Table of Contents Introduction
Description of Political Ecology
Water Wars in Bolivia and Political Ecology Analysis
Social and Economic Outcomes
Introduction Many people would attest that access to water is an intrinsic human right. The rationale is that majority of the earth’s surface is composed of water. However, over 90% of the water is in the seas and oceans leaving only about 3% of water for human consumption. As such, competition for the resource is on the increase as countries embrace technology in agriculture and production of electricity.
In 2003, the United Nation noted that over 2.4 billion people across the world had no access to clean water and proper sanitation. The international body emphasized on the need to reduce the number tremendously by 2010. Although many governments and organization were of the same opinion, it became apparent that competition for the resources is increasing among communities.
The chronicle is particularly common in South America. In Bolivia, ‘water wars’ are common among the indigenous communities (McCarthy 24). Specifically, a dispute emerged in 1999 in the village of Qolque Khoya. The village faces severe water shortage despite hosting various tribes whose primary occupation is cultivation through irrigation.
Historically, the communities have depended on natural streams and locally made reservoirs to access water for irrigation and domestic use (Walker 382). In addition, the communities depend hugely on local organizations known as Sindicatos to manage the water resources in the entire village.
Following the need for increased farming activities by the indigenous communities, international organizations and NGOs embarked on a plan to build a larger reservoir. Many communities welcomed the idea although it later sparked violent conflicts amongst the indigenous communities. Other conflicts such as Chochahamba water conflict of 2000 have been common across the country (Alurralde 37). This paper seeks to analyze the water wars in Bolivia using various concepts of political ecology.
Description of Political Ecology Political ecology refers to a sub-discipline of ecological science that analyzes environmental issues in the light of politics, economics and sociological factors. It shifts away from disciplinary dualism that has characterized rationalizations of society-nature relations and seeks to incorporate all factors that result from environmental issues.
From its inception, Perreault says that political ecology aims at uncovering ways that political and economic factors shape the environment (153). Besides, it also explains how ecological factors influence the social, political and economic domains (Robbins 41). As such, political ecology assumes a multidisciplinary approach in analyzing power relations that typify economic and political institutions and their effect on the environment (Cleaver 15).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Social factors and concepts such as gender disparities are also critical aspects of the discipline. Political ecology explains how ecological factors could influence ways that communities interact and how they acquire knowledge on matters pertaining to the environment (Robbins 44). It is important to highlight that the discipline differs from other natural and social scientific disciplines in the sense that it incorporates philosophical concepts when explaining the effects and causes of social change and justice.
Throughout this paper, the concepts that are core to the discipline of political ecology will facilitate the analysis of water wars that have typified communities in the rural areas of Bolivia. Besides, the paper will explore various effects of the competition for the water resource within the country’s indigenous communities.
Water Wars in Bolivia and Political Ecology Analysis As indicated above, the construction of a major reservoir in Qolque Khoya was not an immediate cause of conflict amongst the indigenous communities. Nonetheless, the increase of water brought about new laws and rules of allocating the resource. The new principles through which the water resource could be allocated to different communities led to disquiet amongst them.
Particularly, Qolque Khoya and Sankayani Bajo made an exclusive contract that was in favor of their respective tribesmen. This agreement did not favor other villages such as Sankayani Alto which in revolt, began to redirect the waters to its direction (Funder et al. 28). Citing the disruptions of water supply to the two villages, they sought the protection from local authorities as violence between the villages became apparent. When Sayankani Alto blocked the water supplies to Qolque Khoya, the poorest in the village suffered the most.
Specifically, sub tribe of Tarugani that is even drier than the rest of Qolque Khoya lacked water. The rationale is that the sub tribe was never involved meaningfully during the negotiations by the Sindicato. Despite attempts to highlight their concerns in communities meetings, Tarugani remained marginalized making the poor to become even poorer than before.
The rationale is that the wealthier sub tribes of Qolque Khoya had immense influence in the proceedings of the community meetings and negotiations. As such, the instance led to the reproduction of inequalities within the society.
From a political ecology perspective, increased water wars reveal various underlying aspects of power relations. The better off communities continued to enjoy the resource due to their influence in political decision-making processes. In fact, the Sindicato was constituted by the well to do households who even incorporated relatives. This in turn results to skewed power relations between where one community lives at the mercy of the bigger and stronger community.
We will write a custom Essay on Political Ecology and Water Resources specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Funder et al explicate that the result is dependency relations and ultimately, inequalities within the Bolivian society (27). Research has shown that these types of relations are not mutually beneficial for all the parties involved since the ‘patrons’ rarely make decisions in favor of the weaker communities.
As such, even when the legitimate authorities seek to maintain a degree of social justice to all tribes, the balance of power is highly skewed towards the communities where the authorities perceive to have higher stakes (Cleaver 16). In this case, the Sindicato will attempt to make political decisions at the expense of weaker communities such as the Tarugani since the Qolque Khoya is wealthy and powerful.
While the weak and poor communities express concerns that the type of power relations within the community was risky, it is clear that they have no other option. In the case, it is apparent that the Tarugani villagers could not oppose the decision of the local authorities for fear of sanctions. Therefore, they have no other option other than supporting the local authorities as their ‘voice’ in the mainstream polity institution.
This is not only a source of marginalization but also a source of political patronization. Greenberg and Thomas articulate that the poor communities whose economy is very dependent on irrigation cannot access enough water implying that cyclical effects and other forms of marginalization will continue to typify the society (3). Funder et al say that water, as resource is important in steering an economy and improve the health of the entire society (33).
To this end, water wars in Bolivia have culminated into a situation of imbalanced power leading to a society that is full of inequalities. While this is true, it is important to consider other factors as gender disparities within the Bolivian societies. The country lags behind in enshrining laws that enhance equality among men and women.
Women remain a sub section of the society that has suffered historical insubordination. With this in mind, women within Tarugani will continue to suffer due to the apparent dependency relations. The rationale is that the gender roles assign women with the responsibility of fetching water for domestic use. This leads to reduction of women in productive activities and denies them a right to access education.
It is important to notice that the power relations that typify communities in Bolivia illustrate ways in which inequalities and disparities are created and reproduced (Rich 7). Considering that lack of equal power and wealth has marginalized Tarugani villagers, the fact that the community feels that they have no other option other than depending on the majority tribe serves to reproduce these inequities.
By following and supporting the discriminative local authorities rather than opposing its actions, Tarugani villagers are legitimizing the authority of the Sindicato even more. The result is structural inequalities that will continue to typify the community (McCarthy 47). Tarugani people would not even consider revolting against the Sindicato since the latter would not hesitate to impose sanction and certainly close the any room for any water projects in the area.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Political Ecology and Water Resources by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The structural inequalities resulting from the dependency relations lead to the entrenchment of perceptions that the dominated community should continue to suffer under the whims of the larger communities. These dispositions create a pattern of insubordination and domination (Walker 383).
This implies that the members of the dominated community will believe that they are in sufferance because of natural causes instead of attempting to challenge the dominance of the Qolque Khoya and the local authorities. This may lead to allocation of natural resources in even a more discriminative way in future since the perceptions and dispositions will create a legitimate pattern of discrimination.
This analysis facilitates the examination of water wars in Bolivia in a deterministic view. The analysis has highlighted various ways that the wars in not only Qolque Khoya but also other parts of the country lead to structural inequalities due to imbalanced power relations among the communities.
Social and Economic Outcomes The above analysis provides insights on how environmental issues affect both social and economic spheres of Bolivian society. Apparently, the water wars among the actors bring about the socio-political aspect of power relations. The poor households have no voice in allocation of scarce water resources leading to dependency relations. This is because the better off households wields immense power enough to influence even the policy-making processes of the local authorities (Cleaver 20).
Particularly, the poor households and communities avoid instances of risky conflicts and instead opt to support the status quo. Due to their vulnerability, they fear that any confrontation with the dominant community could trigger even more insubordination. The trend leads to entrenched perceptions, beliefs and attitudes that the patterns of domination are natural.
In addition, the structural injustices and inequalities have also affected the gender relations between men and women. In poor households, the women suffer increased inequalities since Bolivia is a patriarchal society where women’s social roles include finding water for domestic use. As such, unfair allocation of water resources predisposes women to the risk of disengaging in productive and empowering activities.
Economically, the communities at war due to water resources suffer the risk of decreased economic activity. Funder et al assert that the poor communities become under-productive owing to the apparent lack of distribution of equitable resources (32).
Besides, the economic policies that govern the water resources become skewed in the long term as the strong and influential communities influence the policy making process (Greenberg and Thomas 9). This implies that the economic productivity of the country reduces in the end and the poor communities stand to suffer insubordination even in terms of low productivity.
Conclusion In sum, water is natural resource that occupies majority of our planet’s surface. Despite its abundance, only a mere percentage is disposable to humans for consumption, agriculture and other uses. As such, competition for the resource is typical in many parts of the world. In Bolivia, various communities have continued to fight for fair distribution of the resource.
Political ecology therefore facilitates in explaining the effect of such competition on political, economic and social spheres (Rich 4). After analysis of water wars in Bolivia, it is clear that the competition for water can have various consequences. Particularly, better off communities dominate poor communities leading to structural inequalities that typify Qolque Khoya.
This is because of imbalanced power relations that in turn result to dependency relations. As evident in the above case study, the poor communities suffer socially, economically and politically due to skewed policies that do not favor them.
Works Cited Alurralde, Juan Carlos. “Crisis in Cochabamba,” Alternatives Journal 32.5(2006): 37-39. Print.
Cleaver, Francis. “Re-inventing Institutions: Bricolage and the Social Embeddedness of Natural Resource Management.” The European Journal of Development Research 14.2 (2006): 11-30. Print.
Funder, Michael et al. “Strategies of the poorest in local water conflict and cooperation-evidence from Vietnam, Bolivia and Zambia,” Water Alternatives 5.1(2012): 20-36. Print.
Greenberg, James and Thomas, Park. “Political Ecology.” Journal of Political Ecology 1.1 (1994): 1-12. Print.
McCarthy, James. “First World political ecology: lessons from the Wise Use movement.” Environment and planning 34.1 (2002): 1281-1302. Print.
Perreault, Thomas. “From the Guerra Del Agua to the Guerra Del Gas: Resource governance, neoliberalism and popular protest in Bolivia,” Antipode 38.1(2006): 150-172. Print.
Rich, Bruce. “Rights to water and privatization.” Environmental Forum 28.1 (2011): 1-13. Print.
Robbins, Paul. Political Ecology: A critical introduction. London: Blackwell Publishing, 2004. Print.
Walker, Peter. “Political ecology: where is the policy?” Progress in Human Geography 30.3 (2006): 382-395. Print.
Brazil’s Bid’s to Host the 2014 FIFA World Cup Essay essay help online free: essay help online free
Introduction Mega-events that are convened for a short duration, such as the Commonwealth Games, Rugby World Cup, World Expos or the FIFA World Cup (Rogerson 2009), are increasingly being recognized as having the potential to make a substantial contribution to contemporary society, not only through the long standing belief associated with healthy living, an active lifestyle and regular physical activity, but also through sports contribution to the social, cultural and economic development of the hosting city or country (Emery 2002).
The FIFA World Cup, in particular, has become a top agenda for successive governments around the world because of its potential to act as a significant catalyst for change by not only acting as a springboard for economic, political and social development, but also strengthening the global image and positioning of the host (Pellegrino
The Image of California in Movies in Falling Down Essay best essay help
The film, Falling Down, depicts California (Los Angeles) through several happenings and experiences of the actors (D-Fens), among all of the disunited worlds of the metropolitan area (California) in the impossible unlimited expanse and the hardened main access road that bears important traffic of the Los Angeles broad highway built for high-speed traffic.
Falling Down seems to be connected towards the residents or inhabitant of California (Los Angeles) or people residing in big and accommodating metropolis. The racial tension shown in the film is apparent from the beginning.
The production of the film Falling Down is a good indication that its reception was affected by the post-riot climate, particularly because the state of disorder brought to the forefront the problems of racial, social, and economic tensions depicted in the film and vice versa. Moreover, Falling Down describes a threatened or attempted physical attack on the nervous system and an influential imaginative re-creation of the sensory and emotional nature of Los Angeles at a particular historical point in time.
In so doing, the movie Falling Down draws the viewers in with the discovery of the supernatural disturbance linked with the present day re-composition of space-time-being in post-cold war and feature of the end of a century in California (Los Angeles) (Aaron 40).
From the film it will be observed that signifying series of occurrence have snapped, and California is left without a frame of reference with which to make sense of this misrepresented grammar of metropolitan life. Falling Down further depicts that California for a limited time loses his ability to manage his immediate environment and to design his status regarding the outside world.
Falling Down is a complicated visible symbol representing an abstract idea about an irritated Anglo American, D-Fens, who is mad as hell with the state of things, in Los Angeles in particular and with the United States of America in general, and is about to get even. The convert of Los Angeles, California is linked with discourses on the “third world” and “discovering” of the face of the city and the nation.
The film depicts how California has had all it can take to the city’s independent promiscuity and its disagreement with previously distinct cultures. While Latino immigrants feature in the film’s background, as with the live coverage of the riots, their silent but observable presence on the other hand does the ideology work of pointing to the conversion of Los Angeles (California) as a particularly marked aspect of discourses on urban disfigurement, moral decay, and national decline.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Falling Down is a reenactment of the strong and active attempts then currently in progress in Californian cultural politics to re-territorialize this uncontrollable and disturbing cultural flow by remapping the boundaries of what constitutes the official and legitimate public sphere.
This entails confirming the cultural and racial dominance or leadership of the Anglo American male over a bewildering proliferation of multiple counter publics. This cinematic management of the appearance of the inhabitants represents an essential characteristic of the state development: to reform the states organization. The following composite is drawn from the opening scene of the film (Aaron 28).
Falling Down depicts the past artistic structure, which created a positive response to the context of the action in Los Angeles (California), the limited-access highway commute between the standards and conventions of the middle class private area and the industrialist civic area which has also been disrupted.
Falling down offers an accurate insightful discovery of a detailed study about human experience of the economic system based on private ownership in California, its misrepresented organizations of sentiment, and the stage at which the system of production and management as well as social changes of regional amalgamation are being experienced by the reduced employee (Aaron 30).
Falling down is a multifaceted illustration of a middle-class defensive reaction to the dynamic cultural constituent of the mainland American extensive mental perspective and its simultaneous irrational depictions of the increased migration movement within California.
It depicts a portion of accepted ethnicity that grew from and boarders into the society happening to change its position in the modern international world classification. But it fails to cross-examine the role of the project to defend American “national security” in the “third world” of the American city California.
Falling down further depicts California’s opportunity to increase what is needed in representing people’s reactions to topography namely, the understanding of private political task for the public creation of liberty as what must be jointly formed (Aaron 53). This is a clear mistake in the public perception of an urban city like Los Angeles (California), a state based on two industries, and a city in serious economic unstable situation in excess of the clear breaking up in the political hostility period.
We will write a custom Essay on The Image of California in Movies in Falling Down specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Falling Down shows how foreign intervention by the United States has played a large role in producing refugee and immigrant flows to cities such as Los Angeles. This could be seen in the film when D-Fens (actor) misrecognizes his role when he threatened the Korean immigrant grocer with his baseball bat while saying, “Do you know how much money this country gave your government?” (Falling Down 1993).
Thus, while falling Down does engage the present day re-composition of space-time being through D-Fen’s displacement from the economy and his disorientation in the cultural and physical Landscape, this “tale about urban reality” ultimately veils the reality of (de) militarization.
Falling down describes California’s refusal to connect between the city topography and the artistic setting with the political system of production created to expose the “misrepresented perception of things” as an consequence of migration and transgression. Indeed, the biographies and spatial journeys of both the downsized defense worker and the Salvadoran refugee are linked precisely around the cold war.
While Falling Down describes a nation that is collapsing, the problem is how it attempts to put that world back together. Falling Down reframes polyphony of contemporary discourses on migration, economic turn down, metropolitan brutality, racial discrimination, industrialist self-indulgence, and government misuse into a structured rule and order description.
Falling Down depicts the comprehensive social control carried through related idea, the social control of the home setting. Furthermore, the film depicts the low concentration of war strategies of the political hostility which have increased in the outlawed internal metropolis.
In line with the above, Falling down describes the role of the security industry in the production of the Salvadoran refugee which could not be more well-defined.
In conclusion, while Falling Down is one more episode in the history a gentleman traveling through a shocking countryside. Discourses about immigration, racism, and inner-city violence are all considered within the ideological frame of criminality. Moreover, the film depiction of California’s project of local law enforcement now has primacy over global defense because state defense is set in a new governing tradition that is not a social order but guilt.
As a filmic representation of a particular historical juncture in the development of the American city, Los Angeles in particular, Falling Down hit a raw nerve and entered a zone of heated cultural debate about crime, urban decay, and immigration.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Image of California in Movies in Falling Down by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The film took the philosopher rhetoric in the air to a new level. Simply put, the message of the film to impressionable viewers might be: with increasing number of hostile dark skinned immigrants who do not speak English, who are parasites on California’s economy, and who break U.S. laws, reject Western Christian morality, and take away jobs from hard working citizens (primarily white men), U.S. citizens have to take the law into their own hands, entertaining drastic measures to ensure that places like Los Angeles will not become suburbs of the Third World.
The films depiction of California illustrates serious and significant contradictions. For example, the narrative of philosophical theory contradicts what is very often characterized as the narrative of the “American dream,” which goes like this: in order to find better jobs, to take part in the experiment in democracy, and to educate their children, people from all over the world bear the suffering of personal sacrifice, including at times dangerous travel, to come go to California (U.S.), where they hope to experience freedom and liberty.
Works Cited Aaron, Baker. Bad: infamy, darkness, evil, and slime on screen. New York, NY: State University of New York Press, 2003. Print.
Falling Down. Dir. Joel Schumacher. Alcor Films, 1993. Film.
The Hurt Locker: When There Is Nowhere Else Left to Run Essay writing essay help: writing essay help
Introduction. Diving into the Psychology of the Hurt Locker: PTSD For those who have seen the terror of war, the given experience is a point of no return – there is no way for one to look at the world in a different view; the bloodbath becomes the only way possible picture of reality. Because of the horrible experience that the characters in The Hurt Locker had, the resulting acute post-traumatic stress disorder comes as a fee for surviving through this hell.
Locking their pain within, as if concealing it in a secret locker, the characters are to suffer from the PTSD for the rest of their lives. As a matter of fact, the above-mentioned means that peaceful life becomes impossible for the lead character, the only survivor in the battle, forcing him to leave the realm of the family and enter the battlefield once again.
Revealing the Symptoms: Watch the Characters Agonizing However, there is a considerable difference between a movie and reality. In the real world, the people with PTSD are supposed to display certain symptoms that can be attributed only to the specified disorder, case in pint being the PTSD, while in a movie, some symptoms can be more subtle or, on the contrary, exaggerated for the sake of the dramatic atmosphere.
Considering The Hurt Locker in particular, one must mention that the key symptoms of the PTSD are revealed quite soon: “Sgt. JT Sanborn: I’m not ready to die, James. SFC William James: Well, you’re not gonna die out here, bro” (The Hurt Locker). In addition, the above-mentioned symptoms correspond to the standard PTSD symptoms for the most part, since PTSD patients can be characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors to reduce anxiety (Myers).
Concerning the Casual Factors: The Underlying Message There is a rhyme and reason for every change in the life or personality of a human being; the given rule is especially true for mental and psychological disorders, which are, as a rule, a result of a severe psychological trauma (Xenakis). Analyzing the movie, one has to mention that for William James, the leading character, the key factor that caused the PTSD was the war itself, with all its violence, murder and pointless sacrifice.
The given state displays a lot of similarities with the definition of key PTSD factors offered by Myers: “The complaints of battled-scarred veterans […] recurring haunting memories and nightmares, a numbed social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and insomnia—are typical of what once was called “shellshock” or “battle fatigue” and now is called post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)” (Myers 604), namely, the one that severe war traumas and the explosion to violence lead to a complete reestablishment of one’s life values.
The Received Treatment: When Actions Are More Efficient than Medicine As it has been explained above that the PTSD can hardly be cured; in the light of the above-mentioned, it would be a silly idea for a movie claiming to be realistic to the last scene to offer a plot where William is successfully treated or even offered certain medicine. Quite on the contrary, The Hurt Locker makes it obvious that some of the war wounds cannot be healed, and PTSD is one of those wounds (Serlin).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, William’s return to the military environment can be considered a kind of treatment – or, to be more exact, prophylactics. At some point William’s PTSD stops seeming a disorder and rather appears to be a different vision of reality, which is completely incompatible with the civil life. Hence, William’s return to the army can be considered as the fact that, completely changed by war, he no longer belongs in the civil society and chooses the realm where he belongs. A peculiar portrayal of escapism, the given scene adds much to the character development.
PTSD and the Characters’ Personal Life: Concerning the Impact Because of the awful slaughter which William saw in the battlefield, he is not able to live among the rest of the people anymore. He even cannot look at his son playing carelessly without a bitter remark: “And then you forget the few things you really love. And by the time you get to my age, maybe it’s only one or two things. With me, I think it’s one.” (The Hurt Locker). William no longer can live in civil society.
Walking in the Characters’ Shoes: Life with PTSD It seems that living with this kind of a mental disorder is much like feeing completely out of place all the time. As a matter of fact, William must have felt like a living dead waking among the living ones, since he could not share their emotions; neither could he be happy just for a while – constantly on alert for something bad to happen, he felt that peaceful life is no longer his realm.
Overall Reaction and the Portrayal of the PTSD Disorder Hence, it can be considered that the idea of the PTSD disorder developing within the minds of the people who have faced the dread of war has been portrayed in the movie in a rather impressive way.
Making the audience go through all the tortures that the lead character faces, the movie creates a very authentic atmosphere, portraying the people whose idea of reality has been replaced with the war strategy and the heat of the fight. It is important that the actors play their roles in a rather subtle way, which makes the impression even greater, and the images of the people suffering from PTSD even more memorable.
Works Cited Hurt Locker. Ex. Prod. Tony Mark. Universal City, California: Universal Studios. 2012. DVD.
Myers, David G. Psychology. 9th ed. New York, NY: Worth Publishers. 2010. Print.
We will write a custom Essay on The Hurt Locker: When There Is Nowhere Else Left to Run specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Serlin, Irene. “Hurt Locker: Treating Trauma in the Body and the PTSD Experience.” Psychology Today 7 Mar. 2010. Web.
Xenakis, Stephen n. d. What “The Hurt Locker” Got Right. Web.
Internal and External Security Challenges in the Arabian Gulf States Research Paper best college essay help
Introduction The Gulf region remains an incredibly volatile region within the Middle East. This volatility gives rise to external and internal security threats. The region has never benefited from the various changes that took place in Latin America and Eastern Europe in the end of the 20th century. Following these transformations, these regions ended up having their security issues intertwined with economic and political legitimacy coupled with the surfacing of myriads of concepts of cooperative security.
With regard to Henderson (2003), these concepts were “associated with a shift away from realistic approaches predicted on a zero-sum notion of national security” (p.3). Since this kind of comparative shift never took place in the Gulf region’s states since 1980s, three main interstate wars have been encountered.
They have been articulated upon consideration of balance of power. However, “the conflation of regime security with national security is a feature of local discourses on security in the Gulf as it is in many other developing countries” (Harders
Starbucks Coffee Company Essay college admissions essay help
A. To expand the possibilities within the current market and enter new markets, Starbucks Coffee Company should implement the specific strategy which is oriented to the successful product promotion.
According to the recommended strategy, such points and aspects as the brand image, customers’ loyalty, effective advertising with the help of the Web and media resources, the necessity to strengthen the company’s position within the market, the accentuation of the trends and innovations should be examined, discussed, influenced, and improved. In spite of the variety of the tasks which are determined for resolving, it is possible to use only one complex program to implement the promotion strategy which is known as the promotional mix.
This product promotion program traditionally includes all the necessary components to respond to all the points of the chosen strategy. Basing on the product promotion program, Starbucks can improve the situation in the sphere of advertising, brand image, direct marketing, sales promotion, and public relations. From this point, the product promotion program or the promotional mix is the most effective method to implement the strategy which is necessary for intensifying the development of Starbucks Coffee Company.
1. Starbucks develops according to the definite product promotion program. The recommended strategy to concentrate on the brand image and advertising along with stating the current position within the market and entering the other markets is based on operating the new approaches to the used product promotion program with accentuating more details and improving the current variant according to the requirements.
That is why, the sales promotion managers, product managers, and public relations representatives are responsible for developing the effective strategy and its further implementation with references to the product promotion program.
2. The initiative group, the members of which develop the strategy and control its further implementation, should be discussed as the group which is in charge of the implemented programs. That is why, much attention should be paid to predicting the program’s results.
The new approaches to advertising or to increasing the company’s position in, for instance, gourmet coffee market should be effectively developed, especially, when Starbucks orients to the new promotion strategy where the advantages of Starbucks in comparison with the industry’s competitors are accentuated.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More B. The product promotion program can be discussed as the financially feasible one because the funds for its implementation are fixed before starting the promotion company. The proposed strategy to accentuate the role of advertising and brand image with references to preserving the quality of the product and service can be considered as the improved variant of the used program.
The definite accents in the program are shifted and the new approaches are required. Nevertheless, the changes in the program’s financing will be insignificant, and they will be based on the redistribution of the provided funds.
Pro forma budgets should be developed in order to predict all the possible variants of the program’s realization and its results. In this situation, pro forma budgets can be used to control the effectiveness of the strategy’s implementation and program’s realization, basing on the expectations and real results. It is possible to state that the priorities and timetables are also appropriate to individual programs and small companies.
C. The new standard operating procedures should not be developed, and the quality control used for the current program can be realized basing on the procedures which were worked out earlier.
Memorandum to Chairman of CX Technology Case Study online essay help: online essay help
Introduction CX Technology is one of the leading global manufacturers which specializes in producing the cold forged steel speaker components. The company orients to the definite customers and operates within the same industry and market for a long period of time.
To meet the requirements of the modern developed economy and global market, it is necessary to change the stable strategy and orient to the new market and customers which used the cold forged steel components. The automotive industry provides a lot of possibilities for the development of CX Technology with transforming its manufacturing process to produce the necessary components for the industry.
Analysis CX Technology has the significant potential to develop the flexible strategy and orient to the more diverse market. The first advantage of the company is the large market to promote the production because cold forged parts are used in many different industries. These industries are associated with the airplane construction, automobile industry, the production of the oil drilling equipment and engines. Furthermore, it is advantageous for the company to orient to manufacturing components for bicycles and air conditioners.
This evidence supports the fact that there are a lot of potential markets where the production of CX Technology will be used successfully. The positive feature of cold forging is the production of highly strong components without the influence of the intense heat treatment. The steel of the product preserves its natural composition. Moreover, the company realizes all the steps of the cold forging process.
The next advantages of CX Technology are the high level of reliability and quality of products. Using the technology of cold forging, the company has the opportunity to orient to new and existing customers, providing them with such strong components as flanges, yokes, and gears which quality are higher than of those ones produced with the help of the other technologies.
The quality of the manufacturing process depends on the in-house production and on the work of quality assurance system. The rate of defects was reduced from 1.17% in 2007 to 0.31% in 2008 (Bhole et al. 4). The customers are inclined to continue working with CX Technology and repeat the orders. However, there is the negative feature of the process because the orientation to the same customers prevents the company from the market’s expanding and gaining more benefits.
Today, CX Technology contributes to the progress of its production plants in Vietnam and China which can be used effectively in developing the new strategy. Planning work in the field of automotive and consumer electronics, the company made accents on acquiring ISO 14001 and ISO/TS 16949 certification with the further implementation of ERP system (Bhole et al. 3). As a result of strategic actions, the production increased from 142 million pieces in 2000 to 245 million in 2008 (Bhole et al. 3).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The negative feature of the company’s work with clients is the prolonged sale process which can last from 1 to 4 years. The problem is in the lack of information which is exchanged between the company and customers. The negotiations often result in discovering the facts that CX Technology does not produced the required component or does not use the necessary technology.
The company’s problems are associated with falling of CAGR from 29% to 11% during the period of 2002-2007 years (Bhole et al. 5). However, the company’s successes in Vietnam contribute to changing the situation.
Alternatives There are three markets which can be used by CX Technology as potential for entering them and operating successfully.
The current situation in the US automotive industry is based on the recession of 2008-2009. In this situation, suppliers are inclined to be more active in relation to their own supplier selection process. Suppliers in the market have the possibility to orient to the potential clients. The US automotive market is potential for CX Technology because of its large size. The company’s development will depend on the sizable revenue streams. The manufacturers orient to developing the supply chain of the higher quality, and much attention is paid to the role of a supplier (Bhole et al. 7). CX Technology responds to the criteria in relation to the quality of the production.
The automotive industry and market of China are comparably young. Nevertheless, the demand for reliable suppliers as CX Technology is high. Suppliers work in China completely or choose a commanding presence in the industry. The significance of CX Technology’s presence in China is in possibility to pursue business according the most beneficial rules and avoid considerable transportation costs (Bhole et al. 8).
The developing automotive industry of Vietnam is younger than the industry of China. The manufacturer-supplier chains are not developed and stated. CX Technology has a lot of variants to succeed in the potential market because of the possibility to regulate the process of stating the rules of work between the suppliers and manufacturers within the industry (Bhole et al. 8). The developing market in Vietnam provides opportunities for CX Technology to preserve the leading position as Tier 2.
Recommendation CX Technology must choose the Vietnamese market to enter because its stage of development is correlated with the company’s possibilities to provide the production of the highest quality and develop its abilities within the new market. In this situation, CX Technology acquires the necessary experience and starts with producing the simple components such as steering and suspension pieces. Nevertheless, the company preserves its status within the industry because of the production quality.
Short term goal – to establish the partner relationships with the manufactures in Vietnam and start with developing the production of such simple components as steering and suspension pieces.
Medium term goal – to develop the manufacturing process with attracting more customers, depending on increasing the quality of the production.
Long term goal – to orient to the production of the most complex components as engine parts in order to state the brand equity and leading position in the field with expanding the possibilities.
We will write a custom Case Study on Memorandum to Chairman of CX Technology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Future Perspective
CX Technology will gain more experience while operating within the Vietnamese market and can enter the more competitive US market as the supplier of such complex components as engine parts. Nevertheless, it is important to follow the trends and respond to the development of more potential industries where the cold-forged steel parts are used.
Conclusion CX Technology must develop the strategy to enter the Vietnamese market as a successful Tier 2 supplier to state the leading position within the industry and receive the necessary experience to operate in the more developed and competitive world markets.
Works Cited Bhole, Ketan, Jordan Lee, Eileen Lu, and Indrajit Sen 2009, CX Technology. PDF file. 03 Dec. 2012. .
East Asia Civilization Essay best essay help
The historical terms Hong Xiuquan
In religious groups of the ninetieth century, Hong Xiuguan instituted Taiping divine empire through offering religious guidance and planning fortified revolt against the reign of Qing. In fact, Hong Xiuguan was the Christian evangelical leader in China (Feigon 1). He was an important figure in that he became the community educator for more than five years after failing to pass the regal tests.
Xiuguan acknowledged gods as evil spirits, Jesus as his elderly brother, and God as the esteemed minister. This made him effect baptism and the demolition of craven statues to get on with the preaching work and spiritually guide the public.
A part from initiation and monotheism, Xiuguan made his followers keep strict daybreak, nightfall prayers, and refinement, acknowledge spiritual cremation of papers with confessed sins, and eating sacrificed animals in revelry of New Year, matrimony, and funerals. Xiuguan dedicated much of his time praying for tranquility by observing stringent rules and offering ethical coaching in his palace (Spence 52).
This war was a tragedy for Russia in martial and sanity although it showed up in countries living in the historic glories and constant tribulations accruing from increased business and farming. The conflict that was to generate a break up between Nicholas and his community came about though it hardly led to the impulsive outburst of loyalty as planned (Steinberg 3).
The civic had slight war eagerness, but the novel political parties saw no validation for the warfare thus making societal democrats’ to incite wallop in industrial units, revolutionists organizing terror campaign, and liberals limiting vocal objections and appeals. The war indicated the capture and demolition of the Russians nautical force in Far East, and when the information reached St. Petersburg and Moscow, additional social turmoil that stimulated the disastrous martial campaign and oppression occurred.
Nevertheless, the resultant meeting of Zemstvo national conference that Nicholas condemned called for civil rights, freedom of press, freedom of person, and freedom of speech (Jukes 2008). The war led to the creation of trade unions and revolutions that saw more than two hundred protestors killed while singing patriotic songs parading towards the Palace of Winter.
Lee (1963) claims that this social and native group arose from the resentment of overseas missionaries on Christianity and patrician class compulsion that integrated the features of Taoism nurturing force, individual God to resist western education, primeval character of Shamanism, principles of Confucianism, and the intercession of Buddhism. Its effects from the design of parity and self-esteem influenced potential autonomous movements, which led to victory in the original rebellion that resulted into terror and seeking aid from the court of Japan and China to end the warfare as well as bring colonization of Korea by Japan.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This society was recognized leading to capture and execution of Ch’oe’s that later established flourishing church association which shaped the order of leadership and parishes. The rebellion grew all over making it possible for Chon Pong-Chun to take actions that hardly favored fraudulent administrators.
When the faction ordered for armaments, there was panic in the government and the administration requested the armed forces to end the cessation of hostilities. Hence, the inability to suppress the fight from Tonghak peasant militia, forced Japan and China to rival Korea for superiority.
The effects and causes of Korean War In the wake of the mid 1950, the warfare in Korea instigated and lasted for three years prior to the declaration of ceasefire. Assets were immensely damaged, and terminal deaths were reported to be over three million. The United States and the Soviet Union backed the two admonition states of South and North Korea.
The original cause of the conflict was extremely inherent in the two powerful countries. Korea has since stayed a unified nation from the seventh century, although Japan took fractions of Korea following the Sino-Japanese battle that occurred from 1894 to1895. In anticipation of the Second World War, Korea remained under the Japanese colony after being conquered in 1910.
The Soviet Union launched a communist status dubbed the Democratic Republic of People after captivating more than half of northern Korea. This was under Kim-II-Sung, and it occurred subsequent to Japan giving up in World War II. The U.S. took control of the southern half of Korea Republic starting from Tokyo (Lee 18).
The boundary between the battle regions had physical latitude of thirty-eight degrees to the north. The U.S tried to eliminate the Soviet Union from the accord set on intensifying communism, but this was burdened with nervousness. Another cause came in the year 1948 when the communists in each face of the thirty-eighth analogous meeting casted off the suggestion on liberated election (Lee 23). However, the United Nations struggled to ensure an open ballot vote took place in Korea.
However, Kim-II-Sung fashioned a Stalinist administration hoarded with Russian armaments, reservoirs and the Army of North Korean People. The United States, however, supported the first regime supervised by Rhee Syngman since the political state of affairs in South Korea was disorganized. In anticipation of June 1950 besides the thirty-eighth analogous meeting, progressive menacing battles persisted pending South Korea’s incursion by North Korean People’s Army.
We will write a custom Essay on East Asia Civilization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The nature of the war
The U.S. required intercession from the United Nation Security Council in the course of unmanageable assaults from the North to trademark the North Korea as an antagonist. Britain was one of the Security Council associate states to hurry to the charitable trust of South Korea.
It mutually propelled commonwealth navies together with a number of their Far East Fleets to Korea (Weathersby 91). When the Australian and the Britain backups started to enter Korea, the eighth United States Army guided by General Walker Walton in Korea disillusioned the North Korean People’s Army. It was then when the Army of North Korean People intentionally headed to the docks of Pusan, a very important harbor in South Korea.
In the tilt region of the Korean peninsula, the United Nation was positioned in a boundary called Pusan Perimeter to defy constant assault from Pohang, Masan, and Daegu. They enforced the attacking North Korean People’s Army to reverse to the north after the incarceration of vulnerable port of Inchon in mid September. The United Nations Army nearness to the Manchurian was a dread to the Chinese and a signal that they would mediate to protect their terrain.
The United Nation horde struggled to fit the capital of South Korea in south Seoul after the Chinese molestation in November. Nonetheless, the United Nation triumphantly drove the Army of North Korean People to the north of thirty- eighth analogous point in May 1951 having survived the spring of distasteful operations from China.
In 1953, a declaration of armistice occurred amid the serenity talks. Both the defense forces went on the odious intent not allowing the other party to manage the tactical regions rather than a different invasion on the adversary territory (Lee 52).
Both faces of the battling parties had numerous fatalities, yet the number of deaths is not certain. However, there was hostility between the Soviet Union and the United States fashioned by the Korean warfare. Besides, there was a break up between families that lived in each of the regional boundaries.
The experienced antagonism involving the United States and China lasted for decades afterward. It assured the United States of America of the attentive nature of the declining domino result of socialism. Thousands of American troops were situated in South Korea owing to its ideal position as a martial pedestal for the United States (Weathersby 92).
Conversely, failure to sign a written accord subsequent to 1953 peace agreement and the incapacity of South and North Korea to resolve their disparities implied that they had to be ready for state skirmishes. The United States, China, Japan, and South Korea had to stay in their projectile array after North Korea conducted numerous ballistic rocket experiments and a contentious nuclear ordeal.
Not sure if you can write a paper on East Asia Civilization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the recent past, North Korea became a renowned poverty-stricken country with martial rule while South Korea is the main financial power. The North Korean supreme leader, Kim Jong-II and the President of South Korea, Moo-hyun Roh signed an eight-point accord in early October 2007 (Steinberg 2008).
Thus, the two countries decided on the regeneration of train services, thoroughfare, and air, ambassadorial talks, financial corporations, and enduring peace programs. The parties are optimistic that these suggestions will rise to the confederacy of South and North Korea.
Factors leading to the decline of Qing China Dynasty The racial Manchu leaders ruled the Qing Dynasty of China for quite some time. The reign only ended at the beginning of the twentieth century, but started in 1644 CE in the middle of the kingdom. The empire was a recognized mighty dynasty, but collapsed and ushered in the current Chinese era. In fact, Qing Dynasty of China fell gradually in the early 20th century and the middle years of the 19th century because of a multifaceted interaction between external and internal factors.
Whereas immense pressure ensuing from the outside forces damaged the territory and sovereignty of Qing China Dynasty, the mighty empire scrambled and collapsed from inside. The average Chinese called Han believed that the Manchus from the north who were the Qing leaders deserved little loyalty.
Despite being few, the Manchus, a race that conquered China benefited from dominant political influence. However, late in the nineteenth century, the leadership of Manchu lost its capability. This gave rise to the catastrophic opium wars, which proved that the reigning Qing Empire lost its Heaven Mandates and ought to be brought down or conquered.
Cixi Dowager who was the Qing empress responded by getting tough on those who seek for reforms. Instead of renovating the homeland as well as practicing the Meiji reinstallation path as republic Japan executed, Dowager opted to clean the pacesetters’ courtyard (Zhang 156).
Inefficient emperors in the Qing Empire caused the administrative arm of the government to be unproductive. The emperor failed to supervise government officials making them very incompetent. The political structure had effects that discouraged the energetic action of the government. The state officials extorted money from the ordinary people while the level of corruption was serious in the Qing Dynasty.
The state imposed heavy taxes on Chinese whereas most government officials received gifts from the low ranked officers. This resulted into economic suffering. Besides, the Qing Empire of China was political decentralized. The politics were demoralized and corrupt making it difficult to centralize the political power in Peking.
Decentralization in politics started to grow seriously from the 1851 to 1864 Taiping Rebellion (Zhang 158). Thus, the Peking control proved to be very unsuccessful justifying the reasons why in the fiscal 1911, the Qing Dynasty provinces were declared sovereign.
The economic and social factors such as poor economic state, social poverty, and population growth rate contributed to the collapse of the Qing Empire of China. In fact, China was a peaceful state and Qing Dynasty enhanced the population growth rate. However, land that could be cultivated was limited since the powerful lords in Qing Dynasty grabbed large pieces of land.
The empire did not facilitate industrial development to create jobs and absorb excess labor. Instead, the Qing Dynasty enacted laws to bar individuals from moving to places outside including Manchuria. Lack of jobs coupled with the growing population meant low living standards and grater social poverty. To solve the ensuing financial problems, the rulers in Qing Dynasty opted to sell most offices and increased the state charged taxes.
These increased the level of corruption, rebellion, and social suffering. The Chinese military lacked cooperation and suffered from administrative inefficiency (Harding 122). Most combatants suffered due to food shortages and opted to deprive innocent people besides causing auxiliary societal anarchies. Manchus slowly lost the spirit to fight and in the 19th century making, all military troops become useless.
Qing Dynasty had some external factors that led to its collapse in 1911. Prior to 19th century, foreign imperialism had not reached China. Thus, its entry into China enhanced the collapse of the Qing Empire. For instance, the foreigners defeated the Qing administration and imposed imbalanced treaties on the empire.
The Chinese national rights were politically violated causing the Qing Empire to mislay its political power and repute. Given that China became puny, the command from abroad successfully invaded assorted homelands, which regularly indebted china faithfulness. The homeland citizens included the Koreans, Annam’s, and the Islet of Ryukyu.
In late nineteenth century, foreign imperialism reached its highest peak, and most China territories were divided into different influential spheres. The Qing administration became completely powerless to resist most of these foreign pressures. In the early 20th century and late 19th century, other nations led by Europe extended their influence to other territories including Africa and Asia (Harding 125). Therefore, they pressurized the grand China also known as the time-honored East Asia superpower.
Between 1839 and 1842, and from 1856 to 1860, the opium wars occurred causing the most destructive impact on the Qing Empire. After these wars, China emerged defeated and the British Empire conquered Hong Kong by enforcing unequal treaties on the inhabitants of China. The disgrace exposed the vulnerability and weaknesses of the once-powerful China to all its tributaries and neighbors. The exposure of China’s weaknesses made the nation begin losing its influence over marginal regions.
For instance, Taiwanese and Koreans were managed by the Japanese, which similarly forced unwarranted commerce burdens in the Shimonoseki’s pact of the financial year 1895. Conversely, France created the French Indochina colony after seizing Southeast Asia.
Other foreign powers namely Japan, Russia, Germany, France, and Britain also established their influential spheres along the Qing China’s coast by 1900. These foreign powers managed to control the Qing Dynasty’s military and trade. However, Puyi, the last emperor managed to overthrow the imperial China and end the Qing Dynasty in the fiscal 1912 (Harding 132).
Works Cited Feigon, Nathan. “Hong Xiuquan.” Britannica Biographies, 2012: 1-2. Print.
Harding, Harry. “How the Past Shapes the Present: Five Ways in Which History Affects China’s Contemporary Foreign Relations.” Journal of American-East Asian Relations, 16.1/2 (2009): 119-134. Print.
Jukes, Geoffrey. The Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905, Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2002. Print.
Lee, Chŏng-sik.The Politics of Korean Nationalism, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1963. Print.
Spence, Jonathan. God’s Chinese Son: The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Hong Xiuqua, New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 1997. Print.
Steinberg, John. “Was the Russo-Japanese War World War Zero?” Russian Review, 67.1 (2008): 1-7. Print.
Weathersby, Kathryn. “The Korean War Revisited.” Wilson Quarterly, 23.3 (1999): 91-96. Print.
Zhang, Zhan. “Cixi and Modernization of China.” Asian Social Science, 6.4 (2010): 154-159. Print.
Our Man in Havana Essay (Critical Writing) essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Thesis statement
Thesis statement One of the foremost aspects of today’s living is the fact that, as time goes on; people in Western countries grow increasingly aware of the sheer out-datedness of the classical concept of nationhood. This could not be otherwise, because an ongoing process of Globalization effectively exposes people’s tendency to assess the surrounding reality through the lenses of their national affiliation, as such that substantially impedes their chances of a social advancement.
This is exactly the reason why, even though that as recently as during the course of the fifties, the idea that one should be willing to sacrifice its life for the sake of a ‘nation’ used to be considered fully legitimate, this is no longer being the case. After all, it nowadays becomes increasingly clear for more and more people in the West that, since they live only once and since there is no ‘afterlife’ to look forward to, it is specifically ensuring their personal well-being, which represents their foremost priority in life.
Therefore, there is nothing too surprising about the fact that even today; Graham Greene’s 1958 novel Our Man in Havana continues to be referred to as such that represents an undermined discursive value.
The reason for this is quite apparent – the themes and motifs, explored in this particular novel, appear discursively consistent with the post-industrial realities of the 21st century’s living, associated with the process of more and more people getting rid of socially upheld illusions, as to what accounts for the essence of their responsibilities in life. In my paper, I will aim to substantiate the validity of this suggestion at length.
Main part Given the apparent straightforwardness of Green novel’s plot, the task of outlining its main twists does not represent much of a challenge. The novel’s protagonist James Wormold (who happened to be a British citizen), owns a vacuum cleaner shop in pre-revolutionary Havana, Cuba. Being a loving father of his teenage daughter Milly, Wormold finds it increasingly difficult to be able to support Milly’s extravagant lifestyle.
In its turn, this prompts him to accept Henry Hawthorne’s (M16’s resident in the Caribbean region) proposition to become a British intelligence agent in Havana – in exchange for his willingness to work on behalf of M16, Wormold was placed on a payroll. Nevertheless, after having realized that would prove impossible to create the ring of informers in Cuba, as it was required of him, Wormold decides to simply invent them, while specifying the cost of maintaining each of these imaginary informers.
As the plot unravels, Wormold becomes ever more preoccupied with supplying M16 with fictitious intelligence reports, which in London are being regarded as such that represent a particularly high intelligence-value.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The novel’s comical sounding reaches its peak when Wormold sends the drawings of vacuum cleaners (intentionally made to look like some menacing military installations) to London, which causes a great deal of anxiety among M16’s top-officials, who never doubted the realness of the depicted ‘installations’ even for a second. In its turn, this causes Wormold’s superiors to decide to provide him with the ‘secretary’ Beatrice Severn and with the radio-operator Rudi – both working on behalf of British intelligence, as well.
Nevertheless, as time goes on, Worlmold realizes that his imaginary intelligence-activities had effectively ceased being merely a game, as Havana’s newspapers report the actual deaths of many of his imaginary ‘informers’. This, of course, causes Wormold to feel increasingly uneasy about the whole situation.
After having been confronted with the death of his close friend Dr. Hasselbacher, who was pressured by captain Segura (Cuban police) to spy on Wormold, the novel’s main character decides to reveal his fraud to Beatrice. Consequently, he gets to be recalled back to London – presumably, to face the charge of betrayal. Yet, to Wormold’s amazement, it was not only that did not get to be punished, but he in fact ended up being offered a teaching job with M16 and awarded the Order of British Empire.
Apparently, Wormold’s superiors refused to even consider the possibility of admitting to the government that ‘their man in Havana’ was nothing but a con artist, as it would expose British intelligence in a rather unsightly light.
It is needless to mention, of course, that even a brief glance at the earlier provided outline of Green novel’s plot does not allow us to refer to Our Man in Havana as such that emanates the spirit of British patriotism, in the classical sense of this word.
After all, with the probable exemption of the character of Beatrice, the individuals associated with the British government, featured in the novel, appear to have been deprived of even basic analytical abilities – quite contrary to the assumption that, in order for one to qualify for the job of a British spy, he or she must possess a supreme intelligence.
Partially, the ‘unpatriotic’ sounding of Green’s novel can be explained by the particulars of the author’s religious affiliation. This is because, throughout the course of his adult life, Green never ceased to proclaim itself a devout Catholic. However, it does not represent much of a secret that, ever since the beginning of the 17th century, British Catholics have been finding themselves in an increasingly disadvantaged social position.
We will write a custom Critical Writing on Our Man in Havana specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Even today, being a British Catholic implies being socially underprivileged to an extent. As Burgess noted, “The British State tolerates the Catholic Church, but the Catholic Church, being a supra-national body, has no representation in the establishment… To honor the monarch is to acknowledge the hegemony of the Church of England” (94).
Therefore, when assessed from a purely religious perspective, the lack of Green’s patriotic enthusiasm, clearly exhibited in Our Man in Havana, can be well thought of as having been reflective of the author’s deep-seated unconscious anxieties, related to his religious sense of self-identity.
However, it was not only the societal implications of Green’s affiliation with Catholicism, which caused his novel’s satire to attain a clearly defined political sounding, but also the theological and ideological ones. This is because Catholics always suspected Protestants to be deeply hypocritical in how they go about proclaiming their adherence to God.
After all, as opposed to what it is being the case with Catholics; Protestants do not perceive God as their ultimate benefactor. Rather they think of him as some distant authority that simply lays down the rules of a religious morality but does not intervene in their lives actively. Apparently, Protestants have grown to realize a simple fact that material riches do not fall out of the sky and that one needs to work hard, in order to achieve a financial prosperity.
In fact, it now became a commonplace practice among many Protestants to think that the amount of money they have in banks positively relates to the measure of God’s pleasure with them (Weber 60). Green, however, never ceased considering Protestants’ obsession with making money morally wrong, which explains the sarcastic sounding of the novel’s scenes in which American businesspersons elaborate on their vision of religion/spirituality.
For example, there is a memorable scene in the novel, where the character of Dr. Braun comes up with a public speech, while praising the trade as the actual source of spirituality, “Trade was important because without trade there would be no spiritual links, or was it perhaps the other way round. He (Dr. Braun) spoke of American aid to distressed countries which would enable them to buy more goods and by buying more goods strengthen the spiritual links” (Green 91).
This explains the subtle criticism of American (Western) concept of ‘democracy’, which can be found throughout the course of Green novel’s entirety.
Apparently, the author was intellectually honest enough to admit to himself and to his readers that, by promoting the values of ‘democracy’ in the Third World, Western countries pursue their own geopolitical/economic agenda, which in turn is being concerned with assuming a unilateral control of the world’s natural/human resources – hence, the actual secret of Western countries’ economic prosperity.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Our Man in Havana by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This suggestion and the clearly defined autobiographical undertones of the Green’s novel, help us to explain the innate motivation behind Wormold’s decision to accept money from the British secret service, without providing any real intelligence information in return.
It appears that, while deceiving British intelligence, Worlmold (a literary embodiment of Green) was not merely concerned with ensuring an additional source of income but also with acting on behalf of justice – whatever ironic it may sound.
Even though that the novel’s main character initially doubted the moral appropriateness of his decision, in this respect, Dr. Hasselbacher was able to convince him in the opposite, “They (governmental officials) have no money except what they take from men like you and me” (29). Eventually, it had dawned upon Wormold that, by making the rich and powerful to share some of their riches with ordinary individuals like himself, even by the mean of deceiving the government, he in fact was serving a higher good.
This again reveals an unmistakably Catholic mindset, in the part of the novel’s author, as the reading about how Wormold went about addressing life’s challenges does substantiate the validity of the idea that there is nothing wrong about combating evil with evil. And, as Green’s biographers are being well aware of, this idea never ceased to fascinate the author of Our Man in Havana,” Throughout his life… Greene had a fascination with evil and a contempt for ordinary virtues.
After his conversion to Catholicism, he defended this attitude on the ground that a close acquaintance with evil was no obstacle to the salvation of the soul. It might even be essential” (Gray 51). Hence, the thoroughly humanistic sounding of the Green’s novel, as such that promotes the idea that, despite their weaknesses, people are nevertheless are being capable of adopting a proper stance in life.
Nevertheless, it would not be fully appropriate to assess the significance of the novel’s themes and motifs solely in regards to what used to be the particulars of Green’s religious affiliation. Had this been the case, these themes and motifs would not be considered discursively relevant today.
Yet, as it was mentioned in the Introduction, there are indeed a number of good reasons to believe that the manner in which Wormold behaves in the novel is being fully consistent with the discourse of post-modernity, which nowadays causes more and more people to reassess the validity of many traditional assumptions, regarding what accounts for the purpose of one’s life, and regarding to the implications one’s national affiliation.
For example, there is another memorable scene in the novel, where Hawthorne tries to recruit Wormold, while implying that being assumed a British patriot, his newly found would-be-spy simply had no option but to agree to the proposition, “You are English, aren’t you?.. And you refuse to serve your country?” (21).
Apparently, it never occurred to Hawthorne that, as time goes on, the discursive significance of socio-political concepts, such as ‘nation’, continues to be qualitatively transformed, which often leads to these concepts becoming deprived of any meaning, whatsoever. Nowadays, the validity of this statement appears especially self-evident, because due to an ongoing process of Globalization, the national borders between formally independent countries have long ago assumed a purely symbolic value.
In its turn, this causes many political observers to conclude that it is being only the matter of time, before the concept of ‘national sovereignty’ will be effectively disposed with, as thoroughly outdated. As Ohmae noted, “The global economy ignores barriers, but if they are not removed, they cause distortion. The traditional centralized nation-state is another cause of friction. It is ill equipped to play a meaningful role on the global stage” (Ohmae 25).
Yet, even throughout the course of the late fifties, the discursive irrelevance of the concept of ‘nation’ was becoming apparent. The reason for this is simple – after the end of WW2, Western European countries (including Britain, which had lost all of its most important colonies) have been effectively deprived of their de facto independence – all due to these countries’ willingness to participate in the Marshall Plan and to join NATO.
In essence, they became the America’s puppet-states. And yet, as it appears from the novel, the character of Hawthorne remained thoroughly ignorant of this fact, which explains why, while trying to convince Wormold to become M16’s agent, he continued to refer to Britain’s geopolitical challenges in essentially pre-WW2 terms. The legitimacy of this suggestion can be well illustrated in regards to Hawthorne’s strongly defined anti-German stance, “Not that it matters East or West, they (Germans) play the German game.
Remember the Ribbentrop Pact. We (British) won’t be caught that way again” (13). This explains why Wormold could not help but to accept Hawthorne’s offer – after having realized that Hawthorne was a perceptually inadequate individual, allowing him to walk away with money would constitute a ‘sin’.
The discursive implication of this suggestion can be formulated as follows: unlike what it was the case with many of the novel’s intellectually inflexible characters, such as Hawthorne, Wormold proved himself being quick enough to take advantage of moneymaking opportunities, presented by the realities of the Cold War era.
Apparently, despite having been born well before the discourse of Globalization had attained a politically legitimate status, Wormold was psychologically attuned with what would constitute the secularized and deideologized realities of a post-industrial living. After all, nowadays it is specifically only not overly bright individuals who may be comfortable with the idea that the abstract cause of ‘patriotism’ is worthy of risking their lives.
This is because, due to the revolutionary breakthroughs in the field of informational technologies (the rise of the Internet), this world is becoming ever more ‘informationally intense’.
In its turn, this creates objective preconditions for people in Western countries to realize the simple fact that there is only one reason for the representatives of social elites to continue striving to endow ordinary citizens with the sense of ‘patriotism’ – it is so much easier to turn patriots into a ‘cannon meat’, willing to sacrifice for the rich and powerful on the battlefield, if circumstances require.
Therefore, it will not be much of an exaggeration, on our part, to suggest that the appeal of Our Man in Havana is being partially concerned with the novel’s ‘visionary’ subtleties – today’s readers cannot help but to perceive the character of Wormold, as such was born well ahead of its time. This, of course, causes them to relate to this character emotionally – hence, the continual popularity of Our Man in Havana.
Conclusion I believe that the line of argumentation, deployed throughout this paper, is being fully consistent with the initial thesis. It appears that, even as far back as during the course of the late fifties, Green had a very good idea, as to what would be the nature of ‘things to come’ in the future.
This explains why; whereas, the names of the author’s contemporaries, who used to criticize him on the account of his ‘lack of patriotism’, are now long forgotten, Green’s literary legacy continues being highly appreciated. Given the fact that, as time goes on, the process of intellectually liberating Globalization keeps on gaining a momentum; this will likely to remain the case in the future, as well.
Works Cited Burgess, Anthony. “Politics in the Novels of Graham Greene.” Journal of Contemporary History 2.2 (1967): 93-99. Print.
Gray, John. “A Touch of Evil.” New Statesman 13.633 (2000): 51-52. Print.
Greene, Graham. Our Man in Havana. Penguin Classics. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Print.
Ohmae, Kenichi. Next Global Stage: Challenges and Opportunities in Our Borderless World. Upper Saddle River: Wharton School Publishing, 2005. Print.
Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. New York: Courier Dover Publications, 2003. Print.
Competition in the service industry Proposal best college essay help: best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Introduction Since the industrial revolution, a lot of advancements have been experienced in the field of technology. However, since the 1970s, rapid advancement in information technology has increased the productivity of many firms from all around the world (Pfeffer 21). Consequently, the availability of cash, the viability of the market, improvement in the production technology, and the fact that firms can enter and exit a market freely has greatly increased the number of players within a given industry.
As a result, therefore, the level of competition has greatly increased. To stand at a competitive edge, firms in the modern world usually strive to retain their customers and to increase their market share. From research, it has been identified that delivery of service quality plays a critical role in retaining customers who are loyal, as well as the ones who have been satisfied (Pfeffer 34).
Since they interact with customers directly or indirectly, frontline employees play a critical role in determining the quality of service a firm offers to its customers. Despite this realization, there are several factors that deter these employees from achieving the level of effectiveness and efficiency that is expected from them.
Low pay, long working hours, poor working conditions, stress and customer aggression reduce their level of motivation, impacting negatively on their performance. It is thus difficult for managers to retain employees who are highly skilled under such conditions (Pfeffer 40).
To reduce employee turnover rates, managers have turned to the concept of job embeddedness (Pfeffer 40). According to Pfeffer (1994), job embeddedness represents the concepts and techniques that can be applied to prevent employees from leaving their jobs. Training, empowerment, and rewards are some of the concepts and techniques that are used to guarantee job embeddedness.
Pfeffer (1994) regards these concepts as one of the most effective human resource practices. If these concepts and techniques are applied in an effective and efficient manner, they will result in High-performance work practices (HPWPs). The application of these concepts and techniques will increase the knowledge, skills and expertise of employees.
Consequently, the presence of a conducive working environment will give the employees the chance to put into practice the skills and knowledge that they have acquired. This will greatly increase the productivity of the employees hence increasing their motivation and the ease at which they will attain the firms as well as their personal goals and objectives.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As a result, firms will not only retain their key employees, but they will also increase their service delivery quality hence retaining loyal and satisfied customer. This will guarantee their profitability and sustainability in the short run and in the long run.
Given all these factors, the main purpose of this study is to critically analyze a conceptual model that has been designed to determine the effect of job embeddedness on the commitment of the management to improve the quality of service delivery. Therefore, the study will focus on the impacts that job embeddedness has on training, empowerment, rewards, and the overall performance of the employees.
This study will provide essential literature in the field of marketing and management. The study will also be a continuation of studies that have been conducted in the field of job embeddedness. According to Grandey (1999), training can only achieve the desired outcome if it is coupled with empowerment and rewards.
Consequently, empowerment can only be beneficial to an employee and the firm if it is supported with training and rewards. With this analysis, therefore, it is evident that these constructs are interrelated and they play a critical role in determining the level of job embeddedness that a firm enjoys.
Job embeddedness therefore plays a critical role in reducing the employee turnover rates within organizations (Boshoff 78). The current labor market is characterized with high employee turnover rates due to numerous reasons. Despite this fact, only a limited number of studies have been conducted to determine the effect that job embeddedness has on the performance of employees.
In this study, service recovery and extra-role performance service are the key performance indicators of frontline employees that need to be assessed. Service recovery is the role played by employees in resolving the issues that might reduce the level of satisfaction among customers.
While dealing with customers, there are instances where a customer might not be satisfied as a result of the quality of the goods or service offered the response he/she received or any other factor. It is thus the role of frontline employees to ensure that these issues are resolved before the customer is completely dissatisfied with the goods to retain him/her. On the other hand, extra-role performance entails the extra efforts that employees to put to ensure that a customer is satisfied.
We will write a custom Proposal on Competition in the service industry specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Boshoff (2000), service delivery recovery can be considered as extra-role performance. Therefore, through training, empowerment, and rewards, a firm can develop a team of specialized employees who have the knowledge and skills to respond to specific service failures hence meeting the needs and desires of its customers.
Therefore, for a firm to achieve high levels of service delivery from its frontline employees, it needs to have consistent HPWPs that are based on the concepts of training, empowerment and rewards. This will increase its level of job embeddedness hence retaining its key employees as well as loyal and satisfied customers.
The results of this study will therefore show the level of managerial commitment in service delivery, job embeddedness, and the performance of hotels in Romania. At the end, the study will come up with recommendations with will aim at improving the level of service delivery by frontline employees. The study will also bring forward avenues that future research should focus on with regards to job embeddedness.
Literature Review In the service industry, frontline employees play a critical role in the service delivery process. Therefore, the management of such firms such view them as partners in the process of meeting the needs and desires of their customers as well as retaining loyal and satisfied customers (Grandey 355).
For such employees to offer effective and efficient services to customers, they need to work in an environment where their efforts are supported by the management. In an event whereby the management is not fully committed in offering excellent services to its employees, the efforts put by frontline employees will therefore not be fruitful.
As a result, it will be difficult for such employees to successfully deal with complaints and requests that come from the customers that they are serving. Therefore, to ensure that their operations are sustainable in the short term and in the long term, the management of service delivery firms needs to be results oriented. In the process, frontline employees will get the motivation they need to meet the needs and desires of their customers (Grandey 362).
In the line of work, mistakes are always inevitable. Therefore, service organizations, through their frontline employees need to ensure that, “…they do the right thing the second time to avoid adverse effects that might have negative impacts on the operations of the organization” (De Ruyter 96).
The management of any given organization is driven by its mission and vision. However, the vision and mission set by organizations need to be designed from the viewpoint of frontline employees who are in direct contact with the customers. This will ensure that the management empowers its frontline employees through training, rewards, up to date technologies, and effective and efficient recruitment services (Bishoff 67).
Not sure if you can write a paper on Competition in the service industry by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Boshoff (2000), these are some of the factors that determine best human resource practices within an organization. Due to the fact that they result in a consistent performance by frontline employees, their presence in any organization is a good indicator of management commitment to service quality.
Consequently, it has been determined that training, empowerment, and rewards not only increase the performance and motivation of frontline employees, but they also attract highly qualified individuals (Bishoff 68). This greatly increases the versatility, effectiveness, and efficiency of the workforce of a given organization.
Several models have been advanced to show the relationship between HPWPs and performance within a given organization. The Ability, Motivation, and Opportunity (AMO) model is a prime example. The AMO model focuses on the individual variables within an individual that affect the level of his/her performance (Podsakoff 881).
Thus, the model focuses on competence of a given employee, his/her level of motivation and the opportunity such an employee has to put into practice their skills and expertise. Through training, the performance of employees is increased as a result of the additional knowledge, skills, and expertise that they have acquired (Podsakoff 883).
Through rewards, such employees will be motivated to put into practice the acquired knowledge and skills hence enabling them to deal with the complaints and request that have been raised by customers in an effective and efficient manner.
The level of commitment that the management has with regards to HPWPs plays a significant role in determining the level of job embeddedness that it wants to achieve. According to Podsakoff (2003), job embeddedness has three dimensions; links, fit, and sacrifice. Links is the formal or informal relationship that an employee has with an institution, or other individuals (Podsakoff 884).
An employee will have high levels of job embeddedness if the links that he/she has within his work environment increase. Fit is the compatibility that an individual has with his working environment (Podsakoff 885). With regards to this dimension, the level of job emdeddedness can only be increased if the goals and values of a given employee are in line with the overall goals and objectives of the organization he/she is working for.
Finally, sacrifice can be defined as the benefits that an individual is willing to forego by leaving a particular job (Podsakoff 885). An employee will have high levels of job embeddedness given the fact that the benefits he is enjoying from his current employment exceed the costs incurred.
Therefore, firms need to focus on achieving HPWPs to increase their levels of job emdeddedness. This will reduce their employee turnover rates and will play a critical role in encouraging extra-role performance (Podsakoff 885).
From the literature that has been covered so far, it has been identified that training, empowerment, and rewards are the key indicators of the commitment that the management of a given organization has on service quality. Through training, employees develop their skills and expertise in their respective fields.
As a result, such employees become acquitted with the role that they are playing within an organization, as well as with their values and beliefs. On the other hand, it will be difficult for employees who do not have relevant training to handle customers’ complaints and requests with a high degree of effectiveness and efficiency (Grandey 366).
Empowerment on the other hand gives employees the authority and responsibility to respond to the customers’ requests and complaints since the exact tasks that might be required to satisfy the needs of the customers cannot be predetermined. Thus, empowerment motivates employees and maintains employees within an organization (Grandey 366).
Rewards such as promotions, bonuses, passages and so on show the commitment that a given organization has to service delivery by appreciating the efforts of its frontline employees (Grandey 366). With regards to training, empowerment, and rewards, the following hypotheses can be developed for this study:
H1: Training has a direct relationship with frontline employees’ job embeddedness.
H2: Empowerment has a direct relationship with frontline employees’ job embeddedness.
H3: Rewards have a direct relationship with frontline employees’ job embeddedness.
Training, empowerment, and rewards also play a critical role in determining the quality of service delivery from frontline employees. According to Karatepe (2012), empowerment and rewards are one of the main factors that affected the performance of bank employees in South Africa.
With an effective training, empowerment, and reward system, employees develop listening and problem solving skills that make their response to customers’ complaints to be quick, appropriate and equitable hence conducting their services to effectively and efficiently. With regards to performance outcome, the following hypotheses can be developed for this study:
H4: Training has a direct relationship with frontline employees’ service recovery and extra-role performance.
H5: Empowerment has a direct relationship with frontline employees’ service recovery and extra-role performance.
H6: Rewards have a direct relationship with frontline employees’ service recovery and extra-role performance.
Consequently, the performance of employees who have several links and have developed a desirable fit with individuals and the organization is usually high (Grandey 367). Such employees will incur a lot of costs as compared to benefits if they decide to leave their work.
Therefore, it will be wise for such employees to retain their current jobs. With regards to these facts, the following hypothesis can be developed for this study:
H7: Job embeddedness has a direct relationship with frontline employees’ service recovery and extra-role performance.
H8: Job embeddedness has a direct relationship with the effects of training, empowerment, and rewards on frontline employees’ service recovery and extra-role performance.
Methodology This study will focus on seven 4 star hotels and one 5 star hotel in the Poiana Brasov region of Romania, a key tourist destination in the winter. The study will only focus on frontline employees who have face-to-face contact with customers (tourists). This will include but not limited to:
Front desk agents
Guest relations representatives
To ensure that the collected data is credible, effective and efficient, questionnaires will be administered using random sampling. The study will have a sample size of 200 respondents ranging between the ages of 18 to 65 years. This will ensure that the views of the individuals of all age groups have been collected and considered in the study.
To collect data from these individuals, the management of these hotels will be contacted. However, due to the fact that it might be difficult to get direct access of frontline employees of these hotels, the questionnaires will be sent to the management. It is the management that will distribute the questionnaires to its frontline employees.
The consent of the respondents will be sought prior to the exercise. Consequently, this study will guarantee the confidentiality and anonymity of the participants. There will be two sets of questionnaires. The first questionnaire to be administered will collect information regarding training, empowerment, and rewards. The second questionnaire will collect information regarding service delivery recovery and extra-role performance.
To ensure that the data collected in this study are consistent and useful to the study, the questionnaires will be administered simultaneously. This will ensure that the respondents of the first questionnaire will also take part in the second questionnaire. After filling the questionnaires, the respondents (frontline employees) will seal them in an envelope and deposit it in a special box where the research will come to collect all of them at the end of the session.
In this study, literature review will be used as the main source of secondary data. This will include literature, information, and ideas from studies that have been conducted by other researchers. Therefore, peer reviewed journals, books, magazines, dissertations, and any other credible source of literature relevant to the topic of study will be used.
For accurate analysis of the statistical data, SPSS 16.0 will be used for descriptive data analysis. The data will be explored using descriptive statistics and histogram plots to determine the shape of the distribution for each sample variable. The name given to each variable in the data analysis will be provided in a table.
Data analysis will be carried out using parametric tests where the data will follow a normal distribution and where the sample number will be equal to or greater statistical power. Where the data will not follow a normal distribution or where the data will be split into groups of less than the sample size (n), non-parametric test will be used.
Conclusion The high level of competition in the service industry has prompted the management of most organizations to come up with effective measures that will ensure that they stand on a competitive edge over their rivals to be sustainable and profitable in the short run and in the long run.
To achieve this, it has been identified that the frontline employees of these organizations need to be trained, empowered and rewarded to reduce their turnover rates and to increase their service delivery recovery and entry-role performance. As a result, a firm will be able to meet the needs and requirements of its customers hence retaining satisfied and loyal customers in the long run.
Works Cited Boshoff, Charles. “The influence of selected antecedents on frontline staff’s perceptions of service recovery performance.” International Journal of Service Industry Management, 11.1 (2000): 63–90. Print.
De Ruyter, Kings. “Customer equity considerations in service recovery: a crossindustry perspective.” International Journal of Service Industry Management, 11.1 (2000): 91–108. Print.
Grandey, Andrew. “The conservation of resources model applied to workfamily conflict and strain.” Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54.2 (1999): 350–370. Print.
Karatepe, Michael. “Does job embeddedness mediate the effect of work engagement on job outcomes? A study of hotel employees in Cameroon.” Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 21.4(2012): 440–461. Print.
Pfeffer, John. Competitive Advantage through People: Unleashing the Power of the Work Force. Boston: HBS Press, 1994. Print.
Podsakoff, Peter. “Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies.” Journal of Applied Psychology, 88.5 (2003): 879–903. Print.
Correlation Report online essay help
Table of Contents Abstract
Abstract One of the most commonly used statistical method for determining and measuring the relationship between two or more variables is the correlation. Based on the random integers that have been collected for performing three fictitious studies in this report the correlation has been calculated between variables.
The findings from correlation are then analyzed using methods including histogram, mean, standard deviation, and range to draw conclusions regarding the distributions of correlation coefficients (scores) obtained for each of the study, The conclusions from the study suggest that the mean correlation is close to 0 using random data.
The statistical dispersion measured by standard deviation and range is higher for study#1 and lowest for study#2 which suggests that the sample size does have implications for analysis. The report also provides a descriptive discussion on the correlation method, its history, levels of variability, and psychology studies that may involve prediction of random variables.
Introduction In this report, the findings of correlation and measures of statistical dispersion in the data derived from selection of random integers are presented. The report initiates with detailing the concept of correlation method and ways of interpreting the correlation. It then describes the level of variability and introduces studies which may involve prediction of random variables. The experiment that has been performed through selection of random integers is then described and results are presented along with a meaningful discussion.
Correlation is a statistical method which can be used to determine the dependence between two or more variables. By dependence it is implied the relationship between two or more variables in which the value of one variable depends upon the values of another variable. The use of correlation in psychological studies is very common which are aimed at predicting and analyzing the relationship of human behavior and factors which have influence on it.
The correlation studies result in the determination of the correlation coefficient which is a measure of the strength of the relationship between variables.
The correlation coefficient values range between -1.00 to 1.00 which suggest that if the value of correlation coefficient is close to -1.00 then there is a negative correlation (relationship) between the selected variables and if the value of correlation coefficient is close to 1.00 then there is a positive correlation (relationship) between the selected variables.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For a neutral correlation between variables the value of correlation coefficient has to be very close to 0. Therefore, in this way the correlation in psychology helps in understanding the association of variables under investigation.
The history of correlation method can be traced back to the study during 1850-52 conducted by Sir Francis Galton, a statistician who was interested in heredity trends of intelligence found in humans and aimed at finding out the correlation between the intelligence levels of individuals with their predecessors.
The spread or variability in the variable is referred to as statistical dispersion. The measure of the statistical dispersion starts from 0 which occurs when all the data collected is the same and it rises as the variability in the variable increases. Therefore, it could be stated that statistical dispersion measure close to 0 indicates low level of variability and as it goes higher and above 1 then it suggest high level of variability in the variable.
There are different measures which can be used for determining levels of variability which may include variance, variance to mean ratio, standard deviation, interquartile range, range, mean difference, median or average absolute deviation and distance standard deviation.
Studies that may involve the prediction of random variables could include behavioral studies that are conducted in a naturalistic environment and also those which involve investigation of animal behavior.
Methods The experiment that has been performed for the present study involved selection of random integers for two fictitious variables x and y. This was achieved by selecting different options for data selection on the website – random.org. The process was simple which used three different approaches for gathering data.
Firstly, 10 integers were randomly derived through the online integer generating system, which were considered as the values of five subjects. Then, the correlation was calculated between x and y, and the value of correlation coefficient was recorded. This step was performed 30 times and 30 different values of correlation were recorded. Secondly, the sample size was increased to 60 randomly selected variables, which were considered as the values of 15 subjects.
We will write a custom Report on Correlation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Similarly, the correlation was performed between variables x and y, and the value of correlation coefficient was recorded. This step was also performed 30 times to record 30 different values of correlation. Lastly, the sample size was further increased to 200 randomly selected variables, which were considered as the values of 100 subjects and the correlation was performed 30 times to record 30 different values of correlation. For gathering of data and performing different statistical methods both MS Excel and SPSS have been used.
Results Histogram for Three Studies
Using SPSS, histograms for three studies involving data sets derived on the described methodology are given in the following.
Degree of Freedom
For each study the number of data entries n is equal to 30 therefore the degree of freedom is obtained as DF=n-1 i.e. DF = 30-1 = 29
Using SPSS, one-tail and critical two-tail t values have been obtained using one sample t test for each study and the results are as follows:
Study #1: -.346 and.732
Not sure if you can write a paper on Correlation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Study #2:.078 and.938
Study #3:.892 and.380
Range of Variation
Using SPS, the range of variation has been obtained by using Analyze>Descriptive Statistics>Descriptives>Range
Descriptive Statistics N Range Minimum Maximum correlation1 30 1.5383 -.8875 .6508 correlation2 30 .5332 -.2454 .2878 correlation3 30 .3993 -.1371 .2621 Standard Deviation
In SPSS the standard deviation for each study is obtained using one sample t test and the results are provided in the following:
In SPSS the mean correlation for each study is obtained using one sample t test and the results are provided in the following:
Conclusions Based on the analysis presented above it could be suggested that the distribution of correlation scores using randomly data for study#1 is more dispersed than scores for study#2 and study#3. The statistical dispersion measured by standard deviation and range is higher for scores in study#1 as compared to study#2 and study#3. The mean correlation of each study is close 0 as it is expected for random data.
This is also reflected by the normal distribution curve in the histogram. However, for study#1 it is slight less than 0 as the distribution is scewed leftwise.
Reference List Brutlag, J. D. (2007, December 15). The development correlation and association in statistics. Retrieved from Buttelake: http://buttelake.com/corr.htm
Gravetter, F. J.,
A House Filled with Memories: Taking a Travel across Space and Time Essay college essay help: college essay help
There is hardly anything that people need as badly as their own hearth and home. Indeed, the very image of a house has become the symbol of stability, warmth and cozy atmosphere. A house is associated even with a family, though the two do not go together all the time. However, there is something that people seldom attribute to a house, and these are memories, which does not seem right.
After living even for a short time in a certain place, one is likely to grow used to it and have a bunch of issues related to his/her dwelling, no matter whether it is a luxurious apartment or a humble hut, which raises the question how well memories are tied to a certain place and what the reasons for this phenomenon are.
According to Bachelard, it is not the connection between time and space that works for a human being, it is the fusion of space and memory. As the author says, “Her space is everything, for time ceases to quicken memory.”1 However, thinking that time in the given context can be replaced with memories would be a mistake; it seems that for the author, memory is not the alternative for time, but rather a link between time and space.
While time and space can exist on their own, with a human being as a third element, there must be something that will tie time and space together in the human reality, and memories serve this purpose perfectly. The given perspective is rather peculiar, since it raises the question whether for people, memories can exist outside the space context. In other words, the question is whether there must be a “house” to attach the memories to.
Again, according to the author’s viewpoint, a house is the storage for all sorts of memories; events of the past revive once someone related to these events enters the place. “Memories are motionless, and the more securely they are fixed in space, the sounder they are.”2 Indeed, people are likely to remember rather the environment in which something happened that anything else; these are the visuals that one refers to instantly when reminiscing.
Another peculiar idea to draw from the given extract is what matters more to people, the very event or the space in which it took place. Although the former seems an obvious choice at first, the issue is still worth being considered. Even the grandest event will wear out its novelty sooner or later, which the feeling that ran through someone will stay just as vivid and tangible even years later.
Thus, it is clear that memories are closely connected to the places where something to remember happened; it is not only the fact that matters to people, but also the circumstances in which it occurred.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Recalling a breathtaking cruise, one is likely to recall the coziness of a cruiser cabin; likewise, when thinking of talking to someone who changed one’s life completely, one will definitely remember the sunlit room where the conversation took place and the checked wallpaper on the walls. Clinging to the small things helps people retain the big events in their memory, and this is one of the mysterious ways in which human mind works.
Bibliography Bachelard, G, ‘The house from cellar to garret’ in G Bachelard (ed.), The poetics of space, Beacon Press, Boston, MA, 1969, p. 81.
Footnotes Bachelard, G, ‘The house from cellar to garret’ in G Bachelard (ed.), The poetics of space, Beacon Press, Boston, MA, 1969, p. 81.
Bachelard, G, ‘The house from cellar to garret’ in G Bachelard (ed.), The poetics of space, Beacon Press, Boston, MA, 1969, p. 81.
Statistical Analysis of the Relationship Between the Two Variables Report college admission essay help
Abstract In the measurement of any relationship between variables, it is essential to use a correlation statistic to determine the strength of relationship between them. A data from three studies carried out on a given sample of population was obtained and analyzed by using both SPSS and Excel.
The mean, standard deviation, range and F-test were obtained from three groups of samples in order to analyze the two variables X and Y. A one sample t-test was obtained at a 95% confidence interval after which the results were interpreted. ANOVA was also conducted in order to provide the value of F-score for interpretation purposes. The results had shown a lower standard deviation for a large sample size implying that a large sample size should be used to test the relationship between variables since it affects reduces variability of data.
Introduction This report is aimed at obtaining a statistical analysis of the relationship between the two variables X and Y before determining the effect of changing sample size on variability. The X variable was the independent variable and the Y variable was the dependent variable.
It will also explain the significance of F-score as obtained by ANOVA using SPSS. Three groups have been obtained from different sample sizes to ensure validity and reliability of results obtained in making a conclusion. The experiment involved the selection of various random variables in groups of 30 members for appropriate description and presentation of results.
To determine the measurements for variability, the measures of range, standard deviation, variance and median were used to provide useful information for interpretation.
Methods The experiment was been performed on random variables of X and Y obtained from a certain population. First, a sample size of 15 variables was obtained and recorded as group 1, second was group 2 with sample size of 60 and lastly group 3 with sample size of 90. The correlation for 30 variables of each group of sample was recorded for the study.
In total, three groups of samples were obtained in order to ensure reliability of the results. Correlation was then calculated for each group to determine the relationship between X and Y. The correlation coefficient obtained from each group was then recorded for analysis.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More ANOVA was also conducted to evaluate whether the average score was equal or different between the means of groups (Adivia, 2010, par.3).
Results Degree of Freedom
For each the studies carried out, the number of data entries n is equal to 30.Therefore it means that the degree of freedom DF=n-1 is DF = 30-1 = 29
N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean X 30 52.27 30.007 5.478 Y 30 47.23 30.602 5.587 One-Sample Test
Test Value = 0 T df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper X 9.540 29 .000 52.27 41.06 63.47 Y 8.454 29 .000 47.23 35.81 58.66 Correlation #2
N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean X 30 58.13 27.474 5.016 Y 30 49.67 28.779 5.254 One-Sample Test
We will write a custom Report on Statistical Analysis of the Relationship Between the Two Variables specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Test Value = 0 T df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper X 11.590 29 .000 58.13 47.87 68.39 Y 9.453 29 .000 49.67 38.92 60.41 Correlation #3 One-Sample Statistics
N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean X 30 41.57 27.859 5.086 Y 30 67.17 23.915 4.366 One-Sample Test
Test Value = 0 T df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper X 8.172 29 .000 41.57 31.16 51.97 Y 15.383 29 .000 67.17 58.24 76.10 Using SPSS, one-tail and critical two-tail t values were obtained using a one sample t test for each study and the results were as follows:
Study Group #1: 9.540 and 8.454
Study Group #2: 11.590 and 9.453
Study Group #3: 8.172 and 15.383
In SPSS the standard deviation for each study was obtained using one sample t test and the results were as follows:
Not sure if you can write a paper on Statistical Analysis of the Relationship Between the Two Variables by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More σ2: 28.779
Range of Variation
Using SPS, the range of variation was obtained by using Analyze>Descriptive Statistics>Descriptives>Range
Descriptive Statistics N Range Minimum Maximum Group 1 30 96 2 98 Group 2 30 92 3 95 Group 3 30 8 11 19 Correlation Mean
In SPSS the mean correlation for each study was obtained using one sample t test and the results were provided as follows:
Group #3= -0.128
ANOVA Results Group 1 ANOVA Y
Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 24368.367 25 974.735 1.398 .411 Within Groups 2789.000 4 697.250 Total 27157.367 29 From the results obtained in the above ANOVA table, the F-score of 1.398 is greater than the significance value of the F test in the Group 1 ANOVA table which is 0.411. We reject the null hypothesis and conclude that average assessment score differs across the groups of variable X and Y.
Group 2 ANOVA Y
Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 22209.667 23 965.638 3.203 .076 Within Groups 1809.000 6 301.500 Total 24018.667 29 From the results obtained in the Group 2 ANOVA table, the F-score 3.203 is less than significance value of the F test in the table which is 0.76. We reject the null hypothesis and conclude that average assessment score is different across the groups of variable X and Y
Group 3 ANOVA Y
Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups 14144.167 26 544.006 .668 .761 Within Groups 2442.000 3 814.000 Total 16586.167 29 From the results obtained in the Group 3 ANOVA table, the F-score 0.668 is less than significance value of the F test in the Group 3 ANOVA table which is 0.761. We accept the null hypothesis and conclude that average assessment is equal across the groups of variable X and Y
Affects of Changes Sample Size on Variability When the sample size was small as given by Group #1, the standard deviation was 30.602, while Group #2 and #3 had 28.779 and 23.915 respectively. This shows that the standard deviation decreases with the increase in sample size.
The sample size selected for any population affects the confidence interval of the data. If the sampling size is increased, the required confidence interval will also increase. The reason why the confidence interval increases is because of many variables that reduce the variance from one variable to another (Ramsey, 2009, par. 2).
From the results obtained earlier in the ANOVA table, it is clear that Group #1 which had started with a smaller sample size had shown the average assessment scores was different across the groups within the significance value of 0.411. As the samples size was increased, there was a no much difference in scores between the variables X and Y as shown by Group #2 and #3.
The correlation mean obtained for the three groups increased with the increase in sample size. For example, Group # 1 had 0.022 while group #3 had -0.128. The strength of relationship between the two variables decreases with increase in sample size.
Conclusion Based on the results obtained above, it can be concluded that a change in the sample size has a significant effect on the variability of data. Therefore, it is good to choose a larger sample size in order to correctly obtain good results for in data analysis.
References Adivia, J. (2010). One-way ANOVA using SPSS. Retrieved from https://statistics.laerd.com/spss-tutorials/one-way-anova-using-spss-statistics.php
Ramseh, G. (2009). Introduction to confidence intervals. Web.
Harrods Company’s Risk Management Essay college essay help near me
Critique of the relevance and suitability of hard or soft approach in highlighting issues faced by Harrods Harrods has unique and very positive brand values that have enabled it to attract many clients and operate very effectively thus gaining a competitive edge across the globe. By equipping its employees with unique yet very relevant and timely skills, Harrods has managed to propel itself to greater success levels.
The company has built a strong brand and reputation level due to its competitive operational mechanisms. By providing development and growth avenues for employees, it is evident that the company has successfully used relevant hard and soft approaches on the management of the needs of its clients.
The soft approach has a lot of relevance to the organization since it is more focused on retaining employees, enhancing long term sustainability of the organization and meeting any emerging business opportunities in the retail market (Armson
The impact of Higher education expansion on Income inequality in China Essay college essay help online: college essay help online
This is an analysis of impacts of the expansion of higher education on income inequality in China.
Introduction Education is often an imperative predictor of a person’s future income (Lee 2006, 1). Basing on the Horace Mann tradition, Lee adds that education paces the society towards achieving a stable equality (1). Qian and Smyth note that the unraveling of the connection between education and income has attracted scholarly attention (3).
The need for the scholarly attention cannot be underestimated since an access to education is one of the basic human rights for everyone. From economic and social perspectives, quality education is one which facilitates an individual’s capability to increase income as well as general well-being.
In other words, education should cushion against widening income gap across the society. Qian and Smyth (2005) explain the empirical finding that irregular access to education across a populace impacts negatively income distribution and economic growth (2). Globally, China is the most populous nation. A World Bank assessment revealed that China contributes the largest portion of poverty to the world, especially those people living in the rural areas (Borooah et al. 2005, 2).
The pursuit to gain equality through education throughout the last century has had a fast diffusion of public education. In the contemporary society, education continues to be an undisputed tool for social mobility and expansion (Lee 2006 3; Wu 2007 3).
Nevertheless, the impact of education as a social bottom line can be likened to a double edged sword meaning that a scholar from a disadvantaged background can have a turnaround in regards to his/her future income. On the other hand, the turnaround depends on the investment made towards the attainment.
Arguably, this could be the underlying reason why the Chinese Government decided to adopt the Law on Nine-Year Compulsory Education in 1986 to make it possible for all children at school to have nine years of schooling (Lee 2006, 2). According to World Bank (2009) , the Education Gini coefficient based on gender and ethnicity, inequality pattern in China’s education had a positive trend from 0.57 in 1978 to 0.26 in 2004 (2).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Qian and Smyth (2005) state that in China the literacy levels among the adults rose from 60 percent within a period of 40 years to 85.5 percent in 2001 (3). In 1999, the student enrollment in primary schooling of 135 million and a teacher capacity staffing of 582 000 made China boast the largest primary school program.
China has diversified the secondary schooling to offer more than just general secondary education. Others include skilled labor, specialized, adult as well as vocational schooling (Qian and Smyth 2005, 3). At the tertiary level, the number of undergraduate enrollments and individual institutions in the year 2000 increased to 5.56 million and 1 770, respectively (Qian and Smyth 2005, 3).
By the turn of the millennia, China was experiencing an unprecedented and accelerated economic growth. However, this was paralleled by alarming disparities in income. Since the Mao era up to the early 1990s, income inequalities were on the decline, however, the 1990s decade experienced a reverse trend (Fleisher et al. 2008, 2).
Wu and Perloff pinpoint that economic growth in China grew by five times while the per capita income rose by four times, but disproportionately in the favor of the affluent and those in the urban areas (2004). Difficulties in demonstrating the income inequality have been aggravated by lack of consistent and reliable income dispersion data over time. The government has made limited attempts to provide Gini index.
In China, income inequality is fuelled by geographical factors, disparities in the access to education, the recurrent informal sector as well as barriers to employment and career progression for particular groups, especially rural migrants. Wu and Perloff (2004) argue that the income inequality is higher within the rural populace as well as between the rural and urban workers (4). Nevertheless, rural-urban migration has had a marginal impact on the status quo.
Wu and Perloff (2004) further explain that urban biased policies and institutions contribute markedly to such a situation and to the increase in urban-rural inequality (5). For instance, migrants to urban areas in search for income are discouraged from gaining urban residence status due to the strict residence registration system.
This discriminates them from welfare benefits as well as better pay commonly enjoyed by the urban residents. Wu and Perloff (2004) made an attempt to explain the scenario and generated inferences by the use of the Kuznets Curves and hypothesis (4). The scenario of growing inequality amid the migration restrictions becomes complicated with shifts in population trends.
We will write a custom Essay on The impact of Higher education expansion on Income inequality in China specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Income inequality problems in China are related to imperfect labor market. The labor market experience the oversupply of partially educated graduates who crowd the large eastern cities like Beijing. Ning (2010) observes that the expansion of higher education has dismally contributed to the harmonization of regional income distribution (10).
China’s cities are yet to coalesce into a single common job market base that will fairly address the differences in regards to education. This explains why graduates across the country tend to work in the eastern cities even if those are not their hometowns.
Inconsistencies within the education sector are traced back to a failed rationale in the examination system as well as weaknesses in the quality screening. Quality differences within same study courses result in skill imbalances in the labor market. In order to better chances as a highly skilled individual, there is a need to invest more in education. Costs associated with skill screening discourage firms from investing.
Government Spending on Education Compared to nations of relatively the same level of per capita income and economic robustness, China has historically scored dismally with regard to investment in human capital development particularly at post secondary level. In 2004, the national budgetary spending on education was 2.79 percent of the GDP, which had always remained below 3 percent since 1992.
This is lower relative to the average of 5.1 percent achieved by other countries in the developed world (Fleisher et al. 2008 2). There was a rise in the proportion of college graduates within the population in 1992 (at 1.7 percent) compared to 1982 (0.4 percent); nevertheless, this was marginal.
As from 1999, sharp rise in government spending on education resulted in a remarked steep increase in enrollment from 7.4 percent to 21.3 percent in 1997/98 and 1998/99, respectively. However, this did not translate to a sharp increase in the proportion of college graduate vis-a-vis the population, which was as low as 5.2 percent in 2003 (Fleisher et al. 2008 3).
Investing in Higher Education in China Towards the start of the 1990s some universities in China passed some institutional policies that required students to pay a portion of tuition levy. This trend was popular until 1997 when fees were institutionalized as part of the higher education package that students had to meet.
Thereafter, higher education in China has had to be paid for by the student (Dong and Wan 2012, 2). Students have to pay for tuition even if it’s a subsidized charge. Over the time, the government made deliberate efforts to improve policies that support the paying of tuition levies. This has seen an annual rise in fees. Within the 1990s the annual per-student recurrent expenditure in public institutions of higher education rose by two-thirds to RMB 10 230 million (Levin and Xu 2005, 38).
Not sure if you can write a paper on The impact of Higher education expansion on Income inequality in China by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The rise in expenditure was due to the tuition and research. Analysts forecast that making the costs of higher education lower will result in market efficacy and improved student learning. Dong and Wan (2012) observe that such measures may raise the inequality levels, however (2).
The development witnessed in higher education financing was motivated by the government’s desire to expand the sphere of education as well as domesticate the cost-sharing theory into education system (Dong and Wan 2012, 3). If the government insists on not interfering in the sphere of education as part of the expansion, then education will cease to be public; it will only be accessed by those from the upper class. This will not only result in educational inequality but also income inequality.
Decomposing the Impacts of Expansion of Higher Education on Income Inequality in China Population Effect
The higher education expansion program was intended to enhance internal efficiency (Levin and Xu 2005, 52). Although China is expanding its education across the country, the ability to optimize the opportunity widely varies in different financial limits and regional areas.
Actually, the trend is exacerbated by a possible vicious cycle that exists between income inequality and education inequality (Ning 2010, 5). Trends in the access to higher education since the expansion of education reforms in 1989 signal a rise in inequality. The regional differences between the east and west better explain this. In the year 2007, college graduates in Qinghai province located in the Country’s west were 15 483, which is relatively lower than 242 617 in Beijing in the east (Ning 2010, 5).
Based on these figures, more employment opportunities will be allocated to those in the east than the west. Considering that labor migrations are in favor of flowing to the east than to the west, the west remains economically stagnated due to lower level of education attained by people, thus offering lower remunerated jobs.
Actually, this is highly evident and likely when subjected to the Kuznets Curve and hypothesis, where the peculiarities of various inequalities are better explained. Ning (2010) cites that China’s public education has hardly become efficient to foster economic growth as well as bridge wage gap (6).
Labor Choice Effect
Students from disadvantaged background particularly those discriminated through social stratification hardly benefit from expansion of higher education. Ning (2010) highlights that the poor were not beneficiaries of educational expansion even with the market approach rolled out in the 1990s (6).
This justifies the fact that the education choice is not an obvious cause. It is a necessity that students from poor background have to go to school in order to reverse their fate, but this is derailed by economic hurdles that deny any opportunity to maximize on that potential. Eventually, education inequality through social stratification further widens the economic and income inequalities.
Even though graduates from poor background have attained higher education, they may not succeed in getting jobs that are well remunerated because of the reduced social capital network. In order to avert this hurdle, these students opt for a higher degree of education to imply their professional competence.
In other words, they resort to over-education. Over-educated people are likely to originate from humble backgrounds, thus switching labor markets.
In fact, over educated students tend to migrate to affluent regions of China which suppresses in turn the growth of local human resource capital in such areas. Lee (2006) applies the classical human capital theory to explain the net impact of high education levels, the migration trends and the ultimate outcome (16).
Majors at universities, such as finance, for example, enroll more students not because of the ability to provide the students with innovative ideas, high rates, etc., but due to perceived skewed income distribution across the labor market. Based on this, there is no motivational fee for skilled workers within the technical or any other training, thus the standards of education in this type of higher education are average, if not substandard. In addition, the labor market experiences a shortfall of technical experts.
Besides, the job market is flooded with graduates in humanity studies and social sciences. In other words, the number of students that enter such departments to meet the demand of labour workers in corresponding fields leads to an across-the-board income differences. Levin and Xu (2005) note that at the turn of the millennia the national market supply for graduates with a degree in Philosophy was the highest (50).
Others that followed respectively were law, history, science, engineering and medicine. Employment opportunities for students of agriculture, education, economics and literature were hard to come by. In 2001, unemployment rates stood at 3.6 percent up from 2.3 percent in 1992 (Levin and Xu 2005, 50).
Although the literacy and higher education training requirements have been met for some labor segments even beyond market demand, this has come at an expense of not only other professions, but of the market as a whole. Ning (2010) implies that this state of affairs results in semi-skilled graduates being supplied to the market, who at the end may not be able to upgrade the technology (6). In other words, the skill competitiveness has been compromised.
In such a scenario, the productivity of the labor market becomes questionable and meeting the revenue generation target is impossible. This leads to inequality whereby those in the monopolized industries are better remunerated due to high monopoly rents.
Inasmuch as such industries do not obviously require highly trained or qualified employees, employers tend to set high academic requirements for recruits. In the end, the talent may not be rewarded since the employer focuses on the academic qualification as the yardstick, which may lock out those not privileged with better schooling opportunities especially from disadvantaged backgrounds.
Price (Return Rate) Effect
Ning (2010) explains the relationship between income inequalities and the level of higher education is attained via the convex return context (7). In such a context, the educational attainment is directly proportional to the return outcome. Previous empirical studies in Mexico show that changes in inequalities are driven by adjustment in earning across educational groups.
In the 1980s, the increase in inequality was as a result of convex return context. During this decade, income inequalities favored those with relatively higher education attainment across the population. With the expansion of higher education, China is experiencing an almost similar scenario.
This is exemplified in the return rates for schooling independently as well as along the different educational groups. Those with higher education attainment are being favored.
This skews the income distribution more when the higher education attainment is not readily translated into productivity resulting to possible exploitation of people with lower education levels. At the end, the return rates become pegged to academic rewards other than skills and productivity. Lower education attainment is rewarded through the absolute income increase.
It is likely that if poor students fail to achieve an adequate return on investment on schooling, then the income gaps will continue to increase. Often in developing countries, the occupation level will be dictated by education.
In a relational society where social network is necessary to penetrate government jobs, there is no guarantee that poor students with high education level will make it into the government sector. Ning (2010) states that the education level of parents influences the wage earnings of the children on the basis of human capital accumulation as well as possibilities to find a job (8).
Differences of one’s abilities, luck as well as adjustments during schooling may influence how individuals with the same education attainment experience income inequality. Increase in income pegged on education level favors candidates with unobservable characteristics that rank them well above within the conditional wage distribution, Ceteris paribus.
Ning (2010) cites that this revolves around the non-cognitive skill (9). This has close ties with the observation that students from disadvantaged background attain education, but their job prospects are not immediately promising.
Income inequality occurs when overeducated people have to contend with incommensurate wage. Ning (2010) observes that in the recent years graduates have not been unable to get jobs in China (9). Graduates had to switch to jobs below their educational background. To a greater extent, these inflicted their return on education. This disapproves that over-education is an end to the persisting income inequality.
Expansion of higher education makes income distribution susceptible to inequality outcomes when the quality of education translates to compromised returns to education. When college enrollment is not proportionate to schooling resources (education resource per capita), it is predictable that quality of education will decline. Ning (2010) observes that skill quality in the decade before education expansion scored better than thereafter (10).
The employer suffers expertise deficits translating to income losses due to unqualified graduates. Levin and Xu (2005) suggest some improvements that ought to accompany the expansion of higher education to sustain quality (37). There should be a national effort to devote and diversify resources and funding for higher education.
There is a need to put in place progressive regulations for higher education against which institutions can be evaluated as well as be held accountable. It should be demonstrated that quality of learning in higher education is dignified even with expansion in quantity. Levin and Xu (2005) observe that there is a perception that a fully fledged university in China offers almost every professional specialties (54). In other countries of equal magnitude to China like the USA, this is not usually so.
Levin and Xu (2005) regard Yale and Princeton as top universities that currently don’t offer some appealing majors, yet their reputation remains stable and intact attracting and training qualified graduates (54).
With reference to China, Ning (2010) analyzed the impact of education on the employees’ future income. It was revealed that when wage was a dependent variable, the rate of return to education was 7.9 percent (14). When the annual earning was the dependent variable, the return rate was higher at 11.3 percent (Ning 2010, 14).
Lastly, according to Lee (2006), implications of earning inequalities related to return rate effect as well as labor choice effect loom wider than population (23).
Conclusion Initially, scholars argued that expansion of education would increase attendance rates of schooling in due course; consequently, this would result in a decline in disparities in educational opportunities since the attendance rates of children from disadvantaged backgrounds will grow considerably in regards to the upper class. However, this early belief has been disputed a lot by the modern day scholars. The planned expansion of education has been considered as a switch from the elitist to mass education.
It is evident that the level and distribution of education are key subsets of income distribution. Gregorio and Lee (2002) conclude that a rise in the average level of education among the population in China has a balancing effect on earning distribution (406). This has a Kuznets-inverted U relationship especially when the government economizes on the social expenditure.
Ning (2010) also states that the inverted U relationship between income and expansion of education in China has been demonstrated using macro-data (4). Lee (2006) explains that the Kuznets Curve scenario where the level of higher education rises with an expanding economy resulting in rise in education inequalities that stabilize in reaching the threshold (14).
Gregorio and Lee (2002) during their cross-country analysis of the relationship between education and income inequality note that policymakers perceive education spending as a powerful tool for addressing the income inequality, however, it is not that obvious (395).
Nevertheless, there remains a positive connection sand link between education inequality and income inequality, especially when education inequality is measured on the basis of schooling variance. Trends in the return rate on education will eventually dictate whether the impact of higher education attainment of income inequality is either positive or negative.
Considering the stratified nature of China’s society, the expansion of education may not necessarily have the same impact on populace equality as the distribution of educational opportunities will have. Wu (2007) observes that during the expansion of education in China, the Gini Coefficient (that assesses inequality across a populace) rose to 0.449 in 2005 from 0.317 in 1978 (5).
The approach of distribution of educational opportunities takes care of the distribution of scarce resources that are imperative for the education system, which allows for the equalizing of the other fundamentals of the social structure across the populace.
In the case of China, expansion of education impacted the distribution of educational opportunities by introducing the market approach into the education, thus widening the gap of inequality on the basis of access and distribution of economic resources.
Lee (2006) notes that the net impact of the expansion of education on income inequality follows the Classical Economic Theory (14). Furthermore, the expansion lacked a clarified equalizing impact through unevenly and unequally distributed opportunities. He further faults the market approach fronted through policy reforms as intended to widen the inter-provincial educational inequality in higher education.
In re-dressing the inequality issues, Lee (2006) suggests developing stratified collection and redistribution of educational resources strategy, as well as breaking down structural social barriers that would allow more mobility (15). He applies the Nee’s theory of transition economy to explain the inter-provincial inequalities that arise when the market is used for education expansion in China.
He further explains that the introduction of market approach into the expansion of education by the Chinese government was intended to bring on-board the efficiency of market mechanisms, as well as liberalize the redistribution of resources to individual level after the attempts of the central government to execute re-distribution modalities failed to a greater extent. This raises the worry on whether the government of China has abandoned the quest for ameliorating the inequality difference.
Levin and Xu (2005) observe that there has been no clear pattern from studies on the linkages that exist among China’s wage rates, expansion of higher education, current level of development as well as graduate employment (49).
In conclusion, Lee (2006) states that unless the impact of the expansion of education is clearly understood, it is difficult to forecast future trends of income inequality, thus formulate appropriate policy that will curb the negative growth (1). The consequences are huge, considering that policy implication is favoring the rise in tuition costs and fees for higher education, yet students anticipate having an ultimate return on investment from their education.
References Borooah, Vani, Bjorn Gustafsson, and Li Shi. “China and India: Income Inequality and Poverty North and South of the Himalayas.” Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 2005. http://www.csh-delhi.com/resources/conference Liberalization/BoroahGugtassonShi.pdf
Dong, Haiying, and Xuehong Wan. “Higher Education Tuition and Fees in China: Implications and Impacts on Affordability and Educational Equity.” Current Issues in Education 15, no. 1 (2012): 1-10.
Fleisher, Belton, Haizheng Li, and Min Qiang Zhao. “Human capital, economic growth, and regional inequality in China.” IZA Discussion Papers, Econstor, 2008.
Gregorio, Jose De, and Jong-Wha Lee. “Education and income inequality: New Evidence from Cross-Country Data.” Review of Income and Wealth 48, no. 3 (2002): 395-416, http://www.roiw.org/2002/395.pdf.
Lee, Min-Dong Paul. “Widening Gap of Educational Opportunity? A Longitudinal Study of Educational Inequality in China.” Research Paper, United Nations University, 2006. http://www.wider.unu.edu/stc/repec/pdfs/rp2006/rp2006-66.pdf.
Levin, Henry, and Zeyu Xu. “Issues in the Expansion of Higher Education in the People’s Republic of China.” China Review, 5, no.1 (2005): 33-59, ftp.iza.org/dp6550.pdf.
Ning, Guangjie. “Can Educational Expansion Improve Income Inequality in China? Evidences from the CHNS 1997 and 2006 Data.” IZA Discussion Papers, IZA, 2010. http://ftp.iza.org/dp5148.pdf.
Qian, Xiaolei, and Russell Smyth. “Measuring Regional Inequality Of Education In China: Widening Coast-Inland Gap Or Widening Rural-Urban Gap?” ABERU Discussion Paper, Monash university, 2005. http://www.buseco.monash.edu.au/units/dru/papers/working-papers-05/1205-xl-china.pdf.
World Bank. “Literature Review on Equity and Access to Tertiary Education in the East Asia Region.” Literature Review, World Bank, 2009. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/278200-1099079877269/547664-1099079956815/547670-1276537814548/WorldBank_EAR_Equity_LitReview.pdf.
Wu, Xiaogang. “Economic Transition, School Expansion, and Educational Inequality in China, 1990-2000.” Research Report, Population Studies Center, 2007. http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr07-627.pdf.
Wu, Ximing, and Jeffrey Perloff. “China’s Income Distribution and Inequality.” Repec, 2004. repec.org/esNASM04/up.30985.1075445708.pdf
Hunting on Whales Proposal essay help
Introduction The gap in reasoning when it comes to utilizing the concept of “scientific research” as a means of justifying the hunting of various whale species by Japanese whalers is the obvious fact that you do not need to hunt 500 or more whales in order to examine the current status of the species (2000, 2006).
This obvious fact makes it all the more apparent that the “scientific research” being conducted by the Japanese is set more along the lines of satisfying local demand for whale meat than it is for preserving species.
On the hand, section 2 of Article VIII of the convention on whaling set by the IWC (International Whaling Commission) specifically states that whales caught under special permits for scientific research should be processed and disposed of in a practical fashion that is in accordance with the directions given by the issuer of the permit.
What this means is that whalers who catch whales for “scientific research” are under the legal obligation to dispose of the excess parts of the whale in a practical fashion, in this particular case it involves the selling the whale meat. Thus, from a legal perspective, the act of selling whale meat gained through “scientific research” is perfectly legal.
Other arguments which back the act of hunting whales involve a variety of reasons ranging from the necessity of adequate monitoring of whale populations, population estimates which indicate that several whale species are well within the range for sustainable hunting, to thinly veiled accusations that other governments and societies have no right in interfering with the cultural heritage and traditions within Japan of which whaling is a part of (Kuchment, 2000).
It is due to these conflicting viewpoints that it must be questioned whether any form of whaling, scientific or not, should be outright banned or if the act of whale hunting by the Japanese is justified based on traditional heritage and scientific data.
The act of whaling by the Japanese should be prevented since they do not own exclusive rights to whales and are subject to the concept of international joint ownership of marine species.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Research question
Should the act of whaling, scientific or not, be outright banned or is the act of whale hunting by the Japanese justified based on traditional heritage and scientific data?
The act of whaling by the Japanese should be prevented since they do not own exclusive rights to whales and are subject to the concept of international joint ownership of marine species.
Outline Arguments to be presented
Cultural Traditions and Scientific Research Vs International Joint Ownership
While Japan justifies the hunting of whales under the concepts of cultural traditions and scientific research, the country does not take into consideration the concept of international joint ownership of marine species (Stevenson, Gordon,
Problems in Geology of Eldorado Springs Report college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Problem definition
Review of the existing literature
Collection/ Analysis of data
This report discusses and interprets mountain front, foothills and the plains geology of Eldorado springs (Gerdner, 9). It gives a description of the soil formation in the area. The map and tables give detailed data of the area.
Problem definition What is the guide to engineering soil in a site?
Review of the existing literature The Eldorado springs mapping of landslide deposit, and specific surficial deposits, field evaluation of engineering characteristics of each unit of map, auger drilling, sampling and laboratory testing were done in connection to the present study to give the technical information (Scott 1965).
Methodology Relative strength and soil constituency were measured by the resistance to soil penetration. Data on soil resistance and penetration were then compiled in terms of standard penetration resistance (Lambe 1960).
A hollow cylindrical tool, 2 inches in outside diameter, was driven into the subsoil by 140-pound hammer. The fall of the hammer is 30 inches. The standard penetration resistance was measured by the number of blows of the hammer required to drive the sampling tool 1 foot into the subsoil.
Collection/ Analysis of data Table showing the relation of bearing strength to standard penetration resistance together with relative density and constituency;
Standard Penetration resistance of sand and gravel Less than 4 4-10 10-30 30-50 Over 50 Relative density of sand and gravel Very loose Loose Medium Dense Very Dense Standard Penetration resistance of clay and silt Less than 2 2-4 4-8 8-15 15-30 30-100 Over 100 Relative density of clay and silt Very soft Soft Medium Stiff Very Stiff Hard Very hard The results of PVC test of geology of engineering map units
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More PVC Rating Category Swell Index(Pounds per square foot) Less than 2 Non-critical Less than 1700 2-4 Marginal 1700-3200 4-6 Critical 3200-4700 Greater than 6 Very Critical Over 4700 The above table shows the PVC rating category and the swell index as established by Lambe (Lambe 1960)
The dominantly clay shale formation ( Greenhorn limestone, Carlike shale, smoky Hill member of the Niobrara formation, and Pierre shale excluding the Hygiene Sandstone are Member are subdivided and regrouped into 4 engineering and map units (Scott 1965). The four rocks are classified according to litho logy and potential of the rocks to swell when wetted.
Conclusion The report is detailed as it gives the complete information regarding soil constituency and its relative mass. This is a good guide to engineering soil in this area of Eldorado springs (Lahee 1961).
Recommendations The condition are unsatisfactory where the impervious rock and the water table is within 7 feet of the surface where the conditions of the rock structure are, such that affluent may emerge as seeps on the surface (Watts 1967).
References Brodie, K 2007, Structural terms including fault rock terms: Recommendations by the IUGS Sub commission on the Systematic of Metamorphic Rocks. Web.
Compton, RR 1985, Geology in the Field. Web.
Lahee, FH 1961, Field Geology, 6th ed. Web.
We will write a custom Report on Problems in Geology of Eldorado Springs specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lambe, TW 1960, The characteristics and identification of expansive soils, Federal Housing Technical Studies Department, New York.
Scott, CR1965, Geological and Biostratigraphic map of the Pierre, U.S Geology Survey, NewYork.
Watts, JD 1967, Geology of the Eldorado Springs quadrangle, Colorado, U. S Geology Survey, New York.
Retail Services Marketing: McDonalds Report essay help: essay help
Table of Contents Evolution of strategies
Current marketing strategies
The organization’s 7Ps
Challenges facing the organization
McDonalds has been ranked as one of the largest corporations in the world among the global restaurants that deal with fast food. The company was first established in 1948 in California by Dick and Mac (Gilbert 1999, p.2). it has chains of stores in more than 119 countries all over the world. From a careful analysis of statistical details, the company serves more than 68 million people daily (Gilbert 1999, p.2).
Notably, the company has experienced tremendous growth worldwide since it primarily deals with fast foods such as shakes, desserts, hamburgers, chicken and cheeseburgers. Research has revealed that the company has been able to accommodate numerous consumers’ preferences and tastes in their menu (Derdak
Writer’s Choice Essay writing essay help
Read: DJ Pangburn, “Schools are using software to help pick who gets in. What could go wrong?” (https://www.fastcompany.com/90342596/schools-are-quietly-turning-to-ai-to-help-pick-who-gets-in-what-could-go-wrong)
Prompt: Like many other institutions, colleges and universities are starting to use predictive analytics tools to make a variety of decisions, including whom to offer admission. As DJ Pangburn reports in the article above, proponents of these tools argue that they offer powerful means of avoiding human bias in admissions processes. Critics make the opposite case: often, they argue, data-driven tools perpetuate bias, while giving the decisions reached a veneer of mathematical neutrality and objectivity.
On what basis—using which criteria—do you think college admissions decisions ought to be made? Which do you have more confidence in to reach fair admissions decisions: human admissions officers, admissions algorithms, or some combination of the two? Why? Your reflection should be around 200-400 words.
Aggression and media influence Essay college essay help: college essay help
Introduction Media plays a major role in our society today. From character development to the risk of losing social values, many lives are significantly impacted by the media. Research on violent media content has revealed that media influence promotes aggression and violent behavior among victims who get exposed to such content.
These conclusions are commonly made when an analysis is based on television, film and violent video games (Anderson et al., 2003).
This paper explores the concept of aggression and media influence, by investigating the impact of violent media content like horror movies on views, thoughts, behavior and their viewpoint on the issue of media influence. Importantly, the discussion is divided into two sections, addressing ways of curbing media influence and a description of everyday life examples of aggression and media influence in the society.
What can be done to reduce the likelihood of aggression and media influences?
Due to the laxity in media regulation and advancement in technology, circulation of media content has become quite easy. For instance, one can access any movie or song online from any destination around the world. This has been augmented by information and technological advancements, which have taken place in recent years.
With the global use of mobile phones, which are web-enabled, people can access any information with minimum or no restrictions (Anderson et al., 2003). This, therefore, means that some strategies have to be considered, aimed at preventing the impact of violent media on youths and the entire population.
Notably, the influence of media widely depends on the level of exposure. In other words, people who are highly exposed to violent movies, television programs and other media aspects are more likely to be affected than those with a limited access.
Based on this argument, it suffices to mention that limiting the exposure of children to negative media content can be a way of reducing media influence on in the society today. Essentially, this limitation involves several organs, including parents, media houses and the government. Parents have a major role in controlling and determining what other family members get exposed to.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In other words, it is the responsibility of heads of families to identify television programs, movie series and video games that are fit for consumption, especially by young people, who remain vulnerable to violent media influence (Ostrov, Gentile
A Review of “Lyrics Abbey” by Leila Aboulela Essay (Book Review) college essay help online
This paper is aimed at reviewing the novel Lyrics Abbey written by Leila Aboulela. This book was published in 2011. To a great extent, the work reflects significant social and political changes within the Arab world. The author focuses on the life of a well-to-do Sudanese family and the way in which these people are affected by the political transformation of the society.
Moreover, Leila Aboulela explores the internal conflict within the family, in particular, the opposition between the older and younger wives of Mahmoud Abuzeid. Overall, this novel centers on the idea of change and tradition. It shows how individual can adjust to new norms, rules and conditions while remaining faithful to one’s culture and tradition. This is the main thesis that this review will elaborate and illustrate.
From the very start, Leila Aboulela gives the readers some insights into the structure of a Sudanese family. By looking at the family tree presented at the very beginning, one can clearly see that the Abuzeid is a patriarchic family which is headed by Mahmous Abuzeid (Aboulela 2011, p. 1).
However, the readers can also see that this family is not entirely secluded from the outside world. For instance, at the beginning, Mahmud talks about the Korean War and its impact on cotton prices (Aboulela, 2011, p. 2). This example shows that the members of this family may be devoted to the local community, but they are also aware about the outside forces that can influence them.
Thus, Leila Aboulela demonstrates in a very subtle way that the family is not oblivious of changes. However, the main issue is that they do not try to understand the causes of the political upheaval in the Sudanese society and their consequences.
It should be noted that the action on the eve of Sudanese independence from Great Britain and Egypt (Levy