Pollution Caused By Medium-Sized Enterprises And The Means To Prevent It Research Paper Cheap Essay Help

Pollution became an issue quite a while ago, yet in the XXI century, it has suddenly started getting attention again, mostly because its effects, launched in 1990s, have finally started taking their toll on the nature.

While the effects of pollution have finally become tangible and its has turned obvious that pollution leads to even faster process of global warming (van Staden


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A budget showing product launch expenses and a unit forecast by quarter for 3 years

Activities Projected Costs in Million Dollars First Year Quarterlies Second Year Quarterlies Third Year Quarterlies 1st 2nd 3rd 4thst 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Fixed costs 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 Variable costs 42 49 69 114 144 151 157 163 182 202 225 247 Cost of Communications


Changes and challenges: China’s environmental management in transition Essay online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Change in environmental performance in China

Phases of development in environmental management

Enforcement of environmental policies



Introduction China is applauded for being one of the economies in the world that are growing at an accelerating pace. The size of the Chinese economy has undoubtedly swelled to match the most advanced economies in the world, like the United States. However, it is argued that economic growth in China has resulted in a high level of pollution.

This paper presents a discussion on how China is trying to change its environmental focus by reviewing the article titled: “Changes and challenges: China’s environmental management in transition”.

Change in environmental performance in China The rise in the level of environmental degradation coming from intensive industrialization has raised a considerable number of questions on whether the environmental situation in the country can be reversed. According to the paper, the Chinese government is showing a lot of commitment as far as steering programs of sustainable economic development is concerned.

Prospects of positive development in economic and environmental sustainability programs have been reported in several government funded surveys. An example is the China’s Millennium Development Goals report for the year 2010, which implies that the government of China has shown positive prospects of transforming the mode of economic growth (He, Lu, Mol


Operations Management: Luen Thai Apparel Company Term Paper college essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary

Overview of Luen Thai Company

Nature of operations systems

Operations Performance Measurement System

Performance measurement variables


Reference List

Executive Summary Sustainable development is vital in a business environment. Reflectively, this concept defines the feasibility of a company and its solvency within a specified period of time. In the contemporary society, the term sustainability refers to the ability to survive within a profitablemodel.

In business environment, sustainability is affected by forces in the market, decision science, corporate structure, and real financial management, in short and long term.

Therefore, a business organization must put in place stringent measures and strategies aimed and monitoring expansionary modules within feasible levels. This paper reviews the current issues in operations management of the Luen Thai Company and develops an operations performance measurement system.

Overview of Luen Thai Company Culture in a corporate organization is the key upon which management uses to make such an organization succeed. However, sometimes, it becomes harder to translate the theoretical perspectives into practical elements that help to strengthen the firm’s operations. The issues also extend to complexity when the entire working environment is taken into considerations.

As businesses are opting to merge up, the key factor of emphasis is how communication culture is to be maintained by such organizations. The main challenge facing the global Luen Thai business is the adoption of proper communication and operations management models that can be more flexible to change operation of this organization.

As a matter of fact, quality operations management model is the backbone of a promising company since it determines survival and productivity in terms of flow of operations and streamlining overhead costs. For instance, the coordination between the production and marketing team is wanting.

Nature of operations systems Reflectively, relaying information on the success of a production is dependent on labour and operating costs, which are often balanced for value maintenance. In the process of balancing the act, a quality operations management system should be capable of applying the scientific skills in an artistic manner through informed and perfectly framed use of soft skills to address technical aspects of production management.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In every business field, the question of factors facilitating success is often posed. In order to present a comprehensive answer to this question, it is of essence to measure success as a component of the existing operation system (Lin, 2010). Generally, a quality operations management system is that which satisfies requirements within the budget and time schedule without disintegrating initial goal projections.

Thus, changes in the weights of labour cost and operating cost have substantially altered the final weighted average rating for the four locations.

Basically, a quality operations management system performs optimally via integration of appropriate scientific factors of production. To enrich artistic managerial talents, a balance in the factors of production comes in handy to not only magnifies the margins of success but also to ensure a smooth transition of an idea or an event after another, as is the case at Luen Thai.

Besides, to avoid an imminent failure, it is vital for the operations management system to focus on a defined edge in balancing the labour and operation costs.

Therefore, the company has put in place stringent measures and strategies aimed and monitoring expansionary modules within feasible levels. This includes techniques that are in use in the company to monitor sustainability by application of scientific management of balanced factors of production matrix (Lin, 2010).

Generally, production mix strategies proposed by the company are to ensure long term operation. For implementation of the strategy, the management is to balance both the short term and long term consideration towards decision making. Management that ensures long term obligations is fulfilled.

They consider the role played by planning for resources in technology, continued innovations in the production of new products, and conducting researchers to ensure that the production process is efficient through maximization of output within the least possible costs (Bowman, 2003).

We will write a custom Term Paper on Operations Management: Luen Thai Apparel Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Operations Performance Measurement System Production efficiency is critical in the production line since it is characterized by optimal utilization of allocated factors of production within the least possible cost. From the above refection, it is apparent that the company will gain in the long run through the FMS proposal. Despite lower returns on investment below the projection, the overall effect of adopting this proposal will have benefits that will outweigh its limitations.

For instance, when the FMS is fully adopted as proposed, the reduction in cost of factors of production, such as labour and reduced actual production costs will result in accumulated gains as a result of controlled costs that are recurring (Lewis, 1999).

When the recurring costs such as labour, production space, and cost of machinery are curtailed within a manageable level, the company will increase its returns on investments. Besides, the excess labour may be channeled to another line of production besides the extra production space.

Even though the return on investment is lower than projected, the project is viable since it will permanently reduce the recurring cost by a margin of more than 10% of the company’s current production cost. Moreover, the aspect of efficiency as a result of FMS will push the production frontier curve towards sustainability in the long run.

Basically, the immediate adaptation of the proposed FMS will contribute towards sustainability in the aspect of cost, dependability, speed, quality, and flexibility (Slack, 2012).

Specifically, the reduced production floor space will give room for expansion and production without having to expand the infrastructure of the company. More space means more products being produced within the same production bundles. Due to increased output, the market will eventually expand and the company will get more revenues.

Through improved orders throughput, the company is set to immediately and substantially gain from the reliability aspect as compared to its competitors. Since clients will be able to receive their orders within a shorter time, the company stands to gain from customer satisfaction and referrals.

Since the duration of delivery will decrease by almost a third of its present rate, the company is geared to reap maximum benefits from economies of scale due to increased capacity to produce and distribute within a short period of time (Deflorin, 2010).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Operations Management: Luen Thai Apparel Company by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More At the China location, the quality system is certain. Thus, when the system is quality-oriented, the entire chain coordinating these segments would result in optimal operations. Although operations management systems experience constant metamorphosis as a result of short term, midterm, and long term goal planning, no company can operate efficiently without quality system functioning.

Thus, quality will quantify optimal functional within a competitive advantage parameter for the company. Besides, high standard operations management score acts as the engine that supports implementers of business strategy in order to comprehensively verify rationale for supporting current, predicted, and actual results for every step upon introduction of a functional system (Lewis, 1999).

Therefore, the probability of success is far much better than that of failure when the system is properly designed as indicated by the high scorecard at the China location. Moreover, balancing act between having to perform optimally at minimal operation and overhead costs is a component of quality in system modelling.

Thus, the success of an operations management system is dependent on soft artful skills, which are part and parcel of efficient system management. The company should adopt the six-sigma approach in quality control and assurance in the maintenance department. Six-Sigma is an experience of operations management that is used to develop business operations that ensure efficiency through optimal and timely production.

Six-Sigma is adopted to attain significant effects of production efficiency through periodic review of the production matrix. Actually, Six-Sigma is a sequence of business events that delivers positive outputs that develop business aim of reliability in the production chain.

Six-Sigma ensures that production processes that are necessary are improved “through proactive management of the factors of production such as labour, time, and optimal production capacity” (Slack, 2012, p. 39).

In fact, Six-Sigma is aimed to reduce wastage of production resources that can be experienced in long queues and ineffective task outputs. Quality control is commonly utilized to promote quality of business products. Six-Sigma usually integrates employees to provide the highest quality of products through self-assessment and proactive approach to skills tests.

Six-sigma is done to prepare, synchronize and manage the multifarious activities of company through efficiency module. This alternative can be compared to the three balls that are juggled by the circus performers.

By implementing the six-sigma alternative, the company can visualize the future risks and hurdles in the implementation of any production plan and can take suitable remedial measures for unforeseeable risks such as machine breakdown.

The initial step towards actualization of a quality operations management system involves research and the creation of an informed and practical business plan. As a matter of fact, operations management actualizes a business plan.

Besides, the system monitors financial constrains and progress of each of these segments. The consideration of this is, however, based on the contributions they make towards ensuring that the organizations continue to gain a competitive advantage in the market.

Performance measurement variables In order to achieve quality operations management, Luen Thai’s existing forms of system monitoring should be periodically upgraded to introduce multiple operating system models such as ratio analysis in operation management that is compatible with tracking and analysis within and without the company across the three major segments.

Basically, the operations management systems at Luen Thai include an aspect of cost, dependability, speed, quality, and flexibility. These variables determine success or failure in business. These variables are achievable through value delivery, value addition, and creativity. Reflectively, these concepts are techniques and tools essential in the art of operations management.

This process is inclusive of the scientific aspects such as a technical process of understanding the operations involved in operations management, their application, and evaluation criteria, which is monitored by the support department.

Despite having this efficient operations management system, the company has not fully established a mechanism of monitoring progress at micro level and majorly depends on macro auditing in decision making and still has to deal with the risk of internal redundancy (Lewis, 1999).

The second strategy for performance measurement should be aligned to communication channel in the company. For implementation of the strategy, the management balances both the short term and long term consideration towards decision making.

Management that ensures long term obligations are fulfilled and considers mostly the role played by resources invested in technology, continued innovations in the production of new products and conducting intensive researchers in the market to identify fresh market niches. Customer satisfaction is the focal point of the company in attaining a competitive advantage in the market above other players.

Specifically, operation systems are employed in the Luen Thai Company to monitor and increase productivity at minimal error margins. This is possible because this model of operations management system allows for “operations process competitiveness as it cut down unnecessary overhead costs from waste and under-utilisation” (Slack, 2012, p. 43).

In the marketing and distribution channels that are run from a central point, it is apparent that company structure, operations management, and efficiency of the advertisement department determine sustainability of its business. Besides, the ability to customize products and offer competitive but high-quality services determine success and profitability in the short and long run.

Skills required in supporting a business strategy plan are found in the integrated management model, which functions as an implementer and driver of business decisions. The company’s operations management systems incorporate planning, development, implementation, and discovery.

Reflectively, the process captures organization chart, status reports, process map, compliance requirements, review structure, activities, dates, and resources employed within a specified period of time. The system has remained efficient due to consultative decision science, which has ensured the company’s survival for more than three decades.

Basically, a quality integration management system performs optimally via integration of appropriate scientific methods and techniques. To enrich artistic managerial talents, scientific techniques come in handy to not only magnify the margins of success but also to ensure a smooth transition of an idea or an event after another.

Besides, to avoid an imminent failure, it is vital for the integrated management system to focus on a defined edge since “proper tailoring of techniques and tools assume as an essential part of the regulatory strategy” (Deflorin, 2010, p. 32).

Reflectively, the vertical integration management system in the Luen Thai Apparel has improved on the supply chain, production and distribution processes, which are centrally stationed and controlled from one building.

Conclusion The success and failure of a business entity are dependent on the effectiveness and quality of the operations management since it determines how planning, integration, implementation, and control are integrated.

In order to strike an optimal performance balance, the process of designing a quality operations management system should commence with a clear overview of budgeting, objectivity, and scheduling. In addition, this part should include control procedures and assessments.

In order to come up with a viable operating system, it is of essence to include quality control, progress measurement, and flexibility in planning to accommodate any eventuality in the Luen Thai Company. Quality in operations management determines the success of goal planning and analysis.

As a matter of fact, quality ensures smooth operation and coordination of different variables that function simultaneously in the production chain. Despite constant metamorphosis of operations management designs in the market, determinant of quality basically remains unchanged.

Irrespective of the size and nature of a business entity, quality in operations management is the major verification factor for success of a short term, middle term, and long term projections.

Reference List Bowman, S. 2003, “Corporate restructuring: Reconfiguring the firm”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 1 no. 4, pp. 5–14.

Deflorin, P. 2010, Operations management: a supply chain approach. Web.

Lewis, H. 1999, Environment and operations management face the future. Web.

Lin, J. 2010, New structural economics a framework for rethinking development. Web.

Slack, N. 2012, Operations and Process Management: Principles and Practice for Strategic Impact, Pearson Education Limited, Alabama.


Market for eco-friendly hotels Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

The hospitality industry is increasingly adopting green strategies as part of its corporate strategy. This need stems from the realization, among hotel owners, that they have a part to play in making the world more sustainable. Perhaps another key driver that is primarily responsible for this move is response to customer needs. Buyers, now more than ever before, are aware of man’s impact on the planet.

Therefore, most of them want to purchase products or services that are eco-friendly. Hotel owners are thus meeting a need in the market by attuning their services to the tastes of eco-conscious buyers (Weaver


Turkey’s Role in the Syrian Crisis Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Introduction Syria has been embroiled in a violent uprising since 2011 when the Syrian opposition began widespread demonstrations against president Bashar al-Assad and his government. The Syrian crisis was fueled by the winds of revolution that were blowing through the Arab world. This Arab uprising led to the toppling of regimes in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya due to popular uprisings by the citizens of these countries.

The Arab Spring Revolutions have been the most significant political event in the region and they have had huge ramifications as regimes have been toppled and governments have been obligated to engage in reforms. In the case of Syria, President Assad has refused to leave power in spite of the widespread opposition against him and international pressure for him to do so.

Instead of relenting to the popular uprising against him, Assad engaged in brutal repression of the demonstrators in his country. This violent repression led to the formation of armed rebel groups that have been fighting to topple the Assad regime for almost three years without any real success.

The events in Syria have attracted the attention of the international community and the country’s regional neighbors. Turkey, which is a regional power, has been heavily involved in Syrian affairs since the crisis has some impact on Turkey due to its common border with Syria and its strategic interests in the region (Idrees 88).

Turkey has therefore emerged as the country that has played the most monumental role in trying to resolve the Syrian crisis. This paper will set out to provide an in-depth description of the efforts that Turkey has engaged in to assist mitigate the Syrian crisis and speed the process of stabilizing the nation.

The paper will begin by articulating the reasons behind Turkey’s interest in Syria and then proceed to outline the role that Ankara has played in the Syrian issue.

Turkey’s Interest in the Syrian Events Even as the Syrian Crisis gets to its third year, Turkey continues to demonstrate a great commitment to ensuring that the crisis is effectively resolved in the shortest time possible. From the onset of the Syrian crisis, Turkey demonstrated an interest in the actions carried out by the Assad regime and by the opposition. Turkey shares a 911km border with Syria making instability in Syria an issue of concern for Turkey.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Turkey has a vested interest in the outcome of the Syrian Crisis. In recognition of the critical ramifications that the events in Syria would have on Turkey, the Turkish Prime Minister Tayyip Erdogan described the situation in Syria in 2011 as “an internal Turkish issue” (88).

Turkey has made a huge regional and domestic capital in overthrowing the Assad regime and the current policy supports the armed rebels and the Syrian opposition. Ankara has been the most prominent foreign actor in the Syrian affairs since the revolution against the Assad regime broke out in 2011 (Idrees 88).

The Turkish Foreign Minister asserts that Turkey is obliged to act on the Syrian issue not only because it needs to defend its own national strategies but also because it is a regional power in the region (47). Turkey’s role in Syria will contribute to its growing influence in the region.

Analysts predict that if the Syrian opposition succeeds, it will set up a government modeled after Turkey’s ruling AKP government and look up to Ankara as the mentor. Phillips suggests that by backing the Syrian opposition and promoting the SNC, Turkey is establishing a good relationship with the future successors of Assad; therefore boosting its own influence in the country (138).

Turkey’s involvement has also been prompted by concerns that the Syrian crisis might contribute to a reemergence of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) problem in Turkey. The PKK is a Kurdish nationalist movement that has been fighting for secession from Turkey. Egin declares that the anti-Assad policy adopted by Ankara has “breathed new life into the Turkish Kurds’ long struggle for independence” (66).

Because of Turkey’s denouncing of the Assad regime, the Syrian government has retaliated by covertly funding the PKK groups operating along the Turkish border.

Egin reports that the Assad regime has reversed its longstanding anti-Kurd policies and provided the Kurd fighters with a degree of logistical support and refuge from Turkish forces (66). This has reinvigorated the PKK and enabled it to resume an armed struggle against Turkey.

We will write a custom Essay on Turkey’s Role in the Syrian Crisis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Turkey’s Humanitarian Efforts One of the areas where Turkey has played a major role is with regard to the Syrian refugees. Since the outbreak of the Syrian conflict, the number of Syrians looking for refuge from their country’s violence has been rising. Since Turkey shares an expansive border with Syria, many Syrians have sought to cross into Turkey to escape the violence in their country (Laqueur 77).

Sly reports that while refugees have moved into the other countries surrounding Syria, Turkey has received the greatest percentage of refugees (1). Turkey is currently home to over 400,000 Syrian refugees who continue to put a strain on the resources of the Turkish government as their daily needs are met.

In addition to the refugees already living in Turkey, the country is admitting between 500 and 1,500 Syrians each day at certain border crossings. The flow of refugees into Turkey has at times been so high that the Turkish government has been forced to close key border crossings in order to regulate the flow of Syrians.

However, Turkey has demonstrated a great desire to assist the Syrians fleeing from the violence in their country.

Turkey has been deeply involved in humanitarian efforts aimed at assisting the vast number of Syrian refugees within its borders. Turkey has established numerous camps in its territory to accommodate Syrian Refugees. Jodi reports that the camps established by Turkey for the Syrian refugees are some of the best refugee camps in the world (1).

Some of the camps established for refugees include pre-fabricated houses that contain two rooms and a bathroom making the lives of the refugees in Turkey very decent. Most of the money used to sustain the refugees has been from Turkey’s own financial reserves. The country has also demonstrated great generosity by spending close to $1billion dollars on Syrian refugees in order to alleviate their conditions while in Turkey.

In spite of limited international support for the refugees fleeing Syria, Turkey has continued to offer great support to Syrian refugees. Jodi observes that the international aid to alleviate the humanitarian crisis occurring at the Turkey-Syria border has been minimal with most Western countries providing limited aid (1).

Turkey has filled this void by providing substantial support to meet the needs of the Syrians. However, analysts contend that Turkey’s ability to deal with the humanitarian crisis might be hampered if the Syrian crisis extends beyond 2013 and the influx of refugees across the Turkey-Syria border increases.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Turkey’s Role in the Syrian Crisis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More International diplomatic efforts Turkey has engaged in a lot of international diplomacy to try resolving the Syrian crisis. Turkey has exploited its good relationship with Western nations to carry out diplomatic efforts concerning the Syrian crisis. Turkey is a part of the “Friends of Syria” group, which is made up of countries that are concerned about the Syrian crisis and are engaged in diplomatic action to resolve the crisis.

Turkey hosted the major meeting by this group held on April 2012 and in this meeting, the Turkish PM called on the international community to take action against Assad’s regime. In line with its stance against the Syrian government, Turkey reiterated its opinion that Syrian rebels should be given the means with which to defend themselves from Assad’s onslaught.

Turkey has been involved in international efforts aimed at keeping Syrians safe in their own country. Turkey has engaged in advocacy for more stringent actions to be taken against Assad by the international community. The Turkish government is the strongest supporter of a no fly zone that, once enacted, would ensure that Syrians are safe in the Northern parts of the country.

Sly observes that most Syrian refugees in Turkey have been forced out of their country by the frequent aerial bombardments carried out by the Assad regime (1). Imposition of a no fly zone would stop the airstrikes and make the area safe for Syrians to live in.

The no-fly zone has also been aimed at protecting turkey from Syrian attacks. Following the shooting down of a Turkish Air Force jet by the Syrian army in June 2012, Turkey called on its NATO allies to enforce a no-fly zone in Syria. While a no fly zone is yet to be implemented in the crisis, the Turkish administration continues to advocate for it at the UN and through NATO.

Turkey has urged the international community to engage in limited military intervention against the Assad regime or increase its support to the Syrian rebels. In the recent past, the Turkish Foreign Minister has called on the international community to take action against the Assad regime.

Following a car bombing in May 12 in a Turkish border town that led to the death of 46 people, the Turkish government has called for action against Syria to ensure that the violence there does not spread into the neighboring countries (Burch 1).

However, the international community has shown great reluctance in responding to the Syrian crisis. Major powers such as the US are apprehensive and have not taken any solid step in the issue (Williams and Colleen 50).

Diplomatic Efforts with Syrian Actors In addition to the international efforts, Turkey has used its regional influence to attempt resolving the Syrian crisis domestically. At the onset of the conflict in Syria, Turkey attempted to use its close ties with the Assad regime to control the activities taking place in Syria. The Turkish government tried to persuade Assad to stop his brutality against the opposition forces.

Instead of engaging in a ‘zero problems’ strategy in the Syrian case, Turkey has adopted a ‘values-based’ foreign policy that supports democratic forces (Phillips 138). Turkey has publicly criticized the Assad regime and lobbied for greater participation by the Sunni majority in the Syrian government (Kouskouvelis 48).

Damla reveals that in August 2011, the Turkish Foreign Minister, Ahmet Davutoğlu held a lengthy meeting with Assad in which he tried to get Assad to engage in dialogue with the rebels (43).

The Turkish government representative officially impressed on Assad that it was necessary for his government to share power with the majority Sunni community and make major reforms in the country. However, these talks did not yield positive results since Assad was unwilling to resolve the problems facing his regime through dialogue and reforms.

The good relationship between Turkey and the Syrian opposition has enabled Turkey to play an influential role in the crisis. Turkey has moderated over talks between the US and the moderate opposition forces in Syria to try and come up with a strong and unified opposition coalition that can challenge Assad.

These efforts are significant since at the moment, the Syrian opposition is made up of many disparate groupings, some of which are affiliated with radical Islamic terror outfits such as Al-Qaeda. Western powers are unwilling to back a Syrian opposition that has affiliations with terrorist organizations.

Turkey has therefore played a key role in initiating dialogue between the opposition and the US and some EU countries to reach a consensus on the composition of the Syrian opposition.

Turkey and the Syrian Opposition In spite of a decade-long good relationship between the Turkish administration and the Assad regime, Turkey denounced the Syrian government following the rise of the resistance against the Assad government in March 2011. Before the Crisis, Turkey had engaged in a “zero problems” foreign policy with Syria.

This policy was aimed at eliminating all the historical issues that Turkey faced with Syria and promoting trade in the region. The Syrian crisis caused Turkey to abandon this policy of disengagement and play a more pronounced role in Syrian affairs.

Syrian rebels have received significant support from the Turkish government. Arango reveals that in addition to providing a permanent base for the umbrella resistance group, the Syrian National Council, the Turkish government has opened up some areas on its side of the border with Syria to the rebels. This opposition fighters are allowed to plan, coordinate, and launch their attacks against the Assad regime from Turkish soil (1).

Turkey has also served as a safe harbor for military defectors from the Syrian Army. As the civil conflict in Syria carries on, hundreds of military officials have defected from Assad’s brutal regime. Turkey has offered refuge to these defectors with the Turkish Army protecting the camps where these military officials are staying (Damla 43).

In the latest development in the Syrian crisis, the US and Syria’s main ally Russia have announced their intention to engage in cooperative efforts to end the conflict through diplomacy. Such action would require the participation of the Assad regime and the Syrian opposition.

Leaders from Syria’s opposition coalition are going to meet under the supervision of Turkey in Istanbul to deliberate on whether they will be involved in this international conference that might probably lead to an end in the Syrian conflict. The involvement of Turkey in this matter is of great importance since as a Muslim country, Turkey has the required legitimacy that the West lacks when dealing with Syria.

Military Force The Turkish government has publicly stated that it is not willing to engage in an all out military confrontation with Syria to help resolve the crisis. Because of this policy, Turkey has by the large avoided direct military involvement in the Syrian Conflict (Krajeski 1).

While it would be in Turkey’s best interest for the conflict to end soon, an outright military intervention by the Turkish military in Syria would not only be expensive but very unpopular. The Turkish population is not in support of military intervention by its country’s military. For this reason, Turkey has avoided engaging in unprovoked military intervention and its actions have often been in response to Syrian strikes in its territory.

In spite of the desire to avoid military action with Syria, Turkey has been forced to take some military action in retaliation to Syrian attacks on Turkish soil. The first publicly acknowledged attack by the Turkish army took place in October 2012 following a Syrian mortar strike that hit southeastern Turkey, killing 5 Turks.

This attack prompted retaliation by the Turkish army, which launched counter-battery fire into Syrian territory (Krajeski 1). In the events where Turkey has been forced to take military action to protect its borders, the situation has been quickly de-escalated by both sides.

The focus on de-escalation can be seen from the fact that even when Syrian missiles have landed in Turkey, the Turkish forces have limited their retaliation measures to counterattacking the units perceived to have opened fire across the border. The reason for this is that both Turkey and Syria are keen to avoid an armed retaliation since such action would have major negative repercussions for both sides.

While it is unlikely that Turkey will choose to invade Syria, the government has the power and support of the politicians on this issue.

Following fears that Syria was compromising the Turkish territory, the Turkish Parliament held a debate on the acceptability of a direct military response to Syria. On October 2012, the Parliament passed a resolution that authorized the government to send troops across the border if necessary (Arango 1).

Turkey has taken steps to protect itself from threats from the Syrian Army. As a member of the major military alliance NATO, Turkey has requested for military assistance from the organization.

In response to this, NATO supplied Turkey with the Patriot Missile Air Defense System in January this year to shield Ankara from its vulnerability to Syrian air attacks (Egin 65). NATO has also provided Turkey with four hundred military personnel to help fortify the Turkey-Syria border and deter any attacks from Syria.

Future Role Turkey’s involvement in Syrian affairs is in part due to the self-interest of the country. An unstable Syria poses a threat to Turkey since the violence might spill over into the country. Damla asserts that a prolonged Syrian civil war will result in regional instability with an influx of Syrian refugees into Turkey and the possibility of a revival of the PKK threat from across the Syrian border (49).

Ankara’s support for the opposition forces is in anticipation of the toppling of the Assad regime. Damla suggests that Turkey wants to establish a strong relationship with a possible new Syrian government and protect future investments in the country under a post-Assad administration (47).

Turkey’s role can be expected to extend into the next few years regardless of the outcome of the Syrian situation. Analysts indicated that Turkey will continue to play a critical role in Syrian affairs for the next many years due to its position as a regional leader (Idrees 88).

Even if the Assad regime is toppled, the Syrian opposition does not show the unity needed to pull the country from the brink and establish the pre-crisis normalcy that Syria enjoyed. Turkey will therefore have to play a critical role in stabilizing the country and ensuring that Syria gets back on its feet.

Conclusion This paper set out to provide an in-depth description of the role that Turkey has played in Syria since the development of the Syrian crisis in 2011. It began by highlighting the reasons why Turkey is playing a pronounced role in Syria. The paper then revealed that Turkey has played a prominent role in dealing with the humanitarian crisis produced by the Syrian conflict.

Turkey has also engaged in domestic diplomatic efforts to try end the conflict by talking with the Assad regime and the Syrian opposition. Turkey has also used its international influence to try to get the international community to act on the Syrian issue. In some instances, Turkey has had to engage in military action in retaliation to Syrian strikes on Turkish territory.

However, the general objective has been to avoid an all out military confrontation between the two countries. From this paper, it is clear that Turkey is a key player in Syrian affairs. The country’s position as a Muslim nation and a regional power has given it significant influence when dealing with the Syrian issue. Turkey’s role has been and will continue to be integral to the eventual resolution of the conflict.

Works Cited Arango, T. On Edge as Syria’s War Knocks Ever Harder on the Door to Turkey. 2012. Web.

Burch, J. Turkey says world must act against Syria after bombings. 2013. Web.

Damla, A. “Turkish-Syrian Relations Go Downhill.” Middle East Quarterly 19.2 (2012): 41-50. Print.

Egin, O. “The game changer Syria, Iran, and Kurdish Independence.” World Affairs, 13.3 (2013): 64-72. Print.

Idrees, M. “Turkey and Iran Rivalry on Syria.” Turkish Journal of International Relations 10.2 (2011): 87-99. Web.

Jodi, H. Is Turkey’s approach to Syrian refugees sustainable? 2013. Web.

Kouskouvelis, I. “The Problem with Turkey’s ‘Zero Problems’.” Middle East Quarterly 20.1 (2013): 47-56. Web.

Krajeski, J. Will Turkey go to War. 2012. Web.

Laqueur, W. “Reality Check: The Hazards of Optimism”. World Affairs 175.6 (2013): 75-83. Web.

Phillips, C. “Turkey’s Syria problem.” Public Policy Research 12.3 (2012): 137-140. Web.

Sly, L. “Turkey blocks Syrian refugees Turkey blocks Syrian refugees.” The Washington Post. 27. Aug. 2012. Web.

Williams, P. and Colleen P. “U. S. Foreign Policy And The Arab Spring: Ten Short-Term Lessons Learned.” Denver Journal of International Law


The Daoist Temple Report a level english language essay help

The characteristic feature of Daoist temples is the location at the mountainous territories which symbolizes the closeness to the heavens. Furthermore, the architecture of Daoist temples reflects the basic sacred concepts of the religion.

However, a lot of people regularly go to Daoist temples and believe in the significant role of worshipping there because they can worship Daoist idols or personal idols sharing the concepts of essence, immortality, energy, and spirit which are basics of their religious and philosophic visions.

Moreover, the elements of decoration in many temples reflect the features which are common for a lot of ordinary people. Coming to Daoist temples worshippers feel the closeness to their idols and they feel a kind of protection, as a result, people are inclined to believe the power of such important temples as the Daoist Temple and Thean Hou Temple.

The Daoist Temple is located in Cebu, Philippines. The temple was built in 1972, and it attracts millions of worshipers along with non-worshipers and tourists every year. The Daoist Temple is built according to Daoist architectural traditions which are based on Daoism religion and philosophy. The temple has 81 steps which are characterized by the sacred meaning for the followers of Daoism.

There are 81 chapters in Daoism scriptures, and climbing the temple’s steps, believers became closer to their gods and goddesses. Furthermore, Daoists believe that climbing these steps they can reach their immortality. Definite services held in the temple are oriented to techniques in which worshippers believe as in their paths to immortality. Inaction and immortality are two important concepts of Daoism.

The architectural style of the Daoist Temple reflects the important elements of the nature, and this feature is significant because Daoism is based on the harmony of nature and people which can be reflected in any objects. That is why, the Daoist Temple is a rather symmetric complex with the attached structures which symbolizes the natural powers.

The Thean Hou Temple The Thean Hou Temple is located in Kuala Lumpur. This temple is rather unique in its architectural style and religious meaning because it presents the unity of traditions of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism. Worshippers prefer to attend the temple because it symbolizes the basic elements of the mentioned religious and philosophic movements.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The followers of Daoism believe the Thean Hou Temple because it is built to reflect the main Daoist principles. Those persons who follow Daoism pay much attention to the concepts of order and equability. These concepts are reflected in the structure of the temple.

The building of the Thean Hou Temple is the unique highly-organized complex all the components of which are constructed to follow the definite religious meaning. The structure of the temple allows people worshiping their idols and gods separately.

Millions of worshipers go to the temple to celebrate their Goddess Tian Hou, Goddess Kuan Yin and Goddess of the Waterfront. These procedures are important for the spiritual growth of Daoism followers.

Furthermore, the decorations of the temple in the form of statues and wall paintings can be discussed as familiar for the majority of Daoism followers. Similar statues and paintings can be also observed in houses of worshippers.

Thus, Daoism is close people, and this principle is reflected in the temples. In addition, such temples as the Thean Hou Temple are discussed by believers as the place which contributes to the interaction of immortal idols and gods with ordinary people. The Thean Hou Temple is also the place when believers can become more virtuous because of their closeness to gods.


Decision Making college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Uniqueness of Public Sector

Importance of Decision-making for Public Service Managers

Importance of Motivation for Public Service Managers



Introduction Decision-making and motivation may arguably be the most important concepts in management. However, it is very easy for managers to get it wrong if they do not see the broader picture of decision-making and motivation. Garvin


KTG Strategic Leadership Case Study argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Background challenge at KTG

Leadership concepts and theories




Team dynamics and leadership


Introduction Strategic leadership in organizations is one of the most profound models needed to accelerate positive organizational change and growth. Strategic leadership is also capable of moderating operations within an organization by boosting the morale of employees through motivation and a conducive working environment. As such, organizational behavior may not be ignored at all when exploring the aspect of strategic leadership.

It is a terminology used to describe the management of manpower within an organization and how it can also be used to facilitate the regular process of production according to the set goals and objectives.

It is also vital to note that strategic leadership entails the application of specific stream of knowledge by the appointed leadership structure and employees with the aim of generating a holistic perspective towards positive growth (Griffin


Kennedy and the Bay of Pigs Case Study writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Overview of the Case

Reasons for President Kennedy’s Failure

Lessons from this Failure



Introduction The US Administration is constantly faced with scenarios that require risky decisions to be made. Sometimes this risk taking results in positive outcomes while the results are horrible at other times. One of the cases where the risk taking led to negative results was in the case of the Bay of Pigs invasion under President J.F. Kennedy.

While the US envisioned a major success in this operation, the reality was different as the Cuban forces overwhelmed the US trained rebels. This defeat was followed by a worldwide condemnation of the Kennedy Administration for its role in the invasion.

The attack also led to a cementing of Fidel Castro’s leadership in the country and a greater deterioration in the relationship between Cuba and the US thereby making the Bay of Pigs invasion a colossal failure. This paper will set out to analyze the underlying reasons behind the failure of President Kennedy in his decision to invade Cuba and attempt to highlight some lessons that can be learnt from this failure.

Overview of the Case The Bay of Pigs invasion was an attack against the Cuban government carried out by US backed Cuban rebels. The US created this plan since it wanted to replace the Castro’s communist government with a pro-American government.

The Cuban rebels were trained and armed by the CIA and they were meant to carry out the attack and trigger a revolution that would cause the fall the Castro regime. The invasion was a catastrophic failure as the weak rebel forces were overwhelmed by Cuban troops and many of them were killed or captured.

Reasons for President Kennedy’s Failure A major cause of the failure was the great desire by the Kennedy Administration to conceal its involvement in the invasion. The US government was concerned about keen to ensure that its involvement in the situation in Cuba remained unknown to the rest of the world. The US therefore limited its military support to the rebels who were going to engage in the combat operations.

Bates and Joshua (1998) document that even before the invasion was carried out; President Kennedy’s advisers had informed him that the Cuban exiles were doomed to fail if they did not receive military assistance from the US.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The invasion failed since the US made a major assumption concerning the reaction of the Fidel administration and the general republic to the US backed invasion. Bates and Joshua (1998) reveal that to the planners of the invasion, the ultimate success of the attack would depend on a sizeable popular uprising to support the initial rebel force.

Top intelligence officials predicted that the invasion would be followed by massive counter-revolutionary violence that would oust Castro from his post as leader of Cuba. This assumption ignored the fact that the Cuban dictator, Fidel Castro enjoyed massive popular support.

President Kennedy ignored the analyst reports that highlighted the weaknesses of the proposed plans. Specifically, reports by the JCS giving an unfavorable evaluation of the project were muted and the optimistic reports by the CIA were followed. The Kennedy Administration was confident of the success of its plan since the CIA group responsible for planning the invasion had previously succeeded in the Guatemalan coup of 1954.

The administration intended to use the same strategy that had led to success at Guatemala. Straw and Ross (1989) elaborate that governments are willing to commit to a course of action if the same commitment has led to success in the past. The Kennedy Administration failed to consider that the conditions in Cuba were significantly different from those of Guatemala.

There were conflicts among the various departments planning the Cuban invasion. The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) had an anti-Castro plan that was made independent of the CIA project. While the JCS felt that US backing would be necessary for unseating Castro, the CIA chief was optimistic that a covert invasion would work.

Research indicates that workgroups with differing professional backgrounds will often disagree about task process and content (Jehn, Northcraft


The Concept of the Current and Future Challenges of IT Governance Evaluation Essay college essay help: college essay help

Table of Contents Concept of IT Governance

Relevance of IT governance in the current society

Current challenges of IT governance

Possible future challenges of IT governance


List of References

Concept of IT Governance The world is increasingly getting globalized as technological inventions continue to get advanced in the society. According to Jargon (2011, p. 47), the world has been reduced into a small global village. Thanks to the advanced technologies. This scholar says that the current society highly depends on technology. Technology has been embraced in various sectors of the economy. It has helped standardize processes within firms.

It has also been very important in the management of firms. The management of firms in the current competitive market requires employment of technology. This is because there is need to ensure that in every strategy taken, the management can have a clear knowledge of all the possible results, determine if there will be any possible challenge during the implementation, and how these challenges can be countered.

This can only be possible when the scientific approach to management is introduced. This approach involves applying technology at all the managerial levels of the firm.

IT governance has gained popularity in the twenty first century. As the world gets increasingly globalized, managements have come to realize that they have to globalize their operations. The world markets have been opened up for international trade. Coca Cola, a large American beverage company, has a global coverage. Similarly, Japanese Toyota Motors has global market coverage.

According to Brooke, Lucinda and Yan (2011, p. 350), firms have come to realize that the only way to beat local competition is to go global. This scholar emphasizes the fact that most of the world markets in various industries have global players.

When a firm fails to go global, its local markets would be eaten up by other foreign firms which will enter the local market. The best strategy is always to go global and fight competition from the global perspective.

According to Leighton (2008, p. 110), globalization of various firms has made it necessary to embrace IT governance. A firm such as the Coca Cola Company has its headquarters in the United States of America. However, the firm operates in over 150 countries in the seven continents of the world. The top management cannot possibly run this firm through physical presence in all the branches of this firm.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The management duty in various countries must be delegated to mid management employees working in these regions. These employees must work directly under the instruction of the top management. The vision and mission of the firm, the values and all strategic objectives must trickle down to the employees in all the regions around the world.

Employees must feel the presence of the chief executive in their respective offices irrespective of their location around the globe. This is where technology has always been brought in to help manage such business. IT governance has been relevant in managing large organizations which have a global perspective. Such technologies as video conferencing have become very popular in managing branches that are overseas.

Social media has also offered management strategies through which management of their firms can be improved. As Andreas (2012, p. 37) says, the management can upload a particular video showing how a given activity should be carried out. This video would then be shared in various branches of the firm as a demonstration to the employees on how they are expected to carry out their duties.

IT governance has faced a number of challenges despite the above mentioned advantages. According to Boyd and Ellison (2008, p. 210), the world embraced IT governance without the realization that it also comes with some responsibilities and challenges.

This scholar says that some firms have failed due to overreliance and implementation of inappropriate strategies. Understanding these challenges can help a firm know how to approach IT in its governance strategies. This research focuses on the current and future challenges of IT governance.

Relevance of IT governance in the current society The business world has got increasing competition. Firms are struggling to keep pace with the competition that is constantly increasing in the market. According to Bennett and Strange (2011, p. 57), firms are under pressure to improve their performance in their respective markets. Customers are currently willing to pay less because they have various alternatives in the market.

Suppliers are demanding more because they have gained monopoly in the market. Business units find themselves in the middle of these two pressures. It has to survive. It has to meet the demands of both ends. This requires a high degree of efficiency. Managements must find ways of reducing their expenditures as they struggle to increase their profitability.

We will write a custom Essay on The Concept of the Current and Future Challenges of IT Governance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The three pressures from the customers, suppliers and competitors are always so massive that when a firm fails to act promptly, it may be edged out of the market. Getting into the market with appropriate technologies is the right approach to take in managing these challenges.

Use of IT in governance has proven to be very resourceful in managing the current competition. Firms are currently trying to reduce such expenses as travel costs of the top managements. This means that an alternative has to be found to enable top management monitor all the units of the firm operating in different regions around the world. The solution has been IT governance.

Managements have also been keen to have a slimmer and more efficient workforce within their facilities. The solution to this has also been IT management. IT management is coming out as a solution to many of the emerging needs of various firms around the world.

The relevance of IT governance in the current business world has been obviously witnessed in many of the international firms around the world. Given the current trends in the market, it is clear that IT governance is here to stay. This is because even smaller business units are finding it appropriate in the management of their small business units.

Current challenges of IT governance According to Coveney and Highfield (1995, p. 119), IT governance came as a magical solution to most of the problems that large multinational firms had in managing their overseas branches. It was difficult following all the activities taking place in overseas branches without having to move to those branches quite often.

This was not only time consuming, but also a detractive move as the management would be forced to suspend other important managerial duties at the head office while travelling overseas.

The need to eliminate this challenge was great, and when IT governance offered a solution, many firms embraced this solution without having the idea that this technology would be coming along with some challenges. The following are some of the challenges of IT governance in the current society.

As Coombs (2007, p. 2) observes, one of the leading challenges of IT governance is absence of properly documented strategies. In most of the current organizations that use IT government, the strategy of coming up with new approaches to managing various issues in the market has changed.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Concept of the Current and Future Challenges of IT Governance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Documentation is constantly growing unpopular as managements and employees embrace the casual nature of approaching the changing trends in the market. This casual trend in important in managing dynamism and ensuring that the firm remains flexible to changes. However, it is very challenging for the management to trace a strategy that was used to bring a particular success or that which brought failure within the firm.

This is because there is no documentation that can help trace this history. Managements are, therefore, forced to have a rough memory of these strategies so that those that have brought success can be maintained, and those that brought failure can be eliminated. It reaches a time where the memory cannot hold any longer.

In such incidents, the management may realize that it ends up repeating some of the mistakes it did in the past. Because they were not documented, a repeat mistake can be very common.

Communication within the firm has greatly been improved with the introduction of e-governance. However, Barthe (2010, p. 93) says that technology has also affected communication to a great deal.

This scholar says that in as much as technology has created an environment where the management can communicate with employees irrespective of their location, it has brought with it opportunity to manipulate various issues within the firm.

An officer who is interested in taking a different approach from that favored by the management can easily sabotage the communication network and implement his or her strategy without getting information from the top management only to blame the same technology later. This can be very dangerous to the management, especially when the implemented strategy goes in contrary to the set overall objectives of the firm.

IT governance also eliminates the physical presence of the two individuals who are communicating. Physical presence is always important in communication as it helps develop a cord and trust between the two communicating parties.

Daft (2009, p. 47) says that deriving of tactical plans has been a real challenge in an environment where management heavily relies on IT governance. According to this scholar, tactical plans are always developed out of the daily activities of the firm.

When the management has a direct contact with employees and all the activities taking place within the firm is properly documented, coming up with a strategy of how to manage market competition through tactical plans is easier. An employee would easily give a suggestion to the management.

Because of the physical presence of the manager, he or she is able to discuss the issue, assess its relevance given the prevailing circumstance, and determine how it can be implemented within the firm.

In IT governance, this possibility is eliminated. Managers are not physically present at operational levels of the firm. Developing tactical plans that can help define the daily running of the firm cannot be properly defined. This is worsened by the absence of documentation within the firm.

Costs of installing and maintaining IT system within the organization may be prohibitive. As shown in the discussion above, the need to embrace IT governance is unquestionable, especially given the emerging trends in the market. However, the cost of developing and maintaining some of the IT system can be very high.

According to Amrosini, Johnson and Scholes (1998, p. 59), most firms can easily afford the costs of installing and maintaining the system within the firm. However, the system can malfunction or can be sabotaged. A firm that heavily relies on IT governance can incur huge costs in case its IT system is sabotaged. The cost resulting from such sabotages and malfunctioning of the system may result in loses that may take years to recover.

This will have a massive impact on the firm. As Coulter (2009, p. 94) says, the impact can be huge that a firm may face serious litigation cases for non delivery of their products to the clients. The long legal battles will not only have further financial damage to the firm, but will also damage the image of the firm in the market. This consequence may be too devastating that a firm may be forced out of the market.

Data security within the plant has been another challenge that firms are facing in implementing IT governance in their management strategies. The Wikileaks may be popular among various quarters for its ability to hijack into one of the most secure systems, the US Intelligence System.

However, this only demonstrates how insecure the internet can be. If the US Intelligence System was hijacked and important confidential information released to the public, then no firm can claim to be safe when using IT governance. According to Cavusgil, Knight and Riesenberger (2012, p. 29), for a firm to operate successfully in the market, it should have competitive advantage over other firms in the market.

This means that it must have unique management strategies that its competitors do not have. Firms are always struggling to get the strategy that is making their competitors strong in the market, while ensuring that their strategy remains a secret.

When a firm’s secret can easily be available to the competitors, then it may not be very successful. The best approach that a firm should take is to ensure that the strategies are communicated in a manner that cannot be detected by competitors. This may involve avoidance using IT governance at some stages.

Possible future challenges of IT governance The future is very bright with the use of IT governance in various firms in the society. According to Andzulis, Panagopoulos, and Rapp (2012, p. 310), implementing IT within the firm can help it manage various issues within a very short time. It helps in eliminating the need for constant travels that is always common within organization.

However, given the current challenges that firms face in the implementation of IT governance, it may be a fact that the future of IT governance may still be clouded with some challenges. The following are some of the possible challenges that firms may face in implementing IT governance in future.

Loss of important data, or what Anderson (2011, p. 48) describes as data theft might increase with increased reliance of IT governance within firms. Competition in the current market has gotten so stiff that other firms would wish downfall of their competitors. Others do not always stop a wishful thinking. They make efforts to try and sabotage operations of their competitors in order to bring them down.

This can be very dangerous given that most firms shall be relying on e-governance to improve their operations. A competing firm would be in a position to trace important data within the data base of a firm and manipulate this data, or even steal it. This may result in serious consequences to the firm.

When important data about a firm in regard to issues such as the customers and suppliers accounts, management policies and strategic moves, transactional activities within a particular period, cannot be traced, it may be disastrous to the firm. Such cases might be common in future with the increase in the reliance of IT governance.

Having a virtual management within a given facility can be very challenging. Given the current trends in the field of technology, it is easy to predict that virtualization of the management shall be a common phenomenon. Firms will try to make their work force slimmer, and this might involve eliminating senior managerial position in their branches.

In their position will be video conferencing strategy that will help reach out for the mid managements and lower cadre employees within the firms. This strategy may seem very appropriate given the current advances that have been made in the field of information and communication technology. However, this strategy eliminates leadership in management.

It eliminates the motivation that a manager would have on employees if he or she would be physically present. It only creates the feeling among the employees, that they are some kind of robotic machines expected to operate by a simple click on the button. This is a discouraging process to the employees that will largely reduce the productivity.

Human being is an interactive creature, and with the current advances made in the field of communication, the need to interact is even becoming greater. Employees need to have a direct physical contact with the top management quite often. This will motivate them and make them feel that they are appreciated.

Conclusion IT governance is increasingly becoming relevant in the current society. From the discussion above, it is clear that firms are currently considering applying IT governance in their overseas branches.

Even smaller regional firms are finding this strategy very convenient in reducing time and improving efficiency in their operations. However, this strategy comes with a number of challenges. These challenges affect the normal operations of the firm in various ways.

Currently, firms using IT governance have faced a number of challenges when using this strategy. One of the biggest challenges that these firms face is the possibility of a criminal hacking into the management system. Given that the strategy demands that everything is automated within the system, cyber criminals can crack into the system and steal important information that is confidential to the firm.

When such documents are sold to competing firms, the firm may suffer from lack of a competitive advantage in the market. In some cases, such data would not only be stolen, but also be destroyed by hired gangs. When this happens, a firm can be brought to its knees.

In future, there is a possibility of increased challenges in using this strategy. Cyber crime attacks might continue given the current trend. Lack of physical presence may also be a further challenge in future.

List of References Amrosini, V., Johnson, G


Abu Dhabi Ports Company: Project Management Report essay help online free

Introduction The Abu Dhabi Ports Company was started in 2006 through an Emiri Decree, to be a master developer of both ports and industrial sectors in the region of Abu Dhabi.

This company was started as a section of the reconstruction of the profit-making ports segment in the Emirates and was awarded the management and regulatory enactment authority over every commercial ports asset earlier possessed by the Abu Dhabi Seaports Authority (ADSA). The key accomplishments of Abu Dhabi Ports Company were the achievement of Khalifa Port and the advancement of Kizad.

By way of organisation and exploring novel options of industrial sectors, ADPC remains one of the key players that support the growth of economy in the country. This report seeks to address the projects covered by Abu Dhabi Ports Company, the manner in which they approve and manage projects, and the challenges that the company is facing.

Organisation Profile Irrespective of the organisation there requires having a chain of authority with definite functions defined for all who join or operate with the organisation. For Khalifa Port, the recommended structure consists of Possessions, Infrastructure, and managing of Facilities set for one department or manager.

This structure could most probably fall in the arms of the Ports Operations Department, where technological services would operate as the managing agent for constructions, which would call for the support of Marine Services, among others.

Figure 1: Organisation Profile

Divisions Structure Technical services

The formation of Technical Services Department for the staged and completely functional Port, considering the service requirements of Abu Dhabi Ports Company, will be an important concern because of the character of the advancement, its working structure, the magnitude, and intricacy of the advancement in addition to the number of policymakers, services entailed and human capital required.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Likewise and unavoidably, there will be unique challenges associated with the building up of the technological and infrastructure management operations that will demand careful and controlled planning and execution.

Figure 1: Technical services division

Rules of the division Technical services division

From the range of services, there will be two major sections left for Technical services. One of these sections is the constructions that could encompass civil structures, which handle electricity and water system. The other section is Operating Security and Management Systems (OSMS) employed in the operations at the Port.

An arrangement segment could be necessary in the management of the planned operations, incoming upkeep, and repair demands that would originate from the Port, forming three service players in the Technical Services group. The leader of the team is the Technical Services manager. The Technical Services Manager has the following three engineering managers that report to him:

Electro-Mechanical Engineer (ME)

Infrastructure Engineer (IE)

Planning Engineer (PE)

The Planning Engineer will be accountable for external work requests, assigning duties to the suitable sections and contractors, and contriving on programmed and un-programmed operations in the Asset Management System (AMS). The Planning Engineer could as well be accountable for maintaining asset information and ensuring nouveau records are accessible for both for internal application as well as for future projects.

The Planning Group will manage the Building Management System (BMS) and examine maintenance actions. The Infrastructure Engineer will be answerable for the management of the construction and infrastructure upkeep section.

The duty of the Infrastructure Engineer will be to make sure that the programmed and the un-programmed upkeeps are carried out in a timely way and within financial requirements. In this way, the Infrastructure Engineer will be accountable for gathering management reports.

We will write a custom Report on Abu Dhabi Ports Company: Project Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The construction maintenance contractors shall carry out the daily functions and management of the upkeep. This agreement will have the responsibility of assigning of materials and some labour to programmed and un-programmed operations.

Noteworthy accountability of the function of Infrastructure Engineer will be to carry out a visual assessment of the constructions and support foundations that shall be effected according to Service Level Agreements and Key Performance indicators under the contract. The Building Services Contract group could be made up of carpenters, masons and labourers, to mention a few.

The critical tasks of this group will be to carry out most of the programmed and un-programmed upkeep of the construction material for the constructions at the Port, including both their inside and outside surfaces.

As aforementioned, operations will be assigned to the team through the Planning Engineer and contract manager that will together with the Infrastructure Engineer, scrutinise the operations being carried out and then sign the worksheet upon reasonable conclusion.

Project portfolio management Flow chart

The management policy for technical services rests in the organisation as a facilitator of Construction services and infrastructure. Hence, the structure of Technical Services is found in a team of facilitating departments that operate to ensure that the Port remains functional.

Figure 2: Flow chart

The science of planning, arranging, prompting, and administering resources to attain particular objectives underscores the aspects of project management.

A project denotes a temporary attempt having a delineated commencement and closing stages (typically time-limited, and frequently restricted by finances or deliverables), carried out to satisfy unique goals and intentions characteristically to yield valuable modification or added value.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Abu Dhabi Ports Company: Project Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The modern character of projects rests contrary to routine businesses (or functions), which are recurring, lasting, or short-term operational activities to give rise to goods and services. In fact, the management of such different systems is habitually entirely dissimilar, which necessitates the advancement of divergent technological skills and management approaches.

The major limitation of project management is to acquire the entire project’s aims and intentions while revering the predetermined boundaries. The primary barriers are scale, time, excellence, and financial plan. Another minor, and more determined, limitation is to maximise the distribution of essential inputs and incorporate them to arrive at predetermined goals.

There exist different advances in managing project operations with the inclusion of slant, reiterative incremental, and staged advances. Irrespective of the technique used, careful deliberation has to be accorded to the entire project goals, timeline, and outlay, in addition to the functions and accountabilities of every contributor and policymaker.

Project Portfolio Management (PPM) denotes the unified management of practices, techniques, and expertise employed by project managers as well as Project Management Officials (PMOs) to assess and collectively handle a group of existing or intended projects anchored in several chief attributes.

The goals of Project Portfolio Managers in ADPC are to decide the utmost resource combination for delivery and to plan undertakings to attain the functional and financial objectives of a company excellently while considering limitations posed by consumers, strategic goals, or exterior real-world aspects.

Project Portfolio Management is applicable for companies with numerous ventures and resources that necessitate a formalised structure for following, assigning, and managing them efficiently. When applied, these capacities can be used to suit two different audience sub-sections that are listed below.

Implementation-focused Project Portfolio Management users: these manage the strategic particulars of project implementation, with the coverage devices to communicate advancement and outlays back to sponsors of the operations and to the senior management.

Project portfolio-stage users: they make project-associated determining structures, choosing particular projects anchored in those structures, setting the success of those projects or ventures, pursuing those ventures at a high rank, and accounting on those activities.

Process in the project management

Abu Dhabi Ports Company manages the entire profit-making, logistics, society, and leisure ports in Abu Dhabi as well as functions like tourism, land reclamation, building roads, and sewage treatment plants, generation of electric power, building marine units and leisure activities. Abu Dhabi Ports Company has the accountability of productive tasks across commercial harbours in Abu Dhabi.

Having the most significant proportion of trade taking place by the sea, these outstanding harbours act as significant contributors in the economic achievement of Abu Dhabi to advance variegation, in favour of Economic Vision 2030.

With its roles of developing and managing these harbours, Abu Dhabi Ports Company constantly plays major roles in recognition, evaluation and execution of expertise, equipment, networks and strategies that will make sure that each factor of its harbour’s tasks and services is quick, effective and cost-efficient.

Management approach

The aim of Abu Dhabi Ports Company is to manage the harbour infrastructure, its constructions, and every one of its amenities and customers with the least difficult for utmost advantage in accordance with its shared goals and vision.

There are numerous alternatives and methods, both at the strategic and operational stage, for Abu Dhabi Ports Company to offer the necessary management services for Khalifa Port. The strategic goals of the company encompass the following:

Adhere to the legislative and governing strategy

Offer a productive and effective facility management services to satisfy the requirements of clients

Offer synergetic savings across every service procession

Line up service ranks with market

Manage modifications with the least influence on the customer

ADPC project profile Khalifa Port

This port contains an initial stage capacity of 2.5 million Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit containers and more than 10 million tones of general cargo every year and an anticipated aptitude of over 14 million Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit containers and over 30 million tones of general cargo every year by 2030.

This aspect demonstrates just semi-mechanised container workstation of the area, a number of the biggest automated ship-to-seashore cranes internationally. Also, Khalifa Port boasts of other container management tools that allow the Port to provide clients reduced working costs and quicker rotational instances for consigning and unpacking container ships, encompassing some of the biggest internationally.

The avant-garde software of the harbour and wireless expertise guarantees quick processing and incorporated transportation of containers through the port, which as well boasts of flawless connections to the Abu Dhabi and interior marketplaces through speedy infrastructure and future railway links.

Abu Dhabi Ports Company is ensuring improvements across its collection of harbours. These harbours comprise of Mina Zayed and Musaffah Port that promote local industry, tourism, fishing, and activities for leisure time.

Dredging and reclamation

The Khalifa project finished Dredging and Reclamation contract more than a year ahead of plan. This contract had been issued in late 2007 to the Khalifa Port Marine Consortium (KPMC). The KPMC comprised of Archirodon, Boskalis Westminster as well as Hyundai.

The best part of this task encompassed dredging and reclaiming more than 40 million M3 of material, constructing more than three kilometres of dock wall (22 metres high) and offering more than 300,000 M2 of rock or concrete shield revetment.

Moreover, the task involved construction of the Environmental Protection Breakwater having its more than two million M3 of rock and revetment, and offering the almost 2 kilometres long bridge linking the Emirates Aluminum (EMAL) facility their devoted berth. This endeavour created the greatest bridge in the United Arab Emirates.

Utilities and infrastructure

There are different contracts of the Khalifa project that are aimed at providing electric power. For instance, contract 207 is to offer the medium voltage (MV) electric power through 34-Kilovolt electric cable system and three 33/11 Kilovolt primary circulation substations. This will supply electric power to the whole of phase 1 of the project and power is distributed from Taweelah Power Station, neighbouring the megaproject.

The agreement on infrastructure encompasses project management, planning, procurement, building, checking and assigning of the entire civil works related to the construction of the offshore terminal section.

The Offshore Terminal Area contains a 1000 metres partly computerized container workstation as well as a 400 metres normal cargo terminal and a reserved section to cater for future development with the provided utilities encompassing sewerage, electric power, telecommunication and drainage.

Buildings, Equipment and Roads

The range of work by Habtoor Leighton Group consists of the building of the on-shore port equipments and encompasses the building of more than 50 permanent houses, the biggest being the Container Freight Station that is more than 200 metres in length. Additionally, there were infrastructural works that encompassed a range of roads and soft landscaping, to mention a few.

Highlights encompass building of more than 20 houses and allied structures. This included the harbour master building and the Terminal Operations Building, a building that has six stories and that is anticipated to turn out to be the centre of the functions of the Port.

More buildings comprise of 11-Kilovolt substations, dock wall, and a more than 5 kilometres double carriageway connecting the marine harbour to the mainland with allied roads and street lighting.

Special system

Under control, the unique systems include fire alarms, Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA).

In the telecommunication sector, the unique systems include Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS), controlled cabling and Telephony, just to mention a few. Lastly, in the security sector, there exists perimeter invasion detection, closed-circuit television (CCTV), defence screening, gate safekeeping and controlled right of entry.

Kizad (Khalifa Industrial Zone Abu Dhabi)

The variegation of the financial system in addition to different other sectors form the backbone of a majority of economic milestones including the famed Economic Vision 2030 of Abu Dhabi. Kizad started with Kizad section A that had around 50 km2. By 2030, section A and B of Kizad will constitute part of the biggest industrial regions across the globe at approximately 420 square kilometres.

Kizad promotes the economic dream by providing logistics and intense capital- and energy- extensive industrialised companies a business setting that gives birth to several financial benefits. The mainstay shareholder of Kizad, viz.

Emirates Aluminium (EMAL), is intending to upgrade its status to rank among the leading companies across the world and it pioneered in 2009. Fresh logistics and intense industrialised manufacturing shareholders are anticipated to start functions from Kizad in this year.

The strategic position of Kizad connecting east and west, and its first-rate, intermodal groundwork connecting air, roads, sea, and railway offers shareholders effortless and effective contact to over 5 billion customers in four-time regions.

Vertically incorporated groups form the critical aspect of logistical competence. Also, affordable rental charges coupled with duty-free environment and some low service costs across the globe ensure that companies enjoy unique competitive benefits.

Shahama Port

The pronouncement of another project in Abu Dhabi was announced on the sidelines of the continuing international Port and business summit in the capital of the United Arab Emirates. In the pronouncement, done by Waleed (VP of project advance at ADPC), it was clear that ADPC could be working on the project at Shahama Port at the cost of around AED 35 million, situated more than 4 kilometres from the highway to Dubai.

The Shahama Port is aimed at supporting vision 2030 of Abu Dhabi. It would be developed into a trade and tourism centre. Shahama Port will house recreational facilities for both the society and undertakings at the harbour. The initial stage of Shahama Port is in progress and is anticipated to begin operations in 2014.

The initial stage of the project is expected to provide both wet and dry berths, a massive slipway for boats, refuelling stations and shops, just to mention a few. In the meantime, Abu Dhabi Ports Company declared the commencement of an auxiliary company, Abu Dhabi Ports Company Marine services.

The purpose of the auxiliary company was to offer shipping into UAE. The auxiliary company will have over 150 employees, devoted to fields like those of pilots and many others.

ERP Project

The main objective of the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is to sustain ADPC’s heart operation processes and to facilitate dependable business management. The everyday business undertakings that strengthen knowledge anchored management judgements and a strong document administration network incorporated in the Enterprise Resource Planning and encompasses the following.


The Human Resource Management (HRM) offers Abu Dhabi Ports Company with personnel endowed with proficiencies required to undertake in the operations of the programmes and projects effectively. Apart from recruitment, the other tasks of the Human Resource (HR) department are to pay salaries to the staff and carry out other staff management roles like issuing leave and certificates.


The Procurement Management ensures that procurement endeavours go in line with the certified policy by the company. Other functions of the Procurement Management encompass assessing tender and requesting contracts.


Abu Dhabi Ports Company mainly deals with developing and managing ports and industrial sectors in Abu Dhabi. The company runs over ten profit-making, supplying, and societal ventures among others encompassing its chief modernised Khalifa Port.

The company is as well upgrading Kizad that is situated alongside Khalifa Port. Kizad operates different logistics and industrialised shareholders and seeks to build up to become the chief industrial sector internationally. By 2030, Kizad and Khalifa Port are anticipated to raise more than 14 per cent of the non-oil Gross Domestic Product of Abu Dhabi.

The initial-stage advancement of this project reveals an outlay of 7.2 billion dollars and it has been portrayed as the most significant project n the financial system of Abu Dhabi. The operations of the finance department include preparing budgets, invoices and salaries in addition to asset management.

Asset Management


Customer Service Training Term Paper essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Use of a needs assessment in the training

Customer service training implementation plan

Training method

Employee motivation

A survey to collect feedback from employees



Introduction Customers are the most important aspect of any business, firm, or organization. Employees deal with customers on a daily basis. Therefore, it is necessary for them to know how to deal with customers appropriately. Many organizations create customer loyalty by offering quality customer service (Bonomo, 2002). Quality service increases organizational value and develops customer loyalty that increases revenue.

Customer service training refers to a process of teaching employees how to increase customer satisfaction by imparting necessary knowledge and skills (Bonomo, 2002). New employees are the main target of many organizations for customer service training. The content of a typical training course includes communication styles, listening, giving feedback, appropriate use of language, and handling different types of customers (Bonomo, 2002).

Training for employees is recommended because it improves customer loyalty, improves an organization’s efficiency, motivates employees and makes them feel valued, and improves organizational value (Bonomo, 2002).

Use of a needs assessment in the training The main objective of a needs assessment in an organization’s training program is to identify performance weaknesses and necessary knowledge and skills needed to eradicate the weaknesses (Barbazette, 2006). It identifies the gap between current levels of performance and desired levels of performance.

A needs assessment directs organizational resources to areas that have weaknesses and others that need improvement. A needs assessment should address existing weaknesses and identify resources necessary to eradicate the weakness in order to improve service delivery (Barbazette, 2006).

A needs assessment exposes performance deficiencies in several ways. First, it identifies capabilities of each employee and their ability to handle different or new tasks and responsibilities (Barbazette, 2006). Individual assessments determine which employees need training, and in which areas.

The needs assessment helps an organization evaluate the skills and knowledge of individual employees in order to determine how to improve their performance and productivity (Barbazette, 2006). Secondly, it helps determine level of organizational performance (Barbazette, 2006). Such assessment determines the skills and knowledge needed by an agency to achieve desired outcomes.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Needs assessment helps solve the agency’s weaknesses and enhance its strengths. Such an assessment puts into consideration factors external to the organization such as state of economy and market forces. Thirdly, needs assessment helps expose performance deficiencies by conducting task analysis (Barbazette, 2006).

Task analysis involves evaluating knowledge and skills needed by occupational groups to achieve organizational goals. For example, it helps find out if an organization has employees with skills and knowledge required to create customer loyalty through quality customer service. Moreover, it helps identify performance gaps that might have resulted from changes in organizational policies (Barbazette, 2006).

Identification of performance gaps is followed by development of ways to eradicate the gaps. Fourthly, needs assessment helps expose performance deficiencies by evaluating customer needs and level of customer satisfaction (Barbazette, 2006). Customer satisfaction implies that employees possess necessary skills and knowledge to satisfy customers. This is evident from customers’ positive feedback.

However, if customers give negative feedback, then they are not satisfied with the organization’s service delivery. One of the causes of customer dissatisfaction is performance deficiency (Barbazette, 2006). This necessitates development of customer service training for employees to improve quality of customer service.

Customer service training implementation plan Implementation of customer service training will involve four main steps. The first step is identification of customers’ needs. Identification of customer needs and expectations is the most important aspect of implementing the customer service training (Kamin, 2012). This will be achieved by collecting information from customers using questionnaires and interviews.

In addition, customers will be requested to leave reviews of their experiences with employees on the organization’s website. Alternatively, the organization could hire a survey firm to conduct a customer satisfaction survey (Kamin, 2012). If this option is explored, the survey will include information about customer satisfaction and interaction with employees.

The second step will involve evaluation of individual employee’s knowledge and skills. This will be achieved through methods such as observation, questionnaires, interviews, documentation, and use of focus groups (Kamin, 2012). Employees will be observed to evaluate how they interact with customers, and the quality of customer service they provide.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Customer Service Training specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Employees will also participate in interviews in order to give management a chance to evaluate their customer interaction skills. The third step is design and implementation of an appropriate training method (Kamin, 2012). Available methods of training include presentation, case study, simulation, modeling, role-play, on-the-job training, and discussion. In this case, the most appropriate training method is blended training method.

The fourth step is reevaluation of employee service delivery to determine whether the training was useful or not. Employee evaluation will be administered every three to four months. Many organizations evaluate employee performance twice a year.

Evaluation will involve collecting and analyzing responses from employees on effectiveness of training. In addition, it will involve study of how customer service delivery improved due to employee training. Evaluation is necessary because it will help the organization determine employees’ level of compliance with the organization’s protocol on customer service (Kamin, 2012).

Employees are likely to work harder with the awareness that their knowledge and skills are under constant evaluation by management. This is one of the strategies employees use to increase chances of retaining their jobs by increasing their knowledge and honing their skills.

Training method The preferred method of training is blended learning method. This method is based on the fact that employees have different learning abilities and it would be limiting and ineffective to use a single training method. This approach will incorporate several methods into the training program. These methods will include role-playing, group discussions, and use of multimedia materials.

Role-playing is a very effective training method because it involves rehearsing situations that are likely to happen at the workplace between employees and customers (Kamin, 2012). This training method will help employees learn how to virtually handle different situations before they encounter them in reality at the workplace. The method will involve formation of groups comprising two employees each.

One of the employees will pretend to be a customer and the other one will play the role of an employee. They will then rehearse different situations such as how to deal with a pestering or angry customer. Group discussion is another effective training method that will be used. It is an effective method because it facilitates open sharing of information and knowledge (Sims, 2007).

This method is effective in cases where some employees possess more knowledge and skills than others. In such cases, skilled and more knowledgeable employees pass knowledge to other employees and thus improve effectiveness of the training (Kamin, 2012). This method promotes active participation of employees in the training.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Customer Service Training by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, use of discussions encourages exchange of feedback between learners and the trainer (Sims, 2007). The trainer is able to know whether learners are grasping the content of the training. This enables the trainer determine which areas need more attention and which areas need less attention. Some employees are shy or uncomfortable when working in groups.

Therefore, use of multimedia materials is necessary to cater for the learning needs of such employees. Multimedia training materials provide graphics, demonstrations, animations, and sound. Research has shown that this training method is very challenging and therefore more stimulating than other methods (Sims, 2007).

Advantages of this method include ease of customization and use, cost-effectiveness, flexibility, and efficiency (Sims, 2007). Multimedia is an example of a computer-based programme that has several benefits. In addition, it is flexible because learners learn at their own pace.

Different employees have different learning capabilities and needs. Therefore, all employees undergo training without being rushed. Moreover, the instructor can easily determine what each employee has learned at certain periods during the course of training.

This is possible because it is easy to monitor progress of employees. Finally, multimedia materials improve learning and participation (Sims, 2007). Some learners are shy and do not participate in discussions. Multimedia materials that incorporate interactive activities such as answering questions and making critical decisions eliminate fear and shyness.

Employee motivation There are many ways of motivating employees who lack interest in attending training classes. Two common ways include funding the training course and making it a requisite component for promotion and remuneration (Sims, 2007). Many employees fail to attend training programs because many organizations usually expect employees to pay for training.

However, this discourages employees from attending because they consider such training a waste of valuable time and money. Organizations should set aside enough resources for such training. Employees are more willing to undergo training when they know that the organization is responsible for costs incurred.

Secondly, the organization could motivate employees to undergo training by making such training a requisite for promotion or as basis for remuneration increase. Many organizations increase employees’ wages based on skills and knowledge possessed (Sims, 2007).

Customer service training is one source of such skills and knowledge that contribute towards promotions. With knowledge that promotion depends on such training, all employees choose to undergo training in order to increase their chances of promotion.

A survey to collect feedback from employees After implementing a training program, it is important to evaluate the training in order to determine its effectiveness in increasing employee knowledge and improving customer service.

This is achieved by conducting a survey that collects information related to employee training. A survey to collect feedback from employees on the effectiveness of training will contain 10 questions. Employees who participated in the training will be required to answer ten questions based on personal experience.

What was the most important aspect of the training?

How was the training of help to you?

Did the trainer achieve the goals of the training?

How has the training helped you serve customers better?

Has the training changed you in any way?

How could the training be improved for better results?

Did the instructor cover all parts of the training program?

Was the method used for training suitable?

Would you consider attending similar training in future?

How do you think the training benefited you and the organization?

Employees will be required to answer these questions based on personal opinion and experience. The questions are open-ended and give employees opportunity to give honest answers that will help the organization improve training in future.

Conclusion Customer service training is used by many organizations to improve service delivery in order to create customer loyalty and improve organizational value. Such training imparts knowledge on certain aspects of customer relation such as proper use of language, how to deal with different customers, use of body language, and adoption of appropriate communication skills.

Customers are the most important aspect of an organization’s operations. A training program incorporates a needs assessment in its list of activities. The main aim of a training needs assessment in an organization is to identify performance weaknesses and the knowledge and skills needed to eradicate the weaknesses. It helps direct organizational resources to areas that have many weaknesses and thus in need of improvements.

Assessment is conducted at various levels that include organizational level and individual level. Several methods are available for use during training. However, the most effective training method is the blended training method. This approach incorporates several training methods in order to serve the learning needs of all employees. Many employees fail to attend training because of lack of motivation.

Two ways to motivate such employees include funding the training and incorporating the training as part of requirements for promotion and wage increase. Many employees shun training programs because organizations expect them to cover training expenses. However, organizations should take it as their duty to improve the skills and knowledge of their employees.

References Barbazette, J. (2006). Training Needs Assessment: Methods, Tools, and Techniques. New York: John Wiley


Population Density in General Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Population density is a universal concept in determination of population with specific focus on unit area and volume. Population density usually suffices in quantification of living organisms within a specific geographical location (Nielsen, 2011). It is an integral pillar in demographic considerations because it offers clear guidelines with regard to population trends in demographic contexts.

Population density is an important aspect because it guides experts in their endeavour to enhance planning and other undertakings that manifest in social contexts. It helps in monitoring and evaluation of population and social trends within society. Through studies on population, experts deduce information and data that helps in formulation of relevant policies and development strategies (Nielsen, 2011).

Population density is a relative concept that varies depending on various contextual parameters. Its manifestation and implication depends on various factors that determine its dichotomy and interpretation. Various social, cultural, and economic factors affect population density. For instance, population density manifests in variant proportions depending on prevailing contextual circumstances (Nielsen, 2011).

Population density in affluent neighbourhoods may not qualify as population density in poor neighbourhoods. People live in poor areas because of social and economic factors. This creates a situation of overcrowding and high population density.

Similarly, areas with high levels of civility experience low population density because of various social and economic dynamics. This reality manifests through various cultural undertakings that determine its occurrence and development in social contexts (Nielsen, 2011).

In future, America will experience an upsurge in population density and other dynamic areas that relate to population growth. Population growth will manifest in various cultural and social aspects that determine existence and propagation of population trends. Population trends in America shall embody various contextual parameters that affect population density.

American population consists of diverse cultural, social, and economic considerations that create a dynamic social entity. Future trends regarding population growth in America shall depend on various factors that may influence its ability to sustain growth and propagation of population (Rae, 2012).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Environments with dense populations present various challenges for people who live within them. In such environments, there is need for order and civility amongst its inhabitants. Such environments are challenging because of difficulties that emanate from people as they relate within such contexts (Rae, 2012). For instance, it is difficult for people to agree on various pertinent issues that affect their welfare within a group setting.

People tend to disagree over matters that require a high level of consensus and consultations. Such situations necessitate rules and regulations to guide people in their undertakings within such environments. Such rules govern and curb overcrowding in such environments (Rae, 2012).

However, such rules do not necessarily meet communal and societal objectives. It is difficult to control people in such environments because of diversity in views and opinions. It is important for people to uphold dignity and civility in dealing with other people within crowded environments (Rae, 2012). Wealthy people deal with congestion by instituting rules and regulations that deter admission of people into their areas of residence.

These rules ensure that people of lower economic dichotomies do not infiltrate their communities. Population density continues to elicit interest among interest groups and scholars. Population density is an important aspect because it guides experts in their endeavour to enhance planning and other undertakings that manifest in social contexts.

It helps in monitoring and evaluation of population and social trends within society (Rae, 2012). Through studies on population, experts deduce information and data that helps in formulation of relevant policies and development strategies.

References Nielsen, N. (2011). The Dynamics of Population. London: Spear Books Ltd.

Rae, T. (2012). Population Trends in Contemporary Society. London: Folens Limited.

We will write a custom Essay on Population Density in General specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More


Ethics in Group Counseling Analytical Essay college essay help

Abstract Ethical issues are at the heart of the counseling process and practice. This paper discusses the issue of ethics with close consideration of professional practice of counseling and therapy. The paper narrows down to the complexity of ethical issues that counselors face in group settings in comparison to individual therapy.

It further discusses the issue of leadership and leadership challenges in group therapy. The paper concludes by shedding light on the reason behind preference of group counseling to individual counseling by counselors.

Ethical issues in Counseling Ethics can be defined in various ways depending on one’s profession and context. It refers to the code of conduct that is supposed to be followed by a person or a group of persons especially in regards to their duties. Ethics demands the observance of high levels of moral values.

According to Hill (2004, p. 131), in counseling, the issue of legal principles is considered depending on the impacts of the counseling case being handled. In addition, Pan et al. (2012, p. 349) add that the cultural norms of the society from which the victim comes are also considered in the process.

Freeman et al. (2004, p. 163) also reveal that the codes of conduct in counseling are closely intertwined with the values that counselors have to follow. Ethics guides the counselor and the client on the ‘do’s and don’ts’ that they have to abide by throughout the counseling process.

It enhances the efficiency and effectiveness of therapy sessions. In addition, the ethical code of conduct in counseling enables the counselor to gain trust from the client. However, counselors differ in their levels of commitment to the ethical conduct and moral values. In fact, Freeman et al. (2004, p. 163) argue that some counselors underrate the actual intensity of the moral values in counseling.

It is not enough to abide by the set standards in the counseling process. However, the beliefs and relationships that one has gained in life should enable him or her to make a sound interpretation of the case. It is therefore important for the counselor to strike a balance in all the cases that he or she handles.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Crespi (2009, p. 273), it is important for the counselor and learners to learn the legal principles that guide the process of counseling by governing the standards to be observed by the counselor and the client. Moreover, Hill (2004, p. 131) affirms that legal principles also set up the punishments to be followed by the offenders in a counseling case.

They also stipulate the consequences of violating the counseling conduct by either the client or the therapist. Legal doctrines therefore ensure that no one violates, abuses, or neglects the counseling ethics. In addition, the ideologies control and regulate the licensing process. Licenses ensure that only the vetted and recommended counselors are involved in a professional counseling.

Such a move eliminates quarks hence ensuring high professional standards in the process. The licensing bodies control the renewal of such licenses. Such guidelines also elaborate how and when a client can claim liability from a therapist who fails to meet the terms of the agreement.

Malott, Paone, Humphreys, and Martinez (2010, p. 257) argue that ethics in counseling are also regulated by the cultural norms of the society. Every profession has its norms on what is right and wrong. Professional bodies have the responsibility of setting specific standards that stakeholders have to uphold.

For example, in America, the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs set the counseling standards to be adhered to by counseling stakeholders. In psychological counseling, the counselor and the client are guided by a set of psychological counseling ethics as set by their regulating bodies.

With counseling standards in place, both the counselor and the client are protected hence making the procedure professional.

In addition, the professional bodies set the academic qualification standards that the counselors must present before being admitted as professionals. The level of education, experience, and dedication that the counselor must have is also stipulated.

We will write a custom Essay on Ethics in Group Counseling specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such vetting and professional authentication is done to ensure professionalism in dealing with clients of diverse backgrounds. Professional counselors will not rush for trial and error, but will only administer remedies after a clear analysis of the case and having gathered substantial evidence.

In every profession, ethical issues are hard to abide by, even becoming more challenging when one is dealing with several human beings. Stephens (2010, p. 509) add that a counselor must be well equipped in group skills for him or her to handle a group in counseling.

Every group has its own dynamic complexities. In fact, conflicts increase with an increase in the number of group members. It is ethically required that every counselor should therefore have the necessary skills required in handling group dynamics.

Every member of the group should get a different screening procedure besides being understood according to his or her behavior and character. Such close evaluation should also be done on potential group members. Other personal qualities like and economic background should also been factored.

For example, it would be difficult for university graduates to appreciate counseling when they are placed in groups of primary school dropouts. The counselor should have skills to interpret the mental status. Emotional stability of a client to withstand the truth should also be measured accordingly.

According to Wade (2012, p. 329), religious beliefs and spiritual foundations of every individual in a group should also be appreciated. For example, Christians have respect for Jesus Christ as the son of God and strict adherence to the Ten Commandments. On the other hand, Muslims have strict adherence to the Quran and the words of Prophet Mohammed.

In most cases, spiritual foundations of individuals dictate what their values are and or whether they observe them or not. A counselor may forever labor for years in unearthing and treating certain cases of mental and psychological sicknesses if they continue with the counseling process without initial personal screening. It is from a deep understanding of the client that guides the counselor in the therapy process.

Counselors cannot gain wisdom through the process of academic training: God gives wisdom. In fact, wisdom seems to be naturally occurring in some people. Complexity of some group cases requires the counselor to have enough wisdom on top of his or her professional training.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Ethics in Group Counseling by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Good judgment also enables the therapist to forecast the implications of certain cases in the future. Some effects of counseling may go far ahead to determining how individuals make decisions in the future.

Therapists must be able to withstand the morality test of the society that goes beyond what they do with their life in and outside the office. Counselors must have high ethical standards that enable them avoid compromise. For instance, a counselor ought to avoid doing wrong even when every other person says it is right to do so. Counselors should be guided by what is right in the eyes of God and the law.

When one is compromised, their moral and ethical standings are highly affected. In counseling, one faces different personalities. Therapists who are not strong in their moral standing may even fall prey of the evils that their clients commit. A counselor may easily be enjoined in drug abuse legal case, firearm handling, and sexual immorality cases amongst others.

Although, a fee is paid for therapy, counselors should not be money minded. Money is a factor in most instances of the failure of counselors to observe moral and ethical principles. It is wrong for a counselor to forfeit his or her ethical guidelines in order to gain more money. Counselors should therefore adopt ethical means of earning their livelihood to avoid compromise.

After counseling, clients assumed to have gained the necessary skills in handling life on their own. It is not enough for the counselor to give verbal and written guidelines to clients and leave them to their own devices in life. Effective counseling should bear visible fruits.

According Jen der pan (2011, p. 779), the counselor should give the clients some life skills that will enable them to live well by interacting with others comfortably in the society. At the end of the counseling session, clients should appreciate the undertaking. They should be able to move forward and forget their past unproductive lives to adopting a beneficial life.

Counseling should reduce human suffering. Therapy should eliminate or reduce mental and emotional suffering that the client suffered before counseling to minimal levels. According to Wade (2012, p. 329), clients should handle the condition that faced them before counseling without any assistance.

By extension, they should assist other victims of similar situations. The sustainability of the effects of counseling depends on experience, academic qualifications, and commitment of the counselor. The remedy to counseling cases should have a permanent or long lasting effect.

Issues Unique to Group Therapy Group counseling is different from individual counseling. Although group counseling is similar to individual counseling in some ways, there are many differences between the two. In a group counseling, the counselor must understand that each individual in the group is unique in some ways. Unlike individual counseling, various personality traits are brought together in group therapy.

The confidentiality of every individual client must be maintained even when clients are grouped together for therapy unless the clients agree on disclosure. The counselor has to understand the specific problems that each client faces. Although there may be similarities in the cases, there are unique differences in individual cases that the counselor must differentiate.

Every member of the group would want to hear his or her individual problems being addressed by the counselor. The counseling program must touch on the problems that they face. If the whole counseling process does not address the challenges that they face, they will not appreciate the need for attending the counseling sessions.

Group counseling involves dynamics such as advising members not to share information concerning the counseling sessions when they are out of class. To the counselors, it is likely to become very hard for them to control their clients once they live the counseling halls. However, it is their discretion to advise the client against it and to ensure that the rules of counseling are upheld.

When individuals are in groups, they are likely to form social alignments before, during, or after the session. Since man is a social animal, it is likely to be difficult for such individuals to refrain from sharing their experiences in the sessions. However, Der Pan et al. (20012, p. 731) argue that it is upon the counselor to train the clients on how to mark certain boundaries in their communication.

When the clients in groups understand what can be disclosed to others and or what is private, it becomes easier even for the entire counseling process. Issues that are disclosed by each individual during the groups are not to be discussed by other members outside the session.

Information that individual clients disclose to the counselor or to the group for example personal experiences should not be discussed with other people outside the conference. Crespi (2009, p. 273) affirms that the counselor is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that all group members understand the rules, regulations, and legal principles concerning counseling.

In a group counseling setting, the counselor must ensure that he or she gains trust from the clients. It is also imperative that the group members begin to trust each other with information. Conviction is important since it speeds up the rate of information disclosure. According to Piper (2007, p. 130), without personal disclosure, counseling becomes almost unfruitful.

Each client must begin by owning his or her individual situations before seeking advice on what to do about it. After owning the process, the same client should be ready to make it known to a trusted therapist. According to Yildirim (2012, p. 130), the level of disclosure determines the kind of treatment and professional counseling that the client receives. However, most of the counselors are tempted to ignore the need for confidentiality.

Such ignorance can result in dangerous impacts. For example, when counseling a woman who has been unable to get out of lesbianism, it may be very dangerous to disclose such information to the public or to her friends. It would even be worse to divulge information about a man who joins the group for counseling after a long struggle with impotence.

Such revelation can amount to soiling of personal demeanor. Other people can even begin to disregard the person. No client can unveil such information to a therapist whom he or she believes or has evidence that the therapist cannot keep confidential information. Trust and confidentiality are therefore crucial in a group counseling.

Every group should have strict adherence to ethical control. The counselor has the greatest responsibility in controlling what happens in the group. Individual clients in a group setting have little or no control of what happens during the session. The kind of communication that majorly happens in a group setting can be both beneficial and detrimental to the group.

Sharing of individual experiences and the content of learning can be valuable to the individual clients. The counselor is therefore charged with the duty to monitor and control the group members when they are on the session and when they finish the sessions. In a group setting, members are also bound to influence one another into various acts.

Every member of the group is therefore bound to learn and emulate certain traits from the other members. The danger involved in this process is that a client can join the group with a need to be counseled on a certain issue but end up being predisposed to learning other awful traits. Every member learns from one another. Luke and Hackney (2007, p. 287), argue that leaning is a continuous activity.

As members interact in the group, a lot of exchange happens. The counselor should therefore be very keen to monitor the level of communication that is entailed in the group. It is also important that professional ethos be observed when assigning counseling groups to individuals. For instance, a client may come for the counseling session due to family conflicts.

Another client may also come for the session with a similar problem. Hence, the counselor will be tempted to put them under one class. However, one client may be an alcoholic in addition to being in family wrangles. Such a person may influence the other into alcoholism within the several days that they interact in the therapy. Such dynamics are majorly out of peer pressure.

Disclosure of information in a group setting may also take a lot of time. In fact, some clients may never divulge information about their problems in a group setting. In such cases, there is a strong bond of peer influence or fear in the group. A member of the group may fear what others may say about him, or worse still what they can believe about him or her after the disclosure.

In many instances, clients are forced to lie in order to save their face from the group. The counselor should therefore be very vigilant in order to identify such dynamics and react to them before they become a major problem. In some cases, peer pressure in group counseling becomes very hard to disengage.

The group members can also agree not conceal any information to the counselor. Such actions make the counseling process very difficult.

It is against the counseling ethics to coerce members of the group to change behavior. In a group setting, members can force others to behave in a particular way against their will by making some members appear foolish in the presence of others. Such members are therefore forced to change their behavior even when they are on the right. Coercion from the therapist himself or herself is also unethical.

In fact, intimidation from the group leaders and the counselor makes the victim lie or refuse to reveal the truth. According to Banks (2005, p. 17), if the client does not disclose the correct information to the counselor, the process is likely to experience many hurdles and fail to be successful.

It is therefore imperative for the counselor to ensure that none of the clients is coerced from any corner especially in giving information and changing of behavior. The counselor should be vigilant to ensure that no one compels the other into acting in a strange way. Good behavior should be cultivated in a sensible way. The clients should be at liberty to change their bad behavior to leap the benefits of good conduct.

In a group setting, diversity cannot be underrated. It may result in stereotyping. PAN (2012, p. 139) affirms that members of a group may come from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Therefore, they may be different in the way they do things or even believe. Every member should therefore be taught to respect each other’s beliefs and diversity. No tribe or ethnic community is better relative to the other.

According to Luke and Hackney (2007, p. 287), members of the group may have variations in educational levels, economic levels, and even social status. The counselor must ensure that each member appreciates this multiplicity.

In fact, Yildirim (2012, p. 129) affirms that group members should be encouraged to learn from one another and to enquire more in confirmation of facts and biases. It is against the counseling ethics to prejudice and or stereotype others. It is the role of the counselor and the group leader to ensure that every group is properly integrated to represent the image of a wider group.

Malott, Paone, Humphreys, and Martinez (2010, p. 257) are for the opinion that the counselor should ensure that members of a similar cultural orientation are not placed in a similar group unless the prevailing circumstances dictate so. Failure of members to condone and embrace diversity is likely to indicate the weakness of the counselor.

Counseling skills, experience, and education should make the counselor an authority in the field. It should therefore be easy for him or her to make the members tolerant to other people’s beliefs and cultural stands. Cultural beliefs are deeply entrenched into people’s lives. Any contravention of it may result in conflicts.

It is ethically wrong for group members to be dishonest. Without the truth, the whole group may not benefit from the counseling process. Dishonesty is even likely to make the counselor unprofessional. The moment various clients visit the counselor and undergo the full counseling program but fail not change from their past unbecoming behavior, the counselor is compromised. He or she is seen as a quark or a non-performer.

Counseling in a group setting should be result oriented. If all members of the group are insincere in their confessions and discussions, the group cannot progress. It will reach a point where the fabrication will require sophisticated deception to cover the initial ones. Members who are misleading live in tension and cannot trust each other.

Yildirim (2012, p. 129) argues that dishonesty among members is likely to result in interpersonal conflicts among the associates of the group. No one would like to be embittered. In such circumstances, group members cannot even feel free to discuss their experiences and thoughts with the rest of the group members.

Others will immediately or slowly withdraw from active participation in the group activities the moment they realize that the rest are deceitful. Gumpert and Black (2006, p. 61) affirm that the counselor is therefore charged with the responsibility of cultivating integrity among various members of the group.

All these ethical dynamics of group counseling discussed above can result in the breaking of the group. When counselors form psychotherapy groups, they always have plans and objectives to achieve through them. When a group breaks out of the above ethical problems, the members and the counselor have to lose the mutual benefit.

According to Hong et al. (2012, p. 180), it is unethical for a group to be terminated immaturely in the presence of a trained counselor. This case is likely to indicate failure and incompetence. The counselor is blamed for not being able to exercise expertise and leadership skills.

The members are also blamed for having no sense of direction and purpose in their undertaking. The honest, truthful, and rule-abiding clients may never join such groups again hence making it unwelcoming to the therapist and the whole idea of counseling. People may begin to lose interest in counseling or even fail to value it.

Out of group break ups, the societal issues of uncouth acts will remain unsolved. The idea of counseling is underrated when clients cannot trust the therapists. The counselor is undermined, with his or her work being seen as unfruitful while the society continues experiencing difficulties in dealing with psychotherapy cases.

The result is that unqualified persons who may not have the knowhow of conducting such activities will be left to do the counseling. By the end of it all, members of the society may result into violent means of solving differences among them hence harming each other. The society may not understand those that are psychologically sick. It may even treat them badly resulting in the worsening of their situation.

Counseling is therefore imperative in the society. Hong et al. (2012, p. 179) affirm that therapists should also be keen to ensure that all members of the group respect the ethical guidelines of the counseling process. With good ethical guidelines and adherence, both the counselor and clients will benefit.

Reasons as to why Therapists choose Group over Individual Counseling Experiences in individual counseling are completely different from group counseling. In counseling, both individual and group counseling are important. However, most of the counseling therapists prefer counseling groups than an individual. There are various reasons for counselors to engage group counseling than individual counseling.

One of the reasons for preferring on group counseling is that members in groups develop a feeling of being equal to one another. A counseling group is just like a class or a school situation where all members are equal. Crits-Christoph et al. (2013, p. 24) observe that, when members are in a group, they begin to appreciate that the problems that they experience are not unique to them only. Others also experience it.

The gap and the tension that the client experiences when he or she is alone with the counselor is eliminated. Group therapy is therefore important for the people that appreciate being with others. Such people can even divulge more information to the counselor relative to when they are alone. Therapists would therefore prefer dealing with such groups than individuals.

Group therapy is also better than individual counseling since it is more lively and encouraging than when one is faced with a single individual alone. Pan et al. (2012, p. 349) add that, when clients are in a group, they appreciate the words and directions of the counselor than when they are just alone.

Groups are also better because when one member becomes dull or decides not to share information, others remain vigorous hence encouraging the therapist to carry on with the process of counseling. In such a situation, the counselor is also encouraged to perform better in order to keep those that are keen in better positions.

In a group setting, members also discuss with others about the areas where they may not have understood during the process. It is also important to note that, in some instances, the counselor may not be able to clearly articulate a certain point in the course of counseling. In such circumstances, a group member can assist those that did not understand.

Such an opportunity to learn from each other is not present in individual counseling. Members that prefer being appreciated also benefit from group counseling since there are many people to compliment them. Compliments raise their level of self-esteem, with such members making the work of the therapist easier.

Piper (2007, p.130) affirms that the counselor in a group setting is also likely to face more questions than when he or she is counseling an individual. Questions are an indication of openness and the need to know. The counselor will therefore achieve his goals more easily when the members are active. Questions are a source of feedback for the counselor to evaluate himself.

In a group therapy, members are able to appreciate the fact they do not face the circumstance alone. According to Banks (2005, p. 17), when clients meet in a group and share information on personal experiences, they realize that problems are universal and not personal.

Such an appreciation makes the work of the counselor even easier since members will be ready for therapy. Group therapy also indicates to the counselor whether the individuals will be able to reintegrate into the society after the session.

Personal Leadership qualities in a Group Therapy Leadership is at the heart of group therapy. It is therefore important to have experienced counselors who can manage leadership in the group. Leadership is power. Power on the other hand can corrupt leaders. The feeling of pride and authority may lead to the disintegration of the counseling group. This case is especially common when group leaders devolve powers to subgroups and then appoint subgroup leaders.

Although such groups enable the group leaders to achieve efficiency and quick coordination, they may result in conflicts of interest. Other members of the group may begin to feel that they are doing better in relation to others, or that they are in charge of others. Group leaders should therefore be cautious while appointing other leaders or sub-leaders.

Crits-Christoph et al. (2013, p. 23) observe that it is important to screen the leaders before assigning them various duties. It is imperative to evaluate whether they meet the educational standards for the position, their levels of emotional stability, and their cultural foundations. Such factors are likely to impact on their performance as leaders in the groups.

The ability to lead should also be evaluated before such appointments are made. Some people may have good humiliating traits. However, they may show no leadership abilities. Worse still, they may have the necessary skills in leadership but have no desire for it. Appointment of bad leaders in the group can be the beginning of failure or success of the group.

A good leader can cultivate a good relationship among members of the group. It is also possible for an efficient leader to control the group during disputes and even solve cases of conflicts among the group members. Ability to solve cases is important in delivering quality counseling to the group.

Leadership should avoid differences among leaders themselves and the rest of the group members. Respect between group leaders creates cohesion between members. Members cannot believe in divided leaders. In fact, the groups may disintegrate if leaders portray their conflicts openly.

Openness and admission should also be encouraged between leaders. Der Pan et al. (20012, p. 731) argue that leaders should cultivate a good and open communication within the group. Communication is power. Proper communication enables people to gain information that is necessary for them to tackle the problems that life poses. It is unethical for leaders to fail to articulate themselves properly.

Leaders should share information about group dynamics, leadership hurdles, and the best strategies that can enable the group to leap the best benefits from counseling. Leaders should ensure that every member of the group is empowered through adequate provision of information. There should also be avenues for members of the particular group to give their feedback.

Leaders should keep on updating each other with the right information during the therapy process. Sharing of information is important for uniformity and good performance. Proper communication channels should be made public for all leaders and members to know.

It is out of poor communication that leaders get into conflicts among themselves and with their members. Ethical guidelines in counseling emphasize the power of communication. Leaders should therefore ensure that they gain the necessary communication skills and put in place proper communication mechanisms.

Conflicts among leaders should be avoided at all cost. Every group leader is a role model to his or her members and to other leaders. Gumpert and Black (2006, p. 61) assert that, whenever members witness open conflicts between group leaders, they become tensed about the relationships. They may even become completely disengaged in the group affairs.

Conflicts with other leaders may result in loss of trust from the members. In fact, tension begins at the point where members experience open or hidden conflict between their leaders. Worse still, members can rebel against such leaders. Such a situation can result in complete disintegration of the group.

The group leader is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that conflicts among leaders of subgroups are eliminated or ironed out on time. Competition among members and even among groups is important. However, only healthy competition among leaders can help other members of the counseling group.

It is worth noting that unregulated competition can result in actual conflicts among the leaders and the individual members. Health competition among groups enhances learning. In the process of competing, members and group leaders can perfect their skills. Group and subgroup leaders should therefore enhance proper communication among them to ensure that their individual groups leap the benefits of communication.

Competition has rules and guidelines, which must be followed properly in the process of competition. Pan et al. (2012, p. 349) reveals that the major goal of setting up groups should not be forgotten in the process of the group and leadership competition. It is therefore important for every member of the group to realize the importance of competition and be ready to play by the rules.

With good leadership, competition among members can result in better performance of the groups. Leaders who work together are able to solve conflicts among themselves. During the moments of conflicts among members of the group, leaders have to show authority and competence. It is even better when leaders come together and work in unity when solving conflicts arising from members.

My Leadership Qualities and Approach to Group Therapy As a counselor, one of the leadership qualities that I possess is the ability to communicate well. Good communication skills are important in leadership. Proper communication involves being clear, concise, correct, and complete. Communication breakdown results in clashes among members of a group. In fact, a counselor who does not communicate well is likely to face opposition from clients.

A leader who does not communicate correctly can drive people into disagreement. It is therefore important for one to have good communication skills. I am also a good planner and time manager. These skills have enabled me to be consistent in my endeavors. Before engaging with my followers into any program, I begin by having a good arrangement. Planning is essential when dealing with groups.

Crits-Christoph et al. (2013, p. 24) insists that one requires a pre-planning of what to cover at a certain time together with the expected results of the session. My plans also have alternatives for eventualities. I am a good time manager. Discipline in time management enables me to be organized and timely in completion of assignments and projects. It is always good to honor promises to other leaders, to the followers, or even clients.

The tight schedules that are common in a group counseling must be upheld. In order to keep abreast with such schedules, time management became a necessary skill that I have developed. I also have a wide range of skills and experience in counseling.

Training and experience enable me to be professional on how I approach various issues. Professionalism also enables me to abide by ethical guidelines and codes of conduct in counseling. When one is professional, it is hard to contravene the law or even ethics of his or her profession.

Challenges in Leadership In leadership, one must expect to face various obstacles occasionally. I have faced many challenges in leadership. Such challenges range from conflicts among members, poor cooperation by members, incitement of members, interference from external forces, and competition for leadership positions. Leadership involves dealing with a variety of people, guiding them, and directing them towards success.

However, people come from different backgrounds with different beliefs. They view things from a multiplicity of dimensions. Having the ability to communicate in a manner that creates mutual understanding enables me to quell conflicts among my students. Communication is a solution to most of the problems that people face.

In fact, Der Pan et al. (2012, p. 739) affirm that most of conflicts in the world are out of poor communication and hence misunderstanding. Incitement of learners from among themselves and from other external forces is another major hurdle that I have been able to overcome. Learners may feel over bombarded with learning and the tight schedules of counseling sessions.

Others may just want to cause havoc and render the process unsuccessful. In such situations, I apply professional counseling skills that enable me to manage people. People’s skills and human resource management skills are crucial parts of therapy.

Conclusion In conclusion, ethics is inherent in every profession. Professional ethics in a group counseling is supposed to be adhered to by both the counselor and the client. These guidelines enable the process of counseling to be professional, consistent, and to run smoothly. When therapists observe the ethical guidelines of their profession, they are less likely to contravene the laws of God, man, and their nation.

Group counseling differs from individual counseling due to various dynamics of group management. As the paper has revealed, most of the therapists prefer group counseling to individual counseling. Leadership qualities are important for group leaders for them to manage and influence the group. Good communication can enable leaders to overcome most of the challenges that are likely to emerge in a group therapy.

Reference List Banks, R. (2005). Solution-Focused Group Therapy. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 16(1), 17-21.

Crespi, D. (2009). Group counseling in the schools: Legal, ethical, and treatment issues in school practice. Psychology in the Schools, 46(3), 273-280.

Crits-Christoph, P., Gibbons, C., Johnson, J.,


Argo: The Issue of the Developed Biases against the Iranians Critical Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

The modern political relations between the USA and Iran are characterised by the constant increase of tensions. The current prejudice of the US politicians in relation to the Iranian diplomats and representatives of the power is based on the years of the military and political conflicts. As a result, the US authorities are inclined to develop political relations and work out diplomatic contacts with the Iranian politicians cautiously.

The conflicts and tensions are associated with a lot of differences in the political regimes, ideologies, and approaches to the social development. In his film Argo (2012), Ben Affleck depicts one of the most controversial episodes in the relations between the USA and Iran.

In 1979, the Iranians attacked the American embassy in Tehran as a response to the Americans’ actions in relation to protecting Shah at the territories of the USA. Six persons escaped from the embassy, and the story of their escape is presented in Argo (Argo 2012).

The audience’s attention is drawn to the fact that not all the aspects of the historical event are represented properly because the film is based on the true story, but it does not represent the aspects of the situation in detail. Thus, the story is discussed from the perspective of the Americans, and it is possible to speak about the elements of Orientalism in depicting the characters and events.

Although there are decades between the present day and events of 1979, it is possible to observe the definite developed stereotypes in discussing the Iranians and the Iranian regime in relation to the previous and modern historical periods.

Orientalism is traditionally discussed as the method to depict the Middle Eastern culture by the representatives of the Western culture while imitating and reflecting the most remarkable features (Sardar 1999). From this point, Argo can be discussed as the vivid example to represent the cultural and social peculiarities of the Iranians through the eyes of the Americans.

In spite of the fact Affleck used the notes and documents provided by the participants of the discussed events and focused on the complete depiction of the specific details, the Westerners’ approach to discussing the Iranian hostage crisis was affected significantly by the developed stereotypes and prejudice.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, in the context of Affleck’s work, Orientalism is the way to depict the Iranians through the eyes of the Americans, but not according to the aspects of their real cultural and historical heritage. That is why, the majority of the Americans agree with the historical and emotional background of the film when the Iranians state that Argo abuses them because of the faults in depicting the nation (Rezaian 2013).

The representatives of the Iranian community state that according to the film, the Iranians can be perceived as violent and irrational people who are oriented to developing cruel wars and to the mass destruction.

It is necessary to note that Orientalism depends on focusing on the specific details characteristic for the Middle Eastern environments (Sardar 1999). Nevertheless, the settings and atmosphere of the film do not provide the necessary effect to speak about the feeling of the definite Iranian atmosphere.

It is possible to concentrate only on the detailed depictions of the political discussions and tensions. The main focus of the film is on depicting the heroic actions of the Central Intelligence Agency and Tony Mendez rather than on reflecting of the atmosphere of Iran.

Nevertheless, the characters of the Iranians depicted in the film are actively discussed within the Iranian community because the producers focused on all the negative stereotypes associated with the Middle Eastern people.

The problem is in the fact that the suspense of the attacks from the Iranians in the form of terroristic or open military actions remains the characteristic feature of the relations between the USA and Iran (Mullen 2013).

The trigger for the actions of the Iranians regarding the attack of the embassy is presented in the film as the element of the documentary without the significant appealing to the audience in comparison with the emotionally vivid representation of the politically, legally, and morally wrong actions of the Iranians in 1979 (Argo 2012).

We will write a custom Essay on Argo: The Issue of the Developed Biases against the Iranians specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From this point, it is rather tricky for the Westerners to understand why the Iranians attacked the embassy, why they insisted on presenting the figure of Shah and what goals were followed with references to the Iranian Revolution.

Argo can be discussed as the film which stimulates the Americans’ vision of the Iranians as the aggressive and even ‘wild’ people focused only on the military actions and their specific military ideology. According to Ghomeshi, “Argo provides the uninitiated Westerner with a crash course in the nature of the Iranian people as if out of some kind of hawkish fairy tale. Not just the regime, the people” (Ghomeshi 2012).

Thus, the Iranians are treated in the film as “hordes of hysterical, screaming, untrustworthy, irrational, bearded and lethal antagonists” (Ghomeshi 2012). The particular features of these depictions are based on the necessity to portray the Americans diplomats as the victims in the story when the Iranians are presented in the role of aggressors.

Much attention is paid to the fact that the behaviors of the Iranians are not only rather violent but also meaningless. The Iranian officials are presented as lacking the necessary organization of actions. Thus, the Iranians act because of their violent nature (Rezaian 2013).

In fact, the actions of the military Iranians were the reaction to the activities of the US Administration protecting Shah. That is why it is possible to speak about the biases in depicting the Iranians and about the lack of the important historical context and focus on details to make the story really true and historically accurate.

The ‘aggressive’ and ‘irrational’ Iranians are presented as the extremists. From this perspective, extremism can be discussed, along with terrorism. In its turn, terrorism is the main evil which can be promoted by the representatives of the Middle East. This vision is one of the most developed stereotypes.

Thus, the film contributes to creating the opinion that the Iranians can be the real threat for the peaceful life of the Americans because of their violent regimes, aggressive military intentions and actions, and because of the ability to abuse the human rights of people in spite of their nation or religion (Argo 2012).

As a result, the Iranian society of 1979 is presented as the immoral community of military men ready to express their aggression in relation to anyone who is the representative of the other nation or religion. That is why many critics discuss the film as the American propaganda oriented against Iran (Bedard 2013). Nevertheless, it is important to refer to the opinion discussed by Ghomeshi again.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Argo: The Issue of the Developed Biases against the Iranians by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although the idea of the film is to present the aspects of the definite historical event from the Americans’ point of view, the producers fail to focus on the principles of the unjust regime, but they concentrate on the portrayal of the unjust Iranians. That is why the Iranian critics of the film pay attention to the fact that the scene in the market in Tehran depicting the aggressive Iranians is far from the real situation (Rezaian 2013).

Focusing on the message of the film, it is possible to assume that the producers of Argo intended not only to depict the brave and intelligent Americans realised the operation ‘Argo’ but also to present the Iranians as the developing nation of the aggressive and not clever people who can break the global peace because of their extremist ideas.

The idea of the Iranian Revolution is lost in relation to the historical context of the film. In his article, Ghomeshi asks important questions the answers to which could be provided in the film, but they were not. The discussion of the definite issues could reduce the effect of the negative depiction of the Iranians culture, social and political life, and moral norms.

Thus, Ghomeshi asks, “Might it be helpful to explain that not all Iranians were Islamic formalists who supported Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini?” (Ghomeshi 2012).

It is also important to note that “the revolution was a popular one that originally included liberal democrats, feminists, nationalists, socialists and workers – a revolution that was co-opted by the mullahs and extremists to lead to the Islamic Republic that we know today” (Ghomeshi 2012).

Those people who do not know the history of the Iranian hostage crisis and political relations of the USA and Iran can conclude about these factors with references to the images and discussions presented in the film. Nevertheless, this approach cannot be analysed as effective because the situation is represented only from the Americans’ perspective, and the vision is based on a lot of biases.

Thus, the audience cannot consider the film as the representation of the true and complex picture of the events. However, Argo provides the necessary support to the statement that the tensions between two nations continue to increase today.

It is important to pay attention to the fact that Argo is the political thriller that is why political issues and politicians are the film’s focuses. The operation ‘Argo’ realised by the Central Intelligence Agency in cooperation with the Canadian centres is discussed today as one of the most successful operations of the USA in Iran.

The producers of the film concentrate on the most vivid and significant aspects of the operation, which could be interpreted according to the Americans’ visions and interests. Thus, the figures of the successful Americans are opposed to the figures of the unintelligent Iranians who can not prevent the escape of six people from the country (Mullen 2013).

Argo is the film which can provoke the worsening of the political relations between the USA and Iran because much attention is paid to the political superiority of the USA as well as to the development of prejudice visions against the Iranians. The film is one more proclamation of the just ideals of democracy in contrast to the military regimes of such states as Iran.

The problem is in the fact that the tension of the political thriller can be discussed by the audience from the point of the political tensions between the nations. The opposition of the political regimes and the opposition of ideologies can be discussed as the influential factor for presenting the nations from the lens of the political conflicts. The focus on suspicion against the Iranians remains unchanged because of the extremist ideology.

As a result, negative stereotypes and misconceptions can rule the minds not only of the Americans but also the representatives of the other Western cultures who perceive Middle East as the source of the military threat for the globe.

The film does not provide the vision of the contemporary life in Iran, but viewers can rely significantly on the false analogies because of the accentuated moments of the film when the Iranians are presented as showing their disrespect in relation to the American flag and American people (Argo 2012).

The film by Ben Affleck affected the development of the great discussion among the politicians, historians, sociologists, and ordinary people because of the controversies in interpretation the hostage crisis in Iran in 1979.

It is the expected effect that the film is not accepted by the Iranian audience because the historical events are discussed from the point of the Americans who focus on their superiority and intend to increase the national consciousness with references to the film’s message.

Many Iranians are abused by the film because of depicting the nation according to the developed stereotypes and with focusing on the most negative features and qualities of the Iranian people.

As a result, it is possible to speak about the usage of Orientalism methods in the film when the events in Middle East are depicted through the lens of the Westerner’s vision.

It is rather difficult to produce the film and avoid the focus on stereotypes. Argo cannot be considered as the film the authors of which intended to represent the true picture of the Iranian society or political life in 1979. On the contrary, the Americans were in the focus of the film.

References Argo, 2012. Web.

Bedard, D. 2013, Argo: Iran hostage crisis film fiddles with the facts. Web.

Ghomeshi, J. 2012, Argo is crowd-pleasing, entertaining – and unfair to Iranians. Web

Mullen, J. 2013, Coming soon: Iran’s response to ‘Argo’. Web.

Rezaian, J. 2013, Iranian media criticize Oscar win for ‘Argo’. Web.

Sardar, Z. 1999, Orientalism, Open University Press, USA.


KMC and market attractiveness Report best college essay help

Introduction Kids Market Consulting (KMC) was established in 2002 by Natalie Berezovskaya. The company has similar characteristics described by Tsoy (2005) for medium and small companies. Tsoy (2005) discusses that these companies rely on the top manager’s skills for their strategy and success. They hire employees with technical skills to perform other duties.

KMC has relied on Berezovskaya’s expertise in children, and experience in the media industry for its success (Taylor


E-government in Saudi Arabia Analytical Essay essay help site:edu

Governments are increasingly becoming aggressive in pursuing complicated data management systems to conduct their business. In fact, some governments in the developed world are the largest users of ICT services.

However, the application of ICTs is still underdeveloped in different nations (Hamner, Taha and Brahmini 367). Governments in the Gulf region are making considerable efforts capitalize on ICTs with the goal of enhancing public service (Culbertson 85).

This has been witnessed in the 20-year plan on ICT implementation that will include the creation of alliances with global ICT leaders. This also concluded the Home PC approach that was aimed at giving its citizens personal computers and internet connection. The convergence of media and telecommunication has been on the rise in the recent past (Al-Khalifa 239).

This has increased the access its people have on information on a global scale. The regulatory measures have improved, and more internet accessibility has been granted with minimal censorship. To make this a success, the IT market saw a large expenditure of an estimated 2.3 billion dollars in the year 2005, and it is estimated that the industry will reach budgets of 3.8 billion dollars by the year 2010 (Al-Khalifa 244).

Of late, the country has created more contact with the world trade organization. This has enabled more avenues to access funds that guarantee the success of the industry. The regulations and liberalizations in the market have engaged many agencies to venture into private –public partnerships that have boosted ICT development and utilization.

This has been made possible through many promotional events that have seen the adoption of ICT services and products hence improving the productivity in all sectors. Computer sales have seen a rise where an estimated 1.5 billion sale was achieved in the year 2006. ICT has found an application in the creation of managed services and channel development.

E- Commerce, for example G2B and B2B, has risen in recent times thus enabling the simplification of information acquisition and exchange (Al-Fakhri 178). The country has many national projects that include smart cards, e-trade, e-Umrah and e-sadad among many others (Kostopoulos 7). It has dominated the oil industry in Middle East and North Africa.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This has not only seen growth internally but also investments from other rich economies such as the USA. The Saudi ICT market has potential growth since the kingdom got the World Trade Organization (WTO) membership (Al-Khalifa 246).

In the Gulf Region, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia leads in the implementation and utilization of ICTs. According to Business Monitor International (38), Saudi Arabia has the highest demand for information technologies in the Gulf region. It is estimated that the country used more than $3.5 billion in 2011 alone, which has now increased significantly.

In addition, a study by Al-Khalifa (241) has shown that the country’s telecommunication and information technology represents more than 50% of the right ICT market in the gulf region as well as the Middle East. Further studies suggest that this is due to the government’s focus on implementation of ICTs in the public and private sector.

Despite the improved development, readiness for ICT infrastructures in Saudi Arabia has been met with mixed feelings. The country has no code of practice. For a long time, it has depended on the US’s code of practice in ICT management in the private sector whereas the public sector has none.

One of this code concerns privacy issues, where the Saudi government implemented the IT criminal law in the year 2007.This has made it uncertain on legal issues to be taken on organizations or individuals who break it. In terms of compatibility, language has been a constraint in the adoption process. Most applications and user interfaces are developed using the English language making them less popular in Arab-speaking countries

Works Cited Al-Fakhri, Maher, Robert Cropf, Gary Higgs and Patrick Kelly. “E-Government in Saudi Arabia: Between Promise and Reality”. IGI Global (2010): 169-183. Print

Al-Khalifa, Hend. “Heuristic Evaluation of the Usability of E-Government Websites: A Case from Saudi Arabia”. ICEGO (2010): 238-251. Print

We will write a custom Essay on E-government in Saudi Arabia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Culbertson, Stuart. E-Government and Organizational Change. Hershey, PA: IDE company publishing, 2005. Print

Hamner, Marvine, Doaa Taha, Salah Brahimi and Grey Matter. “Potential Barriers to E-Government Implementation in Developing Countries”. IGI Global (2010): 363-354. Print

Kostopoulos, George. E-Government in the Arabian Gulf: A Vision toward Reality. Sharjah, UAE: American University of Sharjah, 2010. Print.


Competitive Advantage and Globalization Report essay help online free: essay help online free

When a company is oriented to globalization strategies, it focuses on overcoming the national barriers in market and industry with references to coping with financial and cultural issues. Today, it is possible to speak about the company’s competitive advantage when the company can operate successfully globally and according to the trends associated with the globalization processes.

Fortune 500 firms develop their globalization strategies basing on the local success which once was achieved with the help of the effective use of the firm’s resources. That is why, it is possible to state that the resource-based competitive advantage is the necessary factor for promoting the Fortune 500 firms’ globalization strategies.

Competitive advantage is the ability of the company to implement unique and effective strategies which provide the significant advantage over competitors within the industry (Barney, 1991; Barney, 2001). Basing on the modern globalization trends, it is necessary to note that competitive advantage should be supported with references to following the principles of sustainability.

Moreover, the company’s capacities are assessed referring to the customers’ interests in the brand. As a result, the Fortune 500 firms create their competitive advantage with the help of the internal resources used. Barney distinguishes between the physical capital resources, human capital resources, and organizational capital resources (Barney, 1991).

To succeed within the market, such companies as Google, Toyota Motor, Microsoft, and Wal-Mart focus on using the valuable and rare human capital and organizational capital resources as the main forces. Less attention is paid to physical capital resources because they are more imitable. The success of the company is in developing the unique strategy or approach in order to win the advantage (Barney, 1991).

That is why, the Fortune 500 firms work out globalization strategies basing on the resources which are difficult to imitate or substitute. The strong and effective organizations as well as quality employees are perceived as the internal strengths of the Fortune 500 firms.

Operational Barriers to Success To operate successfully within the highly competitive environment, companies should concentrate on improving their strategies in order to propose new opportunities, services, and products for their customers. As a result, successful companies should orient to the further movement and be progressive in comparison with their competitors (Gopalakrishnan, Kessler,


Sustainable Development: the Banking Sector Report essay help online free

Many financial institutions have realized the importance of sustainable development. Several banks are currently involved in approaches, which help other business firms understand the importance of sustainable business practices. Banking institutions need to review their lending policies to ensure borrowers use credit obtained in a sustainable manner.

Financial regulators need to establish strong codes of conduct to ensure banks comply with social and environmental regulations. Banks need to assess if their borrowers have complied with crucial environmental requirements before offering them credit (Stephens and Skinner 175).

This will make them transact with customers who are willing to fulfill their social and environmental responsibilities. Some investments which banks finance impact greatly on climate change. They have been criticized for giving less attention to environmental and social issues.

The banking sector needs to reclaim public trust and confidence to clean up its reputation. Many banks were heavily involved in the recent global financial crisis, whose effects continue to be felt in many economies. Many financial sectors are not well regulated, which makes it possible for some banks to engage in unethical practices.

Banks need to include environmental and social compliance in the loan application criteria, before giving out credit to business owners. This will make them vet corporate loan applicants to determine their level of compliance to social and environmental goals. Banks award their top executives a lot of incentives and this contributes to income inequalities in many societies.

These incentives encourage banks to pursue profitability more aggressively, at the expense of environmental and social issues (Stephens and Skinner 176). Many banks are only interested in good financial results, which do not have a positive impact on the society.

SWIFT, an association of more than 10,000 banks operating in over 200 countries, has proposed radical measures to enable banks contribute positively to sustainable development.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This association has introduced various proposals which advise banks to make a positive impact on social and environmental issues The initiative aims to encourage banks to develop products, which support socially sustainable businesses because they make a bigger impact on the lives of poor people.

Small and medium enterprises, whose operations conform to social and environmental goals, need financial support to make a bigger impact in their industries. It is necessary for banks to provide them with adequate financing to make their operations more innovative.

Banks need to implement effective processes, which enable them achieve sustainable development goals. They need to change their practices to make more people aware of the importance of sustainable development (Stephens and Skinner 178).

Financial institutions need to change their attitudes towards social and environmental issues. They need to create effective systems to monitor if their borrowers are complying with crucial social and environmental standards.

This will make it possible for them to assess if borrowers use loans for sustainable development. Banks need to provide low interest credit to lower income segments of the market, to enable them sustain positive relationships with their customers. Several European banks have been subjected to a lot of pressure by NGO’s and other watchdog bodies, to stop financing companies, which produce and sell arms (Struyk 330).

Weapon manufacturers have been accused of fueling conflicts in war torn countries, which cause death, suffering and destruction. Therefore, financial institutions need to be vigilant on business ethics to ensure they finance ventures which give people hope for the future.

Works Cited Stephens, Carolyn, and Chris Skinner. “Banks for a Better Planet? The Challenge of Sustainable Social and Environmental Development and The Emerging Response of The Banking Sector.” Environmental Development 5 (2013): 175-179. Print.

We will write a custom Report on Sustainable Development: the Banking Sector specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Struyk, Zach. “Book Reviews.” Resources Conservation and Recycling 37 (2003): 329-333. Print.


Value of Leadership Conversations Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Natural Leaders

Nurtured Leaders



Introduction The debate whether great leaders are made or born will never escape the media and academic discussions due to the reasons presented for and against this topic. There is a significant difference between managers and leaders and this should be the starting point of unraveling the mysteries behind this discussion (Knights 2010). This essay explains how great leadership is developed and achieved by individuals.

Natural Leaders Many scholars and psychologists have argued that great leaders like Winston Churchill are born with these qualities. These people have leadership qualities in them even if other people try to influence or undermine their abilities they will always achieve great things in life (Martins 2012).

A research conducted by the United States Military Academy showed that the brain plays an important role in determining the leadership skills of an individual. In addition, the grey matter located in the brain plays a significant role in memory and decision making.

Therefore, an individual with a large grey matter will have more leadership skills than the one with a small one. These are important elements that determine how an individual manages various situations (Hamm 2011).

Great leaders are able to make decisions that will lead to achievements in the future. In addition, they have always risen from scratch to grace even if they are born in poor families. This means that it does not matter how an individual attains his or her education or wealth but one day the person will prove to the society that he has the power to transform their lives.

Nurtured Leaders On the other hand, all leaders have been nurtured to achieve greatness since, without this, they cannot be leaders. The society trains people how to communicate and understand one another to ensure they interact without conflicts.

This means that a great leader must have good communication and interaction skills to enable the person to fit in the society (Hamm 2011). People are born without specific characters, but they achieve them by learning various issues from people around them.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Therefore, the family, society and friends play significant roles in shaping people to be great leaders. This explains why it is always common that most leaders come from one family like the Bush presidencies. Secondly, education gives people opportunities to nurture their talents, skills and abilities and this becomes a good way of mentoring leadership (Martins 2012).

This means that even though a person may be intelligent there is the need to attain education to ensure the person has relevant knowledge to solve and manage issues in the society. Therefore, without good education a person cannot become a good leader.

Lastly, experience plays a significant role in widening people’s knowledge and skills that are required for them to become great leaders (Eikenberry 2009). A person must have relevant experience in specific fields before he can influence others to follow a certain way of thinking.

For instance, when a worker wants to influence others to strike because of poor salaries the individual must understand different regulations that govern the rights of employees and responsibilities associated with demonstrations (Eikenberry 2009). He must understand the salary scales before demanding an increase in their salaries.

Conclusion Great leaders must have leadership qualities in them before they achieve greatness. However, these skills must be nurtured before they are put into good use. Therefore, great leaders are nurtured and not born leaders since without proper education, experience and knowledge they cannot use their skills to benefit their societies.

References Eikenberry, K. (2009). Remarkable Leadership: Unleashing Your Leadership Potential One Skill at a Time. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Hamm, J. (2011). Unusually Excellent: The Necessary Nine Skills Required for the Practice of Great Leadership. New York: Jossey-Bass.

We will write a custom Essay on Value of Leadership Conversations specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Knights, B. (2010). Management and Leadership Skills: Inspire, Motivate, and Gain the Respect of Your Peers. California: Cengage Learning.

Martins, W. (2012). Leadership Conversations: Challenging High Potential Managers to Become Great Leaders. New York: McGraw-Hill.


The Impact of the Culture on the Project Management Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Introduction Studies on completed projects indicate that most of the projects fail to meet their intentional outlay and duration. The failures of the projects are attributed to the cultural diversity of the organization within which the organization originates. Most of the project managers as well as the management scholars agree that cultural diversity has an impact on the projects performance.

The major goal of this report is to identify the extent to which cultural diversity affects the projects execution. The paper will be focusing on the attitudes and some of the factors connected to the project top and line managers’ attitudes in connection to the internal set of laws as well as with respect to the project managers’ prescribed influence.

In essence, the paper will seek to answer the question of whether cultural diversity has an impact on the project management and how cultural diversity can become a barrier to the attainment of the project goals.

The paper will focus on the advantages of multi-cultural teams within the project and how such multiculturalism can be applied to provide solutions to the challenges of working within the dynamic environment where uncertainties are ever increasing. Secondly, the paper will examine how cultural diversity becomes a barrier to the attainment of the project goals.

The advantages of multicultural teams on the project management Managers of international projects are capable of applying innovations to move away from the normal forms of projects management and obtain competitive advantage as well as improve the chances for accomplishing the projects goals. The current concept in managing cross-cultural teams is the crossvergence.

Crossvergence is a concept that combines management practices of several cultures in such a way that performances applicable to the varied culture can be attained.

Lee, Roehl and Choe (2000) assert that global teams are capable of providing a wide array of essentials required for successful combination of dissimilar project management practices. People originating from various companies and country cultures have enhanced diverse experiences and management skills that can be applied by the project managers for the attainment of the project goals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another concept that can be applied in the cross-cultural management within a project is the hybridization. Hybridization is the application of the common cultural knowledge augmented with successful practices from the countries where the project is supposed to be carried out or may be drawn from the original culture of a team member.

Project managers should also expect diverse behaviors even when working with team members from the same country (Poon et al., 2005). The fact is that cultural norms and values are determined by many factors and not only by the team members’ nationality.

The experiences, gender age, education levels and job functions shape the individual beliefs and practices that can be displayed during the project implementation process. All these beliefs and practices can be combined together to form a coalesced part that enhances the project performance.

All these factors should be taken into consideration when undertaking a global project for the first time. In circumstances where a team member have a cultural origin that is unique, Hofstede cultural dimension can be applied to understand the general mind set as well as cultural patterns that are likely to be practiced in their home country.

In addition, more information about the country where the project is implemented need to be gathered to understand the common practices as well as the main sources of economic and cultural affluence that can be applied to enhance the project performance (Lee et al., 2000). The most important step for the project managers is to be much more concerned with the team members’ behaviors.

In addition, the project managers should understand and respect the values of team members particularly those that are practiced during their informal conversations. While understanding and respecting the team members cultural values are critical, the project managers should also allow their opinion be known by the team members.

Jolly (2008) argue that team members should also be able to understand the project communication standards as well as the important project norms that must be adhered to attain the project goals. These common understandings are critical in merging cultural diversity during the project implementation. The consequence is the enhanced project performance.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Impact of the Culture on the Project Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While developing cross-cultural management skills may be difficult, project managers are expected to have effective skills cross-cultural project management. These skills can be attained through understanding the presence of cultural diversity across countries and how individual values are shaped by traits such as age and gender (Poon et al., 2005).

The project managers should also apply some of the practices that indicate respect of cultural diversity particularly during the decision-making process. Finally, the project managers should take advantage of multiculturalism within the team. The project manager should built on the cultural diversity among the team members to identify and mitigate risks as well as look for the best option to attain the goals of the project.

The impact of cross culture in the project management Communication within a project is critical for the attainment of the cross-cultural managerial skills. According to Jolly (2008), individuals within the project are encouraged to meet face to face to enhance cross cultural relationship and communication as well as common understanding among the team members.

While cultural diversity among the team members can be great, the timing and procedures of project communication would play a critical role in bringing together the diverse team members to work towards a particular goal. Cultural differences always have a greater impact on the favored approaches applied in project management communication.

However, communication is not the only aspect of project management that is being impacted by culture. Studies by Lee, Roehl and Choe (2000) indicate that there are major elements of culture that directly affect the project management strategy as well as the processes in the project team development.

These elements includes material culture, which are the physical objects that results from technological advancement, language that is critical in enhancing common understanding among the project team members, aesthetics that promotes both open and casual communication , and education that enhances problem solving techniques.

The other aspects of culture that influence project communication process, team development and management strategy includes values, mind-set and religion. According to Rausch, Halfhill, Sherman and Washbush (2001), beliefs, attitudes affect the broad-spectrum of work moral principles.

The social organization is also another aspect of culture, which is critical in networking within an organization. The political life is the final element of culture, which includes the set of rules and regulations that govern the management process and all the operations of the project.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Impact of the Culture on the Project Management by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Project management have moved away from face to face environment where all major stakeholders were assembled jointly in one room (Shore


Comparison between Hong Kong standard of living and that of home country base Sydney Case Study essay help site:edu

The real value of international relocation proves difficult to fancy due to different economical set-ups within different regions. One of the main issues affecting international relocation is currency conversion, for example, Australian dollar is usually considered to be high hence could at times give deceptive results to immigrants.

Financial benefits still becomes one of the most considered challenges leading to high cost of living within Australia. This shows clearly that any movement within overseas jurisdiction converts into greater disposable income owing to existing vast differences.

The real financial benefits involved in the process of international move can be valued based on comparing daily living costs, rate of taxes levied within various jurisdictions as well as salaries (Australian Social Inclusion Board, 2010).

Cost of living within Australian cities such as Sydney has tremendously increased within the last ten years. This is attributed to rising inflation and high value of Aussie dollar.

Cost of living in Sydney is considered most of the times in the process of weighing destination offers since the situation in the city provides more realistic measures on spending. In such cases, cost of living indexes is considered useful since it provides accurate overview of general differences between cities (Australian Social Inclusion Board, 2010).

In Sydney, the cost of transport is considered more expensive than in Hong Kong, therefore demanding that the company reduces Alice’s travelling allowances. At the same time, public transport is more regular and efficient in Hong Kong compared to Sydney hence use of private cars not necessary. Consequently, the cost of owning and maintaining a car is lower in Sydney than in Hong Kong.

However, cost of entertainment and leisure proves difficult to quantify since it is mostly depends on an individual’s lifestyle. In the area of entertainment Hong Kong is considered leading in best arts with Sydney trailing in areas concerning night life and art.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are numerous and credible options for those finding it easier to pay premium prices in Sydney contrary to Hong Kong where they provide wide range of choices within each price bracket of products.

The use of straightforward currency conversion will grant the company advantage in the process of calculating financial benefits granted to Alice. At the same time, several considerations have to be made on different factors for the purposes of understanding ultimate financial advantage.

Such factors include; structure of payment used for international firms, nature of value attached to tittles and promotions, differences in tax rates, discounting approaches in firms within different regions and approaches to rewards granted to employees amongst other factors.

There is high cost of housing in Hong Kong hence the company will have to provide assistance in making rent tax deductible based on reimbursement schemes. Such provisions makes individuals’ eligible to tax regulation which asserts that all costs associated with employer can be subjected to deduction.

The employers will be forced to set proper rent expense for Alice within Hong Kong since the city is recognized as highly lucrative environment suitable for such professionals. Additionally, Hong Kong city does not impose a number of tax schemes such as VAT, tax on dividends, withholding tax amongst others.

Expatriate reward approach to be used for Alice’s transfer and its advantages and disadvantages Hong Kong is known to have favorable tax systems with charges of approximately 17% taxation on income. This is considered favorable in comparison to between 30% and 40% rates charged by APAC cities. Various reward systems could be used in this case as the basic foundation on which research done on such endeavors is based.

Rewards systems play an essential role in employees’ participation since it shapes the approach towards theory and method (Marsh


The Process of Information System in Amazon Expository Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Table of Contents Introduction

Background Information

Business Process

Improving Business Processes at Amazon.Com


Works Cited

Introduction An information system refers to a combined assemblage of parts for acquiring, storing and processing information for use by various stakeholders in a particular setting. Organizations depend on information systems to undertake daily activities interact with clients, suppliers, and achieve a competitive edge in their particular industry.

For instance, organizations use their websites to inform potential and actual clients about goods and services offered by the company. They also use information systems to carry out accounting processes and compensations among other things.

State corporations and ministries have adopted information systems to disseminate necessary information to citizens. Most companies sell their goods through information systems. Such goods include books, softwares, and electronic goods among others. This essay seeks to explore the use of information systems at Amazon.com

Background Information Amazon.com, Inc. came into being on 28 May 1996. The company serves customers through its retail websites with a deep concentration on fair prices and convenience. The company grants programs to traders to sell their goods on its websites and programs that facilitate authors, music artists, and software developers to design and sell their products. The company has two units: North America and the International units.

The company comes up with websites through which millions of products reach the intended clients. Amazon.com offers Kindle devices through which writers publish their contents and attends to developers and all types of businesses through Amazon Web Services (AWS), Amazon Web Services affords entry to technology programs that works with every kind of enterprise.

Amazon.com offers lowest possible prices to its customers through daily product pricing and freight bids through their premium membership program, Amazon Prime. It accomplishes low price bids through improvement of its operating efficiencies.

The company has put in place user-friendly programs, which enhance quick and reliable services and prompt attendance to customers’ needs. The programs offered by Amazon.com enable traders sell their goods and services through its websites accessible through cellular phones and computers as well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More North America unit consists of proceeds gained from retail selling of customer goods and services as well as membership subscriptions through websites localized in North America. The unit gains from sales realized from exports from www.amazon.com and www.amazon.ca.

International unit comprises of proceeds from selling retail client goods and membership fees through the company’s international websites plus sales realized from export sales to customers in the United States of America and Canada.

Business Process Business process refers to activities aimed at realizing business goals. These activities fall into three distinct groups including decision-making, operations and competitive strategies.

The most basic type of function is operations support, At Amazon.com, information systems enhance business processes relating to operations through recording and preserving inventory information, information on continuing jobs, information relating to hardware repair and service, supply chain information, and other operations information.

Information systems process information into production timetables, production controllers, and systems for monitoring production. In addition, information systems gather information on human resources, compensation packages, work histories and other people-related information. Information systems convert such information into expenses information per employee and output per employee.

Information systems gather information on market, clients and their profiles, relationship with the company histories as well as information related to advertising. From this data, information systems process it to such items as elasticity reports, marketing schedules and sales activity information.

Information systems facilitate decision-making by management. They allow management to manipulate data and compare best scenario possible for implementation.

We will write a custom Essay on The Process of Information System in Amazon specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Information systems used for decision-making range from spreadsheets to sensitivity analysis tools like Monte Carlo analysis, logit analysis, multi dimensional scaling among others. The management uses such tools to make decisions touching on new products, risk and sensitivity of the market.

Lastly, information systems offer strategic support function to increase their competitive advantage through a three- tier analysis. The first level relates to piloting programs set by the company to test their viability. The second level involves adopting one or two functions of the information systems while the third level involves building up a distinct competitive advantage.

Figure 1: Information systems at Amazon.com .

Improving Business Processes at Amazon.Com Amazon.com should avoid cluttering of pages especially the product page. Too much cluttering distracts potential customer from the product displayed because of various advertisements on a single product page. Amazon.com’s homepage lacks contact information and forces a customer to search for such information.

The company should improve its homepage to include essential information relating to the company including contacts, profile and background information. In addition, the company should come up with alerts to inform customers when new products come up.

Conclusion Amazon.com is doing some great work but there is room for more improvements to gain more customers and increase profitability. Information systems are dynamic and as such, Amazon.com must keep on upgrading them.

Works Cited Econsultancy. ‘Ten things Amazon can do better online’. 2013. Web.

Fact-index.com. ‘Management Information Systems‘. 2013. Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Process of Information System in Amazon by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Make Assignment. ‘Amazon.com Operational Strategy‘. 2013. Web.

Reuters. ‘Amazon.com Inc (AMZN.O)‘. 2013. Web.

Zwass, Vladimir. ‘Information systems‘. 2013. Web.


Kelly’s cognitive theory Analytical Essay online essay help

Human personality has been a complex issue for long and has inspired theorists to create ideas to enhance the understanding of the subject. The theorists have made several attempts to understand and explain how the personalities are developed, their variations, how they affect human interactions with the world and their relationships with different psychologically-related disorders.

George Kelly is one of the proponents of the cognitive theory which is the focus of this study. The center of Kelly’s cognitive theory is the manner in which individuals think because their thoughts affect their feelings and actions.The thoughts and feelings of individuals determine their personalities. Kelly identifies the major role in which the human cognition element plays in determining personality.

This aspect forms the foundation of the terminology of personal constructs which refers to the different ways in which individuals collect information and with the support of their understanding, use it to predict events (Kelly, 2006). The individual interacts with the world based on the outcome of his prediction and this interaction becomes his personality.

Kelly’s incisive evaluation on individuality is informed by the need to equate individuals to scientists. He postulates that the objectives of scientists can be linked to those of other beings. He suggests that in the same way that scientists build hypotheses and conduct experiments to establish their validity, people also develop theories based on their personal constructs and consequently employ various theories to predict events.

However, the constructs may at times be influenced by the individuals’ past experiences that may not be relevant to their present societal circumstances hence rendering the constructs invalid. The distorted constructs cannot be used to predict events because they cannot hold new data entry due to their unchangeable nature.

Given that constructs are limited in nature and cannot therefore be employed in all situations, individuals may at times be required to revise their constructs to accommodate data that is created by new experiences. The choice that an individual makes in order to change his construct is what Kelly calls “constructive alternativism”.

The premise of his theory is based on the fact that “a person’s processes are psychologically determined by the ways in which he anticipates events” (Van der Kolk,


Partnership Analysis college essay help near me

The collaboration between Microsoft and Intel is one of the most lucrative business partnerships in the last twenty years. The relationship between the two companies was very convenient because of the type of products that the companies produce (Ungson, 2008). Microsoft is the largest producer of computer software while Intel is one of the largest manufacturers of computer CPUs and electronic chips (Rainer, 2010).

The operating system from Microsoft has been instrumental in enhancing a low cost of computation. Microsoft had to find a business partner that would help in realizing its vision of providing people with a low cost of computation. Intel is widely known for producing affordable computer hardware and therefore the company became an ideal partner for Microsoft (Ungson, 2008).

The partnership between Microsoft and Intel has been very successful because of the products that the two companies produce. The products produced by the two companies complement each other because they are sold as single package. Intel produces CPUs and other computer hardware while Microsoft produces the software that is needed to run the hardware (Schooley, 2007).

Computer hardware can not work without software and vice versa. This paper will discuss the rationale behind inter-organizational partnerships in industry information systems and how the systems are used to define and support partnerships.

Microsoft has the highest stake in its partnership with Intel and it is estimated that the partnership has a market capitalization of $400 billion (Ungson, 2008). It is this successful partnership that attracted IBM to choose the two companies when it launched its first personal computer. This is not to mean that there were no other companies that would have provided the much needed software and CPUs.

Microsoft has been facing a lot of competition from the Digital Research Company for a very long time. Microsoft and Intel have continued to dominate their respective industries as a result of their association with IBM (Ungson, 2008). The need to dominate the computer industry was the rationale behind the partnership between Microsoft and Intel.

The partnership between Microsoft and Intel has been experiencing some challenges in recent years because customers have been reluctant in accepting Microsoft products (Ungson, 2008). The two companies started with some weak technologies but got stronger after the partnerships. Microsoft has for many years been criticized for its offensive business tactics.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are accusations from different quarters that Microsoft has been abusing its monopoly power (Waters, 2007). The partnership between Microsoft and Intel was commonly referred to as Wintel since Windows could only run Intel CPUs. It is this kind of monopoly that enabled the two companies to enjoy a lot of profits (Waters, 2007). The users had no option but to purchase computer products produced by the two companies.

It is this kind of benefits that made this partnership to be successful. The two companies collaborate in terms of sales, services and engineering systems which make it necessary for the companies to have an inter-organizational partnership in industry information systems (Truman, 2000).

Microsoft and Intel collaborate to provide IT solutions to their customers. The companies have joint roadmaps and other integrated features that justify their need to partner in industry information systems (Truman, 2000).

Microsoft and Intel have an objective of providing the most relevant and effective IT infrastructure for users (Truman, 2000). This can not be achieved without having a partnership in industry information systems. The need to provide fast and efficient software to customers is the reason behind Microsoft’s decision to partner with Intel especially when it comes to industry information systems (Schooley, 2007).

Inter-organizational partnerships in industry information systems have become very essential in modern business. Microsoft operates in a very competitive environment that requires companies to have reliable, flexible and efficient information systems (Ungson, 2008).

Organizations that are in a business partnership need to relate in a way that benefits customers and the companies involved (Murphy, 2008). This can only be achieved through an inter-organizational system. The partnership between Microsoft and Intel has been defined and supported in a great way by the inter-organizational system.

Microsoft and Intel are linked in the market because they depend on each other to sell their products (Truman, 2000). Microsoft and Intel have benefited in a great way through the inter-organizational system because the partnership improved communication between the two companies.

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Session Long Project 3: ”Kraft Foods Group” Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Introduction Resources are important since they help a company in its production process. Resources are the source of input and major determinants of output (Henry, 2007). A company that has more resources may have an advantage over its competitors. However, it is important to note that resources have to be utilized effectively for them to give the company an advantage.

On their own, resources do not have any benefit to the organization. Resources, therefore, need to be transformed to benefits. As resources are transformed to benefits, they usually become overstretched or they get used up. Resources are categorized into two classes: tangible resources and intangible resources. This essay evaluates the resources of Kraft Foods Group and how they help the company gain a competitive advantage.

Tangible Resources These are resources that can be touched, seen and can be felt. There are different categories of tangible resources. At Kraft Foods Group, the following are the available the tangible resources.

Physical resources

These are resources that have been made by human beings and they help in execution of daily activities. In an organization, physical resources include fixed capital assets such as buildings, equipment, machinery, land, as well as any other item that helps the business in its activities and can be considered as a fixed asset (Henry, 2007).

Kraft Foods Group is rich in capital assets and it utilizes them to gain an advantage over its competitors. The company’s plants and equipment are recorded in their historical costs, and their depreciation is calculated using the straight line method. The period over which equipment is depreciated is highly dependent on its use and the type of equipment.

For instance, in the case of machinery depreciation period ranges between 3 years to 20 years after which its economical life is over and can be disposed. Apart from the plant and machinery, the company also has sufficient land that is used for productive purposes.

Financial resources

These are resources that refer to money flow within the organization. Kraft Group is a company that is strong in terms of finance (Henry, 2007). Financial resources are very important to any company since they enable the day-to-day running of the organization’s operations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More At Kraft Foods Group, financial reports are prepared in accordance with the GAAP principles. They are reported in income statement, cash flow statement, statement of comprehensive income, as well as the statement of financial position, liabilities and shareholders’ equity. Over the last couple of years, the company has recorded financial increase. This indicates profitability in the company.

Human resource

This is the most valuable resource in any organization. Kraft Foods Group recognizes that human resources are vital for the development of the organization. As a result, the company highly values its human resources. They are the ones who shape the company’s decisions and helps its employees develop in terms of skills and expertise. The company has sufficient human resources.

Intangible Resources Technical resources

Technical resources of a company depend on the human resources that are available, as well as the technological resources (Zahorsky, 2009). Kraft Foods Group has human resources who are highly experienced and skilled adequately. Their technical ability is, therefore, high.

They have the ability to utilize the available technological resources to improve the performance of the organization. Technological resources include software and design, among others. They help the company gather relevant information that is in turn used for production purposes.

Intellectual resources

This refers to knowledge that is held by members of the organization. Kraft Foods Group has people who have sufficient knowledge that can be utilized in production methods. It has a diverse team of employees who have the right skills to move the organization forward (Bramha, 2011).

The company makes use of “patents, copyrights, as well as trademarks” to safeguard its intellectual resources. It is due to its intellectual property that the company has been among the top in the world.


This is an intangible resource and a very important asset for a company. It is the difference between the company’s assets and the actual value of the company as a whole (Bramha, 2011). Goodwill is important since it influences the reputation of an organization.

We will write a custom Essay on Session Long Project 3: ”Kraft Foods Group” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kraft Foods Group has a rich goodwill and a good reputation to its customers. For instance, in the year 2010 the company had goodwill worth $63,819. In the year 2012 goodwill was worth $62,482. In the first quarter of the year 2013, goodwill was $11, 319.

Cultural, reputational and strategic alliances The company has a culture that allows innovation, diversity and economical growth. Its culture is dynamic (SWOT analysis: Lesson, 2009). It has a good reputation owing to its high quality services. It is as a result of its reputation that it has been able to develop a strong goodwill. Customers are loyal to its services and products. The company has a number of strategic alliances in order to be competitive.

This helps it expand its market and operation. For instance, the company announced an alliance with Schawk Inc., an imaging company. This would help Kraft Foods Group to expand its services to imaging and gain more customers for its food products.

Distinctive capabilities Architecture

This is the ability of a company to come up with strategies that helps it gain a competitive advantage over its rivals (Zahorsky, 2009). A company that has Architecture ability can come with strategies that other companies are yet to develop, making it competitive. Kraft Foods Group has employees who have the ability to architect competitive strategies. Creativity is vital in Architecture.


This is simply the image that the company has to its customers. A good reputation is built but not acquired. To build a good reputation, the company has to offer distinguished products and services that have the ability to win the trust and loyalty of employees. Kraft Foods Group is cautious of its customer’s health, a strategy that has been crucial in building its good reputation.


Innovation is the ability to improve on the current products and services to make them better and more satisfactory to customers (SWOT analysis: Lesson, 2009). Kraft Foods Group has employees who are highly creative, thus influencing the organization’s innovation.

The company gives its employees the chance to develop their innovative skills. The company also gives employees chances to contribute in decision-making. This facilitates innovation in the company and becomes a competitive advantage.

Conclusion A company can be rich in terms of resources, but may not have a competitive advantage. Having resources is, therefore, not enough. A company has to come up with ways to use its resources properly to gain a competitive advantage.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Session Long Project 3: ”Kraft Foods Group” by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is possible to have an organization that has few resources, but with a better competitive advantage compared to another company that has many resources. The difference is in the utilization of these resources. A company that is rich in resources and uses them well is usually very competitive and successful.

References Bramha, D. (2011). Internal analysis in strategic management. Web.

Henry, A. (2007). The internal environment: A resource based view of strategy. Understanding Strategic Management. Oxford University Press.

SWOT analysis: Lesson. (2009). Web.

Zahorsky, D. (2009). A business owner’s secret weapon: SWOT analysis. Web.


Project Management: The Case of Buxton Hall Case Study college admission essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Concept of project management in Buxton Hall Case

Objectives and aims

Application of best skills in project management


Introduction The success of a project relies heavily on how well a manager ensures that best practices in management are applied in handling issues as well as the involved persons (teams). In the case of Buxton Hall, the individuals involved needed to work as a team because the work was laborious, while time and monetary resources were limited.

This analysis seeks to address the degree of success of Buxton Hall project and the factors that contributed to the project’s success. In addition, it will identify the best practices that contributed to the project’s success and how they contributed to the objectives of the project.

Concept of project management in Buxton Hall Case For a project to succeed within the constraints of time and resources, project managers must recognize and understand the concept of a project management in relation to the project they are undertaking. First, there is need for a proper understanding of the project, including the problem to be solved, the tasks involved, resources needed, schedule and risks involved.

In the case of Buxton Hall project, it is evident that the project was well managed from the beginning. For instance, a proper development of a functional team was initiated prior to planning for the tasks. In fact, it is clear that there was a team building exercise based on open communication and consultation.

Although they had different professions, Chad, Crawford and Legacy West initiated a functional team by allowing the members to recognize some possible problems, risks and other issues that they would not like to encounter during their work on the project.

They opened a negotiation and discussion session in order to ensure that the members learn and understand each other. Moreover, they made sure that members were free with each other. For instance, the inclusion of a picnic and a softball game for the members prior to starting the job served to reduce tension between the members in future.

Objectives and aims Secondly, team members were involved in identification of project objectives. In this case, the members agreed that the primary objective was to improve the Hall. The team leaders recognised the need to work as a team, the importance of open communication and consultations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By asking the members to recognise the kind of difficulties they would not like to experience, the team mangers were setting out an objective of developing the best possible working environment for the members.

Application of best skills in project management Thirdly, problem solving and conflict management skills were applied during the tasks. For instance, there were regular consultations between the team leaders (Chad, Crawford and Legacy West Consultants). For instance, when a problem was identified when Nick was dissatisfied with Dat’s men, there was no confrontation.

Instead, Chad and Dat consulted with each other and agreed to check on the work. Secondly, members of the team were involved and consulted in decision-making as well as in conflict resolution. For instance, when a Web survey indicated some discrepancies in the manner in which Dat’s and Crawford’s foremen were acting, each leader sought to solve the issue with his juniors after consulting with the other leaders.

Conclusion Clearly, by handling members liable for their work, creating a good working environment for them, frequent consultations, creating an open environment for communication and involving the members in identification of problems and solutions provide an indication of application of best practices in the project.

In turn, these practices contributed to a timely completion of the project because they allowed the team leaders to solve problems and conflicts on time and lead their subjects by example.


Kraft Foods Group: strategic decisions Expository Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Executive summery This formal report presents the result of a study on Kraft Foods Group used to recommend strategic decisions. The study focuses more on thorough analysis of the internal environment.

The body of the report includes how both PERT and SWORT analysis were used to analyze the company’s external and internal environment. The information discovered from the assessment lead to recommendations and conclusions which forms the last part of the report.

Introduction The demand in the food industry has created competition because consumers continually need and want to feed. The main purpose of this study is to analyze this life preserving habit of human beings and how it has made Kraft Foods recession-proof. The study focuses on strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that helps the company go through the economic downturns making it resilient and profitable.

The wide range of opportunities brought about by different products in the market together with improved technology has created more channels of marketing. This report clearly shows the analysis of the internal environment at Kraft foods. Evaluation of strengths and weaknesses of the company using SWOT analysis also formed part of the collective assessment.

The external environment It is the external environment that creates problems within the organization proving that without the external environment, it is hard to know how strengths and weaknesses affect the organization. Strategic analysis involves assessing both the general and internal environment (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt, 2008). It also deals with the internal environment and the factors that affect the internal environment.

Political factors such as government policies and systems influences tax and tariffs and as a result affect food industries. Such includes regulations and importing policies and procedures. These government interventions also affect the demand and supply of foods.

Kraft Foods is among the companies affected by political decisions and instability because it takes its products all across the world even to the Middle East. Egypt for instance has experienced war for a very long time due to transitional groups. The same happened in Libya and Syria.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Stability, purchasing powers, economic recession and inflation rate certainly affect the internal environment though they originate from the external environment. All the decisions and actions taken by the managers of the company in all the areas of the organization are affected by the economic factors.

The technology used at Kraft affects the environment and ecological aspects of the business. The technological changes affect quality standards of a product and affect the price of the product. The ingredients at Kraft Foods are developed through bio technology. Genetically modification of food products have received mixed reaction from scholars who believe that nanotechnology can be used to replace such products.

Religious beliefs, nationality and culture also affect consumption hence influencing demand of food products. The demographics clearly state that brand awareness differs depending on factors such as income distribution. Kraft Foods sells pork free products to the Middle East and Arab countries.

Internal environment PERT analysis is helpful in preparing for a SWOT analysis which involves the internal assessment of the weaknesses, strength, opportunities and threats within the internal environment of a business (Pahl, Richter and University of Applied Science Berlin, 2007). We can now see how SWOT analysis was is used analyze the internal environment of the company.


When analyzing the strength, the study showed that Kraft Foods is currently at the top of all the companies in the food industry. It is the best company in the United States that deals with food products however, it is challenged globally by Nestle making it second best in the world.

This improved revenue gives the company a competitive advantage over the other closer companies who belong to the same industry. The position that the company enjoys also helps it maintain its customer base because human beings like associating with successful entities

A financial report in 2009 shows that Kraft Foods’ revenue grew by 4.30 % room the previous year. Another strength that this organization has is that it has various leading brands of food and beverages. It produces snacks, beverages, cheese and dairy milk. It also provides grocery and convenient meals loved by most consumers.

We will write a custom Essay on Kraft Foods Group: strategic decisions specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A strong research and development centre has contributed to the high reign of the company in the food industry. The company has established 11 research and development centers where experienced food scientists all over the world connect through the internet as they track each other’s activities and progress.


Despite all these strengths, the company has limited variety of products as compared to its competitors. It also lacks a marketing strategy that can help it compete with Nestle and CognAgra Foods. Kraft food has tried so many times to launch new products but they have not come up with new products not just enough for competition.

For purposes of expansion, the company can dwell more on the new products but still gives its consumer the previous products with a view of changing their consuming habit. The company creates opportunities when it the products available in the market

In Europe, the company experiences low demand because it is busy expanding new markets. It generates most of its profit in North America. The leading food manufacturer, Nestle, is stiff because Europeans do not use Kraft. Such stiff competition causes customers to try other brands because they do not see any difference in their preferred choice.

Other multinational companies that produce chocolate also create a stiff competition to this company especially in the United Kingdom. The varieties of products give the companies an added advantage in the market.


Apart from reducing the risk of concentrating on few products, creating various category of food enables Kraft’s Food to survive in the competitive environment. It provides the company with an opportunity to compete in various categories. International markets also provide opportunities for Kraft Food to increase its customer base. The company operates in oevr 150 states but has its main target in the United States of America.

Recently, Cadbury Shareholders allowed Kraft foods to acquire it in a $19 billion deal giving the company an opportunity to take control of food industry in the United Kingdom (Great Britain, 2011).

By formulating “better-for-you” options, the company shows that they are concerned with people’s health. Consumers need products with less sodium, fat and calories giving Kraft Food an opportunity to impress the consumers and give them what they want. Kraft currently markets world’s most trusted brands.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Kraft Foods Group: strategic decisions by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Threats

Competition in the food industry is itself a threat to Kraft Foods. Sara Lee North American Retail, CognAgra Foods and Nestle provide stiff competition to the organization. Currently, there is a struggle for market penetration in China and India in the food industries. Kraft feels under pressure because of industry consolidation that happens across the globe.

Companies that consolidate have a large customer base and higher market share creating a challenge to Kraft Foods. Once the market share has been hindered from expanding, the purpose of a business looses meaning. This is the main reason why the managers are unable to outdo Nescafe which is the currently best food products.

The weakening of US dollars also contributes to the slow growth of the company. When the dollar weakens against a country’s currency, importing raw materials becomes difficult and expensive. All These results to the increased cost of goods and revenue shrink. The volatile cost of goods and services resist the company’s efforts to implement marketing strategies.

Recommendation It is crucial for the company’s management team to implement strategies that help survive in a business environment. The company needs to adopt a Competitive price strategy to outdo competitors such as Nestle.

The competitive strategy gives the company a chance to penetrate its competition. In order to improve the public relations of the company, managers can sponsor music shows and event as they have already done with Kraft Music Revenue.

The recommendations were mostly done by considering the weakness and threats this organization faces. The study therefore leads to discovery of missing key elements in implementation process of the organization. Through a differential strategy, the company can catch up with the emerging markets.

Natural products free from chemicals can be produced more by adopting nanotechnology instead of producing genetically modified products. This differential strategy enhances customer loyalty to their brand hence the company will increase its customer base. The company should also provide quality standard products that are attract more consumers in order to manage its competitors especially in Europe.

The company should implement focus strategy where most of its activities are based on food products. The structure of the organization should be market specific to allow the consumers recognize with the trade mark (Ireland, Hoskisson and Hitt, 2008). The business should focus on corporate level strategy where all its roles are linked to the goals and objectives.

The company should also have full control of the activities within the supply chain in order to track whate happens at every step of operation. This move can help the company have a large market share in countries such as China, Russia and Brazil.

The company should consider participating in global collaboration of its food products. Apart from sustainability strategy, the company needs to collaborate with the consumers, distributers and partners In order to know the sectors that need improvement.

Conclusion Kraft vision works on becoming the best in the whole world. Their brands are present everywhere giving them a chance to reign in the market in the United States of America (Warren, 2008). By creating a consistent growth, the company has an exploitable consistence growth. Wise decisions made by the management team such as sponsoring music concerts have improved the public relations.

The company has more strengths and weaknesses which can be combined with all the opportunities in order to fight the emerging threats such as stiff competition. Kraft foods can do better than they are currently once the recommended strategies are implemented.

References Great Britain. (2011). Is Kraft working for Cadbury?: Report, together with formal minutes, oral and written evidence. London: Stationery Office.

Ireland, R. D., Hoskisson, R. E.,


Advantages and Disadvantages of Project Management Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Project management is a unique process of doing things in the most appropriate manner. It is a special process that is used to plan, operate, and monitor projects. Its major objectives are achieving project goals effectively and solving specific problems. It is the way of managing changes to meet some specific obligations through the introduction of new ideas or improving the existing ones.

It focuses on controlling the introduction of desired change by planning what need to be done, when, by whom, and at what standard.

The managers are responsible of overseeing the project through team building, coordinate the work of different people, and monitoring how the work is done until the final results are attained. Project management has both advantages and disadvantages thus the managers need to maximize on advantages as they minimize on the disadvantages.

The first advantage of employing project management is that it yields to efficiency in service delivery. This is because it provides a direction to be followed to get to completion easily. Project management helps in forecasting the areas that can cause delays and plan on how they can be avoided before the commencement of the project.

They help in estimating the scenarios that are likely to occur and therefore, the managers can decide on the appropriate cause of action to take to ensure there is efficiency and effectiveness in operations. This facilitates customer satisfaction, which ensures that the business create a wider market share that in turn increases profitability.

Project management tools facilitate the development and maintenance of artifacts such as project schedule. This helps in analyzing complex situation that would take long to analysis without the aid of these tools. They ease the process of recording, linking and analyzing data thus ensuring smooth flow of the project within designated project stages.

Another advantage is that management projects facilitate objective comparison of alternative actions by providing repeatable results. Managers can apply the same strategies that contributed to successful completion of one project to other projects in the future without rigidity because they leave room for flexibility. The managers can opt to take another direction if they discover a better method of improving the project.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This increases the chances of the quality and quantity of production since implementing the basic project management strategies helps in narrowing focus. When the focus is directed to some specific and achievable goals, they can be attained at a reasonable time span and within the budgeted costs.

The main disadvantages associable with project management are of overheads, obsession, and lack of creativity. Overheads that relate to Project management include cost, time, and communication overheads. Cost overheads are financial obligations that need to be met to ensure that the project is carried out effectively.

Organization need to hire more managers who ensure that the project is carried out appropriately, and the required outcome is achieved. There are direct costs that are involved in training the project managers, developing programs, and changing the organization to align with the project demands.

Communication overheads increase due to the introduction of another level in the management team that breaks the flow of information. The information ceases to move from functional manager to team manager, but a third department of project manager is involved. Time overheads come as a result of delayed communication and other protocols that need to be followed.

Obsession is in the mind of the project managers. It can be methodology, process, or stakeholder obsession. In most cases, obsession is triggered by the fear of loss of control and other insecurities from the managers. Lack of creativity can be procedural or administrative.

Procedural non-creativity results from rigid procedures and fixed time span being set to perform tasks. Administrative non-creativity comes as a result of following the set procedures without improving.

In conclusion, project management can be both advantageous and disadvantageous to the company. Managers responsible in running project management should be keen to ensure that the project work for the best of the company. this is achieved by ensuring that they maximize on advantages and develop ways to minimize on disadvantages.

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Comparison between Theories: Realism vs. Liberalism Research Paper cheap essay help

Overview of realism and liberalism Liberalism and realism are among the theories that are commonly used in political science in explaining the relations between players in the international political scene. The assumptions of the two theories contradict each other.

While realism is taken to portray pessimism in the relations between states in the international system, liberalism depicts optimism and positivism in as far as the relations and goals of states in the international system are concerned. Realism depicts competition in the relations between states.

According to the proponents of realism, every action in the relation between states is guided by the urge to pursue and promote the interests of a given nation state. Nation states act to safeguard their interest, which implies that the action of any state is geared towards safeguarding the interest of that state.

They care less about the interests of other nation states. On the other hand, liberalism depicts a change in the international scene that aims to enhance interaction between nation states in various aspects of development. Liberalism depicts optimism in the domestic and international affairs.

Liberalism as a philosophy in political economics focuses on the change in policies and legislation in order to promote the development of nation states. Liberalism concerns the search for a means of embracing freedom and openness in the participation of nations in political, social and economic affairs.

Liberalism, realism and the concept of power There exist a substantial number of theories that seek to explore the concept of power in domestic and international relations. Power is one of the key concepts that dictate the relation between states on the international system.

Liberalism and realism are two key theories that depict two pictures that coexist, yet they are different in theory. Realism and liberalism differ in the manner in which they depict power in the relation between actors on the domestic and international scene.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More One critical thing about realism and liberalism is that they confide and believe in the need for power by actors Lukes (2005). However, there is a difference in the manner in which the two theories expresses the channels of pursuing power by the actors.

Realism and the comprehension of power

According to Wechsler (2010), realism is a theory that is two dimensional. The theory was advanced in the mid of the 20th century by Hans Morgenthau. The development period of this theory is critical to understanding the dimension of the theory in explaining the concept of power. The theory was developed at a time when the world was witnessing a vacuum in the balance of power, which was created by the Second World War.

Realism can be comprehended from the 19th century European politics where power was one of the main issues that brought about conflict between European nations. The 19th century Europe was characterized by numerous wars and territorial conquests.

These developments entered the 20th century and developed through the mid of the 20th century. The balance of power was the key center of friction between the United States and the Soviet Union during the cold war. The current political developments in international relations, therefore, cannot be separated from the concept of power (Lukes, 2005).

Realism, which is confounded on the antecedents of power by the states, is quite pessimistic when it comes to the issue of power modalities by states. This is backed by the contemporary developments in the international political economy, where each actor uses various tools to consolidate power. Realism believes that power is strongly founded in military dominance of a given state over other states.

The acquisition, exercise and consolidation of military power is the main goal of states, thus most of the actions in relations between states justify the search for power and the need to increase power of states.

According to realism, the recent wars that have been waged by the United States on other states, for example the US war on Iraq and the US war in Afghanistan are forms of actions that portray power through military dominance (Lukes, 2005).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Comparison between Theories: Realism vs. Liberalism specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The struggle for power and subsequently war are brought about by the search for power, which is the core dilemma of realism. There are a number of developments that have emerged in international politics, which seem to draw away the linear view about the interest of states. Global politics can no longer be solely explained by basing on a single attribute of power as opined by the proponents of realism (Williams, 2006).

Realistic schools of thought that seek to broaden the attributes of power in international politics include neo-realism, which tries to depict the international system as an interactive system where power is not solely based on military dominance as opined by the realism school of thinkers.

However, the status of anarchy as opined by realists cannot be completely wished away in as far as sovereignty continues to be one of the main pillars that define a state. It is argued that a substantial number of realists have already ascended to the assumption that the status of anarchy is a factor that cannot be ignored in the relations between states (Jackson


Scientific and technical education for ESL students Exploratory Essay essay help: essay help

Course Introduction This is an Intermediate ESP (English for Specific Purposes) course for ESP learners in their 1st term in their 1st Year at the Industrial Secondary School in Najran, Saudi Arabia. This course is designed to introduce students to the more “technical” aspects of the English language in order for them to acquire a level of proficiency in both verbal and nonverbal communication utilizing technical jargon and concepts.

The inherent necessity of such an endeavor is based on the subject matter of the Industrial Secondary School which consists of electronics, computer science, electrical engineering and general automotive design. This mixed curriculum requires students to familiarize themselves with a wide assortment of technical terminologies and processes which are written in the English language (Carrió-Pastor, 2009).

Familiarity with such concepts is essential in order to properly apply the lessons that are to be taught to them. To ensure that students will have ample time to develop technical English proficiency, the course duration will encompass 15 weeks with an average of 60 hours of teaching. Each class will be composed of 25 to 35 students with ages ranging from 16 to 18 years old.

Students have been classified as possessing a lower intermediate level of English and, as such, transitory periods will be necessary in order to ease students into the different topics that will be covered in this course. Overall, this course is designed to increase technical English competency and proficiency to prepare the students of the Industrial Secondary School to understand and apply the lessons that they will be taught.

Overview of Aims and Objectives The aims and objectives of this course focus primarily on the framework advocated by (Robinson (2011) when it comes to teaching the technical aspects of the English language to ESL students.

This involves aspects related to understanding the context of the verbage, internalizing the use of technical terminologies, applying practical use of the terminologies being taught and lastly an evaluation of core competencies through writing, listening, grammar and speaking to determine the current level of understanding of the learner (Robinson, 2011).

Through such methods of learning and evaluation, both the student and the teacher will be able to understand the current level of progress the student has in internalizing the lessons on technical English and where improvements need to be made (Bokor, 2011).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More By the end of this course, it is expected that the students will be able to perform the following:

be able to read and understand text in technical English and respond verbally or orally to the prompts of the text

Write extensive responses to a set of given technical text to the extent that the response shows a level of insight and clarity into how particular types of technical jargon are meant to be utilized

is able to respond both verbally and non-verbally in a grammatically correct manner with technical terms and jargon

lastly, the student should be able to converse with another student utilizing technical jargon in a means that makes sense, shows proficiency and the ability to contextualize what the jargon means based on the situation that the conversation took place in.

Context and Needs Analysis The definition of the context for this course is based on the following factors: people, classroom settings, teaching resources, time, and the nature of the course. In total, the overall duration is set at 15 weeks and will held every Tuesday and Thursday from 9am in the morning till 10am. The course will be held at the Najran Secondary Institute in Saudi Arabia with all the necessary fees and expenses being paid by the students.

A traditional teaching method will be utilized over the duration of the course involving a classroom setting which is teacher-fronted. It is expected that each individual class will consist of 25 to 35 students all of which have a low to mid intermediate level of understanding involving the English language.

This course is considered mandatory for all students that which to progress to their second term at the Najran Secondary Institute due to the necessity of being able to learn and apply, both verbally and nonverbally, the various technical elements of the subjects that they will learn.

Before proceeding, it should be noted that since this course is being taught to students who do not utilize English as their primary language then it can be considered as a type of Target Language development course under the context of teaching students how to properly learn, understand and apply technical jargon and phrases in the English language.



What were the implications of Germany’s reunification for France and how did Francois Mitterrand respond to it Dissertation a level english language essay help

Introduction Francois Mitterrand was born in France at a place called Jarnac in the year 1916. He rose to become the 21st president of France and the longest serving president that France has ever had. During his formative years, he was a student at the Paris University where he studied political science and law. During the Second World War, Mitterrand served in the French army as a soldier.

He was discharged after he was injured during the war. Francoise Mitterrand was known to be a very controversial figure in France politics. However, regardless of this fact, he was able to be elected as the first left wing president of France leading through his Socialist party. Before his election as the French president, Mitterrand had held different ministerial positions for a long time.

He had thus established himself as a political heavy weight in France. Mitterrand’s presidency was full of controversies, which were mostly unearthed after his retirement. It was revealed that, during his time as the president, he formed an anti-terror unit to monitor and obtain information from journalists as a way of keeping his family life secretive.

This group was later found to have engaged in an illegal tapping and eavesdropping exercise as part of their duty to hide the president’s secrets. The paper presents the implications of Germany’s reunification for France showing how Francois Mitterrand responded to it. However, it will first offer the challenges that France encountered at the dawn of the reunification.

The Challenges that France Faced in the Wake of German Reunification While under Charles De Gaul and Francois Mitterrand, France had developed into one of the strongest European economies. However, under the Gaullist policies, it was meant to be the strongest European power. Francois Mitterrand was working towards a European integration, which eventually became the European Union.

The French people were opposed to German reunification because they felt that a fast unification, as it was happening in the year 1989-1990, would complicate matters for the French agenda in Europe (Sarotte 2011, p. 257). Eastern Germany was an impoverished nation under the communist policies that had held back its development for so many years. The Soviet Union was the main benefactor for East Germany.

For some time, it had withdrawn its support to the nation. Even with the support that it was supposed to offer, its efforts in Germany were very poor thus making East Germany suffer the fate of many communist states (Larrabee 1989, p. 38). The economic and monetary unification that France was vouching for would therefore be jeopardised if Germany would be unified.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Eastern Germany was so left behind in terms of development that even its housing structures were those of 1949. It would therefore require massive injection of capital to raise its status for the country to be integrated in the envisaged European Union.

This matter was a great challenge to France because it would be more expensive to undertake the integration with East and West Germany as one nation. According to Blitz(2009), those fears were confirmed after the integration because, to date, the Western part of Germany that was previously the more prosperous of the two has always had to transfer funds for the development of the eastern part of Germany (p. 2).

Such were the fears of the French people that an early integration would destabilise their plans for a unified European community. France’s opposition to Germany reunification was informed by the fact that the Soviet Union’s president Mikhail Gorbachev had informed it (France) that it would lead to a security risk (Tiersky 1995, p. 8).

Gorbachev had indicated that the unification of Germany would lead to a coup de tat in the Soviet Union. It would lead to disintegration of the member states. According to Tiersky (1995), this case would pose a very challenging problem to the whole Eastern European block of countries as well as to France (p. 9). Therefore, France had to be very careful in its approach towards German unification.

The prospect of security risks led to the French government opting for a distant approach towards German reunification, which was later on interpreted as being opposed to Germany’s reunification. The stability of the region and France’s domination of the regions both economically and politically gave France a good reason to have fear on the reunification (Newman 2010, p. 155).

Although it cannot be rightly concluded that France was opposed to German reunification, it can be rightly proved that France had great reservations on this issue. The prospect of the Eastern Europe collapsing posed a very great challenge to Frances’ economy as well as its security as Meirs (2002, p. 211) reveals. French leadership was seen to be divided on whether to support the reunification or not.

The then French President Francois Mitterrand observed this move through the sent out mixed signals. President Mitterrand would verbally support the reunification. Nevertheless, his actions would relay a different message.

We will write a custom Dissertation on What were the implications of Germany’s reunification for France and how did Francois Mitterrand respond to it specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This strategy was played out when Mitterrand would visit East Germany as a way of supporting its existence as well as visit President Gorbachev whose country (the Soviet Union) controlled East Germany (Cogan 2011, p. 258). Although France was hesitant towards German unification, it was just a matter of time before the two countries were reunified.

Mitterrand recognised that this would take place eventually, and was anxious for this reason that a unified Germany should be well integrated into the European Community before it was unified. The most challenging bit for France to cope with was the timing for the unification because France rather preferred a delayed reunification of the two countries though it did not have a plan for the same.

The delayed reunification was based on France’s need to keep Germany in a certain control so that Germany does not have total control of its affairs and those of the region. The French people insisted that Germany joins the Euro currency when it is formed.

The Bundesbank was an independent entity that had succeeded for a long time in controlling inflation by giving short-term interest rates thus making it a strong bank of influence within Europe. It was very independent of the government, a fact that made it a target of politicians who felt its interest rates were not appropriate (Morys 2003, p. 3).

Thus, the main challenge that this condition faced was whether Germany would abide by it and thus the uncertainties (Jabko 2010, p. 324). France had for a long time resisted American influence in Europe. Mitterrand started leaning towards forming a strong relationship with Germany thus seeking to have control of the unification so that it happens according to his terms (Fitchett 1996).

Belikins (2011) posits that the Americans supported the reunification. As France did, they opted for a slow process whose conclusion did not have timelines (p. 664). This issue was a challenge to France because it (France) hinged Germany’s reunification to some of its programs. Any uncertainties would mean uncertainties on its ambitious programs.

According to Sarrote (2011), France did not have any underlying problems with German reunification. All it did was just to follow in the path of the other leader’s opinion. France did not need to have its own opinion on the issue. (p. 258). Another challenge that France faced was during the negotiations for a unified Germany.

The then German Chancellor Helmut Kohl surprised everyone when he came out with a ten-point road map that was outside the negotiations being carried out. This case definitely threw France and other countries into a spin because that move was much unexpected and hence a challenge to France because it strived to have control of the situation. Being caught off guard was the least it expected (Ver Net 1992, p. 658).

Not sure if you can write a paper on What were the implications of Germany’s reunification for France and how did Francois Mitterrand respond to it by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The devaluation of the mark would surely affect the franc (outflows of capital towards Germany plus increase of German exports towards France). France rushed to create the monetary union. Jacques Delors planned it in 1988. Apart from sharing economic power with Germany, France took the move with the hope that further political integration would ensue.

Was German Reunification a Threat to Francois Mitterrand? Francois Mitterrand had modelled France along the Gaullist policies in that he wanted to make France the superpower of Europe. In doing so, he aligned France to America and therefore became America’s ally in Europe. Francois-led France was still living in the after World War II fear. One of the biggest fears was the emergence of Germany to its pre-war capabilities.

The abilities of Germany were seen in the way the West Germany economy had been developed based on its strength that was equal to countries such as Britain and France. Mitterrand’s fears were that, if Germany was allowed to reunite, it would become even more powerful than before. Mitterrand had an ally to this case in Britain’s Margaret Thatcher who was also totally and openly opposed to the reunification of Germany.

According to Blitz(2009), Mitterrand was fearful of Germany reunification where he was quoted in lately unclassified documents as having told Thatcher that a unified Germany would be much worse that the Hitler’s Germany.(p. 9).Its enemies had not forgotten Germany’s military prowess during the war. This knowledge did not escape Mitterrand who himself fought in the war as a prisoner of it at some point.

Therefore, Mitterrand had genuine fears that Germany’s reunification was a threat that had to be controlled before it got out of control. To this fact, history was on his side. Thus, he had all the reasons to fear. Going back to the period after the First World War, European nations adopted an appeasement policy towards Germany, which had suffered war reparations disbursement as the then main aggressor.

Germany took advantage of this situation to reorganise its military for further war thus leading to the Second World War. Therefore, Mitterrand worked against chances that could lead to the same mistake that led to the Second World War. Francois Mitterrand had come up with a grand scheme of how he envisioned the construction of Europe (Sarrote 2011, p. 258).

The vision that Mitterrand had was the backbone of France’s foreign policy. France, being the major power then, did not want to cede that control to another power, or have it diluted. According to the New York Times of 7th December 1989, Mitterrand is quoted after a meeting with Mikhail Gorbachev as saying that the reunification of Germany would pose a danger to the delicate balance in Europe (Neith 1989, p. 22).

This balance simply meant it would interfere with the already set power structures in Europe. France had cut a niche for itself as a powerhouse in Europe. Mitterrand felt that this balance was going to be disturbed by the entry of Germany, which would equally be a powerhouse.

In his address after meeting Gorbachev in Kremlin, Mitterrand stated that the unification of Germany was a danger to the European stability and that European stability was a priority (Neith, 1989, p. 22). Being the president of France, Mitterrand was individually threatened by the situation because it would water down his powers on the European stage. He therefore had to work hard to either stop or slow down the reunification.

One of Mitterrand’s goals for Europe was the integration of European countries in to a single block. This deliverable was Mitterrand’s dream as he was determined to see it materialise. This integration would be slowed down if Germany were to reunite because of the economic conditions of East Germany.

How was the French Foreign Policy Affected by the Reunification? The reunification of Germany as it happened in the period 1989-1990 had so many ramifications to Europe because it led to the tipping of power balances in Europe. The French government was one of the most affected entities in the whole power play because of the central role it had given itself in the European affairs.

Under Francois Mitterrand, France as the biggest power in Europe then bestowed on itself the onus of setting the agenda for Europe thus entrenching it in its foreign affairs policy (Meirs 2002, p. 196).

The change in the situation led to a change in the French foreign policy, which was the backbone of Mitterrand’s approach towards the leadership of Europe. Moisi (1981) finds that French foreign policy was to be at the forefront of Europe to provide leadership as much as possible (p. 349).

This strategy had to change with the entry of a united Germany, which was going to hold sway in many matters that the French had monopolised long before. The French foreign policy had therefore to change and accommodate a unified Germany and the changes that it would come as a result.

French foreign policy up to that point was that Germany should not be reunited because it would pose a threat to the European bloc of countries. This stance however had to change because Germany became reunited and had therefore to be accorded all the full respect.

The French foreign policy on the integration of the European countries therefore had to change, with the process being done with the inclusion of a united Germany as Tiersky(1992, p. 136) reveals. German integration within Europe was the outmost priority of France prior to the reunification.

Only after releasing East Germany would the reunification happen, which would later on accommodate Germany when it becomes reunified. This policy had to change in that the reunification of Germany and the integration of Europe had to happen at the same time. France had to start viewing Germany as an equal partner with equal influence (Irondell 2008, p. 156).

This view had to happen with a change of policy about foreign matters. Before the reunification of Germany, France had a lot of say in matters to do with Germany by virtue of it being one of the four powers that controlled Germany’s sovereignty. Germany’s reunification therefore changed matters when it came to interaction between the two countries because, from then onwards, they became equals.

America too added a new dimension to the reunification equation when it started considering Germany ahead of France after a while because Germany had great financial muscles because of a strong mark. This perception however had to change after the integration of European countries into using one currency (Euro).

The reunification of Germany was just part of a domino effect taking place in Europe especially with the collapse of the Soviet Union and other communist states because it would lead to freeing up of many other states that would join an integrated Europe (Sarrote 2012).

At the same time, the European countries were moving into integration, which meant a new approach to the way things were to be handled at the foreign desk. The French foreign affairs policy was Gaullist in nature in that it put France at the centre of all European matters in terms of diplomacy as well as security.

France therefore moved its focus away from Europe and started strengthening its tie with its allies outside Europe (Belkin 2011, p. 670). It moved its influence where it could be better felt by bringing its former colonies closer to it. This influence can be seen when France moved to strengthen regimes it supported such as the Habyarimana regime in Rwanda and others in North Africa.

This movement should be noted as a search for places where it could influence without so much competition (Vernet 1992, p. 657). The French foreign policy moved from being the leader to being the member but only after integrating the European countries to form a European commission.

France changed the way it viewed other countries because it realised with time that it had lost its position as America’s most preferred ally due to the collapse of the Soviet Union, which led to the collapse of the cold war too. With this crumple, France usefulness had been diminished. Its importance on some crucial matters no longer counted. Thus, it had to reinvent itself.

According to Belkin, France moved from its approach of pushing agenda on its own to adopt a policy that would allow it to influence the European Union in driving its agenda for Europe and the world at large. The change of approach here is the hand in glove approach whereby the European Union is used to drive France’s agenda on the big stage (p.672).

How did this Development Fit in with France’s Plan to have an Integrated and Independent Europe? France powers, though partially diminished with the entry of Germany as an alternative power, remained a force to reckon with within Europe (Irondell 2008, p. 157). To consolidate its position within Europe, it spearheaded the formation of a monetary and economic union between countries in Europe.

France led other countries to the formation of the European Commission, which brought European countries’ membership as an economic zone and an exclusive club. This strategy enabled France to retain some of its influence that was lost during the unification of Germany and the breakdown of the Soviet Union.

France was still able to instil order in Europe by waving the admission carrot to non-member countries that wished to join the union or commission. According to Schaefer (2012, p. 175), France remained one of the leading countries in Europe politically because it was still strong economically and politically.

The change in foreign policy did not therefore change much in France’s operations on the European stage because they were not drastic. The entry of Germany on to the European stage as a unified country can be viewed as having cut France’s powers to some extent. Previously, France had a so much say when it came to European matters. However, with the entry of Germany, this say became limited.

It has to do with a shared platform of power because Germany was equally powerful. France’s plan to have an integrated Europe remained on course as planned because it was able to bring many European countries under the economic commission as well as under the European Union.

This plan remained as it had been set before. It was therefore achieved. France’s change in diplomacy did not change its vision for Europe so much although it is known to have caused a change to its approach towards matters to do with Europe. Whereas it controlled everything previously, the entry of Germany led it to use its influence on other forums such as the European Union.

According to Pyeongeok (2006),France took the earliest opportunity to commit Germany to a monetary union as a way of controlling the Germans (p. 113). The German mark had become one of the strongest currencies in Europe if not on the world stage. Therefore, if allowed to continue, it would greatly undermine the French people’s efforts to call shots on matters integration.

In their smart way through their president Francois Mitterrand, the French citizens committed the Germans into entering the monetary union that would see all countries use the same currency. This strategy was in tandem with the French foreign policy of spearheading the European integration, which it was able to achieve. Although France remained economically strong, it could no longer call all the shots in Europe.

It therefore had to work with Germany in putting the European house in order. France had to start working with Germany as a partner and more so an equal collaborate (Belkin 2010, p. 178). It had to pull the Germans on its side for it to achieve anything on the European stage because Germany was very strong politically and economically and that it was able to pull strings here and there even without the input of the French.

Therefore, for France to achieve its European dream, it started working together with Germany. The Breakdown of the Soviet Union and subsequent disintegration of the communist regimes led to a shift in power from France. The entry of Eastern Europe states into the European Union further weakened France’s hold on to power because it simply empowered other nations from Eastern Europe at the expense of France.

Although France had envisioned an integrated Europe, its vision was based on the opinion that it would be at the helm and control of other countries as it used before but now in an organised manner. This issue though did not happen entirely as France had planned, but still achieved the intended result.

According to Belkin (2011), there was a shift in power when other Eastern European countries became independent to join the European Union (p. 672). The U.S, which was France’s greatest ally, also shifted its position in Europe by making new allies for strategic reasons. Previously, France was America’s best ally after the world war and during the cold war era because of France’s strategic placement on the European stage.

This link had to change because the collapse of the cold war saw a great shift in alliances with former communist countries opening up to western ideologies by moving away from communism to capitalism way of governance (Belikin 2010, p. 202). This move affected France so much because it could not be viewed anymore as the focal point in the European matters.

This perception however did not change France’s resolutions. It remained influential on the European stage. To date, France’s influence still looms large because many changes are dependent on France’s backing for them to happen. France remains one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. It therefore has veto powers to pull.

This strategy has worked well for its foreign policy because many countries in Europe would always want it to be on its side when it comes to matters on the world stage. France’s seat at the United Nations has given it enormous powers to wield on the world stage. It has thus used its powers to influence the decisions of bodies such as the United Nations as well as NATO.

This move has remained in tandem with its foreign policy of influencing the happenings on the European stage as well as on the world stage (Belkin 2010, p. 202). Although France had planned to have an independent and integrated Europe, it could not achieve all because of the power changes that happened later.

For instance, Americans started moving away from France thus acquiring new allies from the former communist regimes for strategic purposes. This strategy can be viewed as a move to undermine France resolution for a unified Europe. Brown (1983) finds that, to the Americans, a unified Europe could be too powerful as it could have a lot of influence on world matters at the expense of America (p. 6).

Therefore, America’s move to get new allies greatly undermined France’s wish for a unified Europe. France had viewed Germany’s reunification as a threat to Europe’s integration. The threat that was later to be discarded.

Germany’s reunification later played a big role in the integration of Europe and the allayed fears that it could derail it. Although Germany was to be integrated in Europe, this union was to happen later on and not immediately. However as Sarrote (2012) puts it, the success of Europe’s integration depended on Germany reunification. Europe’s integration could not work out without Germany’s involvement.

However, according to Francois Mitterrand, he had hoped to rope in Germany later (p. 76). However, as things turned out, Germany’s reunification happened together with the supposed integration of the European Union.

German’s reunification can also be seen as a blessing to France’s efforts to build a strong European community because, since Germany reunified, it has been able to take a big role on the European stage in matters to do with the integration of other European countries into the Euro zone.

Germany’s entry into the big stage came with advantages of its partnership with France in ensuring a strong and integrated Europe. Germany eased some burden off France because France was initially taking care of so many things that were a bit strenuous to it. Germany’s cooperation with France simply enabled it(France) to move forward its ideas on integration.

Once the idea was sold to Germany, it became a common purpose now for the two countries to take care (Jabko 2010, p. 321). Germany has been a partner with France on matters to do with Europe.

This collaboration should therefore be positively upheld from its reunification position. In the recent times, Germany has been at the forefront of leading the European world in terms of taking care of the financial crisis faced by other countries. Germany has been at the head during Greece financial meltdown where was looked upon to provide leadership as well as financial aid to the Greek economy.

Francois Mitterrand’s Decisions His Opposition to German Reunification

Francois Mitterrand was opposed to German reunification because of many reasons that he only knew about because he was never explicit in his opposition to the situation. In the many times he spoke in public, he was in favour of Germany’s reunification. However, in private, he voiced his views in total opposition of the same.

Mitterrand’s opposition to Germany’s reunification can be attributed to two factors: personal pride as a French leader and outside pressure. Mitterrand as the French president had his pride in being the leader of the strongest western allied European power from where a lot of supremacy came in deciding the course of Europe (Tiersky 1992, p. 322).

Therefore, his opposition to German reunification can be attributed to his own desire for self-preservation of powers that came with being a French president. Mitterrand pursued the Gaullist policy that sought to influence the course of Europe’s progress on the world stage. He therefore took it personally to fulfil that dream, which on the other hand was being threatened by the reunification of Germany (Cogan 2011, p. 258).

Germany’s reunification would definitely tilt the balance of power to topple France from the top, which would be hurtful to the French leadership especially to Mitterrand. The second decision that made Francois Mitterrand oppose the Germany reunification was the post world war fear that almost everyone had about Germany.

Both leaders and citizens feared that a united Germany would go back to reclaim its lost territory and assume its pre-war status. The fear of Germany falling back to its Hitler days could not be ignored (Pyeongeok 2006, p. 114). This revelation explains the mortal fear that not only he had on a unified Germany but also the fear that was shared by many other European citizens.

The ability of Germany to cause chaos and destabilise the world peace was known. No world leader was ready for another world war if it was to come by Germany reunification. This position informed his decision to oppose reunification of Germany because of the threats it posed in case it was reunified.

Although the thought of Germany going back into another war can be described as alarmist to some extent and a veil for Mitterrand’s opposition to Germany’s reunification, Mitterrand nevertheless used it successfully to woo Margaret Thatcher, the British prime minister, to his side of the viewpoint.

His pursuit for Integration

Mitterrand’s pursuit for integration was meant to place France at the top of the European table to enable France to dictate the pace of Europe’s development. Mitterrand had a grand plan for Europe’s construction. He could only implement it if he was in a position to influence the political and economic arena of Europe. He designed a plan for integration so that he would tie countries in Europe to a single economic block.

From this point, he could therefore influence economic and political decisions made concerning Europe. This power led him to pursue policy of integration to the extent that he felt Germany should not be reunited then so that his policy is not derailed. America had come out as a strong country after the war. It was seen to be influencing so many matters that were then happening in Europe.

This over reliance on America for directions seemed to upset Mitterrand who prided himself of being French. He therefore mooted the idea of integration to come up with a strong European block that would control the affairs of Europe from within it. Although integration was seen to be threatened by the German reunification, it eventually happened without a hitch.

So much was Mitterrand’s pursuit of integration that he made sure it happened even after the reunification of Germany. This strategy according to the writer was more of a personal ambition than pressure from outside.

Mitterrand’s Support for Reunification

Mitterrand’s support for reunification was based on pressure from outside. Were it within his powers, Germany would not have reunified (Pyeongeok 2006, p.116). The reunification of Germany was based on so many factors held by the four powers that held Germans’ fate in their hands. The four major powers, which had a say in Germany’s sovereignty were America, Soviet Republic, Britain, and Russia.

These four countries had divided Germany between them. The three capitalist nations controlled West Germany while the Soviet Republic controlled the East Germany. Therefore, any decision on the reunification of Germany would be decided by the four countries and that any opposition to the same would be required to have a majority support of the four countries.

At the same time, he had the support of Gorbachev who was not so committed to the continued separation of Germany against the will of its people. Therefore, Mitterrand had to accept the fact and move with the tide. It can therefore be stated that Mitterrand’s decision to support the reunification of Germany was due to external pressures from what other countries were doing.

The main person who had the key to the reunification was Gorbachev because he held the reigns of East Germany. Therefore, the moment he let go East Germany, nothing could stop the reunification. Thus, it was a matter beyond Mitterrand. Although it can be concluded that it was beyond Mitterrand to accept Germany’s unification, he also had a role that he should be credited with playing (Pyeongeok 2006, p. 116).

He made sure that Germans dropped their Mark to join the use of the euro. This strategy was one of the conditions he set and agreed with Helmut Kohl who was the then Chancellor for West Germany. The initiative by Mitterrand to force Germans to drop the Mark was informed by the fact that the Mark had been used for a long time to determine the value of the Franc thus coming out as punishment on the French people.

Therefore, it can be said that the decision to support Germany’s reunification was also based on its dropping of its currency and entering the currency union that used the euro. Therefore, it was not so much support as it was further integration and control of Germany’s economic power since France had suffered from a strong deutschemark, which seemed to control the Franc.

Conclusion In conclusion, Francois Mitterrand can be described as a smart leader who not only led his party and country for a long time but also one who left a very big impact on the politics and economy of Europe. Mitterrand had a grand plan for Europe that he hoped would make the European block the strongest political and economic block in the world.

Although he did not make it to block the reunification of Germany, he took it within his strides by accepting the inevitable and using it to achieve his dreams of having a European union. The structures for the European Union as envisaged by Mitterrand are still at work. The union has taken in with an ongoing plan of admitting new members.

References Belkin, P 2010, ‘France: Factors Shaping Foreign Policy and Issues in U.S French Relations’, Current Politics and Economics of Europe, vol. 21 no. 2/3, pp. 175-210.

Belkin, P 2011, ‘France: Factors Shaping Foreign Policy and Issues in U.S- French Relations’, Congressional Research Service, vol. 1 no. 1, pp. 661-692.

Blitz, J 2009, ‘Paris Feared New Germany after Reunification’, Financial Times, Sept. 8, p. 2.

Bozo, F 2007, ‘Mitterrand’s France, the End of the Cold War and Germany Unification: A Reappraisal’, Cold War History, vol. 7 no. 4, pp. 455-478.

Brown, F 1983, ‘France Between the U.S and the Soviet Union: Toward and Understanding of Mitterrand’s Foreign Policy’, American Foreign Policy Newsletter, vol. 6 no. 3, pp. 1-7.

Cogan, C 2011, ‘Mitterrand France and NATO: The European Transition’, Journal of Transatlantic Studies, vol. 9 no. 3, pp. 257-267.

Jabko, N 2010, ‘The Hidden Face of the Euro’, Journal of European Public Policy, vol. 17 no. 3, pp. 318-334.

Irondell, B 2008, ‘European Foreign Policy: The End of French Europe?’, Journal of European Integration, vol. 30 no. 1, pp. 153-168.

Larrabee, S 1989, ‘Soviet Policy Toward Germany: New Thinking and old Times’ Washington Quarterly, vol. 12 no. 3, pp. 35-51.

Meir, J 2002, ‘A Change of Course? Germany Foreign and Security Policy After Unification’, German Politics, vol. 11 no. 3, pp. 195-216.

Moisi, D 1981, ‘Mitterrand’s Foreign Policy: The Limits of Continuity’, Foreign Affairs, vol. 60 no. 2, pp. 347-357.

Neith, J 1989, ‘Foreign Affairs Desk’, New York Times, Dec. 7, pp. 21-23.

Newman, A 2010, ‘Flight Risk: Unified Germany and Role of Beliefs in the European Response to the Financial Crisis’, Germany Politics and Society, vol. 28 no. 2, pp. 151-164.

Pyeongeok, A 2006, ‘Obstructive all the Way? British Policy Towards Germany Unification 1989-90’, Germany Politics, vol. 15 no. 1, pp. 111-121.

Sarote, M 2011, ‘Mitterrand, the end of Cold War, and German Unification’, Journal of Cold War Studies, vol. 13 no. 4, pp. 257-258.

Sarrote, M 2012, ‘Deciding to be Mars’, Policy Review, vol. 172 no. 1, pp. 71-83.

Schaefer, B 2012, ‘Mitterrand, the End of the Cold War and the German Unification’, Central European History, vol. 45 no. 1, pp. 174-176.

Tiersky, R 1992, ‘France in the New Europe’, Foreign Affairs, vol. 71 no. 2, pp. 131-146.

Tiersky, R 1995, ‘The Mitterrand Legacy and the Future of French Security Policy’, Institute for National Strategic Studies, vol. 1 no. 1, pp.1-5.

Ver Net, D 1992, ‘The Dilemma of French Foreign Policy’, International Affairs, vol. 68 no. 4, pp. 655-664.


LVMH in China’s Domestic Market Qualitative Research Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Methodology

PESTLE Analysis of Competitive Landscape

Hurdles and Obstacles Facing LVMH

Strategy Recommendations for LVMH

Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

Advantages and Disadvantages of Domestic Firms in the Sector

Advantages and Disadvantages of Foreign Firms in the Sector


Reference List

China is emerging as a very attractive international business destination. This situation arises from the growing middle class in the country. In the last two decades, economic growth in the country has spurred it into the limelight as a serious investment destination. Many companies manufacture their products in China because of the competitive labor costs in the country.

The manufacturing boom has contributed to the emergence of an economically empowered middle class. In the recent years, the portfolio of businesses setting up their operations in the country has expanded. The portfolio now includes businesses seeking to take advantage of the Chinese market in addition to its competitively priced labor.

This explains the interest of LVMH in the Chinese market. LVMH is the holding company of several French luxury brands. The company is interested in establishing businesses in China to take advantage of its emerging luxury market.

Any company that tries to enter into the Chinese market must take time to understand the operating environment in the country. The business culture in China is different from the business culture in the West. The Chinese people are historically frugal. Therefore, it is important to take time to understand their needs and expectations.

However, the country’s emerging middle class has a lot in common with any middle class in the world. Therefore, the main issue that a company needs to explore before getting into China is the correct market entry strategy. This report examines the business environment for luxury products in China. It also looks at the internal characteristics of LVMH in order to prepare a strong market entry strategy for the company.

Methodology The method used to meet the two broad objectives of the project was a literature review. Literature review is an acceptable form of research that makes it possible for researchers to evaluate a broad range of issues. The range of issues that required consideration in this case exceeded the number of issues that could be covered using empirical research. This reasoning informed the choice of the research method.

In addition, the resources needed for an empirical research were not available. The second reason for choosing a literature review as the main research method was that a lot of research already existed in relation to the main issues defined in the research objectives.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was unnecessary to carry out research into these issues from the scratch. The primary tools employed in the analysis of the data were the analytical instruments available to strategic planners. These tools include PESTLE Analysis, SWOT Analysis, and Porter’s Five Forces Analysis.

PESTLE Analysis of Competitive Landscape Strategic thinkers use a PESTLE Analysis to conduct environmental analysis as the basis for determining whether an organization has the capacity to interact favorably with its operating environment.

A PESTLE Analysis involves an examination of the political, economic, social, and technological issues in a given location. In addition, strategic planners study the legal framework governing a business environment, coupled with the condition of the physical environment of the area being analyzed.

Two issues characterize the political environment of China. First, the communist government is very keen on controlling the key sectors of the Chinese economy. For instance, the country does not have an exchange rate that rises and fall according to the forces of a free currency market alongside other international currencies.

Instead, the government determines the exchange rate. This issue at times puts foreign companies at a disadvantage. The second issue affecting the Chinese political environment is that the country uses a communist system of government.

In the recent years, the country has started conducting democratic elections at the local level. However, the communist superstructure still allows the central government to control all the political activities in the country. In this regard, regional party officials tend to exert a lot of influence in the conduct of business.

On the economic front, China has experienced unprecedented growth in the last two decades. The country’s economy grew at almost ten percent per annum in the last ten years. This is the leading cause of the emergence of China as a significant market. Prior to the economic boom characterized by unprecedented growth in the manufacturing sector, China’s main attraction was its low cost labor.

We will write a custom Essay on LVMH in China’s Domestic Market specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More International manufacturers set up shop in China to take advantage of its low labor costs. As more companies started manufacturing in China, the disposable income of the Chinese people grew. This turned the country into one of the largest markets in the world. Business is now shifting from manufacturing only, towards taking advantage of the growing market resulting from the emergence of the new middle class in China.

The social situation in China varies depending on the parameters in use. One of the best-known Chinese policies is the one child policy, which prohibits couples from getting more than one child. This policy is also an illustration of the tight control the communist government exerts on the Chinese people. In the recent years, a lot of Western influence has crept into the Chinese social scene.

For instance, China has become the one of the locations that directors from Hollywood plan to launch new blockbusters. The Western pop culture characterized by the idolization of media personalities is also taking root in China.

From a business angle, it means that the Chinese consumers are developing a taste for the Western cultural experience. This is fuelling demand for Western products. This explains the popularity of Western brands such as Apple, and in the recent years, the proliferation of Western style eateries such as MacDonald’s fast food stores.

The technological environment in China is very competitive. The Chinese have invested resources in manufacturing technologies turning it into what a commentator called, “the world’s workshop” .

The dual investment by the Chinese government on high tech production facilities, and the Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) from international investors trying to take advantage of the low labor costs in China, have made China a manufacturing and technology hub.

However, Chinese manufacturers tend to pay little attention to quality control. Unlike Japanese manufacturers who have a strong interest in efficiency through programs like Kaizen, the Chinese tend to compete on cost by making cheaper knock off items to sell them to the poorer masses.

The economy of China is difficult to analyze. The reason for this is that the Chinese government is the only body that releases economic data on China. The data at times seem unrealistic based on estimates made by other economists. In addition, much of the Chinese economy is state controlled.

Not sure if you can write a paper on LVMH in China’s Domestic Market by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For this reason, it is better to develop a business strategy that takes into account these factors. In spite of this, there is consensus that the Chinese economy, together with Brazil, Russia, India, and South Africa (BRICS), is growing very rapidly.

The physical environment in China is a major concern to international environmental agencies. Chinese cities such as Beijing are becoming polluted and have artificial fog brought about by industrial emissions. The state pays some attention to environmental issues, but it prioritizes economic the well-being of the country over environmental conservation.

Rivers and other natural features located in places with high population are becoming polluted. In the rural areas with smaller population densities, the environment is in good condition. In fact, China has some of the most spectacular sceneries such as rivers, waterfalls, mountains, and world life.

These areas can serve as the inspiration for including environmental protection measures as part of the Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) strategy when establishing a business in China.

Hurdles and Obstacles Facing LVMH In order to discuss the hurdles and obstacles that LVMH will need to deal with before making a proper entry into the Chinese market, it is important to review the application of a SWOT Analysis because it is the most suitable tool for this purpose. Hurdles and obstacles to a business constitute the weaknesses and the threats a business must deal with in order to operate successfully in a specific market.

Weakness and threats are two measures within SWOT that examine the difficulties associated with a business situation. Weaknesses are internal issues that bar the company from growing optimally. On the other hand, threats are external issues that the company does not control that can hamper its business objectives.

LVMH, alongside other international brands trading in China have two main weaknesses. The first weakness is that the company has a wide portfolio in a very narrow segment of the Chinese market. Secondly, China is relatively new to luxury spending. Unlike Europe and America, many of the Chinese luxury spenders are people who have recently made money from the changing fortunes of the country.

While the short-term outlook is impressive, the long-term performance of the Chinese luxury market is difficult to predict. If the country runs into any economic problem, the Chinese luxury spenders will revert to their old spending habits. In other words, the new middle class of China is still skilled in frugal living. Those skills will come into play as soon as there is an economic bump.

The situation in the West is different because many luxury spenders grew up in affluent families. They do not know how else to live. If they cannot afford to drive an expensive car, they will look for one that is easier to maintain. In China, the luxury spenders can discard the car all together because they have lived most of their lives without it.

The threats that accost LVMH in China are as follows. First, the brands produced by the company will suffer from threats associated with the counterfeiting of products . The results of counterfeiting include loss of revenue and loss of brand reputation. The counterfeit system in China is one of the most organized counterfeiting operations in the world. Chinese manufacturing capacity does not match its R


Promotional Strategy For The New Water Based Theme Park In Darling Harbor Report college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Introduction and description of the enterprise Darling harbour is one of the recreational sites in Sydney, Australia. There are numerous entertainment and recreations sites at the centre. The main attractions of the harbour are Chinese’s Friendship Garden, Cockle Bay Wharf, IMAX Theatre, aquariums, exhibition centre, shopping centres and museum. The Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority (SHFA) has established an ultra modern water based theme park.

The park will offer entertainment for adults, teenagers and children. The main attraction for the theme parks will be water rides, travelling shows, great sceneries, food services, roll coasters; train rides fireworks, acrobatics, casinos and other forms of amusements.

The theme park is about to open and there is need to carry out a successful promotional campaign so as to attract tourists in Austria as well as from other parts of the world. This paper outlines the promotional strategies for the theme park.

Theme park mission statement The mission statement for this theme park is “to provide high quality amusement, fun and entertainment to all our esteemed customers in Australia and the world in general”

Theme park core values The main core values of the water world theme park are;

Customer focus: all products and services will focus on customers and satisfy their need. The theme park will provide High quality services and products.

Good corporate culture: the theme park promotes teamwork among all stakeholders and employees satisfaction

Safety and enthusiasm: the employees will ensure that the rides and other activities are safe. The ground will also be secured to ensure that there are no loss of property

Compassion and honesty

Theme park objectives To provide high quality services and amusement to the local and international tourists

To be a major tourist attraction in Australia

To earn profits and gain at least 20% of the target market

The promotional campaigns will promote the values, objectives and mission of the theme park (Aaker, 1998). All the promotional messages will be formulated so as to transmit the core values and mission of the park.

Target market analysis and segmentation The main customers for the theme park will be from the local and the international community. In order to identify the target market, the main customers were identified and segmented appropriately (Cateora, Gilly


Promotional report campaign for DMO Report custom essay help

Introduction The report was about a tourism promotion campaign that involved the reopening of the Africa Lion Safari performed by the Greater Western Sydney (GWS) tourism in Warragamba, Sydney in Australia achieved between 2008 and 2012.

The GWS consisted of 14 local government areas (LGA) that comprised of Auburn council, Wallondilly Share, Camden Council, City of Pernith, City of Campbell town, City of Parramatta, City of Bankslown, City of Liverpool, City of Blue mountains, City of Holroyd, City of Fairfield and City of Hawkesbury. The GWS was estimated to have a population of1.9 million according to the 2006 census.

The population covered a locality of over 9000km squared including residential, rural and industrial zones. As the marketing manager of the GWS tourism promotion team, I sent the campaign report to the management team for its consent on the campaign ideas and expenditure.

The marketing strategy comprised of the following subunits; brief discussion of the DMO campaign in terms of size, turnover, visitation, number and occupancy rates and data information, promotion in campaign strategy, target marked profile, competition and channels of distribution (Haney


Importance of continuing ones Education and Professional Development within the Medical/Health care Field Term Paper essay help: essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Why continue Education in the Medical Field


Reference List

Introduction Continuing education has become a crucial endeavor in every academic field as the need for knowledge and expertise continues to be the foundation of professionalism and competitiveness in various business fields.

Continuing education refers to the pursuit of post-secondary programs and activities that are involved therein or registering for non-degree trainings, credit courses for degrees, training of workforce, self-enrichment study courses, self-directed learning, and learning through experience amongst others. Many professions have specific curriculums designed for further studies.

Continuing education therefore falls under a certain classification due to its specificity and the fact that a certificate is issued at the end of it. According to Lea and Jonathan (2012, p. 179), during the course of continuing education, marks are awarded to the scholar in the form of continuing education units. Further studies enable specialists in a certain field to update their knowledge in that field with current information.

For instance, in the law and information technology fields, new knowledge develops each day. Such education is important especially in some fields where information develops very fast due to the dynamics of the profession.

The medical field, which is the basis of the paper, provides a working illustration where new treatment and diagnostic methods are developed every day with the changing characteristics of disease-causing pathogens such as those of malaria and HIV/AIDS.

This paper will therefore focus on continuing education in this area (the medical health field) by specifically expounding on the importance of taking such a move with regard to ones education and professional development in the field.

Why continue Education in the Medical Field The field of medicine stands out as the most sensitive and marketable based on the central role it plays in terms of securing the lives of people. Therefore, it suffices to declare it the best choice for all who wish to continue their education and professionalism. After completion of their formal training, medical professionals enroll for further training.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Further education in medicine aims at maintaining, developing and increasing knowledge, improving the ability to solve problems, acquisition of new technical skills, and improvement of professionalism in performance of duties not only pertaining to medical/health issues but also issues to do with life in general. In some countries such as Canada, further education is a mandatory requirement by the regulatory authorities.

With further education, a physician is trained on how to offer better quality services in his or her field. Lea and Jonathan (2012, p. 179) affirm that continuing education involves various formal education activities such as lecture courses, attending conferences and workshops, distance learning, and directed reading.

Continuing education in the medical/health field enables the physician to keep up-to-date with changes and development in the field that is characterized by dynamism, with various diagnostic and treatment methods changing with time. Medicine and pharmaceuticals administered to patients suffering from various diseases also keep on changing.

Some disease causing pathogens, HIV/AIDS virus for instance, keep on mutating with time. The same shifting process applies to many other diseases and their causative agents. It is therefore important for medical health practitioners to enroll for continuous education and keep themselves updated and thus in touch with the newest health handling procedures.

According to Lucas and Pearson (2012, p. 277), new information on the changing nature of diagnosis and treatment is posted on medical journals, newsfeeds, magazines, and medical books.

For example, if a strain of plasmodium develops resistance to certain malaria medicine, the information is circulated across the region followed by the development of the respective new medicine. Doctors and health professionals who may not be in contact with the new information may end up using any out of date medicine to treat such a disease.

While continuing education, medical professionals also attend seminars and workshops for training on new technological developments and their impact on the field of medicine. Each day, sophisticated tools for medical treatment are developed. Medical engineers keep on mounting modern medical devices in a bid to promote efficiency and effectiveness in the field. Such devices come with a certain operational manual.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Importance of continuing ones Education and Professional Development within the Medical/Health care Field specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is therefore important that medical practitioners learn how to use such devices. Short refresher courses for medical care practitioners are also used to make medical practitioners keep up-to-date with the profession. According to Lucas and Pearson (2012, p. 279), new physicians are taken through various units in clinical medicine, administration, and psychology among other areas.

It is also through seminars and workshops that medical practitioners are reintroduced to professional ethics. Medical professionals in the continuing education program are therefore able to keep abreast with professional ethics in their field. It is also easier for such professionals to observe the regulations put in place by authorities.

When physicians work together in the further studies, they are likely to discover new knowledge in the course of their learning. Such discoveries are realized in the process of research as learners work on projects that are meant to fulfill the required units. For example, a physician who takes on a project in parasitology may end up discovering specific characteristics of a certain parasite in his or her field of study.

Such characteristics may end up making it easier to develop chemicals to kill it or keep it away from human life. Research is the foundation for better medical care. Many discoveries in medicine have been made in the course of further studies in medicine.

Continuing education in the medical field also enables the learner to remain competitive in the field of health care. Lucas and Pearson (2012, p. 277) posit that, although there is a shortage of qualified medical practitioners in the world, competition is also high in this field. The field of health is crucial to the wellbeing of humankind.

People would therefore not want to play games with human life. Medical practitioners who have the current knowledge on diagnostic and treatment of various diseases and conditions are therefore better placed for treatment.

Bhatnagar and Kalpana (2012,22) concur with the above argument by asserting that, since the field of medicine is very dynamic, medical practitioners who keep themselves informed about the changes taking place in the field are therefore able to remain competitive.

Competition in the field may be in the ability to access modern methods of treatment such as closed-heart surgery instead of open-heart surgery, ability of the practitioner to use modern treatment equipments such as high tech cancer treatment machines, and the ability to access and administer the most effective modern medicine to the patients.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of continuing ones Education and Professional Development within the Medical/Health care Field by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is out of completion that some hospitals have more customers relative to others. Patients know the health practitioners who have access to information or who are sure about their work. In fact, according to Lucas and Pearson (2012, p. 278), most of the people would prefer fresh graduates to old medical practitioners who never attend refresher courses.

Career promotions are also done through merits in most of the health centers and hospitals. It is therefore necessary for the health practitioners to keep abreast with modern knowledge by enrolling for further education courses.

Medical health care professionals who undergo further education are also able to offer better customer care services. In their further education programs, learners are also taught how to handle their clients: the patients. In many public health centers, medical health care providers treat customers in a rude way. Such behavior becomes irritating especially to the already sick customer.

The worst scenario happens in private hospitals that employ such a medical practitioner. Poor customer handling skills make customers seek better care in other hospitals. Hence, the hospital may suffer loss and decreased trust by patients. The image of the health care providers and that of the hospital itself are tainted.

Further education in the medical field enables the medical professionals to achieve promotions. According to Schrader (2010, p. 41), in further studies, one is trained on various professional courses that are crucial for better performance of certain duties.

For example, based on Barzdins’ (2012, p. 129) words, learners are trained on administration skills, customer management skills, human resource skills, and accounts management skills that are crucial in administrative positions. After such trainings, a medical health professional is allowed to obtain promotions to certain positions.

In some cases, further studies become a requirement for one to be allowed to perform certain duties in the medical field. For example, a clinical officer may not be allowed to perform a major surgery unless he or she obtains specialization in that field through continuing education. Medical doctors especially those in surgery also require to acquire continuing education through seminars and workshops.

Continuing education enables them to be granted work permits and licenses of practice. In many countries such as the United States, doctors need to attend various seminars and workshops in order to be allowed to continue carrying out surgery. According to Bhatnagar and Kalpana (2012, p. 22), it is therefore important for the medical care practitioners to obtain further education in order to continue rising up the medical career ladder.

Medical care practitioners who are able to attend continuing education are likely to obtain promotions to the next level in their careers. Medical care practitioners, for example nurses, can also undergo further training through enlisting for graduate courses or degree courses to obtain a degree in medicine.

When a nurse attains a medical degree, he or she is likely to be promoted to the next job group in the medical field career. Consequently, he or she becomes entitled to a better pay and benefits. Schrader (2010, p. 41) affirms that a better remuneration and better benefits mean a better lifestyle for the employee.

When medical practitioners complete their further studies, and are promoted to better job groups, their living standard is improved. Medical health care practitioners and their families are also able to live a better life. A medical health care practitioner who undergoes a further education program is likely to be more relied upon by customers and employers.

People are more likely to trust very educated medical practitioners than those with only the basic level of education. The level of trust by both the patients and employers is also raised. Continuing education is therefore necessary for those in the lower levels in the medical care profession. Furthering education increases the salary of the learners in the workplace.

One is also able to obtain a better job when he or she completes further studies in the medical/healthcare field. Many private and public medical institutions hire qualified and competent medical care practitioners.

Completion of further studies makes the medical care practitioner have a more bargaining power in the job market. Medical professionals who have undergone medical care training are also able to negotiate for better salaries with their employers. For instance, they can appeal for a better salary after completing their studies.

Further education is important for job satisfaction. Employees in the medical care profession must achieve job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is an endeavor that every employee aims to achieve. When medical practitioners enjoy their daily activities on their jobs, they are likely to be contented. According to Bhatnagar and Kalpana (2012, p. 21), job satisfaction may be developed through a good pay that in turn comes with better qualification.

For a medical care practitioner to have a better pay compared to his or her workmate, he or she must have gone through further education. A medical practitioner should realize that his or her life depends on his or her career choice. It is from the medical fields that they earn their living and are able to live a descent life. This argument means that all medical practitioners should respect their career and work hard to succeed in it.

Continuing ones medical education in the medical field becomes a continuous activity. Medical field is extremely dynamic. Those with passion in the field and those who would want to achieve job satisfaction in this career must love the job itself together with the information that is developed each day. Continuous education in the medical field (and in many other fields) is a basic requirement.

Job security is also guaranteed with continuous education. With job security, one is likely to experience job satisfaction. It is also worth noting that people are likely to experience job satisfaction when they are sure of the security of their jobs. If medical practitioners realize that they will lose their job, they are less likely to be comfortable working for those respective hospitals or health centers.

Continuing education enables health practitioners to have confidence that they are not likely to lose their jobs to someone else. According to Barzdins (2012, p. 129), employers and other human resource practitioners would want more educated employees for better services in their hospitals.

Therefore, if there is any retrenchment of medical workers, the employer is likely to begin with those that have lower education and qualifications. Continuing education therefore gives job security to the medical care practitioners.

In fact, a medical care practitioner who has completed various post-training courses in the medical field is able to obtain another job soon after leaving the other one. Proper practical qualifications and social certificates and trainings in the medical health field are therefore important. Some employers kick out employees who stagnate in a certain field for many years without any further training.

Such medical health practitioners are redundant in their field of work. Grantors are willing to put their money in the medical field more than any other field. These people have a soft spot for medicine and the medical profession as a whole.

This revelation means that medical professions cannot hide under the guise of lack of school fees. Grants are given to assist medical practitioners’ specialization in their field and to offer better services. Employees are also accorded the opportunity to attend seminars and workshops.

Conclusion In conclusion, furthering education is a field that has become very important in the society today. Further education in the medical field is crucial because it enables learners to become competent in the job market. It enables medical practitioners to keep themselves up to date with the current knowledge. It secures job satisfaction and confidence for learners.

It is important because of the many grants available to sponsor students in the medical field. One is also able to keep up-to-date with the current information. Continuing education can be taken in the form of classroom lectures, distance learning, workshops, and seminars. Learning can therefore be supervised directly in the lecture halls or else be self-supervised.

A student must complete a number of units through learning and or self-direction. In the medical healthcare field, the continuous education is an obligation for all the medical practitioners. Further education is therefore a key requirement in the field of medical health care and that graduates in this field should be encouraged to take such a move to keep abreast with the changes in this dynamic field of study.

Reference List Bhatnagar, K,


Research Brand Performance Quantitative Research Essay essay help online free: essay help online free

Abstract This research paper seeks to investigate the relationship between customers’ perception of public relation and customers’ loyalty. The research will also investigate the role played by the brand image in shaping customer perception towards the organization.

Research Design/methodology- The research will use both primary and secondary sources of data. The primary data will be collected from a sample of customers of City Bank with the help of a questionnaire. The research will use two hypotheses.

Findings- The results of the study evidently demonstrate that the sensitivity of clients towards organization’s public relation practice is an indication of their devotion. From the research, it is clear that when there is a favorable brand image among customers, public relation perception will always have a heavy impact on customer loyalty.

Research limitations/implication- This research seeks to expound on the existing research as regards to customer loyalty. The researcher faced the problem of unwillingness since some respondents were unwilling to answer questions.

Originality- The researcher was concerned with coming up with an original piece of research that could be applied in a real life scenario.

Keywords- Brand image, Public relation, Customer loyalty, Customer relations, Finance industry, financial services, the United States

Introduction According to Hsieh and Li (2008), there is a direct relationship between customer perception of public relation and customer loyalty. These scholars hold that when a customer has a positive perception of public relations of a firm, he or she will tend to be loyal to that firm. This loyalty will further enhance a positive perception of the public relation of the firm.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Brand image plays a moderating role in this relationship. When a firm has a strong brand image in the market, the perception of the public would always be influenced positively towards the firm, and this will increase loyalty of the customers towards the firm (Hsieh


Frankfurt School of Science in Information and Communication Exploratory Essay custom essay help

Table of Contents The inception of the Frankfurt school

The four development stages of the Frankfurt school

Critics of Frankfurt School

Traditional Marxism and the Frankfurt School

Marcuse (as cited in Bennet, 1982) mentions


Works Cited

The inception of the Frankfurt school The failure of communism in throughout Europe, led the foundation of Frankfurt school in Germany in 1923 to present the Marxist views. The Frankfurt school was founded by Felix Weil, a young orthodox Marxist He looked at the scientific aspect of Marxism and put emphasis on the need of research in the field of history and social system through this institute.

The initial period of the institute was devoted mainly to the conventional historical research. Georg Lukacs wrote a book called ‘History of Class Consciousness’, which was published in 1923. This book provided a great inspiration for the work of Frankfurt school (Lassus, 2001).

His work, suggests that it is necessary to be free from the Communist Party to promote authentic theoretical work. It was directed by a firm believer in Marxism, Carl Grunberg from 1923 to 1930 (Lassus, 2001).

The four development stages of the Frankfurt school Ever since the classical theory of Marx came into existence, there were many changes seen in the Western society that promoted theories related to capitalism. The great theorists like T. Adorno, Max Horkheimer, etc. were actively participating in making crucial accounts to ensure and establish the impact of mass culture and communication in their critical social theory.

This was the first phase of the development of the Frankfurt school during which it “generated one of the first models of a critical cultural studies that analyzes the process of cultural production and political economy, the politics of cultural texts, and audience reception and use of cultural artifacts”( (Kellner 1989 and 1995as cited in Kellner, n. d. Para 1).

Friedrich Pollock took over as the director of the institute after the death of Carl Grunberg. He was associated with the institute right from the initial period. Max Horkheimer, who became the director of the institute in the later years, was the leading representative of the Frankfurt school. Due to his efforts, the institute could initiate the study of the cultural facets of the growth of capitalism.

The era of 1930s is marked with the development of a new critical, trans disciplinary approach to the studies of culture and communications by the Frankfurt School (Kellner,n.d.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 1931 and 1932 many psychoanalysts including Franz Borkenau, Erich Fromm, Karl Landauer, William Reich and Heinrich Meng started working systematically with the institute and led the Marxist theory in an utterly new trend that is still persistent in the social theory.

Erich Fromm was one of the initiators of socialist humanism. Wilhelm Reich built up his own set of principles related to sexual liberalism to deal with the issue of conformism, with respect to politics, present in the society and to confront social psychosis.

Kurt Lewin and Adolph Lowe were the two prominent communist intellectuals who were associated with the Frankfurt school and played important roles in the development of social theory. Kurt Lewin introduced the group- dynamics and social action theory and Adolph Lowe involvement to the development of political economy is of great significance.

Leo Lowenthal was mainly involved in the sociology of literature along with the Hegelian philosopher Herbert Mercuse who became the most renowned personality in the 1960s among political activists (The Frankfurt School and “Critical Theory”,n.d.).

The Frankfurt school was closed down in Germany moved to the United States when Hitler came into power. Here, they found the media culture predominantly controlled by the big companies in the U.S. (Kellner, n. d.).

The participants of the institute continued their work in New York and kept on publishing in German. In the post war era the Institute came back to Frankfurt. The two of the leading theorists of the Frankfurt school in this era were Theodor Adorno and Walter Benjamin. They were distinguished for their studies in literature and mass culture.

In the post war era Jurgen Habermas became one of the prominent figures in developing critical theory as per the Hegelian convention like Adorno and Marcuse. The development of the theory of networks is the contribution of this phase. However, after some time, Habermas separated from the Marxist convention and the Hegelian tradition and laid emphasis on the expansive principles following the tradition of Immanuel Kant.

We will write a custom Essay on Frankfurt School of Science in Information and Communication specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third generation of the Frankfurt school is following the convention of Jurgan Habermas and to some extent that of Hegel. The proponent of this generation is Axel Honneth. Nancy Fraser, Agnes Heller and Seyla Benhabib are the prominent women who represent the present-day generation of the Frankfurt school.

Frankfurt school was established with an aim to develop Marxist Theory within the institute and in the political scenario as well. In the process of its development, it assimilated with the bourgeois ideology and Freudian ideology during the post second world war period.

Despite all the amalgamation, the Frankfurt school stands for the tradition of orthodox Marxism in the history of social theory (The Frankfurt School and “Critical Theory”, n. d.).

Critics of Frankfurt School The critiques of the Frankfurt school represented by Adorno and Horkheimer suggest that they believed in the notion that the modern society is captivated in an iron system influenced by capitalism and Enlightenment ideas. They were quite pessimistic about any liberation from this control and thought that there was no hope for any social transformation.

They believed that it was impossible to get out of the iron cage created by the powerful Enlightenment in the modern society as it prevailed in every part of our lives. They also suggested that the culture industry is engaged in enslaving the individual and restraining the society and the people themselves back up this system. Their pessimism is also obvious in their criticism of traditional Marxism (Yaman, 2011).

The prime feature of the Frankfurt school was the culture and social analysis. However, its weakness lies in the “dichotomy between high culture and low culture (it) is problematical and should be superseded for a more unified model that takes culture as a spectrum and applies similar critical methods to all cultural artifacts” (Kellner as cited in Becerra, 2012,Para 8).

‎Habermas of the third generation of Frankfurt school faces the criticism because he idealizes the bourgeois community subject by presenting it as a medium of lucid debate and argument. The exclusion of various social groups and women is also a point of criticism.

However, many classes emerged in opposition to the bourgeois public sphere simultaneously, raised their voices, and stood for their interests (Kellner, n. d.). The notion of public sphere remained simply Utopian. It remained “an inclusive and egalitarian vision of society worthy of pursuit, but never fully realized” (Habermas and Frankfurt School Critical Theory, n.d. p.12).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Frankfurt School of Science in Information and Communication by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, the concept was restrained to the interests of a limited group of men who were highly educated in spite of its claims to attain common good or common interest through shared culture (Habermas and Frankfurt School Critical Theory, n.d).

The “media culture was never as massified and homogeneous as in the Frankfurt school model” (Kellner,n.d., Para 10).There is an argument that there were weaknesses in the model even at the time of its origin and it had less influence than the other models such as the models developed by Walter Benjamin, Siegfried Kracauer, Ernst Bloch etc.(Kellner, n.d.).

Traditional Marxism and the Frankfurt School The conventional Marxists considered the Frankfurt School somewhat as pragmatic since according to them, this theory condemned economism and unpolished materialism and partly they criticized it because of its heterogeneity. According to Curran et al. (1982), there was no scope for the study of real media (Chandler, 2000).

Marcuse (as cited in Bennet, 1982) mentions “The means of…communication…, the irresistible output of the entertainment and information industry carry with them prescribed attitudes and habits, certain intellectual and emotional reactions which bind the consumers…to the producers and, through the latter to the whole (social system).

The products indoctrinate and manipulate; they promote a false consciousness which is immune against its falsehood…thus emerges a pattern of one-dimensional thought and behavior” (p.43).

In the last hundred years most of the philosophical, social and economic traditions were focused in Germany. These traditions were in-built throughout modern life. During 1920s and 1930s the Frankfurt School had a great impact and its theorists and philosophers escaped from Nazism and spread their rebellious thoughts everywhere around the world and mainly in the United States (Brace, 2002).

The rise of Frankfurt School in Germany was in particular a response to the modern life. Marxism believes in crisis and according to them everything is in crisis, whether it’s a family, class or race but instead of this Frankfurt School do not accept this theory of crisis as a social concept as they believe it is an anthropological concept and it is not reducible to economic materialism.

They also believe that it exists in the mind of reactionaries (Bowden, 2012).

The important thing about Marxism is its complete break with the past and religious ideas. No supernatural element is there. They are just human theories and are mingled with other language. Everything is based on present and contains materialistic principles to define every aspect of life (Bowden, 2012).

So the initiative taken by the Frankfurt School was to first criticize Marxism and then to renew more refined form of dialectic, which was usable in modern era (Bowden, 2012).

Adorno’s several psychological theories got developed once the Frankfurt School was closed down by a disreputable government of that time. He developed some interesting theories specially related to the present audience. He developed the theory of ‘F’ scale where ‘F’ stands for Fascism. It’s a kind of personality test, which is used even today under a different name (Bowden, 2012).

The theorists of Frankfurt School believed that Marxism has some good elements in it, which could be used to develop an advanced social theory. “But even beyond that they were committed to developing and formulating an entire theory of life, human history and social ethics which would eventually need no recourse to European Christian civilization in any area of life” (Brace, 2002, Para 6).

The Frankfurt School openly challenged the entire societies to make its theories influential. Many supporters of ‘gay rights’ have been attracted towards the teachings of the Frankfurt School (Brace, 2002).

Key Pillars of the Frankfurt School:

Essentially, Frankfurt School believed that if a person is full of beliefs, he can solve any social issue.. The recommendations of the school were following (Matthews, 2009):

Emptying the churches

Big colonization to abolish identity

The advertising of excessive drinking

Dependency on the state or state benefits

The creation of racism offences

Control and dumbing down of media

Continual change to create confusion

Encouraging the breakdown of the family

The deflation of the authority of the schools and teachers

According to school, there were two types of revolution: political and cultural. The theorists observed it to be a long-term project and openly they focused on the education, media, family and popular culture (Matthews, 2009).

“One of the main ideas of the Frankfurt School was to abuse Freud’s idea of ‘pansexualism’- which was the misuse of the differences between sexes, the search for desire, to tell about the traditional relationships between men and women” (Matthews, 2009, Para 5). Matthews (2009) mentions that their aim was to:

Challenge the authority of father and define the particular roles of father and mother and seize the rights from the family the role of educators of their children.

Remove differences in the education of girls and boys

Remove all types of male dominance

Proclaim men as oppressors and women as oppressed class (Matthews, 2009).

Conclusion The Frankfurt School seems to be a bit complicated as it has some element of pessimism which cannot be found in Marxism. The other unusual thing in this school was the Germanic forms of Marxism which were extended by Adorno, Neumann and some others who were prominent in the school. They linked those forms to the forms of Anglo-saxon, American and imperialist thoughts (Bowden, 2012).

According to Munzenberg (as cited in Matthews, 2009) who abridged the idea of Frankfurt School’s long term operation, “We will make the West so corrupt that it sinks” (Para 5).

Works Cited Becerra, Maria Jose Juarez 2012. The Frankfurt School. Retos Internacionales. Web.

Bowden, Jonathan 2012. Marxism and the Frankfurt School. Web.

Brace, Robin, A 2002. The Influence of the Frankfurt School on Modern Liberal Thought. Web.

Chandler, Daniel 2000. Marxist Media Theory. Web.

Habermas and Frankfurt School Critical Theory. Web.

Kellner, Douglas. The Frankfurt School. Web.

Lassus Arnaud de 2001. The Frankfurt School: Cultural Revolution. Web.

Matthews, Timothy 2009. The Frankfurt School: Conspiracy to corrupt. Free Republic. Web.

The Frankfurt School and Critical Theory. Web.

Yaman, Burcu 2011. Critics of Adorno and Horkheimer on Modern Society: A Pessimistic Approach. Tojsat. Web.


Managing Risks in Oil and Gas Companies Dissertation essay help online: essay help online

Introduction Oil and gas companies face a variety of risks in the process of their operations. Many occurrences that happen outside a company may have an effect on the firm and the financial decisions that it makes. Changes in interest rates, prices of oil, and exchange rates among others are likely to alter the financial decisions of a firm. It is therefore imperative for firms to ensure that no potential economic changes pose a threat to their business.

According to Taylor and Kathleen (2013, p. 80), corporate financial managers are charged with the responsibility of ensuring that any past, current, and future fluctuations will not affect the economic standing of the firm. McShane and Anil (2011, p. 641) affirm that companies use various risk management tools known as derivatives to manage risks.

The tool used should caution the firm from negative impacts of various risks that may happen in its environment. According to Smistad and Igor (2012, p. 46), in western Canada, oil companies apply future derivatives to buy certain goods or services at a price that is agreed upon today.

Chanmeka et al. (2012, p. 259) argue that some companies make use of options where a firm gains the right to sell or buy certain goods or services at a certain price in the future. McShane and Anil (2011, 641) confirm that risk information is crucial to investors and the entrepreneurs themselves.

The oil and gas industry is likely to face various risks. For example, political risks, geological risks, price risks, supply and demand risks, and cost risks amongst others. This paper will discuss risk management in various gas and oil companies presenting a detailed literature review of risks in general followed by a detailed discussion of the in the oil and gas firms.

Risks The subject of risks is quite pivotal when it comes to the running of various organisations. Companies need to be aware of the possible or rather potential risks that they are likely to encounter in a bid to develop mechanisms of mitigating them in real time once they occur to ensure continued operation rather than untimely closure of such firms due to their failure to take the necessary precautionary measures.

Various risks are likely to affect different investments. Such risks include political risks, price fluctuations, and changes in supply and demand, natural calamities, geological risks, economic recessions, and government control risks amongst others. Entrepreneurship is a risky undertaking and every entrepreneur has to risk some of these factors and get into business.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Taylor and Kathleen (2013, p. 83), in the world of business, general risks affect literary every company in business though at varying intensities. Risks have various implications on business depending on the level of their impacts and predisposition of a particular business on them. In some instances, risks may lead to complete loss of business.

For example, if a business is exposed to fire and explosives risks, it can be completely wiped out in case of an accident. However, McShane and Anil (2011, p. 641) affirm that some of the risks affect all businesses in their every day affairs, for example supply and demand risk, price risks, and government regulations.

Businesses have little or no control on some risks such as natural calamity risks, for instance earthquakes and floods. Nevertheless, it is important for a business to devise ways and methods of detecting, assessing, and mitigating the risks.

Oil and Gas Companies Oil and gas companies provide a working illustration of the subject of risks that is under scrutiny based on the various risks they encounter in their everyday business affairs. From the point of extracting oil and gas, processing it into finished products to transportation, warehousing, and retailing, the whole business is a risk.

These companies encounter various types of risks in their line of business. Chanmeka et al. (2012, p. 259) assert that risks affect almost every firm in business and are likely to affect the oil and gas industry more than any other firm. According to Helman (2013, p. 62), the oil and gas industry faces tight regulations on how to conduct its business.

Such regulations include rules on how oil and gas are extracted from the source, regulations on where they can be extracted and where extraction cannot be done, and regulations of the period in which extraction of oil and gas can be done. The government has the upper hand in such regulations since oil business is lucrative.

In fact, the political wrangles that affect most countries that have oil and gas resources revolve around the control of oil wells by the government. Countries such as Sudan and Southern Sudan have been in conflict due to control of oil wells.

We will write a custom Dissertation on Managing Risks in Oil and Gas Companies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such political wrangles have also been witnessed in Kuwait and Nigeria. Whenever there are political wrangles in the control of oil and gas, the companies that invest in such nations face higher economic and political risks. Haselip and Martínez (2011, p. 1) argue that politics of regionalism, equitable distribution of national resources, and resource distribution also affect oil and gas regulation.

In some cases, the laws governing extraction, processing, and distribution of oil and gases in different states may vary. Antonsen, Kari, and Jarl (2012, 2001) reveal that it is more risky to carryout oil and gas business in dependence on foreign deposits without standardisation.

In the oil and gas industry, some companies that show interest are likely to invest in any part of the world where the oil and gas field has a sheer disregard of the political climate of the country. According to Helman (2013, p. 63), if the host country nationalises the industry, foreign investors are likely to suffer loss.

Politics of that kind of nation may also change to favour certain investors or category of investors where the foreign investor may not be considered. Antonsen, Kari, and Jarl (2012, p. 2001) argue that some economies will attract investors to begin the process of extraction.

Nevertheless, once the process of extraction is complete and the oil and business industry becomes lucrative, politicians, activists, and government officials enact laws to enable the government to leap more from the industry. An investor who puts his or her resources in such an industry is therefore likely to suffer loss. Political risk in oil industry is a major threat to the stability of the sector.

It is even more risky to invest in the oil and gas industry in some developing countries. In some of the developing countries with plenty of oil and gas such as Libya and Sudan in Africa, the countries are under poor political leadership thus posing a great risk to investors in the industry. Whenever there is a political turmoil in various nations, oil tankers are targeted due to the high flammability of oil.

In addition, Dumaine (2013, p. 102) affirms that oil and gas industries demand tight security and surveillance even in small quantities such as in China. It would therefore mean that, when there is political instability in a county, the rate of insecurity goes down. Consequently, the risk on the industry goes up.

Wilkinson and Roland (2013, p. 118) assert that the process of gas and oil exploitation has also become very risky especially with the current dynamics. For instance, drilling of oil is happening in very dangerous environments such as oceans. Extraction in such areas increases the risks that oil and gas industries have to incur in the process of extraction, refining, distribution, and marketing.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing Risks in Oil and Gas Companies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Smistad and Igor (2011, p. 91) affirm that there has also been an increase in the level of unconventional methods of oil and gas extraction. Out of such unconventional methods of mining, some potential oil and gas mines have been poorly exploited or destroyed. In fact, some of these procedures have been used to extract oil and gas in places where it would have proved impracticable.

According to Smistad and Igor (2012, p. 46), gas and oil extraction companies involve themselves in great risks by investing a lot of finances and other resources in extraction. Some companies have incurred much cost in the process of extracting gas and oil only to find minimal deposits than they had estimated.

It is therefore risky ventures for a company to be sure that geologists and rock experts have enough evidence of the presence of oil or gas in a certain area. According to Smistad and Igor (2011, p. 91), it is also risky for the extraction company to hire specialists such as geologists in oil in the process of investigating the presence oil or gas in a certain field and then fail to realise the targeted amount of oil or gas.

Oil and gas extraction, processing, marketing, and distribution constitute a business that aims at obtaining profits. The prices in the oil and gas markets must therefore be able to sustain the industry in a profitable way. Fluctuation in oil and market prices is a risk factor to the industry. No one can predict what the prices of oil or gas will be when the process of extraction will be completed.

Mehemed, Kamal, Kieran, and Kong (2012, p. 201) argue that companies in this industry therefore undertake a risk in extracting and purifying the gas without clear future market prices for their products. In several instances, oil and gas extraction companies have undergone the whole process of geological tests and drilling despite their ending up without the projected product.

In such cases, unless the gas and oil extraction company is insured, it suffers a big loss. The nature of oil and gas market has been fluctuating over the years. According to Chen and Jevons (1993, p. 667), fluctuation of oil and gas prices poses a great risk to the stakeholders in the industry.

Supply and demand issue is a limitation to the oil and gas industry. Venturing into oil and gas industry involves investing huge capital. The operations involved in extracting oil and gas are very expensive and extraction companies have to invest in the process. However, such companies may not be aware of the trend that prices of gas and oil will take in the future. Wood (2011, p. 113) affirms that demand and supply keep on changing.

When the supply of gas in the world market goes high, the prices go down thus increasing the risk of incurring heavy losses. Oil and gas industry also experiences imbalances when prices of oil go up. In most cases, when the prices of oil and gases hike, large warehouses hoard the commodities.

O’keefe and Doris (2013, p. 158) argue that hoarding increases the risk of loss of customers on retailers and local wholesalers since the commodity does not reach the target consumer. Such suppliers are also at the risk of being compromised of inconsistency by their customers.

Mohanty and Mohan (2011, p. 165) argue that it is also very hard to predict the production rates of gas and oil in various states especially with a nation with many states such as the U.S. Kendrick (2012, p. 61) affirms that unpredictability of productivity increases the risk of price fluctuation in the oil and gas industry.

In addition, Andersson, Sudhir, and Zafar (2009, p. 440) reveal that, whenever there is a financial crisis in a country or a region, for example, the American crisis or the European crisis of 2007, supply and demand of oil and gas also change. Financial crisis increases the risk of reduced purchasing power. Hence, the affected country experiences low demand for oil and gases.

Wood (2011, p. 113) point out that the economic crisis increases the risk of low supply and demand due to its ability to reduce the capital base of a nation. When a country has a low capital base, it is limited in its operations. Donaldson and Schoemaker (2013, p. 24) argue that the macroeconomic position of the industry can also increase the risk of demand and supply.

Macroeconomic power of every industry dictates the success of business under it. The oil and gas industry experiences huge operational costs. O’keefe and Doris (2013, p. 158) argue that all the other risk factors involved in the oil and gas industry drain into operational costs.

Mohanty and Mohan (2011, p. 165) argue that, when the regulations set by political leaders and governments of a particular nation are very tight, the operation cost goes up.

Tight regulations make the process of extracting, processing, and distributing gas and oil more extensive and hence expensive. Wilkinson and Roland (2013, p. 118) posit that the operations that are involved in the process of oil mining and gas harvesting determine the level of operations risks that a firm is likely to incur.

The operations involved in drilling are also extensive and expensive. Mehemed, Kamal, Kieran, and Kong, (2012, p. 201) establish that the process of drilling is coupled with many limitations, for instance, bad weather, poor soils and other geological factors, inaccessibility, and technological problems. Such problems increase the operations cost. When the operations cost hikes, the industry becomes disfranchised.

Different producers set their own market prices to overcome their cost of production. According to Donaldson and Schoemaker (2013, p. 24), variation in the cost of production makes it difficult for nations of the world to set standard oil and gas prices.

In fact, some industries incur a double or triple cost of production compared to others. It is out of such variations that oil and gas prices have become very competitive in the market. According to Robb (2012, p. 756), industries that have been in the line of production for many years incur lesser risks than new industries.

Managing Risks- Risk Identification, Risk Assessment, and Risk Control The oil and gas industry is a risk-prone industry. Various uncertainties go along these risks such as the risk of exploration, demand and supply risk, crude price uncertainty, and product line risk. According to Robb (2012, p. 756), the oil and gas industry is one of the risky ventures. Hence, to prevent the danger that the industry poses, there should be the need to manage it.

Sarkar (2012, p. 28) affirms that management of risks also ensures that the small industries and the upcoming ones become commercially viable. In addition, there are technological risks such as “cyber threats of Stuxnet virus, which also target lucrative oil and gas industry” (Sudhir, and Zafar 2009, p. 440).

These and many other risks in oil and gas industry necessitate the need for risk management. Consequently, various methods of risk management have been put in place to mitigate risks in this industry.

Risk Identification Oil and gas companies have invested in information access control and management. Such risk management strategies involve identifying and accessing the right information at all time when it is very necessary. Information management has been a great source of risk in the oil and gas industry. Oil and gas companies have therefore put in place mechanisms to harvest policy information, process it, and use it gainfully.

According to Andersson, Sudhir, and Zafar (2009, p. 440), information harvesting, processing, and management reduce the risk of operations. When companies access the right information before investment, they are able to reduce compliance risks. The company can use future derivative to organise how it will acquire various goods and services in the future at a certain price.

Sarkar (2012, p. 28) affirms that speedy exchange of information across the industry enables investors to make the right information. Classified information and access to the information systems of oil and gas companies has also been highly controlled.

Risk Assessment Modern technology aids in the reduction of variation in governance-risk-compliance. Technology is also an efficient tool in the reduction of operational risk.

According to Akhibi (2012, p. 6), the use of real time monitoring technology enables the oil and gas companies to improve the availability of the commodity to customers, reduce operational costs, avoid conflicts with the society and the regulatory authorities, and reduce the risk of demand and supply.

Dumaine (2013, p. 102), affirms that oil and gas companies are adopting condition-based monitoring in risk management, which involves positioning various sensors to measure and record the prevailing environmental conditions such as vibration and temperatures (Pinheiro 2011, p. 34). Such sensors enable the oil and gas companies to detect equipment failure in real time.

In fact, Srivastava and Gupta (2010, p. 407) assert that the devices are sophisticated to ensure that alert devices either sound the alarm or give work orders to the operations department. Wimalasiri et al. (2010, p. 49) affirm that sensors have enabled many oil companies to avoid the risk of losing billions of money in spillage and leakages.

Some oil and gas companies have set up strategic teams to manage any eventuality such as equipment failure and fire outbreaks. Schroeder and Jan (2007, p. 0.1) point out that fire departments are also connected to sensors in order to enable quick response to eventualities and occurrences.

Wimalasiri et al. (2010, 49) argue that predictive maintenance enables the industry to realise when there is the need to purchase certain equipments before the actual damage is done. Various modern technology devices are put in place to detect wear-and-tear and obsoleteness of equipments in the oil industry.

Qian, Yulin, and Gonzalez (2012, p. 859) observe that, whenever the devices sense that a gas tank or an oil tank is not up to the set standards, the necessary alert message is sent to the maintenance department for replacement.

Srivastava and Gupta (2010, p. 407) affirm that the sensor is also able to compare and analyse the level of functionality of every device in the firm and or give the right report on each. Pinheiro (2011, p. 34) observes that such quick reactions enable the firm to avoid health risks.

Risks Control Oil and gas companies have to deal with the increased compliance and regulations facing the industry today. For example, according to Molokwu, Barreria, and Boris (2013, p. 2), in South Africa, tight requirements of reporting on all operations and events of minor accidents and incidents have been an expensive venture for the industry. There are also tight regulations on drilling operations.

Oil and gas companies have therefore put in place mechanisms to ensure that the checklist for all regulations is complied with as the government of the area dictates (Chan 2011, p. 341).

Such compliance includes registration of the company, authorisation for drilling, construction of the industry, reliability in maintenance of structures such as oil wells, and the ability to remain in the market as a competitive industry (Khan 2010, p. 157). According to Haselip and Martínez (2011, p. 1), politics in a certain nation or state can play a role in the oil and gas industry.

The major role that political forces play in the oil and gas industry is to regulate prices. Politicians are opinion leaders who largely become policy makers. Oil and gas industries have therefore put in place mechanisms to work with government in price regulations and policy control.

The gas and oil companies have to deal with various environmental and health risk compliance processes. The oil and gas industry also faces the risk of geological inadequacy. In most of the nations and states, the reserve of oil and gas is already tapped out. The risk has also spread in nations that have been exploiting their reserves since they are also in the process of being fully exploited.

According to Andersen and Aamnes (2012, p. 2010), companies have therefore put in place methods of ensuring that they comply with the health regulations in their area of investment. Oil is a pollutant to the environment in a double way especially when not well handled.

According to Perunović and Jelena (2012, p. 130), the risk of oil spillage in water, for example, during mining or transportation in the sea has been greatly reduced through modern technology. Sophisticated mining methods have been employed to ensure no oil spillage during mining.

In fact, Perunović and Jelena (2012, p. 130) affirm that modern water vessels have also been adopted in transporting oil through the sea. Khan (2010, p. 157) posits that employees’ health and safety have also been a risk issue in the oil and gas industry. Oil and gas prices are another risk that investors in this industry face.

Chen and Jevons (1993, p. 667) argue that prices dictate whether a venture into extracting oil or gas is to be feasible or not. When geological limitations are high, the price risk of extracting oil or gas goes high. Oil and gas companies have therefore ensured high safety standards to employees through education and trainings.

According to Molokwu, Barreria, and Boris (2013, p. 2), employees are taught how to protect themselves, how to behave while in the extraction site or in the storage and distribution site, and even how to manage eventualities such as fire outbreaks.

Chan (2011, p. 341) reveal that oil and gas companies have also ensured that the community living near the mines and storage areas are also informed on management of fire and spillage.

According to Hayes and Hopkins (2012, p. 145), oil and gas companies have also made use of resource centres that are set within the industries. Various minds gather in the resource centres to exchange ideas on the problems facing the industry.

Schroeder and Jan (2007, p. 0.1) affirm that, unlike in the past when orders came from managers, engineers in today’s industry meet and exchange knowledge on various problems that their firms face.

Hayes and Hopkins (2012, p. 145) assert that, with the meeting of engineering experts from various departments, the right solutions are likely to be realised to eliminate various risks facing oil and gas industries for example the geological and price fluctuation risks.

The experts will come up with recommendations on the right measures that the industry should take to avoid risks. Such decisions and recommendations majorly include modification, technological adaptations, planning, and maintenance.

With the modern advancement in information technology, cyber crime and information system hacking has posed another risk to the oil and gas industry. According to Akhibi (2012, p. 6), in Nigeria, oil and gas companies have therefore put in place cyber security designs and technologies to mitigate the risk.

In oil and gas industries, information system security has been highly integrated with people, processes, data, and systems. Such ventures secure the system to ensure accountability on the side of the operators.

Qian, Yulin, and Gonzalez (2012, p. 859) argue that information security also ensures continuous surveillance of the internet protocol openings and filtration of information before it gains access to the main information system of the company.

Importance of Managing Risks specifically in Oil and Gas Companies Based on the information already presented concerning risks and their repercussions if not mitigated, it becomes clear on the need to manage risks by all organisations, leave alone the oil and gas companies. Such risks reduce the ability of the firm to predict the course of business. The oil and gas industry faces various difficulties and tight monitoring by many authorities.

Investing in the oil industry is also a very risky venture. In this light of probability of loss in the oil and gas industries, this paper highlights various importance of risk mitigation. Every derivative that oil and gas industries put in place should aim at risk mitigation. The derivatives that a firm takes should be aimed at cautioning the industry from the past, current, and future risks.

Kendrick (2012, p. 61) asserts that risk management in oil and gas industries ensures that there is proper compliance with the regulations of the authorities in their place of business. Insuring the business against various risks also enables the company to have confidence and security in trade. Such regulations should also be adhered to avoid the risk of regulations and compliance.

According to Andersen and Aamnes (2012, p. 2010), managing risks in the oil and gas industry enables the companies to have clear visibility of the current position and the future of the firm. Such a goal can be attained by venturing into future derivatives. The industry should sign for future trading ventures at certain prices with certain companies.

Conclusion In conclusion, every business venture is exposed to various risks. Consequently, every business has to put in place various mechanisms to identify, monitor, assess, and control risks. Private enterprise is generally a risky venture. However, as discussed, the oil and gas company is bound to face more risks than any other business.

The major risks that affect oil and gas companies include geological risks, political risks, government regulations, and compliance risks, price fluctuation, demand and supply, and natural calamities risk. Oil and gas companies have therefore invested heavily in various risk mitigation measures.

Such measures include risk identification, risk assessment, and risk monitoring and control. It is important to manage risks in every business venture. Risks can result in complete loss of business.

They can lead to conflicts with the authorities and the communities in the business environment. It is therefore important to comply with the regulatory measures put in place by the regulatory authorities. Insuring the business against various risks is also an important step in risk mitigation.

References Akhibi, O 2012, ‘Risk Management – An Essential Ingredient in Nigerian Oil and Gas Construction Projects Delivery’, PM World Today, vol. 14 no. 3, p. 6.

Andersen, S


Dismissal Meeting Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Outline




Outline One of the most challenging roles of a manager is terminating an employee. Once the decision to terminate an employee has been made, managers find themselves in a rather awkward situation of having to break the bad news to the employee. Terminating an employee is not always a pleasurable activity because it comes with several challenges.

First, it can be traumatizing to the laid off employee and the other employees who have remained behind. Second, layoffs have emotional effects on the managers who have to plan and conduct the whole process.

Finally, termination always comes with issues of compensation and potential threats of lawsuits if it is mishandled. Thus, simply put, terminating an employee is one of the worst things a manager ever has to do. However, if the dismissal meeting is conducted in a professional manner, it can help maintain the employee’s dignity and help minimize any potential eventualities.

Introduction One of the most difficult decisions for managers is that of dismissing an employee (Molinsky


Addressing Aggression in Children Research Paper writing essay help

The reasons for Carla’s aggression towards her peers and a fast and efficient strategy developed to address Carla’s issues were learned quickly. This can be considered the greatest and the most important achievements of the therapy. The use of the MOAS was clearly crucial to the research results. The test allowed for assessing the scale of the problem that the healthcare specialist had to deal with. In addition, it also provided the measurement of Carla’s progress and the efficiency of the intervention.

The study has proven the efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. The therapy is crucial for dealing with the issues that have been triggered by early childhood memories. Carla had very painful memories about her father’s death. As a result, she was unable to build relationships with her peers. Thus, Carla had to recognize the possibilities of communicating with people. In addition, she had to learn that social interactions were not going to hurt her. Therefore, the intervention was designed to help the patient learn to socialize.

The fact that the patient underwent the therapy sessions together with the family is clearly a major positive aspect of the suggested treatment. According to the facts listed in the patient’s medical record, Carla was initially isolated from the rest of the people surrounding her, mostly from children.

As the research has shown, the restriction in the number of social contacts was obviously a mistake. Indeed, the instances of aggression only multiplied and became more intense after the aunt of the patient isolated the girl from her friends. Carla clearly needed communication with her friends.

It should be noted, though, that the progress made by Carla is rather uncertain. Therefore, an instance of recidivism may occur. Thus, Carla should be under her teacher’s and nursing specialist’s observation for a couple of weeks more. After she is supervised, one can make sure that she has completed her therapy sessions successfully.

Thus, such activities as creative writing, drawing, linking objects, and other tasks included into creative counseling sessions allowed Carla to express her deepest fears. Still, a sudden shock may reverse the progress, and, therefore, the need for Carla to undergo an intervention will rise again.

Speaking about the external validity of the given research, the provided scenario has a number of elements that make it unique. For example, the patient was under the influence of such factors as the overprotection of her aunt. As a result, the patient was nearly isolated from her social contacts. The given fact alone is enough to single Carla’s case out. In addition, the article mentions the childhood trauma that Carla acquired, thus, making her case even more specific.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More That being said, the problem of aggression among children who have suffered parent’ death, abuse or other traumatizing experiences is still a major issue in the modern society. The case of Carla’s problem, in its turn, can be used as a means to understand the mechanics of aggression that such children develop towards the rest of the world.

Hence, this study can be used in order to help these children. The internal validity of the research in question is also quite high, since it helps analyze the relationship between MOAS and the reduction of aggression in children. Again, seeing how the case is quite specific, it would be wrong to claim that it offers universal results. Nevertheless, the links between the interventions the improvement of Carla’s communication skills is evident.


Motivation, Work Performance, Job Satisfaction Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

Introduction Most of the successful companies have unique strategies to motivate and empower their employees. According to Caulton (2012), a company should establish the best relationship with its stakeholders and employees. Every motivated employee is an asset in an organization.

Some of the factors affecting employees’ satisfaction and performance include “the leadership style, workplace, and availability of resources and remunerations” (Caulton, 2012, p. 5). Organizational leaders should also promote their employees’ motivations. This approach will ensure the company is successful. Every motivated employee tackles every challenge in order to achieve the targeted goals. This discussion explains the effects of motivation and job satisfaction on work performance.

Motivation, Work Performance, and Job Satisfaction The terms motivation, job satisfaction, and performance are critical in every business organization. Business organizations should increase the level of motivation in order to mentor their employees. Motivation also results in job satisfaction and fulfillment. A satisfied employee will improve his or her work performance.

Motivation in an organization determines the level of job satisfaction (Baack, 1999). This will help the business realize its goals and objectives. I have worked in different companies. My experience explains why the relationship between job satisfaction and performance is a priority in every business organization. The leadership style, work environment, job design, motivational strategies, and resources affect the level of performance. This determines the employees’ job satisfaction and performance.

I have experienced various motivational problems in my life as an employee. The first motivational problem began when a new chief executive officer (CEO) took office. The CEO did not communicate effectively to the employees. The manager introduced sudden changes without discussing with the employees. The CEO changed the existing organizational culture by creating new departments and work practices.

The HR department was no longer willing to address the issues affecting the employees. The new leader also slashed the employees’ salaries without giving explanations. The CEO fired every employee who presented their complaints about the issues affecting them. The situation worsened because the performance began to dwindle. This behavior explains why the rate of employee turnover will always increase before (Vries, Bakker-Pieper


Presidential and Congressional Decision Making Evaluation Essay college essay help online

Introduction Democracy gives individuals and institutions the power to make decisions for the public. There is no way the views of all citizens can be addressed in national forums unless they have representatives. Most nations have three powerful arms of government that include the executive, congress and judiciary (Shulman 2006). This essay presents an evaluation of the presidential and congressional decision making processes and addresses their differences, effectiveness and current and future plans to make them work properly.

Similarities and Differences Characteristics

The presidential form of decision making is characterized by various factors that include the following. First, this decision is made by an individual and the views presented to the public are perceived to be from the president. This makes it easy for people to evaluate the attitude, perception and reaction of their presidents towards issues of national importance (Spillane 2014). Therefore, it is necessary to explain that people will perceive their presidents to be good or bad depending on how they make decisions.

The source of their decisions is deemed to be their personality or stand on various issues. This means that if a president makes a wrong decision the public will judge him or her and not any other person or body. The congressional decision making process is made by a group of elected and nominated political leaders (Tan 2011). These members may be parliamentarians or senators and both groups have the right of making decisions for the public.

No individual is responsible for making decisions because there is the need for most members to be present to pass a resolution (Pomeranz 1998). Therefore, when a bad decision is passed in parliament the public will not blame one person for making it. The responsibility of blame will be on all the members of parliament that were present or absent during the passing of a bill. The decisions of this house are perceived to be the positions taken by most members of parliament and senators.

Secondly, the congress is a representation of various political parties and thus the decision and votes of every member is deemed to be the standpoint of a political party or constituency. There is the need to understand that congress members are elected by their people and others nominated by political parties. Therefore, they represent their constituents or political parties and this means that their decisions must reflect the needs of these two entities (Subhash 2009).

The congress constitutes members from different regions and political parties and the decisions made are usually in favor of the needs of a political party or constituents of a member of parliament. It is necessary to explain that sometimes members of parliament may be forced to support decisions that do not reflect the interests of their constituents or political parties. These situations may lead to reprimands or protests from political parties and the public respectively.

A president is a leader of a country and thus the decisions this individual makes must be for the benefit of all citizens irrespective of their political affiliations (Shulman 2006). The president should make decisions that do not reflect political inclinations and instead address the needs of the whole population to ensure the interests of all groups are given reasonable attention.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that presidents must shed off their political inclinations once they assume office and this is reflected in how they make key decisions. Most presidents do not participate in the activities of political parties that propelled them to power to avoid being subjective when making national decisions. It is necessary to explain that the decisions made by a president should portray neutrality to enable the public to distinguish between the political and national aspects of the presidency.

Moreover, presidents have advisory teams that ensure they do not make decisions that may be misinterpreted by the public and political parties.

Presidential advisory teams are important in guiding presidents when making key decisions. These teams are made of professionals from different fields to ensure presidents make informed decisions. Therefore, the decisions made by presidents are usually as a result of long consultation and guidance from advisors that have practical experience, academic and research knowledge on various issues (Tan 2011).

The president is in charge of hiring members of these bodies and thus nobody can influence their decisions pony this matter. These teams are responsible for advising presidents, but the final decision lies on the office holder. This means that the teams do not play crucial roles in determining what decisions presidents make during their terms in office.

However, they ensure they give proper guidance to presidents and advise them on the best ways to manage issues of national importance. Therefore, presidents have the right of making decisions they deem appropriate in their countries and nobody can stop them from doing this. Congressional decision making is determined by the positions taken by political parties or constituents.

Congressmen cannot make their own independent decisions because they are supposed to represent their political parties and constituents (Norburn 2007). This means that even if they have personal preferences and opinions regarding issues of national importance they cannot make decisions that do not tally with what their constituents or political parties expect from them.

Therefore, their hands are usually tied to other people who think that they their interests should be properly represented by congressmen. The need for congressmen to consult constituents and political parties before making decisions shows they do not have powers to determine the choices of their actions (Tan 2011).

We will write a custom Essay on Presidential and Congressional Decision Making specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, a presidential decision making is determined by national issues that affect people from different political backgrounds. Presidents are obliged to listen to their citizens, regardless of their political affiliations and make sure their decisions reflect the needs of all citizens.

The positions taken by presidents in international forums represent the stands of their citizens. Therefore, presidents are mandated to address issues that affect the lives of all citizens in all corners of their countries and not just a handful of those that belong to their political parties (Tan 2011).

Presidents are elected by political parties, but this does not give them the power to address issues that affect their members only. A president is a national figure and thus must look at things from a non political perspective to ensure the needs of their citizens are addressed. There is the need for presidential advisory teams to ensure their presidents avoid issues that portray political interests.

This will help presidents to make non-partisan decisions that will improve the lives of all citizens. Congressional decision making is to the needs of their members. There is no independency in congressional decision making. In addition, members of the congress make decisions that are limited to their areas of jurisdiction and this includes constituencies and political parties (Tan 2011).

Members of parliament represent individuals of specific regions and thus they may not have the power to make decisions that do not affect their people. This means that the power of a member of parliament is limited to the areas an individual represents. This explains why not all members of parliament are usually present when making some decisions.

They do not see the need to attend sessions that are of insignificant value to their constituents. In addition, the decision made by a congress may not affect all regions. However, presidential decisions affect the lives of all citizens irrespective of their locations. Therefore, congressional decisions are limited in scope and do not affect the entire country like how the presidential one does.


Presidential decision making faces serious challenges due to the nature of this position. First, most people perceive the decisions of this office to represent the interest of political parties that won presidential elections (Norburn 2007).

Therefore, there are criticisms that face this office because people do not understand that presidents are national figures and do not represent their political parties while in office. Political parties that win presidential elections face criticism when their presidents make decisions that may be perceived to have vested interests (Tan 2011).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Presidential and Congressional Decision Making by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, congressional decisions do not face a lot of criticisms because people understand that they represent the interests of different groups like political parties and constituencies. Members of parliament do not make independent decisions and this means that there are no chances of criticisms from their political parties or constituents. Therefore, they do not expect negative responses from those they represent.

In addition, presidential decision making is influenced by opinion polls and interest groups. This means that presidents may make decisions that do not reflect their thoughts, but address the needs of the public.

Opinion polls and interest groups are very influential in determining the decisions that presidents make and thus they rely on the mind of their citizens to make resolutions. Therefore, the decisions made by presidents cannot be said to be totally independent from any external forces; in fact the public determines and shapes the thoughts of its presidents (Tan 2011). A president who makes unpopular decisions may face demonstrators supported by interest groups.

Presidential and congressional decision making determines the future of office bearers in different positions. People judge the performance of presidents and members of parliament, depending on the importance and nature of the decisions they make. Those willing to retain their seats in future elections must make decisions that make their constituents happy even if they do not have any economic or social value.

It is necessary to explain that political decision makers have an uncertain future because they are judged depending on their contributions in formulating policies (Stone 2013). Therefore, they are sometimes forced to make decisions that make no sense provided their constituents and political parties are happy.

It is necessary to explain that the electorate has the power of influencing both presidential and congressional decisions. However, presidents serving their second terms and congressmen that do not wish to be reelected ignore the demands of their people because they are of no value to them. Therefore, they do not mind what their people will think about them and this motivates these members to make decisions that they think are suitable or represent their interests (Stone 2013).

Presidents face serious challenges when they make decisions that may affect their political parties. Political parties that produce presidents expect them to favor their members or interests regardless of their consequences on the public. Therefore, they think that presidents will listen and follow their advice even if they are wrong; however, this is usually not the case as most presidents ignore the political aspects when making decisions (Tan 2011).

Most congressmen and presidents are usually accused of dictatorship and betrayal when they fail to obey the orders issued by their political parties. Some issues presented by political parties aim at frustrating opponents and promoting their interests and presidents usually ignore such moves and this makes them to be perceived to be dictators.

Lastly, both the presidential and congressional decision making processes face the risk of rejection due to political interference (Reuer 2011). Politics play significant roles in determining the fate of bills and other policies. The concept and application of democratic rights of political parties and individuals have been misused to interfere with the processes of making decisions by institutions or people. People think that their opinions should be given preference to those of others because democracy dictates so.

Political parties misuse their constitutional right and force ruling parties to experience serious challenges that interfere with the implementation of their manifestos (Spillane 2014). Presidents face serious challenges from opposition parties that rarely approve of their decisions.

They think that they must oppose all decisions and actions of the ruling party and this slows down the process of decision making. There are chances that nations that think they are democratic rarely make decisions on time due to interference from political parties and individuals aligned to the opposition.


The effectiveness of the presidential decision making process is determined by various factors. First, presidents or heads of states have constitutional rights of making some decisions including appointment of public office bearers and commanding key military bodies to undertake operations. The congress has no power over this issue and this makes the president to have control over other decision making organs in a country.

Presidents have the right to ensure that there is security in their countries and that people enjoy their lives (Reuer 2011). Therefore, he can make decisions that affect the lives of citizens in all regions regardless of what congressmen think about them. However, some decisions cannot be made by presidents without consultation or approval from other bodies like the houses of representatives.

For instance, the American president cannot command the military to attack other nations or conduct their operations there if he does not have the approval from the upper and lower houses of representatives (Shulman 2006). This means that in this case the president has no power of making independent decisions. Therefore, there are some decisions that the president cannot make without the approval of these houses while others do not require their consent.

The congress has a constitutional right of discussing important issues that affect a country and making decisions that ensure citizens live secure, healthy and affordable life. This body has the responsibility of passing bills and making sure that necessary amendments are made to make laws appropriate for the promotion of human life and development (Reuer 2011).

The congress does not need the support of a president when making laws and this means that it is independent from his or her influence. However, the president must approve all bills passed by members of parliament before they become laws. The bills will be returned to the house for further debate and amendments if the president refuses to approve it.

The above discussions show that the presidential and congressional decision making processes are not independent and each body relies on the support of the other to function properly. However, it is necessary to understand that not all issues require the approval of the other department to survive (Tan 2011).

The congress may have more power over the president when it comes to issues of impeachment when a president makes repeated mistakes. Therefore, there are instances where these parties have equal influence over others, but sometimes they function independently.


Presidential and congressional decision making produces both bad and good outcomes. The presidential decision making process aims at establishing appropriate ways of ensuring citizens get access to quality public service. This includes unrestricted access to justice, security, education and proper medical services.

There is the need to explain that presidents are in charge of their countries and thus anything that happens to their citizens (regardless of their political inclinations) falls on their shoulders (Subhash 2009). Therefore, they make decisions that do not portray political inclinations because they are supposed to be national representatives.

Presidential advisors help presidents to make decisions that will attract approval from members of public and civil groups. This means that they ensure presidents are not influenced by personal or political interests when making national decisions. This makes their decisions to be effective in ensuring people have access to quality services from civil servants and public offices (Reuer 2011). Therefore, the presidential decision making process is effective if it addresses national issues without political interference.

On the other hand, it is likely that a presidential decision making process may not be effective. First, this process centers power to an individual and thus there are possibilities that the person may not make appropriate decisions due to lack of consultation and debates (Subhash 2009).

The process may be influenced by limited knowledge and experience on various issues and this may make a president to make decisions that lack professional understanding. In addition, some presidents do not like following advises from other people or institutions because they think that they know better than others. Therefore, they make irrational decisions that expose their countries to ridicule and lower the ratings of their performance.

Congressional decision making is a complicated process because it requires consultation and debates. There are higher chances that congressional decision making processes can produce good outcomes because they involve debates and consultations.

Therefore, appropriate measures are taken before decisions are made and this helps the public to get quality services (Reuer 2011). In addition, this process takes a lot of time before decisions are made. This gives decision makers the time to revise their presentation and evaluate the effectiveness of their policies.

However, this process may not be suitable in producing good outcomes because members present the interests of their political parties and constituents. The interests of any of these may not be appropriate in promoting national development.

Congress men have used this process to express their political interests and frustrate their opponents. In addition, the success of any decisions determined by the support it gets from the members of various bodies; therefore, it is not a democratic way of making decisions and its outcomes may have negative impacts on citizens (Stone 2013).

The congressional decision making process is more effective than the presidential one since it has higher chances of producing the expected outcomes. In addition, it represents the views of ordinary citizens and political parties and not individuals.

Current Measures The congressional decision making process is expected to improve due to the introduction of civil and social awareness in parliaments. It is necessary to explain that traditionally most parliamentarians did not know their roles and how to execute various policies to ensure the interests of their people are addressed (Pomeranz 1998).

The need to ensure congressmen pass appropriate bills and make good decisions will improve because of the introduction of training programs that will help these members to understand the impacts of their actions on ordinary citizens. This has helped them to differentiate political and national issues and minimized irrelevant debate and bills in parliament. Nations are struggling to equip their parliaments with modern technology to ensure communication between the public and congressmen is improved.

The presidential decision making process is undergoing tremendous changes to ensure the president makes rational decisions. Most presidents listen to their advisory bodies and consult relevant departments before making decisions (Shulman 2006).

This ensures the interest of the public is given the first priority over that of an individual or political party. In addition, presidents have realized that their positions as public figures means that they must ensure their citizens live better lives and have access to what they need. This means that they have ignored their personal and political party’s influences when making decisions.

Recommendations There is the need for a congressional decision making process to take a shorter time than what is happening in most parliaments. Bills should be discussed and approved within a short and reasonable time to avoid piling pressure on members of parliament.

In addition, congressional decision making processes should be independent of any political interests to ensure there is objectivity in discussions. Moreover, the veto power of the president should be minimized to ensure the congress is not arm-twisted to make irrational decisions. Lastly, there should be guidelines to guide the contribution of members in the congress to ensure all members are allowed to present their views.

There is the need for the presidential decision making process to involve other stakeholders before making conclusions. Presidents should not be allowed to make independent decisions without consulting stakeholders. The time for issuing presidential decrees and resolutions should be increased to ensure there is proper consolation and evaluation of the decisions made before the public is informed about them.

Conclusion Presidential decision refers to the decrees, actions, orders, suggestions and recommendations made by a head of state. Presidents are allowed to make independent decisions that affect the lives of their citizens provided they abide by the regulations of their constitutions. A congressional decision refers to the resolutions passed in either the lower or upper house of representatives.

These decisions are made after members of these houses conduct debates to evaluate the impacts and importance of issues that affect the lives of ordinary citizens. The presidential and congressional decisions affect the lives of ordinary citizens and thus the people responsible for them must ensure they put the interests of the public before self.

References Norburn, D 2007, ‘A Four Nation of the Relationship between Presidential and Congressional decision making processes’, Journal of International Politics, 21(4), pp. 451-468.

Pomeranz, F 1998, ‘Corporate Governance: Opportunity for Institutions and individuals’, The Journal of Political Management, 7(3), pp. 25-29.

Reuer, J 2011, ‘Managing in the Turbulent Political World: Presidential and Congressional decision making’, Journal of International Politics, 30, pp. 219-222.

Shulman, R 2006, ‘Corporate Treatment of Political Decisions, Journal of International Politics, 14(2), pp. 83-88.

Spillane, C 2014, ‘The challenges of political decision making processes in America’, Businessweek, 6(12), pp. 5-13.

Stone, B 2013, ‘An introduction to decision making in modern political governance’, Journal of International Politics, 11(21), pp. 11-12.

Subhash, K 2009, ‘Political economy and decision making processes’, Journal of International Politics, 12(2), pp. 113-129.

Tan, W 2011, ‘Politics and Corporate Governance, Investment and Firm Valuation in Asian Emerging Markets’, Journal of International Management and Accounting, 22 (3), pp. 246-273.


Causes of Noise-induced Hearing Loss Research Paper argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction Hearing loss may be classified differently. The most common classification is based on the pathology where the disease may be conductive or sensorineural. Another classification is based on the cause of the hearing loss, which may be age-related (presbycusis) or in noise-induced cases as discussed below. In conductive hearing loss, the transmission of sound to the cochlea is ineffective, despite the nervous system being intact.

The ear is divided into the external, middle, and inner ear. Obstruction to the transmission of sound along the pathway results in conductive hearing loss. The causes of conductive hearing loss may be congenital such as the meatal atresia, or acquired such as the case of accumulation of wax (Gradwell,


Analysis: “Professionalism at Work: The Kids Are Not Alright” by Silverman Report essay help free: essay help free

Silverman (2013) is critical of entry level workers describing them as “entitled, unprofessional bunch.” The author notes that entry level workers lack professionalism and commitment to their employers which makes them incompetent at work. They do not take their work responsibilities seriously which makes them incompetent and unprofessional. This harsh assertion reveals organizations need to readjust their expectations when hiring college graduates to fill up vacant positions.

The article shows that business organizations need to adopt stringent measures to ensure new and inexperienced employees perform their duties well. It is notable that this decline in performance has been going on for the last five years. It is disappointing to see that many entry level employees have a poor work ethic due to their negative attitudes to work (Silverman, 2013). The article confirms that the current crop of entry level employees in many firms do not have desired qualities to perform assigned duties effectively.

Employees need to have respect for authority for them to perform their duties well. Therefore, managers of different firms need to use discipline and respect for authority as some of the criteria used to assess employee performance. Silverman (2013) notes that some new candidates even show their arrogance while still being interviewed.

This portrays poor social etiquette on the part of the interviewee which shows that he or she does not value being associated with the interviewing firm. Managers should not tolerate any negative behavior by new employees as this sends a wrong signal to other employees in the firm. Cases of poor performance and insubordination by employees must be dealt with firmly. This will make workers more diligent to achieve organizational objectives.

This article confirms that performance based appraisals are effective in evaluating the contribution of each individual employee to the organization. Entry level workers must be taken through a firm’s organizational culture and practices to make them understand their roles and responsibilities. This will make them understand that any form of incompetence and insubordination at the work place will not be tolerated.

Performance appraisals can be used as benchmarks to reward employees who perform well in their duties. Likewise, appraisals can also be used to encourage employees who do not perform well to improve their performance in the future. Organizations need to put in place strict measures to ensure each individual worker produces quality output (Schrage, 2011). Employees who are not able to achieve positive productivity levels due to their incompetence should be replaced.

Effective time management is a good way to assess if an employee is committed to an organization. All employees must be made aware of the need to keep time to enable the organization achieve positive output. Employees should not be allowed to report to work late as this slows down internal operations and other crucial work processes. Organizations should put in place disciplinary measures to reduce lateness by employees.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This will ensure all employees take their duties at work more seriously. Technology is a useful tool at the work place though it has some disadvantages. Some workers waste a lot of time chatting on various social media platforms. This behavior affects their productivity because their attention is diverted from crucial work duties to other unnecessary activities (Schrage, 2011).

It is necessary to supervise employees more to ensure that they perform their duties as expected. Time should be treated as a valuable resource which needs to be managed properly to ensure organizational objectives are achieved.

Entry level employees should be given mentors to make them adapt quickly to the transition between college and work. Effective mentors help young employees to understand the culture and practices observed by all stakeholders in a firm. Employees should be given mentors who are more experienced and knowledgeable in different work procedures.

Young employees need to be encouraged to enable them improve their attitudes and commitment at work (Baldoni, 2011). A good mentor helps a young and inexperienced novice learn the importance of setting goals and the way they are to be achieved. Mentors make it possible for an organization to get the best results out of talented employees who do not have a strong motivation to work. This helps a firm to nurture inexperienced employees who are talented.

Business organizations must have clear communication protocols which all employees must follow whenever they communicate with each other. This should be made part of the organization’s culture to make all employees appreciate its importance. Verbal communication, e-mails, letters and telephone calls should be the main forms of communication used by employees to send and receive messages.

Entry-level employees need to be discouraged from using smart phones and computers inappropriately. This will ensure they follow laid down communication policies and other rules (Baldoni, 2011). Therefore, they will be able to focus more on their duties at work. It is important for Business organizations to change the manner in which they treat their entry level employees. This will enable them achieve positive results in their operations.

References Baldoni, J. (2011, Feb. 17). Help employees listen when they don’t want to hear. Harvard Business Review. Web.

We will write a custom Report on Analysis: “Professionalism at Work: The Kids Are Not Alright” by Silverman specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Schrage, M. (2011, May 26). The new trust vs. due diligence dilemma. Harvard Business Review. Web.

Silverman, R.E. (2013, March 12). Professionalism at work: The kids are not alright. Wall Street Journal. Web.


Was the American Use of the Atomic Bomb against Japan in 1945 the Final Act scholarship essay help

Introduction Known as one of the world’s greatest bloodbath, the World War II is also notorious for the first use of an atomic bomb as a weapon of mass destruction. As a matter of fact, restricting the amount of choices concerning the reasons that made the United States government attack Japan would be an insult to the history of the world in general and the history of the relationships between Japan and the United States in particular.

Therefore, to evaluate the reasons that guided the American government in their successful attempt at mass genocide of the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, one must consider not only the political implications behind the actions of the U.S. government, but also the specifics of the relationships between the two states, the influence of the U.S. and Japan in the WWII, the peculiarities of the American and especially the Japanese culture, as well as the numerous details concerning the outbreak of the Cold War.1

Despite the ace that every single piece of the existing evidence points at the fact that the United States were either intending to stress their participation I the WWII or to display their military power to the USSR, it can be assumed that the reasons behind the notorious Hiroshima and Nagasaki attack was an attempt to eliminate the slightest possibility of having the WWII going any longer, which would have necessarily appeared in Japan due to the peculiarities of the Japanese culture unless a sudden attack would have distracted them.

The Use of the Atomic Bomb as the Sign of the Cold War Considering the arguments “pro”: the plausibility

There is no secret that there always was an element of competition in the relationships between the USSR and the USA2. According to what Crockatt says, the fact that the U.S. dropped the bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki to prove their economic and political world dominance is clear-cut. As Crockatt explains, the means that the U.S. chose to prove their point were predetermined by the differences in which the two states fought for their dominance.

According to Crockatt, the differences in the way that the two states envisioned their concept of power defined the specifics of the approaches that the two states undertook in order to seize the power over the economic space. While the USSR preferred to adopt a more localized approach, the USA tended to encompass the opportunities provided by the entire world, and the situation with Japan was one of these opportunities.

Because of the differences in the attitudes towards Japan, the bellicose one of the United States and the peaceful one of the Soviet Union, the attack of Hiroshima and Nagasaki triggered the start of the Cold War between the USA and the USSR, as Crockatt explains: “The Soviet Union remained neutral towards Japan and declared war only after the dropping of the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima on 6 August 1945.”3

Indeed, there are a number of facts that indicate the willingness of the USA to demonstrate its power to the USSR. There could not be a better moment for showing the military strength of the United States, since the Soviet union was clearly in the process of healing its wounds after taking part in one of the greatest bloodsheds in the world history; America, meanwhile, was not harmed in the twists and turns of war, since, first, the USA only entered the war in 1945, as the war ended, and, second, was separated from Europe by the Atlantic Ocean and, therefore, could not become another battlefield.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More With that being said, the USA clearly had an opportunity to defeat the Soviet Union in their chase for the world economic dominance. The fact that the USA possessed the weapon of such power of destruction meant that the U.S. became the superior state whom the USSR would not be able to compete with: “The Soviets did not have the atom bomb, but the Americans did, and that caused insecurity.”4

According to the given point of view, the mere fact that the USA showed its martial potential was enough to start the Cold War5.

The above-mentioned viewpoint has all rights to exist; moreover, seeing how the tension in the relationships between the United States and the Soviet Union escalated after the given incident,6 the version of the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as the pretext for starting the Cold war becomes especially plausible.7

It can be assumed that the USA failed to show their entire military strength in the course of the WWII, as they managed to enter the process only as the WWII was getting to an end – in contrast to the Soviet Union, which displayed its military potential to the full, and, needless to say, made a great impression on the rest of the world.

Therefore, by dropping the atomic bombs on the Japanese cities, the United States technically showed that their military power was just as huge and threatening as the one of the USSR: “Sherwin demonstrates how the US decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan frew out of the Anglo-American thinking about its use as a diplomatic tool in peacetime as well as a winning weapon in wartime.”8

Concerning the arguments “counter”: the doubt

To address the hypothesis concerning the assassination of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki dwellers as an attempt to introduce the dominance of the USA into the USA–USSR relationships., it is necessary to consider the latter in detail. According to Boyle, the fight for the title of the superior nation has been lasting since both empires became powerful enough9.

With all due respect to Boyle’s research, however, it must be admitted that his account of the specifics of the USSR policies leaves much to be desired in terms of accuracy. It seem that Boyle makes a typical mistake by considering each action of the U.S. government as the response towards the ones of the USSR.

We will write a custom Essay on Was the American Use of the Atomic Bomb against Japan in 1945 the Final Act of WW2 or the Signal That the Cold War Was about to Begin specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, Boyle’s interpretation can be easily questioned, which picks the question whether the Little Boy and the Fat Man were a response to the USSR policies. Nogee’s work, on the contrary, offers much more introspective into the way in which the Soviet Union operated. Even though Nogee’s focus is on the USSR instead of its relationships with the USA, and, moreover, on the USSR of the post-WWII period, Nogee manages to capture the specifics of the state’s policy quite well.

According to Nogee, the USSR leader of the WWII era, Stalin never actually considered the United States’ demonstration of what an atomic explosion was capable of as an actual threat to the safety of Russia and the allied states.10 Moreover. Nogee makes it clear that starting a direct confrontation was more than undesirable for both states, since both the UA and the USSR were devastated after the WWII.

When considering the numerous signals that showed the start of the Cold War, one has to mention that the attack of the Japanese cities as another attempt to re-state the obvious would have been rather useless.11 According to what the existing sources say, by the end of the WWII, it was clear that the Cold War was brewing and that the U.S. and the USSR were going to divide the world into their spheres of influence.12

The Use of the Atomic Bomb as the Signal of the End of the WWII

The idea that the USA used atomic bomb as the means to bring the WWII to an end is another common interpretation of the incident.

What speaks in favor of the hypothesis: Truman’s policy

Despite the fact that at present, the interpretations of the USA assassination of the residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki gears towards the idea that the given action can be interpreted as the attempt of the United States to declare the end of the World War II.

When talking about the reasons for the United States to attack Japan, one must specify that on the given time slot, the reins of power were quickly passed over from Franklin Delano Roosevelt to Harry S. Truman, who had no other choice but to follow the track blazed by his predecessor. Meanwhile, in accordance with to the score of the Yalta Conference, the U.S. was waiting for the USSR to enter the Pacific War.

In addition, a number of German cities were incinerated prior to the attacks of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in a vengeful attempt to make Germany feel the power of the Allies.

To make the matters worse, the testing of the A-bombs in the USA has just ended by that point, which must have brought Truman to the conclusion that threatening Japan by wiping Hiroshima and Nagasaki off the face of the earth would be a logical ending to the WWII. Dukes states in a very straightforward manner that the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki helped bring the victory day closer:

Not sure if you can write a paper on Was the American Use of the Atomic Bomb against Japan in 1945 the Final Act of WW2 or the Signal That the Cold War Was about to Begin by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The dropping of A-bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August brought VJ Day more quickly than had been previously hoped and feared. There was just time for the Soviet Union to fulfil its promise of declaring war against Japan three months after VE Day.13

What speaks against it: the end of the War

However, there is also enough evidence that shows the opposite to the aforementioned ideas. Indeed, the link between the fact of genocide in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the end of the WWII can seem somewhat farfetched.

Another interpretation of the hypothesis The traditional idea of seeing the USA assassination of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki dwellers as an attempt to draw the line in the WWII can also be viewed in a different light. While it can be considered that the act of dropping atomic bombs on the cities can be interpreted as the way of showing the power and influence of the USA as the state that ended the World War II, there is also a different way of interpreting the given step.

The latter, however, requires an introspective into the peculiarities of the Japanese culture. According to the existing sources, even as the outcome of a battle becomes clearly unfavorable for the Japanese, the bushido code of conduct does not allow the Japanese warriors to cease the fire and give up; on the contrary, according to the bushido principles, fighting until the last soldier falls dead is the most appropriate tactics.

Therefore, it is logical to suppose that even after Hitler’s suicide, the war would have been going on as the code of bushido dictates. While the rest of the states that the Tripartite Alliance consisted of surrendered with the leader of the Alliance having been killed, the Japanese soldiers would have been fighting until the very last of them would have fallen breathless. Therefore, the World War would have been even longer and bloodier than it was, which the rest of the world, including the USSR and the Allies, would have hardly take14n.

As history shows, culture plays great role in developing and solving international conflicts. For instance, as Kegley and Wittkopf show, cultural specifics predetermine largely the economic relationships between such states as, say, USA and China.15 The same can be applied to the conflicts between the states.

In the given case, the fact that the Japanese government would have not ceased their attempts at fighting the enemy so easily is brought to people’s attention. Indeed, according to bushido, the Japanese code of a warrior’s conduct, a soldier is supposed to fight till the end even when the opponent seems to be superior.

Therefore, it can be assumed that, unless the USA had demoralized the Japanese, the WWII would have been continuing for quite long after the surrender of Germany. As a result, the consequences of the WWII would have been even more deplorable for the Allies, as well as for Germany, Japan and Italy. While Japan would have suffered most, the rest of the states would have also driven their economical and financial resources to an absolute zero.

The U.S. and the Soviet Union: Sworn Friends or Sworn Enemies? While the two states have been maintaining moderately friendly relationship, there has always been some kind of tension between them, as if the two were constantly trying to win over the other one. Indeed, if considering the way in which the specifics of one culture is portrayed in the other state, it becomes obvious that each of the two countries have always been trying to take over the opponent. For instance, according to English, even in mass media of each of the states, the portrayal of the other one was rather negative.16

For instance, in Russian media, the portrayal of the Capitalist USA world was far from being positive.17 The given attitude, however, had not grown into anything spectacular until the Cold War; it seemed that the two states realized that, once they clash, they might get harmed greatly; in the process.

Therefore, it can hardly be considered that the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was a deliberate attempt at starting the Cold War; the U.S. should have known that, even after the WWII, the USSR would have still be able to rebuff the attack efficiently enough18.

In fact, at certain point, the development of the notorious atomic bomb was planned as a joint attempt of the USA and the USSR to enhance their influence in the world, as McCauley explains.19 The given supposition can be supported by the fact that, according to some sources, the Soviet Union was the first to come up with an idea of a hydrogen bomb.20

Conclusion: In Search for the Truth Truly, it would be wrong to believe that nowadays, more than sixty years after the WWII was ended, it is possible to reconstruct the implications behind the actions of each of the states that took part in the WWII.

However, by analyzing the factors that influenced these actions, as well as learning about the position that the U.S. took in the World War, one can possibly figure out if the action of dropping atomic bombs on Japan was the sign of the triumph of the Allies or the beginning of the Cold War. While some of the sources contradict each other, it is possible to learn the truth about the notorious Hiroshima and Nagasaki attack.

Even though the connection between Hiroshima, Nagasaki and the Cold War might seem rather loose, it is necessary to admit that by dropping the bomb on these Japanese cities, the United States have shown their military strength, which was very timely in the light of the beginning of the Cold War.

Even though there is little to no evidence showing the effect that the given action had on the U.S. reputation in the Eastern Europe, one has to admit that the Hiroshima and Nagasaki incident was rather well-timed. Indeed, considering the consequences, one has to acknowledge the fact that the U.S. has shown its military potential, therefore, making it clear to the Soviet Union that the United States were able to fend for themselves.

Meanwhile, the act of brushing millions of the Japanese off the face of the Earth could be viewed as the attempt of the American government to draw the line in the WWII and make it clear that the Allies won.21 Indeed, the given action can be translated as a manifestation of the end of the WWII and the fact that fascism was finally defeated.

The reasons for the American government to undertake the given measure, on the other hand, are rather obscure; since it was not Japan, but Germany who was at the helm of the Tripartite Alliance, it would have been much more logical to use Germany as the venue of their vengeful act.

The role of Japan in the WWII could not be described as the definitive one; Italy had practically similar share of influence in the Axis Pact. The choice of the location for the Little Boy and the Fat Man was sporadic, which meant that the United States was going to draw the final line in the WWII.

With that being said, it is reasonable to suggest that, even though the attack of Hiroshima and Nagasaki with an atomic bomb triggered an increase in the U.S. authority, the given effect was sporadic rather than planned; by attacking Japan, the U.S. clearly intended to show that it also had its share of the triumph that the victory triggered.

Considering the policy of the American government at the time, one must admit that the idea of bombing Japan as the means to threaten the government of the Soviet Union seems much like a last-minute choice, which would have been rather untypical of the U.S. government.

As the existing evidence says, making Japan surrender was crucial to the outcome of the WWII mostly because of the specifics of the Japanese culture; with its specific code of honor, the residents of the latter would have not seized their actions until they had lost each of their soldier. Demoralization seemed a viable strategy to adopt, which the USA did by using an atomic bomb.

Bibliography Bell, PMH, The world since 1945, London, Hodder Arnold, 2001.

Boyle, PG, American-Soviet relations, London, Routledge, 1993.

Carlton, D and HM Levine, The Cold War debated, New York, McGraw Hill, 1988.

Crockatt, R The fifty years war: the United States and the Soviet Union in world politics, 1941-1991, London, Routledge, 2002.

Dobson, AP and S Marsh, US foreign policy since 1945, 2nd edn, London, Routledge, 2006.

Dockrill, S Advances in Cold War history (ed.), London, Palgrave, 2006.

Dockrill, S and G Hughes, Advances in Cold War history, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

Dukes, P, The superpowers. A short history, London, Routledge, 2000.

English R D, Russia and the idea of the West, New York, Columbia University Press, 2000.

Gaddis, JL, The Cold War, Harmondsworth, Penguin, 2007.

Kegley, C and ER Wittkopf, World politics: trend and transformation, 9th edn, Belmont, CA, Wadsworth, 2003.

Kennedy-Pipe, C, Russia and the world, 1917-1991, London: Arnold, 1998.

Leffler, MP and DS Painter, The origins of the Cold War (ed.), London, Routledge, 2002.

Light, M, The Soviet theory of international relations, Brighton, Wheatsheaf Books, 1988.

Lightbody, B, The Cold War, London, Routledge, 1999.

McCauley, M, The origins of the Cold War, London, Longman, 1995.

McCauley, M, Russia, America


Cause of crime Exploratory Essay essay help: essay help

Man and crime have coexisted throughout history. Nonetheless, traditional patterns guiding the transition from childhood to adulthood have changed. Moreover, there are limited opportunities for young people to explore. For instance, unemployment rates have skyrocketed.

As a result, many youths are unable to cater for their basic needs. Poverty is, thus, one of the major causes of violent crimes. The proliferation of criminal gangs in my area of jurisdiction, as director of the county juvenile court, represents a nationwide problem. Therefore, all parties involved must redouble their efforts in dealing with juvenile deliquesces and other gang-related problems. This paper provides background information on the gang problem.

In the 1990s, the rate of crime rose in most parts of the world (World Youth Report, 2003). Most of these crimes were related to youths. In Western Europe alone, the rate of juvenile delinquency increased by 50%. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) (n.d.), about 33,000 gangs operate across the US today.

In addition, 48% of violent crimes are committed by gangs (FBI, n.d.). In some areas, the percentage is as high as 90%. It is also estimated that these gangs have 1.4 million members. Most of the groupings are well organized and use sophisticated strategies to run their illegal activities and control neighborhoods. Some of their ways of generating money include gun and drug trafficking, kidnapping and robbery.

Before preventive programs are designed, reasons behind involvement of juveniles in crime must be understood (World Youth Report, 2003). One cannot effectively deal with a problem without knowing its root causes. According to the World Youth Report (2003), sociologists believe that juvenile delinquents commit minor to serious offences. Therefore, criminal gangs differ in their modes of operation.

Consequently, gang problems must be solved by more than one strategy. For instance, some gangs commit status crimes. A status crime is a criminal offenses related to the age of a person (World Youth Report, 2003). Peer pressure is the main driver of status crime. Sociologists use such issues to connect youth behaviors with their surroundings in an attempt to explain their actions.

African American neighborhoods have the highest number of criminal gangs. This trend is associated with institutional discrimination. For instance, about one third of African Americans are born in poor neighborhoods. Furthermore, these neighborhoods are faced with innumerable social-economic hardships.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The number of African Americans who can be categorized as middle class by either income levels or education is low compared to other ethnic groups. Although their social-economic status is improving, African Americans sit at the bottom of the ethnic hierarchy (pear, 2013). Structural discrimination and lack of opportunities lead to disruptive internal behavioral patterns among African Americans. Some of these behaviors include prostitution and crime. On top, these behaviors have negative impacts on their socio-economic mobility.

Proliferation of criminal gangs is brought about by socio-economic problems. According to pear (2013), in the last two years, ethnic groups with low incomes experienced a steeper drop in their incomes than those with high incomes. Undoubtedly, African Americans were the most affected.

Accordingly, most gang members are African Americans. Nonetheless, criminal gangs traverse across ethnic barriers and their activities are diverse and complicated. Dismantling these gangs requires joint efforts from the community, law enforcers, courts and other stakeholders. In fact, everybody has a role to play if this problem is to be eradicated.

References Federal Bureau of Investigations (n.d.). Gangs: They poison our streets with drugs, violence, and all manner of crime. Web.

Pear, R. (2013, August 21). Median income rises, but is still 6% below level at start of recession in ’07. The New York Times. Web.

World Youth Report (2003). Juvenile delinquency. Web.


Examining Acceptable Use Policies Report (Assessment) essay help online free

It does not matter whether a company has the access to the new technologies and services or not, if the stuff does not follow the proper procedures, this access can be ineffective. In order to have steady development the companies should take into consideration the security of information (Easttom, p.281).

Thought, examining and developing the security policies should be the major step in companies success. Four different acceptable use policies have been examined: Level3 acceptable use policy, Earthlink acceptable use policy, Sans Institute policies, and Information Security World Policy.

Level 3 use policy is applied to all users of the mentioned service. After accepting the rules of the policy, the user is acknowledged about the responsibility for compliance with them. The main aim of the policy is to protect the User, the Level 3 Network, and the Service from illegal manipulations over the Internet.

Among the Level 3 rights are: the right to terminate or suspend the service, the right to cooperate with investigators, the right to modify the policy, the right to filter the information. Level 3 policy prohibits illegal activities, unauthorized access, spamming and mobile bombing, fraud and spoofing.

In order to control the rules enforcement, Level 3 use policy anticipates the possibility to complaint. Thus, every User, or some other party can complaint about the above mentioned amusements (Level 3, 2012). Another important thing is that “Level 3 has no obligation to forward the complaint to the User or to identify the complaining parties.”(Level 3, 2012, line 126-127).

In addition, Level 3 use policy forbids transmitting the files which include corrupted data or viruses; altering or circumventing the procedures or processes to bandwidth utilization, measure time and other similar methods; using those activities, which (Level 3, 2012).

EarthLink acceptable use policy is quite similar to Level 3 acceptable use policy. As well as Level 3 policy, EarthLink policy is oriented on stopping the violations. This policy forbids any kind of illegal use: uploading, transmitting, receiving, storing, posting, data or material. It includes the information about illegal terrorism, drugs or weapon, services, goods or substances, and many others. EarthLink acceptable use policy includes fraudulent activities connected to finances: different suspicious financial schemes and pyramids.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, EarthLink acceptable use policy does not allow gambling, spamming, and phishing. Much attention is devoted to the copyright and trademark infringement. According to it, uploading, transmitting, receiving, and posting any material that infringes any copyright is forbidden.

One of differences to Level 3 policy is the rule about network probing, which was not mentioned in the first policy. According to EarthLink acceptable use policy, any kind of detective network activity is prohibited. EarthLink policy requests everyone who considers some actions to be violation can inform about it. EarthLink in its turn can give the verbal or written warning, suspend the person or service for some period of time, block the internet access to the service, terminate the service, or bring some legal actions (EarthLink, 2012).

Sans Institutes Policy is divided into several sub policies. Thus, Sans Institutes Policy includes such security policies as Computer, Desktop, Email. HIPAA, Internet, Mobile, Audit, Network, Physical, Server, Wireless, and Whitepapers Policy. There is no similar to Audit Security Policy in Level 3 and EarthLink acceptable policies.

This policy defines different requirements, provides the authority information to the team which conducts the audits and deals with the information security and risk assessments in order to ensure the resources and information integrity and investigate incidents. Another unique security policy is HIPPA policy. This policy was creates especially to protect confidential information, which is connected to the health issues.

The policy includes 18 standards, which are summarized in the three major themes: Physical, Technical, and Administrative Safeguards. Furthermore, different to other use acceptable policies is Visitor or Physic policy, which demands penalties for information disclosure and the camera usage. The mentioned policy requires check-in system. Thus, each visitor should go through the special check-in entrance, present his or her photo identification card, and only after will have the opportunity to visit their employee sponsor (SANS, 2012).

Another researched policy is Information Security Policy. This policy addresses such issues as integrity, disclosure, availability concerns and others which concerns the information security.

The policy is intended to influence the actions or decisions and create general way of behavior, as it sets the rules, the laws, and to prevent their violations. This policy is very similar to the previous policies. However, in this one the major focus is made on the technical aspect. The main point of the policy is connected to the risk analysis (The Information Security Policies, 2012).

We will write a custom Assessment on Examining Acceptable Use Policies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Eastons book is devoted to the examining of the acceptable policies. The main focus of the examined chapter is devoted to researching the most effective user, access, system administration, and developmental policies. As well as the previous policies, those that are described in the book are focused on the technologies.

However, according to the author, the good technologies should be supported with people factor, to be precise, with professionals, who can use the technologies in order to provide the best service. The author gives many tips how to be sure in the security of the information in the internet. First of all, Easttom advices never have a copy of the password in the accessible places. Secondly, the author advices never share the password.

Finally, in any case of suspension the violation, the person should inform about it the IT department. The book gives the overview of those activities that are appropriate in the network of the company, and those that are not. Among not appropriate are: the search for the job, the photographic use, the violations of the laws.

This list may include online shopping, reading news, or watching funny videos. In addition, the author gives the recommendations how to use the e-mail service. One of those recommendations is not to open the emails from unknown author or, which is even worth, not to answer that suspicious emails (Easttom, 2006).

Many different types of policies have been examined. However, each of them claims that nevertheless the powerful software and technological equipment, the person should be very careful him or herself. To my mind, the best recommendation how to be safe was written in the Easttoms book: “Passwords must never be shared with any person for any reasons”(Easttom, 2006, p.283).

The reason is that the person near you can be your worst enemy. When we are talking about the security of the important things, you are yourself the only person you can trust. The scheme is very simple: the responsibility equals the security.

References EarthLink Policies