Summary The article, ‘Betwixt Safety and Shielding in The Academy: Confronting Institutional Gendered Racism’ by Cobb-Roberts presents an experience of cultural diversity of one African-American lecturer who teaches in a white student-dominated institution.
According to Cobb-Roberts (2012), the story is about a white student who complains of disapproval with the way the lecturer and his fellow students comment on racism. This student fails to meet the American-African lecturer. The student only meets her in the company of another lecturer.
A policy of addressing the whole class in debates is devised. He later complains of harassment by his lecturer and fellow students. The situation pushes him to seek security. Cobb-Roberts (2012) asserts that the lecturer and her department refuse to approve a security guard in the classroom.
However, the office of the senior academic administrator provides another African-American lecturer as an observer during his presentation. However, the white student does not trust the new African-American lecturer. He is only contented when a white lecturer is assigned. The whole story brings out the theme of cultural mistrust and racism in educational institutions.
Significance and implication of the reading to education and power and agency in classrooms
This reading is significant in education, power, and agency in classrooms since it explores how groupings of learners who have similar ideologies can intimidate students who uphold a contrary view. Based on power that comes with unity, teachers should discourage learners from personalized debates, especially on issues of racism and culture.
If such debates are allowed, students with divergent views will feel intimidated by popular ideas. Such students fear expressing their conflicting views on such matters.
Strengths and weaknesses
The strength of power and agency in classroom in this story is portrayed by the way this white student is able to prompt the lecturer to change the policy of students’ response in class and the provision of an observer of his race by the senior administrator’s office to ensure his security.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, the reading presents a weakness since the given scenario does not offer tangible evidence of discrimination that can warrant the fear and security demand by this learner.
Contribution to my understanding of multicultural education
This story enriches my perspective on diversity. I have realized that race and gender can be a basis of discrimination. I have also realized that perceived or real racism can result in fear, role-conflict, and mistrust in schools.
Summary Herrera, Holmes, and Kavimandan’s (2012) reading, ‘Bringing Theory To Life: Strategies That Make Culturally Responsive Pedagogy a Reality in Diverse Secondary Classrooms’ paints a clear picture of cultural diversity in American schools. It also presents what it deems an appropriate teaching pedagogy.
Herrera et al. (2012) confirm the wide variation in languages and culture among students and teachers in most of the contemporary American schools. Herrera et al. (2012) observe that teacher preparation for the current diverse situation of learners in American schools is inadequate.
Based on this gap, the authors suggest the need to develop an inclusive curriculum that includes variations in language and culture since such a move will be important in upholding diversity in learning. Therefore, teacher preparation programs should equip them for a culturally diverse studentship in schools.
Significance and implication of the reading to education and power and agency in classrooms
This reading is important in the development of education, power, and agency since it highlights the impact of both teachers and student curriculum on the management of diversity in schools. The reading emphasizes proper preparation on the side of teachers concerning the issue of student diversity.
Development of a pedagogy that values and/or upholds diversity is also imperative. This strategy will unite student from diverse parts of the world while at the same time preparing them to work across the world.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Power and Agency in the Classroom specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Strengths and weaknesses
The strength of this reading is that it is founded on researches that indicate gaps and disparities that are witnessed between students and teachers. The reading is also anchored on preparing teachers on how to handle diversity before they begin teaching.
The reading is recommendable since it suggests a working plan of managing diversity. It suggests the development of a curriculum that is inclusive of cultural diversity. However, the weaknesses of this reading include its failure to substantiate the issue of diversity within the context of education.
Suggestion to include language diversity in education may be cumbersome, owing to the multiple languages that are taught in schools.
Contribution to my understanding of multicultural education
The article is a revelation to me based on its unique presentation of the subject of multicultural education. It has expanded my understanding on how curriculum and teacher preparation can be used to address diversity in learning institutions.
It has also made me appreciate the power of diversity in preparing learners to work in diverse cultures. Besides, it teaches me to appreciate the values of other cultures. Since no individual is an exact copy of another, it suffices to acknowledge people’s differences since each person has a distinct role to play in the lives of other people.
Reference List Cobb-Roberts, D. (2012). Betwixt Safety and Shielding in The Academy: Confronting Institutional Gendered Racism. The Negro Educational Review, 62(1), 89-91.
Herrera, S., Holmes, M.,
Marketing Principles at Tip-Top Accessories Case Study college admission essay help
Introduction Marketing is a broad area that passes out both as an art and science of communicating the value of goods and the efficacy of services to customers for the exclusive purpose of selling such products and rendering the services (Durkovic 2009, p. 59). Seen from an organisational level, Durkovic (2009, p. 61) opines that marketing offers a set of processes that are instrumental in creating opportunities for delivering and communicating product and services.
The aim however, is to create value to prospective customers while augmenting customer relationship management that benefit an organisation in turn. The topics under the study explore collaborative learning with group interactive marketing environment.
The paper makes it clear that marketing is not just the acquisition of new customer base, and that it is a process takes into consideration the responsibility of underscoring the efficacy of specific change aspects that are typical of business growth. Intensive marketing validates a rich way of using the available resources to meet the needs of businesses, and these are in the form of concepts and processes of marketing, marketing segmentation, targeting, and positioning.
Moreover, the paper deals with the efficacies of learning outcomes such as elements of extended marketing mix as well as the social dimensions achieved through the learning process. Precisely, in essence this article aims at inspiring human resource capacity to utilise the resource available like knowledge to convert further abilities and services into tangible marketing skills.
The basis of this article aims at designing the systems that shape human learning such as arranging the facilities, coming up with procedures that align the marketing processes with an inventory acquisition framework, and scheduling the learning outcomes and tasks, while providing a safe passage that ensures changes occur within a business organisation in a smooth effective, and rapid way.
Findings and discussions The concept and process of marketing
Business is an arena of adjustments, the value of which is to keep with the market trends within which organisations operate. The world over, marketing professionals constantly adjust their business strategy and tact to wage their competitive advantage and reach out to the ever changing customer demands (Lamarre, Galarneau and Boeck 2012, p. 36).
Therefore, Tip-Top Accessories marketing professionals must adjust their business strategy and tact to reach out to the ever-changing customer demands. With the contemporary competitive markets Lamarre et al. (2012, p. 45) opines that mobility in the concept of marketing is rapidly becoming an option in business.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At their behest, contemporary markets continue to evolve as apparatus for allocating resources and a hub investing in communities. Well-organised competitive markets have the capacity to maximise consumer welfare to raise economic growth and cumulatively increase the total welfare of the regions under which they operate (Lamarre et al. 2012, p. 56).
With development in marketing trends, firms have the capacity to thrive and provide what the consumers want and in the process, they aim at delivering the best to outdo their competitors. The new marketing trends offer great opportunities for effective competition, which in turn inspires effective competition with the likelihood of bringing significant benefits to consumers.
With effective competition, Hill (2012, p. 56) is optimistic that there is an increase in consumer satisfaction by ensuring that that businesses offers variety, greater choices, affordable prices as well as better quality of goods and services.
Effective competition guarantees strong incentives for businesses to be more efficient and innovative in their operations thus helping them to raise economic growth across the board (Hill 2012, 69). Within this business ambience, markets have always sought to deliver the utmost outcomes to their respective customers, to companies and even the governments under which they operate.
Various elements of marketing process
Innovative business mind-sets that the exiting business opportunities seek enable businesses to reach out to their customers successfully through a new concept of communication channel (Boone 2012, 65).
Today, social media marketing trends shape the scope of business and define their limits by delivering great opportunities for business growth (Lamarre et al. 2012, 67). The modern day marketing is highly interactive, and whereas businesses goes digital in the marketing concept, they have the capacity to reach out to an expansive consumer niche (Boone 2012, p. 58).
Social media marketing, for example, consists of web browser advantages with mobile device interfacing that makes it possible to offer continuous access to business products and services to the prospective customers regardless of place and time (Lamarre et al. 2012, p. 71). These developments in the concept of contemporary marketing brings forth effective competitiveness to that makes businesses to suffice as robust and dynamic with the capacity to shape and grow the economy in stature.
We will write a custom Case Study on Marketing Principles at Tip-Top Accessories specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Generally, the developmental paradigms of marketing are expansive with abilities to develop consumer by making value, service, and quality of products and services to be a priority in the making. Coupled with several endowments that technology brings into the business, the modern day marketing continues to be highly interactive with the capacity to reach out to an expansive consumer niche.
Benefits of costs of marketing orientation
Costs and marketing strategies are elements geared towards a competitive advantage, which in essence helps businesses gain over their competitors by guaranteeing customers’ enhanced value either by lowering prices or by extending additional benefits that cumulatively brings back the cash price.
For businesses involved in a niche type marketing scenario, building and sustaining a robust competitive advantage reflects an increased profit margin that leads to business growth and sustainability. Businesses, according to Fraser (2012, p. 44), have to devise ways to design competitive advantage nonetheless.
This is so because competitiveness is the route to survival in a crowded market. Competitive advantage does not grow out of a business’ natural endowments, its interest rates, its labour pool, or its public image as a classical economic unit, businesses device ways to create them.
A business’ competitiveness rests on the capacity of its management and the workforce to innovate and upgrade for business growth and economic sustainability (Srivastava, Franklin and Martinette 2013, p. 48). Tip-Top Accessories can only gain competitive advantage against some of the renowned economic heavyweights if it maximises on the challenges and pressures prevailing in the market.
Focused businesses benefit instead of waning from having robust domestic rivals, they strategize more from having demanding local customers, and aggressive local suppliers. In an economy of an increasingly global competiveness, Tip-Top Accessories have to become more prudent in laying the foundation of their market strategy to excel in the market and outdo competitors (Fraser 2012, p. 56).
Given the proclivity of the business environment to lean towards the conception of assimilation of knowledge, market strategists have to expand their scope to meet the growing demands in the market to keep the business at par with the economic trends (Pitts and Lei 2000, p. 75). For greater outcome, building and sustaining a robust competitive advantage is by endearing a business to some of the least valued localised processes that other businesses might overlook.
The differences in the values of the businesses, their cultures, economic strengths, and management structures all contribute to the competitiveness of a business (Business Essentials: Marketing Principles 2010, p. 72). Striking differences exist in the patterns of competitiveness in every business, as such no one particular business will be competitive over the other in all situations. Ultimately, businesses succeed in a particular way because their domestic environments are innovative, dynamic, and for that matter challenging, thus pushing them further to strategize accordingly.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Principles at Tip-Top Accessories by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Concepts of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
For Tip-Top Accessories to be effective and efficient in its operations, the company’s management must step up the target customer market scope across the UK and beyond. To achieve this stature, the business need to its market segmentation, target market, and positioning to explore the full score of its market operations.
This, according to Brown (2005, p. 56), grouping a business’ various customers and placing them under segmentation schemes with various schemes that show common needs that require similar marketing action. In this framework, demographics may be instrumental for a business to focuses on consumer characteristics and in deed, elements of demography such as age, gender, education, job, income, and cultural background can all assist a business in determining its strength in the market.
This applies to Tip Top in its bid to meet the needs of different customers. Moreover, elements of business such as psychographics are equally useful in determining the strength of a business in the market; this is so because the lifestyle of a customer base can produce the desired outcome if businesses chose to capitalise on it as a strength element.
For instance, buyer behaviour and consumerism could be strategic business strength especially when the management opts to consider the modern trends that drive consumerism such as online shopping, brand preferences, service delivery based on prior purchases (Brown 2005, p. 51).
Finally, geographical setting is equally a strong business attribute and Tip-Top Accessories may thrive on the scope of its operation based on the continent, region, country, state, or city, hence it is instrumental for the company to consolidate its strengths and exploit its opportunities.
Upon segmenting the market, a business has to go a scale higher and choose its targets. Business ethics holds that no one particular strategy usually suits all customer groups. Hence, being able to come up with specific strategies pertinent to the business is very crucial (Brown 2005, p. 56). Different approaches are available for Tip-Top Accessories to choose from in their targeting venture.
Some of the stratagems are discussed below:
Undifferentiated targeting: Here a business observes its market, as a single group with no distinguishable sections, hence using a particular market tactic becomes an option. This marketing plan normally suffice as a better option for enterprises with little or no competition, hence there may be limited need to cushion the stratagems to answer the varied favourites prevailing in the target markets.
Concentrated targeting: This strategy pays attention mainly on choosing a specific market place where promotion exertions have the utmost focus. A business has to focus on a single segment as part of its targeting approach so that it can concentrate on the groundwork to understand the needs of a particular market intensely. Tip Top Accessories may gain this type of strategy since laying great emphasis on a single segment may be useful in enabling it to compete successfully against its competitors.
Multi-segment targeting: This style normally proves very instrumental where a business has to concentrate on more than one well-known market fragments in order to develop different strategies for the segments. This approach, therefore, provides several benefits, though this can be expensive given that it includes and demands the greater participation from the management. Moreover, it demands an increased market research as well as greater promotional strategies to make it successful.
Overall, before settling on a given targeting plan, Tip Top has to conduct a cost benefit analysis that traverses all the available strategies necessary in determining the best approach that will best serve it.
Positioning consists of developing products and services as brand image in the memory of the consumers (Norus 2006, p. 687). This may as well involve refining the view of consumers about the knowledge available in a particular product.
In doing so, the business can be able to positively influence its customer base perceptions through strategic promotional drive and by categorically defining the marketing mix of the business (Brown 2005, p. 66). It is equally important to note that effective positioning entails a good grasp of the competing factors in a market and the benefits that that target market carries for a business.
Therefore, Tip-Top Accessories must be able to ascertain a differential advantage under which it can optimally deliver the benefits pertinent to the market and eventually outshine its competitors. Finally, the business must aim to define itself in the lenses of the consumers while considering what their competitors puts into the market while considering what their competitors puts into the bargain.
Extended Marketing Mix
In the corporate world, many tools are available for use in accomplishing specific business tasks to ensure businesses deliver on their commitments to the markets. This type of delivery necessitates the application of known marketing tools considered to have the ability to deliver businesses to efficacy and prosperity (Johnson 2014).
The marketing mix is therefore a combination of several factors with expansive range of choices that makes it possible for businesses to market their products and services otherwise known in the language of the extended marketing mix as 7ps.
As part of the business’ need to grow in stature, product development needs. Whether the business opt to trade in products or services, the business must take into account the fact that consumer needs are paramount and always seek to meet customer demands and expectations.
This entails the fact that products may have to under some developments such as changing the names or packaging in order to keep with the trends in the market. In this mix, Tip-Top Accessories can apply product differentiation strategy just like Apple, BMW, and Mercedes Benz Companies. This approach will enable consumers differentiate its products from those of the competitors.
Pricing is a very important business strategy that must be taken good care of when strategizing for markets. Profit margin together with the competing factors in a business may dictate the price of a given product or service but the rule has to be able to deliver the best that accommodate the consumers (Johnson 2014).
The prices of umbrellas and hats at Tip-Top Accessories should be lower than the competitors’ prices. Moreover, some elements under consideration within this mix are the associated issues that dictate the pricing formula such as leasing, financing, as well as other dictates of pricing in a business. Pricing as a strategy will further dictate other emergent factors such as the stores that keep the products for sale to various consumers.
Promoting a business on the merits of its product strengths could be instrumental in taking the business to greater heights. It is, therefore, necessary for Tip-Top Accessories to put in place a strong public relations department to help in the promotional activities in order to enable consumers know the hats, umbrellas, and scarves that it sells.
Promotional activities can bring greater an in-depth understanding of a business’ relative competitive positioning within a given market. As Norus (2006, p. 693) observes it adequately provide analysis of a business’ analysts with a clear framework with flawless framework to assess the impacts of the external condition on a business’ capacity to sustain the much sought after competitive advantage.
A business has to know its area of operation and acquaint itself with the emergent needs of the customer base under which it operates. As such, transactional, logistical, and functional issues have to be taken into consideration (Norus 2006, p. 694). Decisions made to this end may include the needs to supply the stores with various products that meet diverse customer demands.
People constitute the first P of the extended marketing mix and these include various individuals ranging from those working for the businesses as well as those that constitute the business’ customer base. Tip-Top Accessories has to ensure that it has the capacity to recruit and retain profitable individuals that would guarantee great customer experience in the UK market, as well as globally.
Product presentation is very important to the growth of a business. Tip-Top Accessories must ensure that their products have the physical presence in the areas they explore to develop a robust existence in the market to put itself strategically for a competitive advantage.
Process as the final P has a lot to do with customer service and the business’ ability to deliver services, offer products, handle complaints, and forestall any business actualities. The process aims to garner greater customer experience by building customer confidence in the business’ ability to handle and mitigate business concerns.
Supplier power, according to Adcock, Halborg, and Ross (2001, p. 35), relates to how the business suppliers may sometime find it easy to hike prices in the process of business. This normally occurs due the number of the suppliers in the business and their reliability to do so.
Moreover, the uniqueness of the suppliers’ commodity as well as the services they render may define the operation of the business. In addition, the control the suppliers may have over the business customers’ may also shape the scale of a business operation.
Buyer power, according to Adcock et al. (2001, p. 37), relates to the buyers may find it easy to pool down the business’s prices. The number of buyers in the market can easily make this necessary by constantly switching from one product or service rendered by one business to another.
This scenario may prove particularly challenging for the business and for a business to ensure it retains its rich customer base it may have to strategize on customer retention plan to maintain its competitiveness.
Conclusion/summary From the foregoing analysis, we can deduce that competitive advantage does not come into the business by itself to give a business an advantage over others. Just like in the operations of Tip-Top Accessories, a business’ competitiveness rests on the capacity of its management and the workforce to work within these modes to innovate and upgrade their strategies for business growth within the markets they operate.
Moreover, businesses gain competitive advantage against their rivals because of the ability to maximise on the challenges and pressures prevailing in the market. Focused businesses benefit from these modes of competitive advantage instead of waning from having robust domestic rivals.
Smart businesses strategize more from having demanding local customers, and aggressive local suppliers to know the trends in the market to help them stem their competitive advantage. In an economy within an increasingly global competiveness, businesses have to become more prudent in laying the foundation of their market strategy to excel in the market and outdo their competitors.
Recommendations Tip-Top Accessories have to devise ways and popular means of devising competitive advantage to ensure a business stands a better chance in the marketplace. The major theoretical approaches discussed are available businesses for organisations to build a sustaining of competitive strategy.
For the company to build and sustain a viable competitive advantage, it needs to focus constantly on identifying the diverse product and services to help in strategizing, reshaping the business core competencies, seeking out innovative technologies while consolidating greater intellectual property rights to make the business more distinct and appealing in the market.
Finally, identifying what is central to business competitiveness is the hallmark to building a sustainable competitive advantage for all businesses.
References Adcock, D., Halborg, A., and Ross, C 2001, Marketing: Principles and practice (4th ed.), Financial Times/Prentice Hall, Harlow.
Business Essentials: Marketing Principles 2010, BPP Learning Media, Manchester.
Boone, L 2012, Contemporary marketing, Cengage Learning Custom, London.
Brown, I 2005, Marketing your service business, Thorogood Publishing Ltd, London.
Durkovic, J 2009, “Development of human resources as strategic factors of the companies’ competitive advantage”, Economics and Organisation, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 59–67.
Fraser, C 2012, Business statistics for competitive advantage with Excel 2010 basics, model building, and cases (2nd ed.), Springer, New York.
Hill, C. W 2012, International business: competing in the global marketplace (10th ed.), McGraw-Hill Irwin, New York.
Johnson, M 2014, Extended Marketing Mix: The 7 Ps of Marketing, https://blog.udemy.com/extended-marketing-mix/
Lamarre, A., Galarneau, S., and Boeck, H 2012, “Mobile marketing and consumer behaviours current research trend”, Int. J. Latest Trends Computing, vol. 3, no. 201, pp. 1-9.
Norus, J 2006, “Building sustainable competitive advantage from knowledge in the region: The industrial enzymes industry”, European Planning Studies, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 681-696.
Pitts, R. A., and Lei, D 2000, Strategic management: building and sustaining competitive advantage (2nd ed.), South-Western College Pub. Cincinnati, Ohio.
Srivastava, M., Franklin, A., and Martinette, L 2013, “Building a sustainable competitive advantage”, Journal of Technology Management and Information, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 47-60.
‘The Jungle Book’ by Kipling Term Paper custom essay help: custom essay help
Introduction One of the most important, but often forgotten communities in the world histories is the Indian community, which has a remarkable history of evolution (Crinson 55). In the 1800s, the Indian community was still traversing the world and one of its destinations was Britain, even as the British people crossed to the Asian zones as well.
The British Raj is a historical moment between 1858 and 1947, when the British colonized part of the Indian subcontinent and established their British rule (Deb 32). During this moment, people had discovered the essence of writing stories about the life of the people.
One of the renowned journalists and poets of the era of the British Raj is Joseph Rudyard Kipling, who lived and travelled widely across India, South Africa, England, and the United States. The intent of this essay is to examine “The Jungle Book” of Joseph Rudyard Kipling and the prehistoric lifestyle or culture of the Indians during the ancient times.
The Indians during the Old era
Culture is a multifaceted concept in the history of the people because culture means the people’s way of life or the manner in which people live (Crinson 16). In the simplest perspective, culture generally describes the intellectual and the spiritual way of living, where the sense of living philosophies, religion, economic activities, literature, music, leadership, art, and legal systems are the major facets that guide the human life (Crinson 27).
The ancient Indians had their unique lifestyle or their standard of living that guided the manner in which they behaved, interacted with people, and interacted with the environment. Culture being a mainstay of history, was the major interest of Kipling in his Jungle Book.
Kipling used animal characters and described the lifestyle of the Indians as a form of life where lawlessness, social rejection, lack of appropriate leadership, poor agricultural practices, primitive customs and beliefs, and archaic cultures were common lifestyle issues (42).
Kipling showed interest in the lives of the Indian people and the way these people practiced their culture during the period of 1882 and 1889. In The Jungle Book, Kipling discusses numerous cultural aspects of the Indian people of the primitive days.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indians have continuously maintained most of their cultural values, and often practiced their religious dogma just as it was in their prehistoric days (Crinson 35). In his book, Kipling discusses the manner in which the Indians struggled to civilize into a modern society through the western civilization principles.
The Jungle Book presents animal stories that remarkably highlight the Indian culture and their major traditional beliefs. In this book, Kipling relates the animal’s life of individualism, collectivism, and lawlessness, with the real issues that affected the Indians while under the British rule (Kipling 3).
The book generally portrayed the naïve India, where lawlessness, racial discrimination, cultural civilization, and social concerns were major problems between the ancient Indians.
Lawlessness and the people
The Indian people during the 1880s were still naïve about lawmaking and they never realized the importance of having laws that could guide the actions of the people (Deb 30). Under the British governance, the Indians were unaware about their individual rights or any form of a regulation that would protect them from exploitation.
The book constantly mentions about the laws of the jungle, which are none existence laws just like in the animal kingdom, where wild creatures have no laws to guide them. “Thou hast been with the Monkey People—the gray apes—the people without a law—the eaters of everything” (Kipling 42).The Indians were living in lawless communities and much respect and attention went to their nuclear family structures, where no leadership existed.
The uncivilized and primitive India had people who never understood the importance of having laws to guide the human actions (Crinson 23). Lawlessness made the people aggressive, retrogressive, corrupt, careless, and inhumane.
Kipling uncovered the manner in which the lawless and the uncivilized Indian people behaved like the animals in the jungle. Through the literary art of personification, Kipling describes the prehistoric Indians as complicated people, who had different characters, but very submissive to their cultural norms (Kipling 12).
We will write a custom Term Paper on ‘The Jungle Book’ by Kipling specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kipling uses the metaphor of monkeys and describes their behaviour, which deemed similar to that of the Indians who were lawless during the ancient period. The author focuses on identifying the funny and uncivilized behaviours of some animals such as the unmannered wolves and the mischievous monkeys, which often engaged in serious fights against each other without an appropriate reason (Kipling 45).
Jungle is a metaphoric word that represents the prehistoric Indian, who cared less about making of the formal laws or a constitution that would guide its citizens. According to Kennedy (86), the Englishmen seemed more organized and thus powerful in ruling the Indians during the British colonial rule.
The unfriendly nature of the prehistoric Indians
Indians were generally primitive people who never wanted to interact with foreigners. Kipling uses a personification approach and names Mowgli, as a young man-cub that visits the jungle where hatred, unfriendliness, and fear and social alienation are frequent problems (Kipling 20).
During the era of the prehistoric India, uninformed foreigners who visited India, found it difficult to acculturate and survive in the region. The young man-cub struggles to adjust living with the animals in the jungle and living with the human beings in the villages (Kipling 38).
Kipling wanted to demonstrate the problem of social rejection in the prehistoric India. Mowgli lives in the lawless jungle with the wolves that finally reject him because of his likeness with the humans, but later faces a similar rejection within the human villages, because of his resemblance with the wolves (Kipling 28). A clear picture that paints around this quandary is that India was full of racial divide that brought about disunity.
Foreigners and the socially underrepresented people in the primordial India never enjoyed any social freedom because the nation was lawless and without any formal arrangement (Evans 77). Mowgli represents the plight of the foreigners.
Kipling describes Mowgli as a young boy in the name of a man-cub, who acculturates to the jungle environment in a very harsh and unfriendly manner. The primordial Indian people were aware that India was a place that only favoured its natives despite the hostile political environment that their leaders instigated (Evans 61).
The Englishmen were foreigners in the Indian land, but seemed more organized and civilized in the manner in which they practiced their foreign culture and norms. For the foreigners who admired to visit the primordial India, getting food from the natives, a decent home for sheltering, or a welcoming society, was a difficult endeavour (Evans 23).
Not sure if you can write a paper on ‘The Jungle Book’ by Kipling by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With lawlessness and dilapidated dwellings, the prehistoric Indians never realized the importance of social harmony or social acceptance. After arriving in the new city from the jungle, Mowgli meets with the monkeys, who occupied the roofless palace and the deserted houses that existed around the ancient India (Kipling 60).
In this monkey residence, the monkeys disagree on so many irrelevant things, and Mowgli being a foreigner, remains worried and confused about the state of life in Bandar-log. The Bandar-log is the deserted place with no proper shelter, no proper housing equipment, or any protection against natural hazards (Kipling 61).
The monkeys at the Bandar-log represent the primitive Indian people who survived without caring about others, about their shelter, the plight of the foreigners, and even about their own future. Mowgli notices that in the Bandar-log, the monkeys “have no law, no hunting call, and have no leaders” (Kipling 62).
Mowgli in this case acts as a foreigner in India and portrays a more civilized being that leads the monkeys in improving towards being a civilized society.
The unstable Indian leadership in the Old India
A key issue that characterized the prehistoric Indians, according to the perceptions of Kipling, was the absence of a formal leadership in the lifestyle of the Indians (Kipling 62). The ancient Indians lacked a formal leadership and their kingship systems were either non-functional or unstable.
Mowgli discovers the deserted old Indian city, where the human beings vacated the palace, and only the disorganized monkeys occupied the roofless palaces and the roofless houses (Kipling 60). Although the monkeys admired the human wisdom and often associated the human beings with a high level of intelligence, they wondered why the Indian people lacked a stable leadership that would help the people.
The people lacked the leadership wisdom that was necessary to bring the Indians together and such lapses resulted to lawlessness, disorganized empires, and powerless castles (Kennedy 95). The British colonizers would often use the leadership weaknesses to establish their values of westernization and oppress the weak Indians.
The people of India lived under heavily divided regimes and their concentration to their family issues made them uninterested in the national leadership (Evans 132). Kipling mentions the real monkey, and the monkey-people, because the Indians were truly like the monkey-people, who lacked the command to establish a proper leadership that would guide the Indian state.
Mowgli said that, “They are without leaders and they have no remembrance, they often boast around, chatter, and pretend that they are a great people about to do great affairs in the jungle, but often fail” (Kipling 43). Although Kipling was referring to the lawless monkeys in the jungle, this metaphoric expression associated the Indians with poor governance.
The people were inattentive to the leadership because they concentrated on matters that were insignificant to the Indian nation. According to Kipling (65), simple issues would often destabilize the harmony of the Indians and they would turn against each other for no proper reasons.
The best way to describe the ancient occupants of India is the term anthropomorphic dwellers (Kennedy 81). The Indians were like these traditional survivors who never minded about the essence of having a stable leadership that would help the communities to transform smoothly.
The people of India never cared about the leadership of the nation because the nation seemed divided into racial groups and socioeconomic classes (Crinson 53). Lack of leadership and regulations that would govern the people made the Indian live in a mixture of individualism and collectivism, with the behaviours of some animals in the jungle portraying these two factors.
With no leaders, the monkeys lived a life of communism, but tended to disagree more often due to their behaviours associated with individualism (Kipling 46). Mowgli notices that some animals such as wolves a full of resentment and greed that makes them fight for power without any proper arrangement. Most Indians wanted power for their own selfish desires.
The ancient culture of wild hunting in India
A common Indian traditional culture that presents itself in the story of the jungle book is the culture of wild hunting that has its roots from the ancient India. The Indian people had a primitive hunting culture that made the jungle animals despise them and hate their presence around the jungle (Crinson 31).
The animals either would hide to avoid contact with the jungle people, or ran far away from the human population to avoid capture (Kipling 51). Apart from the ruthless competition for survival in the jungle, the animals feared the human population that preyed and hunted them without compassion.
A salient communal feature in the prehistoric India is that each subgroup of the Indian communities had a hereditary right to claim ownership of the land, including the forests where each community had its own fair-share of the hunting (Evans 15). Mowgli and the other wild animals remained spiteful of the hunting behaviours of the Indian people.
Just as the Indian pastoralists considered the grassland to be a free grazing zone for all the legitimate communities, the people who lived near the forests considered the woods to be their own (Kipling 186). There were no rules to safeguard the animal sanctuaries, the forests, or the bare land, because the young Indian nation was lawless and anarchic.
The traditional Indian hunters would hunt to catch the monkeys, would find the edible roots, and would search the wild fruits and dig out the tubers for food (Crinson 19). The Indian men would scare the wild animals in the jungle because they were in a dire need of wild meat, which was traditionally a needed delicacy among the Indians.
Mowgli exclaims, “Then they would howl and shriek senseless songs, and invite the Jungle-People to climb up their trees and fight them” (Kipling 45). The statement of Mowgli despised the chattering behaviour of the monkeys that predisposed them to the hunters.
In the jungle, Mowgli would see the Indian men carrying their hunting knives that were useful for skinning the hunted animals to produce flesh (Kipling 219). The wolf pack that accommodated Mowgli would remain silent in their hideouts or run away from the humans because they could not afford to come near the daring hunters who wandered within the jungle (Kipling 63).
Men were the food gatherers and hunting activity gave them an opportunity to provide their families with wild food. Kipling brings out the notion that just as the animals hunt for food, the hairy Indian men with shiny sharp knives would visit the jungle frequently in search of the wild meat (219).
Apart from hunting, there was human-wildlife conflict within the jungle. The animals clearly stipulated the Law of the Jungle that forbade the killing or attacking of a man. Animals feared that any killing of a man would result in attacks from the human beings.
The Indian religious doctrine during the prehistoric era
One cultural aspect that emanates from the stories in the Jungle Book is the issue of religion that seems to appear and reappear in the conversations of the characters. The prehistoric Indians were religious people who believed in various indigenous faiths and foreign religions that had already permeated into their country (Kennedy 13).
The scene where Mowgli meets the clergy at the village gate makes the readers understand the origin of the Hindu religion and its basic principles. After missing the promised food that monkeys were to offer, Mowgli strolled down the village in search for food, where he came across the yellow pariah dogs and the Hindu clergymen (Kipling 81).
According to the physical description that Mowgli gave, “the priest was a big, fat man, dressed in white, with a red and yellow mark on his forehead” (Kipling 81). Such a description portrays the traditional Indian community as a faithful society that mostly embraced the Hindu doctrine of worship.
The practice of Hindu worship has been in the history of the Indians since their prehistoric period, before the British introduced Christianity in India. Kipling recognizes the essence of considering the contribution of the Indian priests in the prehistoric India.
In their Hindu worship, the conventional Indians connected their religious principles with certain believes about the natural forces (Deb 33). In the book, Kipling reveals the manner in which the Hindu priest links the Hindu religion with certain natural forces and beliefs (62). As a way of cleansing and condemning the behaviours of Mowgli who still had the jungle manners, the priest waved a twig of a sacred tulsi plant.
Tulsi plant has been Indian’s holy basil and a very important symbol in the religious principles of the Hindu faith (Kipling 103). This scenario of the Indian priest demonstrated the ancient Indian beliefs concerning the importance of the tulsi plant and its association with religious cleansing.
A salient religious feature of the Indians that Mowgli notices on the face of the Hindu priest is the yellow mark on the forehead of the priest. Majority of the ancient Indians practiced the Hindu religion and the yellow or red forehead marks were important religious symbols (Kennedy 45).
The religion of the ancient Indians connected well with their cultural beliefs, which were mainly from the caste system of worship and governance. The forehead symbol has its roots from the caste leadership and the four castes of India that held beliefs in Varna or colour.
The yellow forehead colour came predominantly from the third caste known as the Vaisya, and signified a business success or wealth (Kennedy 38). The white garment of the priest is a noteworthy feature of the ancient Indian priests as this form of dressing associates with holiness. The description of Mowgli about the traditional Hindu priest shows a typical practice of the ancient and modern Hinduism.
The prehistoric Indian foods, houses, and transport systems
Through the Jungle Book, Kipling reveals some unique cultural aspects of the ancient Indians that associate with traditional foods, traditional housing designs, and the traditional transportation systems (74). When Mowgli goes to the human villages, he notices that the Indians have a cultural behaviour that is very similar to the jungle animals.
Before they civilized into the modern life, Indians were peasant farmers who practiced various traditional methods of farming to produce food for home consumption (Evans 9). The ancient Indian women gathered roots, tubers, and wild fruits, to supplement the bush meat.
The Jungle Book reveals how the vacated King’s garden known as the Bandar-log, was full of fruit trees such as the orange trees. The jungle was full of edible roots, wild fruits, and tubers that the Indian hunters dug out when they were in exploration of the forest areas (Evans 12). Such occasions explain the traditional foods of the ancient Indians.
Housing is one of the significant historical features that describe the ancient culture of a population (Deb 30). The book of Kipling mentions the thatched huts in several occasions to explain the traditional form of housing techniques that the Indians used to construct their houses.
After leaving the jungle and securing refuge within the Indian villages, Mowgli noticed that the Indians lived in huts and slept on the red lacquered bedstead (Kipling 82). Before the British colonizers brought the western civilization, the Indians constructed thatched huts, which were common forms of shelter, apart from the slightly polished King palaces.
Little Toomai, the Indian Priest, and Messua are some of the human characters that Mowgli interacted with after escaping from the jungle and securing a refuge within the Indian villages (Kipling 83). Mowgli explains that the small settlements along the Indian villages were in form of thatched huts and each single family owned at least one hut.
The manner in which people transported goods or travelled across their villages is an important feature in understanding the ancient culture of the people (Deb 25). In The Jungle Book, Kipling reveals some transport cultures of the ancient Indians before the British colonizers came up with the motor roads and rails.
Animals and carts were the main forms of transport systems. Donkeys, bullocks, and mules were the major animals of transport that the ordinary people used. On their journey to Khanhiwara market, Mowgli, Messua, the potter, the priest, and the village headman used the donkeys to transport their goods (Kipling 86).
For the royal families and kings, the main modes of animal transport were the horses, the camels, and the tamed elephants, which were the most treasured animals by the Indian monarchs. Mowgli explains that during the visit of the Amir of Afghanistan, the elephants, the camels, and a big troop-horse, formed the royal transport system.
Indian royalty – kingship and caste
A foremost feature in the ancient Indian culture is the form of kingship leadership that the communities embraced before the western civilization. The Jungle Book describes the life of the primordial Indians as one that relied on the kingship governance and caste systems.
Within the Bandar-log, there was a vacated place where the remnants of the king’s palace existed (Kipling 60). The book mentions the king’s palace, the king’s garden, the king’s elephants, and the king’s council chamber as some of the salient features that portrayed the kingship system of leadership of the primordial Indians.
During the prehistoric era, the Indians depended on the kings and queens, who had officials and advisers that helped to settle disputes between the Indian ethnic groups. According to Kipling (60), the palaces were ultramodern, as Mowgli reveals that the monkeys would run up and down the old palace that had pieces of plaster and some old bricks, which are features of modern housing.
The kingship system was an important cultural aspect of leadership because it portrayed the socioeconomic differences between the ordinary civilians and the royal families (Crinson 18). The conventional Indians lived in a social stratification based on the four Indian castes that separated the worriers, the common civilians, the leaders, and the successful businesspersons.
Mowgli compares the majority poor with the few rich when the donkey of the potter stuck in the mud while they were travelling to the Khanhiwara market. Mowgli exclaimed, “That was very shocking, too, for the potter is a low-caste man, and his donkey is worse” (Kipling 86).
The people of the upper caste were the rich businesspersons, the leaders, army commanders, and some powerful Indian priests who often dined with the kings and queens in the palaces. According to Crinson (21), these caste systems were the main loopholes that the British often used to strengthen their command and oppress the unprotected Indians.
Caste was the source of unfair social stratification that portrayed segregation and individualism between the powerful Indians and the underprivileged majority (Deb 100). The caste had an important connection with the aspects of religion, something that made the Indians believe and respect this form of tyrannical social stratification.
When the priest and the other clergymen caught up with Mowgli at the village gate, the priest bowed down in respect of Messua, who was a wife of a king that Mowgli regarded as the richest villager within the palace (Kipling 81). Messua wore some precious, heavy, copper rings around her ankles and wrists, as symbols of royalty.
The Jungle Book presents the word jungle, which is a metaphoric term that describes the lawless India, where the rich manipulated the poor through the caste systems (Kipling 8). With great respect and honour, the people of the low caste often showed some adoration and gave tribute to the rich monarchs.
The Indian art during the prehistoric India
In the entire history of human civilization, art has been a significant feature because it explains the cultural norms of certain ethnic groups (Evans 27). Kipling was keen about the ancient art of the Indians and thought it was imperative to note the ancient Indian art in The Jungle Book.
The book portrays some ancient arts of the primordial Indians, which are still paramount features of the present Indian culture. The story of Bandar-log shows how the monkeys adored the art of weaving that the Indians practiced during the prehistoric era (Kipling 63).
Knowing that the man-cub or rather Mowgli was a half human with an Indian origin, the monkeys felt delighted that Mowgli would finally assist them to weave sticks together to build nests that would shield them from the strong wind. In the villages, Mowgli noticed that the Indians weaved small baskets of dry grass (Kipling 91). This scenario reveals the ancient Indian culture of weaving and basket making.
To supplement the income that their husbands would make from a few business trips, the conventional Indian women weaved mats, blankets, winnowing fans, and bamboo baskets. Another significant art that Kipling portrayed in The Jungle Book is the traditional art of pottery, which was very prominent among the ancient Indians (86).
Mowgli describes the hardship that the poor potter undergoes when he ferries his moulded pots to the Khanhiwara market using the donkey. Pot making was an ancient art of the Indians that still dominates a great part of the Indian ultramodern culture (Kennedy 65).
Mowgli came across several scenarios where the Indians used decorated and non-decorated pots for various issues. Sculpturing was another ancient art of the Indians that Kipling revealed in the Jungle Book. In the hut of Messua, Mowgli saw “a dozen copper cooking pots and an image of a Hindu god” (Kipling 83). Such scene portrays the Indian culture of sculpturing.
The culture of agriculture in the Ancient India
The ancient Indians had the culture of practicing small-scale farming, which people commonly refer to as peasantry or peasant farming. The farmers were peasants because they lacked powered machinery and modern farming skills to carry out commercial farming (Crinson 36).
Kipling uses some salient features of peasantry that lead the readers towards understanding the ancient peasantry of the Indians. The presence of the small-scale farming animals such as the bullocks, the donkeys, and the mules, signify the traditional practices of the Indian agriculture (Kipling 237).
Kipling also mentions the hoes, the gardens, and other peasantry tools to portray the small-scale farming of the conventional Indians. Rearing of livestock and taming of the wild animals were also some of the important farming activities among the conventional Indians (Evans 22).
In the Jungle Book, Kipling notes the presence of the cattle and the manner in which the Indian elders organized the youths to take the herds of livestock for grazing. While adjusting to the lifestyle of the Indian villagers, Mowgli noticed the rearing of the cattle and tamed buffaloes within the Indian villages.
Mowgli wondered that, “the custom of most Indian villages was for a few boys to take the cattle and buffaloes out to graze in the early morning, and bring them back at night” (Kipling 89). In the world history, one of the important features of the Asian civilization was cultivation and domestication of the world animals.
Rearing of the animals and domestication of some wild animals had a considerable contribution to the economic growth and stabilization of the ancient India (Evans 23). The ancient Indians hunted the elephants and domesticated them because they offered important service to the farmers and to the government of the ancient India (Kipling 177).
Taming of wild animals, digging of the farms with ploughs, and keeping of the herds of cattle, portrays the traditional form of agriculture of the Indians.
Conclusion Perhaps Rudyard Kipling is one of the outstanding novelists who managed to articulate the Indian history in the most desirable manner. Through The Jungle Book, Kipling reveals the real traditional India, which was full of individualism, naivety, weak communism, and unorganized leadership.
The word jungle is a metaphoric expression that Kipling uses to demonstrate a primitive India that was full of lawlessness, primitivism, unfair distribution of wealth and power, and oppression that resulted from the British colonists.
The traditional India survived through the kingship governance and caste leadership systems, and the people practiced hunting of the wild animals, gathering of the wild foods, peasantry, trading, pottery, weaving, and other nomadic and economic activities.
The conventional Indian families lived in nuclear families within their thatched huts and used the donkeys, camels, elephants, mules, and buffaloes for transport. The transport animals suited people of different groups of castes depending on their wealth and influence in the community.
Works Cited Crinson, Mark. Empire Building: Orientalism and Victorian Architecture, London, United Kingdom: Rutledge Publishers, 2013. Print.
Deb, Debal. Beyond Developmentality: Constructing Inclusive Freedom and Sustainability, London, United Kingdom: Rutledge, 2012. Print.
Evans, George. First Light: A History of Creation Myths from Gilgamesh to the God-particle, London, United Kingdom: I.B.Tauris, 2013. Print.
Kennedy, Dane. The Magic Mountains: Hill Stations and the British Raj, California, United States: University of California Press, 1996. Print.
Kipling, Rudyard. The Jungle Book, Scholastic India, Westland: Saddleback Publishing, 2001. Print.
Vertical Integration in Business Organisations Exploratory Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Introduction
Vertical integration company case – Coca-Cola Company
Introduction Business organisations exist to make profits. Most business organisations sell their products using distributors or dealers who are well known to the organisations. The existence of these organisations is founded on offering consumer-oriented products to drive sales.
Products created by the organisations can be raw materials, intermediate items or finished goods. The product creation process often targets a particular group or groups of the population. The buying potential of these groups determines the extent to which a certain product is manufactured. Consequently, the production process is driven by the demand for that item.
The manufacture of various products requires varying inputs, which vary from one organisation to another. The complexity of the materials used in the production process is also dependent on the nature of the commodity produced because certain items require more inputs than others.
However, the quantities of inputs for the manufacturing process can be regulated by the manufacturers. In addition, the nature of a product determines how the final product is marketed. Consequently, a single product can be manufactured partially or wholly by a particular company.
Frequently, companies produce certain products after a thorough evaluation of their capacity to produce a product at ease. Additionally, the cost of production is also put into consideration. Therefore, the company only sets out to produce a certain item if its production is cost effective to the company. Risky ventures or processes that are costly to the company are often foregone.
However, it is possible for a company to engage in the creation of raw materials and marketing provided that the company has enough resources to invest. Such a move is what gives rise to company integration as a company becomes its own input producer, processor or manufacturer.
The company also markets its products in company integration. When a company realizes such achievements, it is said to be vertically integrated. The process of vertical integration is often gradual because a company begins with the units of production that are easy to put together using various methods.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Vertical integration company case – Coca-Cola Company Vertical integration entails a company’s involvement in activities that allow it to control the inputs and outputs. Companies achieve this through employing various production techniques aimed at eliminating input suppliers and output distributors.
Companies that are vertically integrated produce products from their basic forms to the consumption stage. These companies are capable of exploiting consumers because they control the output entirely. The process of vertical integration is long-term and is mainly achieved after some time if the company operates on a large scale (Joskow 2005).
Input production during the integration process involves the company venturing into the production of raw materials. Companies making soft drinks may, for instance, venture in bottling of drinks to reduce the cost of production.
The inputs for this process are customised to suit the special needs of the company during the bottling process. It is also possible to determine the required units for processing or manufacturing because the company’s operations scheduled and every activity is an in-house job.
A brief insight on the origin of the soft drink businesses can be achieved by centering on one of the most lucrative and groundbreaking companies in existence (Saltzman, Levy
The Role of International Companies Analytical Essay essay help: essay help
Introduction As asserted by Hodgetts (2003), the societies that we live in are dynamic in nature. As a result, the interaction between the structures that are present within a given societal setting always changes with time.
To be particular, the advancement in the field of information and technology has made the world to operate on a global level. This fact has made nations to highly depend on each in order to fulfil their overall goals and objectives. By critically analysing this fact, it is evident that the relationships that nations have towards each other has become a critical factor in determining their overall development and sustainability (Davidson, 2005).
Therefore, foreign policies of a given nation play a critical role in safeguarding the national interests of a given state as well as in the realization of its operational goals through the international relations that it has with other states (Caves, 2001).
Thus, the study of international relation is important, especially in understanding the operation of contemporary sovereign states, the role played by intergovernmental, inter-nongovernmental, and non-governmental organization and most importantly, the impact of multinational corporations in safeguarding the national interest of a given state as well as realizing its developmental goals and objectives.
The industrial and technological development that we are currently experiencing has played a critical role in the growth and development of the global economy. The progressive growth of the Chinese economy can be attributed to the policies and strategies that have been put by the Chinese government as well as the relationship that it has with other nations across the world.
With this in mind, this paper will critically analyse the growth and development of the Chinese economy as well as the foreign policies that the Chinese government has put in place to support and regulate this development. The arguments that will be presented in this paper will be supported by international relation theories, specifically realism, institutionalism, and constructivism.
Also, a PEST analysis will be conducted to have a clear understanding of the Chinese foreign policies on its economy as well as that of other states around the world.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Literature review Realism, Institutionalism, and Constructivism theories have been widely used to critically analyse the economic growth of China as well as its rise in power over the years especially since the 1990s. A number of studies have been conducted to determine the effects of China’s regional strategy in East Asia.
As such, the strengths and weaknesses of these theories have been clearly outlined with regards to this issue. From the studies that have been conducted, it is evident that no single international relations theory can be used to clearly explain China’s regional strategy hence resulting in the increased debates about its true intentions.
As such, this paper will critically analyse the international relations of China from the perspectives of realists, institutionalists, and constructivists. As asserted by Cantwell (2001), the theory of realism is based on the following assumptions:
The international structure in anarchic in nature
Global politics are controlled by sovereign states
States have an offensive force (mainly through their military)
The main goal of states is to survive
States are rational actors
States often fail to cooperate
Based on these assumptions, it is evident that realism theories often focus on the shift of political power and relations among states within the international stage (Dees, 2008). It is due to this fact that Erramilli (2010) stated that as a given state increases in power, it will strive to change the international system.
This change will be through territorial expansion, economic dominance, and political control up to that point whether the marginal costs of the system change will exceed the marginal benefits accrued (Erramilli, 2010). The fact that states live in an anarchic system means that there is no higher authority that they can turn to in an event such as an attack or invasion by other states.
All through history, this fact has made states to become uncertain about the intentions of their neighbouring states as well as other states within the global arena. As such, states have been forced to enhance their power as a means of protecting themselves and their interest within the anarchic system that they live in (Broadhaust, 2008) in order to be sustainable.
As asserted before in this paper, the main principle of any given state is to be sustainable in the long run. This clearly explains the reason behind the continued need of gaining power by states through political, economic, and social development.
We will write a custom Essay on The Role of International Companies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The theory of institutionalism takes a different approach as compared to that of realism. According to this theory, intergovernmental as well as non-governmental institutions play a critical role in promoting international cooperation among states resulting in social progress (Jun, 2006).
Thus, unlike in realism where cooperation between states is seen as an impossible phenomenon, cooperation between individuals, institutions, and states is deemed as being possible under the theory of institutionalism (Gee, 2003). Like in realism, the theory of institutionalism assumes that states live within an anarchic system. However, as asserted by Jun (1996), an increase in economic interdependence and cooperation among states results in a decline in political conflicts and insecurity.
Economic interdependence is a term used to define the sensitivity of transaction that take place between two or more nations, hence resulting in socioeconomic development (Behrman, 2002). This interdependence is complex and is characterized by international economic transactions such as the movement of people, the flow of money, exchange of messages through the communication portal and exchange of goods and services across state boundaries that result in reciprocal effects among the involved states.
By critically analysing this theory, it is evident that the cooperation that is present between the involved states is sustained by the active participation of intergovernmental institutions as well as non-governmental institutions. As such, it is believed that these institutions play a critical role in sustaining the international relations of the involved states, hence enabling them to protect their interests and achieve their goals and objectives hence guaranteeing their sustainability in the short run and in the long run.
On the other hand, the theory of constructivism holds that the he core aspects that are present within the international area among all the states are not objectively determined by the material structures that are present, but by processes and interactions that manifest themselves within the social practice (Kogut and Singh, 2008).
Based on this fact, Klein (2011) asserted that the structure of human association that is present in any given societal setting is not determined by material forces but by the shared ideas. It is these shared ideas that construct the identities and interests that manifest themselves within individuals, institutions, and states.
Unlike in realism and institutionalism where the anarchic system forces states to resort to self-help due to the lack of an overlooking authority over the states, constructivism purports that causal power within a given system is determined by the structure that is constructed through social practice (Goddal, 2008). From a critical point of view, therefore, it is evident that the theory of constructivism mainly focuses on the role played by norms, identities, and shared understanding between individuals as well as among states.
As such, the values, beliefs, and identities that individual states develop play a critical role in influencing their behaviour as well as political ideologies. It is due to this fact that Grebe (2005) asserted that the identity of a given state plays a significant role in determining its interests as well as its actions within the international area.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Role of International Companies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through constructivism therefore, one can easily determine the origin of the preferences and interest of a given state, unlike in realism and institutionalism where the key focus only lies on how states pursue their interests and objectives without focusing on the origin of these interests.
The case study The case
From the second half of the 1960s, the Chinese economy has been growing progressively as compared to many other states in the world. This economic development has made China to become an important player the world stage.
After the Asian Financial Crisis, China has been advocating for regional cooperation with its neighbouring states (Balasubramanyan, 2006). Through regional cooperation, China believes that its social and economic status as well as that of the states that will be involved will be enhanced.
However, the rise of China as a regional power in East Asia, coupled with its fight for regional development has brought about a lot of debate about its long term intentions within the international community (Cantwell, 2001). There are scholars who believe that China’s activism in East Asia is a means through which the state wants to achieve regional hegemony (Irmer, 2007).
However, there are those who believe that China’s efforts aim at achieving economic interdependence and mutual benefits (Cantwell, 2001). This disparity brings about a lot of debate that question the international relations of China.
For instance, there is the question as to whether China will continue to be peaceful in nature or will it affect the peace and security of its neighbouring states and the world at large has brought about a lot of debate and speculation. There are scholars who have been keen on the growing Chinese military power and the question whether the nation will use it to realize economic interdependence or for raising a claim over territories beyond its boundaries.
Finally, the debate of whether China will embrace the internationally accepted regimes of the world or whether it will challenge the rules and regulations set by the international community has been increasing with the socioeconomic development of China as a state over time.
The foreign policy that China has developed to protect its interests as a state as well as to achieve regional cooperation with other states within East Asia and the world at large has an impact in the political, economic, social, and technological structures of the nation.
From a political perspective, it is evident that the rise of China as a regional power has enhanced the role it plays within East Asia. In accordance with the realism theory, the anarchic system forces states to compete for power and dominance as a means of surviving and pursuing their national interests (Latta, 1998).
This fact thus explains the rapid expansion of the Chinese military as well as the increased influence that this state has over its neighbours. As asserted by Head (2006), China might be planning to push out US forces out of China and East Asia so that it gains full control of the region the same way the USA pushed out European powers from America in the 19th century to gain full control of the region.
By holding such a position, China can easily control the structures and resources present within East Asia to achieve its interests and goals. From a constructivist perspective, however, China like any other state has its distinct characteristics that have shaped its unique identity. In accordance with the famous Chinese expression, Daguo jeuqi (the rise of the great power), it is evident that China view itself as a powerful state based from its history and current economic and political status.
As such, the nation is seeking cooperation with its neighbouring states to enhance economic interdependence hence resulting in socioeconomic growth. Such a system usually results in a decline in political conflict, an outcome that is in line with the Chinese expression, Daguo guanxi (great power relations).
Economically, the Chinese government has come up with a number of policies and strategies that aim at enhancing positive relations with other states as well as safeguarding its domestic markets and industries. In accordance to the theory institutionalization, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, and multinational corporations play a critical role in enhancing international relations (KPMG, 2012).
As such, China, through its various government and non-governmental agencies have come up with desirable policies that aim at attracting foreign direct investments (FDI) within the nation. In China, (FDI) has been playing a critical role in increasing the productivity levels of a host nation by enabling it to meet its domestic demand. The Chinese government is thus advocating for regional cooperation to increase the benefits of FDI within East Asia, resulting in an increase in the rates of employment, development of infrastructure, reduction in the cost of goods and services and so on (Borensztein, 2008).
The enhanced cooperation between China, its neighbouring states as well as other states within the global area has enhanced social relations and interactions between the Chinese people and the rest of the world. This has resulted in sharing and embracing of new cultures within China and the East Asia region.
Finally, China has embraced information technology. The nation hosts several manufacturing plants for leading ICT companies in the world such as Toshiba, Microsoft, Nokia, Sony and so on. These MNCs operate in China due to the favourable foreign policies that the state has put in place. Furthermore, collaboration among East Asian states will further enhance the technological development of the region.
The economic growth of China and its regional strategy has had varied outcomes for individuals, states, as well as on international cooperation. The local Chinese population has benefited through increased employment opportunities that offer better pay and employment terms (KPMG, 2012).
There has also been an increased growth in businesses, especially small and medium sized enterprises. On a larger scale, the number of multinational corporations in China has also been increased due to its favourable foreign policies, availability of raw materials and the presence of cheap labour (Grebe, 2005).
As a nation, China’s economy has been growing at a tremendous rate since the 1970s due to its favourable international relations that support imports, exports, and FDI resulting in political, social, and economic stability within the nation. Finally, the international relations strategies of China have resulted in increased cooperation between China and other states all around the world. As such, the confidence that other states have with China has been rising over the years and explains the increased FDI.
However, the nation’s growth in power has had mixed reactions as to its intentions behind its regional strategy with other East Asian states especially by the states from the West.
Conclusion The international relations strategy that a given state has played a critical role in determining the relationship that it will have with other states. The growth of China as a regional power in the East has, however, brought about mixed reactions especially from nations in the West.
This is due to the uncertainty of its regional strategy that advocates for regional cooperation. Using realism, institutionalism, and constructivism theories, this paper has found that China’s main aim behind its regional cooperation ambition is to enhance its power and influence in the East as well as to develop great power relations with other states within the region and the world at large.
Thus, China’s regional strategy aims at enhancing interdependence through meaningful cooperation to achieve social, political, and economic stability within the East Asia region.
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Conflict Resolution in the Workplace Term Paper best college essay help: best college essay help
Abstract Conflicts within the work environment are very common. They are caused by both internal and external factors. Well managed conflicts act as a medium for change and may have a positive effect on employees.
On the contrary, if conflicts are not managed well, they may have a negative impact on job performance and employee satisfaction. In the health sector, the performance and conduct of the employees are very important since they have an impact on the patient’s health and lives.
This paper will analyze ethical decision-making dilemma in conflict management in the Florida Department of Health. The paper will address the most significant ethical decisions that have been made to tackle conflicts in the Florida Health Department.
Introduction Disagreements within work environment are unavoidable. If managed prudently, such disagreements can act as a medium for change and may have a positive effect on workers. On the contrary, if conflicts are not managed well, they may have a negative impact on job performance and worker satisfaction.
When disagreements are ignored by the management, it gives an idea that unacceptable job performance and unfortunate conducts are tolerable. Unacceptable job performance and poor conduct on the part of the employees can have an impact on the overall morale of the employees, which consequently can lead to low productivity (Maldonado, 2012, p. 1).
Well managed conflicts are most common in organizations and institutions that encourage open communication, teamwork, regular response and prompt resolution of conflicts. Open communication and teamwork promotes the flow of new ideas and reinforces work relations, which in the long run boosts employee confidence.
On the other hand, regular response and prompt resolution of conflict enhance job performance and employee satisfaction (Classen
The Affordable Care Act and Benefits Management Research Paper college admissions essay help
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (hereafter referred to as the ACA), which was signed into law on March 23, 2010, by President Barrack Obama, presents a new paradigm shift in terms of how employers in the United States proceed in the management of employee benefits (Deloitte, 2013).
Indeed, as suggested in the accruing literature, the ACA generates novel requirements and options for employers’ future benefits decisions particularly in providing affordable insurance coverage to employees and intensifying their access to health insurance either through personal mandate or through already evolving Medicaid expansion programs (Deloitte, 2013; Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2013; Schuman et al., 2013).
This paper brings the real issues surrounding the ACA and benefits management into the fore by presenting the findings of an interview with the benefits manager of a service-oriented company employing more than 250 full-time workers in the United States.
From the onset, the interviewee agreed that the ACA has the capacity to substantially shift the American workplace and workforce, in large part due to the important obligations that employers are expected to assume to expand employees’ insurance coverage.
The manager acknowledged that health insurance coverage forms a critical component of employee benefits management and that his organization has invested heavily in the development of a comprehensive health insurance plan for all employees.
As acknowledged in the literature, the ACA “requires employers with more than 200 employees to automatically enroll employees into health insurance plans offered by the employer” (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2013, p. 1).
As a matter of fact, the interviewee suggested that the company was investing heavily on a policy that will enable the organization to gain access to new avenues to purchase employee health benefits with the view to providing a wider choice of plans and enhanced affordability through more transparent and competitive means.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When asked if the company would be able to adequately cover its employees as demanded in the ACA, the interviewee acknowledged that the Act was shifting healthcare costs to employers rather than encouraging cost-sharing and plan design.
To deal with this scenario, the interviewee hinted that the organization was considering reducing other benefits accruable to employees and also shifting other expenses to employees so that it can have the capacity to provide employer-funded health insurance coverage.
This view is supported in the literature, with the report by Deloitte (2013) acknowledging that a similar employer-sponsored insurance coverage in Massachusetts caused employers to recalibrate “their coverage by scaling back benefits and increasing employee cost-sharing and financial responsibility” (p. 13).
According to the interviewee, reducing other employee benefits to fund the new Act is the only reasonable thing to do for middle-level organizations that neither benefit from the economies of scale open to large organizations nor utilize the various tax credits open to small companies.
Lastly, when asked to state the viability of the ACA in enhancing employee benefits, the interviewee acknowledged that the Act was not justified owing to its adverse effects on overall employee benefits as organizations use available financial resources to purchase health insurance for employees with the view to expanding coverage.
Indeed, the interviewee was of the opinion that some of the provisions of the ACA were making organizations to reduce the monetary allocations earmarked for other benefits to expand health insurance coverage for employees, though this did not translate to improvements in health care delivery or reductions in health care costs.
As indicated in the literature, the Act continues to receive widespread criticism for its incapacity to control health care costs or enhance health care delivery system (Deloitte, 2013; Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2013), and also for its predisposition to redirect substantial benefits into health insurance coverage at the expense of other equally important issues dealing with employee benefits such as paid leaves, pensions and bonuses (Rosenbaum, Teitelbaum,
Concept of Poverty Definition Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Introduction Poverty is a widely useful and common concept in many spheres of socioeconomic development. Albeit a universal concept, many people have different conceptions of the term. In fact, Misturelli and Heffernan (2010) say the concept has different clusters of meanings and definitions.
Other researchers believe the evolving nature of poverty contributes to its varied meanings. The discourse analysis of Misturelli and Heffernan (2010) was among the first research studies to document how the evolving nature of poverty gave it different meanings and definitions. Pantazis, Gordon and Levitas (2006) take a pragmatic construction of this argument by arguing that most people cannot define poverty in any way that they like.
The discourse, or subject areas, of these meanings provide the differences. This paper builds on these arguments by reviewing different conceptions of the term.
Poverty as a measure of low income Since the 1880s, researchers have come up with three main conceptions of the term – “subsistence, basic needs and relative deprivation” (Talbot, Madanipour
Company’s CSR Initiatives Relation to Employee Retention Proposal college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Statement of research question
Introduction This research seeks to find answers to questions on how a company’s CSR initiatives affect its employee retention. The research questions that this research will address include the extent to which companies involve their employees in CSR initiatives, how involvement of employees in CSR activities affect their decision to stay, and the extent of variation in terms of involvement of low-level employees and executive employees in CSR activities.
The question of how company’s involvement in CSR and how it affects turnover and retention is remarkable since every company is interested in retaining its pool of talents. A well-researched response to the query that this proposal puts across will be used to solve the problem of employee turnover, which has been a major issue that faces companies in the Kingdom of Sound Arabia (KSA).
Statement of research question Companies will also use CSR as a tool for internal marketing in a bid to pull the employees closer. When employees become good corporate citizens, their interest to turnover will be reduced.
This claim has been proven by companies such as General Motors and General Electric, which have deployed CSR in the KSA where it (CSR) is still seen as a programme for giving back some profits to the community, rather than upholding it for the sake of company employees.
The cost of carrying out CSR is low in relation to the cost that is incurred because of turnover. The proposal seeks to confirm whether communicating and integrating effective CSR within the workforce can have multiple benefits to the community, top employees, and the lower employees. To be inclusive in the survey, the target segment will comprise low-level and senior employees.
Concern of HR Manager with information-withholding by employees
Some employees may withhold information concerning their intention to quit or stay in an organisation. Withholding of information in fear of victimisation by the management will result in a distorted data and hence wrong results and analysis. Therefore, the HR will disclose the issue to the targeted employees that the gathered data will be used only for this research purposes and that employees should not write personal details in the questionnaires.
Findings of this research will help the organisation to boost its performance since it will elicit insight on the feelings of employees about involvement or failure to participate in CSR initiatives. Intentions of employees to quit or remain will help organisations to plan on retention strategies.
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According to Glavas and Kelley (2014), the issue of corporate social responsibility in businesses can be traced back to 1953. From another perspective, Powell, Davies, and Norton (2013) reveal that a company that has good corporate citizenship programmes experiences low turnover rates.
According to a research by Jones, Willness, and Madey (2014), company’s involvement in CSR has been used in attracting potential employees while at the same time retaining the current ones in America. This research confirms that employees want to remain in a company that not only values corporate citizenship but also one that has an environment that is conducive for employees to thrive.
In his research, Mellat-Parast (2013) observes that although there has been an increase in companies’ involvement in CSR activities, only few of them in the KSA are reaping the expected benefits. Sanchez-Hernandez and Grayson (2012) assert that big companies such as General Electric and Cisco have adapted the application of CSR as a facet of internal marketing. From another angle, Girard and Sobczak (2012) reveal how secondary researches declare corporate citizenship a remedy for employee turnover.
CSR has worked in internal marketing in such companies since employees understand and own companies’ values. Moreover, Mellat-Parast (2013) says that employees want to be associated with such values for their personal growth. A CSR strategic plan should incorporate the needs of every employee.
A review of secondary researchers shows a positive relationship between CSR and customer retention (Bhattacharya, Sen