Postmodern Marketing Essay Essay Help Site:edu

Introduction No-one will dispute the fact that the whole humanity is now living in the business world acting on the principles of production, marketing and consumption. People buy food, clothes, elements of style and devices for communication every day; they go out to eat and have fun. Thus, they make business choices every minute of their lives.

The businesses therefore need to detect the changes in human consumer patterns and reassess their vision of markets and strategies to remain competitive and successful in the post-modern market (Firat and Shultz, 1997, p. 183). Business has to be unusual and attractive nowadays as the humanity evolves from the ‘tribal’, ‘segmented’ state as it has been recently referred to (Nancarrow


The Role of Reading Assessment in Education Research Paper online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Purposes of reading assessment

Purposes of a remediation plan



Introduction Reading assessment is extremely significant when one needs to determine the level of understanding and reading abilities of various students. There are several techniques and tools that help teachers in assessing learners; some of the techniques include language comprehension, reading comprehension and decoding (Schumm, 2006). Teachers often use these techniques and tools for various academic reasons or purposes. Some of the reasons being the assessment, understanding and improvement of a child’s reading abilities.

Purposes of reading assessment Reading assessment is used by educators, to understand the reading abilities of each and every student. Teachers often use assessments to decide on the best solutions and interventions for developing their students’ reading abilities.

Interpretation of these assessments, however, often varies from one instructor to another; therefore, it is imperative for them to, properly, interpret these assessments. Moreover, teacher should also be skillful in assessing their students; since, some assessments may not reflect the students’ abilities, if poorly drafted.

Reading assessment also assists teachers to trace the progress of his or her students i.e. with respect to reading abilities (Afflerbach, 2007). The assessments are often performed time after time; therefore, an instructor can easily note the growth of students’ reading abilities. This enables teachers to single out the underperforming students from the rest of the flock. As a result, he or she will have the capacity to concentrate on the underperforming students, and also design approaches and strategies that aim at improving their abilities.

Reading assessment results are given to guardians and parents of students. This makes them comprehend the abilities of their students, with regard to their reading abilities. Guardians and parents can, therefore, use the results to assist students in building up their children’s reading ability. Moreover, they can also work alongside with teachers, to design and execute the suitable recommendations for their children, with the motive of improving their reading abilities.

Teachers also use assessment to update their understanding of each and every student’s ability (Afflerbach, 2007). This is also the reason why teachers offer frequent periodic tests to their students.

Moreover, these tests also help teachers to establish whether or not their initial approaches and strategies are working. As a result, they will now be able to decide on whether or not to shift from their current strategies.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Tests assessments also assist students to understand their reading abilities. They use assessment results to monitor the progress of their reading and understanding abilities. Moreover, student can also use the results to seek and adopt recommended solutions to their weaknesses i.e. from parents, students or teachers. This eventually improves students understanding and reading abilities.

Purposes of a remediation plan Remediation plans are used by teacher for various reasons or purposes. They help students develop their learning and reading skills, in various capacities.

Remediation plan consists of several sections that are used by teachers, to record certain crucial learning information of students. Some of the information noted in the sections includes areas of problems, resources needed and solutions to the problems (Stein, 1994).

Remediation plan tremendously assists teachers in identifying specific areas of interest i.e. with regard to students reading abilities. It assists in noting areas of weaknesses and specific problems faced by students, in their learning and reading process. Teachers, therefore, use these weaknesses and problems to develop an effective intervention plan.

Besides identifying students’ problems, a remediation plan also assists teachers, to link the student problems with the best possible interventions. Teacher can use the noted problems to seek and research on the best intervention plan that can, tremendously, assist students advance their reading abilities. Moreover, the intervention plan will target the exact areas of weaknesses, thus limited likelihood for ineffectiveness.

Remediation plan helps teachers to identify the necessary resources required by students (Stein, 1994). Remediation plan helps teachers to link resources with student problems. This limits the chances of teachers selecting and using irrelevant resources that may not promote the students’ reading ability. Consequently, students will learn using appropriate resources and information that targets their areas of weaknesses. This will, then, be followed by a terrific student improvement in students’ abilities in reading, learning and understanding.

Remediation plan further provide educators with a template for recording certain crucial information of learners i.e. their weaknesses and the related recommendations. Teachers use these templates to communicate back to their students, parents and guardians.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Role of Reading Assessment in Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consequently, guardians and parents will, comprehensively, understand the challenges faced by students, and thus assist in designing the best recommendations for their children. Additionally, recommendation plan will also help parents and guardians to push students, to follow the recommended solutions i.e. at the home front. This will, then, be followed by a tremendous improvement in their learning and reading ability.

Conclusion It is extraordinarily imperative to assess the reading ability of each and every student due to various reasons. Assessing students’ reading ability assists teachers, parents, and guardians to, extensively, understand the reading abilities of students. Consequently, they will have a clear framework to decide on the best approaches that may improve their children’s abilities. This also applies to remediation plan, which also assists parents, teachers and guardians to decide on students’ fate i.e. with regard to learning and reading skills.

References Afflerbach, P. (2007). Understanding and using reading assessment, K-12. Colorado: International Reading Assoc.

Schumm, J. S. (2006). Reading assessment and instruction for all learners. New York: Guilford Press.

Stein, M. (1994). The Beginning Reading Instruction Study. Darby: DIANE Publishing,


Sustainable, Ethical Business and Marketing Practices Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Main Discussion



Introduction The sector of business is one of fundamental—if not the most important area of the world today. And in order to succeed in it, individuals, corporate groups or organizations must ensure that they clearly follow the stipulated guidelines and rules that dictate each business. It is at this point that sustainable/ethical business and marketing practices inherently come into play.

So whether you are having a small or large business, online or the normal type of business; sticking to the business ethics is paramount! However, Perez (2010) importantly notes that obeying these ethics is quite rare to find in the current world where “the end justifies the means” and “every man for him” is the order of the day. As a result, “good business people” are more often than not the casualties in this perilous competition where wealth and profits are the only variables that are, seemingly, considered sacred.

On the other hand, doing away with the ethics so that businesses get to operate in a “free market” as opined by the 18th century economic guru—Adam smith opens multiple doors for countless hazardous possibilities (Tutor2u, 2010).

So the question most people seem to be asking themselves is: should we continue being ethical even if we do not make profits, or should we jump ship when ethicalness becomes an impediment to the sustainability and continuity of our businesses? Well, my moral compass does not exactly point north, but I tend to believe that any level-headed person with the adequate knowledge of right and wrong will always be able to find a way of balancing personal progress and societal good.

By finding that balance, the issue of being unethical in your marketing and business practices will be scrapped off. If that does not help you, then I believe the pointers embodied in the researched writings below will concisely steer you to the right direction.

Main Discussion Preliminarily, it is common knowledge that values and attributes like honesty, integrity, fairness, donation to good causes, amicable handling of clients, selling or marketing original safe (tried and tested) products, truthful advertisements and proper treatment of staff are some of the many revered ethical and business practices that immensely attracts people to organizations (Jacob 2010; Rajeev 2010; Tutor2u 2010; and Perez 2010).

However, for one to be truly ethical, there are many more vital considerations that come into play. These considerations are the ones that hugely dictate whether a person is judged as unethical or not. For example, most societies consider the abortion business as being unethical. However, in the case where the birth of a particular child poses surmountable threats to the mother, then I believe, abortion will be the logical thing to be done, don’t you think so?

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Similarly, BSD Global (2010) and Withey (n.d., p.2-5) articulate that exorbitant pricing of goods (be it in a business or marketing) is quite unethical. However, in a scenario whereby a lot of money was pumped into making the product or rendering a service, a high pricing is relatively acceptable. I know this may disadvantage a couple of people who are financially challenged; but sometimes we have to contend with reality and be human enough to accept that some things are beyond us.

Additionally, when talking about sustainability in marketing and business, BSD Global (2010) says that on top of salient practices like: measuring progress over time, having a mission statement and having good communication systems among many other basics; we should also remember not to be “too’ ethical to the point of our businesses collapsing.

In relations to the above point, we must learn to be professional and soberly engage in tough decisions for the greater good of our companies. For example, you may direly need pump in money so as to sustain your business or marketing. On the other hand, your immediate community (which is your consumer base) requires you to contribute toward some project. This poses a great challenge to you because both sides are important to you.

So in such a scenario, it is advisable to ensure that you engage in the decision that will ensure that you get a chance to help yourself and the community. Withey (n.d., p.2) further illuminates on being ethically right in such dilemmas by saying that something ethical to one person, can be wrong to another; so to stay on the safe side, stick to the code of ethics.

Rajeev (2010) expresses similar sentiments to Withey by saying that the code of ethics greatly helps in balancing the 6 important facets of marketing and business. Firstly, the code of ethics helps us in knowing how to handle the investors in the right way.

Without the investors, running our business is utterly impossible and we should therefore keenly handle them. Secondly, it also stipulates how to deal with employees—who are very fundamental for the growth of any business. Thirdly, it makes us know how to relate to our customers—whose essential role in our companies is even needless to state.

Fourthly, the code of ethics guides in dealing with competition. In as much as we may want to sideline our businesses from our competitors, it is inherent to state that these business or marketing contenders also play a great duty in pushing us towards progress. For example, when they discover a good product, it pushes us to incept even a better one. Again, we can also get to learn important business secrets especially from the high soaring competitors (Withey, n.d., p.2).

We will write a custom Essay on Sustainable, Ethical Business and Marketing Practices specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fifthly, the code of ethics importantly highlights how to stay on the right side of the government on issues like tax payments, trade practices, unlawful activities and even governmental support to companies or individuals. Sixthly and lastly, it assists us to know ways of being environment friendly.

The environment facet can be viewed twofold. Primarily, it warns individuals, organizations and corporate groups from engaging in environmental degradation practices like emitting toxic substances, poor disposal of refuse or even using technologies that are environment friendly (Ashok, 2001).

Secondarily, environment here is composed of the people living around our business or marketing arenas. Ethically, we are charged with the responsibility of committing to assist in community development—commonly known as corporate responsibility (BSD Global, 2010).

Conclusion In finality, it is invaluably important to remind us that in as much as most people portray ethical uprightness as something that does not have tangible rewards, I tend to believe that ethical decency is not just fulfilling to the people who engage in it, but is also immensely rewarding. I, for example, can attest to having been greatly rewarded from my ethical actions.

And I believe that all people who ascribe to religious beliefs (whether a Christian, Muslim, Hindu and other religious circles) or even atheists (who believe in karma); agree that evil begets evil and good deeds bring good tidings. So you really should not have any excuse for behaving in an unethical way.

I concur that some circumstances may make it difficult for you to behave ethically, but that does not mean you can not try. Plus, the success of your business and marketing greatly depends on it, so give yourself a good chance like many other people who have been ethically upright and succeeded (Jacob, 2010).

References Ashok, R. (2001) Ethical marketing for competitive advantage on the internet. BNET. Web.

BSD Global (2010) Sustainable business practices: IISD’s checklist. Business and Sustainable Development: A Global Guide. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Sustainable, Ethical Business and Marketing Practices by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Jacob, P. (2010) Ethical business practices on the internet. Ezine Articles. Web.

Perez, N. (2010) Maintaining an ethical business practice. Ezine Articles. Web.

Rajeev, L. (2010) Ethical and unethical business practices. Buzzle. Web.

Tutor2u (2010) Ethical issues in business. Web.

Withey, J. J. Ethical dilemmas in marketing practices among small and medium sized enterprises. JABE. Web.


Solving Health Issues in Africa Research Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

Introduction The establishment, operation and the function of many formal non-profit organizations has largely been affected by social, political, legal and economic institutions. In addition, the major big non-profit organizations are found in developed nations but their operations have become largely transnational in nature.

These non-profit organizations (NGOs) continue to perform an important role in facilitating health development in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, the critical role of non-profit organizations in confronting diseases in Africa has intensively and extensively been documented.

Furthermore, the work of NGOs working in Africa especially those in health care has been spurred by the shrinking of state health services across the entire continent, a consequence described as ‘hollowing of the state’ which has been caused by increased privatization and structural programs throughout the 1980s and 1990s which in turn placed the burden on NGOs to fill the gap.

These NGOs get much of their funds and donations from governments of high-income countries such as the United States, Japan, and members of the European Union together with other OECD members (Merson, Black and Mills, 2006, p.497).

From time to time, the generosity manifested by the assisting governments has largely varied and usually depends more on the supposed geopolitical importance of the problem than the real and actual needs of the affected populations. The aspect of financial prudence has become requirement for many NGOs which in turn dictates the success or failure of NGOs.

Financial problems for these NGOs has further been fuelled by global financial recession which means that most NGOs have to operate efficiently within limited budget in order to meet the unlimited health requirements in African countries. Buoyed by this observation, this report will propose an expenditure plan that is necessary in making appropriate administrative decisions with regard to budgeting of health care in African countries.

NGOs role in provision of health services in Sub-Saharan Africa The Sub-Saharan Africa has experienced numerous activities that have been spearheaded by non-profit organizations. For instance, the NGOs sector has contributed significantly in the provision of health and education services since the colonial era although many a times, some governments have worked to impose restrictions and measures on NGOs (Mwabu, et al, 2001, p.82).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Generally, Sub-Saharan Africa is a region that has been credited with experiencing success and prominence in NGOs work of service provision in health, but over time the form and extent on NGOs effort to provide the health services has reduced due to certain reasons such as:

The extent of health problems which determine the demand for services and the roles of state and NGOs sector in responding to the demand;

Government perceived attitude towards the NGOs and also the existing state policies in the health sector which tend to be influenced by political model and regime;

Economic factors which are vital in establishing resources available to the state sector and hence able to finance service provision programs and also the scope of NGOs to participate in service provision; and

The participation and level of interest by foreign aid donors and western NGOs ability in providing resources and influencing domestic social policy which on an evident note has become increasingly important in the context of economic crisis and the structural adjustments that started taking place from 1980s (Mwabu, et al, 2001, p.82).

In most African countries, the larger population is subjected to poor quality of government health facilities, coverage of such facilities is limited, available technical capacity is inadequate, decision-making process is over centralized and the process of providing the required services is generally overwhelmed by inefficiencies and small corruption (Mburu, 1994, cited in Mwabu, et al, 2001, p.82).

In addition, the increasing cases of diseases such as AIDS and chloroquine-resistant malaria is resulting in emergence of a resource gap and the sustained argument has been that such resource gap can be filled by the NGOs sector (World Bank, 1993; cited in Mwabu, et al, 2001, p.82).

Moreover, foreign NGOs continue to exert their presence in Sub-Saharan countries and their presence is seen either in their direct involvement in service provision or through their increased funding for their domestic counterparts and from these, NGOs sector has turned out to be a major source of health provisioning in Africa and such NGOs continue to receive immense support from official donors.

NGOs and Health expenditure in Sub-Saharan Africa Non-profit organizations have played a crucial role in financing health services in Sub-Saharan Africa. The efforts of NGOs in this region have boosted the efforts of the respective governments in the region in their efforts to provide and improve health situation of the people of the region (World Bank, n.d, p.14).

In addition, NGOs sector has channeled a lot of resources which in turn are used in providing for the basic and tertiary health services that would not be available to the majority of the population if the NGOs sector was to withdraw its activities from the society. Overall, non-profit organizations account for almost 35 per cent of all health donations in Sub-Saharan countries (World Bank, n.d, p.16).

The activities of NGOs have been accelerated by the inability of the governments to provide fully and adequately health services to its population and also the profit motive of most private organizations permitted and involved in provision of health services to the population, thereby increasing the prices for vital health care services and products.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Solving Health Issues in Africa specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In most cases, non-profit organizations have partnered with respective governments in extending and facilitating accessibility of critical health care services and products to the disadvantaged populations.

The graph below shows the comparison between private and public health spending in Sub-Saharan countries. It should be noted that, the private expenditure figures in the graphs below include expenditure figures by the NGOs sector.

Private and Public Health Expenditure in Sub-Saharan Africa by the year 2002

Source: Capobianco, Naidu and World Bank, 2008.

Budgeting for Non-Profit Sector The primary objective of non-profit organization has been regarded to involve provision of service which in many instances may or may not be sold, and in evaluating the performance of such organization, emphasis is put on how well that service is provided by the organization compared to its cost.

From this, many NGOs provide services for which there is no direct financial charge made on consumers and in cases where such financial charge is incurred, it is always negligible when compared to the cost incurred in providing for the services (Cutt and Ritter, 1984, p.5).

The objectives of any budgetary model adopted by any organization carrying out specified activities are a function of the goals of the specific organization and the accountability regime specified for the budgetary model functioning within the management cycle of the specific organization.

Primarily, the goals of any budgetary model are specifically seen to generate process and display information which, in the initial stages, appear to be proposals but later they become decisions tools employed in order to achieve the organizational goals (Cutt and Ritter, 1984). Second, the goals of any budgetary model reflect the accountability regime responsible for the budgetary model within the organization. This is done with conviction that resources allocated need to be reported and their use also reported in the required manner since all resources are regarded to be scarce (Cutt and Ritter, 1984).

For the non-profit organizations, the aim is to provide service, and the value of service provided is measured not in terms of money but through some indicators of quantity and quality of the service being provided. Service goals for most non-profit sector are generally broken down into three large categories: allocation, redistribution and stabilization (Cutt and Ritter, 1984, p.9).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Solving Health Issues in Africa by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Furthermore, the accountability regime which essentially determines the goals of the budgetary model in non-profit organizations is similar to that of profit-making organization with respect to procedural accountability but differ with respect to consequential accountability.

Non-profit sector’s accounting mechanisms Non-profit organizations and especially government agencies carry out their operations in different political and economic environments than other business enterprises; hence accounting standards for non-profit organizations have developed differently as compared to business-enterprise standards.

Although many principles and concepts such as controlling, reporting, concern for relevance, comparability, consistency and understandability, apply to both non-profit and private sector, the non-profit sector manifests some differences that include: Non-profit organizations have inflow (revenue) and outflow (expenditure) statements but in most cases the concern is on raising and expending resources in accordance to the budget plans; non-profit organizations are expenditure rather than expense-oriented; non-profits emphasis is placed on the sources of revenues and ways the acquired resources are used, and in this respect the organizations are dollar accountability-oriented; largely in non-profits, there is no equity accounting and funds are generally based on legal requirements, further accounting may use either the cash basis or modified cash-accrual basis; non-profits do not typically have operational accountability as a central objective and thus major emphasis of these organizations is placed on stewardship and role of administrators and the management become accountable for the inflow of funds and also their expenditure in attainment of set objectives (McKinney, 2004, p.50).

Funds in non-profit organizations are categorized as resources that are available for the organization to obtain goods and service and these resources may either be restricted or unrestricted whereby in case of restricted resources, the donor or the authorizing body outlines the conditions to be observed or adhered to in using the funds (McKinney, 2004, p.50).

Expenditure Budget model for Non-profit organization With the availability of specification of the revenue budget and ultimate determination of a planning framework of objectives and priorities, the first constituent of the expenditure budget model is the set budgetary terms of reference. In accordance to these set goals the primary function on which information is collected is for budgetary decision-making.

The organization is seen to be divided into specific major programmatic activities and each of which is divided into sub-programmatic activities which can further be described in line-items of expenditure (Cutt and Ritter, 1984, p.19). The second constituent of expenditure budget model is the specification of the accountability regime.

Accountability regime is classified into two; the procedural and consequential accountability where procedural accountability deals with accountability for propriety where it exclusively deal with inputs while the consequential accountability is concerned with performance in utilizing the available limited resources hence it includes information on the outputs or benefits consequential on utilizing the limited resources (Cutt and Ritter, 1984, p.21).

Consequential accountability regime is further defined at different levels of sophistication all involving the translation of line-item financial outlays into output-oriented cost concepts that in turn represent three levels of sophistication in the explanation of output described as productivity or efficiency measures, effectiveness measures and measures of the imputed money value of output, therefore these three levels of consequential accountability can be seen as cost-efficiency, cost-effectiveness and social profitability (Cutt and Ritter, 1984).

The third constituent of expenditure budget model is the specification of the scope of the information to be included in expenditure budget in terms of operating and capital expenditures, and the last constituent of expenditure budget model is the specification of the time horizon in which detailed budget information will be required for which spending is formally authorized (Cutt and Ritter, 1984).

Zero-base budgeting (ZBB) for non-profit organization Zero-base budgeting is a budgeting technique that has gained popularity due to its strong push toward analysis of all costs and hence all costs from a base of zero must be justified. The below diagram illustrates elements of a ZBB decision package.

Elements of a ZBB decision package

Source: Finkler, Kovner and Jones, 2007.

The ZBB model builds on a program budgeting apparatus which determines program objectives and the most cost-beneficial or cost-effective method of pursuing program objectives and hence provides a means of implementing of the program objectives at the activity level.

The general ZBB model takes the existing organizational or programmatic structure and the basic logic of the model require some form of top-down guidance on the objectives of the organization within the activity-level budgeting is being carried out. With ZBB model, the organizational objectives provide the context within which the activity objectives can be determined and hence activity levels of effort ranked.

In general ZBB model does not require the objective-oriented structure of program budgeting but instead relies on the existing organizational structure in most cases may be programmatic in nature. Just like performance budgeting and program budgeting, ZBB model dwell heavily on the line-item budget model and therefore responds to the needs of procedural accountability (Cutt and Ritter, 1984).

The objectives of the ZBB model especially for non-profit organization are: first, financial control which reflects the procedural accountability; and second, management which reflects the activity at the organization level for which information is collected for output-oriented decision-making process.

The structure of the budget model requires cost and output information for the established organizational units over specified time period and cross-referenced to the standard line-item presentation is required to achieve the set financial control objectives of budgeting.

Furthermore, the structure of ZBB budget model generally requires that all set of decision packages for the organization as whole be arrayed in rank order and associated with the funding constraint for the organization in the specified period of time so that emphasis is put on those high priority decision packages and which become first in receiving the allocated funds and also the low-priority packages which become first to be eliminated if the overall budget is reduced or inadequate.

In general, the ZBB budget model provides comparison to three major types of alternatives within the decision package for each individual program: first alternative involves ways to produce service or output; second alternative relates to quantity of service or output to be provided; and third alternative, considers the varying levels of quality (Finkler, Kovner and Jones, 2007).

Budgeting with limited resources Non-profit organizations have been forced to work with limited budgets to meet unlimited needs specifically in developing societies. For instance, as an organization dealing with health care in Africa, resources available are limited to cater for adequate provision of necessary drugs: medicines from major pharmaceutical companies; non-generic, non USDA approved; and stem cell medication from foreign sources.

It is evident that limited the organization has inadequate funds and therefore any move to acquire the above medicines need to be a financial sustainable. A sustainable budgeting is required that will encourage and promote obtaining of the subsidized medicines in a cost-effective manner without compromising on the quality of the drugs.

In creating an effective budget for the organization to acquire the medicine using the available limited funds, the first important thing is to access the organization’s cash flow in order to know all the available monies and donations. Budgeting in its nature is a financial exercise that should make provision for expenditure after consolidating the revenue resources. Expenditure in this case is the purchase of drugs for an African country.

In the case the budget need to be done objectively and realistically due to limited funds where most pressing needs should be given the first priority. The available pooled fund should be distributed for each drug depending on the demand and priority.

In essence the needs will always be more than the available resources and as a result the budget may not fulfill all the demands but the organization and especially the board should be judicious in balancing the organization’s pooled funds and expenditure so that the basic priorities are not foregone and that expenditure is only limited to the most needed drugs. To realize the objectives of the organization with regard to limited funds in buying the subsidized drugs the following measures will be necessary:

Flexible Budgeting

Flexible budgeting allows the management of the organization to create operating budgets for the various workload levels and this will be done by reviewing the volume of medicine (products) to be provided by the organization and this constitute the workload for the organization.

At the same time the management is presented with opportunity to forecast the changes to take place especially in pharmaceutical operations in foreign environment. A flexible budget provides the organization’s management with the opportunity to understand the effects of adopted workloads.

Cost-Benefit Analysis

Cost-benefit analysis for the organization will compare the costs and benefits of acquiring the needed medicine from the selected foreign sources.

In carrying out cost-benefit analysis five-step process is observed: determine the project goals; determine the benefits of the purchase of the drugs; determine the cost and benefit flow at an appropriate rate; and make a decision analysis based on the data collected. To derive a more viable and workable expenditure decision, the organization will use ZBB budgeting model combined with flexible budgeting ideas and incorporating cost-benefit analysis techniques.

Conclusion Organizations are formed and exist to accomplish certain set objectives. Non-profits are not insulated from these responsibilities. Further, finance and other resources become necessary and critical in determining the success in accomplishing organizational set objectives within specific timeframe.

In ensuring the health state of organization’s finances the board has the responsibility to ensure integrity and reliability is promoted in the organization with regard to finances. The board has the mandate to ensure the organization is managed in a fiscally sound way and the organization possesses adequate resources to carry out its programs. Budgeting becomes necessary for non-profit organization in that the income and expenses for the organization will need to be outlined to show the healthy and sustainability of the organization.

Effective financial management and budgeting tools need to be adopted to ensure the financial health of the organization is not compromised and also the organization is in a position to meet its set objectives in cost-effective way. Effective budgeting ensures the organization remains upright in contingency planning process and that the management needs to be assertive and tightly control the expenditure of resources which naturally are scarce while the needs are unlimited.

References Capobianco, E., Naidu, V. and World Bank. (2008). A review of health sector aid financing to Somalia. NW, World Bank Publications. Web.

Cutt, J. and Ritter, R. (1984). Public non-profit budgeting: the evolution and application of zero-base budgeting. Toronto, Institute of Public Administration of Canada. Web.

Finkler, S. A., Kovner, C. T. and Jones, C. B. (2007). Financial management for nurse managers and executives. PA, Elsevier Health Sciences. Web.

McKinney, J. B. (2004). Effective financial management in public and nonprofit agencies. CT, Greenwood Publishing Group. Web.

Merson, M. H., Black, R. E. and Mills, A. (2006). International public health: diseases, programs, systems, and policies. MA, Jones


Growing role of Shale Gas Essay college essay help near me

Introduction Background

Adequate, affordable and reliable supplies of energy are essential for social-economic development of any nation. Global energy demand has been rising consistently. High demand for energy in the recent past has led to general increase in global oil prices. Frequent energy crises in the recent decades have motivated innovation in energy sector.

Most recent research studies in energy are oriented towards developing alternative source of energy to supplement or replace fossil fuel. National and international consumption of fossil fuels are anticipated to rise over nest several years. The increase in consumption is however expected to be slower that in the recent years.

Projected increase in fossil fuel consumption in the U.S is, among other factors, as result of anticipated increases growth domestic unconventional gas supplies (Haines, 2006, par 7). According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 2009, there is high anticipation of increase production of oil, coal and natural gas in the country (Ziff, 2009, par 2).

Increased production of shale gas is expected to bring high impact in energy mix not only in the United States but also in other parts of the world. The report addresses effect of increasing production and consumption of Share gas in the country. It focuses on technological impact, commercial consideration, and implication of use of Shale gas to conventional gas.

Unconventional natural gas is at the top in national energy discussion. The increasing importance of unconventional natural gas on national energy has led to significant impact on the country’s energy. The significance of unconventional natural gas is not felt only in the U.S but also in other parts of the world such as Australia, Canada, China and some countries in Europe (Fortson, 2009, par 15).

Debate on conventional natural gas is relatively new. In 2000, unconventional natural gas contributed less than 1% of the countries gas consumption. The impact of the unconventional natural gas was not felt until about 2007-2008, but reached its peak in the second half of 2009. Currently, unconventional natural gas is considered as one of the important innovations in energy sector and one that has high potential energy supply in the future.

Shale gas leads as the unconventional natural gas that has significant impact on national and global energy (New Standard Energy, 2010, par 5). It is natural gas derived from Shale. Shale is natural gas potential rock made up of mud that is composed various clay minerals and other minerals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Shale gas has developed significantly as source of energy in the country in the recent years. Due to its scale, shale gas is considered as one of the sources of energy that need assessment for development. With development in technology for developing Shale gas, the unconventional natural gas is considered to lead to a paradigm shift in national and global energy in the future.

The figure below shows natural gas production in United States:

Source: Natural Gas Production By source.

Unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas has led to a revolution in energy sector. The impact of shale gas is already being felt in the US and globally. The unconventional natural has led to a transformation in supply and price forecast for natural gas. It has also led to significance on competition among various options for energy.

Today Shale gas contribute to about 20% of gas used in United states, a rise from about 1% 2000 (Kuuskraa, 2007, par 3). It is anticipated that Shale gas and other unconventional natural gases will continue to grow contributing to about half of gases used in the country by 2035. Such an increase will have high impact on energy sector in the country.

For instance, unconventional natural gases contributing 50% of national consumption enable electric power industry to increase is natural gas consumption to about 35 Billion cubic billion per day, up from 19 Bcf currently. Abundant resource for natural gas will have effect o various sectors of the economy. It will have significant influence on choice for power generating technologies.

Considering the consistent growth in demand for electricity and pressure to replace some of the current plants, shale gas and other unconventional natural gas will contribute highly on the overall energy mix (Whitney, Behrens, Clover and Hederman, 2010, p. 108). Shift to unconventional natural gas will affect the relative cost of handling greenhouse gas emissions.

We will write a custom Essay on Growing role of Shale Gas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The abundant supply of Shale gas could also have effect on transportation fuels. It could lead to focus on natural gas vehicle while the gas could be used to run power stations that could be used for recharging batteries for electric vehicle.

Revolution in energy sector brought by unconventional natural gas has influenced consumption of natural gas. It has lowered price outlook for natural gas, gas as a source of energy to be more competitive. The Abundance in supply for the unconventional natural gas has boosted confidence on security of supply for natural gas (Jolly, 2008, par 7). This is a great shift from high natural gas insecurity experiences some few years ago.

As gas consumption is expected to raise, greenhouse regulation with become more of a reality than a possibility. Although there is high expectation for impact of Shale gas and other unconventional natural gas, the limit is subject to relative economies of fuels. Other factors that are expected to affect shale gas consumption include structure of the transport system, configuration for power systems, and public policies such as Greenhouse gas emission control.

Figure shows outlook for unconventional Natural gas

Source: United States Unconventional Natural Gas Outlook.

Technology analysis Although unconventional natural gases are widely available, they were ignored in preference of conventional natural gas. Shale gas deposits in particular were ignored by producers as they sought deposits with higher concentration. The producers mainly preferred high concentration reserves in order to optimize returns from their heavy investments.

Although Shale gas mining has been there for a long time, it was not considered a viable source of sustainable natural gas (Westervelt, 2010, par 5). It is through technological improvement in Shale gas mining that is has become a competitive source of natural gas.

Cost effectiveness of modern drilling, well simulation and conversion has turned Shale gas to potential source of natural gas. The significance of new Shale gas mining technology is evident in increase in Shale gas in the market thus reducing import for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the country and its demand globally.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Growing role of Shale Gas by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Shale gas production is significantly different from production in conventional petroleum reservoirs. Petroleum reservoirs mainly rely on pressure oil-dissolved gas and gas-cap during early stages of development. Mining also depends on upward hydraulic pressure from water trapping the reservoir.

The production is therefore easier and cost effective due to the nature of the reservoirs. This method of production where water drives and pressure of natural gas is referred to as conventional drive (Curtis, 2002, p. 37). When conventional drive drops due to reduction reservoir’s production, pumping is required in order to bring the petroleum to the surface.

Artificial lift, as the process is referred, leads to increase in production cost. As a reaction to cost effectiveness of artificial lift, drilling companied started to induce hydraulic pressure. The technology helped to increase a well’s production, effectiveness, and reduce cost. Today, advancement in drilling technology has led to a shift from reliance of vertical drilling to horizontal directed to reservoir formation (Mccallum and Womack, 2010, par 13).

Horizontal drilling has not only led to high production but also allows drilling of more than one well from a single well pad. This not only helps in cutting cost but also reduce environmental effect (Sumi, 2008, par 4). Hydraulic fracturing and directional drilling has played a significant on Shale gas production; making it a major competitor to conventional natural gas.

Shale gas production has to consider some factors for it to be successful. The most important factor to be considered in Shale gas extraction is the level of gas in Shale gas reservoirs. Since Shale has low permeability, commercial production of Shale gas requires fracturing in order to produce permeability.

Although natural fractures are sometimes available, they cannot be able to support commercial production making artificial fracturing to be necessary (Ghosh and Prelas, 2009, p. 73). Modern technology in hydraulic fracturing has enabled Shale gas extraction to be commercially viable leading to the current boom. Most of the current Shale gas wells are horizontal. Horizontal drilling and need for hydraulic fracturing tend to make cost for Shale gas production to be higher that in conventional wells.

Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are very important to Shale gas production. Horizontal drilling allows production of Shale gas from a wide geographic area without having to sink many vertical wells. Through the technology, gas production can be done below surrounding farms, schools, airports and other natural and man made features, without interference. Hydraulic fracturing increases gas production making Shale gas production to be commercially viable.

Commercial Consideration Until recently, Shale gas was not consideration for commercial use. Various factors in energy market such as price increase and instability, together with advancement in hydraulic technology has changed the situation. Today Shale gas makes up about 20% of natural gas consumption in the United States (Lashley and Hobbs, 2010, par 4).

Other countries such as Australia, China and some European countries are considering Shale gas as substitute to natural gas. As unconventional natural gas, extraction of Shale gas is challenging. Difficulty in extracting Shale gas has been the major factor limiting production of Shale gas and other unconventional natural gas.

Hydraulic fracturing required for extraction of the gas was expensive making cost of production to be extremely high. The high cost of production made produced Shale gas to be expensive than imported liquefied natural gas. Therefore, importation was preferred way of acquiring fuel gas.

Horizontal drilling and advancement in hydraulic fracturing have reduced Shale gas production substantially making Shale gas as a major competitor to liquefied natural gas (Congressional Research Service, 2009, par 9). Cost effectiveness of the Shale gas production has therefore made economically viable.

The high rate of growth of Shale gas in the country is a major threat to conventional natural gas. Not only is Shale gas reservoirs in the country large but also the gas can be sold at competitive prices. Shale gas therefore has been able to emerge as potential source of energy for the future. The large reservoir for Shale gas and improving effectiveness of Shale gas production is having high impact in national and global natural gas market.

The United States has been relying almost entirely on imported liquefied natural gas. Relying on importation meant that any effect in production in source countries has high implication to the United States. The US currently consumes about 21percent of global natural gas.

This is a large portion from an individual country. Considering the US’s high consumption of natural gas, increase in Shale gas usage in the country will have high implication on global natural oil industry. Considering the countries high potential in Shale gas, the US might turn as an exporter of natural gas in the future (Durham, 2010, par 9).

Currently, the US has shale gas potential capable in supplying the country with natural gas for the next a hundred years. The effect of Shale gas has already started to be witnessed. Before Shale gas revolution in 2009, world prices for natural gas were in constant fluctuations. High commercial production of shale gas has led to stabilization of the prices.

Anticipated growth in Shale gas production in the country is anticipated to exert more pressure on liquefied natural gas. Other countries such as Australia and China are also taking moves to increase Shale gas production in the counties. The national and global increase in Shale gas production is likely to major effect on OPEC (Arthur, Langhus and Alleman, 2008, par 6).

The high monopoly and control in natural gas is likely to change. Russia is the country that will be affected most by the changes. Russia and other oil producing and exporting countries will have implement major changes in the natural gas exportation in order to remain competitive.

Shale gas has competitive advantage over conventional natural gas. The gas has less carbon content relative to conventional natural gas. As urge environmentally friendly fuel alternative continues, Shale gas will be preferred over conventional natural gas. Shale gas is not only environmentally friendly is considered to commercially superior to conventional natural gas.

Exploration for Shale gas is relatively cheap as compared to natural gas. New production technologies have lowered the cost of producing Shale gas substantially making it highly competitive. In addition, Shale gas reservoirs are easily available as compared to natural gas.

Shale Gas versus Conventional Gas Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has made Shale gas to be a boom in natural gas market. Analysis is HIS CERA has found Shale gas resource base of about 2,000 Tcf. It is also estimated that additional 3,000 Tcf is going to be discovered in the near future. Shale gas potential in other countries is also high (Lewis and Lawler, 2010, par 8).

For instance, in Canada Shale gas resources is estimated to be more than 500 Tcf. The high potential in Shale gas has major impact on conventional gas. Shale gas is a substitute to conventional natural gas. This mean that increased demand for Shale gas has negative impact on demand for conventional natural gas.

In United States, Shale gas consumption has risen to about 20 percent up from about 1% in 2000. The effect of this increase is already being felt in natural gas market. This has led to stability in prices for natural gases while outlook for future prices indicate price fall.

Many countries are considering Shale gas. Other countries, which have shown strong interest on Shale gas production, include Australia, China, Canada and some European countries such as Poland. Full-blown production of Shale gas will have severe effect on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG).

Shale gas might replace LNG as the dominant natural gas. Low cost of Shale gas production enabled by new production technology has made Shale gases a potential source of natural gas. Worldwide production of Shale gas will exert competition on LNG leading to drop in prices. The increased Shale gas production will have negative effects of LNG producing countries such as Russia. The countries may loose revenue due to drop in natural gas export and reduction in prices.

Shale Gas Development in USA United States among the countries that have shown great interest in Shale gas production. Shale gas is considered a solution to natural gas problems in the country. Although Shale gas extraction started in early 1820s in Fredonia, New York, it is not until recently that is has gained popularity as a potential source for natural gas (U.S. Department of Energy, 2009, par 5).

The country has high reserve for Shale gas. Currently Barnett Shale is the largest reservoir for Shale gas and the most active. Other potential Shale producing areas are also being explored. For instance, there has been exploration in West Texas. The country’s Share gas resources are estimated to be about 600 Tcf, a high potential for natural gas supplier (Paltsev, Jacoby, Ejaz, Morris and Kragha, 2010, par 9).

Investments in Shale gas has increased with new and more effective share gas producing technologies. In total, the country has about 35,000 producing Shale-gas wells. Many companies have shown interest in Shale gas. Among the major investors in this area, include Royal Dutch Shell, Contango Oil Co., Chesapeake Energy Corp., Denbury Resource Inc., Devon Energy Corp., Noble Energy Corp. and Murphy Oil Corp (US Energy Information Administration, 2008, par 11). Investment in Shale gas is continuing to attract more investors mainly because high profitability prospect.

Currently US Shale gas consumption is about 20% of natural gas consumed in the country. The consumption is estimated to continue to rise as more investments are made in the area. It is anticipated that about half of the country’s natural gas will be produced locally from Shale gas by around 2030. The high investment in Shale gas might may turn the US as a major exporter in natural gas in the future. This will be a major contrast of the current situation where the US consumes about 21% of world’s natural gas, mainly imported.

Conclusion Source of energy is very crucial for development of any country. Recent energy crises have demonstrated the importance of sustainable source of energy. Many research studies in energy sector have focused of on coming up with alternative source of energy to ensure stability in energy supply.

Shale gas provides one of the most viable alternatives to conventional natural gas. Technological advancement and high investment in Shale gas has made it one of the potential supplies for natural gas. In United State, Shale gas is estimated to contribute about 50% of the country’s natural gas consumption. The impact of Shale gas is expected to be felt in global natural gas production.

Reference List Arthur, D., Langhus, B. and Alleman, D. 2008. An overview of modern shale gas development in the United States. Web.

Congressional Research Service. 2009. Unconventional Gas Shales: Development, Technology, and Policy Issues. Web.

Curtis, J. 2002. Unconventional Petroleum System. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Vol. 86 No. 11, pp 1921-1938.

Durham, L. 2010. Prices, Technology Make Shales Hot. Web.

Fortson, D. 2009. Shale gas blasts open world energy market. Web.

Ghosh, T. and Prelas, M. 2009. Energy Resources and Systems: Fundamentals and non-renewable resources. New York: Springer.

Haines, L. 2006. Shale Gas. Web.

Jolly, D. 2008. Europe starting search for shale gas. The New York Times. Web.

Kuuskraa, V. 2007. A Decade of Progress in Unconventional Gas. Web.

Lashley, M., and Hobbs, D. 2010. Fueling North America’s Energy Future. The Wall Street Journal. Web.

Lewis, B., and Lawler, A. 2010. Analysis: Oil major model challenged by shift to gas. Web.

Mccallum, k., and Womack, J. 2010. Mitsui Bets on U. S. Shale-Gas Project. Web.

New Standard Energy. 2010. What is Shale gas? Web.

Paltsev, S., Jacoby, H., Ejaz, Q. Morris, J., and Kragha, O. 2010. The Future of U.S. Natural Gas Production, Use, and Trade. Web.

Sumi, L. 2008. Shale Gas: Focus on the Marcellus Shale. Web.

U.S. Department of Energy. 2009. Modern shakes Gas Development in The United State: A Primer. Web.

US Energy Information Administration. 2008. Top 100 oil and gas fields. Web.

Westervelt, A. 2010. Shale Gas Booming Globally, Despite Chemical Dangers. Web.

Whitney, G. Behrens, C., Clover, C. and Hederman, W. 2010. Energy: Natural Gas: The Production and Use of Natural Gas, Natural Gas Imports and Exports, Epact Project, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Import Terminals and Infrastructure Security. New York: The Capitol Net Inc.

Ziff, P. 2009. Shale Gas Outlook to 2020. Web.


Corporations practicing stakeholders’ management will be more sustainable Research Paper best college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Stakeholders’ management

Stakeholders influence on corporation’s sustainability




Introduction The following is an argumentative essay on stakeholders’ management and whether the corporations that practice stakeholders’ management are more sustainable compared to the organisations that do not practice this type of management.

The discussion is about the theoretical perspectives underlying stakeholders’ management in the corporation. It also looks into how an organisation balances the stakeholders’ interest with the shareholders’ interests, as they are two different entities with conflicting interests.

It examines the role of stakeholders’ management. In addition, it looks into the existing literature studies on management to prove that the stakeholders’ management leads to sustainability of the corporation.

Stakeholders’ management It is imperative to determine who is a stakeholder in an organisation. A stakeholder is any individual with interest in a particular organisation. A stakeholder is an entity whose contribution to the organisation is influential such that the organisation cannot survive without it (Clarkson 1995).

The stakeholders can therefore be the owners, the government, the trade unions, the political groupings, customers, suppliers, the communities as well as the public. This is because they play an important role in the survival of the organisation.

The stakeholders’ theoretical perspectives show that the organisation is like an organism, which has different body parts and cannot function fully without one of its organ. The stakeholders are similar to the organs in an organisation and are crucial to the sustainability of the organisation (Clarkson 1995).

Stakeholders influence on corporation’s sustainability To determine the extent of influence that a particular stakeholder has, there is a criterion that is used that involves the following aspects. The first aspect is on how the stakeholder influences the financial performance of the organisation.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, the customers and suppliers are key stakeholders of a corporation as they directly influence the profit that the organisation will make. The second aspect is the stakeholders’ influence on the productivity and operations such as the employees who have direct influence on the productivity of the organisation (Evans


Ethics And Economic Modeling Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Summary: Climate Change and Econom ic Policy

Ethics and Economic Modeling


Summary: Climate Change and Econom ic Policy Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are accountable for increased changes in climatic conditions around the world. This calls for economic policy interventions to curb the situation. The following are some of the greenhouse gas emissions; methane, ozone and carbon II oxide (John, 2012, p.2).

These emissions result from unethical human activities such as, deforestation and unconditional combustion of fossil fuels. Consequently, there has been an increase in the sea level, loss of bio-diversity and an increased damage to the ecosystem (John, 2012, pp.2).

The Australian government has introduced policies to reduce the social costs of pollution by ensuring that the Marginal Social Benefit (MSB) is equal to Marginal social Cost (MSC).

These policies establish regulations that govern human activities, creation of property rights and increasing taxation. However, these efforts have been compromised by the changing nature of human activities that cause pollution. (John, 2012, pp.36).

Ethics and Economic Modeling A Sustained Economic growth is attainable when people’s economic activities are considerate of the social costs to the present and future generations (Gillard, Swan


Mechanics of money Essay college admission essay help

Introduction Barter system of trade was convenient in the primitive society because production was diversified and subsistence. Only the few commodities that one lacked could be obtained through exchange. However, as time progressed, the society shifted to specialization in the production process.

This necessitated for the need for an accepted medium of exchange to use for purchasing needed product and services. Anything commonly used as a medium of exchange is called money (Ashby 1). Money is a sensitive item in the economy and should therefore be controlled.

If its supply is increased, people will buy in large amounts. During these conditions, orders will surpass the production leading to increased prices. As a result, there will be a sustained raise in the average level of prices, a condition termed as inflation. If the supply of money is low, people will not buy much.

As a result, there will be more inventories. This condition will force some business to lay off some workers leading to unemployment.

To encourage sales, some business will lower prices of their commodities leading to deflation. As a result, there will be a sustained drop in the total output of the nation’s producers, which is a condition called recession (Ashby 2).

The Kinds of Money

Anything can be used as money. Notes and coins are the currency that has been authorized by the government to be used as money. Another kind of money is the checking account balances. Checking account balances involves the use of checks, which are not money.

If check were to be counted as money, it will mean that the balance portion not written on the face of the check is forgotten.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Debit cards, stored-value cards, smart cards, electronic funds transfer, web-based payment system, and credit cards cannot be considered as money and neither can they substitute money. Instead, they used in place of checks (Ashby 4).

Coins, notes, and checking accounts balances are considered as money only if they are included in the measured money supply. If payments for the products and services are substituted with direct transfer of ownership of savings certificates, the saving certificates will be considered as money.

The US Money Supply

The money supply of the United States includes the coins and paper currency apart from the amounts in the vaults in the banks, Federal Reserve banks, and the treasury.

It also includes the checking account balances for the USA dollar apart from those owned by United States treasury and domestic banks. This can be represented by an equation bellow


Where M is the money supply, CA the checking account component, and CC the coins and currency.

From the equation, any activity that increases CC and CA increase the money supply and vice versa. The Federal Reserve banks, banks, and the treasure of US are the only entities with legal powers to create money.

We will write a custom Essay on Mechanics of money specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The money they create and release are the only money accepted as money. This implies that dollars owed by the bank, Federal Reserve System, and the US treasury are not money.

The supply of money can only be useful if it rises when there is a lot of money available for public spending and when it falls when there is little money for the public to spend. This scenario implies that a deposit of $2000 into an account will increase CA by $2000 and at the same time reduce the CC leaving M unchanged.

This implies that the bank is a store that sells cash and checking account balances. On top of that, the bank also sells financial assets such as, certificate of deposits and loan checking account balance.

Velocity of Money (V)

Velocity of money refers to the average number of times a similar dollar is spent in a year for purchasing domestic output only. This velocity is determined by the people through the spending, earning, and saving behaviors. If money spenders spend it quickly, the velocity is increased and vice versa.

On average, the Velocity of the US dollar is about 7.25. However, this figure seems less because of some factors such dollarization, limitation of V to domestic purchase, and little amount of money circulating in domestic market (Ashby 11).

The velocity of money is allowed by the Federal Reserve System because it aids in determine the amount of money the economy needs. The total expenditure on the current domestic output cannot exceed the quantity of money multiplied by its velocity in one year.

Money Producers and Regulators The money creation system of the United States is a three-tier system consisting of the treasury department, the Federal Reserve System, and the banking system. They are explored bellow.

US Treasury Department

The treasury is a department within the executive branch of the federal government concerned with the management of the financial affairs of the government. This department has an internal revenue service responsible for the collection of taxes and borrowed funds from treasury bills, which is used for settling its bills.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Mechanics of money by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The treasury is also responsible for the operation of the mint and the bureau of engraving and printing the US’s currency. The coins and notes mint by these agencies are not yet money and thus cannot be spend by the federal government.

They are instead sold to the Federal Reserve banks for purchase by US’s banks. The whole process leads to a modest increase in the supply of money.

The Federal Reserve System

This is a specialized institution mandated with the task of stabilizing and controlling the money and banking system of the United States. Its operation is independent of the congress.

This system was created following the financial crisis of early 1990s (Ashby 18). It has twelve Federal Reserve banks that are owned as private corporations whose stock is owned by banks in their region.


The federal system regulates the size of the supply of money through manipulation of data on the same. It also serves as banks for the federal government whereby it maintains the checking accounts for the federal government. The Federal Reserve Bank further acts as a banker for foreign government and international agencies.

This bank further works in conjunction with other regulatory agencies that are actively involved in the currency regulation, so as to ensure that all players within this industry operates within the required regulations.


Banks are institutions which offer transaction accounts whereby check or related instruments can be drawn to make payments. Traditional institutions subsuming commercial banks, savings associations, and credits unions are regarded as banks.

The establishment of banks is ascertained by a charter after certify that the need for the same and the qualification of the institution. Since money is created through the banking system, the Federal Reserve System has to regulate the banking activities within the State.

The depository institutions deregulation and monetary control act of 1980 streamlined the banking system by giving the federal government full control over all banks

Banking Supervision and Deregulation

Although banks are business entitled for profit making through their own goals, they are carefully regulated. The regulation is for several reasons.

They include protecting depositors, stabilizing the monetary system, for protecting the consumer, and to check on the efficiency and competitiveness. They are discussed in details bellow.

Depositor Protection

Majority of the banking services are accessed through an account. When one opens an account with the bank, he deposits some money into the same and thereby becoming a creditor to the bank.

However, the customer is exposed to default risk because the bank may fail to honor withdrawal request. This may happen when the banks become insolvent. Thus supervision guards the customer from the same.

Monetary System Stability

Financial transactions involve different instruments like checks, credit cards, cash machines among many. For effective functioning of the same, they need to be accurate, efficient, and fast (Ashby 22). Given the bulky nature of the transactions, supervision is done to enable their smooth operations.

Efficient and Competitive Banking System

Efficient operation of banks is aided by healthy competitions. Banks compete on various fronts such as interest on loans and efficiency of the services offered. In a market where banks are too many, it may not be possible for some banks to realize economies of large scale.

This calls for regulation to check on the same. Also, regulation is extended on the competition between banks and institutions offering loan-able funds to ensure that the competition is smooth and healthy.

Consumer Protection

Regulation and supervision is done on banks to ensure that they do not discriminate the public and at the same time to ensure that the public is protected from unscrupulous traders.

Principle Regulators

There are some agencies that have been given powers to regulate and supervise all banks. They bear the ability to levy fines, suspend or remove bank officials, issue cease-and-desist orders, and revoke charters.

In order for uniform regulations, Federal Financial Institution Examination Council was created by the Congress in 1978 for these purposes.

This council draws its membership from the following organs: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Federal Reserve System, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Office of Thrift Supervision, National Credit Union Administration, and State Banking Agency.

The Treasury and the Money Supply Taxes and Loans from the Public

The management of the money of the nation is under the professional hands of the Federal Reserve System. This means that the treasury performs its activities with minimal effects on the credit market and money supply.

Therefore it (the treasury) has created tax and loans accounts in all banks. In the event of paying government bills, the treasury transfers some of the money from the loans account to the nearby Federal Reserve Bank.

This mean that banks loses similar amount of money hence reducing their loaning kitty. However, this is restoring by making a bill of payment.

The treasury writes a check that is taken by the banks, which in turn demands for compensation for the face value from the Federal Reserve Bank. In this way, the banks would have restored their loanable amount.

This process can be illustrated bellow.

BANK FEDERALRESERVE Assets Liabilities Assets Liabilities Treasury gets revenue from taxes or bonds Checking account balances reduces by $2000 Treasury tax and loan account increases by $2000

Treasury transfers funds to the federal reserve bank Bankreserve account reduces by $2000 Treasury tax and loan account reduces by $2000 Bank reserve account reduces by $2000 Treasury checking account increases by $2000

Treasury spends the funds Bank reserve account increases by $2000 Checking account balances increases by $2000 Bank reserve account increases by $2000] Treasury checking account reduces by $2000

From the table, it can be seen that the government receives money for the tax or sale of bonds and spends them without a tilt on the bank reserve or money supply.

It should be noted that if the dates for tax receipt and floating of bonds doe not coincides, the nation will suffer a credit crunch. However, the utilization of tax and loan accounts avoids such happening.

The expenditure by the federal government, which is drawn for tax and bonds, does not affect the supply of money in the bank’s reserves because the same is replenished by sell of bonds and payment made by the government.

Coins and Currency Creation

The treasury is in charge of the US mint, which is used for manufacturing the US coins. It is headquartered in Washington DC. The treasury is also in control of the Bureau of engraving and printing, which prints the paper currency.

The notes are sold for a cost while the coins are sold for their face value to the 12 Federal Reserve banks. The printed notes and coins are not yet money until they go into circulation.

They can only go into circulation after the reserves in the banks runs low, prompting purchase of new ones. The process is illustrated in the table below.

BANK FEDERAL RESERVE Assets Liabilities Assets Liabilities Treasury sells cash to the federal reserve system Cash increases by $5000 Treasury checking account increases by $5000 Federal reserve sell cash to the bank Cash increases by $5000 Bank reserve account reduces by $5000

Cash decreases by $5000 Bank reserve account reduces by $5000 Customer withdraws the cash Cash decreases by $5000 Customer Checking account balances decreases by $5000 Treasury spends revenue from sale of cash to the federal reserve Bank reserve account increases by $5000 Customer Checking account balances increases by $5000 Bank reserve account increases by $5000 Treasury checking account decreases by $5000

For the case of torn or deformed coins and notes, replacement is done without increasing or decreasing the amount.

If the bank lends to the treasury, the following table illustrates the situation

BANK FEDERAL RESERVE Assets Liabilities Assets Liabilities Treasury borrows Treasury bonds increases by $5000 Treasury tax and loan account increases by $5000 Cash increases by $5000 Treasury checking account increases by $5000 Treasury transfers funds Bank reserve account reduces by $5000 Treasury tax and loan account decreases by $5000 Cash decreases by $5000 Bank reserve account reduces by $5000 Treasury checking account increases by $5000

Treasury spends funds Bank reserve account increases by $5000 Customer Checking account balances increases by $5000 Bank reserve account increases by $5000 Treasury checking account decreases by $5000

If the Federal Reserve lends o the treasury, the following scenario will arise

BANK FEDERAL RESERVE Assets Liabilities Assets Liabilities Treasury borrows Treasury bonds increases by $5000 Treasury checking account increases by $5000 Treasury spends funds Bank reserve account increases by $5000 Customer Checking account balances increases by $5000 Cash decreases by $5000 Bank reserve account increases by $5000 Treasury checking account decreases by $5000

Work Cited Ashby, David. Mechanics of Money. Monmouth: Western Oregon University Press, 1996.Print.


Strategic review for PDA Sim Report essay help online: essay help online

Introduction Competition has intensified in the global markets and companies are seeking better strategies of pricing and developing their products to achieve a competitive edge. Adopting appropriate pricing and product development strategy will improve the position of a company in the market by attracting new customers, retaining existing customers and creating customer loyalty.

In addition, these strategies help regulate costs incurred by a company as well as maintaining profitability (Kurtz, MacKenzie


Impact of Resolution Act of 1998 on Women-Workers Essay essay help online: essay help online

Table of Contents Humor used successfully in a change process

A humorous situation during a change process

List of References

Humor used successfully in a change process We rarely encountered situations where women were successful in their places of work as a result of unfavorable laws. This changed after an improvement to the employment laws by the Dispute Resolution act of 1998 (Parliament: House Of Commons, 2005). Together with recent legislation, this Act brought profound changes in the workplace.

The case of Anna who was employed as a junior sales person, although she was overqualified for the position and hoped to attain the position of sales accountant best illustrates this.

When her boss vacated, she assumed the office, consequently issuing herself with the appointment letter. She claimed to have done this with the utmost respect to the management, thus creating humor in the workplace. After all, she possessed the requisite qualifications. The management adopted the policy of equal opportunities for all, provided they had proper qualifications.

Nowadays, women are evaluated basing on their credentials, as opposed to their gender. The culture of traditionally reserving positions for men no longer exists. The present age has brought with it the elevation of women into positions of authority and influence, where they can determine the stance a company adopts on key issues. More women receive credit and recognition for their inventions (Parliament: House Of Commons, 2005).

It is encouraging to see women excel in the social scene, sports and entertainment. Most of them, especially those in the music industry compete favorably with their male counterparts, some earning higher amounts than them. Sports traditionally considered masculine like football and volleyball, have females participating in them drawing a large number of fans.

Hiring institutions should review their policies on interns and employees without previous work experience. This section of labor providers is often overlooked during the hiring and placement procedures. Most of them are underrated, and their input is often ignored in case they are hired. Every recruit should be awarded an equal chance at the work station to prove their worth, without consideration of their reputation or previous history.

A humorous situation during a change process It is explicitly stated by the Employment Rights Act of 1996, that all employees should be treated fairly and accorded equal opportunities and responsibility based on their ability (Karim


The impact of logging and deforestations on an ecosystem Essay (Critical Writing) college application essay help

Introduction The ability to understand and address the effects of deforestation and logging forms the basis towards sustainability of resources, greater social-economic development, political stability and ecological sanctity in the fast globalizing society. Deforestation is not a one state issue as it was previously thought.

In fact, it is a highly diverse aspect with far reaching implications to all environmental aspects. Lawrence et al (2012) point out that the current trend in deforestation around various countries across the world is shocking.

If this trend is not addressed, its cumulative effects would be irreversible and therefore greatly risk the existence of future generations. At this point, key questions that have frequently been asked have included the following: What entails deforestation?

How does deforestation affect a natural forest ecosystem? What are the main causes and resulting effects? What are some of the current efforts that have been put in place to address deforestation? Are these efforts efficient?

The current concerns on global deforestation have been examined in this paper as part of underscore its magnitude on a global scale and the litany of the disaster in the market. To indicate the road path that has resulted into the current precarious position and how it can be addressed, the national policy options have also been evaluated.

Finally, using the market to address the problem of deforestation and logging, the paper indicates the opportunities that can be assimilated to promote sound environmental practices that are equally sustainable while maximizing the returns to the people.

Background and overview The ability to balance between economic development and natural resources capacity to sustainably maintain profitability forms the basis of the human race to match into the future with dignity and vitality.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Though the understanding of deforestation and logging as analysts concur is highly contested, the revelation of its related impacts has created a critical niche that demands involvement by all stakeholders.

Over the last few decades, the problem of global warming in conjunction with aspects such as deforestation have been cited as the most dangerous disasters in waiting on a global scale.

This has been the case due to its expansive deforestation and destruction of nature that makes even those not involved directly in its destruction to severely suffer the negative effects.

In their publication, Lawrence et al (2012) define deforestation as a permanent destruction of woodlands and forests. The definition points out at indigenous tree as well as vegetation cover which does not include plantations of pines and gums or industrial forests. The role that forest plays in the balancing of an ecosystem is very crucial.

Environmentalists indicate that besides being a source of materials human beings use every day, it serves as a habitat for endemic plants, birds and wild animals. The problem of deforestation has been massive in most regions in the world with recent reports from the World Bank showing a four fifth reduction of indigenous forest.

Other reports indicate that by 2011, half the total forest of the world had disappeared posing a threat to the majority of plant species and animals living in the tropical forests.

On the other hand, logging is part of deforestation whereby trees are cut, processed on-site and loaded into trucks. The latter is a silviculture activity with similar effects like deforestation.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on The impact of logging and deforestations on an ecosystem specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While some would argue that the logistics behind logging is to remove wood from forest to a lumber yard outside a forest, it is imperative to note that the practice directly connects with deforestation. It is a theft of timber and violates the law.

Figure1: A figure showing the effect of logging

NGOs demand respect for natives’ rights in stalled “legal timber” agreement

Reasons for deforestation The current fast deteriorating status of natural environment has greatly been caused by poor domestication, articulation, and harmonization of international laws by individual countries and states.

This has been prompted by lack of enough good will to address all issues relating to environment in a holistic outlook thereby compromising the overall resilience of the same natural resources.

Due to much bitterness, scholars have lamented about the reduced capacity to comprehend the inability of their non-inclusive sole conservation strategies which factors not the interconnectedness of the natural environment.

As a result, this has created a strong rift between the conservations and implementing bodies over who is to blame for the mayhem. Over the years, the desire to advance and grow both economically, socially, and culturally have been entirely dependent on nature.

Whereas various countries lag behind in implementation of different conservation laws in their jurisdictions, it is clear that the practice of deforestation and logging is committing the world into a more perilous state than it is currently.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The impact of logging and deforestations on an ecosystem by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Virtually all products and services are nature-derived. Even for the few that may claim non-derivative status, their transport and eventual spatial temporal application have great connotation of nature.

Studies indicate that deforestation is not a new phenomenon since it has been a difficult issue blamed on numerous factors. Lindsay and Thornton (2012) indicate that some one of the reasons behind deforestation is the growing need among agricultural dependent communities to convert forest and woodland areas into agricultural lands.

It is imperative to highlight that this has been a factor that has been motivated by the demand to feed the ever growing populations. Besides, many societies in tropical countries have over the years turned to cattle ranching and growing of cash crops to earn money and foreign exchange.

As a result, many large forest areas have been cleared and turned into farming zones for livestock breeding and cash crop farming.

Figure 2: A diagram showing deforestation

Additionally, deforestation occurs when businesses within an industry practice commercial logging. The latter has been a method widely used by industries that supply the world market with a variety of wood such as ebony, mahogany, teak, and meranti.

This practice has not only destroyed forests, but has opened up large tracts of land for agriculture. The felling of trees has not only stopped with businesses, but also the construction sector which relies on trees for building.

Effects of deforestation Global warming and climate change

Global warming is the increase in the average temperatures on the troposphere due to excessive emissions of green house gases into the atmosphere. Scientifically, green house gases allow easy penetration of short wavelength radiations from the outer space while obscuring escape of the long wave radiations from the earth surface.

As a result, there has been a direct build up of the surface temperatures in the earth thereby causing vast climate changes. As a concern by the natural laws, this change has been directly linked to massive destruction of natural ecosystems in the world.

Excessive thawing in the polar regions, rising levels of the sea, loss of forests, flooding, higher levels of tropical weather systems and most importantly desertification.

Scientifically, carbon dioxide is an important component in green plants’ photosynthetic process. However, Lindsay and Thornton (2012) point out that human beings have constantly been clearing forests for agricultural purposes, urban development, settlements and industrial development.

Besides, forests have also been cleared as raw materials for wood based industries. On average, Masood and Shah (2012) indicate that about 80,000 acres of forests are cleared every day globally. As a result, the critical role of sinking the atmospheric carbon has greatly been compromised and therefore resulting to greater accumulation of greenhouse gases.

High levels of poverty

While many human activities on forest have been aimed at improving living standards through agriculture, it goes without mentioning that the deforestation has instead increased global poverty levels that have plagued the society today.

In their publication, Lawrence et al (2012) indicate that the immediate concerns for individuals clearing forests for agriculture or burning charcoal for money is neither conservation nor environmentalism. Rather, they are mostly concerned with basic survival. This practice therefore puts the environment under great pressure.

This coupled with intensified mechanization of deforestation by industries has resulted to extremely high rates of forest cover removal. The impact has been a devastating 13 million hectares of land being cleared down every year around the world.

This puts pressure on the natural resources and forest clearance either for alleviating poverty, raising economic status or promoting greater development through mechanization affects the balance in the ecosystem leading to poverty.

A more worrying effect to agree with Bonan(2008) is desertification. The rising temperatures as recorded over the years intensify the severity of draughts, by making more land uncultivable and less habitable.

Floods and submergence of coastal lowlands

According to Betts et al (2001), the rising temperatures over the years have resulted to excessive thawing of ice waters at the Polar Regions.

Consequently, the additional waters has resulted to key submergence and flooding of the low lying costal lands. Islands and low lying regions such as Venice, New Orleans and Indonesia have recorded key losses from floods (Lindsay


Challenges Inherent in Repositioning a Fast Food Chain Report essay help: essay help

Introduction Repositioning is considered to be a very important process for any business because it involves a number of significant elements from the marketing sphere. The basics of repositioning touch upon such steps like product identity, its possible changes, relatives among the competing products, and evaluation of the opinions from the target market.

A careful and successfully carried out repositioning process can benefit the company in a very great way. While trying to reposition fast-food food, there are a number of challenges involved: highly incurred costs, hardly evaluated opinions, constant demand of products. Much money has to be spent during the repositioning process, and, in a period of financial crisis, as is the current situation, it is very important to come up with some cost-effective strategies to succeed in the chosen process.

The company should be fully aware of the new position that seeks to be established because a great amount of losses is possible and inabilities to recover from the crisis within a short period of time prevent proper development of activities. As a result of repositioning, the quality of the products has to be improved, the competing abilities may become stronger, and the fast food organization under analysis is able to define its weak and strong sides.

Discussion Importance of SWOT analysis in repositioning

To come up with an appropriate up-to-date Subway product line, it is important to carry out a SWOT analysis so that it will be easy to define several appropriate strategies on how to advertise and improve the product. A SWOT analysis is very important in the repositioning process.

However, the macro trends are also important and help to determine the best approach to use in as far as repositioning and advertising are concerned. Based on the SWOT analysis, it is apparent that there are several gaps that need to be put into consideration. While trying to update the product line and advertising of Subway, it is necessary to note that the current macro trends which are characterized by a great economic recession and improved technology (Bedekar, 2009).

Unfortunately, due to the current economic crisis, it is not recommendable for the organization to address all the gaps involved. Under the conditions formed, the company should focus on how to maintain its customers as it continues to draw more from its competitors. The only way of doing this would be to make necessary improvements on the product and passing on information about the product. To achieve the purposes set, it is more reasonable to improve the chains of fast food, and to set the value of the products at affordable prices.

Marketing strategy to be adopted by the Subway fast food chain based on the SWOT analysis

Using up-to-date technology. An appropriate marketing strategy is what any fast food chain needs to update: its product line as well as its advertising in light of the current macro trend has to undergo a number of changes. The best way of how an organization may update its product line is the method of improving its product decoration.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As obtained from the SWOT analysis, the company’s decoration was perceived to be outdated when compared with its competitors. The appearance of a product is what most customers use to decipher if the product is really worth buying in such times of financial difficulty.

Up-to-date decoration of franchise. Currently, e-commerce has brought many changes with regard to marketing. The Subway should therefore us this new technology to do its marketing. While using e-commerce to market products, appearance of the product is very important, therefore the organization should improve its delivery of products with regard to decoration as well as the means of transmitting information (Hooley, Piercy,


Management skills in 21st century Report essay help

Executive Summary 21st century is like no other. With rapidly technological advancement, managers of corporate organizations are set to meet more challenges related to how technological can be integrated into the management process. This implies that management skills are fundamental to meeting the challenges that corporate organizations are likely to meet in the operation process.

This report examines, in detail, the challenges that 21st century managers and executives are likely face in their organizations. The challenges identified in the report include global shortage of talents, brand management for employers and the need to manage multicultural multinational organizations.

The report also delves in discussing the fundamental skills that the managers and executives of the 21st century need to be equipped with so that they are able to position their organizations at a competitive level in the global business sphere.

The skills discussed in the report include interpersonal communication skills, ability to manage organizational changes that emanate both externally and internally, strategic and visionary manager and having global perspectives for both national and multinational corporations. The conclusion part of the report offers a summary of the whole content of the report. Also, there is the recommendation part that offers a number of suggestions on what should further be done about the subject of management skills in the 21st century.

Introduction The 21st century can be described an information age where information technology is very crucial of running day-to-day business operations (Gabbard


How readily terrorists can acquire nuclear weapons Research Paper essay help free

Nuclear terrorism is one type of Weapons of Mass Destruction terrorism and it is one of the gravest threats posed by terrorism today. It entails the terrorists’ acquisition and use or threat of use of nuclear weapons or materials in which a sustained fission reaction takes place.

Thus, nuclear terrorism is limited to the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium (Pu) bombs; however, some individuals use the phrase in reference to any terrorist weapon using radioactive substances, which entails the use of radiological dispersal devices (RDDs).

Terrorists, with the intention of causing havoc over a wide area, can use RDDs materials such as cesium-137, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. These materials are commonly used in various places around the world. Despite the attempts that have been made to secure nuclear weapons, various gaps remain that may make them available to the terrorists.

As was demonstrated by the 9/11 attacks on the U.S., terrorists desire to cause violence and widespread destruction in the world. Al-Qaeda and al-Qaeda-inspired terrorist organizations can readily accomplish this by the use of unconventional weapons of destruction, for example, chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear detonation. Among these means of attack, the use of nuclear detonation guarantees the possibility of mass casualties.

A nuclear weapon can lead to widespread destruction in the heart of a city, causing the demise of hundreds of thousands of innocent individuals and making others to suffer from radiation sickness and cancer in the long run (Etzioni, 2004). Moreover, a city’s infrastructure can experience radioactive contamination. This may require several years and a lot of money to decontaminate. The wider economic costs of such an attack can negatively influence the economy of a country.

In this century, the possibility of the occurrence of a nuclear terrorist attack has been increased by the fact that the terrorist groups are not limited to geographical boundaries.

They operate in different places around the world and corporate with other terrorist groups. More so, these terrorists are usually driven by strong religious convictions and they feel that they are heroes when they sacrifice their lives on a ‘godly’ mission causing destruction.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To initiate a nuclear attack, potential terrorists must first acquire the destructive weapons. They can be able to accomplish this in three main ways: accessing them illegitimately, purchasing them, or building them (Ferguson, 2006, p.9). All of these possibilities pose significant difficulties to terrorists. However, it is not in order to discount these possibilities to devastating nuclear terrorism.

Terrorists can illegitimately acquire intact nuclear weapons. Currently, different nations have expressed interests in acquiring nuclear weapons, and about 27,000 of these weapons are in the arsenals of eight nations in the world. This makes the terrorists to have a target-rich environment.

Russia and the U.S. have the largest concentration of nuclear weapons. In these countries, the nuclear weapons are usually under intense security, which makes them difficult to steal. However, being hard to access illegitimately does not imply impossibility. To be specific, the shipment and deployment of these weapons outside the areas that they are under intense surveillance can enhance the vulnerability to illegal access.

In a situation whereby terrorists have succeeded in stealing an intact nuclear weapon, they have to find a way of countering their in-built security devices. These weapons are usually protected by security and arming devices, which must first be activated before they are ready for use.

For instance, specialized security locks referred to as permissive action links (PALs) are needed for activating the United States nuclear weapons and they allow only a limited number of trials in entering the right code. Other countries such as Britain, Russia, China, and France have also adopted the use of PALs.

Even though the majority of Russian nuclear weapons have this protection, some of the older Russian tactical nuclear arms are feared to be lacking this security system since most of them may have been destroyed, are about to be destroyed, or have been deployed to unsafe areas.

It is not known whether some countries like Israel, India, and Pakistan use this security system to protect their nuclear weapons. It is feared that terrorists can collude with army officials to provide them with information concerning PAL unlock codes or any other security information.

We will write a custom Research Paper on How readily terrorists can acquire nuclear weapons specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As much as the terrorists’ acquisition of nuclear weapons seems difficult to surmount; however, concerns have been raised about the security of Pakistani and Russian nuclear weapons (Blair, 2001). This is because some of their nuclear weapons are relatively portable, hence may lack in-built security systems, and they may not be kept in secure locations.

Terrorists can acquire nuclear weapons by purchasing them from a nuclear nation. They can also acquire the weapons when a nuclear nation transfers them to them at no cost. Nonetheless, both recognized nuclear powers and nuclear-armed “rogue” states may not be willing to work together with the terrorists in this regard since they are likely to suffer from devastating retaliation if they are found doing this.

The dishonesty in nuclear custodians and the black market are possible ways that the terrorists can employ in acquiring nuclear weapons. In addition, a coup in a country can bring a regime that is ready to cooperate with the terrorists in their acquisition of the dangerous weapons.

In this perspective, Pakistan is notable as a susceptible route that the terrorists can use to acquire the weapons. The country has a fairly new command and control system which the terrorist groups, such as al-Qaeda and Taliban forces, can take advantage of.

More so, these terror groups have a formidable presence in the region and some of the country’s Inter-Service Intelligence (ISI) agency sympathizes with them. There are attempts that have made to murder Pakistan’s government officials so as to allow the terrorists sympathizers to come to power.

The most notorious nuclear black market started in Pakistan and a metallurgist called Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan ran it. The nuclear distribution network sold nuclear materials and weapons to various nations across Europe, Africa, and Asia. There is no outright evidence that the network supplied terrorists with nuclear weapons or materials.

However, the program supplied blueprints for a nuclear bomb to Libya. Probably, terrorists may have acquired this sensitive information or ultimately they would acquire the information. This black market illustrates that some countries in the world, such as Pakistan, are susceptible to an insider threat.

Terrorists may also possess nuclear weapons by constructing them. At present, no terrorist groups have the capacity to build nuclear weapons and they would need to obtain HEU or Pu to build the weapons. HEU is not present in nature. On the other hand, Pu is present naturally but only in minute amounts.

Not sure if you can write a paper on How readily terrorists can acquire nuclear weapons by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The uranium that occurs in nature contains less that one percent of the type of uranium that is needed for making nuclear weapons; therefore, it must be enriched to make it effective. The type of technology required to achieve this is beyond the reach of terrorists, except they get state sponsorship.

In absence of the industrial-scale resources to enrich uranium, terrorists may acquire existing caches of HEU. Unfortunately, HEU stockpiles are abundant, with about two thousand metric tons available in the world, and Russia and the U.S. possess almost ninety percent of these.

The HEU stockpiles found in less secure regions are susceptible to theft. Similar to enriching uranium, making Pu is beyond the reach of terrorists, except they receive financial and industrial assistance of a state(s) or they steal from the existing stockpiles. The Manhattan Project constructed a basic type of nuclear bomb called the gun-type device, which is less technically challenging since it simply shoots one lump of highly enriched uranium into another to initiate a destructive chain reaction.

The gun-type bomb can only use HEU for starting an explosive chain reaction. A crude HEU gun-type bomb has the capacity of causing widespread destruction and skilled terrorists are able to build this type of nuclear weapon without state-sponsorship (Baker, 2002, p.2).

In conclusion, most terrorist organizations in the world have expressed their willingness to acquire weapons of mass destruction and use them to cause chaos in the world. This calls for establishment of drastic measures that can prevent them from obtaining or accessing these dangerous weapons.

Reference list Baker, R. (2002). Nuclear terrorism. New York: Novinka Books.

Blair, B. (2001). What if the terrorists go nuclear? Center For Defense Information. Web.

Etzioni, A. (2004). Pre-empting nuclear terrorism in a new global order. The Foreign Policy Centre. Web.

Ferguson, C. D. (2006). Preventing catastrophic nuclear terrorism. Council on Foreign Relations. Web.


The U.S. Secret Service; Are they worth it? Term Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction As President, Barak Obama and other leaders deal with issues affecting Americans, it is clear that times have tremendously throughout history. This change has resulted into transformation of problems and emergence of unique challenges, only known to the current generation. Being one of the most respected American presidents, Abraham Lincoln was confronted with a series of issues, which called for radical and sober solutions.

He is historically remembered for his outstanding role during the Civil War and the fight against slavery, which was augmented by the signing of the Emancipation and Proclamation. Nevertheless, he established the United States Secret Service, which continuously works with other security agencies in the country to promote security and combat crime (Reese, 2012).

This term paper focuses on the internal affairs and budgetary issues facing the Secret Service. Throughout the analysis, the paper will describe the structure, practice and procedure of the Service, and compare it with other agencies. Importantly, the paper is divided into segments, including methodology, discussions and conclusion, structured in a concise manner.

Methodology The issue of security has received a wide range of literature coverage by American writers, researchers and investigators. As a result, the topic has well-documented information, covering different issues, including security agencies like the United States Secret Service. This paper will therefore focus on secondary methods of colleting the information required to achieve the objectives of the research.

In particular, the information will be sourced from books, journal articles and authentic websites. With regard to books and journals, they will be obtained from the university library and from the internet.

United States Secret Service Although the United States Secret Service could be performing other functions today in the United States, it is worth noting that the Service was mainly established to deal with the illegal production of money in the United States. This was based on the fact that the country’s monetary system was somehow disorganized in 1800s; every state issued coins and bills, through banks, which produced different forms of genuine currency (Reese, 2012).

Due to this massive circulation of bills, it was easy for individuals to produce counterfeit money and put it into circulation without being discovered by authorities. It was during President Lincoln’s reign that the country witnessed the highest level of this exercise as more than a third of America’s money was illegal.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Through advice by the treasury, the president established a commission to counter the problem, which was threatening the country’s economy, a move that was followed by the establishment of the United States Secret Service on April, 14 1865 to execute the commission’s recommendations (Homeland Security, 2011).

The Service became fully recognized in July, 1865, with William Wood being appointed as its first chief. He was highly applauded for his success during the Civil War, and by the end of the first year, more than two hundred counterfeiting plants had been shut down.

This was viewed as a milestone, with most leaders realizing its practical role in taming counterfeiting of money. Its national headquarters was established in 1866, under the U.S. Department of Treasury (Homeland Security, 2011).

Although President Lincoln is considered to be the pioneer of the Service, he never lived to see its achievements and expansion. He was assassinated on the same evening he launched the service, sending the country into national mourning. Lincoln’s assassination was the first in the country’s history, since no other president had been assassinated (Homeland Security, 2011).

As a result, Congress began deliberating on the need of improving the president’s security by including it among the roles of the Secret Service. However, this was approved thirty six years later, after the assassination of two more presidents, James Garfield and William McKinley. As a result, the protection of the president has always been under the Secret Service from 1901, during the reign of President Theodore Roosevelt.

In 1917, threats against the president’s security heightened, forcing Congress to include the entire First Family under the protection of the Service. In 1951, the protection of the vice president was included, as President Lyndon endorsed the inclusion of all presidential candidates, after the assassination of Robert Kennedy in 1968 (Miller, 2008).

Structure Since its establishment, the agency remained under the Department of Treasury, until 2002, when it became part of the Department of Homeland Security. This was achieved after the ratification of the Homeland Security Act of 2002.

We will write a custom Term Paper on The U.S. Secret Service; Are they worth it? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Based on this, the Service is tasked with the protective-investigative mission, which is aimed at safeguarding the financial infrastructure of the nation, encompassing the integrity of the currency, protecting leaders of the nation, visiting heads of state, selected sites and National Special Security Events (Miller, 2008).

Importantly, the protective mission includes a host of activities, which could be related to identification of threats, counteracting vulnerabilities and the attainment of a secure environment for those being protected. On the other hand, the investigative mission includes enforcing U.S. laws, which are related to financial, technology and electronic offenses (Miller, 2008).

From this structure, it is evident that the U.S. Secret Service has a demanding role, which is key in determining the country’s development. The Service has more than one hundred and fifty offices around the world, with more than 6,700 employees, who carry out varying responsibilities to ensure that its goal is achieved. The following chart shows a summary of the organizational structure of the Service.

It is essential to note from the organizational structure that the Office of Protective Research, OPR plays a major role in supporting the dual protective-investigative mission pursued by the Secret Service. Under OPR, the CIO and the Information Resources Management Division IRM are crucial sources of information technology support and expertise.

In particular, the CIO office provides IT solutions and services, which are paramount in realizing the Service’s dual mission. Of significance is the fact that this office provides strategic leadership, advice, direction and any form of assistance, which is related to IT programs of the entire Service.

Moreover, IRM personnel are handy in developing, providing and management of IT, which is necessary to support the investigative and protective operations of the agency (Miller, 2008).

Moreover, the agency is composed of two major divisions, which are the Special Agent Division and the Uniformed Division. The principal role of the Uniformed Division is to offer sufficient protection to the White House and its environs, the residence of the Vice President, and all embassies, which are located in Washington, D.C.

The division was created by an act of Congress in 1922 and was initially known as the White House Police. This was under the leadership of President Warren G. Harding’s (Gaines, 2001).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The U.S. Secret Service; Are they worth it? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Driving Forces The U.S. Secret Service operates within an environment, which continues to expose the country’s leaders, economy and major events to criminal attacks. As the world experiences emerging technology and new weaponry, more criminals are willing to employ these new tactics to threaten the security of the United States (Gaines, 2001).

As a result, the Secret Service examines and incorporates new technology and practices, where possible, together with partnering with the private and public organizations in enhancing knowledge and experience.

Global Economic and Technological Trends Unlike in the past, the accessibility to electronic technology has widely spread in the United States and around the world in the 21st century. Additionally, there has been an increase in international and global internet connection. These advancements have led to exponential growth in e-commerce and online banking across the country.

Likewise, there has been an increase in electronic payment, including the use of credit and debit cards to facilitate international and local business transactions (Gaines, 2001). Due to this, electronic and financial crimes have become more common across the country, than it was before.

Besides this, it is also believed that the complexity of the problem has been contributed by the global scale of the internet and lack of cooperation from foreign countries in prosecuting such cases. In the year 2006, 8.9 million Americans were reported to have suffered identity theft, which had a cost implication of approximately $50 billion.

Budget and achievements According to the director of the U.S. Secret Service, Mark Sullivan, 2011 was a special year in terms of the achievements realized by the agency. This was pegged on an array of issues, including the commitment of employees and professionalism of the entire workforce. In the year 2011, the agency used a total of$1.515 billion to deliver commendable results through its duo protective and investigative mission.

In the same year, the Service provided incident-free protection for 3,284 domestic presidential travel stops, together with 376 international stops for the President, Vice Presidents and other national leaders (USSS, 2011).

Additionally, the budget included 2,355 travel stops by 216 foreign heads of states from 136 countries from around the world. Moreover, the Secret Service was able to secure the enactment of the Uniformed Division Modernization Act, which gave the agency the authority to recruit and retain its workforce.

Aside from these, the agency arrested 9,022 suspects of various financial crimes, which was equivalent to 8% percent increment from 2010 fiscal year. Due to enhanced services, the Secret Service recovered more than $72 million through seized assets, which was equivalent to an increment of 34%.

In addition, the IT infrastructure was stabilized with $47 million investment, which supported the duo-mission (USSS, 2011). In general the Service has continuously delivered outstanding protective and investigative services, coupled with pinnacle levels of loyalty and integrity.

It has exceeded several levels of trust and confidence throughout its history. From William Wood to Mark Sullivan, its leaders have redefined and expanded the foundation and value of the agency, through dedication and commitment to the driving goals.

Failure Whilst the United States Secret Service has been highly rated with regard to its outstanding performance, reputable history and achievements, it has also failed the nation in several ways, which will be highlighted in this segment of the analysis. Many security analysts believe that the U.S. Secret Service as failed to perform its tasks in several terror attacks, which have hit the country.

Among these attacks is the September 11, 2001. It has been argued that the Service was in a position to act in several ways to save the nation (National Commission O Terrorist Attacks, 2010).

A major failure of the Service on 9/11 was its inability to provide enough protection for the president after it had been known that the country was under attack. Even though the president received Secret Service protection on that particular day, he remained exposed to danger in various instances.

On the fatal day and hour, the president entered several buildings, for activities which had received massive publicity even though there was knowledge of hijacked airlines (National Commission O Terrorist Attacks, 2010). The Secret Service allowed the president to give a televised speech, allowing the world to know where he was.

After he left, there was no air cover for his motorcade or Air Force One reinforcement. The Vice President equally remained exposed to attack, as he was evacuated from the office after the first plane had already hit the city.

Conclusion Since 1865, the U.S. Secret Service has remained a major security agency in America. Of great significance has been its role in dealing with counterfeiting of money, which was a serious problem during Lincoln’s reign. Through its duo-mission, the Service has also been on the frontline in protecting U.S. leaders.

However, the Service’s greatest failure was in 2001 when it failed to protect the president and his vice, leaving them vulnerable to attack. Regardless of this failure, the Service needs to be strengthened and empowered to enable it execute its mandate holistically.

References Gaines, A. (2001). The U.S. Secret Service. New York City: Infobase Publishing.

Homeland Security. (2011). U.S. Secret Service’s Information Technology Modernization Effort. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved from

Miller, C. (2008). The U.S. Secret Service: Protecting Our Leaders. Minnesota: Capstone Press.

National Commission On Terrorist Attacks. (2010). The 9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. New York: Cosimo, Inc.

Reese, S. (2012). The U.S. Secret Service: An Examination and Analysis of Its Evolving Missions. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved from

USSS. (2011). United States Secret Service Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Report. United States Secret Service. Retrieved from


Relationship between Institutionalized Racism and Marxism Essay online essay help

Abstract The theory of institutional racism is frequently used in the field of sociology to explain any type of system of inequity that is based on race. The theory explains how race is used to differentiate society, particularly the institutions of government, private enterprises and institutions of higher learning, such as universities and colleges.

An activist group led by Stokely Carmichael, referred to as Black Power, first used institutional racism in 1960s. A report investigating the death of a black citizen defined institutional racism as the collective failure of an organization, particularly governmental organizations, to offer adequate and specialized services to citizens mainly because of their skin color, civilization and ethnic background.

Since then, sociologists have used the theory to establish the effects of ethnicity in society. For instance, material and social resources are distributed based on racial lines, something that hinders the fulfillment of goals and objectives among a section of the population. In 1990s, the theory took a new shape when blacks and other minority groups pressurized the government to exercise fairness in the labor market.

Currently, the theory is used to explain racial injustices in organizations, given the fact that institutions have failed to stem out racism. This paper will attempt to analyze how institutional racism affects an individual’s opportunities in life. This means that the theory influences other subjects, particularly economics. The paper will go ahead to explain how the theory is used in the field of political economy.

Introduction Institutional racism can be defined as the degree of difference to access of goods, services and opportunities in society. In the American society, the practice is common in the institutions of government, making it hard to rectify the mess. The situation is worsened by the acts of conformers and newcomers since they do not think of other strategies that would help stem out the vice.

In the American society, the government cannot claim to fight racism, given the fact that a single or identified perpetrator cannot be traced. Therefore, it could be concluded that racism has turned out to be a collective action of the American society. Scholars observe that three forms of racism exist, including personally mediated racism, internalized racism and institutionalized racism.

Mediated racism consists of specific social perspectives that are inborn, which facilitate racially prejudiced acts (Dupre 56). This would include differences in abilities, motives and aspirations. It would also incorporate discrimination whereby an individual develops certain forms of actions towards others, considering that they belong to different races.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Racism has led to the emergence of some antisocial acts such as stereotyping, which is defined as commission and omission social acts. This may perhaps entail disregard, distrust, depreciation and dehumanization of other individuals in society who do not belong to one’s race. Internalized racism is a scenario whereby members of the inferior race accept their position in society, as people with low social statuses.

This acceptance is characterized by negative acuities concerning their own capabilities, fundamental values characterized by low confidence, and little respect of other members belonging to his or her race. Such form of racism amounts to stratification based on skin complexion, self-devaluation, such as cultural insults, monikers, negative response towards own culture, acquiescence, defenselessness and despondency.

For school going children, they might end up dropping out of school while other members of black race might end up boycotting political processes such as voting (Naughton 68). Another section of society consisting of inferior races may end up engaging in health-risk practices such as rape, drug abuse and kidnapping. This paper will analyze how all these affect economic prosperity of the nation.

Institutionalized Racism in the US Institutional racism stems from importunate pessimistic stereotypes, which would as well as affect interpersonal relations in social interactions. It is proved beyond doubt that social labeling amounts to racial residential segregation, meaning those believed to be from superior races would have better chances of living comfortable lives that is, in well-established residential areas.

State authorities usually neglect those perceived to be from inferior races meaning they might find themselves living in remote areas with appalling conditions. Minority races are associated with social evils such as rape, kidnapping, mugging and drug trafficking. Furthermore, policy formulators and implementers are usually influenced by race in their process of policymaking.

White Americans have a tendency to believe that blacks and Latinos are lazy individuals, who are less intelligent preferring to engage in shortcuts, such as robbery, instead of working hard to achieve their dreams. This makes it hard for Whites to associate well with both blacks and Latinos.

Institutional racism is different from racial bigotry because institutional racism is supported by the government through formulation of policies that infringe on the rights of minority races.

We will write a custom Essay on Relationship between Institutionalized Racism and Marxism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the US, the government has propagated the formation of policies that would always subjugate the minority races economically and politically. For example, the government has always exercised racial discrimination, particularly in the education sector. The public school budgets have always been discriminatory because the government has been assigning quality teachers to schools perceived to be with many white students.

The education policy recommends that schools should be allocated resources based on property values. It is expected that rich neighborhoods would have many whites hence schools in such areas are allocated quality teachers and enough resources. This would have an implication to the economic lives of individuals because students from such public schools are expected to excel.

Those from poor neighborhoods are given inferior services, including undertrained teachers and few resources. This would definitely lead to dismal performance among students from minority races. Such students will end up in mid-level colleges that would only guarantee them low paying jobs, as compared to their white counterparts who join prestigious universities, offering well paying courses in the labor market.

Institutionalized racism borrows heavily from the system theory, which argues racism stems from a number of mutual cumulative aspects. Systems theory does not subscribe to the postulations of reductionists but instead believes in the interactions among institutions, which leads to widespread structural racism.

From the systems theory, it is true that social class theory, as formulated by scholars such as Karl Marx and Max Weber, is directly related to racism. In the US, property appraisal system was formulated in 1930s and was incorporated into the government’s lending system.

The system was purely based on race meaning members from the minority race could not access loans using the same techniques as the whites, who were the majority.

This could be interpreted to mean only whites were eligible to apply for governmental loans since their properties were rated highly, as compared to those of blacks and Latinos.

Relationship between Institutionalized Racism and Marx’s Economic Theory In economics, financial aspects are usually taught in isolation meaning that politics is to be separated from economics. However, economic life cannot be understood without understanding social and political forces that affect the lives of the minority races in the US and other parts of the world.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Relationship between Institutionalized Racism and Marxism by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Economists could not predict the 1997 economic meltdown in the Asian continent because they failed to incorporate other theories from other disciplines in their investigations. The 2007 global cash crunch was not exceptional because economists did not predict it at all. For economists, they believed capitalism would go on uninterrupted.

In fact, economists gave wrong results in 1998 since they predicted that financial growth of the Asian continent would expand. Economists misled investors to believe that their stocks would generate more profits, which would be used to expand their business elsewhere. In fact, many people lost their capital through defective economic predictions.

Economists utilize mathematical figures and statistics to predict the performance of financial systems. Mostly, they would use graphs and charts to show how economic aspects would be realized. Marx however formulated a theory that would predict economic performance from a human perspective. Marx analyzed the relationships between people and classes.

In this regard, he interpreted the economy to mean a struggle between races, classes and age groups. The economy, according to Marx, is full of contradictions and uncertainties meaning that it is subject to constant changes. In this paper, the theory of Marx shows that economics is not about goods, prices or supply and demand but it is all about people, as well as their social relationships.

It is established that a section of society owns wealth while the other section owns nothing, apart from their labor (Hallman 44). The owners of the means of production are referred to as the bourgeoisies while the working class is the proletariat.

The owners of the means of production utilize their power to subjugate and dominate the inferior class, which is the minority race in the US. Life is all about production and distribution of scarce goods and resources. From the above analysis, it is true that economics should be understood to mean political and social struggles in life.

Marx started his analysis of economic aspects by first appreciating the existence of classical economic theories. Adams Smith and David Ricardo supported new industrialization and the banking system. However, they did not appreciate the fact that the two sectors were dominated by a single race. Other races were incorporated into the two sectors as underdogs.

They came up with a labor theory of value suggesting that the working class was an important element in any production system. The two economics scholars observed that the value of a product would be determined by the amount of time spent in producing it. In this regard, all commodities would be sold based on the labor applied in producing it.

Smith never explained some of the important concepts because he only suggested that the commodity or a service would be sold based on its production costs. However, he did not explain the relationship between the worker and the capitalist. Ricardo came up with another concept that affected the lives of workers in the 19th century.

He argued that workers were spending little time in producing goods and services hence their wages had to decline (Lockheed 19). Marx capitalized on the findings of Ricardo to claim that workers were being robbed of their skills. Following widespread complaints concerning exploitation, economists rejected the labor theory of value, given the fact that it exposed the secrets of the bourgeoisie to the proletariat.

Marx conducted a private and extensive research to define the concept ‘labor’. Marx came up with a perfect answer to issues to do with socio-economic and political economy. Just like other commodities, labor possesses a use-value meaning various types of labor exist.

Some of the forms of labor are important and rigorous training is needed to achieve such forms while others are simple forms of labor, which is readily available in the labor market. In the US, the readily available labor is more than the skilled labor (Chappell 78). The minority races possess this cheap labor meaning they cannot achieve their dreams through employment.

Marx noted that theoretical aspects and the amount of labor applied in the production process influence the exchange of values of commodities. Marx believed that wages are not determined by the expertise of an individual or the skills applied in the manufacture of the product.

Marx differed with other scholars such as Smith and Ricardo because he believed that use value and exchange value could only be applied in the context of labor. According to this scholar, what mattered most was the ability to work not the skills possessed by an individual. He referred to this as the labor power.

Social classes determine the labor power. Those belonging to the white race have higher labor power as compared to peasants belonging to the inferior races, such as African, Asian and Latino.

Race, Ethnicity, Discrimination and Stereotyping Racial and ethnical discrimination and stereotypes are some of the issues that affect economic capabilities of individuals. In this section, we are going to address the issues of race and ethnicity and define and analyze the components of discrimination and stereotyping.

Contemporary discrimination practices have their roots in the history of development of the United States and closely related to American anti-Semitism that was part of the late-nineteenth century racism emigrant from all parts of the world, as well as African Americans, Native Americans and Mexicans.

The discriminatory treatment included closing the doors to immigration from Europe and Mexicans, between 1882 and 1927. Contemporary discriminatory practices are similar for African Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans; they include denying equal access to opportunities, certain housing areas or membership in social organizations.

In the contemporary society, there is still a room for hidden forms of racism against ethnic groups mentioned earlier. The situation has changed since the early 1990s, when blatant racism was more common for them.

Barriers to Implementation of Policies Various interpretations of the terms “race” and “ethnicity” can lead to the types of discrimination identified in the first section. Thus, “race” is often associated with physical specifications such as skin color, and “ethnicity is defined through the background, historical or cultural aspects of an individual. Historically, people created various forms of prejudices about race and ethnicity.

Thus, the prejudice that African Americans are “low-intelligent” race leads to the institutional and employment discrimination. There are two models (social and biological), according to which race and ethnicity are defined. Both of them state that there are dominant and subjective race. However, they have considerable gaps.

For example, from the biological perspective, all people have the same construction and functions of the body and it is ridiculous to distribute people into different races. From the social perspective, all people are members of the society they live in and live according to the same social rules, thus, this gap in the sociological model cannot properly reflect race and ethnic identity.

There are voluntary and involuntary models used to promote discrimination. Separatism model suggests that racial groups should be segregated from the rest of society. Assimilation model is associated with the issue of racial supremacy. For example, it defines what races are allowed to assimilate with the dominant culture, and what races will not fit social and political standards of the dominant race.

Pluralistic model define a racial group as a distinguished one and, according to Naughton (14), “groups will not dissolve into an anodyne melting pot, but individuals will have considerable leeway in deciding how and how much group identity matters to their lives”.

Thus, racial profiling contributes to personal, spiritual, political, and procedural conflicts identified in the previous chapter. For example, as it has already been mentioned, the PATRIOT Act’s provisions are discriminatory and leave many individuals especially aliens vulnerable to harassment and torture (Ewing 12).

The race of the individual becomes “an identification” used to attribute him/her to terrorists. Moreover, federal agencies have right to freeze bank accounts of persons perceived as terrorist, it a form of racial discrimination as well. This analysis can be helpful in addressing the issue racism in the United States.

It is necessary to consider the diverse nature of employees within organizations, as well as people in communities, schools and other organizations. Racial prejudices should not be issues for classifying people in “bad” and “good” ones. In addition, international relations should be improved with diplomacy being preferred instead of military confrontations based on racial diversity.

Race and ethnic identity of a person is often a reason for social discrimination. The PATRIOT Act should find different approaches to international relations so that prevent racial and ethnic discrimination.

Conclusion The problem of Ethnicity and race is a big challenge to the policymakers both in private and public organizations. It is an issue that has threatened to divide the country into various subcultures because every ethnic group and race identifies itself with certain distinct features.

The government officials have found it hard to come up with strategies that are all encompassing mainly because of the continued resistance from some groups feeling that their interests are well catered in the plans. In general, the government is trying but more effort has to be put for there to be equality and equity in distribution of both material and non-material resources.

It can be concluded that ethnic and racial groupings cannot be eliminated in the country but instead it can be engaged to function positively. The policymakers should conduct an extensive research to identify how racial groupings have affected the development of the country.

Upon the findings, the government should design policies based on the findings. The issue of extending favors to racial members at workplaces should be discouraged and severe measures ought to be formulated to deal with the problem.

Works Cited Chappell, Marissa. The war on welfare: family, poverty, and politics in modern America. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010. Print.

Dupre, Ben. Fifty Philosophy Ideas You Really Need to Know, New York: Quercus, 2007. Print.

Ewing, Doyle. The USA Patriot Act Reader, New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2005. Print.

Hallman, Max. Traversing Philosophical Boundaries, New York: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2007. Print.

Lockheed, Marlaine. Gender and social exclusion. Paris: Education Policy series publishers, 2010. Print.

Naughton, John. From Gutenberg to Zuckerberg. What You Really Need to Know about the Internet, New York: Quercus, 2012. Print.


Foreign Direct Investment in Internet Service Provision Proposal online essay help: online essay help

Executive summary Kamuga Internet Providers is an internet service provider that seeks to begin its operations in partnership with Jamii Telecom in Kenya. A team comprising of a regional director, marketing manager, operations manager, and human resource manager will oversee the management of the company. The objective of the venture is to exploit the vast market in Kenya.

The company will collaborate with Jamii Telecom in offering the internet services to the target market. Among the strategies that the company intends to apply to attract clients, include offering its services at a lower cost relative to other companies. Additionally, the company will run promotional programs like offering free internet services to clients.

To cater for cash shortage, the management will ensure that it identifies those clients that take long to pay for the services and ask them to deposit an amount of money as retainer. Among the risks that the company is likely to encounter include, security risks and sensitivity risks. Nevertheless, there are high prospects that the company will succeed, with its operating profit expected to be approximately $50,000 annually.

Introduction Demand for internet services in the developing countries is in the rise. Majority of the companies in the developed countries outsource their human resource tasks to developing states. This underlines the reason why many business-outsourcing firms are emerging in developing countries like in Kenya. Outsourcing firms process the tasks and send them back to their clients.

All these activities require internet. Demand for internet services in Kenya is what prompted the desire to establish Kamuga Internet Providers, an internet service firm aimed at offering internet services to Kenyan companies. The firm will operate in collaborate with Jamii Telecom, which is a Kenyan company that offers internet services to clients.

This paper will focus on the benefits of establishing the company in Kenya, prospective success, and challenges that might arise in the process of running the company in Kenya.

Advantages of establishing the business Engaging in international trade brings numerous benefits to an organization. These benefits include, risk diversification and growth (Rose and Van Wincoop 387). One of the benefits that Kamuga Internet Providers will enjoy for engaging in international trade will be enhanced growth. Because of high demand for internet services in Kenya, the business will make good returns, which will facilitate in its growth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Besides, the business will enjoy a better margin. The Kenyan currency is weaker relative to the U.S dollar. Consequently, the business will require less capital to start, while the returns will be high. Jamii Telecom will also benefit from this investment in different ways. The company’s income will increase. Currently, Jamii Telecom is in partnership with other companies.

Hence, this partnership will act as a diversification strategy to the company. Another benefit that the trade partner is likely to enjoy from this investment is earlier payments. Majority of the overseas payments are made upfront, and Kamuga Internet Providers intends to observe this.

Challenges and opportunities The investment is likely to face numerous challenges, as well as opportunities. One of the challenges that this investment will encounter is cultural challenge. Jamii Telecom and Kamuga Internet Providers operate in different environments. Hence, the two companies use different organizational strategies. The companies will encounter challenges when managing the joint venture.

Besides, there will be an economic challenge. Because of political instability in Kenya, the country’s currency keeps on fluctuating (Kenya National Bureau of Statistics 34). This implies that it will be hard to estimate the total working capital for the investment at a given year. The two partners will have to monitor the business’s working capital and to increase it whenever necessary.

Another challenge will be competition from other internet providers. Already companies like Safaricom and Orange have invested in internet services. Hence, Kamuga Internet Providers will face stiff competition from these firms.

To operate in the Kenyan market, the company will have to obtain a license from the Kenyan government. Besides, the company will site its operation base at a strategic position. To contribute to its success, it will have to look for labor capital. Despite collaborating with Jamii Telecom, Kamuga Internet Providers will require having local employees to facilitate in marketing its services.

Moreover, the company will have to obtain intellectual property protection rights to avoid conflicts with rival companies. This will facilitate in safeguarding its innovations and technology, therefore, enhancing its competitive advantage (Kameri-Mbote 18).

We will write a custom Proposal on Foreign Direct Investment in Internet Service Provision specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In spite of the numerous challenges, there are many opportunities in Kenya. Currently, the existing internet provider companies focus on key firms and offices. Kamuga Internet Providers intends to target business outsourcing companies, as well as leading institutions like universities and banks. These companies cannot operate without internet.

Therefore, there will always be a ready market for the company. Majority of the companies that source their internet services from Safaricom and Orange, complain about the reliability of their services. Therefore, consumers will be willing to try a new service provider, giving Kamuga Internet Providers an opportunity to expand and consolidate its consumer base.

Covering logistics Logistic is one of the challenges that affect internet-providing companies. Poor logistics lead to consumers complaining about the quality of the services. Kamuga Internet Providers will liaise with Jamii Telecom to supply the internet services through its fiber optic cables. This will ensure that consumers are satisfied with its services.

Besides, Jamii Telecom will help it to do the networking in all the institutions that require its services. For the major institutions like Universities and business outsourcing firms, the payments will be on postpaid basis. The companies will pay after using the services.

This strategy will facilitate in winning the trust from the clients. A Majority of the clients would decline to pay for the services they have not used in fear that they might frustrate them. Nevertheless, requesting them to pay after using the services would encourage the majority of them to use the services.

Key risks The venture might be prone to a number of risks. The risks include security risk and sensitivity risk. As the company grows, it might not be able to secure its broadband, making it possible for unauthorized people to use the internet services. This will call for the company to monitor its broadband regularly and work to enhance its security. Sensitivity risks are other key risks that Kamuga Internet Providers is likely to encounter.

The sensitivity risks include government regulations, interest rates, and exchange rates. Variations in the exchange rate might affect the company’s profit. On the other hand, government regulations like intellectual property rights might hamper the company’s innovation capacity.

Revenue, cost and profit estimates To arrive at the estimated revenue, cost, and profit of the investment, the company will make numerous assumptions. One of the assumptions is that no conflict will arise between the company and the clients, which might lead to clients withdrawing in the course of the contract. Another assumption is that the cost of operations will remain constant throughout the year.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Foreign Direct Investment in Internet Service Provision by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company will also assume that there will be no changes in government regulations or increase in the inflation rate, which might lead to the operations cost going high. It anticipates that employees’ salary will remain constant throughout the year. Apart from the overhead costs that will remain constant, other costs like customer service and billing are expected to vary from time to time.

Operating statement for year 2013 Total Revenue $100,000

Variable costs $ 20,000

Gross Profit $ 80,000

Fixed costs

Salaries $10,000

Rent $10,000

Utilities $ 5,000

Depreciation $ 5,000

Total Operating Expenses $ 30,000

Operating Profit (EBIT) $ 50,000

Startup costs To start this investment, the management will require at least $700,000. This will cater for employee recruitment, marketing cost, rent, and broadband procurement, among other recurrent expenditures.

Marketing strategy Marketing mix is a superior business tool that facilitates in marketing an organization’s products or services. At times, the term four Ps is used to refer to marketing mix (Van Waterschoot and Van den Bulte 85). To promote the success of this investment, the company will employ the marketing mix strategy.

Kamuga Internet Providers will offer its services at lower prices relative to other companies to attract customers. While the majority of the companies offer their services at $0.75 per megabyte, the company will offer its services at $0.5 per megabyte. Besides, the company will run promotional programs to recruit new customers.

It will give its target clients a free internet service for one week. This will encourage many customers to use the service. The company will work in collaboration with Jamii Telecom to distribute its services.

This will help in ensuring that clients have access to its services. Jamii Telecom will help it to lay fiber optic cables in all areas with high demand for the internet services.

Operating plan A management team comprising of a regional director, human resource manager, marketing manager, and an operation manager will run the company. The company will hire local employees to help the management team. From the hired employees, the management team will select a sales team that will be responsible for marketing the company across the country.

Jamii Telecom will assume the responsibility of identifying the suppliers to supply the company with materials necessary for laying down the required internet platform.

Financing plan To maintain a smooth running of the company, the management team will have to identify strategies to cover for cash shortage. Clients that are stubborn in paying for the services will be required to deposit some retainer money, as a strategy for addressing cash shortage.

Besides, the team will make sure that it issues invoices on time for all services rendered. This will facilitate in the collection of cash from the clients. Moreover, it will facilitate in avoiding cases of overdue debtors.

Conclusion The success or failure of any investment depends on the ability of the management team to stick to the laid down business plan. If the management team observes all the outlined strategies, it will succeed in seeing the growth of Kamuga Internet Providers in Kenya.

Works Cited Kameri-Mbote, Patricia. Intellectual Property Protection in Africa: An Assessment of the Status of Laws, Research and Policy Analysis on Intellectual Property Rights in Kenya, Nairobi: University of Nairobi, 2004. Print.

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Kenya Facts and figures 2012. PDF file. 2012.

Rose, Andrew K and Van Wincoop, Eric. “National money as a barrier to international trade: the real case for currency union.” The American Economic Review 19.2 (2001): 386-390. Print.

Van Waterschoot, Walter and Van den Bulte, Christophe. “The 4P classification of the marketing mix revisited.” Journal of Marketing 56.4 (2006): 83-93. Print.


Valuation Conclusion Essay essay help free: essay help free

In this assignment, you will recalculate the value of the company’s stock based on your company’s specific required rate of return. To do this, you will calculate the required rate of return for your chosen publicly traded company using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). *My company is UPS*


Geography of Australia and New Zealand Report (Assessment) college application essay help

Map comparison Agricultural production and mineral extraction are among Australia’s economic backbone. With regards to agriculture, no other state within the pacific realm enjoys the benefits stemming from this sector other than Australia. To them this is a pipe dream. Australian farmers are a ‘jack of all trades’ (MacLeod and Jones 677). They rear domestic animals and practice farming.

To this end they have a favorable climate to boast about. However, as depicted in figure 11-5, this climate is biased towards the territory of New South Wales, extending along the borders anticlockwise towards Western Australia forming an inverted ‘U.’

The same pattern recurs for minerals though with disjointed areas at some parts of Northern and Western Australia. Among the minerals mined include gold, Iron ore, silver, coal, and copper. On comparing this map with the spatial distribution of population map (G-9) one thing emerges: the population density follows the same path (Kimble 510).

On analyzing the spatial population distributions of both New Zealand and Australia with respect to climatic patterns, several common findings can be drawn. Basically, a population will always be drawn where the climatic conditions are favorable for agricultural production.

For instance, in Australia, the population density within the central part is less. On correlating this with the region’s climate it is evident that the area is located on a dry climate. On the other hand, at New South Wales where the population density is high it enjoys temperate climate. With regards to New Zealand the area receives adequate rain throughout the year (humid equatorial climate with no dry season).

However, the physical geography of the region is what now dictates the spatial population distribution. Both these countries follow the same pattern of population distribution; most settlements are skewed along the coastal lines (Schaefer 230).

Map 1: Physical geography of Southwest Asia.

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Map 3: Economic Urban Information.


A-Broken Hill


C-Mt Isa

D-Conation Hill

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Works Cited Kimble, Hebert. “The Inadequacy of the Regional Concept” London Essays in Geography 2.17 (1951): 492-411. Print.

MacLeod, George, and Jones Mother. “Renewing The Geography of Regions.” Environment and Planning 16.9 (2001): 669-800. Print.

Schaefer, Frankline. “Exceptionalism in Geography: A Methodological Examination.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 43.3 (1953): 226-245. Print.


Local government agencies budget in the United States Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Local government agencies in the United States include county governments, towns, municipalities, and special purpose local governments such as school districts and special districts. County governments are authorized in state constitutions and statutes.

Similarly, town governments are allowed by the existing laws of the land governing various states such as the Northeastern and the Midwestern. However, they only govern a defined area.

Municipal governments govern a corresponding population Centre. School districts govern public elementary and secondary schools while the special districts are authorized by state law to provide specific designated functions (Wilson


The Paradox of Comedy: A Society’s Watchdog and Entertainer Term Paper essay help

A comedy is a play, script or a live performance meant to entertain the audience and make people laugh. Comedy comprises of jokes and satirical lines. Subversive comedy and social comedy are among the broader categories of drama. Subversive comedy reveals the different fissures under the smooth surface of official ideology in society and the play ends in a ritual celebration such as a marriage.

On the other hand, social comedy addresses threats against hegemonic cultures by disciplining upstarts and the commonwealth man in society. Careful analysis of William Wycherley’s play “The Country Wife”, as an example of a subversive comedy, and Aphra Behn’s play “The Rover”, as an example of a social comedy, reveals a clear distinction between the two categories.

Subversive comedy defines the cracks on the unscathed surface of the official ideology. These cracks exist in the Restoration comedy “The Country Wife” through the oppression of the Puritans Commonwealth during their reign from 1642 to 1660.

The play displays how the present government oppresses its citizens to the right of public expression and mocks the societal view of marriage and sexuality in London.

The cynical view of the shift that occurred in the English attitude towards marriage in the middle of 1670’s has portrayed in Harry Horner’s explanation of how he plans to have sexual escapades with London’s upper class women and how they still keep their honor in society as moral beings (Norman 40).

These sexual escapades are carefully planned by Horner’s lie of being a eunuch after recovering from a venereal disease that rendered him impotent. It aims at fooling the husbands and fiancée of the women who get involved with Horner to allow them do so without raising eyebrows.

Major themes, such as hypocrisy, are addressed through the wants of men and women to appear as being more virtuous than they actually are. The importance placed on money in the society given rise to capitalism and absurdity that drives humans to yearn for sex without love is also tackled. Norman’s comment reveals the different fissures in society that are hidden under the smoothness of official ideology (Norman 52).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Social comedy in contrast to the latter reveals the rebellion against the ruling élite and main virtues in the society. It addresses threats against hegemonic culture by disciplining upstarts.

In the play “The Rover”, the characters revolt against vulnerability of women towards sexual abuse, and the men that marry women whom they consider of a higher social class as compared to the women considered of low social status and hence branded as whores. Angellica is sexually exploited by Willmore for mistakenly falling in love with him.

Willmore wants Angellica Bianca to marry Hellena but Angellica goes against the society’s view of women being sexual objects and she threatens revenge on Willmore. Hellena’s sister, Florinda, revolts against the practice of women being married off to suitors chosen for them.

She goes against her brother’s will and chooses to marry her true love, Colonel Belvile. Women are also portrayed as capable of being thieves as the girl who according to the false assumption of provincial Blunt, has fallen in love with him (Carlson 530).

In conclusion, it is fair to stress that the comedy mocks the underlying issues in society. Subversive comedy reveals the fissures under the smooth surface of official ideology as the play ends in ritual celebrations while Social comedy addresses threats against the hegemonic culture by disciplining upstarts and commonwealth men in the society.

Works Cited Carlson, Susan. “Cannibalizing and Carnivalizing” Reviving Aphra Behn’s The Rover. Theatre Journal 47.4 (1995): 517-539.Print.

Norman, Holland. The First Modern Comedies: The Significance of Etherege, Wycherley and Congreve Massachusetts: Cambridge, 1959. Print.

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