therefore, very important in ensuring that employees achieve desired result in various tasks assigned to them in order to ensure an overall success of the firm. Motivated employees tend to give their best effort in all that they do. The work with very little supervision, and do not wait to be directed to perform given tasks. They work with the vision of the organization in their heart, always determined to see success in all that they do.
It is because of this that various firms have come to appreciate the need to have a group of motivated employees. Firms are currently struggling to ensure that they offer their employees the best working environment that will ensure that they are constantly motivated. Employees’ motivation always has a direct impact on the success of the firm in the given industry. This paper focuses on ways in which employees of a given firm can be motivated.
The Need for Employee Motivation For a long time, labor has not been given its rightful position in many organizations. Many of the managements have not thought of viewing their employees as very important asserts. However, the happenings of the recent past have proven that labor force is one of the most important asserts to any given organization.
When the management lays down objectives to be achieved, it is always the employees who are expected to implement the policies that would bring the desired results. It is this work force that would be expected to turn the policies from paper to reality. Therefore, retention of employees is very important. Employees should be retained within the organization to ensure that the firm’s operations are consistent.
High turnover rate of employees is not healthy for the firm’s prosperity (Anderson, 2004). This is because it does not only affect the smooth implementation of policies within the firm, but also leads to increased cost of training new employees. It is even worse that the employees would go away having learnt the strategies of the firm, making the firm vulnerable to its competitors.
The management should therefore device methods of hiring qualified employees and retaining them within the firm. One of the best ways to achieve this is through motivation. It is through motivation that employees will feel attached to the firm and therefore feel committed to the firm.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Relationship between Employee Motivation and Success of a Firm Armstrong (2002) says that employees are the implementing arm of the organization. While the top executives formulate the policies to be implemented by the organization, most of their tasks always end in the paper. It is upon the employees to make these blueprints a reality.
In his words, employees are the engine of the organization. When well taken care of and put in a proper condition, they would always give the best of the results to the organization. However, when they are neglected and left to ‘rust’ they will always give leap service and the output will be very disappointing.
Motivating employees within the organization is very important. There is a direct link between employee motivation and success of a firm. It is very important that a firm increases the rate of employee motivation because of a number of reasons. In most of the occasions, policies are always developed to last for one whole year. However, these policies are always units in the larger vision of the firm.
A vision may be developed to be achieved in a time span of say thirty year or so. This duration is long and the firm may not take a direct approach towards achieving this vision. It therefore has to split this vision into yearly strategic objectives. When the year begins, the firm would plan with its current work force.
When some of the employees leave along the year because of lack of motivation, it would be a blow to the success of that year’s strategic objectives. The firm would be forced to look for a replacement and train them and make them understand the objectives to be achieved (Barrows