The internet is the centre of focus for today’s generation in terms of information flow from one place to another. Politics has not been left behind in the utilization of the information super highway. Dittmer, Fukui and Lee (2000, 3) define politics as “who gets what, when, how and at whose expense”. Based on this definition, politics is a process through which distribution of public goods and services is appropriated.
To influence the distribution of national goods and services, one requires ability to influence the public to be aligned to certain principles or interests. However, in order to influence masses one requires a way of reaching out to the people with information. This paper explores the application of electronic media in politics, democracy and government. The aim of the paper is to identify the advantages and disadvantages of using the electronic applications, such as Politics 2.0, in politics.
Traditionally, television, radio, and newspapers were the only reliable medium of reaching masses. With advance in information technology, the internet has become a vital tool of passing out information to the public within a short period of time and at a low cost.
This has been dubbed the electronic era, abbreviated as the e-era (Bidgoli 2004, 25). Virtually all sectors utilizing the electronic information flow have acquired the “e” letter which stands for electronic. Terms like e-politics, e-government and e-democracy have emerged as a result of the new technology that facilitates information flow.
Conventionally, the public elects political representatives who pass laws and promulgate policies on its behalf. E-democracy is the new way of politicking that allows the citizens to participate directly in democratic governance processes (Abramson and Morin 2003, 19). In this new dispensation, citizens are not alienated from the policy and law formulation processes. The general public or citizens are able to directly influence or add their voice to debate on given laws or policy issues.
E-democracy can also be understood as the new way of actively advocating for democracy within nations and across the globe. Through advances in information technology, information is widely shared via the internet. Democracy related information is generated by such actors like democracy conscious citizens, media, political organizations or a government and streamed via the internet (David, Trevorrow and Halpin, 28).
E-democracy encourages higher interaction between the ruled and the rulers. The citizens participate more directly in the politics by supporting their preferred candidates or policy issues. Social networking plays a critical role in advancing e-democracy (Bidgoli 2004, 142). Through social networks, individual citizens can drum up support for their preferred political candidate or law or policy. Moreover, e-democracy aims at improving voter turn out or participation in the voting process.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More E-democracy is most efficient and effective where government processes have been made electronic (David, Trevorrow and Halpin, 11). When some or critical government processes are made electronic, an e-government develops. E-governing entails provision of government services through the web.
This implies using the web services to bring together different government agencies to one platform. Making government processes electronic enhances transparency and accountability among the government employees (Abramson and Morin 2003, 22).
IT has unparalleled properties of providing highly interconnected communication channels, ways of processing information and data management (Bidgoli 2004, 6). Internet business or e-commerce is being adopted all over the world. E-commerce is viewed by many around the globe as a more convenient way of doing business.
In the public sector, e-government is being adopted very fast as a convenient way through which governance can be executed. Applying IT in governance has opened numerous opportunities for raising management standards and improving the quality of service provision to the public (Abramson and Morin 2003, 21). IT improves management quality by reducing bureaucracies, improving performance and simplifies administrative procedures (Mayer 2008, 48).
Several governments have an integrated online system that contains all services that the government provides, when and where the citizens can access the services. During Clinton’s rein, the federal government put up an online system detailing all resources the federal government could offer. This online resource, which was unveiled in June 2000, can be found at www.firstgov.gov (Abramson and Morin 2003, 12).
Politics 2.0 found wide usage in the USA in early 2007. This was in anticipation of the 2008 elections. This software generally changed the way of politicking by taking much clout from traditional media. Much political discourse became streamed through websites and blogs. Politics 2.0 was aimed at changing the interaction between voters, media and politicians. Internet campaigns were the most popular tools of mobilization during the 2008 presidential campaigns that saw president Obama win the elections (Chadwick 2009, 23).
Politics 2.0 has many Pros or advantages. Foremost, as an internet application, it enables much interaction between the voters and candidates (Mayer 2008, 81). Since adoption of Politics 2.0 in the USA, greater interest in democratic processes was generated. President Obama, it can be argued, is the first president to have widely employed to his advantage e-democracy processes (Chadwick 2009, 27).
We will write a custom Research Paper on Politics 2.0′ Advantages and Disadvantages specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many people participated in democratic discourses on social networks and other e-forums. Furthermore, Politics 2.0 has also enabled voters or citizens to easily create and get support for petitions or given causes. With Politics 2.0, democratic actors easily generate and facilitate sharing of detailed material on democratic issues.
Internet campaign unlike other channels such as radio, and television, gives a political candidate a permanent online advertisement that can be accessed by supporters anytime anywhere. “The 2008 presidential candidates used the internet to create a permanent online presence through websites, chat rooms, forums and social networks such as MySpace, facebook, YouTube and brightcove” (Johnson 2008, 87).
However, all good things have their flipside. One of the cons associated with Politics 2.0 is that it increases pressure on elected officers. It requires that politicians continue attending to the citizens they were interacting with during campaigns even when under pressure of new offices.
E-politics apparently does not clearly show a distinction between political campaigns and governance (Mayer 2008, 97). This could result in a situation where political campaigns take centre stage and run for the whole regime. The internet gives political candidates a permanent presence on the web.
The permanent presence means politicians permanently engaging the electorate in permanent politicking at the expense of formulating and implementing policies (Mayer 2008, 101). Furthermore, making politics e-intensive is likely to reduce interest in conventional representation. When citizens have a forum through which they can voice or push for their interests, representation becomes challenged (David, Trevorrow and Halpin, 113). The work of the elected representative becomes confused.
Additionally, like all internet based processes, managing information security is a big challenge. Wrong information easily spreads to the wrong recipients. The internet can be used to widely spread propaganda about a candidate in a very short period of time (White 2007, 33).
Voters can be made to shift their support from one candidate to another by a mere negative message about a candidate posted to the web. Senator Allen George who had in 2004 won the Virginia election with confidence suffered a big blow in 2006 from his call for the “macaca moment” (Johnson 2008, 98).
Videos of the macaca moment by Senator Allen were uploaded on YouTube and viewed by many viewers. This incidence shifted the support he had from the voters making him lose the election. In the case of e-governance, the security of information posted on government web portals has remained a point of concern (White 2007, 42).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Politics 2.0′ Advantages and Disadvantages by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Finally, it is worthy noting e-politics and e-governance is driven by an emerging technology which is not known or well understood by all. Relying on it fully would mean sidelining those who are not trained from accessing government services (White 2007, 39). To avoid sidelining any citizens, parallel processes are set in place.
There are e-processes and conventional processes. This two line way of governing is efficient and effective but may prove expensive in the case of some processes. It is like having two lines of production running when only one would be efficient enough.
In conclusion, the internet has changed politicking especially in the developed nations. E-democracy allows citizen’s participation in policy formulation by giving opinion on the policy through the web (White 2007, 24). E-governance means that the government is executing it functions electronically.
This shift has its advantages and disadvantages. On the positive side, the shift has led to higher participation of citizens in governance issues. On the negative side, electronic applications like Politics 2.0 pose information security challenges especially where high stake politics is the case (White 2007, 27). The adoption e-governance and e-democracy as enabled by applications like Politics 2.0 is laudable but has to be approached with the necessary precaution.
Reference List Abramson, Mark and Morin, Therese. 2003. E-government 2003. New York: Rowman
Social capital and health inequality Expository Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Social capital and health inequality
Introduction Good health does not just happen; it is a habit of smart choices and sound clinical care. Findings say that good nursing is vital for good health and essential for the development of body’s physic but the avalanche highly depends on resource accessibility. Major causes of illnesses in the United States relates to poor diet, sedentary lifestyle and lack of good nursing guide/care. People will stay for long without considering the health checks only to run for the treatment when it is already too late. They link their ignorance to the financial ability.
Social capital and health inequality Throughout medicine and society, there has been a major concern over whether or not a person’s health outcome is the result of individual influence or his or her social surroundings and network. In class, students gain knowledge of various properties of social relationships as distinctive structural factors, and assessment of how they intertwine with the production of health.
This paper will take in hand the issues of understanding and demonstrate how social relationships, specifically social capital, can become the defining factor for influencing individual health, as well as the health outcomes of an individual’s social network members.
In various ways, the people around us can affect our health outcomes. However, it is a common credence that this is highly dependent on an individual’s social capital, or the resources embedded in social relationships. According to Lin and Song (2009, 149), people will rarely assess the quality of nursing or health care they receive or seek but will rather analyze the costs involved; including the installments premiums and the direct costs.
They also concentrate their decision on the recommendations their families and friends offer, their personal plan over doctors’ checkup visits and how convenient the location might be.
Social capital directly affects both outcomes net of social support. Examples among well-ascertained diseases antecedents include the social relationship between capital and support. There is a wide need for further research in connection to the influences of social capital on health issues.
As applied by Lin and Song (2009, 150), the social capital theory applies to the inequalities of health. According to them, these capitals involve embedding resources into social structures, which are accessible or mobilized through rationale actions. This is an indication that resources are allocated depending on the need as per the outlaid allocation structure for instance educational wise or authoritatively.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The social capital differs from economical capital based on the personal view. Personal capital includes the human economic and cultural needs. They emerge through the individual perspectives, which control them.
The social network identifies strong allies who provide important suggestions over matters requiring key decision-making. The occupational and structural position a person holds within a network determines the decision one makes with regard to health matters. In accordance with Lin and Song (2009, 151) writings, the social capital theory determines the type of information one gets as well as reinforcement by the individual’s identity.
Although individuals possess power to influence administration of health, the link between an individual and the networked set determines the physical and mental well-being of an entity. The common characteristics interprets the social behaviors of every person within the link Lin and Song (2009, 152).
Conclusion The perspective of social networks brings about the causes and consequences of various network perspectives such as integration, support, cohesion and capital. Closely related networks members have diverse effect and pressure over one’s health issues or decisions pertaining health matters.
This is due to the degree of socially created connections, impartiality, reliance, reciprocity as well as short of conflicts. The resource dimension regarding the position an individual holds in the networked member group remains the main determinant of social capital.
Works Cited Lin, Nan and Song Lijun 2009. “Social Capital and Health Inequality: Evidence from Taiwan.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior 50: 149-163
The Fall of the House of Usher by Edgar Allan Poe: The Role of the Narrator Essay best essay help
The role of the narrator is usually considerable and crucial for any literary work and reader’s perception of the content. With the help of the narrator, the reader gets a wonderful opportunity to become involved into the events, to evaluate the conditions from the narrator’s perspective, and to realize why the idea of the story is developed in this very way.
The Fall of the House of Usher by Edgar Allan Poe is one of the best and most captivating works, where much attention is paid to the role of the narrator and his participation in the events. In this short story, the narrator is an old friend of the main character, Roderick Usher, who decides to come to Usher’s house in order to support him and help to overcome his and his sister’s illness.
The role of the narrator of the story The Fall of the House of Usher is great indeed; his rationality and his ability to represent the events from the side of an immediate participant of the story and from the side of an observer, who notice changes in the house but still cannot comprehend the reasons of why these changes bother other characters.
As a participant. Without any doubts, Edgar Poe was one of those writers, who could create a story and make each reader being involved into its events. His narrators are unique and unpredictable, because they are able to notice each detail and pay special attention to each trifle.
From the very beginning, the narrator of The Fall of the House of Usher introduces the reader “soundless day in the autumn of the year, when the clouds hung oppressively low in the heavens” (Poe 109), where such a dark description aims to warn the reader and hint that the events will hardly cause laugh or tears.
The narrator performs the role of the participant of the story and suggests the reader to follow him and be involved into each step, breath, and look. This Poe’s decision makes this short story interesting to deal with for any reader and really remarkable in the world literature.
As a survivor and rationalist. Another significant role of the narrator in this horrific story is connected to his survival and the ability to describe the events in the Usher’s house rationally. “From that chamber, and from that mansion, I fled aghast” (Poe 128), the narrator tells. Such a fast decision of his proves that these events touch not only the body or mind, not perception of this world and own position in it.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In spite of the fact, that from the very beginning, the narrator seems to be a pure rationalist, who tries to present only rational explanations and see only rational events, and a person, who will never believe or accept some irrational things, he considerable changes his mind and tries to escape from everything, he has already got involved. Some time passes, and the narrator loses own voice of reason and admits that his fears and superstitions increase considerable.
However, the fact that the narrator is the only survivor tells that his life is not ended on this note, and he has to face many other challenges in his life; or, vice versa, he becomes trapped into the mystery of this house and his life would never be similar to the one before the event with the Usher’s house. The end of the story proves that narrator’s rationality has been lost in the madness of that house, and now, he faces numerous irrational challenges, which may influence his life considerably.
As a person, who can make mistakes. I truly believe that one more significant role of the narrators is directed to each reader in order to explain that even pure rational and smart people can make mistakes or think wrong because of numerous external factors.
From the very beginning, the reader observes the narrator as a rational, smart, and organized person, who is ready to present logical explanations to each even in his life. However, he makes a terrible mistake, when he agrees to Roderick Usher about the death of his sister and the decision to bury her alive.
Within a short period of time, the destiny of these two characters knocks to their door; it was “the lofty and enshrouded figure of the lady Madeline of Usher” (Poe 128). Such development of the events can be easily foreseen by the reader, but the narrator tries to postpone this climax as far as possible because of own rationality, and he perfectly does his job. However, the narrator is crushed by the madness of his old friend and cannot cope with all around irrationality.
All people make mistakes and suffer because of the consequences they cannot avoid; many writers try to describe this theme in their works in order to teach the reader and help him/her to improve this life. Edgar Poe’s narrator in The Fall of the House of Usher is one few characters, who may perform several roles simultaneously and do it very well that allows readers to accept this story as a significant and educative piece of writing.
To become a participant of the terrible events, to evaluate how one action may destroy several lives and the whole house, and to comprehend that some kind of mystery is somewhere near – these are that major purposes, the narrator of the story wants to achieve. The narrator’s role is really significant in The Fall of the House of Usher, and the reader should not only to worry about the destiny of the major characters but also to learn, to think, and to believe in faith and our predestination.
We will write a custom Essay on The Fall of the House of Usher by Edgar Allan Poe: The Role of the Narrator specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Works Cited Poe, Edgar, A. The Fall of the House of Usher and Other Tales. New York: New American Library, Penguin Putman Inc., 1998.
Summary of the Article “Should We Fear Derivatives?” Report (Assessment) essay help online free: essay help online free
Should We Fear Derivatives: Help or Harm to the Economy “Should We Fear of Derivatives?” is the article by Rene M. Stulz for The Journal of Economic Perspective of 2004. The main subject of this work is the evaluation of the essence of derivatives, their types, prices, and effects in the sphere of economy and clearing up why so many people still keep using derivatives and cannot leave this affair.
The author divides this article into several logical parts in order to have time and space to explain each point about derivatives and demonstrate how he comes to these conclusions and why his conclusions have to be regarded as the correct ones. The economic essence of derivatives is hard to define. In fact, there is no concrete definition of derivatives in the economy, and this word is usually interpreted as the chemical concept of “a substance that can be made from another substance” (Stulz 173).
In finance, the essence of derivatives is almost the same. Any economic derivative is considered to be an instrument, where its payoffs are derived from some already existed values like asset or rate. Such a clear explanation of derivatives and the presentation of appropriate and interesting examples make this article really captivating from the very beginning and demonstrate how high the level of author’s knowledge is.
The clarification of the main idea is presented at the end of the introductory part. The author underlines that he intends to study derivatives as positive economic substances, represent its benefits, and mention that the risks are possible with derivatives, but still not considerable in comparison to all derivatives’ advantages.
This is why, from the very beginning of the article, it becomes clear that people should not fear derivatives in the economy because they are more helpful for this sphere of life; and in spite of possible risks and challenges, the benefits of financial derivatives are significant and important. It is necessary to become more attentive to the use of derivatives, to follow the development of derivatives, and to study the peculiarities of each derivative’s type in order to use them properly.
Derivatives may be of two types: exotic and plain vanilla. The latter is all those “contracts to buy or sell future delivery, called forwards and futures contracts” (Stulz 174). The former is everything else that may be connected and applied as the derivatives. Exotic derivatives differ from plain vanilla derivatives due to their inability to put together the contracts like forward and option.
The best example of an exotic derivative presented by Rene Stulz is any binary option, where money has to be paid in case a certain condition is met (Stulz 176). The pricing of exotic and plain vanilla derivatives remain to be a considerable topic as well, and the author pays much attention to it. A forward contract that is inherent to plain vanilla derivatives changes its values from time to time. These changes cause problems with a portfolio strategy and lead to some losses.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In order to solve the problems with pricing and get a chance to benefit from the chosen derivatives, it is possible to use the Black-Sholes formula and calculate the necessary number of shares, required time, and possible profits. The sphere of finance is always under certain development, and because of that pricing of derivatives cannot be always stable and usually depends on numerous outside factors.
Another significant part of the article is devoted to the development of derivative markets and the reasons of their growth. One of the first derivative markets have appeared several centuries ago in Holland. They were small markets for options under the influence of world economic changes like industries’ deregulations.
The demand for products was raised and used in order to prevent possible risks in the sphere of economy. The author’s attempt to describe the historical development of derivatives gives the reader a chance to comprehend why people started using derivatives and what could cause the troubles.
Derivative markets are considered to be helpful to the economy for many reasons, and Rene Stulz presents a separate part of this article in order to introduce how beneficial these markets can be. One of the most evident benefits of derivatives is their abilities to provide people and organizations to achieve payoffs, which are impossible to achieve or possible achieve but under very expensive conditions.
Derivatives are also helpful to the economy because they promote the development of underlying markets and promise their effectiveness. These benefits of derivative markets provoke numerous financial/nonfinancial firms and individuals use derivatives even if they know that they cannot hedge risks, which are associated with their capital’s values.
In this article, the risks caused by derivatives are studied as well. The financial system is one of those victims, who may lose certain profit because of the services of derivative markets. First of all, the firms, which decide to use derivatives, are not actually aware about derivatives’ worth.
Secondly, the collapse of Long-Term Capital Management’s attempts and the conditions of crisis cause considerable losses or changes of requirements frequently. But in spite of all those troubles and traps of derivative markets, people still want to address these services just in order to be sure about another opportunity to get necessary values when it becomes necessary.
We will write a custom Assessment on Summary of the Article “Should We Fear Derivatives?” specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the concluding part of his article, Rene Stulz admits that only derivatives may allow firms both financial and nonfinancial and individuals to hedge financial risks. And if derivatives undergo some changes, which may lead to their collapse, the economy as a whole takes a considerable bath.
He also answers the most important question whether derivatives are harmful or helpful, and the answer becomes clear. We should not fear them but only respect due to such a great opportunity to get payoffs, when they are necessary. The vast majority of people use planes in order to get the necessary place within a short period of time.
And though these people are afraid of flying or airplanes’ crashes, they still use these services to save time and try to improve airplane industry. Almost the same happen to the derivative markets: people are aware about the fact that risks and challenges are inherent to this financial sphere, but cannot stop using these services, because they get so many benefits, which may improve their lives.
Losses are present everywhere; each sphere of life and business is under a threat of being spoiled or crashed due to risks and crises. This is why it is not obligatory to stop using this really helpful service but start developing programs, which may improve the derivative markets’ development and make these services more effective in this world.
Works Cited Stulz, Rene, M. “Should We Fear Derivatives?” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 18.3 (Summer 2004): 173-192.
The Influence of the Cultural Current “Modernism” on the Conception of Music in the 20th Century Essay argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The desire to present something new ruled composers
Popular opinion as a driving force of modernism in music
Recording technology open new opportunities in music
Musical performances as considerable events for society
Introduction The conditions under which the world lived at the beginning of the 20th century had to be changed considerably to destroy the ruling Victorian principles and to start developing innovations, which could improve the life of current materialistic society.
People required for changes, and those changes had to touch upon each sphere of life. Music is regarded as that very sphere that has close connection to human emotions, productivity, and even interrelations; and the influence of such cultural movement like modernism should certainly change the conception of music for better.
Robin Walz admitted that modernism has to be comprehended as a cultural movement that aims at achieving a new consciousness concerning the matter of living experience and innovations’ influence against the already established rules. This explanation turns out to be helpful in defying the major issues, according to which the modern changes should happen.
The influence of modernism on music in the 20th century may be observed from several perspectives: musicians wanted to present something new, interest to the popular opinion provoked the use of new modern idioms, the development of recording technology speeded up music production, and finally, musical performances were regarded as considerable events, which had to be noticed, criticized, and recognized.
The desire to present something new ruled composers Modernism was one of the most popular currents of the 20th century that brought numerous political, social, and cultural changes all over the world. It was mentioned from the very beginning that something happened to music at the turn of that century, and all those changes were absolutely new for the world.
A kind of excitement was in the air and spread with unbelievable speed: the vast majority of composers and singers made numerous significant attempts to change their looks on their work, to change the sound, and to improve the very concept of music, taking into account current demands and interests.
Avant-garde assaults on music were characterized by fast development of technologies and challenges of the 19th century. Progress in science, the ideas of anti-romanticism, and the necessity to use human experience and to consider public opinion – all this cried that novelty had to be offered.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ezra Pound was probably one of the brightest figures in modernism movement, who clearly identified the influence of this current on music: “Make it new.” 20th century music demonstrated a kind of freedom and the desire to experiment as frequent as possible: musical styles, forms, and genres hade to be challenged in comparison to the rules that had been already set by the 19th century.
The 20th century was significant by the creation of electronic instruments that led to the fast spreading of popular music, representation of new music forms because faster music could be compared to quick movements and human noticeable development.
Modernism movement provoked composers changed their music from any possible perspective, and one of the most frequent was the change of music language and the necessity “to turn a composition into a ‘text’ constructed of musical ‘sentences’…to move beyond the comforts of melody and harmony and to provoke strong, conflicting, deep emotional responses in the listener.”
Schoenberg’s passion to 12-tone method was one of the most famous ideas in music during the modern movement: his Six Songs, Op. 3 or Transfigured Night, Op. 4 demonstrated how words, tone, and music had to be united and properly presented to the listener. People should get a chance to realize what composer’s intentions are to a particular work, and these very works presented that very novelty that was so inherent to music of the 20th century, where the influence of modernism played one of the most important roles.
This new approach to music creation was one of the best ways out for those composers, who decided to follow Pound’s motto and add something new to the already existed rules and amaze people with new opportunities and new ideas within music. This is why the intention to present something new in music as a major influence of modernism as a cultural current should be regarded as the most successful one and the most important one, because it turned to be a basis for other changes and for further development.
Popular opinion as a driving force of modernism in music When we talk about the influence of modernism on composition of music in the 20th century, we have to mention the role of such a talented composer like Gustav Mahler. His style of writing and the attempt to develop the song cycle distinguish him from other composers of Europe and America. The role of popular opinion as a belief that is shared and supported by the vast majority of people is also considerable for the development of music during the 20th century.
This is why all those emotions, feelings, and attitudes to the current affairs have to be taken into consideration in order to reflect them in music during its composing. For example, Gustav Mahler’s personal life was marked by constant disappointment and unhappy love. These emotions are known to many people from personal experience, from literary works, or from other types of art.
We will write a custom Essay on The Influence of the Cultural Current “Modernism” on the Conception of Music in the 20th Century specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More His Songs of a Wayfarer is a magnificent composition that depicts the life of a lover, who chooses to travel along and find out own happiness and love after a terrible rejection of a lover. His music is really captivating and full of sense, and his attention to public troubles and challenges, which have connection to popular opinion, underlines once again that the influence of modernism hits music from different sides, and each of those hits has its own price.
In spite of the fact that the 20th century brought numerous changes in the world of music, some of the changes had their roots at the end of the 19th century, and one of those grounds were the works by Anton Bruckner, an Australian composer, known for his four movements.
He added some feelings and vision to his compositions; he made his works interesting not only to hear but also captivating to observe how the variety of instruments performs music: horns, trombones, trumpets, and some woodwinds cooperate in such ways that each listener cannot but get unbelievable pleasure from the chosen performance.
This popular opinion like the desire to comprehend the music, offered by Mr. Buckner, was reflected in music of the 20th century; and it raised music considerably, underlying how influential one cultural movement could be.
It is necessary to admit 20th century classical music was influenced by modernism most of all. The desire to become more progressive and reject past practices made classical composers pay more attention to what people want to hear and how these purposes could be achieved by means of technology. The influence of modernism was so considerable on classical music that even numerous past cultural currents were regarded just as one more reflection of modernism and the attempt to improve its features.
Recording technology open new opportunities in music The influence of modernism on music in the 20th century was also remarkable for the ways of how music is heard and comprehended by people. This is why such a peculiar feature of modernism cultural current like recording technology gained its recognition within the shortest period of time.
Sound technology has been perfected in the beginning of the 20th century due to its significant helping side: recreation of sound waves in instrumental music introduces an absolutely new current and provides listeners with a new way to comprehend music and enjoy it in different ways. Sound recording may happen in two ways analog or digital recording.
A Mexican composer Conlon Nancarrow was one of the first known composers, who released own music. The beginning of the 20th century opened a new door in the technological world, where it became possible to use gramophone discs to record music.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Influence of the Cultural Current “Modernism” on the Conception of Music in the 20th Century by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These discs were used frequently because they did not cause any difficulties with own manufacturing, transportation, distribution, and storage. The events of World War I made a significant effect on Modernism and musical industry; however, in comparison to the effects on the cultural movement under consideration, the effects of the war on discs’ distribution and the promotion of instrumental music turned out to be more positive.
People wanted to have a chance to store their favorite music in easy-to-use format and to listen it any time, this is why the progressive intentions of modernism and the development of technologies promoted discs’ manufacturing and recording any type of music.
Rock and roll is a style of music that has been born in the middle of the 1900s. It was the peak of modern movement, when its representatives tried to combine the elements of jazz, blues, and boogie-woogie.
This musical style was developed in the technological era, and this very point played a very important role as rock and roll became the first musical form ever to be recorded before to be performed live. The attention to recording technologies increased considerably because composers as well as performers aimed at developing really successful music and save it for many years.
The above-mentioned Conlon Nancarrow and the representative of Australian music, György Ligeti introduced magnificent, extraordinary music by means of composing it due to keeping of time and their archiving. Such approach was not inherent to the representatives of the 19th century’s Romanticism, and the progress of the 20th century allowed to improve music of different styles by recording and storing.
Modernism as a movement brought another justified change, technological improvement; and even such a sensitive sphere of life as music underwent those changes and achieved unbelievable success. Even now this very effect of modernism of music is noticeable and continues its development, taking into account new standards and new demands.
Musical performances as considerable events for society Modernism as an important tendency at the beginning of the 20th century had its effects on music even in regard to the way of its performance. Not long time ago, people did not pay much attention on how to reproduce music and make it popular among people. The end of the 19th century was marked by the invention of the radio, a means that allowed fast spreading of music.
Of course, it was a real breakthrough of the world; and this breakthrough could not but reflected on music industry. At the beginning of the 20th century, music was translated on the radio in order to entertain and inform people, and describe human emotions. So, people got a wonderful chance to listen to the music any time and everywhere.
However, the major characteristic of modernism in music was the conception of performance and its change from a simple introduction of music to a great event. For example, the performance of classical music turned out to be a real presentation, where the size of decoration, the effectiveness of the sound, and even the organization of light played a very important role.
The beginning of the 20th century brought one more change in music: from that period of time, people became involved into proper presentation of music. Its performance became an integral part of its developing and its popularity among people. If the performance was a remarkable event, and people enjoyed it, this music became popular and interesting to people. If the event met numerous critics, and people demonstrated the disappointment about the event, the composition under performances was considered as a failure.
Modernists admitted that it was not obligatory to present some magnificent events in order to make music popular, however, it is necessary to make it memorable in order to involve people and attract their attention more and more each second. The point, that performance should be regarded as an event, also led to the attention to such trifles like clothes, color of skin and hair, and even walk. If people preferred dark clothes and colors, they should be interested in some kind of Goth music.
People, who prefer streets, free clothes, and ability not to follow orders, liked the sounds of rap, rock, or heavy metal. The performance of any of these forms of music required a separate event with a properly chosen style and light. This is why in order to make music popular, composers started to think not only about the necessary tone, melody, or meter, but they also tried to imagine how exactly this music could be introduced and performed to public.
Conclusion There are lots of discussions where the influence of modernism on 20th century music is concerned. The changes, which have been brought by this cultural current, found their reflection in many spheres of life, and music is not an exception. The desire to follow the progress, the idea to use technologies in order to present more interesting music, and the attention to general appearance – this is what actually characterized for music at the beginning of the 20th century and its composition.
If the period of Romanticism was all about the idea of how to perform captivating music and combine as many sounds and instruments as possible, the major idea of modernistic movement was to pay more attention to the context of music and its logical arrangement. People got a wonderful opportunity to concentrate more on music genres, tones, and structure, because new technologies were able to make composers’ ideas real and clear for the listener.
This is why the influence of modernism should be regarded as the most considerable for composing of music, and people should evaluate composers attempts to represent new, lively, interesting, and educative music by means of recording, thrilling performance, and attention to public opinion.
Reference List Albright, Daniel. 2004. Modernism and Music: An Anthology of Sources. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Grove, George, Sadie, Stanley, and Tyrrell, John. 2001. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. New York: Grove Publications.
Randel, Don Michael. 2003. The Harvard Dictionary of Music. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Tick, Judith. 2000. Ruth Crawford Seeger: A Composer’s Search for American Music. New York, NY: Oxford University Press US.
Walz, Robin. 2008. A Short History of a Big Idea: Modernism. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education.
Footnotes Walz, Robin, A Short History of a Big Idea: Modernism (Harlow, UK: Pearson Education, 2008), p.9.
Albright, Daniel, Modernism and Music: An Anthology of Sources (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004), p. 8.
Walz, Robin, A Short History of a Big Idea: Modernism (Harlow, UK: Pearson Education, 2008), p.62.
Einstein, Alfred, “Bruckner, Anton” in The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (New York: Grove Publications, 2001), p.476-484.
Tick, Judith. Ruth Crawford Seeger: A Composer’s Search for American Music (New York, NY: Oxford University Press US, 2000), p. 245.
How Ethics May Have Played a Role in Enron’s Way of Doing Business Report (Assessment) college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Impact on stakeholders
Outcome and Fairness of Punishment
Ethics in the way Enron conducted business
Introduction Out of a merger between Houston Natural Gas and InterNorth, Enron was formed in 1985 based in the United States. As an energy trading and communications company, at the start, the company was involved in construction, development and operation of power plants, pipelines globally.
Further, it was participating in the transmission, distribution of electricity and gas throughout the state and. Afterwards, Enron enlarged their wealth through marketing and promotion of commodities which included; power and communications bandwidth and related risk management derivatives as tradable securities.
Enron energy trading and Communications Company that was based in Houston, TX was well re-known for its accounting strategies a factor that allowed it to be listed as the seventh largest company in America (Molly, 2001). The company had a work force of about 21,000 employees grouping them among the largest employers in the country. In the same year, it was ranked number seven by the fortune magazine among first five hundred companies in the United States.
The energy company had made inventions in communications, power and weather securities and due to this it was expected to dominate the trading in these areas. However, in the year 2000, the company had claimed a revenue base of about with $101 billion but due of their trade activities. Despite all that, the company still ended up the biggest failure in the corporate history (Molly, 2001)
Despite the fame and wealth Enron had accumulated, the company stood on the verge of bankruptcy by mid November 2001 (Bryce, 2002). This had arisen from numerous scandals and collective failure between the company and its auditing firm which brought about by accounting irregularities that surrounded fraud. Poor decisions, mismanagement and individualistic type of management by Enron’s top were also major contributors in the collapse of the corporation.
At the same time, the value of investors’ equity per share in 2001 fell from $85 to 30 cents a fact that plunged the company into a disastrous loss. Discovery of the company’s source of profit which happened to be from deals with limited partners which it controlled was one of the factors that resulted to the company’s loss of value.
This loss and other similar financial conflicts, was not reported in any of the company’s financial report (Niskanen, 2005). More to that, the company had also devised a method to elude taxes and maintain anonymity by opening offshore accounts that allowed them easy currency flow. By the end of the year 2001, the firm’s European operations filed for bankruptcy and sought protection in the US Southern District of New York under chapter 11 (Hodak, 2007).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the year 2000 during the companies’ financial peak point, public investors were encouraged to buy stocks in the company since the prices were at their highest with a promise of further appreciation in their value in the subsequent year.
However the executive in the company knew of the looming loss that was to be experienced in the near future and instead of advising the public, they were in a hurry to sell out all of their stocks (Hodak, 2007). To the demise of the investors, the stocks plummeted causing a great loss across the board of approximately $102.
Later in the subsequent years, Enron was forced to sell out its assets since it had incurred a large financial loss. The sale was to be done since the company had to liquidate its assets and raise funds to aid in settling the creditors and investors who had not anticipated the collapse. However, Enron reopened again under a new name Enron Creditors Corporation after settling with most of its creditors except Citigroup (Hodak, 2007).
Impact on stakeholders Enron Company was composed of share holders that included both the private and corporate class. Since the company had a good reputation of its wealth and a large revenue base, the rate at which people invested was overwhelming.
Reports by Chris Penttila, (2002), indicated that the Enron’s mission statement dictated the four key values that the company prided itself in. These key values were: excellence, communication, integrity and respect. The purpose of this was to instill in the public the confidence that everything that happened in the company was fair and open a notion that was welcomed by the managers working for the company.
However, collapse of the company was partly allowed by the stakeholders since they were afraid of questioning the companies’ business activities and conflicts that they were always involved in. for example many of the stakeholders knew of the financial conflict of interest that existed between Arthur Anderson, Vinson, Elkins and the Enron’s board of directors.
The collapse of the company was met with a lot of negative reactions. The public was hit with a rude shock and immediately people stated pointing fingers to the systems that allowed the disaster to happen. According to (Bryce, 2002) the collapse affected all stakeholders from the big investors to the least employee in the company.
We will write a custom Assessment on How Ethics May Have Played a Role in Enron’s Way of Doing Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some of the social impacts included loss of lively hoods by small employees who worked in the company to billions by the investors, deaths, life savings and even imprisonment. In a meeting with the Congress former Enron employees witnessed that they had not only lost their jobs but also their retirement savings. Moreover, the threat of loss of employment was not only felt by Enron employees but even those at Andersen’s U.S. operations (Dugan and Spurgeon, 2002; Bryan-Low, 2002)
Loss of business by the partners and affiliates of the company was another major impact of the collapse. An example of this was Andersen which after indictment started to experience a mass exodus of its clients. This had a great effect on the revenue of the company and the public confidence.
Andersen then went further to loose the favor on settlement with the judiciary a move that was seen as suicidal if adopted by the other states, since it might preempt them to revote the companies license. According to Wynn (2009), other trading partners that were affected by Enron’s losses were ING Barings, Deutsche bank, Duke Power and American power who also suffered immense losses.
Other social impacts that were felt by the stakeholders involved deaths that were not anticipated for. Such an example is; Kenneth Lay who was an Enron’s CEO but died of heart attack in July 2006. The causes of the Enron’s CEO death were attributed to stress brought about by public unrest and legal pressures in the cases filled against him in the state (Palepu
Capacity Management in Business Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Need for company change For a company to prosper in change, its capacity should be highly considered. It should admit the challenges encountered with ease because its capacity enhances the development of a corporation. Lack of capacity brings about failure. Change enables a company to move a step forward in is day-to-day routine hence flourishing at the end of it all.
In line with Slack and Lewis, (9) a company should centralize on change more than any other field by emphasizing and having a positive focus towards it. It should also have new methods of passing information to enhance the communication pathways and to help working in partnership.
A corporation should be able to receive and admit views from different perspectives, this enables intermingling hence change of ideas is experienced. There ought to exist more interactions because the more the company interacts the more it acknowledges itself from different points. Change in a company does not necessarily depend on how much the company holds but on outweigh of the ideas they have came up with midst a tight schedule on their market conditions. In a company, their partners should have a know how of the change.
There should be interaction among different parties within a company, the smaller the capacity of a company the greater the chances of admitting the change because their interaction is limited within a small geographical area. In addition, the direct-to-direct interaction or the face-to-face interaction within a company brings about a common understanding of an issue from the same perspective thus brings change within that company.
Companies need to ensure constant changes to engage its employees into spending more time in understanding customer’s needs. (Edwards and Day, 5) This is one way of enhancing proper transformation of data. It also helps to determine probability of achieving goals, strengthening the relationship between the management and employees, and reduce extra costs or time of reinventing.
According to Slack and Lewis (12) proper implementation involves “effective planning cycles that need fewer ad Hoc interactions regarding operational decisions.”
Advantages and constraints of making a number of small changes in capacity rather than fewer large ones The company operation goals fall short because of failure to complement the strategic plan of the organization. The organizational strategic plan ought to start from the individual level whereby one should realize that their unique ideas contribute to the overall performance of the organization.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It is not easy for the company to have these ideas collected, but in most cases, it works out when they are motivated to work together towards common goals. The company fails to translate because they try to implement the strategies all in a go instead of the small phases change over strategy.
Survey conducted on various company indicate that majority of the companies have a proper strategies to steer off the change but they lack the plan to do so thus very few end up implementing the strategies successfully. This is a clear indication that for a company to achieve strategic success, it has to promote the plan by allowing those responsible for currying out the plan.
To accomplish some advantages over strategic planning, one ought to execute the change over in a premeditate manner. Some of the advantages include attaining motivated leadership styles.
This is the ability to achieve sustained performance through personal planning and development, which acquaints employees with dynamic ideas. These leadership styles assist in business growth besides the complete effectiveness. Every employee should be aware of the overall business strategic plan to pick up his or her roles in the implementation process.
The second advantage entails turning the strategy into action. The phased approach provides the opportunity to link the identified performance factors to the strategic initiatives and projects whereby there is easy in achieving full optimization of individual and departmental activities. Thirdly, the phased planning also helps to complement all the other departmental goals and objectives. Lastly, there are chances to link all the units to work as a unit for the overall success. (Slack and Lewis, 22)
Some of the shortcomings concerning the implementation may entail the inability to understand the overall strategic plan fully due to the involved breakdown. The people involved such as the employees may not be in a position of know exactly what is required in order to accomplish the company’s plan.
There are queries concerning what ought to be created, refined or accomplished for the final achievement of the company’s plan. Some of the queries will include questioning such as, when to consider the implementation as a success and how it is measured emerges.
We will write a custom Essay on Capacity Management in Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Single phased business plans and changes requires proper planning for instance, appointment of resources for the implementation process, assignment of responsibilities or any requirement process of renewal. Worst part of any job involves obstacles to change created by lack of constituency over processes, measurements and the general system. Implementing change ought to involve and convince individuals to modify their personal traits and check their compliance with the intended change.
Lastly, the major constraint involves the business complexity. Intricacy on an organization reduces chances for twist all the way through modification. “The complexity makes changes to be more tailored and focused therefore making it more difficult to redirect some of the interactions to the efforts required”. (Slack and Lewis, 22)
Sometimes change may call for the culling of some of the staff members from the system thus leading to early retrenchment. Effects on the traditional patterns of interacting during the change process may also be experienced.
Conclusion There is need to acquire more sophisticated tools and formally interactive systems, which are able to manage multiple aggressive situations as well as success factors. Today there is need for proper planning to avoid deadlock situations that minimizes space for growth.
These are because many companies are growing at an alarming rate and the merges are currently quite often. There is an obvious complexity regarding the mergers because of the various units, processes and measuring standards involved. The need for change or transformation potential is what leads to merging.
Works Cited Edwards, H. and Day, D. “Creating Passion Brands: How to Build Emotional Brand Connection with customers”. London: Kogan Page. 2007
Slack, N., and Lewis, M. “Operation Strategy”. London: Prentice Hall. 2008
A Case Resolved by the Britain Press Complaints Commission Essay a level english language essay help
This paper analyses a case resolved by the Britain Press Complaints Commission. The case analysis shows clearly that journalistic code of practice was not adhered to by the journal in question. Codes of practice or conduct are important self regulatory tools at the disposal of journalists. The complaints councils play an important role as arbitrator.
When a complaint is lodged with the press complaints commissions or councils, they endeavor to resolve it amicably. The alternative is to press libel charges, which are often expensive to prosecute and defend. This paper, therefore, clearly points to self regulation and passing of friendly media laws as the only sure way of guaranteeing journalistic freedom.
Journalists are supposed to do their work guided by ethics or general principles that defines good practice. Every practicing journalist is often affiliated to a journalistic body which is bound to a given code of conduct. Codes of conduct aim at ensuring journalists seek only to establish truth in a fair, accurate and objective manner.
The other aspect of journalism that is often misused or compromised is accountability to the public (Alia, 149). Journalism is not supposed to serve any vested interest. Rather, the aim of journalistic endeavors should be feeding the general public with accurate, objective information.
Information helps create a public sphere or interaction between members of a republic. In the recent past, capacity to share information world wide in a fast and easy way has created a sense of international citizenship (Alia, 147). This is positive and desirable, however, any distortion of truth or misinformation bring to a public a lot of harm. Sometimes harm does not come to the whole public but rather to individuals; they loose a livelihood or reputation.
Journalistic codes are tools for guiding journalists wade through situations that present conflicting interests (Alia, 63). The codes contribute to self regulation of individual journalists in the media industry. In case of a dilemma, most codes indicate clearly what the most ethical course of action would be. Information on minors, reports on security and people suspected of crime have to be properly censored (Alia, 52).
The challenge is to balance between the need to keep the public informed while protecting the subjects from any possibility of unjust or unfair harm as a result of the report. If reports on a crime are not handled sensitively, they easily damage individual’s reputations or cost institutions a lot of money.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To entrench self regulation, complaints councils have evolved or been established within journalistic circles. These councils are guided by given codes of conduct in resolving complaints lodged before them. One council I am familiar with is the British Press Complaints Council (PCC).
The PCC defines itself as “an independent body which deals with complaints from members of the public about the editorial content of newspapers and magazines” (Press Complaints Commission, 1). Since its inception to date, the council has dealt with many complaints. The PCC website states that they dealt with 4, 698 complaints in the year 2008 alone. One of the recent complaints or cases they handled was called “A man v Press
The automobile industry in Hong Kong Essay essay help online: essay help online
Reasons for the problems encountered in the markets for automobiles The automobile industry as witnessed by the Hong Kong enterprise presents a host of problems that affect all the players in the industry. Firstly, the increased demand for automobiles has elicited increased input demand for Automobile Parts and Components (APC).
Because Automobile parts and components are produced by over 50 different industries, the variation in the expertise will transmit the spill-over effects of the automobile production to APC suppliers. Because the major APC have been imported, the local products therefore fail to meet the needs of the market. In addition, most multinational automobile producers import key items for their own use.
Entry into the automobile supply chain has been made difficult for new comers to penetrate because the players operate like cartels. Thirdly, competition in the market has been intensified by the considerable relaxation of import tariffs on automobiles. In this context, due to the pressure to review own supply chains force the local and joint venture assemblers to improve product quality.
Alternatively, their desire to minimize costs can be achieved through sourcing from quality but competitive suppliers. To the surprise of the entire market, the pressure is being transmitted up the supply chain from assemblers to first, second and third-tier suppliers. Consequently, the supply chain is undergoing reshuffling, in turn creating breathing space for new but competent, competitive suppliers like Hong Kong enterprises.
Fourthly, the small local consumer market fails to support an automobile industry, impeding the development of the APC. Although most assemblers tend to work in collaboration with APC suppliers to develop new products, it is evident that assemblers will not source from suppliers who cannot meet internationally recognized technological levels. On the contrary, a number of Hong Kong manufacturers carry out R
Ordinary Men Book Review Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Holocaust in itself goes beyond describing extermination of Jews; it describes crime against humanity in general. The damage that the Holocaust caused in Europe has not been matched in history.
Nevertheless, the big question remains today; who was responsible for the extermination of Jews? Well, many people believed, and still believe that, Adolf Hitler was the man behind the whole issue. Not until you read Ordinary Men by Christopher R. Browning. In the wake of the strong-held belief that Jews were responsible for the fall of German Empire, there was massive deployment of police officers to clear Jews from ghettos and exterminate them.
However, Browning throws in another issue; that, ordinary men; reserve-untrained civilians; fathers; brothers got involved in this atrocious act. Browning asks, “If the men of Reserve Police Battalion 101 could become killers under such circumstances, what group of men cannot?” (189).
The insinuation here is that, ordinary men got involved in the genocide. Browning traces how the Reserve Police Battalion 101 were sent to Poland; received their first command to kill at Jozefow and proceeded to exterminate thousands of innocent defenseless Jews in Erntefest.
Browning reveals how these ordinary men mostly from Hamburg in Germany, turned into cold-blooded slayers albeit being given the option of withdrawing from the exercise. “Each individual policeman once again had a considerable degree of choice” (Browning 27). Nevertheless, the big question remains: what made these ordinary men turn into killers?
These ordinary men did not kill because they wanted to kill. They killed because they came face to face with the victims. No wonder after they killed the first lot of Jews, “they were depressed, angered, embittered, and shaken” (Browning 69). There is the human instinct to dominate over other people when presented with the opportunity, and may be, these ordinary men opened fire impulsively to the Jews without such intentions.
However, the fact that these ordinary men had been given the opportunity to withdraw from the exercise, overrules this possibility. Nevertheless, it is important to note at this point that their commanders ridiculed those who tried to move out of the operation and this takes us to the next reason why members of Reserve Police Battalion 101 became executioners.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Browning, the members of the Reserve Police Battalion 101 never knew that they would take part in killing innocent wretched Jews (56). Before commencing the operations, the commander in charge of the Battalion allowed those who could not handle the operation to step aside to take less demanding jobs.
At this point, Schmike withdrew from the group but commander Trapp lambasted him (Browning 57). For fear of being scolded, majority of the ordinary men stayed back save for twelve more men who joined Schmike. This fear might be a major contributory factor as to why many ordinary men agreed to take part in the extermination operation. To some extent, this was an act of free will as Browning posits, “Human responsibility is ultimately an individual matter” (188).
Human beings are logical beings, they can make legitimate decisions, and given the fact that, these men were given the opportunity to choose between joining the executions and quitting the same, it shows that they were willing to kill and this is the third reason why these people turned into ‘willing exterminators’.
Finally, among other duties, the Police Battalion 101 had to put Jews into trains and transport them to death camps. They could bundle tens of thousands of Jews into trains and inspect them on their way to concentration camps (Browning 59). Faced with this opportunity to rule over helpless individuals, the Police Battalion 101 became accustomed to exterminating Jews for they had the mandate.
These reserve civilians also had to hunt for Jews who were on the run and flush them out of forests. In this hunting operation, many Jews lost their lives in the hands of these ordinary men. At times, the Police Battalion 101 would joke about the ‘hunting expedition’ (Browning 65).
Moreover, this Police Reserve Battalion did not face any opposition from any other group and this fuelled the killing. Human power, especially when being applied by untrained people under no control, can run out of hand. This is exactly what happened in the case of the Reserve Police Battalion 101.
The participation in the executions was not something that could only have taken place at this historical time and place; it is an example of broader issues and concerns. These executions portray an opportunity that had matured. Browning states that,
We will write a custom Essay on Ordinary Men Book Review specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More “The fundamental problem is not to explain why ordinary Germans, as members of a people utterly different from us and shaped by a culture that permitted them to think and act in no other way than to want to be genocidal executioners, eagerly killed Jews when the opportunity offered.
The fundamental problem is to explain why ordinary men–shaped by a culture that had its own peculiarities but was nonetheless within the mainstream of western Christian, and Enlightenment traditions–under specific circumstances willingly carried out the most extreme genocide in human history” (222).
Browning has continually contended that the extermination, which many call the ‘final solution”, resulted from “cumulative radicalization.”
Works Cited Browning, Christopher. Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. New York: HarperCollins, 1992.
To what extent are liberal theories of humanitarian intervention complicit with imperialism? Essay a level english language essay help
This essay looks at the background to liberal theories, especially in relation to main theoretical rival, Realism, before examining in detail the doctrine of humanitarian interventionism, so often, associated with liberalist theories, and criticisms from, among others, Noam Chomsky, who see it as little more than the continuation of Western-style ‘imperialism’.
In recent years, in the field of International Relations studies, as well as in the broader study of the Social Sciences, a range of new theories have emerged to challenge the ‘foundationalist’ school of thought, in which traditional ideas, such as Realism and Liberalism, feature as main components’.
These new theories, which include, ‘Post-Modernism’ and ‘Social Constructivism’, however, are most often used as a means for criticizing ‘foundationalist’ or ‘traditionalist’ theories, rather than (as traditional theirs are said to do), form firm criteria for analysing ‘real world’ international relations, between nation-states.
In this, traditional theories such as Liberal Internationalism, which forms the basis of discussion in this essay, have also undergone a revival; particularly since the end of the Cold War, when with the failure of the leading traditional theory, that is, ‘Realism’ to predict the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, often seen as the symbolic event marking the Cold War’s end, led to a revival of its main rival, ‘Liberalism.’ Ironically, it was at the expense of Liberalism, that Realism arose earlier in the twentieth century, largely in the failure of the Liberalist project, after the First World War, and the inevitable onset of the Second World War.
In the study of International Relations theories, this fall of Liberalism and rise of Realism was most associated with the work of E.H. Carr’s 1939, classic text The Twenty Year Crisis (Cambridge, 2001).
This inter-war period, might also be seen as a time when ‘Imperialism’, reached its high point, that is, when the world’s major powers, mainly the United States and the UK, both, not coincidently, victors in the First World War, looked first, to further their own interests, over what was billed as the championing of self-determination and liberalism, over the old realist ideas of self-interest and what might be termed ‘might is right’.
While, the United States at this time, stood as the champion of anti-imperialism’, this stance, right throughout the United States’ existence, has served only to mask its own imperialistic ambitions, notably, as Alex Callinicos, in his Imperialism and Global Political Economy (Cambridge, 2009), states, in the early twentieth century and the neo-conservative policies under the presidency of George Bush Jnr.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Indeed, for many, the Liberalist project died with the failure of the League of nations, set up in 1919, and supposedly the international body, through which the much-trumpeted ‘new world order’ would come into being. The ideas behind the League however, did not die out entirely, and indeed, were in some ways revived and retried, in the early years marking the end of the Second World War in 1945, through the creation of the United Nations in 1949.
As mentioned however, Liberalism’s revival did not take place at the same time, but rather developed at a time, when in the West, at least, the collapse of Communism throughout Eastern Europe, was attributed to the triumph of Western values, and not, as argued since, largely, the result of the internal problems underpinning Socialism, as practiced in the former Soviet Union.
In the new wave of optimism this created among Western Powers, a new doctrine, to replace the old Cold War ideologies, arose, namely, championing the idea of ‘humanitarian intervention’, as part of creating a new ‘Liberalised’ way of solving international crises’ and dealing with the new style of intra-state’ conflicts that marked the end of the Cold War, was forwarded.
This, in essence, championed ‘human rights’ issues, over and above traditional boundaries where ‘sovereignty’ lay alone with a ‘nation state’, and its right to act as it so willed within its set borders.
In the eyes of those who oppose this idea however, one major point of argument raised, is that, whatever ideals are championed, that in practice the right to intervene in another state’s affairs, amounts to nothing more than the West’s renewed pursuit of ‘Imperialism’, especially, as practiced during its height, in the nineteenth century.
Here, often, the right to intervene and then govern foreign territories was based on arguments of ‘civilization’ and the duty of Western powers to bring good government to uncivilized countries. A major champion of this view is the scholar Noam Chomsky, who has attacked the policy of humanitarian intervention from the beginning of the early 1990s, and the first test case of its kind, in the breakdown of the former communist Yugoslavia, in the Balkans.
Chomsky, saw this interference, and the use of the West’s combined military might, supposedly to end the ‘genocide’ taking place there between the warring factions, as based on the false pretence of ‘humanitarianism’, its real agenda, to enforce Westernized’ values and extend the West’s powerbase in Central Europe. As it stands today, the debate concerning the West’s true intentions extends to the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 and the invasions of Iraq, in 1991 and 2005.
We will write a custom Essay on To what extent are liberal theories of humanitarian intervention complicit with imperialism? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Chomsky’s continued considerable influence, in asserting his position as exposing the hypocrisy at the heart of the humanitarian argument, shows how, outside those states which stand opposed to Western interference, the doctrine is a controversial one, even within, western circles.
This highlights then, how contrary to what supporters of ‘humanitarian interventionism’, such as United States President during the 1990s, Bill Clinton, and UK Prime Minister, Tony Blair, at the time of the Kosovo intervention in 1999, say, that the doctrine represents a ‘moral stand’ and a refusal on behalf of Western governments to stand aside while governments around the world abuse human rights, that for those who stand against this position, the arguments hinge not on issues of liberal morality, but old-fashioned means for establishing ‘imperialist’ designs on the non-westernized world.
This view, in particular, finds support among those who opposed the recent Iraq and Afghanistan invasions, and consequently, for those, holding this opinion, liberalist arguments, are more than complicit, but lead the way in how the West’s international relations policies of today, are no different from those practiced during the height of ‘imperialism’.
To conclude, therefore, as does, the scholar, Alex Callinicos, in his recent study, Imperialism and Global Political Economy (Cambridge, 2009), which especially focuses on the United States, as chief among these complicit Western Powers ‘imperialism is far from dead.’
That is to say, the ideas put forward by supporters of humanitarian interventionism, that the principle underlying it, that is, the sovereignty of human rights, as belonging to a new age, or new world order, one not beholden to respect nation-state borders, that until now, remained sovereign, remains hugely contested.
That whether these ideas are cloaked in liberalist rhetoric or not, and regardless of their legitimization through international bodies such as the United Nations, that the underlying principles remain profoundly Realist, and represent only what the Great Powers in the West, have always sought, their increased power throughout the sphere of international relations.
Works Cited Callinicos, A., Imperialism and Global Political Economy (Cambridge, 2009).
Carr, E.H., The Twenty Year Crisis: 1919-1939: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations (Palgrave Macmillan, 1939, 2001).
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Mental Health best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The Origins of Overweighs and Eating Disorders
Causes of Eating Disorders and Overweight
Preventing Eating Disorders and overweight
Introduction Eating disorders are superficial expressions of cavernous emotional or psychological confusion. Sufferers resort to eating as a means of conveying personal difficulties. The concern appears to be about food projected to a deeper level. The problem expresses an essential unhappiness originating from a number of dissimilar sources. Therefore, it is fundamentally not disorders of eating but indicates and expresses a troubled perception of personality.
Eating disorder is not a unique illness but an unfavourable habit among the close friends of the victim and to the person having the habit as well. It is a mock to the standards of beauty but ends up mocking the person with the habit more that the surroundings or situations at hand. It would be equitable to a protest against the normal cultural standards associable to beauty but eventually as portrayed, eating disorder flourishes from a disturbed mind. A person would wish to have some safety; stay alive and contained but when one ends up doing the opposite, then the problem arises creating conflict between the mind and body.
The Origins of Overweighs and Eating Disorders There is a close relation between diet and health to the psychological, emotional and physical well-being of a person. According to O’Brien, (2007) Psychological factors influence the eating habits and eventually the problem of overweight. Boredom, stress, strain, anger, depression and anxiety are some of the psychological factors that aggravate weight problems by triggering the impulses for one to engage in overeating.
If taken into deep considerations, this is a way of getting rid of the emotional distress. The comfortable foods preferred during the youth as the junk foods or those offered when one was ill are more preferable at such states. These foods are often associable to the soothing effects thus the close link between the moods, foods and eating habits.
The emotional arousal is another factor contributing to the unhealthy eating habits. It disrupts the ability to offer personal care such as having physical exercise program or sticking to particular diet. The depressed and anxious mind sabotages one’s efforts to loosing weight thus leading to the weird feeling of hopelessness and the good efforts or intentions capsizes leaving one to the option of the detrimental food choices, and inactivity that kills the need to ever try the activities again.
The problem of overweight or obesity has close link to many other factors besides the emotional disturbance. For instance, a person may be susceptible to some environmental factors that promote overeating, one may have some generic susceptibility or the psychological stress can also exacerbate an already existing problem. (O’Brien, 2007)
If the efforts to loose weight fail to work out, one may end up suffering from frustration, weakened feelings of competence or lowered self-esteem. Others suffer from weigh related discrimination or prejudice. Anxiety and depression are some of the problems that come about because of excessive and constant helpless mood, stress and incessant emotional agony.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The mental and physical disturbance often classifies to the emotional disturbance often leading to overweight and obesity that habitually contributes to stress and other psychological disorders. Medically it may be very difficult to determine whether overweight is a symptom associable to another disorder or just a causative factor.
Causes of Eating Disorders and Overweight Although the eating disorder presents the problem of compromised self-esteem or prejudice, in most cases the victims do not suffer from any psychological disorder. In line with O’Brien, (2007) those with a mild obese may try working out without much success and end up suffering from eating disorders, which brings about the depression and compromised self-esteem. These people loose their eating behaviours and end up consuming abnormally in terms of quantity over certain duration.
According to Alexander et al, (2009) the leading causes of the eating disorders are stress and depression. One can trace the problem to the impulsive responses of behaviors that are spontaneous to hatred or other related mental difficulties such as nervousness or lack of self-confidence, which make one to isolate themselves from others into an inactive lifestyle this enhancing bad feeding habits that lead to gaining of weight and eventually to obesity.
This is a good indication that the physical disorders coexists with some mental hysteria such as the need for substance abuse, anxiety, depression, loneliness, depression, lack of control and a wide range of other interpersonal and social problems.
Eating disorder is therefore a problem that is deeply rooted into the interpersonal issues as opposed to preoccupation on the food and psychological factors. Some of these issues entails family interrelation problems, expression related problems especially emotionally, sexual abuse, feeling of taunt, tease and ridicule over size, appearance, shape or weight.
Other factors entail the social dynamics for instance people would be having a specific body size and weight as their standard measuring unit such that, when one is not conforming to the specifications, then they lack the factors for a “perfect body”. They are mainly concern with the person’s physical appearance. The pressure from the public reinforces the problems by reactivating the psychological concern enhancing stress due to the negative feelings especially in females. (Alexander et al, 2009)
A more complicated origin points to temperaments and its interaction with the mental/psychological, social and interpersonal factors. The mental health professionals indicate the temperamental propensity as “perfectionism, compulsiveness, impulsiveness, behavioral, cognizance, and emotions linked to bad eating habits.
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The Problems in Executive’s Pay in the US Research Paper cheap essay help
Abstract The issue of the executive pay raises heated debate today considering the gap differences in the civil income. For instance, assuming example of the U.S. government, President Obama governance faces public fury over the huge pay packages accorded to the executives. (Andrews and Bajaj, 2009) The issue of prohibiting extra bonuses for the top executives beside their hefty basic pay and other stock dividends is therefore under high consideration beside the rules imposing reductions. If imposed, the rules will be the toughest ever forcing the executives to accept deep reductions.
Arguably, considering a $500,000 annual compensation would be draconian considering the lack of bonuses or annual dividends. The recruitment process would be very difficult due to competition especially from the private sector offering over $1 million.
The U.S president seem to advocate for the pay regulations considering that this is the time the government is struggling to bail out prominent collapsed financial institutions. According to Andrews and Bajaj of the Times Newspapers (2009), the National Economic Council is considering pay restrictions to all the companies under the Federal help of economic recovery.
The executive’s compensation ware not under particular specifications, the rule applied earlier on bailed out banks failed because of the government’s failure to impose a strict follow up mechanism thus living the executives to reward themselves with the heft bonuses without considering the deterioration of the economy. The question many people ask is whether the executives should make the much they do.
Introduction The high pay may appear to be very little in comparison to the huge company’s profits the top executives deliver at the end of the financial session. In line with Daft et al, (368) when the company’s profits measure up to the executive’s pays then it seems too low and therefore reasonable. Probably it would make sense to reward the executives who are directly involved with the capital of the company.
They are usually under a lot of pressure to deliver and although it may seem ironic, their pay is excessively little, compared to what they deliver. This might be the only logical way of rewarding these employees for their tremendous work. It motivates them to ensure success and future developments. Payment should always reflect performance and this is most certainly the reason why the American government advocates for pay regulation especially among the financially assisted companies.
Thesis Statement “Reasons behind the hefty pays of the Chief Executive Officers”
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This paper explores the issue of the compensation that the top executives receive the reasons behind the pay and it offers the suggestions for improving the system.
Do the top executives deserve their pay?
It is evident that top executive receive exorbitant remunerations and most people feel that majority do not deserve the compensation. Some of the executive end up performing a mediocre job and still manage to rip off the taxpayers because of their titles. Common feeling indicates that these individuals should receive their compensation depending on their performances.
Literature review While the arguments against the pay are viable to certain levels, the other side of the coin indicate that these executives earn and deserve every penny of their paychecks. (Mackenzie and Traynor, 132) They undergo enormous amount of pressure to ensure companies deliver profits. They have to make tough and important daily decisions, which are the key measures of whether the company prospers or fails.
The failure of the company compromises their jobs therefore their careers are at constant risky measures. Most of the CEO did not just become what they are but had to move up the ladder systematically to the top positions. They have total endurance and strong business backgrounds and knowledge to steer the company through maintenance of an effective workforce. (Daft et al, 342)
According to Daft et al, (556) there are very few people with enough knowledge and experience to guide or control the performance of big, especially financial companies to their performance value. This aspect makes the executives an important and valuable part of the company hence the reason why they deserve the high pays. The public seem to base their arguments over the executive pays on half the picture. The profits earned by the companies are excessively high in comparison to their remunerations.
A good example is the ATT Company chief executive officer who is arguably one of the top paid officials. (Mathias and Jackson, 137) People’s view over the executive’s move to layoff 40,000 employees and still enjoy his increased pay seems greedy and illogical. At a close range, his laying-off of excessive workers brought great benefit to the company as well as to the customers who benefited from better services at a proficient timeframe and lower cost by smaller but improved workforce.
Comparing the executive’s pay of 20 million dollars, which seem too huge to the company’s earning, it would equate approximately to 1/3,450th of the gross thus validating his pay against performance. If split among the workers, the executive’s pay would equate to $500 which is a pay equitable to a just a couple of days pay for a low-level employee.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Problems in Executive’s Pay in the US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Executives need to be very keen in their decisions, less it bring down the whole company crumpling to losses. They ought to ensure transparency over all their moves or decisions since they affect a magnitude and the economy at large. (Daft et al, 557) The superfluous amount of tension and pressure evident today is due to these factors and thus the reason why not every CEO can be able to handle their tasks as per the requirements.
What guarantees good performance of the CEO? The huge amount of money involved in compensating the executives is a good indication that there is no good assurance for their performance. The pay acts as a great motivator to performance. Without a good pay, they would probably find better paying jobs or one without much strain but having an equally good pay package.
It would be a great risk for a company to engage an executive and pay them poorly because that person would not get involved as required and therefore the probability of a collapse is high. Other than collapse, the company can easily experience weak profit margin compared to other business rivals. (Mackenzie and Traynor, 102)
The executive’s thrive to venture deeply into the industry depends on the payment received. Good focus on goals elevates the business into great heights.
When a company makes good investments such as the hefty pays for the executives, then the company’s performance elevates to a good performance. The CEO is able to put much emphasis on the firm and tolerate smaller margins for errors thus ensuring great profits. They suffer negative affects or enjoy positive rewards depending on the performance of the business. (Mathis and Jackson, 35)
The plausible reason why the American executives receive more money than other countries is that they work out tasks at larger scales compared to others. From this perspective, the companies should therefore not be concern with the payment but focus on the delivery factors.
It is easy to find qualified people to work at the same capacity at lower wages but they are not able to cover the same magnitude of the job. This means that there is a need to analyse and reward the executives in relation to their inputs. The businesses ought to acknowledge that the executives deserve pay equivalent to their inputs.
Need for quality workers may make a company to find it reasonable to hire executives from other countries and therefore outsourcing does not mainly mean the company want to find someone for he top job with minimal and more reasonable wage rates as most people may think.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Problems in Executive’s Pay in the US by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The company is responsible for the high wages and not the worker. This negates the reasoning that finding such employees at a reasonable rate is not possible. The company decides on the payment rather than the employee demanding for the same. Pay should reflect performance and for this reason, the company or those in the industry have the right to decide on the amount of remuneration to offer. (Mathis and Jackson, 35) this is an indication that the executives deserve their pays.
Problems with systems that support the hefty Executive’s Pay Most of the executive wages are not reflective of the employee’s performance and hence the basis for this debate. The executives receive the same treatment regardless of their poor or very prolific performance. This means that the company may be losing huge amounts through such pays as the persona benefits, especially when their no good procedures for investigating performance and linking the compensation to the firm’s profit margins.
When an executive has room for enjoying power and good pay while reciprocating nothing on the other hand, then when taken to consideration, this is abuse of power and they will not attempt to do a good job. There is need to have a correlation between the qualities of the work and the hefty pay that the CEO receives.
Most collapsing businesses today lack proper monitoring systems over performance especially the government run firms. The top managers continue delivering bad jobs while they still enjoy good constant pays and probably have power to award themselves bonuses and rises. According to Daft et al, (342) It may cost a lot to get rid of bad employees particularly those at the top levels, but overtime, the losses incurred as the company hopes for recovery my eventually be the root cause of collapse.
Most of the CEO jobs are under contract basis, this means that if the period is cut-short, then the law protects the officials and the company must compensate them for their early removal. This is another reason why many companies fail to terminate the executives. The need to avoid court cases makes the company to hold the unwanted personnel until their terms expire.
There is urgent need to incorporate a link between the compensation package and the business performance record and probably include the same in the contract forms as an incentive to produce more. Executives can have an offer with the basic pay and allowances but the bonuses be rewarded in line with the performance or business profit margins. Amazing facts indicate that human performance has a main basis upon monetary rewards. (Daft et al, 372)
Conclusion Top executives make hefty pay packages but most deserve the remuneration they receive because of the business performance. They make key decisions every day, work under pressure to deliver and their jobs and titles are arguably the greatest all over the world thus they are internationally competitive. Assessment however indicates that only a fraction performs as per the requirement and thus the need to regulate the pays.
The issuing of a basic salary and adjustable pay rise depending on the company’s performance would work fine. This would be a way of having a distinction between the best performing executives from the rest.
The government should consider more legislature of the workers pay as per the performance levels as a measure of guaranteed routine by the top executives. Companies are in a position to give a breakdown of performance through the accountants as the foundation for remuneration just as the taxation processes. This would be an excellent measure to curb loopholes.
There ought to be an internationally standardized payment levels for the top executives to enhance balanced competition. The contraction procedures also need to integrate means of escaping the clauses that bring about allegations if the company breaks the contract before time especially when the employees perform below expectations.
These measures ensure only the best executives remain in business and thus making the companies to be more productive as well as successful. The aspect of highly paid executives would only be acceptable without disputes or controversies with the implementation of the important ideas discussed herein. Most importantly, the pay ought to reflect on business performance.
Companies are tying to embrace these aspects as evident with the Mercer Company whose recent advertisements for a top executive post specified ability to “generate revenue through development of new client relationships, cross-selling to current clients and extension of current client engagements”.
Works Cited Daft, Rechard .L., and Marcic, Dorothy. “Understanding Management” Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2008.
Edmund, Andrews, L. and Rajaj, Vikas. “U.S. Plans $500,000 Cap on Executive Pay In Bailouts” The New York Times. (2009). Web.
McKenzie, Steven, J., and Traynor, William .J. “Opportunities in human resource Management careers: VGM opportunities series” McGraw-Hill Professional, 2001.
Mercer Human Resources Consulting, Job Description for Senior Executive Compensation Consultant, Mercer web site. 2009. Web.
Mathias, Robert, L., and Jackson, John, H. ”Human Resource Management: Essential Perspectives”. South-Western Cengage publishers, 2008.