Political And Legal Environment In Saudi Arabia Dissertation College Essay Help Online

The progress of Saudi Arabia and the efficiency of its administrative system owe its success to the Saudi Arabian government and its politics. Through the great efforts of the monarchial government in Saudi Arabia, this nation has been able to make tremendous steps in the framing of its relation in matters of foreign policies with countries bordering it as well as in improving its own administrative policies (Mayer


Poverty Reduction in Africa, Central America and Asia Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Introduction

Poverty Reduction

The dimensions (macro level address)


Reference list

Introduction Poverty reduction in poor countries, African, Central American and Asian, has been an international discussion for recent past by the developed countries, International Monetary Fund, United Nations and the World Bank. Although the agencies have developed various strategies to alleviate poverty in the developing countries, poverty still dominates the lives of many citizens in these countries.

In fact, poverty continues to grow in most of the developing countries, that is, poor countries are becoming poorer. Analysts attribute the trend to the political situations in of these countries. Economists however, impute the poverty growth to poor approach of alleviating the poverty.

Politicians blame the developed countries for trade barriers whereas human activists accuse the governments of the poor countries for the poverty growth. In spite of the growing attention into the subject, poverty threatens majority of the communities and societies in the developing countries, particularly in Africa. Stakeholders involved, should develop a different approach for successful reduction of poverty in these countries.

The evidence from the current and past attempts to reduce poverty is that, poverty reduction cannot occur on a local scale. For it to be meaningful, poverty reduction must be broader in scope; it must include changing the whole society. The essay discusses job creation and trade as the initiatives of poverty reduction.

Poverty Reduction Poverty reduction requires creation of permanent jobs. Unemployment characterizes the economy of poor countries. Currently, more than 4 million people are unemployed in Egypt (Essoyan 2007, p. 1). Unemployment deprives people their dignified livelihood. The unemployed in the society are incapable to satisfy their basic needs. As a result, such people become a burden on their societies.

Unemployment results into insecurity and may even lead to violence. These factors have adverse effects to the economies of a country. The role of job creation lies on the local governments and the international agencies such as UN, World Bank and IMF (World Bank 1997, p. 45). Creation of permanent jobs reduces poverty in two ways.

First, employment improves the standard of living of a society and second, employment enhances development of a country. This development may be in terms of infrastructure growth, innovation and technological advancement. Employment enables people to cater for their health and education. In effect, the poverty in these regions will reduce.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Trade plays a very crucial role in poverty reduction and development. Trade creates opportunities for employment and individual development of the population. Trade enhancement, particularly the international trade, results into exports of goods in the developing countries. Exports in turn, increase the income of a country. Subsequently, the countries can cater for their development needs.

Trade encourages industrial growth, which is instrumental in poverty alleviation. However, for effective trade, governments in the poor countries should encourage free trade by removal of barriers in their policies (Minot, Abdelbasset, Thomas, Dewina,


The Case of Google Inc Report college application essay help

From the onset it would seem that Google was destined for success from the moment of its inception; there is no doubt that Google tackled and solved a critical issue in the information technology sector that has persisted for long in very ingenious ways. It is this Google’s first ingenious innovation that would set the stage for its future successes in the years to come, which is an expectation that it has not failed to deliver.

And as one pundit would aptly observe “Google was a Company in a hurry to do great things” and the technological innovation of its revolutionary search algorithm provided it with the lucky break that it so much needed (Gladwell, 2011). It is on this backdrop that we can best analyze the major success factors that positioned Google to its present day multibillion Company that it has become.

In a nutshell Google’s success factors can be comprehensively summarized in a range of four factors even though they are many and varied, these are; first rate technology, business innovation, core competence


Concept and Problem of Cyber Domain in US Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Admittedly, the development of technology resulted in the beginning of Information Era. People have developed a brand new space – cyber domain. Cyberspace suggests numerous opportunities, but it also contains many threats. One of the major concerns related to cyberspace is national and personal security.

First, it is important to define the term “cyberspace”. According to the National Military Strategy for Cyberspace Operations cyberspace is a “domain characterized by the use of electronics and the electromagnetic spectrum to store, modify, and exchange date via networked systems and associated physical infrastructures” (Lopez 2007).

Three decades ago, when networks were only under development the issues of security were not taken into account, but in the beginning of the twenty-first century these issues have become of primary importance (Hancock 2006, 6).

As far as U.S. military networks are concerned it is necessary to point out that cyberspace used is secure and safe from possible attacks. However, when it deals with private sector, cyberspace is vulnerable to various attacks. For instance, U.S. power grid is one of the most vulnerable spheres for cyber attacks since it belongs to a private sector and it is not governed by the government (Cyber War – The Aurora Project 2009).

There is no effective security software in this sector and this can be extremely dangerous for the country. For instance, numerous incidents of attacks have been staged to reveal the most vulnerable places.

The consequences of real attacks can lead to million dollars losses in every state. It goes without saying that this opportunity is not considered only by IT-professionals and government, but can be used by cyber terrorists as well.

U.S. power grid is not the only example of cyberspace vulnerability. Nowadays almost all sectors of U.S. economy rely on cyberspace. Hospitals, schools, banks and large companies are all potential targets of cyber attack. Unfortunately, there are still no effective regulatory regimes which could secure not only military cyberspace, but private sector cyberspace as well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More That is why nowadays military networks have to cope with outcomes of cyber attacks rather than focus on these attacks prevention.

It is necessary to point out that the United States address the problem and try to work out strategies and methods of regulating cyberspace, detecting various threats and neutralizing them (Lopez 2007). However, the issues of security are still under discussion, since new problems and possible threats emerge.

More so, it is important to remember that cyberspace is not confined to certain physical boundaries. It is possible to attack cyberspace from different countries. In fact, anyone who has access to the Internet can potentially threaten any company or organization’s security.

Therefore, it is essential to launch international meetings which would address issues of cyberspace security. Unfortunately, nowadays countries try to solve these problems in their own ways. However, the good news is that governments of different countries start cooperating in this field.

In conclusion, it is possible to point out that nowadays the issues of cyberspace security come in the fore. U.S. government pays much attention to these issues trying to detect possible threats and work out effective strategies to prevent any type of cyber attacks. Unfortunately, major part of cyberspace belongs to the private sector and it is often difficult to govern it.

One more constraint that any country faces is the absence of international regulatory regimes which could minimize the number of possible cyber attacks. Fortunately, the process of international cooperation in this field has begun.

Reference List Cyber War – The Aurora Project. 2009. Youtube (14 November).

We will write a custom Essay on Concept and Problem of Cyber Domain in US specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hancock, Bill. 2006. “How to Stop Talking About- and Start Fixing – Cyber Security Problems.” Cutter IT Journal 19 no. 5 (May): 6-11.

Lopez, Todd. 2007. “Fighting in Cyberspace Means Cyber Domain Dominance.” Air Force Print News (28 February 2007) https://www.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/127803/fighting-in-cyberspace-means-cyber-domain-dominance/ (cited on 15 April 2011).


Functions of Information Technology Security Community In Responding to Security Incidents Thesis cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature Review


Works Cited

Introduction One of the insidious features of Information Technology is diagnostic work. Diagnostic work can be said to be the process involving identifying and categorizing problems associated with Information Technology Security Management.

In addition, diagnostic work involves defining the scope of the remedies that an organization should put in place to correct any problems and prevents some form occurring in the future. The principal duty of security practitioners in the Information Technology field is diagnosis (Botta et al. 106).

Despite diagnosis being a prominent activity in the field of response, it is still in its initial stages (Killcrece et al). To support this argument on diagnosis being in its infancy stages, comparisons have been drawn with the worm incident in 1998 and the state of IT security in 2003. Conclusions have been made that, security related aspects have gone from bad to worse during that period (Spafford, 220).

Of most importance as highlighted by Spafford, there has been an inadequacy by the security community in Information Technology to learn the vital role played by communication during incident response. Spafford suggestion to the security community in Information Technology is that, there should be better ways to distribute and coordinate information during an incident related to Information Technology.

While some organizations have been able to provide procedures to guide them to respond to such incidents, there exist a few pragmatic investigations on responses by the security community (Goodall et al, 1424). This research seeks to fill this gap left by the inadequate responses available that organizations should use to respond to such incidents.

The purpose of this project is to examine how the security community in the Information Technology sector responds to security incidents. Furthermore, the project will examine the initial phase of preparation, detection of the incidents, and analysis of the anomalies. Werlinger et al. identified nine activities that required an interaction between security practitioners and other stakeholders (107).

One of these nine activities proposed by Werlinger is security incident response. The research is going to expand these results in the following ways: analyzing security incident response based on an extensive point of view, to a certain extent focusing on interactions only.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In addition, the research will go a step ahead to identify the aspects during interactions that are involved when preparing, detecting, and investigating security incidents (114).

The contributions of the findings form this research will be important to the security community. Of important to note, the findings will be of twofold importance based on the analysis to be provided in the research. First, there will be a clear analysis and description of the roles, skills, strategies to be used and tools needed by the security community to diagnose the security incidents in Information Technology.

In addition, following the analysis explained, the findings will go an extra mile in enhancing the research community’s appreciating the diagnostic work involved during the response to security incidents. Secondly, the research to be carried out will identify opportunities for the direction to which future research should take.

Such research will go a step ahead to identify ways and methods to which security tools to be used in the intervening during security incidents. Most security tools in Information Technology however advanced still require some customization to fit to the specific needs of a certain organization.

In addition, current security tools are not supportive when it comes to customization to suit the needs of the organization that is using them. Future research would go a step ahead to designing ways to fit the tools into individual organization needs.

Literature Review There are challenges in management of security incidents, there are guidelines existing however that provide support for the incident response process (Casey, 256). In recent times, a study conducted by Mitropoulous et al in 2006 gathered information from the various standards and research already done and put forward an all-purpose incident response management structure (356).

To some extent these various efforts might be providing some support for the incident response process. Bailey et al. suggests that the best practices and the prescribed standards for Information Technology tend to fall in two maxims.

We will write a custom Thesis on Functions of Information Technology Security Community In Responding to Security Incidents specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the first one, they tend to be so high level that they will end up giving minimal assistance on work practices. On the other end, they tend to fall in a low level that they are not elastic to the changes that are rapid in Information and Technology (3).

One of the security tools that have been designed to help security practitioners in Information Technology is known as an intrusion detection system. Past studies have been relying on different measures in designing this kind of tool. For example, Thompson et al. in 2006 relied on data two semi-structured interviews identifying the phases of infringement detection work.

In another example, Werlinger et al analyze data from a total of nine interviews that were conducted with stakeholders in Information Technology to identify perceptions by the security community regarding the pros and cons of intrusion detection system.

In addition, they also analyzed data based on their own observations on the way intrusion detection system use was hindered by lack of technical resource and expertise in organizations that used them (110).

Other past research has had their focus on case studies describing examples in real life that were related to security incidents. For example, Gibson presented a case study of an intrusion that caused a denial of services in his company in 2001. The diagnosis of the problem involved troubleshooting and interaction with other stakeholders in the Information Technology department (qtd. in Riden).

In a study conducted by Riden in 2006, a progression of security incidents are reported. Amongst the key factors that contributed to these incidents was ineffective communication and cooperation amongst the organizations’ security community more so in information technology.

This factor, he adds led to inconsistency in taking measures were preventative and ultimately denying the organizations to timely notification of intrusions. On the other hand, another study by Schultz in 2007 describes a diversity of sources of information that had to be gathered in order to diagnose incidents in an organization (14).

In a study conducted in 2003 by Yamauchi et al. there is a clear description of problem-solving practices suggested. The findings of the study propose a variety of suggestions.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Functions of Information Technology Security Community In Responding to Security Incidents by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Amongst them is that, there is a problem by most technicians in Information Technology to follow instructions from documents in existence. However, the technicians as proposed by the study seemed to follow information derived from other sources like colleagues, documents that are not formal and systems (87).

All in all, these case studies provide information that is useful. However, the case studies it is important to point out, give only a single organization. In short, they do not rely on evaluation methodologies that are formal to collect and analyze data.

As far as this research is concerned and aware of, the only studies those are formal and inexistence today, only investigate a small fraction of security incident response. This response investigated is what is known as intrusion detection system as proved and illustrated by the above literature.

Methodology The research is going to be based on the following three research questions: What is the procedure for performing a diagnostic work in Information Technology? What are tools required to perform the diagnostic? And finally, in what ways can these diagnostic tools be improved to increase the chances of dealing with intrusions?

The interview schedule is then going to be structured to fit those research questions explained above. The identification of the interview participants is going to be carried from the stakeholders in the Information Technology sector. These participants will be drawn form organizations such as; the Financial sector, education sector, telecommunications, Information Communication consulting firms and Telecommunications.

The main participants from each sector are going to be the Information Technology experts and especially those that are charged with security. Each interview with these participants is expected to last for a period of an hour. The interviews are going to be semi-structured and for this reason then, it is expected that, each participant will not be asked the same kind of questions.

The research is going to use qualitative description (Sandelowski, 334-340) to analyze data. First, the interview transcriptions will be analyzed to identify information containing diagnostic work, primarily focusing on work related to security incidents.

Such incidents are those that have an effect on the security of computer systems or networks. Secondly, the research will organize and represent the data in different themes that will describe how the security community performs their roles in diagnostic and the kind of challenges that they do encounter.

Works Cited Bailey, J., Kandogan, E., Haber, E. and Maglio, P. (2007), “Activity-based management of it service delivery”, CHIMIT ’07: Proceedings of Symposium on Computer Human Interaction for the Management of Information Technology, Cambridge, MA, pp. 1-5.

Botta, D., Werlinger, R., Gagne, A., Beznosov, B., Iverson, L., Fels, S. and Fisher, B. (2007), “Towards understanding IT security professionals and their tools”, Proceedings of Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS), Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 100-11.

Casey, E. (2005), “Case study: network intrusion investigation – lessons in forensic preparation”, Digital Investigation, Vol. 2 No. 4, pp. 254-60.

Goodall, J.R., Lutters, W.G. and Komlodi, A. (2004), “The work of intrusion detection: rethinking the role of security analysts”, Proceedings of Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), New York, NY, pp. 1421-7.

Killcrece, G., Kossakowski, K., Ruefle, R. and Zajicek, M. “State of the practice of computer security incident response teams (CSIRTs)”. 2003. Web.

Mitropoulos, S., Patsos, D. and Douligeris, C. (2006), “On incident handling and response: a state of the art approach”, Computers and Security, Vol. 25 No. 5, pp.351-70.

Riden, J. (2006), “Responding to security incidents on a large academic network” 2006. Web.

Sandelowski, M. (2000), “Whatever happened to qualitative description?” Research in Nursing


Management and Organizational Behavior: Gimco Essay essay help online

Business Scenario I once was previledged to work with Gimco manufacturing Company. Gimco is a middle-sized family enterprise that was established by Mr. Smith and is jointly run by the family. I worked in the marketing department, which was headed by Brian, who is Mr. Smiths’s youngest son. The department was made up of six employees who had different ages.

The elderly employees provided professionalism and competency while the young injected enthusiasm, passion and energy into the organization. A month later, after I had started working with the organization, new members of staff were employed. The need for new members of staff stemmed from the expansion experienced in the firm. The organization employed two employees in our department.

The new staffs were employed after convincing Mr.Smith, a renowned engineer by profession that they had the potential to do extensive marketing work. The two employees’ stirred discord in the organization as they reported to work late and they could also mix their products with those assigned to the other employees. This habit caused alarm in the organization.

Since the organization lacked strong bottom-up conflict resolution mechanisms, all conflicts were referred to the manager. In lieu of what was happening, the manager opted to address the entire department; stressing what was expected of each employee. Before addressing the whole department, the manager had tried using stern warnings followed by some wage deduction to cover the loss sustained by the organization.

The two employees were not punished for their wrongs and the rest of the team was angered by the decision. As it was expected, the trend did not change. The two continued to report late and to misrepresent their sales sheets to reflect a higher sale volume with the aim of attracting a higher commission.

When Mr. Brian was notified of this, he promised to conduct an inquiry into the matter and take stringent measures.

After another month, Mr. Smith decided to affect departmental reshuffles; he appointed one of the two employees to head the department as Mr. Brian was transferred to head the finance department. His decision was based on the completed worksheet returned by sales personnel.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The errant promotion did hurt the organization’s morale; all employees in the department complained and confronted the manager. To our surprise, our complaints were given a deaf ear as the autocratic manager imposed his command. Largely, the management made all decisions and employees were not consulted at any instance.

The morale of the employees’ continued to decrease as well as the trustworthiness. The other reason that instigated this was the unfulfilled promise to increase employee’s salary biannually. The management remained obdurate and our complaints attracted sucking for the orchestrators. The move not only, violated our rights of holding demonstration but also shuttered all the belief we had in the management.

Further, the organization lacked a strategic plan and working culture to govern the operations. Subsequently, the entire organization started experiencing an increased employee turnover that caused unstable production and paralyzed any progress that was made.

Employee marginalization and prevalence of dictatorial leadership system is to blame for the poor organization morale and poor interpersonal relationship in the organization. If this company was to endure, flourish, and maintain strong market share then strategies for improvement concerning the ‘big picture’ had to be implemented as a matter of necessity.

Impact of Events on Attitudes and Perceptions The actions and perception of the employees in the organization have been affected by multi-dimensional issues such as faulty organizational structure that has inhibited delegation of duties, lack organization culture and lack of motivational stimuli. Another thing that has negatively affected the perception is lack of employees’ voice and involvement in the overall running of the organization.

The definition of “perception” and “attitude” has attracted divergent opinions from different scholars and marketers. In their opinion Woods et al (2006, p. 55) assert that altitude is the reaction triggered by individual depending on the surroundings they are in, while perception is the process through which individuals receive, synthesize and construe information (Woods et al, 2006, p. 62).

On the same note, Miner (2007, p.12) connects the two by arguing that employees perception depends on their attitudes. The relationship that exists between makes employee increasingly sensitive to fine details that happens at the place of work.

We will write a custom Essay on Management and Organizational Behavior: Gimco specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More At Gimco, employees felt underestimated, less appreciated and overall lack of motivation. The exclusion of employees in important factors that pertained to the running of the organization resulted to widening of the gap between the management and employees. The employees felt less useful in the organization as their efforts and contributions were not esteemed.

In addition, the inability to promote workers on merited ground such seniority of service or hard work has been a cause of sustained misunderstanding and chaos. Once the employees are mistreated or their rights are infringed, they become less productive and bad blood develops against the management.

Gimco as an organization lacked internal motivation due to the incommensurate remuneration. O’Donnell (2005, p.249) reveals that employee morale is directly dependent on healthy promotion programs and remuneration increases.

The long serving and faithful employees felt an injustice had been done when promotion was given to the unscrupulous new employee. After eroding the meager faith that endured in their mind, the decision rekindled anger, contempt and disbelief. Their faithful service and determination to improve the welfare of the organization had gone unnoticed and unrewarded.

In fact, hefty pay was awarded to the uncharismatic employee who used dubious means to augment their commissions. The situation was even aggravated when employees’ complaints were dubbed unfounded heresies by the management and instead of an immediate action taken against the ravenous employees; a general sermon to the entire department worsened the situation.

In the organization, employees lack a working job description and organizations goals and objective. The uncontrolled nature of employee activity made it easier for employees to extend their mandate. Instead of supervisor marketing the work sheets, the employee did it to meet their greedy incentives.

From a wider approach job satisfaction was non-existent, Griffeth et al (2004, p. 233) highlight that employees cohesion and better remuneration increases employees satisfaction. In addition, lack of these incentives stimulates employee turnover or instigates thoughts of seeking better pastures elsewhere (Griffeth et al, 2004, p. 232).

With clearly stated goals and objectives, the entire management strives to meet them while each employee also has his or her goals to meet. However, lack of such goals reduces employees output and desire to meet the stipulated mileage.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Management and Organizational Behavior: Gimco by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The organization lacks joint understanding as each individual does his chores without bothering what his colleagues are doing. Since the employees were not involved in-group activities, the interpersonal skills development was inhibited by the dominance of the individualist approach assumed by the organization. This approach denied the employee to freely gather and air their voice in a more unified and harmonious manner.

Simply because the manager disregarded the participation of group performance, the organization found it difficult to adopt new skills and information. Normally, unless employees are allowed to openly express their thoughts, the inherent creativity will not be utilized.

Similarly, individual employees prefer confiding their internal thoughts to their colleagues before they do so to their supervisors and other managers; consequently, lack good interpersonal relationship depresses such.

Although the organization assumes a hierarchical management structure, the structure is non-operational, as the Mr. Smith seems to manipulate the entire organization. In other words, there is no delegation of duties within the organization and the departmental heads assumes ceremonial roles.

During the recruitment of the new staff, instead of Mr. Smith delegating the duty to the human resources manager he single handedly interrogated the interviewee and eventually employs them. Despite his lack of human resource knowledge he blindly hire people with little marketing skill yet very dishonest. Similarly, the manager takes it upon himself to appraise employee and reward them without involving departmental head.

His imposing nature not only embarrassed the employees but it also affected the line managers whose works were reduced to formal portfolio. A dysfunctional structure like Gimco’s needs drastic surgery to help reverse the situation and facilitate the flow of information.

Development of a functional structure that allows delegation of duties and free communication amongst employees and the management and eventually to the CEO and vice versa will form a vital role in reinstating the organization to normalcy.

Relevant Motivational Theories and impact of events in scenario upon the motivation of staff The analysis of the organization will borrow from two theories that are more relevant to the situation at Gimco i.e. Hertzberg’s theory and the Expectancy theory.

Hertzberg’s Motivation-hygiene theory

In the quest to deal with the problem of unmotivated employees, Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene Theory presents substantial measure to enhance employees’ morale (Fiore, 2004, p. 68). He argued that motivational factors increase employees’ output while hygiene factors increase employee satisfaction.

In fact these two factors are seriously missed at Gimco where employees lack motivational incentives and have to deal with work dissatisfaction (Hygiene). These factors have been explained in depth as follows.


All employees would like to accomplish certain goals that emanate from the hard work and efforts that they reflect at the work place. Since each employee has a goal that he or she has set, the output generated is usually congruent with the goal. Success in meeting the predetermined goals motivates employees to up their production as well as ensuring that they remain true to their goals.

At Gimco employee achievement can be measure in terms of units sold by each employ which attracts a particular amount of money in terms of commissions. In addition, employee achievement can also be measure by successful penetration of a new market niche that was initially unknown.

Miner (2007, p. 47) echoes that employees who finish their duties in time should be allowed to utilize the remaining time as they wish. Once an employ achieves such milestone he attains internal satisfaction and he or she becomes proud of his or her efforts.

Nevertheless, Gimco’s employees are rarely appreciated, as the trustworthy employee remained undetected while the cunning ones benefits from the ignorance of the manager.


All human beings like acknowledgment for any exemplary job done. Unfortunately, this was not the case at Gimco given the employees’ efforts were neither recognized nor appreciated. Lack of appreciation-discouraged employees from working to their very best since their superfluous efforts went undetected. Poor supervision prevented recognition and subsequent reward of the deserving employees.

The organization requires having proper employee appraisal mechanism to be able to recognize the hardworking and determined employee. Otherwise, failure to recognize people with extraordinary skills and work rates reduces the morale and the desire to work to their very best (Fiore, 2004, p. 69).

Possibility of growth

Many organizations prefer to undertake internal development promotion rather soliciting employees from external sources. The employees at Gimco are denied this possibility as the management was entirely dominated by Smith’s family hence little room of career development exists. The senior employees were dissatisfied by the management decision to replace, Brian with the new and dishonest employ.

The move attracted increased criticism and discourage senior and honest employee who merited the promotion. Due to the current situation, Gimco has a problem of retaining employees for a long time since; employ lack benefits for serving for a long time.


All human beings are motivated by the increase in fulfilling responsibilities and duties assigned to them. As the mandate of each individual increases, he or she becomes more alert and sensitive to details. Increase in responsibility can be achieved through increasing the activities in employee’s job description or increase accountability.

For instance, employees at Gimco sales department can also be allowed to develop their strategic plan, organize their sub-budget as well as participate in decision-making process. Such increased responsibility will also enhance their accountability and feel appreciated by the organization.

The supervisor duties can also extend to compiling the monthly work list for each employee as well as working in collaboration with the finance department in preparation of the employees’ salary. Apart from enhancing accountability, increasing responsibility also enhances delegation of duties.

Pay Increment

All employees work to receive financial appreciation for the efforts that they provide the organization. However, each employee expects his or her salary to increase as a times passes by, failure to honor such promises demoralize employees. An increase in salary serves the purpose of improving the welfare of the employees as well as enhancing their morale thus increasing workers satisfaction.

At Gimco the management failed to honor their pledge to increase employ salary according to the prior promise of biannual salary increment. Miner (2007, p. 48) asserts that salary increment promotes self-actualization and personal growth.

Job security

Another factor with analogous effects to that of payment is the aspect of job security. Nearly all organization strives to retain their vital production assets by offering new contracts or even employing employee on permanent basis. Large number scholars argue that many employees prefer working for a small amount of money rather than working for higher pay for a limited period.

Job security (a hygiene factors) eliminates dissatisfaction and prevents workers turnover (Hersey et al, 2000, p. 367). The fact that Gimco is experience high employee turnover prompts organization management to contain this massive exodus by effecting better pay for their employees. This can be done by offering additional monetary incentives such as better health cover, overtime allowance and pension to the employees.

Work Conditions

Although most management fail to see the benefits provided by better environmental facilities, amicable environment enhance worker’s output. The working environment can be improved by installation of additional amenities such as canteen, fitting first aid kits and generally making the environment safe.

Besides, the organization can also improve the environment by reducing noise, ventilating offices to avoid excess heating and fitting better lighting systems. Better working environment has been identified as one of the most influential aspects that enhance employee performances (Fiore, 2004, p. 68).


Availability of effective communication in an organization has also been identified as an essential component in a vibrant firm. Miner (2007, p. 49) records that reliable communication enhances better interpersonal relations. Since information can flow freely from the top most to the bottom the organization management is able convey direction and instructions effectively.

For any communication to be effective, good feedback mechanisms, need to be put in place to improve the quality of communication. Apart from aiding in solving conflicts communication form the heart of organization, for instance a good relationship is enhanced between the management and employee and organization with its external factors such as the suppliers and customers.

Good communication is a feature that had dominantly missed in Gimco where autocratic leadership has overshadowed the opinion of employee. Likewise, there is no feedback mechanism in the organization as employee grievances go unattended.

Satisfaction of the motivators and averting problems with hygiene factors help the organization and the management to both enrich jobs and empower staffs, enhancing performance and greater job satisfaction. Similarly, the organization uses this theory to develop employees’ skills and dexterousness.

When all these hygiene and motivations are blended with an effective communication mechanism, the organization sporadically registers improved performances that attract better profits.

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

Employees at Gimco were unenthusiastic due to the lack of reliable assessment criteria for awarding hardworking employees. Hence, hardworking employees were never rewarded and this made them to reduce their efforts. According to Vroom’s expectancy theory, employee reward is equated to the efforts reflected in production activities.

This theory purports that motivation (M), expectancy (E) instrumentality (I), and valence (V) are related according the equation: M = E X I X V. Since all these factors are related, a change in factor will affect the outcome of the satisfaction that is generated. If the expected reward on extra output is low, the motivation appeal generated will be equally low.

On the other hand, an increase in expectations will galvanize the motivation generated. In the above an increase in the any of the variables in the right hand side of the equation leads to the increase in the level of motivation that is generated and vice versa (Borkowski, 2010, p. 129).

According to Vroom’s theory, employees are determined to do particular activities to attain fastidious goals in their lives, lack of such provision amounts to increased de-motivation.

The inferences reveal that individuals place specific goals to achieve in the future and they make it responsibility to do everything that would help them to achieve such. The three variables; E, V and I make the motivation equation. These factors are given an exhaustive analysis as follows.


Valence is the projected satisfaction that is received from a particular outcome. When an employee realizes that he or she can received increased benefits from carrying a particular activity he or she will be determined to carry out the activity rather than forego it. However, if the expected outcome of doing a particular activity is negative the person will opt to forego it in order to retain the current position.

Sometimes individuals prefer to remain indifferent incase an extra participation does not attract any increased incentive; such a scenario is called zero valence. At Gimco, employees were at zero valences since their added efforts did not attract any increase pay.

Since extra output attracted negligible reward in cash and none in terms of promotions, workers remained unmotivated to avoid future disappointments. The promotion that was effected by the organization rewarded the unfaithful employees who did not deserve. Such unmerited promotion blotted the work ethics in the organization and foster diversification of more fraudulent activities.


This criterion identifies outcomes as first level or second level according to the valence level that is achieved. Commonly, first level outcomes are often influenced by performance while the second level outcomes are influenced by the need. The theory applies that the incentive to acquire a particular thing is seen as the route of achieving a particular outcomes.

If the valence level is highly desired the employee will diligent work out to achieve no matter the hindrances that he or she has to overcome. On the other hand, if the level of valence is low the employee may opt to forego the laborious exercise at all. For second level variances, employees are driven by need to carry out a particular activity or route.

Since needs fall under the category of things that human beings cannot stay without, most often many individuals are compelled by the second level valences to perform a certain activity. However, regardless of the stimulant that stirs employee performances the instrumentality is one of the most cultivating and rejuvenating aspect that promotes the productivity at individual level.

If employee at Gimco are driven by first level valence, their performance would boosted by an intrinsic enthusiasm that propels them to achieve their dreams. The need to achieve a particular thing is not limited to personal gain but it may also include transforming the organization to achieve particular status such become more competitive or even narrow the gap existing between itself and the market leader.

Such aspirations only happen when the employees internalize the organization’s strategic plan and the objectives. When the strategic plan is in borne, each employee takes upon himself or herself to improve the current situation to better the welfare of the organization. If Gimco is to experience any of this, the management should learn to appreciate employees’ contribution to promote their love for their organization.

Similarly, if the need to achieve a particular outcome is propelled by a particular need. Employees become obligated to act as means to meet the requirement of life, for instance if an employee has big family, he will strive to increase sales in order to attract more commission to cater for welfare of the family.

Despite the fact that he or she may not be enjoying a good relationship with company the duty to provide for the family bestowed upon him acts as a stimuli for the argument performance. Therefore, both level one and level two valence works for the better of the organization.


The aspect identifies the choice between alternatives in a scenario characterized by alternative behaviors that have uncertain outcomes. If the alternative selected is highly probable the employee will strive to improve the welfare by injecting extra efforts or even working for extra hours.

The main challenge that is always faced by employee is the determination of the probability accorded to each alternative. If each alternative is known with a particular level of certainty employee would have the easiest of tasks to improve their welfare without much ado. If employees at Gimco have an increasing expectance, the entire output will be improved.

Porter and Lawler’s Expectancy Model

Both Porter and Lawler expounded on Vroom’s theory further. Their approach is anchored on performance as whole. they argued that the efforts that are generated do not lead directly to the performances but they are determined by employee’s ability and perception.

The intertwined nature between perception and ability to facility performance become an interested area of study to elucidate the underlying relationship between the variables. Porter and Lawler contend that motivation, performance and satisfaction as individual and separate variables, their analysis reveals the following.

The value of a reward is equivalent to Vroom’s valence although it is dependent on the magnitude of the desire. On the same note, the perceived effort-reward is analogous to expectancy as identified by the Vroom. In this argument effort is the intensity of input that is applied by the employee to achieve certain goals.

Meanwhile, individual’s abilities and traits are also useful in determination of the outcome received; however, these two are related such issues such as skills and intrinsic intelligence. Thus each individual performance is not just influenced by goals but it is highly dependent on other factors that are mutual included to facilitate an environment that allow better and easier achievement of the goals that are set.

Porter and Lawler commented that the expected outcome is dependent on both intrinsic (coming from the individual) and extrinsic (generated from the working environment). Therefore, to enhance a well-blended performance the organization needs to facilitate a better environment that enhances individual regeneration and amicable working environment.

Group Dynamics and Teamwork

Employees at Gimco work independently and there is no interpersonal competition that exist between them. Jon Katzenbach and Douglas Smith in Goesecke and McNeil (2010, p. 48) define team as small number employees who possess complementary skills who join hands to pursue a common intention.

Goesecke and McNeil (2010, p. 47) assert that managers have a duty to harmonies the conflicting priorities of both the line managers and those of employees to bring enhance attainment of collective goals.

Davis and Davis (1998, p. 279) highlight that for any teamwork to abide, the collective goal should surpass the individuals objectives.

They further argued that managers have the responsibility of identifying the kind of group that they are dealing with as well as understanding the nature of environment that the organization operates in. In order to facilitate group work each organization need to ensure that each department is operation and it has specific goals (Goesecke and McNeil, 2010, p. 48).

Development a group dynamic require a tireless endeavor to accomplish the unified approach that present the personal objectives at the forefront of the strategy. Davis and Davis (1998, p. 280) reveal that this can be done through group interaction or unified team activities.

Further, they proposed that an organization can develop group dynamic by enhancing group opinions, attitudes and fostering group belief. Once the organization collects the opinions and perceptions of members it becomes easier to forge an organization culture that is blended on mutual understanding with the aim of achieving organization goals.

On his side Packer (2008, p.14) perceives a group mentality a social system comprising of various progression and vectors that applied from opposing sides. When the two opposing forces are applied the organization maintains a state of equilibrium

Packer (2008, p. 20) asserts that the requisite of any group dynamic is founded on firm basis such as organization goals, mission, and objectives. The most crucial thing is for the team to understand why it is existent and the purpose for which it was formed.

Once this effected Davis and Davis (1998, p. 281) contends that organization staffs require “orienteering” to enhance effective bonding and developing mutual understanding. In addition, effective orienteering provides a platform to enhance personal belonging and self-appreciations.

However, Goesecke and McNeil (2010, p. 48) argues that for a team to be effective the organization need organize small groups to enhance contestant interaction and invoke collective participation for members of the group.

Since Gimco is a small organization, each department can be reorganized into a group to enhance effective communication and thorough bonding. However, this can only be done by ensuring that the organization has been restructured to provide a platform to bonding and effecting orienteering.

Essentials of an effective group work

Many organizations fail to develop an effective group dynamic due to lack to relevant group management skills or due to lack of the right person. Several managers argue that an effective group should have complementary skill but not identical skills (Goesecke


Throwing Stones at the Sinful Ones: The Two Stories Intertwined Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Adultery has always been one of the most complicated issues concerning the relationships between a man and a woman. Surprisingly, this topic passed the time-testing and still evokes quite considerable conflicts and debates.

With countless interpretations in literature and other arts, this problem and everything that it triggers has been depicted in the most colorful way in The Scarlet Letter, the novel by Hawthorne and in No Name Woman, the short story by Kingston.

Compared to the novel by Hawthorne, Kingston’s short novel shows that nothing has changed since the times when women were branded for committing adultery – the society is still just as deaf and blind, unwilling to sympathize with the others and realize the difficulties which those people had to pass through.

Taking a closer look at the way Hawthorne depicts the tortures of the poor woman, one can see clearly that people are attacking the fallen one with the savage-like amusement.

Though this can be explained by the cruel and uncompromising spirit of the ear, it is still hard to believe that the false morals and the environment created by the church influenced people so hard and squeezed the last drops of sympathy out of their hearts. There is definitely more than meets the eye in these violent attacks and the scornful negligence of the poor Hester Prynne.

As the storyteller mentions, the people in Salem were eagerly accusing the young woman without even trying to understand what happened indeed. With their striving for what they call “justice”, the people of Salem forget about humanity and sympathy: “Man had marked this woman’s sin by a scarlet letter, which had such potent and disastrous efficacy that no human sympathy could reach her, save it were sinful like herself” (108).

The book shows clearly that the treatment of adultery was more than intolerance – it bordered hatred and despise. With the pathetic morals and even more pathetic attempts to seem virtuous, these people accused the victim, knowing no mercy. As Lawson claims, “I have also suggested that a woman, not being a public persona, has not had a reputation either to protect or display in the same way.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Yet her reputation was never completely unimportant” (302). As the plot of the story unwinds in front of the reader, it becomes more and more evident that the most ardent adepts of virtue turn out to be the most sinful people. However, it cannot be denied that the rejection, which she was constantly getting, did have an effect on her vision of the world – it became blurred and almost grey, like a sky on a rainy day.

Hester’s refusal to search for compassion and her unwillingness to feel the joy of life once again is what the stings of the spiteful tongues led her to:

Women desire a pleasure, incomprehensible to the other sex, from the delicate toil of the needle. To Hester Prynne it might have been a mode of expressing, and therefore soothing, the passion of her life. Like all other joys, she rejected it as sin. (Hawthorne 102)

Because of the strain which Hester cannot help feeling, she becomes more and more desperate. As she continues her life journey, she feels that it grows increasingly unbearable. However, it must be admitted that the woman is carrying her burden with outstanding decency and pride. No matter what the crowd might say, she is going to take it for the sake of her daughter and her own life.

Compared to her, the nameless woman in Kingston’s story creates an impression of an intimidated and despised. In spite of the fact that this woman lives in quite different era with the ideas of women emancipation spreading all over the world, she is still oppressed and intimidated, in contrast to Hawthorn’s heroine, so willful and determined.

There must be certain reason for such changes, which is, perhaps, the growing strain within, resulting in the need to stone the sinful woman and enjoy watching her suffer.

Kingston depicts her character as the one that has given up for the mercy of the crowd and is unwilling to fight. Both characters have to take terrible rumors about their life and their adultery, yet Hester takes them with an evident scorn, whereas No Name Woman leaves them unnoticed because of her despair.

We will write a custom Essay on Throwing Stones at the Sinful Ones: The Two Stories Intertwined specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More She is a shame, a “disgrace” for the family from this time on, and people have the right to neglect her, No Name Woman thinks.

In addition, people’s violence turns out to be even more striking in her case. Brutal and cruel, people tried to make her fear – and they succeeded; they were hunting her like an animal and making her realize her own uselessness:

At first they threw mud and rocks at the house. Then they threw eggs and began slaughtering our stock. We could hear the animals scream their deaths-the roosters, the pigs, a last great roar from the ox. Familiar wild heads flared in our night windows; the villagers encircled us. Some of the faces stopped to peer at us, their eyes rushing like searchlights. The hands flattened against the panes, framed heads, and left red prints (Kingston 2)

Thus, it must be admitted that the attitude towards the women who have committed adultery did not change for better since the times that Hawthorne described; moreover, the negative attitude towards women committing adultery increased.

What strikes most about the situation depicted by Kingston is that people are ready to convince a woman of a sin without even trying to find out what made her step on the slippery slope of adultery and deception. The atmosphere of constant rumors enhances the tension, and the poor woman feels even more miserable when realizing that people have already created their version of her life and her sins.

It is clear that the pressure which the neighborhood puts on the nameless aunt, haunting her with their constant scorns, is much more than a man can take.

It is completely clear that even the little girl in the story considers the secret which her mother trusted her in a dirty and shameful thing; the girl cannot perceive the idea that her aunt is no worse than any average villager in their homeland. Even after the death of the woman, the entire family cannot accept the fact that No Name Woman ever existed – until the girl makes them do so:

Not only does No Name Aunt’s family not acknowledge her death, they decide not to acknowledge her life. […] Kingston is unable to do this, though, until the authoritative discourse of her mother, bringing it with the words of her father, the village, and the Chinese culture gives way to the internally persuasive. (Chua 12)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Throwing Stones at the Sinful Ones: The Two Stories Intertwined by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is another example of how cruel the society can be and what pains it might take to prove someone not guilty to a bunch of the blind, deaf and dumb. Making it clear that the false moral is still reigning in the world, Kingston continues the topic raised by Hawthorne to come to a sad conclusion.

In spite of the evolution and the spiritual progress, people still possess the speck of the ancient times when stoning for a sin was considered an act of righteousness. Inherited from the ancestors, this is the very thing that deprives people of sympathy.

Considering the above-mentioned pieces, one can assume that people’s attitude towards the women committing adultery changed for the worse since Hawthorn created his touching and shocking story. Priding themselves on their virtues which actually prove just as false as their morals, people continue stoning the sinful ones, forgetting about their own sins.

It seems that the time has come to recall the famous “If any of you is without a sin, let him be the first to throw a stone at her” (John 8:7). Tracing the attitude towards adultery in the two stories, one will obviously notice the fact that together with the scorn and despise, people started resorting to physical abuse, which is the case for the No Name Woman.

Such lame attempts to prove their superiority break the life of the poor woman completely and leave her breathless outside the boundaries of society. “The villagers are watchful” (3) Kingston claims, and this is the hard truth the poor woman has to live with. The villagers are watchful. Keep your eyes open, and be as brave as Hester, otherwise even death will not bring you peace.

Works Cited Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. Lindenhurst, NY: Triebca Books, 2011. Print.

Chua, Soon-Leng, and Margaret Poh Choo Chua. The Woman Warrior: China Men. New York, NY: Everyman’s Library, 2005. Print. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1998. Print.

Kingston, Maxim Hong. “No Name Woman”. The Woman Warrior: China Men. New York, NY: Everyman’s Library, 2005. Print. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 2005, 1- 17. Print.

Lawson, Annette. Adultery: An Analysis of Love and Betrayal. New York, NY: Basic Books, 1988. Print.


Mary Kay’s Lesson in Leadership Essay (Critical Writing) best essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary




Executive Summary The article has been written by Alan Farnham. Mary Kay’s novel sales procedures and methods have aimed at enhancing the self-esteem of her sales force. Today, Mary Kay Ash Co. is the leading direct-sales company of cosmetic all over the United States. Mary Kay started her business in 1963 by selling beauty products under the name of Mary Kay Ash.

Mary Kay has developed important techniques to motivate and compensate her employees. She provides her consultants a high amount of compensation, Cadillacs, commissions, yearly trips for the best sales person of the year and above all enables them a highly friendly working environment to improve their self-esteem and sense of confidence.

She has made her sales force a part of her family by calling them her “daughters”. She has trained her employees in the same manner. Therefore, they also treat their customers in the same way.

The writer has mentioned a number of positive aspects of the Mary Kay’s corporate culture, and the way she has applied the advanced techniques for motivating her employees. However, the article has been written in an informal manner. The author has not mentioned any biased opinions about the company.

Furthermore, the writer has not emphasized upon the downturns the company had to face. The statistics should have been shown in the article to prove that the information provided is correct and précised. Although, the ending of the article is very appealing, as the writer has left a sense of enthusiasm in every person’s mind who is working for other companies by stating a tempting statement, ”The genius of great leaders is that they understand money is only one of the things that make people light up. Applause and prizes do it too” (Farnham, 1993).

Body The article depicts the corporate culture of Mary Kay Ash Co. In 1937, Mary Kay was working for Stanley Home Products. She was direct-selling cleaners and brushes to the housewives and other women. She was really poor at that time. She dreamed of having her own business. In the year, 1963 Mary Kay started her own business by selling beauty products.

Her son Richard Rogers supported her in the business. The sales revenue of the company grew rapidly, and today it is the leading direct-selling cosmetic company in the United States. The company consists of more 300,000 employees, who are mostly women.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The corporate culture of Mary Kay Co. is egalitarian in which the company’s environment is impersonal, very task-oriented, the performance of employees is highly counted, motivation techniques applied in this culture are appealing and encouraging for the work force.

Mary Kay is highly supportive to her employees, she calls them her “daughters”, and on the workplace they are called as consultants. The most exceptional features of Mary Kay Cosmetics is the eagerness of its employees. The top performers are showered with generous gifts and appreciation from the public.

Every year she gives her best employees many awards such as pink Cadillacs, yearly vacation trips, diamond jewelry and a high amount of commission. As mention in the article John Kotter, the professor of Harvard Business School states that, “Mary Kay is an opportunity-generating machine” (Farnham, 1993).

According to Mary Ash, feting is the most important aspect for creating a well-balanced corporate environment, and is the best means for the company’s success. The employees are given inspecting ribbons made up of gold or metal bands that helps to motivate the sales force, and helps to achieve the required tasks or goals.

Every year a seminar is held for all the company’s work force on which Mary Kay crowns the women who are the best performers in the sales and recruiting throughout the year. She has built a sense of leadership and self-respect in her employees’ minds. She also provides benefits to the husbands of the women who are working for her company.

The style and concepts of her corporate environment was once the focus of enjoyment in the business world, but today all other companies are highly impressed by her motivating techniques, and are studying her methods to boost the self-esteem of their employees.

In the article, the writer has stated all the positive features of the Mary Kay Co. The article has also been written in an informal manner. The writer has overlooked the biased and opposing opinions for the company. The writing depicts that the company has never seen any ups and downs in the business world. The research shows the writer’s personal ideas only.

We will write a custom Critical Writing on Mary Kay’s Lesson in Leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It doesn’t show that a thorough research has been made. The author has used statistics to demonstrate the points, but fails to specify the source. There are no references included at the end of the article.

The writing raises a number of questions in readers’ minds that should the reader rely upon the statistics the writer has mentioned, or is the information provided truthful. It can also be the writer’s personal creation because only the positive aspects have been mentioned in the article. Furthermore, there are no sources and references available creating a doubt in the reader’s mind.

Conclusion The article has been written in a highly appealing manner, especially the ending leaves a curiosity in the reader’s mind that when will other companies also implement such ways and procedures to motivate their employees. However, if the writer would provided sources and reference at the end of the article, and would have mentioned some opposing opinions the article would have been more reliable and précised.

References Farnham, A. (1993). Mary Kay’s Lesson in Leadership. Fortune , 1.


North American Textile Industry analysis Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Northern America has a well-developed cotton industry; the industry emergence and growth can be traced from early days of slave trade where slaves were used as forced labourers. Mass production of cotton started in the 17th century. NAICS 31522 (Men’s and Boys’ Cut and Sew Clothing Manufacturing), is classification code of establishments and outlets made primarily for the manufacture of men and boys apparels.

The process of production starts from collection of raw cotton materials to making finished products. The entrepreneurs of these joints have the roles getting raw materials from established selling joints, coming up with various designs and preparing samples of new designs, making plans on clothing to be made, and after the products have been manufactured, they market and sell the finished apparel (Statistics Canada).

The industry has main players as business people referred to as clothing jobbers; they have the capital and establish big businesses for the manufacture of men and boys clothes. The industry has employed a large number of youth in Northern America who conducts different functions depending on one’s qualification and experience.

To get raw materials, the jobbers have close connection with local suppliers where they collect the product from large-scale cotton, fur and leather farmers as well as from collection points for cotton from small-scale farmers. They make the products from yarn, fur and leather. The products made include men and boy’s cloths, hosiery and socks.

According to census 2002, the industry is ranked fourth largest clothing industry segment; the sector made an annual wage of $1,477,653,000; it had employed 69892 employees. During the same year, the sectors industry made a shipment of $11,627,163,000. The total establishments were 933. The sector has increase of late and greatly favoured by advancement of international trade (U.S. Census Bureau).

Players in the industry have established strong good customer relations with their suppliers, this has assisted them get material needed for the industry at the right time. Constant supply of cottons is required for the industry; the companies have established collection points for small-scale farmers and collect cotton from large-scale farmers.

They operate the fair trade policy that ensures that they benefit, the farmers also benefit and they protect the environment too. Barriers to entry in the industry is the large capital outlay required, lack of raw materials as existing players have repo with farmers for the available supply and there is government regulations limiting the number of industries (Supplier Relations US).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Supply and demand, impact of business cycle on conditions North American clothing industry has high demand and is a major source of income and employment in the states and in other countries; the demand for final products in the industry is affected by the demand of appeals’ in international and national markets. If the demand is high, then demand for cotton raw material is increased. Other than the market pull of demand, other factors affect demand for cotton materials; they include speculations, seasons and the price of the materials.

Supply from farmers is a factor of the price that cotton materials are selling in the market. When the prices are high, then farmers are more willing to supply cotton; rational farmers use their land to produce those commodities that will give him the largest income.

It is easy to speculate those seasons that will offer high returns since the end market which farmers are aware of its trend have an effect on prices of cotton. For example, near the festive seasons and cold seasons, the demand for appeals is high and its prices shoot sharply. Rational farmers are likely to produce at this time or hold stock of harvested products as they wait for prices to rise.

In every business, there are business cycles that affects the production and demand and supply of commodities in the clothing industry, some seasons are attributed to high demand of clothes both for men and women; the industry have a short term operation with one year completing the cycle.

However as people develop, they are developing different perception towards cotton products; they are favouring the industry and this means increased business (Supplier Relations US).

What are the major methods of product differentiation among companies? To remain competitive in the fast growing and competitive clothing industries, different companies have adopted different product differentiations methods. Generally, for differentiation to occur, companies aim at developing products that are different and identifiable from others in the market. They do so through researching and coming up with superior and unique designs that are consumer oriented.

They aim at having different product for different market segments. Mostly in the industry, market is segmented using age brackets. After certain designs have been developed, the next step is to create brand familiarization and ensuring that the consumers can recognize the brand in the market. This can take the form of marketing, advertising and having promotion that give the positive side of the developed product as they bring out the superiority of the products.

We will write a custom Research Paper on North American Textile Industry analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More North American trade laws allow for brand patenting. Patenting and rights policies and laws give companies a chance to develop new products in the market then register them as their brands. According to the laws, the company may be given the rights to produce solely such brand of products or arrangements can be made to franchise their brand to other companies (Backhouse and Roger 12).

Role of technology patenting and other industrial property rights The world has embarked on massive technological development; people are investing heavily on technology as they find solution to different issues they face. In the clothing industry, technologically, it is not left behind. It is working hard and every company is trying to develop new patterns and designs using technology.

Graphics have been computerized to enable the development of various brands, designs and styles; computerised branding assist a company to make an artificial world and test the experience of different product as if they were operating in the market.

Other than assisting in developing of products, computers play the role of products growth and developer, they are able to trace the trend of the market and thus making of strategic decisions is easy.

When a company have used or developed a certain technology to asset, it develops and design different products, the technology need to be protected by laws of the states. This encourages companies to work harder and develop better technologies that are more efficient for their company (Keat and Philip 23).

Like physical assets, intellectual properties are intangible assets that need to be protected by the governing rule and regulations. Industrial property rights aims at protecting intellectual properties that a company has in the efforts of ensuring that the company enjoy what it has developed.

When the properties are protected, companies in the industry will play on the same plat form without any taking advantage of efforts done by another without paying for it. It is a form of encouraging free trade (Boltanski and Chiapello 56)

Role of government regulation in the industry Although North American economy can be said to me more of a capitalist economy, the government intervenes in clothing industry trade to make some policies for the benefit of the industry, employees and consumers. The government has some policies that protect the local cotton industry from international competition through taxation of imported appeals and using quota systems.

Not sure if you can write a paper on North American Textile Industry analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It also gives producers and companies incentives that reduce their cost of production so that they can compete effectively in the international and national market. Such incentives include tax holidays for multinationals having their operation base in the country, fertilizers and farming education to farmers, capital and industrial deductions to new establishments.

Capitalism economies are more venerable to exploit their work force, to ensure that this does not happen; the government has wage floors that companies should respect and uphold (Boltanski and Chiapello 58)

Identify names of overseas clothing manufacturing companies and gather statistics Other than North America, there are other countries making clothing appeals they include:


India has a well-developed textile industry, employing over 1% of its work force. Products from the industry are exported to Asian countries and developing countries (National Information Centre for Textile and Allied Subjects 14).


Italy has the world most renowned textile industry where it specializes in designer products. The products from the country target middle and upper class market segments. The appeals from the country include shoes, suits, shirts, trousers and inner wears (IBP-USA 12).


Kenya cotton industry has collapsed although the country is well known for its well-managed leather industry. Bata Shoe Company, which tans hides and skins, and then make different products, is competitive in international and national markets. The company’s products include shoes, wallets and bags made of leather (International Labour Organization 113).

Works Cited Backhouse, Roger, and Roger Middleton. Exemplary Economists: North America. Northampton MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Boltanski, Luc.,


Using embryonic stem cells to grow body parts Research Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Table of Contents Abstract


Overview of Embryonic Stem Cell

In support of Embryonic Stem Cells



Abstract Embryonic stem cells have been used over the years to treat or reduce chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiac ailments. Stem cells have the potential to save millions of lives by using them to grow body parts for people in need.

However, its use has stirred ethical debates with many arguing that the use of stem cells does not give reverence to the sanctity of life. The discussion in this paper will show that despite the opposition, the use of embryonic stem cells has played a central role in saving lives of people in need unlike other regimens, which have been used and failed.

Introduction The use of embryonic stem (ES) cells is one of the important medical innovations of the 21st century. Studies indicate that this technique can be used to treat over seventy major ailments, which millions of people are diagnosed with across the world. ES cells have won great support from most organizations such as the American Medical Association (AMA).

Currently, about 68% of Americans supports the ES cells research. Additionally, 64% holds that the federal funding on studies examining ES can be used to eliminate or control chronic ailments. Nonetheless, ES has not been immune to controversy with critics questioning the moral logic behind the damaging of human embryos to get the ES cells. This paper defends the use of ES cells by countering the claims raised by the critics.

Overview of Embryonic Stem Cell ES cells refer to undifferentiated cells that have the potential to cure various ailments and conditions due to their ability to develop numerous kinds of cells in human beings. They are pluripotent, which implies that they can form the various types of cells that are required for proper functioning of the body.

A huge volume of ES cells can be developed from stem cell lines, which are also pluripotent and they can help in the development of tissues though they are unable to inculcate existence in an organism. For instance, when stem cells are administered to a patient suffering from cardiac attack, they will shift to the area that has been destroyed, multiply, and separate to develop new cardiac muscles.

In another case, if the stem cells are introduced to a patient with tumor, they can induce the growth of new neurons that can then kill the shifting cancer cells. Most patients and medical practitioners believe that replacement cell treatment can be the ultimate solution for eliminating chronic cases such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and diabetes (Friedman et al., 2012).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Nonetheless, the sources through which these stem cells are retrieved have been a point of departure for most of opponents of this medical technology. ES cells are retrieved from human embryos, which are referred to as blastocysts. The process entails disassembling the embryo to get stem cells that are located in the internal parts of the mass.

Subsequently, this aspect has led to the emergence of two opposing sides – those who support unconditional reverence for life and those who oppose the idea (Lachmann, 2001). According to Murrell, et al. (2013), there is a common miscomprehension between these two groups regarding the actual sources of stem cells.

Further, the media exacerbates these misunderstandings by giving a general definition of stem cells without considering the various types of stem cells, viz. adult and embryonic as well as placental stem cells (Stachowiak


Implementing Strategic Change Report essay help online

Introduction Strategic change entails the changes that take place in an organization for instance in regard to the vision, mission and objectives as well as the strategy that is designed as a means of achieving the expected result. It is a process that is affected by the internal factors of the organization as well as external factors that relate to the organization’s environment.

The management of a strategic change is usually a difficult and sensitive task since there is no specific formula that is designated to work out for all cases that entail strategic change and hence the process should be handled carefully to ensure its success.

This piece of work will discuss the process of implementing and managing strategic change the case study being the UK Fire and Rescue Services which is a firm that currently faces a situation in which it has to change is strategies as opposed to strictly following what has been stipulated by the Fire and Rescue Services Act (Joyce and Woods 2001).

Identification and appraisal of existing best practice and implementation of strategic change management Before taking any step in implementing some strategic changes in an organization, it is advisable to first identify the strategies and practices that are in place in the organization and how they can be improved or changed to cover the expected conditions or bring about the expected results.

The UK Fire and Rescue Services is involved with a variety of functions like fighting fires, pumping out floodwater, attending chemicals pills and assisting in road, air and rail accidents among others.

However there are some other services that it is expected to provide to the public for instance the health and safety of the staff, a duty of care to the public and operational effectiveness and other anticipated happenings that are not necessarily stipulated in the UK Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004.

The current practices of the organization are good but need some appraisal in order to cater for the other needs as mentioned above through establishment out of strategies that will facilitate this (Freeman 2010).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There are various methods or styles through which strategic change can be managed. The change in an organization’s strategy should however be tailored to the state of the change itself and the expected results. Some of the styles include, empirical rational strategy, the normative re-educative strategy, the power coercive strategy and the environmental adaptive.

The effective and appropriate style of managing strategic change in the UK Fire and Rescue Services organization is the empirical rational strategy as it is best suited when the process of change has its origin from the people who will be affected by the effects of the process, in this case being the staff of the UK Fire and Rescue Services who ought to benefit from the implementation of the changes for instance in terms of health and safety.

The strategy works by catering for the self interest of the people who are affected by the change. It works under the principle that people are usually rational and hence they will automatically look for ways through which they can benefit especially where the conditions and consequences are well comprehended.

The anticipated benefits of the particular change brought about by the strategy should always out do the challenges involved so as to put up with the resistance of the people and eventually lead to the overall success through combined efforts (Lee 2010).

Process of delivering and managing strategic change within organizations The process of implementing and managing change is usually difficult as people are usually resistant to change due to habits adopted which make it difficult to change thoughts and behaviour. A good example is in this case study, UK Fire and Rescue Services, where some staff insists on the fact that the organization should only stick by the duties that are clearly stipulated by 2004 Act even when it is quite clear that the changes are for their good.

Success in the process of delivering and managing strategic change depends on the ability of the people in the particular organization to embrace change and therefore efforts should be made to solicit them by showing them the benefits of the change. The first step is therefore to put sense into the people to help them accept change through educating them on the importance of the change.

Identification of the gaps that have been left by the current system is also essential so as not to repeat what has already been done. All the stakeholders should be involved and their opinions considered. The challenges that may be faced by the organization in its efforts to implement the change should also be noted so as to prepare the people psychologically.

We will write a custom Report on Implementing Strategic Change specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Proper strategies should then be established and implemented. People should also be positive despite the challenges faced. There should be motivation of the people for example rewarding those that perform well in regard to bring about the change (Jacobs 1997).

Monitoring the process of change is also important so as to note the progress and make necessary measures to ensure that the project’s objectives are met. Monitoring and evaluation of the strategic change is very essential as it facilitates decision making through tracking of the process’s progress.

Monitoring is usually a continuous process that alerts the stakeholders of any happening hence allowing for accountability, evaluation and learning. Evaluation on the other hand helps determine the relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability of the strategic change.

In a nut shell, a successful process of implementing strategic change should consist three phases; the preparation for change which entails defining the change management strategy, preparing the change management team and developing the model/strategy. The second phase is the management of the set change which entails developing of change management plans and implementing them.

The final stage entails the reinforcement of the change through collecting and analyzing feedback, managing resistance and implementing corrective measures where there appear to be some defects. Celebration of the success of the process should also not be undermined as it acts as a way of motivating the stakeholders and enhancing future chances of change (Green n.d).

Example of existing strategic change management Starbucks Coffee Company is can example of an organization where strategic change management has been experienced. It was initially very popular for its provision of coffee but the coffee essence almost got lost due to the use of its brand name for other purposes for instance promotion of movies.

A need for strategic changed aimed at restoring its fame (going back to its focus on coffee) is therefore an issue for instance provision of a new coffee blend to reinforce the brand. The problem comes in since there are many changes to be done for example reshuffle of staff and improvement of the company’s website which may delay the process of strategic change (Linn 2008).

Conclusion Strategic change is critical in any organization and all organizations are currently going through some changes. The changes could arise due to some factors for instance cultural change, empowerment and total quality and business engineering within the organization among other issues.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Implementing Strategic Change by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some changes could also be driven by the urge for organizations to be at per with the other organizations especially in regard to the competitiveness in the various fields of the world. Strategic changes should always be embraced in organizations as long as they are deemed to improve their situations for instance if it enhances profit. Proper planning, monitoring and communication is however essential.

Reference List Freeman, E.R. 2010. Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Green, E.M n.d. Managing Strategic Change- Beat the Odds with the Three R’s Web.

Jacobs, W. R. 1997. Real-Time Strategic Change. New York, Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Joyce, P. and Woods, A. 2001. Strategic Management: A Fresh Approach To Developing Skills, Knowledge And Creativity. London, Kogan Page Publishers.

Lee, G. 2010. Styles of Managing Strategic Change. Web.

Linn, A. 2008. Starbucks pledges change – and lots of it. Web.


Jamaica Water Properties Report (Assessment) college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Responding to suspicious items in Accounting Records

Measures for enhancing Whistle Blowing in a company

Promoting ethical behavior among employees

Reducing Auditing Risks

Accounting professional’s responsibilities to shareholders

Reference List

Responding to suspicious items in Accounting Records As a professional accountant, I would apply the professional ethics of accounting that require professionalism, accountability as well as integrity in monitoring the daily operations of the organization so as to be able to report accurately the strengths and weaknesses of the organization’s internal control system to the CEO.

Just the same way David Sokol did, it is important to scrutinize the company’s accounting records and interview all those concerned with accounting operations of each division in the company as well as the company’s Chief Financial Officer.

It is important to take responsibility and inform the CEO or the board of directors of the company about your findings on the company’s accounting fraud and your opinion and, give direction of what should be done to correct the accounting abuses in the company (Gibson, Knapp, Mowen, Palepu,


Problems of Student Achievement in Education Essay best essay help

Student achievement is a subject that attracts great concern from parents, teachers, administrators, and even policy makers. Despite the fact that teachers are mostly the victims of blame after poor academic performance, there are many factors that may make students perform poorly in their exams. Some of these factors can be controlled by teachers, while others are well beyond their control.

The main challenge in combating poor student performance in schools has been the identification of the aforementioned factors. School administrators should, therefore, ensure that they do all they can to establish the reason for non-performance of students. This paper is an exploration of some of the main cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic factors that influence student performance.

There is a close relationship between the backgrounds of students and their performance. Some of the domestic problems that affect student performance include food insecurity, domestic violence and parents who abuse drugs (Andrews, 2005).Students also perform poorly due to health-related problems.

These include sight problems, poor hearing ability, and poor sleeping patterns (Andrews, 2005). The latter makes students unable to concentrate during lessons leading to poor performance. Combining education with work has also contributed to poor student performance. This is normally evident in mid-age students.

The pressure under which such students operate makes them unable to dedicate enough time to studies, and thus they end up performing poorly in their exams (Thomas, 2003). The students may also fail to see the meaning of education because they may give too much value to the money they make. This may make them commit more time to their jobs than the time they commit for studies.

Also among the factors influencing student performance is the fact that students may form ethnic groups in schools (Jacobson, 2003). These groups are usually formed by students who belong to a given ethnic community, and they negatively affect student performance since the activities of the groups tend to be non-academic. Other students may form peer groups which may negatively influence their members leading to poor academic performance (Andrews, 2005).

Given the devastating effect that the aforementioned issues have had on student performance, and the fact that attempts to curb them have been largely unsuccessful, there is need for a nuanced approach in dealing with them. Parents should ensure that they provide an environment conducive for student-growth.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This will be instrumental in ensuring that domestic problems do not impact student performance. Teachers, on the other hand, should ensure that they understand the special problems of their students, especially problems related to health, and come up with counter-measures for ensuring that students get the best out of class work.

There is also the need for teachers and school administrators to monitor students closely in order to ensure that their activities within the school are focused on academics (Thomas, 2003). Peer groups, and ethnic groups, should be strictly discourages because they have adverse effects on student performance. This will help to reduce influence within the school, and discourage laxity.

Administrators should also ensure that they address the issue of working students. The administration in schools should develop appropriate policies that will ensure working students get their best out of their education. Finally, students should be given periodic and holistic counsel to ensure that they do their best to get good grades.

Reference List Andrews, T. (2005). Reasons Why Students’ Academic performance May Be Impacted. Web.

Blair, S. (1999). Racial/Ethnic Differences in High School Student’s Academic Performance. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol 30, pp. 11-27.

Jacobson, O. (2003). Educational achievement and Black-White inequality. Washington DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

Thomas, J. (2003). Socioeconomic Status, Race, Gender,


MechCon Company HRM Evaluation Term Paper essay help

Introduction Human resource management is an organization function that entails all aspects that are associated with the human resource or work force in a particular organization, company or institution. It entails aspects like recruitment, coordination, and control of the people working in an organization.

Some of the issues linked with human resource management include hiring, compensation and benefits, safety and welfare, communication and motivation, employees’ performance management and administration, training among others.

Human resource management is a very essential function in every organization as it enhances overall efficiency and effectiveness of the organization through smooth running of all the activities and operations that are carried out in the organization. It falls under one of the major components of the management function (that is staffing); the other ones being planning, organizing, coordination, and controlling.

The human resource in an organization is a valuable asset that determines the success or failure of the organization through their efforts towards utilizing other assets in the company. It is however, only through their proper management that maximum efficiency, effectiveness, and profitability can be achieved (Mathis and Jackson 2008).

This paper discusses various aspects associated with human resource management with much emphasis being given to the human resource manager and his or her importance in an organization, in this case, the MechCon Company that serves as the case study.

The value that an HR manager could add to MechCon Company and the complexities involved in managing HR A human resource manager is a crucial element in any organization as he or she helps in streamlining the activities and performance of the other employees.

The MechCon company which is a multi-task engineering company offering a wide range of services from mechanical engineering to construction services is lacking a very essential personnel, the human resource manager, who coordinates all the other employees to make sure that they perform well and that their needs are well catered for hence motivating them to do better day by day, which results to the overall success of the organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The employment of a human resource manager in MechCon Company is of essence as it will add value to the company through the following ways, the overall value being making things happen.

The human resource manager will add value in MechCon Company through foreseeing and facilitating aspects like recruitment and training which entails ensuring that the appropriate and efficient plans and strategies of hiring employees are strictly adhered to, carrying out performance appraisals through encouragement of hard work and maximum output, creating and maintaining a conducive working environment that promotes excellent performance of the employees and job satisfaction, handling and solving disputes that arise among the employees or even between the employees and the management, attracting and retaining talents and capabilities, and establishment of good public relations within the organization that fosters smooth running of the organization’s activities hence overall success (Anonymous 2011).

Although there is a lot of values attached to human resource management, it is an aspect that is faced with numerous complexities especially due to the changes that are taking place in the competitive market that necessitates indulgence in more strategic activities to ensure success of the organization through securing of a place in the competitive world.

Most of the challenges involved in the management of human resource touch on the aspect of workplace diversity which encompass things like education background, religious affiliations, age, gender, ethnicity and race, work knowledge and experience, physical and intellectual abilities among other characteristics that could be exhibited by various employees in an organization.

The human resource manager in the MechCon Company should, for example, be able to overcome the challenge of workplace diversity by turning the problem into opportunity and pooling together the talents exhibited by the diverse talents, views, ideas and perspectives and maximizing or capitalizing on the positive sides of everyone while ignoring the negative or weak points of an individual.

Other general challenges faced by human resource managers in their day to day practices and activities include; the health and welfare of the employees, retirement issues, selection and application of human resource technology, outsourcing, leadership development, among other aspects associated with the human resource body (Chan 2002).

The Role That an HR Manager Should Play Within the Executive Group The human resource manager in any organization should play various roles and responsibilities within the executive group and in the organization as a whole.

We will write a custom Term Paper on MechCon Company HRM Evaluation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Some of the roles that the human resource manager should be linked with in the executive body of the MechCon Company include; balancing the needs of the staff and those of the company, he or she should also be able to act as a strategic partner in the organization and facilitate the development and accomplishment of the company’s strategic goals and objectives which could be achieved through the design and implementation of effective work systems that allows for maximum contribution and success, and being a good advocate for the employees by creating a working condition that ensures that the employees are always motivated and happy and hence can put total efforts in their work leading to good performance.

The human resource manager should also act as a tool through which change in the organization can be perpetrated. This could be achieved through the execution of appropriate strategies that are aimed towards bringing positive changes to the organization. The change should, however, be introduced in an appropriate manner that will avoid resistance by the employees (Heathfield: What Does a Human Resources Manager, Generalist, or Director Do? 2011).

Specific Objectives and Recommendations to Guide a New HR Manager in the Way Forward The human resource manager needs to have some objectives that should act as a guide towards carrying out their duties. Some of the objectives that may help the human resource manager to be focused in his or her undertakings include; the organizational objectives that should always remind the human resource manager that all the efforts of the human resource body should be aimed at facilitating the efficiency, effectiveness and economy of the organization.

The organizational objectives also ensure that the employees do their best to help the organization meet its goals and objectives. Functional objectives are also essential in the practices of a human resource manager as it helps him or her to keep a good pace in contributing to the fulfillment of the organization’s needs hence avoiding any chances that may lead to either non-satisfaction of the organization’s needs or wastage of its resources.

The society objectives should also be put into consideration by the human resource manager since the society is part and parcel of the company as the members contribute in one way or the other to its success or progress.

The organization should always be responsible in terms of fulfilling the societal needs, for instance, through corporate social responsibility to make sure that the society supports it fully as opposed to where the society could be dissatisfied by the organization’s hence gang up against it making its processes fail in some way. The most crucial objective, however, remain to be the personal objectives.

These are the objectives that aim at promoting the achievement of the personal goals of the employees hence contributing to the overall achievement of the company through the combination of the individuals’ efforts.

The act of establishing and maintaining appropriate personal objectives in an organization ensures that the employees are not only maintained and retained but also motivated, which is a very positive aspect that keeps the organization growing due to job satisfaction among the employees.

Not sure if you can write a paper on MechCon Company HRM Evaluation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The objectives of human resource management should under all cost enhance the productivity of the organization, ensure that the employees work in a conducive atmosphere that fosters growth and prosperity and also that the organization comply fully with the legal requirements and societal expectations (Dundas 2011)

Some of the recommendations that the human resource manager in MechCon Company should adhere to in his or her work include workforce planning processes, HRIS solutions and the development of recruitment processes and strategies for the employees. Workforce planning is a crucial process in any organization and should be carried out in a continuous manner.

This will ensure that the needs and priorities of MechCon Company match with those of the employees and that all the organizational and legal requirements are met at all time without any obstacles. Workforce planning will also ensure that there is the development of appropriate strategies in MechCon Company in regard to the employees.

It also allows for maximum identification, capturing and utilization of a wide range of talents and capabilities in human capital that are useful to the organization at present time and also in the future.

Some of the benefits associated with workforce planning include; there is always the existence of qualified and appropriate employees that could be readily picked and recruited incase of any vacancy, allows for maximization of the available human resource by avoiding either underutilization or over utilization of the employees.

It is also a process that is very helpful in budgetary allocations as it provides for useful projections that could justify the allocation. Workforce planning is also a strategy that could be applied by the human resource manager in an effort to manage a diversified workforce. It generally helps in efficient management of the organization’s employees (U. S. Department of Transportation 1999).

Human resource management information system (HRIS) is a useful tool in the management of the employees and the human resource manager in the MechCon Company should embrace its application as it allows for smooth running of the workforce. It assists in processes like data entry and tracking, the information needs of the various employees of the organizations among others.

The human resource management information system should, however, be chosen carefully in a manner that will solve the problems of the particular organization based on the demands of the company that should be matched with the capabilities of the human resource management information system (Heathfield: Human Resources Information System (HRIS) 2011).

The development of recruitment processes and strategies for the employees is also a positive step that should be embraced by the human resource manager in the MechCon Company as it helps in the smooth coordination of the employees. The recruitment processes and strategies help in the selection of qualified human resource that in return contributes positively to the company through the talents and capabilities they possess.

The processes and strategies also ensure that the needs of the employees are adequately catered for to give them a good working atmosphere that facilitates maximum performance and coordination as everybody feels appreciated and needed in the organization.

There is need to identify the time frames for these objectives and recommendations so as to be able to meet the specific goals of the organization. The objectives and recommendations, for instance, should be classified in terms of the time by which they are expected to be met or fulfilled, for example, short term, medium-term, and long term objectives.

Short term objectives are those expected to be met within a short period of time, for instance, a financial year. Medium-term objectives, on the other hand, are much broader than the short term objectives and the time frame may range from one and a half years to three or five years depending on an individual organization.

The long term objectives and recommendations in an organization are expected to be met after a relatively long period of time, like five years and more. The objectives should always be reviewed and amendments made (where necessary) to make sure that they always remain appropriate and relevant to the organization and the society at large.

The objectives and recommendations should always be realistic, timely, specific, measurable and achievable irrespective of whether they are short term, medium-term and long term. These characteristics make the objectives meaningful and keep the organization moving at least with some expected results (Derbyshire, Wicks and Hardy 2007).

A Procedure for Recruiting and Selecting MechCon Employees Once an HR Manager Has Been Appointed The process of employees’ recruitment should be procedural to ensure that all considerations are reflected on. Once a human resource manager has been appointed in the MechCon Company, he or she should follow a strategic recruitment and selection process whenever there is need for a new workforce in the company.

The recruitment and selection processes should always be compatible or match with the company’s goals and objectives. The purpose of the recruitment and selection should also be kept in mind to enhance focus in the processes.

Some of the aims of a recruitment and selection procedure include; ensuring that there is equal employment opportunities for all the applicants, evaluating the effectiveness of the various techniques and tools applied in the recruitment process, reducing the chances of losing the employees after they have successfully been recruited and selected, minimizing the failure rate in the selection process that could be brought about by various factors, for instance, the existence of numerous inappropriate job applicants who could either be under qualified or overqualified, reduction of the cost incurred in the recruitment and selection process and most importantly assessing of the organization’s present and future needs in regard to workforce planning and job analysis and description (Roberts 1997).

There are various procedures that could be employed in the recruitment and selection of employees in an organization depending on suitability and the decision of the human resource manager and other members of the management.

One of the procedures that the human resource manager in MechCon Company and his or her team members could consider applying is as follows; the first step involves assessing the relevance of the recruitment by identifying whether there is need for recruitment or the job could be done by the existing employees.

Job analysis is then done where the requirements of the post holder, for instance, in terms of qualification and experience is determined. Based on the job analysis, a job description and individual specifications are drawn giving clear details on the purpose of the job, the responsibilities involved and the conditions of the job plus the abilities and qualities expected.

The next step entails making a decision on the best methods to be applied in the selection process. Here, a curriculum vitae or an application form could be used as a tool for recruitment and selection with combination of other techniques like interviews or selection examinations.

Attracting candidates is also essential and ways of advertising the vacancy should be decided upon, which is then followed by the practical marketing of the job. The other step entails shortlisting the applications to reduce their number and hence ease the selection process by avoiding the consideration of either too little or too many applicants that could either limit the choice or lead to time wastage respectively.

The selection is then done for instance through interviews after which a decision is made and the successful candidates given the offer. References are also considered after the offer is made. Training is an important part in the recruitment and selection process as it ensures that the new employees are acquainted with the relevant skills and knowledge that will enhance their performance in the organization.

Consistency should be maintained in the entire recruitment and selection process to avoid any confusion. The process of recruitment and selection should be done by the human resource manager in collaboration with other management team members who include the line managers (Elearn 2009).

Conclusion Human resource in any organization is very essential as no organization could run in the absence of people. It entails aspects like recruitment, coordination, and control of the people working in an organization. Every organization, regardless of nature and size, moves on and succeeds because of the efforts put forth by the employees through the diversity of talents and capabilities exhibited by them.

The human resource in an organization is a valuable asset that determines the success or failure of the organization through their efforts towards utilizing other assets in the company.

The management of the employees is, however, a crucial element that ensures that everything regarding the employees is in order, for instance, through aspects like motivation and rewards that ensure the employees are on their toes in their efforts to better their performance and the performance of the organization in general.

The presence and performance of a human resource manager in an organization should, therefore never be underemphasized as it leads to the growth, development and prosperity of the organization in one way or the other even though the impact could not be immediate.

Reference List Anonymous. 2011. Benefits of Human Resource Management. Web.

Chan, A. 2002. The Challenges of Human Resource Management. Web.

Derbyshire, W, Wicks, D and Hardy S. 2007. Money and Work: An Essential Guide. England, Spiramus Press Ltd.

Dundas, K. 2011. Human Resource Management MNG00724. New York, Southern Cross University.

Elearn. 2009. Recruitment and Selection. New York, Elsevier publishers.

Heathfield, M.S. 2011. Human Resources Information System (HRIS). Web.

Heathfield, M.S. 2011. What Does a Human Resources Manager, Generalist, or Director Do? Web.

Mathis, R.L and Jackson, H.J. 2008. Human Resource Management. 12th ed. New York, Cengage learning.

Roberts, G. 1997. Recruitment and Selection: A Competency Approach. Britain, CIPD publishing.

U. S. Department of Transportation. 1999. Workforce Planning Guide. Washington, D.C., Department of Transportation.


The Post-War Army: Problems New and Old Essay college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Table of Contents Introduction

Involvement of the US in world affairs

Introduction of nuclear weapons

Colonel Craig W. Lowell



Introduction The griffin novels tell us more about the lives of the soldiers and their roles in the various wars, than the events of the actual wars. We get to have a look at the background of the officers and their rise in ranks. Griffin tells us of the education that they obtained, and their performance in class. We observe the duties assigned to these officers in the various wars, and their relationship with each other.

The first war that the soldiers engaged in was the civil war in Greece, before joining the war in Korea. Griffin tells us of the relationship that the soldiers have with each other, and the circumstances leading to their bonds.

During the wars, some soldiers were caught and held hostage, and rescue attempts were made. At the same time, we are told of the survival instincts in the soldiers that help to keep them and their companions’ alive (Griffin, The Lieutenants: Brotherhood of War, 1986).

Involvement of the US in world affairs The united states prior to the Second World War had only used its military forces when threatened. The United States was determined to intervene in the Korean War, which eventually ended in a stalemate. The involvement of the United States in this war provided a clear definition of its might, showing its capability to resist the growth of communism.

The United States military was therefore put into use at all times in the maintenance of peace worldwide, as the country conducted its international affairs. The army was useful in supporting diplomats, when faced with rivals who viewed war as a rational and essential component of politics.

The involvement of the United States in international affairs started in 1953. The American citizens showed support for their government in fulfilling their duty as a global leader, though it would be an expensive process (Griffin, The Lieutenants: Brotherhood of War, 1986).

Introduction of nuclear weapons At the end of the Second World War, Eisenhower was in charge of the administration. His new task was to come up with effective defense strategies that could prepare the country for any kind of threat imposed by the communists. He aimed at reducing the heavy spending in the defense department, without interfering with their commitments to other countries worldwide.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The solution was an investment in the capacity to retaliate that took advantage of the air force and nuclear technology. In the 1950s, the armed forces had a different focus in their training, and the magnitude of the tactical bombing services of the air force was raised.

The focus on retaliation power was also observed in the navy. They shifted their focus into coming up with submarine-launched nuclear weapons, that could fire onto land, following a set of coordinates (Griffin, The Captains (Brotherhood of War), 1986).

The strategy behind massive retaliation had huge implications on the defense budget, with large sums being allocated to it. Eventually, the heavy spending in defense was opposed, but the then Army Chief of Staff defended the project arguing that it was important that the United States continue their investment in nuclear power, to balance the growing Soviet nuclear capabilities.

The conventional forces had limited funds, which were insufficient to respond in the event of a limited war. Towards the end of the decade, the Americans and the Russians came to an agreement, whereby they observed that a war between the two nations would lead to self-destruction, and therefore decided that mutual massive retaliation was only applicable as a last option (Griffin, The Captains (Brotherhood of War), 1986).

With the end of the Korean War, the United States got the opportunity to develop their communications. They also had to shift their focus to the construction of airfields and roads.

With this taking place, the United States maintained exclusive control of their nuclear power, denying their allies any kind of influence. As a result, Britain and France sought to develop their own nuclear weapons, and avoid reliance on the United States in the future (Griffin, The Captains (Brotherhood of War), 1986).

Colonel Craig W. Lowell Craig Lowell managed a polo team for Watford, a commanding general. He also served as a constabulary golf pro. Before the game between the French and the Americans, the general ordered Lowell’s commissioning to the polo game; but during the game, the general was killed. His replacement had Lowell transferred to serve as an advisor, since he had little experience as an officer.

We will write a custom Essay on The Post-War Army: Problems New and Old specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Through this character, Griffin takes us through various officer ranks available in the United States army. Lowell was a young and junior officer, and this made him an ideal person to explore the post war activities of the United States, and their role in the aid of other nations. The reassignment of Lowell to his advisory role in the Greek army saw him rise to more senior positions (Griffin, The Lieutenants: Brotherhood of War, 1986).

There was heavy military action during the Greek civil war that led to the death of many Greek soldiers and officers, and Lowell had to take command. His unit was able to hold their position with him in command. A common strategy in the Vietnam War, Korean War and the Greek civil war was the evacuation of villages, due to the threat of an attack by the communist armies.

Between the period of 1944 and 1947, Britain had spent over 85 million pounds in support of Greece and therefore, withdrew their assistance after the United States got involved. For his efforts while in command of the unit, Lowell received an award for his bravery. This award was the highest that a foreigner could get (Griffin, The Lieutenants: Brotherhood of War, 1986).

After the war, Lowell returned to the United States, and joined the Pennsylvania Army National Guard. He proved to be a good commander of the tank company, and acquired the title of major at 24. While attending school at Fort Knox, he met Colonel Phillip Sheridan who beat him in the class. During that time, we got to know that African-Americans in the forces were facing numerous problems.

Colonel Sheridan had to be the best in everything that he did in order to get the respect of his fellow soldiers. A brotherly bond was formed between the two, and it extended to the incidence where Lowell testified in the defense of Sheridan, who had being charged with murder (Griffin, The Lieutenants: Brotherhood of War, 1986).

Parker was a skilled pilot, and got to fly both rotor and fixed wing air craft’s. During a raid to Vietnam when he was major, his air craft was sabotaged, leading to his capture. The incidence of sabotage was due to jealousy and his black skin, but the friendship that he had with Lowell, was a contributor to the daring rescue mission that the latter led.

Griffin tells us of the mischief that the two soldiers were up to. Both soldiers got into trouble in several occasions, some involving women, but they married and settled down (Griffin, The Lieutenants: Brotherhood of War, 1986).

Conclusion During the period between 1942 and 1945, the US Marine Corps developed their night combat flying techniques, after observing the usefulness of night attacks as employed by the British royal air force. The navy had 25 night fighting squadrons while the Marine Corps had eight. After the Second World War, the USMC was deactivated, with the exception of two squadrons.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Post-War Army: Problems New and Old by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These two were re-designated to night fighting units and focused on enhancing their night detection skills of enemy aircraft. The period between the end of the Second World War and the Korean War was beneficial for the Marine Corps in building their team work and improving their tactical skills.

Through discipline, they worked on new techniques and adapted to the necessary changes in order to stay ahead, and improve their ability to reach decisions quickly, while on their feet (Griffin, The Captains (Brotherhood of War), 1986).

References Griffin, W. E. (1986). The Captains (Brotherhood of War). New York city: Jove Books.

Griffin, W. E. (1986). The Lieutenants: Brotherhood of War. New York City: Jove Books.


Safety of Silver’s Gym Term Paper scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Works Cited

The issues that must be addressed in the report include the need for the appropriate safety measures at the gym, including availing of an automated external defibrillator. An appropriate first aid kit needs to be purchased and put in place as well, so that individuals who might get ailments or medical complications while exercising can be attended to.

The report also looks at the need for relevant and qualified medical practitioners on a standby to give the appropriate medical assistance incase of an emergency. Given that Tommy was transported to the nearest medical center when it was already too late to save his life, the issue of the appropriate means of transport also needs to be addressed. There is need to address the issue of negligence at the Silver’s gym (Kerber 100).

The report also has to look at the need for an appropriate code that would allow the gym to run its activities in a safe and systematic manner. The additional information that could be needed for the firm includes the availability of appropriate personnel to handle the automated external defibrillator. Other information would include the availability of the appropriate policy that governs the usage, maintenance and safety of the device.

Introduction Most people who frequent the gym may be prone to various heart complications and if their exercise regimen is not well addressed. The result could be fatal and in some cases, death may occur. There is therefore need to address this issue by taking the most appropriate measures, the best option being the purchase and appropriate use of the automated external defibrillator.

The report covers findings from Silver’s gym following the death of Tommy’s death at the gym. It looks into the issues of negligence and unpreparedness witnessed at the gym that could have resulted in Tommy’s death and the need to take appropriate measures to ensure that such an incident does not reoccur.

Body An analysis was done after Tommy’s death. The analysis done showed that there were several factors which might have contributed to his death. The main one was the lack of appropriate medical equipment to deal with the issue. The gym for instance lacked an automated external defibrillator. The device could have saved the life of a person suffering from cardiac arrest had it been at the gym.

It has the capability to detect and automatically stroke the patient until the situation normalize. This would have saved for instance saved the life of Tommy. Tommy was also taken to hospital when the situation had reached a point where no remedy would have possibly saved his life. The gym was therefore supposed have the appropriate transportation system so as to take victims in bad conditions to the appropriate medical center on time (American Red Cross 77).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There is need to ensure that sufficient funds are set aside to meet the cost of the AED device as well as ensure its maintenance. The availing of the device would also require the services of qualified personnel to operate it. Alternatively, existing personnel were supposed to be trained on the use of the device.

The appropriate policy was also supposed to be put in place to facilitate the appropriate usage of the device. For instance, people who would use the device with good intentions but in an inappropriate manner would have to bear the legal consequences in case of an accident or death that resulting from their use of the device.

Conclusion Tommy’s death could have been prevented if the gym possessed an AED device. The Silver’s gym needs prioritize the safety and health of its clients and this would include the purchase of an AED device. In addition, the personnel should be trained on how to operate the AED device. The gym also needs to adopt appropriate transportation means to ensure that victims in critical conditions are taken to the medical center on time (American Red Cross 63).

Recommendations Purchase of the AED device

Training the gym’s medical personnel on how to use the device.

Upgrading the gym’s means of transport.

Educating the personnel and even other users on the policy governing the usage of the device.

Works Cited American Red Cross. The Professional Rescuer (participant’s manual). Yardley: StayWell, 2006. Print.

Kerber, Richard E. Automatic External Defibrillators for Public Access Defibrillation. Circulation (American Heart Association) (1997): 2000.


Promotion. Training. Leadership Question Essay (Article) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

First Part Promotion

Many organizations have a way in which their employees behave, interact and do things. These things include promotion and the need to climb the corporate ladder. It is the desire of every employee to climb the corporate ladder. This has become competitive with the advent of youthful employees, who have all that it takes to climb the corporate ladder.

On the other hand, it is an almost universal culture in organizations to promote older employees. This has brought some form of collision in the work place. Generation Y, which refers to these youthful employees, want to climb the corporate ladder fast. This ambition, justified from their point of view by the fact that they have all it takes, is real.

This is especially true in the ICT departments of many companies. However, most companies have a culture where employees who have experience get promoted to high-managerial positions. Managers and company owners alike are in constant balancing of the two. This is presenting the current company structure with a perplexing situation (Grusky, 2003).

Academic Link

The issue of promotion in companies is quite crucial to ensure continued production and the need for growth. Promotion, however, has become a vitally challenging topic in current organizations. These organizations have to grapple with the need for younger people to be factored. These young people, fresh from college, have so much knowledge that can be applied organizations to enhance growth.

Having trained in many fields and technologically savvy, they want to climb the corporate ladder fast enough and retire early. Managers need these young people if they are to survive the current world of business.

However, on many occasions, the managers grapple with a culture that has continually manifested itself in the majority of the organizations world wide. This culture requires that those employees who have worked for a company in along time deserve promotion and not those that managers deem to have all the qualifications (Haveman, 1993).

Example as a Manager

Faced by such a situation, as a manager I would look at many factors before suggesting someone for promotion. I would not choose age as a factor; rather, I would choose the input that a certain individual has compared to another in that particular organization and managerial set up.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For example, if I am faced by need to have a new supply chain manager, I would mostly consider the holders ability to understand the whole process. Two factors would qualify candidates: experience and training. Experience can only win if the candidate in question demonstrates insurmountable levels of knowledge in that field.

However, if the company wants to overhaul its supply chain and employ automated processes, it follows that a young person, who has fresh knowledge, will conquer. Therefore, culture should not be a factor in this case. It will automatically take a backseat and other vital factors put into consideration like company growth (Phillips, 2001).

Example as an Employee

As an employee in a department where a void, maybe technical assistant, is to be filled by way of promotion I would recommend class knowledge rather than experience. This culture of experience is good as it promotes other equally crucial aspects of an organization in the long term. However, short term goals are lost in the process.

According to me short term goals determine how well a company will achieve log term ones. In filing the technical assistant position, young people will be likely candidates as they work quite well with that nature of work. These people want a situation where they do not have to stay hooked at a position for the rest of the day.

They are only summoned when they are needed and that gives them time and space to work on contractual basis. Studies have shown that this greatly improves their workability and motivates them. This job environment is suitable for such young people. In an organization where promotions are pegged on a culture of experience these young people lose out on these opportunities, and so does the company on revenue (Phillips, 2001).

Second Part Training

Training is a crucial are in any organization. It determines what employees the company has and hence its out put. However, there is a constant indecision in company circles as to its importance. Is it more economical to train than hire an experienced employee? What are the benefits of training and what is the down side. How much does culture affect a company’s decision in this front?

If a company has a culture of training its employees, is it mandatory for a departmental manager to also go the same route? I will put this question into perspective in the next few paragraphs with regard to culture in general. However, training will be the topic in question in comparison to experience (Rowe, 1990).

We will write a custom Article on Promotion. Training. Leadership Question specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Academic Link

Training, many scholars agree, is quite crucial for the growth and goal realization of any company. It however is influenced by many factors. One of them is the question whether it is economical or the experience hiring route is more beneficial. Both achieve the goals of an organization but training is more beneficial. By training, it is even more profitable and clever to engage young employees.

These youthful people fresh from college are better molded than employees snatched from another company. Otherwise, the whole essence of training is lost. Experience is what a company wants in the long run and loyal employees. Studies have shown that trained employees find it more sensible to stay in a certain organization. This is because of the acclimatization process that individuals fear.

Therefore, going to a new organization means subjecting oneself to a whole new environment which is not the desire of many individuals. The studies further suggests that employees who shift camp from one organization to another are mostly motivated by better salaries and not the desire to impact in an organization.

All these factors enhance the importance of training. However, some organizational cultures require managers to hire experienced employees so as to evade this process of training. It follows that these companies lose out on genuine employees in an attempt to escape training fees. This in the long-term denies them more revenue and profitability.

Example as a Manager

Accounting and finance are two vitally critical departments in an organization. Employees in those departments needed to maintain high level secrets. A company that employs retrogressive hiring based on a culture of ‘experience hiring’ is doomed to fall victim of fraud. These new employees, who replace fired or retired employees, should be trained from scratch.

An accountant who is trained has lesser ground to commit acts of fraud because the bonds created with bosses. This bond restricts them from committing acts of fraud. As also mentioned earlier, there is a high likelihood that the employee will serve in that position longer. This is in comparison with an experienced employee who is taken from another company.

This experienced employee may be after something other than quality service. I would, therefore, train my employees. I would occasionally hire experienced employees from other companies.

This is especially true for such departments like accounting that are very vital to company survival. I will work with the belief that trained employees understand a company’s other objectives better than an experienced employee from another company (Scully and Segal, 2002).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Promotion. Training. Leadership Question by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Example as an Employee

Taking a janitor as an example, I will critically analyze the importance of training. Janitors are responsible for cleaning and sometimes security in an organization. In as much as their contribution to the company revenue may not be significant, they play an important role in enhancing security. Simply put they are aware of the security apparatus of a company.

This is because they have access to many offices and entrances to the whole compound of the company. This unrestricted access means that they can easily collude with fraudsters to defraud a company of its property. Training will ensure that the possible misdemeanor of these employees is monitored.

This monitoring emanates from them not from the company as they have developed a psychological set up that and bond that links them to the company. However, an employee who is hired and entrusted with such responsibility purely from the fact that they have experience, is a dangerous move as it may compromise security (Scully and Segal, 2002).

Third Part Leadership Question

Culture is diverse and manifests itself in many facets of a company. The dimensions that it takes have partly been discussed above. Firstly, we have discussed promotions. This aspect of an organization, as noted earlier, is quite paramount to the success that is desired in any company.

However, it is bogged down by a problem of culture. Many retrogressive mangers continue to believe that the only way a person attains credibility as merit-deserving promotion wise is by gaining experience.

This is not true and it continues to be vetoed by a generation of youthful people that has come up. This generation, known as generation y is challenging this aspect on many angles. They have gained insurmountable knowledge while at school. This knowledge is both in the field of the managers they find in those organizations and in new fields like technology as noted by Gronn (2002).

Technology is a paramount branch of a company. To survive in the new competitive field, a company must have technologically savvy ICT department. This is in advent of a virtual global world. In this world, everything, including market domination, is shifting to the internet. Therefore, it has become increasingly important for a company to engage the services of generation y.

However, this youthful generation has come with many demands. This has left nothing to chance and managers are grappling with nothing less than the need to rethink their institutional cultures. This rethink should be accommodative of that generation. This is even more emphasized regarding the fact that they will form the next bloc from which companies will be expected to get their employees (Gronn, 2002).

Culture has also brought another aspect to the fore of the current mangers. This aspect entails training. Is it an organizational responsibility to train employees? Is it also financially sound to train employees? What is better: training or hiring experienced employees? Many mangers are bogged down by organizational bureaucracy that dictates the terms when it comes to hiring.

The two above-mentioned cases present a leadership twist in the current organizational set up. The current set up has a lot of mistrust and cut throat competitions within and between companies. Within companies, there is the constant jockeying for position. Outside the company, there is cut throat competition for market leadership and profit.

The growth of revenue continues to dictate the nature of each step taken for company leadership. The balancing act is mostly challenging. Leaders of the various departments continue to grapple with challenges that are presented their way by this evolving way of things (Scully and Segal, 2002).

My Thought

Based on the research I have conducted, it is quite evident that leadership positions nowadays need an overhaul. Leaders in corporate organizations need to rethink and format their initial mental set up. The demagogue that is culture, which restricts many organizational endeavors also need to be overhauled.

This is crucial to accommodate the dynamism that is been witnessed in this sector. It has continued to grow in a phenomenal way. Leaders and managers can only grow with it if they are to remain in business.

Trends in the market is shifting and the ground for market war is no longer physical, it is digital. All these are pointers that the earlier group of managers cannot apply in the current world. New strategies and goals that put into consideration these changes must be adopted.

There is no better way to do that than to adopt the same change makers in the companies. These calls for a rethink of two aspects of corporate cultures: training and promotion. As discussed and supported by academic evidence, these two are quite important.

Reference List Gronn, P. (2002) Distributed Leadership as a Unit of Analysis. The Leadership Quarterly, 13(4), Pp 423-451.

Grusky, O. (2003) Managerial Succession and Organizational Effectiveness. American Journal of Sociology, 69, (1), Pp 21-31.

Haveman, H. A. (1993) Ghosts of Managers Past: Managerial Succession and Organizational Mortality. Academy of Management Journal, 36 (4), Pp 864-881.

Phillips, D. J. (2001) the Promotion Paradox. American Journal of Sociology, 106 (4), Pp 1058-1098.

Rowe, M. (1990) Barriers to Equality: The Power of Subtle Discrimination to Maintain Unequal Opportunity. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 3(2), Pp 153-163.

Scully, M.


International Policy Responses toward the Threats of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Regional Conflict Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

General Overview of the Topic Considering security issues at the international level, it should be admitted that there is no unanimity concerning paradigms and theories providing a definitive solution to defense problems in the world.

Hence, there is no agreement over the research programs that can positively influence the current situation (Harvey 114). With regard to present pluralism of security programs, there is still the necessity to work out a comprehensive solution that would incorporate international and regional goals in terms of security.

In the light of the Cold War events, a tense confrontation between North and South Korea is really critical from the perfective of international security policy. The Korean situation has entered even a more tensed opposition due to the North’s nuclear weapons program leading to a serious crisis in 1994 (Kim 2).

The nuclear crises, hence, has become a starting point in disagreements over the appropriate strategies for solving the problems in North Korea. In order to conceive the consistency and essence of the problem, it is necessary to provide conventional understanding of this security policy studies.

Definition of Security Politics Security Policy Studies is a political program whose major focus is made on international security problems and the way the policy reacts to those problems in the light of emerging security threats. The most urgent dangers involve weapons of mass destruction, regional conflicts, international crime, and implications arising from the globalization process.

In addition, security issues also consider international and regional policy reactions to the problems, including the military, the intelligence community operations, international economic policy-makers, and diplomats.

While putting an emphasis on the threat of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), and regional conflicts in East Asia, it is purposeful to consider the main approaches and policy responses toward the security issues to work possible solutions to the problems under consideration (Such et al. 2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Policy Responses towards the Threat of Weapons of Mass Destruction The primary goal of nuclear policy was narrowed to proliferating fear of war. The growing tendency of using power for deterrent purposes, but not for defensive ones, has made the idea of a mere defeating an adversary senseless. Nowadays, the states are striving to strengthen their military forces, but not for the purpose of increasing defense capabilities.

Rather, some states, particular those of Asian region, fear that they will not be able to protect their population with the help of conventional weapons (Brown et al. 23). The threat of deterrent actions leaves them no chances for erasing the nuclear power from their armory.

Analyzing different conventions preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the international policy has worked out several strategies to respond to this problem. To begin with, the main aim of the international program is to convince the countries to join the problem of weapons reduction and confirm their consent to destroy the existing chemical weapons (Armistead 81).

Second, the international policies are also directed on controlling particular activities in chemical and scientific industries to minimize the risk of chemical deployment.

Third, the programs also seek to provide protection and assistance to member countries if they are under the danger by the invasion of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (Armistead 81). Finally, international organizations and conventions should strive promote globalized cooperation for the peaceful utilization of chemical and biological substances.

While evaluating the scales of destructions caused by those types of weapons, the concern with proliferation should be connected not only with the increase of these weapons, but with capacity of countries to provide those in considerable amounts for delivering over designating targets (Jones and Kennedy Pipe 157).

Moreover, security rationales are not considered to be the reason for weapons expansion, but as a trigger for the development of scientific and industrial spheres. Nevertheless, the global society considers it crucial to counter the weapon proliferation in order to ensure the security and peace in the light of the internationalization process (Jones and Kennedy-Pipe 167).

We will write a custom Essay on International Policy Responses toward the Threats of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Regional Conflict specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is obvious that the nuclear weapons and the concept of peace are not congruent with other, but alternative interpretations of these relations give less importance to the deployment of other kinds of weapon (D’Ahieri 219).

A “peaceful” competition between the United States and the Soviet Union has led to disturbances in other countries as the nuclear threat has contributed to a growing tension and necessity to increase the number of nuclear weapons (Shimko 279). Chemical and biological weapons are also included into the concept of weapons of mass destruction. Realizing all dangers and threats of WMD proliferation, a great number of oppositions have been created (Jones and Kennedy Pipe 157).

Evaluating the WMD proliferation from a pragmatic perspective, the international community admits to attain this kind of technology for peaceful measures only (Armistead 78). The WMD acquisition is also permitted for Power-States. In this respect, “…the role of Power-States such as the USA is to prevent non-compliance to the Non-Proliferation Treaty states, which forbid any state to build WMD”.

The major concern of international polices, therefore, is narrowed to searching for appropriate steps for reducing the unlawful actions. One of the most effective methods to counter the proliferation of any kinds of destruction weapons is to block the information flows on the recent technological innovations contributing to the development of WMD (Armistead 80).

Aside from Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention have acquired specific important (Terzuolo 9). To minimize the risk of further destructions, the international community initiated the reforms contributing to “the implementation and strengthening of international arms control, disarmament, and non proliferation norms and agreements” (Terzuolo 9).

Policy Responses toward the Threat of Regional and Ethnic Conflict It should be stressed that the international policy responses toward the problem of regional and ethnic conflicts. This particularly concerns the policy of the Power-States which should be more regulated and consistent. Hence, regional and cultural confrontations always serve as the bases for regional and ethnic conflicts.

This particularly concerns the tensions between the Western and Eastern civilizations pursuing different missions and traditions. With the advent of globalization, this issue has become even more serious and much attention has been paid to resolving national and international conflicts (Kanet 100). Considering the long lasting conflict between the Koreas, the problem is that United State policy toward the South Korea leaves little space for development for the latter.

In particular, such a bilateral cooperation has no perspectives for South Korea to resolve the main problems of security, imposing more restrictions on freedom (Diehl and Lepgold 111). The same problem is connected with North Korea where the excessive control of China aggravates diplomatic relations of North Korea with other countries (Bercovitch 139).

Not sure if you can write a paper on International Policy Responses toward the Threats of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Regional Conflict by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order evaluate the current situation with security politics, particularly those applied to Eastern Asia, it is imperative to evaluate the reasons and historical background of those disagreements emerged in this region (Kapur 153). Hence, regional conflict prevention should be primarily based on confidence building approaches (Lake and Morgan 12).

The conflicting nations should be committed to the obligations imposed on them, including those prohibiting the nuclear weapon proliferation (Al-Rodhan 103). In addition, solid support and assistance should be provided to those countries whose restricted governance capacities do not allow them to sustain safety and stability.

Finally, there is the necessity to reform the system monitoring the trade and information flows for the purpose of improving and regulating intelligence sharing (Al-Rodhan 104). Striking the balance between regional and international goals, the international policy has great chances to improve the current situation.

Conclusion The problem of international security has acquired particular significance for the globalized community. The process of internalization has faced a lot of adversities and one of them is the nuclear power proliferation and the emergence of regional and ethnic conflicts. These issues create serious obstacles for reconciling the Western and Eastern civilizations, specifically if protection and security of the country are at stake.

In this regard, the international security politics is primarily directed at enhancing control over the WMD proliferation and relationships between the regions. Considering the situation in South and North Koreas, a special importance should be attained to the problem of weapon reduction and methods applied to human intervention from the part of the Power States. Using pragmatic and multidimensional approaches to resolving the conflicts will be the most reasonable solution to the particular case.

Works Cited Al-Rodhan, Nayef R. F. Policy Briefs on the Transnational Aspects of Security and Stability. Germany: LIT Verlag Munster. 2007. Print.

Armistead, Leigh. Proceedings of the International Conference on i-Warfare and Security 2006. Academic Conferences Limited, 2006. Print.

Bercovitch, Jacob. Conflict Management, Security and Intervention in East Asia: third party mediation in regional conflict. US: Taylor


Conflict Resolution Essay college admissions essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary


Literature Review


Conflict Resolution Recommendation



Executive Summary Conflict is a common and sometimes important par of an organization. However, if not well handled conflict can result in explosive situations which can lead to an organization incurring significant losses.

Owing to this possibility it is better that an organization prepare in advance for such occurrences with a view to minimizing the resultant losses. The following report will provide the reader some information on the causes, factors and strategies that could be used in conflict resolution.

Background The topic of conflict resolution within the workplace is a very crucial one given that the inclusion of new technology in the workplace has provided additional ground for the emergence of potentially explosive situations (Brinkman


Geography of Sexuality Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Sexuality and Space


Taking Queer further

Queer Gender Spatialities

Reference List

Introduction Geography of sexuality is a very interesting topic yet it only has very little significance. The topic is particularly of great interest to the sexual geographers who try to understand several issues concerning human sexuality, like the sexual desires, relations, sexual institutions as well as the differences.

Sexual geographers work under various terrains for instance, the theoretical as well as political terrains with various queer theory aspects. Their insights are generally materialistic and spiritualized (Adler 1992, p. 88).

Different writers have different views and opinions about the issues of sexuality of differences, and this has generated major debates within the discipline. The field looks into the history of prostitution, the emergence of gay ghettos and the issues of lesbianism within the urban setting. It also looks into major aspects of the queer theory and heterosexual geographies.

Sexuality and Space The issue of Geography of sexuality is not very significant given that spaces have usually been sexualized through the formation of norms that regulate what can be termed as appropriate sexual behavior in the spaces that are usually shared. The regulations governing the same might be unspoken enforced by the authority or people’s expectations like stares.

A person may for instance, be allowed to kiss on the street although rolling on the ground or flow for those in love might not be perceived as appropriate. These regulations might however differ depending on the settings. There are some practices that might not be allowed on a busy street yet it might be acceptable in a sex party. Such places give provision for more explicit sexual behavior.

Another reason for the insignificance of the geography of sexuality is due to the fact that the current society seems to be mainly structured by sexuality. Homes have usually been perceived as places of comfort where one retreats from the world struggles and tussles and finds relaxation and love.

These same places however usually turn out to be places of distress particularly to those who do not conform to the heterosexual perceptions like gays and lesbians. People tend to discriminate against those who do not conform to the ideas of heterosexuality. At times, even the policies that are passed do not put these minority groups into consideration.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More National and international policies tend to discriminate against these minority groups. Taking the immigration laws for instance, there is the exclusion of queer immigrants, some of whom tend to resort to heterosexual relationships so as to benefit (Agarwal 1933:140). Society seems to be already decided on matters of sexuality and its judgments about the matters of sexuality; there are those sexual practices that are perceived as right and others wrong.

There seems to be no ground for accommodation of other sexual practices. The efforts of sexuality geographers might therefore be rendered insignificant as they are unlikely to change people’s perceptions about s matters of sexuality hence rendering the whole issue of geography of sexuality insignificant.

Sexuality geographers often look at the set norms and standards about what constitutes an acceptable sexual practice. These standards are usually set after an understanding or agreement of what can be deemed as appropriate or inappropriate. They can however be challenged. People’s actions and perceptions about sexuality are often shaped by different factors.

Each space, be it the workplace, home or the nation at large is often certain gendered or sexualized perceptions that have either been shaped by these factors. This often influences people’s actions, as they have perceptions of what is known to be common sense in those places. All these factors are not necessarily depended on people’s geographical locations as perceived by the sexuality geographers hence rendering the whole issue of the geography of sexuality insignificant.

Geography of sexuality bases its arguments on gender and sexuality all of which are human creations. Many scholars argue that the issue of gender and sexuality are just human creations, perceptions that are formed for social convenience. They are in the event normalized so that diversion from them is perceived is abnormal.

Spaces have therefore tended to be hierarchically sexualized. Due to the gendering of society, it has often been challenging to categorize the bisexuals within such a gendered society. There inclusion within a geographic space has often been partial. Some sexual geographers have therefore suggested that the human desires be included in the categorization.

This is due to the fact that people’s desires are often enacted through their bodies and this is usually specific to a certain site (Bell 1995, p. 55). This implies that geography of sexuality is insufficient in explaining the issues of sexuality and rendering it irrelevant.

We will write a custom Essay on Geography of Sexuality specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Heterosexuality While attempting to write about queer geography, most sexuality geographers tend to draw their ideas from the queer and social theories. They therefore tend to produce the queer interpretation, different from other disciplines. They are mainly concerned with daily social relations, space production, as well as the materiality of the queer performances. This body mainly concentrates on the identities of the bisexual, lesbian as well as the gay people.

This rarely follows the logical concern of site-specific embodiment of people’s desires. This hinders a thorough queer critiquing of the sexualities production and performance hence proving geography of sexuality irrelevant. According to the feminist geographer’s examination, patriarchal social relationships are usually reinforced by the relations of heterosexists at home or even at the workplace and other places (Bell-Scott 1993, p. 33).

Geographers of sexuality have for long been reluctant to examine the spatial aspects of heterosexuality as well as their identities and desires. The examination of heterogeneity has shown that it is usually specific to given contexts. The heterosexual space is differently sexualized or even desexualized by different people and for different people at a certain time. Heterosexuals therefore usually involve themselves in different ways of self-production and surveillance.

It has been found out that various aspects of heterosexuality are either more dissident or queerer than others. This has hence posed a challenge to the existing heteronormative power relations. Deconstruction of normative heterosexuality has therefore proved difficult while using the queer theory. Geography of sexuality is therefore ineffective in addressing matters of sexuality.

There are some regions where prostitution and commercial sex work has been legalized hence complicating the issue of Geography of sexuality even more. Diversity seems to be prevalent in the heterosexualised spaces. This makes the whole aspect of morality to be questionable. Sex tourism and other forms of commercial sex work have been given space across several nations.

This proves that geographic complexity in the matters of sex trade. There has however been some form of coercion and regulation of sex trade due to some perceptions of morality and immorality in the heterosexual geographies. Geography of sexuality has not been able to explain the complexity of all these matters to the fullest hence proving itself insignificant.

Issues of sex tourism, commercial sex work among others need therefore to be studied closely while trying to understand the aspects of Geography of sexuality. This proves the complexity heterosexuality in social space. Construction of heterosexuality is vital in the construction of different forms of alteration or difference.

There is an argument put forth that straight geographies are queer as well. While studying heterosexuality, focus is mainly put on the urban centers while leaving out rural areas that might have relevant statistics vital for the study. The outcome tends to be biased on such grounds (Cockburn 1983, p. 289-295).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Geography of Sexuality by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This means that the outcome of geography of sexuality findings are usually biased and limited given that the focus is on a few regions for instance the urban centers hence living out the others areas like the rural population. The implication therefore is that geography of sexuality does not fully represent the sexuality of a whole population.

Taking Queer further Geographical critiquing of sexuality is also challenged due to the fact that the social and political ground on which such critiquing is done keeps changing with time hence making the issue of sexuality geography outdated and irrelevant in most of the cases.

There has for instance been gay and lesbian activism in most western countries in the recent past as compared to some long time in the past. Some media houses have adopted the trend and they tend to focus positively on these minority groups.

In some countries and institutions, the appropriate changes have been made in their laws so as to accommodate these groups. This is however not uniform across the globe. Some societies, institutions or even countries still consider gay and lesbian lifestyles as abominable and hence abhor them.

The geography of sexuality of the past years is very different from that of today. There is therefore no uniformity in the whole aspect of geography of sexuality hence rendering it insignificant (Cockburn 1983, p. 488).

There seems to be no uniformity in the matter of people adopting the gay or lesbian lifestyles. There seems to be a very significant difference between the gay communities of countries in the Far East and those in the western democracies. Most of the men ascribing to the gay lifestyle in a country like Indonesia for instance still had the aspiration of marrying some day.

The case is different in most of the western countries as some of them for instance have even legalized a marriage institution for the gay or lesbian couples. This makes it difficult to have a clear definition of queer identity. With time the whole concept of queer: lesbian/gay may have to be redefined. There seems to be incompleteness in their identity.

This has proved to be a challenge to the Geographers of sexuality as they may not be in a position to clearly define what constitutes a queer lifestyle, and whether it is depended on spatial aspects. The final implication therefore being that the geography of sexuality is irrelevant as it is not uniform across all the regions.

People have tendered to define sexuality and gender with clear lines of distinction and it is believed that ones gender or sexuality must be coincide with his/her biological sex. One can therefore only be defined as male or female. This is problematic as it does not put any intermediate levels of classification. Gays, lesbians and bisexuals are therefore left out.

Any deviation from these perceptions of gender or sexuality tends to perceived as being abnormality or deviance. Queer understanding of sex and gender has been made complex and there seems to be no homogeneity in the whole issues of gender or sex definitions. Transsexual activists have been pressing for their recognition as a different sex from that of male or female. This pose a challenge to the perception that one’s sex must either be male or female (Edelman1993, p. 565).

Sexuality geography has not been able to address the problem as well as it has gone by the clear cut definition of gender and sexes being just two hence failing to fully address the recognition of transsexuals and queerness. This therefore implies that it is ineffective in addressing matters of sexuality to the fullest hence being irrelevant.

There seems to be differences in the Geographers of sexualities concerning issues of sexuality and gender. Contrary to the perception that all sexuality Geographers ascribe to queer definitions of sexes, some geographers in the real sense do not ascribe to the queer theory. The queer theory emerged from humanities.

Its adoption within a geographical arena that is mostly social science oriented has had its own challenges coupled with problems as well as interesting points. The social sciences have been concerned with how social relations are regulated in material ways by different institutions. Sexual geographers have therefore been challenged particularly when it comes to materializing and specializing queer theory insights.

Social sciences have been said to known for producing contrasting insights in to the whole issue of queer theory (Emberley 1993, p.100). The lack of uniformity in the insights concerning queerness and the fact that different sexuality geographers ascribe to different viewpoints makes the geography of sexuality unreliable and hence insignificant.

Geography of sexuality seems to be limited in matters concerning queer geographical imaginations hence proving to be insignificant in many aspects. There has been a call to queer geographical imaginations even further. The queering should not be limited to those divides opposing materialistic world views but should be discursive and opposed to emotions and desire against mind rationality. There needs to be queer spatial ontology. The ideas should not be fixed to place. They need to put emphasis on ephemeral connections as well as the gatherings and movements.

Issues of heteronormativity tend to be shaped by other factors rather than the geographic aspects, like morality and disability construction. The western sexuality ideas have tended to be globalised and most of their ideas are deemed as being acceptable. Their ideas may for instance come while packaged with foreign Aid like community project funding.

Their ideas about sexuality are therefore brought into the needy countries hence defining for them what is right and wrong. This therefore renders the whole idea of the geography of sexuality biased and unviable as it never addresses such issues (Hayden 1981, p. 55).

Issues of sexuality are practiced and influenced by policing differently within different regions. This causes significant differences in sexuality within different spatial locations. There seems to be no uniformity in all matters and definitions of sexuality. Some aspects of sexuality are not necessarily geographical.

There are cases for instance when there are different races occupy the same geographic region and in some cases they intermarry. This renders the whole aspect of the sexuality geography to be complex and hence dangerous to rely upon hence proving to be of no importance. Using queer in trying to understand the aspects of heterosexuality has proved to be problematic as it becomes problematic to put clear boundaries between those who are straight and those who are not (Frankenberg 1993, p. 74).

Queer Gender Spatialities Generational cultures seem to play a very significant role in matters of sexuality. The youth today might for instance approve gay and lesbian relationships while their parents may not necessarily approve of them. In the past years, most of the work concerning queerness was mostly directed towards criminalizing queerness. Queer sexual practices were perceived as transgression and those indulging in them were mainly called to reformation (Fine 1992, p. 333).

Today there are many works that campaign for the recognition of the individuals who ascribe to the queer lifestyle. The differences in the views about sexuality may therefore be due to generational factors rather than people’s geographical locations. This therefore makes one to question where geographical sexuality comes in. Geography of sexuality may therefore in this case be perceived is irrelevant as it fails to address the issues of generational differences. Instead it focuses on spatial differences (Fuss 1987, p. 33)

Geography of sexuality tends to avoid certain aspects of sex. It restricts on what can be tackled concerning sex. It brushes over the matters of sexuality without going into minute details. There are topics about some sexual practices that tend to be avoided. Some details about sex are avoided on the ground that they are so embarrassing.

This limits the field as it cannot tackle the matters of sexuality to the fullest. Matters of queerness are for instance dealt with in an abstract and general form and some questions tend to be avoided. Geography of sexuality can therefore not be relied upon while looking at the minor details concerning sexuality and this makes it insignificant (Haraway 1988, p. 99).

Most of the sexuality geographers are straight. They are therefore not in a position to handle the topic of queerness to the fullest. In any case, they might just be biased due to their sexual orientation. They cannot fully represent the voice of the queer.

Most of them tackle the matters of sexuality with a heterosexual mindset hence failing to understand the whole issue of queerness (Hanson 1995, p. 39). The geography of sexuality research findings and perceptions concerning the matters of sexuality are therefore inaccurate and biased hence making it irrelevant.

Any Form of Research is in most cases is expected to add onto the peoples knowledge or it is aimed at finding possible solutions to human challenges. Such research usually targets a particular population or group of people. There are however numerous questions concerning the issue of Sexuality Geography. The research carried out in this case usually covers erotic subjects that some of which could be perceived as pornographic and other sexual transgressions.

The major question therefore asked is whether research carried out on topics of queerness is in anyway meant to improve people’s lives. What is the purpose of such research? To who is it directed? It seems like the general purpose? Is there any reason to study erotic in sexuality geography? This therefore renders the whole aspect of geography of sexuality irrelevant and insignificant given that the topics covered are erotic and do not necessarily add value to people’s lives.

Sexuality Geography usually leaves out so many aspects that affect sexuality, hence making it inefficient and insignificant in addressing sexuality issues. For instance the cultural differences play a very significant role in the issues of sexuality.

Different people have varying health believes, experiences or even practices concerning the matters of sexuality. This might be depended on the person’s ethnicity physical or mental state, ethnicity, gender among others. For sexuality geography to be comprehensive, it must put such factors into consideration (Gibson 1992, p. 10).

The Geography of sexuality is rich in the theoretical aspects although little is being done on the ground to at the health and sexuality studies intersections. Thus health and medical aspects are yet to be incorporated into the subject of queerness. Most of the medical geography is marginalized and hence excluded in the study of Sexuality geography hence making sexuality geography incomplete and hence of no importance (Gilroy 1994, p. 290).

Most of the people are still shy to openly speak out especially in the countries where the people who ascribe to this kind of lifestyle meet with cruelty from religious, political and other groups. Good examples are those Islamic states where gays and lesbians may be literary killed through stoning. People from such places may therefore be very reluctant to openly speak about their sexuality due to the fear of intimidation. They may on the contrary speak lies so as to save themselves hence rendering Geography of sexuality irrelevant.

Reference List Adler, S.,


Branding British Tomatoes: Responding To New Foreign Competition Threats Coursework college essay help

Table of Contents Background

The Tomatoes Challenge

The Branding Strategy

The Advertising Message

What Consumers have not been told about Tomatoes

The Target Market

Advertising Strategy: to Promote Healthy Eating

Media Strategy

Works Cited

Background British growers are facing competition from foreign exports and this has prompted them to put up an intense fight. Whereas the trend towards the domestic sustainability has indeed assisted the British farmers to secure some sales, in the future market, this only may not be sufficient enough.

John Giles said this while addressing the British tomato growers association at their 2010 conference. The UK has become a prime market for tomatoes as it has a greater appetite for the tomatoes and other product besides having affluent customers.

The Fast Moving Consumer Goods markets have seen competition among producers and suppliers increase and it has facilitated branding as a strategy to stay competitive on the market. Many producers have conducted a number of marketing campaigns to enable their products to develop strong brand identities for consumer products like bread (Warburtons bread, etc) and milk (Cravendale and Yeo Valley milk, etc).

These advertising and promotional activities for these consumer products have combined both the rational and emotional appeals with a unique image description with certain characteristics to attain competitive advantage.

The Tomatoes Challenge Having been faced with imminent threat from foreign competition, the larger UK tomato grower Ennivel has come up with a strategy to develop a brand identity and a communication strategy for marketing its products on the domestic market. Ennivel has secured the three leading supermarket retail chains in the UK namely, Sainsbury’s, Morrison’s and Tesco.

Nonetheless, Tesco has already begun purchasing tomatoes from the Spanish, Dutch and Italian importers and this has caused worry to the Ennivel executives that the business may not be able to compete aggressively with these larger exporters based on prices and quality alone. It’s with this in mind that Ennivel is developing a brand of tomatoes that will communicate the healthy eating lifestyle (Organic fresh tomatoes = Healthier life).

The Branding Strategy The brand name i proposed for Ennivel tomatoes was Choochi. This is a very simple name and easy to keep in mind once a person comes across it. The name can readily be remembered and they can easily pronounce it. Furthermore it could be associated with chewing based on the sound. It is therefore almost a descriptive name describing tomatoes as edible.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The double O between the consonants will be drawn into tomato shapes therefore people can connect the name with tomatoes as they read it. Moreover the name Choochi can be easily identified as a logo and it will be drawn in red with the two O’s depicting very ripe and succulent tomatoes

As a group we however settled on branding our tomatoes as “Lyco” instead of Choochi. We derived the name Lyco from the word lycopene. Lycopene is the name of the carotene compound found in tomatoes. The group thought that this name was more suggestive of our product; therefore its quality will definitely be associated with superiority. This is why we thought the name was the most appropriate as it was connected to tomatoes in a unique way.

The Advertising Message I suggested to the group that Tomatoes have a lot of benefits and the advertising will seek to adopt a message that will summarize all these benefits in simple and short message. Generally tomatoes add colour to food. Ripe tomatoes are usually red in and when used for cooking they cause food to have a reddish coloration that is appealing.

Tomatoes are sometimes served as a main dish thus some people think it is a vegetable (Thybo 835). Due to their taste, tomatoes also add flavour to food especially foods like sandwiches, pizzas and other delicious delights. One can delightfully enjoy a simple salad that is made of onions, tomatoes and cucumbers.

However, it is important to note that tomatoes are not just taste makers they have several other incredible benefits that entail possibility to prevent cancers and heart problems. For this reason, we as a group settled on advertising our brand as an important health food product. Our advertisement strategy will have two goals. The communication objective will be to build health awareness among our customers.

We tell them that organic tomatoes boosted their health by protecting them from possible serious diseases like cardiovascular problems. Since health is a serious matter, we anticipate great response because many people are conscious of their health today. The group decided to adopt the advertising message in the form of “the Slice of Life Appeal”.

This technique is founded on the conflict-solution concept where the consumers are presented as having or fear an impending problem. As a result they are actively seeking to stop it or prevent it.

We will write a custom Coursework on Branding British Tomatoes: Responding To New Foreign Competition Threats specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This makes a lot of sense because health statistics have shown that there have been an increasing number of people suffering from cancers and cardiovascular diseases over the past three decades. These medical problems are a very serious concern to the society. However, out advertising strategy presents Lyco tomatoes as part of the solution to help prevent such problems from developing.

Tomatoes have a number of health benefits and among them include the ability to prevent cancer. Antioxidants in tomatoes have the ability to prevent cancer (Metzger 67). Cooked tomatoes have been found to have the highest levels of lycopene which is the carotene element responsible for the red coloration and also linked to the protection of DNA from damage (Caballero 105; Metzger 67).

Tomatoes also contain other antioxidants like vitamins A and C which function to reduce risk of cancer. Tomatoes are therefore protective against prostrate cancers, breast cancers, oral cancers and stomach cancers among others (Metzger 67).

Ennivel intends to market Lyco tomatoes as healthy food stuff and as such, there are several slogans or messages that were proposed to help market its tomatoes (Thybo 835). Based on the benefits that tomatoes have, the following slogans were suggested ‘colour for your food’ this was drawn from the fact that the reddish tomato coloration adds colour to food (Caballero 107); ‘fill your life/meal with love’, this was derived from the fact that ripe tomatoes are red and in most cases red in that colour of love.

‘We like choochi’, was suggested to draw consumers into being connected to Choochi tomatoes because of their quality; ‘delicious is tomatoes!’ slogan was also suggested to help market the tomatoes are spicy and tasty for food preparation.

Lastly, there was the catchphrase ‘Tomatoes are cool and healthy’. This is the slogan that will now be employed in the advertising message. The slogan is derived from the fact that tomatoes are essential food ingredients that not only add flavour and colour to food, but also have other healthy benefits. Therefore in order to sum these benefits in a short and attention attracting phrase, this slogan was selected.

This is because the firm aims at selling the idea that consumption of fresh organic tomatoes was a healthy habit for healthy life (Thybo 835). The word cool may not be formal but it has deeper meaning in the contemporary society where people of all ages associate it with being classy, superior, important and attractive. Therefore associating this term with healthy is very tactical, as it will deliver the message simply and vividly to children and adults without seeming boring or too fancy for adults (Lewis


Mohandus Gandhi’s leadership Research Paper college admissions essay help

Introduction Mohandus Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma, was a leader of the people of India; he was not only a political and ethical leader, but also a religious leader. This leader is the founding father of Indian nation, as he aided his nation to attain independence from the British. The guiding principles of Gandhi were truth, individual and political self-policing (Bischoff, 2010, p.3).

Generally, Gandhi used various weapons that included “non-cooperation, non-violence, and peaceful resistance” from the British (Bischoff, 2010). Simply, leadership is defined as a process by which someone takes the role of motivating or influencing others to follow a certain course for a common agenda or objective.

Many styles of leadership have been employed in various fields in life; however, the style of leadership employed by Mohandus is termed as follower centric that evaluates the existing conditions before setting strategies to be used. Moreover, mahatma’s leadership was also situational as various tactics were employed to different circumstances.

The style of leadership used in the Indian revolution is applied in some governments and businesses to day. A key aspect of the leadership was motivation and empowerment, which are essential in business and requires every member involved to be connected to the organization’s goals. Gandhi has a way of doing that – making sure that everyone in the cause is connected to the goal.

As a great leader, Gandhi managed to not only influence his fellow Indians, but also many other leaders in the world to participate in movements for civil rights internationally, for instance, Nelson Mandela, and martin Luther Jr.

This paper will explore leadership of Mohandus, and some government that use his style of leadership. Moreover, personal qualities, traits, and characteristics that made mahatma a successful leader will be explored. Finally, the paper will discuss Gandhi’s limitations in his role as an Indian leader.

Thesis statement: the most important principle of leadership is forming personal character, having personal conviction and the influence of religion through prayers. Moreover, essential leadership skills emphasized by Mahatma include the need for constant growth and strength, while influence is not obtained by muscle power.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Leadership style of Gandhi Gandhi was an outstanding and charismatic leader in India who led a revolution to end colonialism by the British. In his leadership, Gandhi leadership skills were centered on ethical, servant, and spiritual leadership theories (Bischoff, 2010). However, Gandhi’s leadership is seen to be situational, since he advocated for use of a leadership style depending on the circumstances prevailing.

Ethical leadership Gandhi was an ethical leader who modeled ethical behavior to the Indian community. Ethics are standards of beliefs and values that guide conduct, behavior, and activities; in other words, a way of thinking that provides boundaries for our actions. Ethical leadership is therefore defined as the act of leading based on ethics at all times. The principles of ethical leadership are truth telling, keeping promises, and fairness and respect for all individuals.

Through telling the truth, Gandhi was able to influence people of India to recognize their rights and need for revolution. He modeled what he expected his followers to act on and practiced ethical leadership, as his core motivation was to benefit his fellow countrymen and women rather than himself, thus he was ready to face the consequences of his actions.

Moreover, his life’s motivation was to attain social achievement rather than personal achievement. He attained his goal by transformation of the beliefs, values and the behavior of his followers. In this case, the transformation was achieved by empowerment and education.

Integrity is essential in ethical leadership; Mahatma portrayed his integrity through adhering to ethic behavior, thus his advocacy for non-violent means during the revolution. He actually cancelled campaign that yielded to violent behavior i.e. rioting. Moreover, Gandhi applied equal standards to all people regardless of their caste in society.

He did not manipulate his followers to participate in revolution activities i.e. fasting, but he allowed them to make choices freely. As a leader, Gandhi was imprisoned for several years for his actions but he did not give up his desire for change in his nation. Finally, Gandhi categorized seven social sins that he challenged his followers to evade at all cost.

Servant leadership Mahatma was a servant leader; servant leader is defined as a leader who serves his followers (Bischoff, 2010, p.6). Servant leaders usually have various traits including integrity, empathy, listening to name but a few. Gandhi as a servant leader was ready to suffer for what he believed in and he was not influenced by titles or wealth and money but lived in humility, which can be attested by the simple loom, weaved cloth he wore.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Mohandus Gandhi’s leadership specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Polelle (2007, p.24), “modern servant leadership approach emphasizes collaboration, trust, empathy, and ethical use of power.” Gandhi was largely involved in humanitarian work; indeed, most of his money obtained from his work as a lawyer was used in assisting needy people in the society (Polelle, 2007, p.24).

Importantly, his leadership did not discriminate any caste in the society, as he worked with low castes in India who were discriminated by fellow Indians.

Spiritual leadership As a spiritual leader, Gandhi demanded peaceful coexistence of all religions irrespective of the fact that he was a Hindu spiritual leader. He believed that all different beliefs led to the same ultimate truth; hence, there was no need for religious conflict (Polelle, 2007, p.24). Using power of love, the leader was able to overcome any negative emotions on the colonial masters that led to his choice of non-violent ways to repel the British.

Through this belief, he advocated for peaceful coexistence of Hindus and Muslims and all levels of castes in the community, hence a unified nation. Further, he promoted other spiritual attributes such as Peace. Mahatma believed that his enemies should be treated honorably irrespective of their behaviors.

Transformational leadership Gandhi is seen as a transformational leader as he single handedly raised the motivation and morality of his followers during the Indian revolution (Shriberge


Effectiveness of prophylaxis Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Introduction Prophylaxis refers to therapeutic or community healthiness procedures carried out with the aim of putting off, as opposed to offering treatment or restoration to health of an existing condition (Community-Based Prophylaxis, 3). Prophylaxis is as well a means to curb an outbreak of infection, or reduce the signs of a person who has had exposure to an infection or germ.

Principal prophylaxis involves any procedure that is carried out to put a stop to infection prior to its occurrence. An appropriate illustration of this is having one’s teeth proficiently cleaned by a dental practitioner. This exercise goes a long way in putting to a stop bacterial plaque, tooth rot, and gum infection.

Resulting prophylaxis involves measures that help put a stop to contagion following contact with an infection, or to play down signs linked with a sickness or fitness state. For instance, if a medical practitioner gets infected with the HIV/AIDS virus, they will take an antiretroviral medication to assist them keep contraction of the ailment at bay.

Immunizations are an appropriate case in point of prophylaxis. Vaccinations are used to make certain that the receiver does not catch a given ailment, for that reason doing away with the likeliness of a requirement for therapy later in life.

On a broader extent, urgent situation preparedness is a further type of prophylaxis. In view of the fact that epidemics can come about in devastating circumstances, being geared up for such an occurrence reduces the requirement for ultimate cure.

Condoms are branded as prophylactics since they help put a stop to maternity and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Antibiotics are in given times utilized as prophylactics when the affected role has got contact to an ailment or germ such as anthrax, to minimize the signs or secondary effects from the contact.

Anticoagulants are administered to those persons who are ill with heart and blood vessel ailment(s). In most times these patients take a day after day prescribed amount of acetylsalicylic acid in the type of over the counter medications. These medications assist in thinning of blood and as a result lessens the danger of blood coalesces that leads to heart attack or stroke.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Every therapeutic field one can consider makes use of prophylaxes. Cosmetic general practitioners administer medications to their patients to assist keep at bay deep vein thrombosis (DVT). This is a possible danger with any superficial surgical procedure. Exposure to radioactive substance for cancer sufferers is regarded as prophylaxis.

Even the persons who carry out homeopathy and substitute medication have an assortment of types of prophylaxes that they utilize in providing treatment to sufferers (Community-Based Prophylaxis, 6). Prophylaxis can make reference to a far-reaching regime of medications and therapeutic measures, or it can be as straightforward as using an antibacterial mist on an injury to hasten curing and put a stop to contamination.

Mass prophylaxis Mass prophylaxis refers to the capacity to save from harm the healthiness of the populace by means of administration and effective management of important interventions in reaction to a community health urgent situation in a bid to put off the buildup of infection amongst the persons who are uncovered or are potentially uncovered to community health dangers.

This ability takes account of the availing of suitable go through and keeping an eye on undesirable occurrences, not forgetting risk announcement subject matters to tackle the distresses of the community (Mass Antibiotic Dispensing). Mass prophylaxis can take place at the local, regional, state, or federal levels.

Is there a level where mass prophylaxis is more effective than the others? The not long ago anthrax attacks in the United States and other assaults like 9/11 and destruction as a result of Hurricane Katrina and the corresponding measures serve as the best grounds on which to get answer(s) to this question. To face up such tests one has to be aware of performance necessities for a most important occurrence at the duty stage and make and uphold the abilities to carry out those duties.

What took place from the above mentioned cases showed that watchfulness for major occurrences has to engage all echelons of the administration (National Incident Management System). That means the local, regional, state and federal levels play equally significant roles in the undertaking. The private sector, non-governmental entities and the general public also need to chip in for success to be realized.

Effect Proper medicine prophylaxis and immunization approaches are put into operation in a well-timed method in the lead to the commencement of an occurrence to put a stop to the progress of ailment in exposed persons. Community information approaches take account of proposals on detailed measures people can take to save from harm their relations, acquaintances and themselves.

We will write a custom Essay on Effectiveness of prophylaxis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Contribution by all levels to offer desired results What is required in such an arrangement is a nation geared up with harmonized abilities to put a stop to, save from harm, act in response, and pull through from all dangers in a manner that steadies threat with the available resources and requirements. For this to be achieved, the course(s) of action has to come up with precedence to meet the needs at hand. To begin with area group effort has to be spread out in order to reach as many people as possible, if not all.

This needs to start at the local level. With such an arrangement in place it then becomes easy to put into operation the national incident administration scheme and the national reaction arrangement, among others. While this is taking place it needs to be ensured that information distribution and group efforts are made stronger (Hupert, 17).

With this then medicinal surge can be built up together with mass prophylaxis abilities. Once all the above has been done then the reinforcement of planning and population watchfulness abilities automatically falls into place. Achievement is delivered by suitable arrangements of scheduling, categorization, apparatus, instruction and workouts.

All the stakeholders have to be involved at all levels if the desired results are to be achieved. They have to be involved right from the start, that is, in drafting of the course of actions to be followed. Chipping in can be done through nationwide stakeholder forums, operational organizations and the private division.

Defining the Capabilities The abilities are obtained from a hazard and operation scrutiny. The foremost step should be finding the response to the question ‘how prepared does the given entity need to be?’ This means there has to be the variety, capacity, enormity and difficulty of the situation to be tackled.

Operation breakdown has to be worked out in order to offer a general idea of all the significant roles connected to attainment of the desired outcome. It is there to make sure that awareness undertakings are centered on task accomplishment (Emergency Management Accreditation Program Standards).

The nationalized scheduling situations are there to serve as the ground for classifying roles that may be essential to effectively put a stop to, guard against, act in response to, and pull through a broad array of dangers and risks, also the abilities required to carry out the assignments.

From this it is clear that whoever is keen on isolating the federal and carry out the exercise at the local, regional, or state level is going to miss out on a very important matter. As a result there needs to be a collective assignment list where assignments that needs to be carried by various stakeholders as the administration, non-governmental, private and the public are catalogued.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Effectiveness of prophylaxis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For such an exercise to be successful, it has been shown that no single authority or organization should be anticipated to carry out each assignment identified and no two entities need matching height of abilities. This is further proof that all levels have to work hand in hand, that is, local, regional, state, and federal levels.

The reality of the matter as regards to federal priorities is that they are subject to be altered together with their sustaining plans. This occurs whenever there is a surfacing intimidating situation and struggle for limited resources. As a result, mass prophylaxis will suffer a setback if it were being carried out at the federal level minus involvement of the other levels.

Alteration of plans by one level will not bear negative consequences in a case where all levels are involved as one or more of the other levels will chip in to accommodate such changes. What’s more, divisions of roles to be worked out are normally decided on considering definite tasks, assignment, purposes, and the suitable echelon of abilities will rely upon risk and requirement when all the levels are involved.

One of the main roles of the federal entity is to make available a guide for establishment of a lead for coming up with a nationalized system of capabilities that will be at hand at the moment and place where required in order to put a stop to, guard against, act in response to and pull through major occurrences.

On the other hand, if such a duty were left to say the local level, then it would prove to be an uphill task to come up with the required results (Incident Communications Emergency Plan). However, when the state has come up with the guide and definitions for the entire task at hand, then lower levels can comfortably chip in. In addition, it will be a problem for the lower ranks to carry out their assignments if in the first place they are not adequately defined.

In this spirit, the federal level has to craft an objective abilities catalog(s). This is a reference draft that illustrates the abilities for attaining comprehensive watchfulness. It also steps in as a scheduling, evaluation and workout tool. The list has to fully cover the areas discussed below for satisfactory results to be attained.

Risk evaluation is the foremost of these items. The definition of risk takes account of recognition and categorization of dangers, their end results, and the populace’s susceptibilities.

With each of these being vital for abilities-based scheduling and national watchfulness, establishments of susceptibility are vital as they consist of not only contact and predisposition, but toughness. Hardiness is a major aspect as it refers to the populace’s dealing with capability to soak up occurrences, become accustomed to, act in response to and pull through its affects.

The next item is planning and is devised to set up and uphold the capacity to build up, bring up to date, and experiment strategies. What’s more, each item is normally full of both watchfulness and performance roles and procedures that back up the ability result and act as a lead for watchfulness scheduling.

The watchfulness assignments and procedures illustrate most important aspects or matters that should be taken in hand in strategies, events, and schemes, as well as administrations, interactions, and accords that need to be in place to get geared up to utilize the item. The performance assignments and procedures as well enlighten the scheduling procedure.

The next stage involves crafting of lines of attack to tackle the issue at hand and validation of the venture. Normally, the general structure presented by the instructions, priorities, and abilities serve up as a lead to improve mother nation defense policies and venture rationalizations at all echelons.

Evaluation of watchfulness is vital and needs to be carried out. A well researched catalog should be in a position to offer a ground for evaluating watchfulness to assist authorities and societies to prepare tactically, draw suitable plans that satisfy verified requirements, and assess the efficiency of ventures over time.

Emphasis should be laid on duty performance. Training agendas need to be adjusted as proper to make certain that they offer partakers with understanding, technique, and capabilities to carry out the most important duties defined by the list of activities to be worked out (DHS, Office for Domestic Preparedness). It is vital that these duties are worked out to an aptitude level adequate to attain the competence end result(s).

Assessment of abilities needs to be carried out through work outs. Such work outs offer a way to assess and authenticate watchfulness. For instance in the United States, the Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program, popularly referred to as HSEEP is intended to egg on a universal exercise plan, carry out, and assessment line of attack crossways all echelons of the administration and private sector.

The duties of this body are intended and assessed to show capacity levels by means of evaluation of performance of decisive duties and attainment of results, as laid out by the list of tasks to be accomplished.

Hypotheses required for prophylaxis to be carried out successfully For such an exercise to be worked out fruitfully, there are assumptions which all partakers and especially at the federal level need to bear in mind. The first is that the requirement for prophylaxis can come about at any moment with little or no notice at all.

What this basically means is that all the levels right through from the local, regional, state and federal have to be ready for such an eventuality(s). This means coordination between the various levels can be easily achieved to attain the desired result(s).

Giving out as much information as possible as relates to the matter at hand is very vital. This has to apply at all levels for effectiveness of the exercise. Again, this should take place at the off the record and unclassified stages crossways various authorities and among the civic and private sectors (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).

The exercise has to engage solitary or several geographical regions. With this in mind then it again calls for collaboration between the various levels of society for effective outcome(s).

It is important for the partakers in such an undertaking to have it in mind that whatever is being carried out has may bear noteworthy global affect and/or may require considerable global data giving out, resource harmonization, and/or backing.

As the world is today there are some nations that are more advanced in one sector or another than others. As a result, if a nation is well endowed in knowledge and expertise in what some other nation requires, then the two have to work out a compromise on how to assist the one in need.

Carrying out of prophylaxis effectively can stretch the field of occurrence supervision to take into account putting a stop to, defense, reaction and resurgence.

The exercise also engages numerous, very much wide-ranging risks and dangers. As such all the partakers at all levels have to take precautionary measures to keep out of harm’s way. Carrying out prophylaxis may end up in several injured persons, losses, dislocated people, and loss of material goods, interference of regular living prop up structures, vital public amenities, and fundamental infrastructure. There might also be the occurrence of considerable harm to the surroundings.

The exercise may affect vital infrastructure crosswise sectors. It also has the capacity to overcome abilities of federal, state, regional and local administrations. The same may also apply to the private sector resource holders and operatives.

It is also noteworthy to assume that prophylaxis may be a magnet for an incursion of spur-of-the-moment unpaid helpers and provisions (Receiving, Distributing, and Dispensing Strategic National Stockpile Assets). The exercise may also call for short-notice positive feature harmonization and reaction. It may also call for long-drawn-out, continued event running actions.

Community preparedness and chipping in It is now clear that all the administration levels in any given country or nations have a role to play in effective implementation of prophylaxis. The local community is also very important and efforts need to be geared to ensuring that all persons are wholly awake, educated, and trained on the way(s) in which to put a stop to, safeguard against, get ready for and react to all dangers.

As a result, it is vital for the whole populace to have a duty in individual awareness, trainings, and continuing volunteer curriculums and rush forward competence reaction. Detailed capacities for general awareness, together with understanding of all risks (scientific, ordinary, and rebel occurrences) and associated defensive procedure, techniques, and provisions should be able to be settled on by the locals by means of a joint procedure with urgent situation respondents.

Consequently, there needs to be a framework and a course of action for continuing group effort between government and nongovernmental resources at all echelons.

The outcome of this should be that volunteers and private sector contributions are slotted in policies and work outs, the populace is informed and skilled in the key assignment areas of awareness, and they take part in volunteer undertakings and offer capacity back up (Hupert, 25). Such preparedness will also ensure that private resources are administered efficiently in catastrophes and there is a provision in place to assess advancement.

Moving forward – improvements to any form of prophylaxis capabilities list The capabilities list stands for a most important footstep toward being prepared and effective application of mass prophylaxis. In instances where values and guiding principles are real, they have to be used, although standards and guiding principles may not be real for a lot of these capabilities.

As a result, a good deal of the information in the capabilities catalog is to be founded on the best decision and know-how of the persons who took part in drafting it and those who analyzed and made comments on it.

The capabilities list is therefore a vital document that has to be devised so that it can be added to as time goes by as stakeholders gain knowledge form its function and relevance in the practical arena (Emergency Management Accreditation Program Standards). The most excellent way through attaining this is by utilizing it and making out and highlighting where it requires alteration.

For instance, one needs to find out whether there exist urgent tasks that have to be incorporated or improved. Whether there are standards to gauge performance, if these standards need adjustment such that they can fit in various situations or levels and whether there are enough resources t the given level and task at hand are some of the other questions partakers need to ask themselves.

Another important thing to find out is whether the goals and duty responsibility for drafting and holding up offer the set of connections of capabilities that will be offered at the time and place they will be required. Partakers have the duty to assist change anything that they see that will not work for their field.

Works Cited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “PHIN Preparedness – Countermeasure/Response Administration Functional Requirements.” Version 1.0. (April 2005).

Community-Based Prophylaxis. “A Planning Guide for Public Health Preparedness.” Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Department of Public Health. (August 2004).

DHS, Office for Domestic Preparedness, Metropolitan Medical Response System (MMRS) program. (2006). Web.

Emergency Management Accreditation Program (EMAP) Standards. (September 2003). Web.

Hupert, Nathaniel. “Modeling the Public Health Response to Bioterrorism: Using Discrete Event Simulation to Design Antibiotic Distribution Centers, in a September-October 2002 supplement to Medical Decision Making (Med Decis Making 2002:22(Suppl): S17-S25).” (2002).

Incident Communications Emergency Plan. ICEP–2004. “U.S. Department of Homeland Security.” (2004).

Mass Antibiotic Dispensing: A Satellite Web Cast Primer. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (June 2004). Web.

Mass Antibiotic Dispensing-Managing Volunteer Staffing. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (December 2004). Web.

National Incident Management System. “U.S. Department of Homeland Security.” (March 2004). Web.

Receiving, Distributing, and Dispensing Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) Assets: A Guide for Preparedness, Version 10 – Draft, June 2005.


Leadership: Alan Keith Essay best college essay help

Table of Contents Abstract



Discussion and analysis



Abstract Exemplary leadership in organizations is an important ingredient if success is to be realized. In this regard, it is crucial to note that different leadership styles influence the manner in which organizations are run on a daily basis. In other words, success level of any organisation or company is gauged by the leadership structure in place.

From the style of leadership, the top management of companies and other organizations can affect how ethics and ethical dilemmas are handled especially when making decisions. Nonetheless, the various sources of power such as legitimate and expert power are equally strong determinants in exemplary leadership. Additionally, character trait as described by the theory of the Big Five has also been found to be very instrumental in influencing leadership.

Introduction Leadership is a very momentous practice that is required in day-to-day running of organizations and small groups. Effective leadership is paramount if significant success is to be realized. The ability to pioneer has been known to be one of the most important attributes of exemplary leadership. Thus, leaders should be people who are willing and able to venture into the ‘white spaces’ or the unknown.

The need to expedite growth and innovation is usually the desire of leaders to boost the performance of organizations. Nonetheless, new products and services are not created by leaders per se. Indeed, other staff members of an organization are instrumental in initiating the process of change and the much needed innovation (Brown


Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Sexuality in the Hispanic Culture Term Paper writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Cultural Overview

Attitudes and Preconceived Ideas

Counseling Approaches and Challenges



Cultural Overview Hispanic Americans (also known as Latinos) are individuals of Puerto Rican, Cuban, Mexico, South or Central America, or other Spanish cultures regardless of their race (Foster, 1999). Despite, the differences in terms of nationalities, LGBT Hispanics have many values in common as reflected in their spirituality, altruism, and family values. Regardless of the diversity in their socioeconomic and cultural systems, their contribution to the society is remarkable.

Lesbians, gay, bisexual and transgender sexuality is tough in the Hispanic community. There is a clear definition and rigidity of female and male roles guided by strong cultural taboos. Men are the breadwinners of the family, a duty that requires men to play the father figure role in the family (Eisenberg, 1999; Green Heritage News, 2010, November 26).

Women on the other hand have to be submissive and play a subordinate role in the family (Green Heritage News, 2010, November 26). Hispanics therefore has to conform to the societal standards making it difficult for those who would have to play reversed roles given their sexuality. This conformity standard thus makes it difficult for homosexuals to expose their sexuality in spite of their fight for respect in the society and an end to stereotypes.

In simple terms, Hispanic community rejects LGBT. Traditional Catholicism in Spain, as was practiced and still is, only permits marital procreative and chastity sexual behavior (Eisenberg, 1999). Catholic teachings thus regard all forms of LGBT sexual behavior sinful, a stain in the church. This rejection of homosexual and bisexual behavior is, however, dangerous as it only aggravate health problems in the society (Corrales and Pecheny, 2010).

For instance, while there has been a rising trend in the prevalence of HIV/AIDS among Hispanic men who have sexual relationships with more than one partner, including homosexuals and bisexuals, infections among LGBT remains unreported. The case is the same even for lesbians.

Eisenberg (1999) asserts this in his historical overview of homosexuality in Spain, which dedicates twenty pages to lesbian writing in Spain. In his writing, he expresses the fear that female homosexuality has been underexplored owing to the rigidity of cultural and religious values.

Attitudes and Preconceived Ideas Jorge Sanchez, a researcher with the family Acceptance Project, said cultural issues make homosexuality a difficult topic among Hispanic families and communities (San Francisco State University, 2009). Family issues are kept secret; a practice, which Hispanics believe protects the harmony of family.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The prevailing cultural values and norms makes it even difficult to discuss sensitive issues of sexuality within the family or at the community level. Given the negative views arising from cultural perception, it is hard to deal with homosexuality topic in Spain. Hispanic Americans still live under the macho-patriarchal mentality, which is strong in Hispanic culture (Foster, 1999).

During the first one and a half decade after the return to democracy, LGBT issues in Latin America remained in the closet (Corrales and Pecheny, 2010). Hispanics only discussed topics of homosexuality and bisexuality in very small circles. Unquestionably, autocratic rule was not generally gay friendly.

In Brazil and Argentina some tiny, but visible, “homosexual liberation groups” emerged in the 1970s and took a beating from authoritarian (Corrales and Pecheny, 2010). In Cuba, LGBT citizens placed themselves in labor camps in the 1960s (Corrales and Pecheny, 2010).

However, since the 1990s Hispanics has experienced a significant “coming out” that included protections against discrimination based on sexual orientation. In 2003, Rio de Janero state legislation banned sexual orientation (Corrales and Pecheny, 2010).

Counseling Approaches and Challenges In treating Hispanic clients, the family is the cornerstone. The family, which may be one’s relatives or just host to an immigrant, constitutes the support network (Sue and Sue, 2007). New immigrants even find it devastating since they have to cope with the stress resulting from separation from their families and loved ones while at the same time they have to learn a new language, cultural values and behavior (Sue and Sue, 2007).

Even though homosexuality exists in Hispanic community, the behavior is only acknowledged privately (Eisenberg, 1999). Furthermore, issues of homosexuality remain in the closet owing to the rigidity of Hispanic culture. Driven by this, Hispanics may prefer being members of the mainstream culture to self-identification as lesbians, gay, bisexual and transgender culture (Eisenberg, 1999).

In the mainstream culture, a person who engages in sexual act with a member of the same sex is labeled gay or lesbian depending on his or her gender identity (Sue and Sue, 2007). However, in Hispanic culture some men who play the dominant role during the sexual intercourse refuse to accept the gay label (Foster, 1999). Providers should consider this distinction especially when treating Hispanic clients.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Sexuality in the Hispanic Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hispanic culture demands high respect for family ties and values, individual trust, group needs and objectives, some of which are rooted in traditional values relating to Catholic faith. Religion plays a central role in the lives of most Hispanics especially Hispanic Americans who hold high respect for religious values.

Hispanic Catholic values consider topics of homosexuality and bisexuality sinful thus discouraging open discussion of related issues. Latino clients value the recognition of challenges arising from cultural issues when dealing with sensitive issues like drug abuse. Providers should recognize individual stress arising from family, spiritual and emotional challenges (Sue and Sue, 2007).

The same approach should be used when addressing Issues related to LGBT. Most clients are likely to hide information regarding their private life including sexual behavior, addiction and illness. Besides, most families value strong gender roles making it difficult for LBGT Hispanics to speak about their problems in public.

For instance, machismo, which is the strong sense masculinity, can make it difficult for gay Hispanics to seek treatment since this is likely to expose their sexuality and make them subjects of stereotypes in the community. Machismo is just one of the many ways stereotypes have affected the rights of women and the minority like gay people in Hispanic community.

Other traditional values ascribed to men and women equally make life difficult for lesbians and gay Hispanics. For instance, Hispanic culture views assumption of the opposite gender role as a taboo. Lesbians and gay Hispanics may thus find it difficult to expose their sexual roles. Furthermore, Hispanic culture places men at the centre of the family (Eisenberg, 1999).

It would be thus difficult for Hispanic men to accept themselves as members of LGBT culture. If only families would be empowered to accept such critical issues as homosexuality, then it would be easy to deal with problems arising from LGBT behavior. Family heads always play the important role of guidance and counseling.

It is, therefore, important to empower the family to be able to discuss issues arising from homosexuality, bisexuality and transgender openly. Most Hispanic Americans base their leaning on the context as opposed to the process. It is worth noting that the way one presents information greatly influences how the learner receives it. Avoid mentioning direct names when giving examples to minimize chances of embarrassment when discussing sensitive issues of sexuality.

The best healing method should draw some teachings from religious beliefs. People always hold high reverence for religious beliefs. Counselors should use spirituality as a background to influence decisions regarding behavior change processes. However, cultural and religious values of procreation, machismo, and family name continuity may be a barrier towards the disclosure of one’ sexuality.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Sexuality in the Hispanic Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Hispanic culture is deep rooted in Catholicism and family values. There is a clear distinction of gender roles and any behavior that goes against is a taboo. Hispanics use stereotypes to insult LGBT Hispanics. It is thus difficult to address the subject of LGBT, which many regard as sinful and “un-Spanish”. Knowing one’s culture is a testament to discovering and learning other’s culture when counseling.

It is important, as a counselor, to understand Hispanic culture including their rituals and relationships. The counseling atmosphere must be comfortable to LGBT and I am sure I will create a gay-friendly environment for clients. I also believe that in my counseling profession, this newly gained knowledge about LGBT issues among Hispanic Americans will be very useful during the counseling assessment process.

References Corrales, J.


Curriculum Development Paper Essay best college essay help: best college essay help

Curriculum development is a well structured plan of the subjects to be taught in school and what is being learned by students as is reflected in the courses that are offered for study and the programme in school. This systematic plan is then embedded in an official documentary or put together as a curriculum guide and then disseminated to the interest groups and key stake-holders in the education sector for the purposes of implementation and strict adherence.

A curriculum has to be made mandatory and not a choice. The curriculum discussed in this paper is very specific and follows the formula 6-3-3-4.These curriculum has been developed to reflect the changing scenarios in the world today and the dynamics in the job market.

Currently the kind of curriculum followed will go along way in determining the quality of workforce being produced and will too affect the economic advancement of a country. A nation build on strong education or school system will be well managed and its base will always be on a sound footing (Hunkins, Ornstein, 2009, pp.6-30).

Some countries have very comprehensive curriculum development and education system such as the one used in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia is one of the countries with very high literacy levels in the world today which stands at 62.8%. The percentages of males who are literate stand at 71.5% while that of female stands at 50.2%.

The system of segregation in terms of the sexes is followed in Saudi with the education system being divided into three distinct parts which are usually administered separately. Important to note is that both the boys and girls usually do the same exams.The curriculum in Saudi Arabia follows the technical-scientific approach.

The distinctions of the education administration include the education specific for boys, for the girls and also the traditional education which is muslim oriented.The curriculum followed in the country constitute 6 years in the primary school with the age of the students being 6-12 years, then intermediate schooling at the age of 12-15 years which takes 3years at most.

After the intermediate the student proceeds to secondary school which again takes 3 years at the gae of 15-18years. Students at secondary school level can choose the general school, religious school or the technical secondary. After the secondary school the curriculum of Saudi Arabia stipulates that a student proceeds to for higher education at the university which takes 4 years at the age of above 18years.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More After the higher education at the university, there is the university –higher education where one can persue masters which takes 2 years, general diploma in the department of education which takes 1 year or do PhD which takes 3 years following a qualification for a masters degree and where one has to present a dissertation which should be based on own and independent work on research (Hunkins, Ornstein, 2009, pp.40-57)

The 6-3-3-4 curriculum identified in this paper is reflective of the one for Saudi Arabia but distinct. It is embedded and undertaken in the following way. The system is usually administered separately for each of the four stages involved and no segregation by sexes as both boys and girls are taught in same classes and environment.

The first six years involves children aged between six to twelve years. These will be called primary school in which upon completion a student will be awarded a leaving certificate called the general certificate for primary education. The curriculum will incorporate subjects like English, Kiswahili, art education, history, Christian religious education, home economics, geography, mathematics, basic agriculture, social education


Leadership of the School Community Essay college essay help near me

Table of Contents Literature Review

Method and Analysis


Work Cited

School managements should ensure that leadership practices exceed previous systems regarding their administrative roles, this can be realized when the administration makes involves other stakeholders in decision-making proceses.

In order to ensure that the relationship between the management and the stakeholders is fruitful, the objectives of the two parties must coincide. In this article, Legotlo and Mathibe prove that a school’s administration can collaborate with the local community in issues such as decision-making, and the benefits of this collaborative effort.

The objective of this paper is to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the article in the areas of style, problem definition, methodology, originality and analysis as used by the author in coming up with this document.

Literature Review In this section, we attempt to give a summary of the document under analysis. As an introduction, the article mentions that if a school relates with the society positively, the partnership will lead to the school’s development, whereas the neglect of such a relationship would lead to the school’s alienation.

The stakeholders in the society who can collaborate with the school comprise of students, teachers, parents, non-governmental organizations and the state. School managers should incorporate decentralization in their leadership style as opposed to the former principles of centralization in which school heads make all the decisions (Legotlo and Mathibe).

The authors then attempt to define leadership both in general, and when applied in a school setting. The authors say that a school leadership should motivate the community to support their visions by being actively involved in their implementation. He explains that, in the 21st century, there is a requirement for transformational leadership to empower all stakeholders.

Legotlo and Mathibe then embark on a case study of South African schools. From their findings, they state that the country produces outstanding leaders despite South Africa’s rating as one of the countries with the least developed educational systems in the world. This success, according to statistics, is because schools meet the interests of the entire body of stakeholders.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The stakeholders, on their part, do much in ensuring that schools meet their objectives. In addition, the South African government stipulates that decision making in schools should be decentralized. The authors conclude that this decentralization concept of leadership will work only if the stakeholders and the schools have a common vision.

Method and Analysis The research articles used by the authors are crucial to understanding organizational behavior and the effectiveness of such organizations, however, one has to read the article numerous times to have that clear understanding concerning UAE’s organizational behavior patterns.

The topic, though, suggests that decentralization of decision-making in a school is vital to incorporating other stakeholders such as parents, students, non-governmental organizations, staff members and the state. From the findings of this research, many of the management bodies ought to borrow organizational practices of decentralization from schools in South Africa.

The authors’ introductory note and the assigned studies are significant in the education sector. The introduction gives useful information, for example, the government of South Africa insists that there should be a partnership among all stakeholders.

For us to relate the introduction of the article to the problem statement, one would have to read the introduction several times. Nevertheless, the authors’ thoughts in the introduction have a decent flow. They start by emphasizing the importance of human relations and serving people, since these promote the development of a school.

In the second paragraph, they show that partnership with stakeholders leads to joint decision-making and equal distribution of power. The authors conclude that it is necessary for school institutions to upgrade their leadership structures to transcend past management practices of centralization.

When it comes to the relevance of the sources, we can conclude that they are comprehensive and up-to-date. According to a website dictionary, educational leadership is the process of capturing talent and resources that are available within the school staff, pupils and parents.

We will write a custom Essay on Leadership of the School Community specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This definition coincides with the definition given by one of the cited authors, who mention that educational leadership is the process of acquiring knowledge and making prerequisites for development.

These similarities prove that the document and its claims are up-to-date. Nevertheless, the authors need to state clearly that they are discussing the topic of leadership in the education circle, although we can get that from the text. It would have been better if they added “educational leadership” in the section title where the topic on leadership is under discussion (Legotlo and Mathibe).

The tone of the article is stern and objective, and the authors go straight to the point. Legotlo and Mathibe vary their findings from factual to comparative. For example, they state clearly how the Education Department in South Africa is heavily involved in the participation of stakeholders in the development and management of schools.

Table 2 in page 6 gives a comparison between leadership and management. The authors’ conclusive research is evidently by their use of numerous sources. Their choice of words is appropriate although other sections are complicated to the average reader. For example, the thesis statement is not easy to comprehend.

In the article, there is the incorporation of statistics, where the authors cite the Beehive Survey in page 4. This survey expounds on community participation in organizations and the way it leads to the production of outstanding leaders.

Nevertheless, one would expect to find more than one set of statistics for such an informative article. In addition to the statistics given, the use of graphs and charts to present these statistics would bring out their findings in a more profound way.

There is some limitation to the author’s originality since he is citing too many articles to support their claims. There is no problem in using these citations, but the author’s original thoughts seem to get lost within the numerous citations quoted.

The authors did a lot in analyzing leadership and management as shown in table 1 and 2 of pg. 3 and 4 respectively. Table one gives the differences between transformational leadership and transactional leadership. Table 2, on the other hand, gives a comparison between leadership and management.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Leadership of the School Community by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nevertheless, from the discussion, we would expect to find a table comparing performance of schools, where the involvement of the community in decision-making and where community is not involved. Such a table should have social relevance of the content taught in school on one side, and its outcomes one the other as the variables.

The authors’ conclusion, though wordy, emphasizes the need for partnership between schools and communities, to improve the quality of education. However, stakeholder interests may be in conflict with those of the school, and this would lead to a stalemate. The ideal situation would be when the school’s vision and the stakeholder interests are in line.

There were sources that could prove that the above findings were accurate and executable. In addition, Legotlo and Mathibe made an excellent reference page. He arranged the references in alphabetical order, according to APA citation style requirements.

For the in-text citations, there were good citations quoted from other sources, showing that the author is knowledgeable. The only concern was that most of the sources dated before the year 2000. This implies that some of the findings in the article might be either irrelevant or outdated.

The article contributes to the organizational behavior of an institution given that other organizations, apart from schools, can adopt the authors’ findings and use them for their benefit. An example of such institutions is local government offices, which would benefit from a partnership with the citizens.

This would improve their service delivery and the government would be more accessible to people. Although few leaders are aware of the advantages of decentralized management, the knowledge and implementation of the findings can become truly profitable to their organization.

The essay shows complication, and reading the content can be difficult. There are sections in the article where spotting the main idea that the authors want to bring out is difficult. It would be advisable that the reader should be able to understand the main idea of the section or paragraph within the first few lines of their reading, yet this is not the case. For example, the diction used in concluding the article is complex, and not easy to understand.

The article is lengthy, and the authors needs to improve on structuring the hierarchy to improve the logical flow of the document. The headings and subheadings stand out, and the lines are of reasonable length. The writer has used many paragraphs, and this helps the document improve on its readability although none of the paragraphs is indented.

The use of tables is commendable since it breaks the monotony of the plain text. Such a document would be even more appealing, if the author included graphs and charts to explain his findings in a better way. As stated above, the relationship between academicians, practitioners and other stakeholder, where there is sharing of leadership and decision-making, would be extremely fruitful, if their objectives are in line.

Conclusion Legotlo and Mathibe conducted in-depth research before coming up with the article, this is readily evident from the volume of sources that they use to back-up their arguments. The advanced language used made the article complicated; thus it was not so easy to read, although it was appropriate for the intended audience.

The argument was logical, and the author’s facts were accurate. The text was well organized and clear, and this helped the reader to have a better understanding of what the concepts put across by the authors. There is sufficient evidence to back-up their claims, bedsides, there is clear definition of relevant terms and the arguments made supported the main points.

The texts did not have an opposing point of view (or a counter-argument), though the writer concluded that all stakeholders had to have a common goal.

From the article, the writer makes it is clear that whenever the school or any other organization incorporates all stakeholder in the decision-making and leadership process, both stand to benefit, as long as they have come together to achieve a common goal. This information would be beneficial to UAE’s organizational behavior and organizational effectiveness.

Work Cited Legotlo, Modise W., and Mathibe, Isaac Ramoloko. The Leadership of the School Community as Sharing Power and Decision Making in the School. No Date. Web.


Quality Management in Education Term Paper college application essay help: college application essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Quality Management

Quality Management in Education

Application of Quality Management in Universities



Introduction Improving the quality of education around the world has become an important activity as many institutions of higher education (colleges and universities) struggle to create better educational opportunities for their current and prospective students. According to various stakeholders in the education sector, quality management has become one of the fundamental components of higher education in the 21st century.

The access to education is no longer an important fundamental component of education as quality education continues to gain centre stage in many educational institutions. Basic education is now deemed insufficient or incomplete if it is not accompanied by quality management in teaching and learning strategies.

Quality education has gained a lot of importance as it is used in the development of excellence, knowledge and expertise which are vital aspects in the growth of an economy (Ali


The Power in Social Science Report (Assessment) custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Agenda Setting

Structural and Disciplinary Practices

How Power is Created



Introduction In a general sense, power gives an individual (or an entity) the authority to control the behaviors of other people or influence the environment to suit ones need. Power has often been perceived in a number of ways but legitimately, it has often been referred to as authority (Greiner 1988, p. 4). The exercise of power in the society can be either beneficial or retrogressive to the society, depending on how it is applied.

For example, in the business environment, power can be either perceived as top-down or bottom-up (Greiner 1988). Either way, control is exerted on the subordinates or the leaders. For example, in the top-bottom approach, power is exerted on the subordinates but on the bottom-up approach, power is exerted on the leaders.

Often, power is confused with coercion and arm-twisting of peoples’ will towards the advantage of an individual or entity (however, this need not be the case at all times). On one hand, power is normally referred to as influence (in the European society), and often, the two terms are used interchangeably; but practically, it refers to different things (Moore 1990, p. 1).

Nonetheless, in political and social circles, power has often been analyzed in the context by which it enables individuals to do something. Many researchers and philosophers such as Michel Foucault and Niccolò Machiavelli have in the past tried to expose the existing dimensions of power but evidently, power is witnessed in almost all forms of human actions (Moore 1990, p. 1).

Comprehensively, it can be analyzed that power is the distinctive tool that makes most human actions possible and in the words of Michel Foucault (a French philosopher) (cited in Moore 1990, p. 1), power is “a complex strategic situation in a given society social setting”.

These definitions abound, this study seeks to analyze the concepts of power and how it dictates the social and political landscape of the society. Emphasis will be made on how power influences the setting of agendas and how it determines structural and disciplinary practices. These factors will develop a conceptual understanding of power after which this study will analyze the sources of power and how it can be created.

Agenda Setting Agenda setting is basically a political process which involves very competitive players who normally have conflicting points of view regarding a number of political, social or economic issues (Sanchez 2002, p. 1). When power is in play, the agenda setting process is normally contingent on competing entries on policy agendas; but most importantly, power influences the behavior of groups in the entire process.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This means that the position and views of policy makers can be directed in a pre-determined manner, upon the exercise of power. For example, if a decision maker is the custodian of power, a lot of the interest groups can tailor their decisions towards the decision maker’s point of view.

In a different light, there are many issues that affect the society, and a number of them require immediate spotlight during the process of agenda setting. Power is a tool that is normally exercised to elevate certain issues to become matters of priority, with some of them being accorded high or highest attention, depending on the amount of power that may be exercised (Puentes-Markides 2007, p. 1).

This analysis exposes the fact that power can be exercised to spotlight certain issues to reach the highest platform in political agenda setting through capturing the attention of the government, media or the public. In fact, the agenda setting process is normally very competitive, such that, even the most important issues may fail to be highlighted.

A clear example of how power play takes centre stage in the agenda setting process can be evidenced from the recent healthcare debate in the United States. Puentes-Markides (2007, p. 5) explains that this kind of example is a political process where the numbers of people who support a given bill are categorized on one side and those who oppose are categorized on another.

He points out that the power-play going on in this kind of situation is based on the power to mobilize players and an assessment of the strength of all supporters in the agenda setting process. More emphasis is made on the political feasibility of a given process, based on the powers and strengths of the players in the process. The powers and strengths of players can either be categorized as low, medium or high.

Structural and Disciplinary Practices The structural concept of power can be easily determined through power structures that influence how long one can be influenced by control and who ultimately holds the realms of power in any given situation (Strange 1996, p. 54). The structural aspect of power can be equated to democratic processes where the structures in place (electoral structures) are set to determine who holds power and for how long.

Through the structures of power, the relationship between power and the people is redefined. For example, dictators like Adolf Hitler (and the likes) assumed a lot of authoritative power because the people let go off their power in the first place. This kind of scenario affirms the point of view that power does not exists in a vacuum because often, it is people or leaders who exercise it, therefore birthing it.

We will write a custom Assessment on The Power in Social Science specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When deeply analyzing power structures, the relationship between the actors or players in a power game is exposed because their relationship is defined by power structures.

Power structures however vary from one geographical region to the other. For example, the power structures in the rural and urban communities are different because of the nature of homogenous communities in the rural areas and the disintegrated communities in the urban settlements (Moore 1990, p. 7).

In the field of social science, power structures are normally perceived as static, but in the real life situation, the structures of power change and shift due to changing coalitions brought about by conflicting interests on various issues (Moore 1990).

For instance, in the modern society, where power is more complex than the rural areas, the structures of power are normally sophisticated and an evident focus on specialization of skill and knowledge is often evidenced.

This kind of situation can be represented in a manner whereby in a community, a certain individual can have knowledge and skills about how to deal with the community’s issues; meaning that they would be a source of power (as pertains to matters regarding the particular community).

The power structures existent in any given community does not exist in vacuum because a number of external forces are normally in play. For instance, there is the issue of government influence that normally influences the power structures in the community, or the issue of external financers who sponsor the work of different communities (Moore 1990, p. 11).

Power structures are normally evidenced in a number of ways. For instance, there is a power structure that gives control and influence to a single individual who makes most of the decisions within a community. This type of power structure is quite rare in today’s society (even when studied in rural community settings) and can be equated to the pyramidal power structure where excessive control and influence is entrusted on a single family, industry or any other entity (Moore 1990, p. 10).

Secondly, there are clique power groups that can wield so much power, as to control the activities of a given group. This implies that a group of individuals with common interests come together and pool their influence to create a centre of power. Thirdly, there is the opposite of the clique power group which concentrates power on two different communities (Moore 1990).

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Power in Social Science by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This can be generally assumed to be a split-community power structure where power is concentrated on two separate centers of power. Normally such situations are evidenced when there is competition between two opposing groups or when there is a force of change working, where one group opposes change and the other supports it.

Thirdly, there can be a power pool structure that concentrates power to different centers which are formed by a clique of people who are aware of each other’s existence, but do not partake in each other’s decisions (Moore 1990, p. 11). Finally, there are amorphous power structures where new communities develop but no strong power structure exists. Such sort of situations can be evidenced in mobile home parks, apartment complexes or other similar environments.

In the area of disciplinary practice, power can be exercised to affect virtually all types of disciplinary practices. First in the formulation of disciplinary practices, power can be used to determine the type of disciplinary measures to be undertaken in any given social setting.

In most traditional societies where power was heavily vested on an individual; the individual could use his position to determine the type of disciplinary measure to be carried out in a given situation. For instance, if a person committed the crime of robbery, the power wielder could determine the type of disciplinary measure to be given to the offender.

However, in today’s world, power has been focused on the law and the constitution, such that, disciplinary practices are essentially defined by the law. Courts are the official custodians of the law and they execute what is written down as the law of the land. In a general sense, this means that power is vested in the law and the courts in particular.

However, the exercise of power can surpass the laid down disciplinary practices and structures as identified in this study. Again, the type of power structures evidenced in a given community is the determinant for excessive control that power gives people or institutions.

For instance, there have been many situations in a number of countries where power is excessively exercised by an incumbent president, such that, the laid down laws and disciplinary practices in a given community are subordinate to his or her control.

For example, if an offender is arrested by the government for committing a certain offence and sentenced to life imprisonment; in some societies, the president (who is vested with immense power) can pardon the given offender. This kind of excessive control is even evidenced in the Western society.

How Power is Created Power is normally created in a number of ways. However, before we understand how power is created, it is important to reiterate that power does not exist in a vacuum but rather in relationships between two or more parties (Mann 1993). In this manner, we can deduce the fact that power is not constant but can shift from one party to the other.

The first way through which power is created is through coercive means where power is vested on an individual, out of the basis of fear or an unimagined force (Moore 1990). For instance, the power God has over people, or the power religion has over its followers can be largely termed as coercive power because it is largely based on an unimagined force and fear.

However, this power is still wielded in the real world where people give power to an individual, out of the pretext of fear or of escaping hurt or unfair treatment from the central source of power. This is one way through which dictators, the world over, have used to exercise authority over their fearful subjects.

Some of them have perfected the art in such a way that they reinforce the belief that a contravention of the will of the person in power can tremendously affect the life of the subordinates. Some use threats, extortion, death and such like tact to instill fear on their subjects so that they rule. If people cave in to such fears and coercive tact, then they give the mastermind of such tact, the power to rule not only over them, but their consciouses as well.

The above power relationship can be evidenced through the power wielder and the subjects. In other words, the subjects give away their power to the power wielder by acting in a given manner that suits the power wielder (in order to avoid being hurt). This kind of power creation method is not as common today as it used to be in the past because in most societies, democracy is quickly taking root and more freedom is being evidenced through unrelenting global, political and social pressures to do away with coercive forces.

Secondly, power is created through legitimate or positional means whereby an officeholder enjoys immense powers attributed or entrusted to a given office (Mann 1993). For instance, the office of the British prime minister is an example of an office that has immense powers on national politics and the office holder enjoys premiered powers attributed to the office.

Often, the higher the status of the office, the more compliance one is able to enjoy; as can be seen through certain high offices like the president’s, dean’s, directors’ and the likes (because such officeholders can practically determine what happens in their spheres of control and be assured that whatever they order will be carried out) (Moore 1990, p. 14). Usually, such sort of power is uncontested because it is legitimate and positional; meaning that people acknowledge its existence and decide to let it prevail over them.

The relationship evidenced in this type of power-play is almost similar to the coercive type; only that the will of the people is normally respected in the positional type of power. For instance, in the election of the president of America, or any other democratic country, a democratic electoral process is normally undertaken where people vote to entrust a certain individual with the power to lead.

The biggest distinction between coercive and positional power is that no coercion actually takes place in the creation of positional power and people vest power to a given individual, purely on their own prerogative. However, instances where democratic processes have been infiltrated by malpractices such as voter bribery, voter coercion (and the likes) are isolated cases. Nonetheless, the kind of relationship depicted in positional power can be evidenced between the voters and the officeholders, where voters give authority to a given individual to wield power.

Thirdly, power can be created through the possession of knowledge or expert skills needed in a given social, economic or political environment (Moore 1990, p. 14).

However, such powers cannot be created until the followers or subjects acknowledge that the skills, talents or expertise possessed are needed (and they respect the custodians of such expertise) (Moore 1990, p. 14). Examples of expert power can be manifested through doctors, lawyers, college instructors and similar professionals and where subjects respect the expertise brought by these individuals.

Giving rewards is also another way through which power is created among individuals and institutions. In the socio-political discipline, this type of power is normally referred to as reward power. It is created out of the ability of an individual or institution to give gifts, promotions, recognitions or such like rewards (to the subordinates).

In this manner, subordinates are bound to reciprocate through acknowledgement and respect, which ultimately gives an individual immense power. The organizational setting is a good platform to explain this kind of power because certain individuals hold reward power over others.

For example, a managing director is normally entrusted with the power of acknowledging or recommending certain employees for promotion or bonuses. His or her ability to do so automatically elevates him or her to some level of power within the organization, where he or she can determine the fate of an employee in the given organization (with regards to career progression or monetary reward).

This kind of ability gives one the power over subordinates because many would not cross such power wielders, just so they get a given reward. In organizations or setups where the stakes are too high; the power of individuals who wield the reward power is also likely to be increased in the same manner. The opposite is also true whereby if the stakes are low, the power wielded by an individual may equally be low.

Power can also be created on the basis of an individual’s traits and characteristics (Moore 1990, p. 15). This can be evidenced when a leader possess charm, charisma, sensitivity or creativity in a given field of excellence, where other players in the same field recognize him or her as the power wielder.

These types of powers are normally intangible and it becomes increasingly difficult to quantify them, but when well exercised, an individual can command a lot of loyalty, respect and awe in his or her peer circles. This kind of situation can be evidenced in the political scene where leaders who possess charisma, charm or such like attributes command a huge following.

In fact, the possession of such traits normally increases the popularity level of such leaders and therefore other political players in the scene can easily acknowledge the potential of such kind of power in changing the political scene (because with it comes a huge following of people).

The ability to possess information is also another way through which power can be created (Moore 1990, p. 16). This kind of power exercise can be evidenced in the ability of certain individuals to disseminate or withhold information in the society. The same power is also evidenced in the ability of an individual to get hold of information.

The power of an individual increases if the kind of information withheld by a given institution or person is of utmost relevance to someone else, organization or a given community. This means that many people would go out of their way to get hold of a given piece of information if they cannot do without it. The person who holds such kind of information is therefore the power wielder.

People who have been synonymous to such powers have effectively used information power to channel and withhold information to suit various interests in the organization or community (Moore 1990, p. 16). This sort of strategy has been observed to be an effective way to control human actions because people act in a correct or incorrect way, depending on the kind of information they have.

The ability of an individual to know someone who holds power is also another way through which power is created (Moore 1990, p. 17). This kind of power is often referred to as relational power. It is interesting to note that this centre of power normally differs with information power because its proponents are normally motivated by the assumption that “it does not matter what you know but who you know” (Moore 1990, p. 18).

The ability to develop strong networks between individuals is therefore very essential to the creation of relational power, but more importantly, such networks should be proved beneficial to the community, individuals or a given organization. For instance, people who have stayed within a given social setting for a long time are likely to develop relational power because they are more likely to have developed strong social networks as opposed to those who have stayed within a community for a short time.

Conclusion Power in social science can be a useful piece of study, as this study points out, because power affects most functional areas of life. Understanding power structures (as this study identifies) can be a useful tool to induce change within a given society and in understanding past and current political systems.

In the political setting, we can see that power significantly affects agenda setting where comprehensively, this process determines what issues are to be dealt with in the society.

We can also see that power significantly affects, or surpasses disciplinary practices in the society. This is majorly evidenced in the social context. From the understanding of power-play in the society, it is therefore easy to understand how power is created. This is the ultimate step through which individuals can learn how power affects the society. Comprehensively, these factors determine power in social science.

References Greiner, E. (1988) Power and Organization Development: Mobilizing Power to Implement Change (Addison-Wesley Od Series). Alexandria, VA: Prentice Hall.

Mann, M. (1993) The Sources of Social Power: The Rise of Classes and Nation-States, 1760 – 1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Moore, E. (1990) Understanding Community Power Structures. (Online) Web.

Puentes-Markides, C. (2007) Policy Analysis and Decision Making. Bridgetown: Barbados.

Sanchez, M. (2002) Agenda Setting. (Online) Available at: http://zimmer.csufresno.edu/~johnca/spch100/7-4-agenda.htm .

Strange, S. (1996) The Retreat Of The State: The Diffusion Of Power In The World Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Motivational Interviewing Essay college essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Motivational interviewing principles

Group Therapy Approaches

Family and marital therapy


Reference List

Introduction As a treatment intervention, motivational interviewing hinges on humanistic psychology principles. The treatment is directive, client-centers, and endeavors to enhance motivation for change via ambivalence resolution, in addition to enhancing the patient’s perceived self-efficacy (Burke, Arkowitz


The role of women’s labor in British Columbia Report best college essay help: best college essay help

The epoch of industrial capitalism of XIX-XX centuries was full of difficulties and challenges. The women were engaged in economic life of the country all over the world, and Canada is not an exception. Through women’s hard work, the female part of the human society asserted themselves as equal members of society.

Exactly women’s work in the industrialized and capitalistic world of XIX-XX inspired the report. The aim of the paper is to understand the role of women’s labor in British Columbia during the period of industrial capitalism.

In XIX century, British Columbia was one of the British distanced colonies that experienced industrial capitalism and colonialism in its own way. The immigration of aboriginal women to British Columbia was one of the wide-spread phenomena of that time.

The role of women grew in the context of Euro-Canadian labor, as many countries enriched and capitalized itself by means of exploitation of the aboriginal population of the colonies. Millions of women from different parts of the world became the servants of the dominant English class.

For example, the Indian women processed different materials that allowed them to manufacture baskets, gloves, moccasins, make rags and mats, etc. for the benefit of the white race. Other aboriginal women sold berries to European tourists. Some of them were employed to do a laundry work and other productive activities.

There was a high demand in handicrafts and clothing for traders, tourists, hunters, and travelers. The exploitation of hard labor and skills of the aboriginal women in British Columbia was accompanied with numerous problems. The position of such women in society was miserable. In the capitalistic world, they could not but to choose paid domestic work or seasonal waged labor in order to survive.

Canadian industrial revolution happened in 1851-1921. This period was exhausting and painful for many women. Certain changes were inevitable. That time, domestic service was the most accessible paid employment for such women. Those women, who moved from rural unprofitable areas to urban industrialized localities, could find paid work within manufacturing enterprises.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More As the service sector developed intensively, the women could be engaged in sales, nursing, teaching, etc. By the World War I, the amount of women with white-collar jobs prevailed over women in manufacturing. However, the life of the women in the rapidly developing Canada became more complicated.

Women faced the evident difference between the life of a woman at home and the reality of a hard work within the industrialized world. Often, they experienced poor working conditions; for this reason, the protests were the natural reaction. Gradually, the phenomenon of an employed woman outside her home led to changes in public’s opinions.

Migration became challengeable experience for many women who searched for the better life. Sometimes, such women achieved their aim, and settled in the farming territory, where it was possible to live a peaceful and happy life. Nevertheless, some of them died of a hard labor; some of them had to wait for their husbands who went off to the distanced places to make money (for example, to Klondike).

There was a tendency to migrate to the western, more profitable regions. There were different motives: a successful marriage, a high-waged job, etc. In the same time, more and more immigrants entered Canada in the beginning of XX century (about a half million). They came from the USA, the British Isles, France, Poland, Ukraine and other countries of the continental Europe.

Of course, immigrants faced lots of barriers: language gap (for those who did not speak neither English nor French), racial and cultural hostility. Many white women saw the future of Canada without female representatives of Asian countries. For this reason, there increased the cost of a head tax for those immigrants who wanted to live in Canada: in 1904, it was $500.

It led to the presence of illegal female immigrants who were brought by businessmen (especially, the Chinese girls). The migration helped women to escape from the past life; absence of a good job and financial status made people search a better life abroad. The migration of that time had its own tendencies: often, it became impelled and illegal.

The female immigrants worked as waitresses, domestic servants or prostitutes. However, thousands of women who migrated to British Columbia faced poverty. Thus, women who had many children could die because they were unable to support their large family. In this context, the role of an immigrant aid committee grew. It provided some help for such women (for example, daughters of such women could be hired as kitchen helpers for a minimum wage).

We will write a custom Report on The role of women’s labor in British Columbia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The women who migrated from the rural territories to the cities had logic reasons. There were some “push” and” pull factors” that motivated women to move to the Canadian cities. Pull factors were economic opportunities and prospects of a city, need for independence, achievement, attraction of wealth and status; push factors were conditioned mostly by economic necessity.

The farming live was full of challenges and exhausted labor, but the life in the city seemed hard, as well. Nevertheless, more and more women hoped to find a well-paid job and realize their prospects in the cities and industrial towns: Toronto, Monreal, Hamilton, Ontario, Quebec and others.

Although many women moved to the urban are, some women remained in the rural localities. Sometimes, their labor-intensive work brought little wage or no pay at all. Women worked at home and in fields, as well. They made and washed clothes, cooked food, gathered and grew vegetables and fruits. Those women who dedicated their life to rural work did know neither weekends nor festal days.

Successful work brought income to both their families and the country’s economy. Market-oriented women sold their products (eggs, meat, milk, butter, etc.) on markets, and earned money to produce more products that would help the families to survive.

In the context of the industrial world, spinning and weaving continued to be quite popular productive activities. It was either family tradition or possible income. However, the role of men in farming and trading grew. It means that many rural women found themselves without occupation; their work became less demanded, and women felt less appreciation.

The dower rights of aboriginal women were tenuous. When a woman’s husband died, the land could be inherited by either a son or a widow. However, the land was speculated in the industrial and the capitalist world; the positions of a dower were too weak. In 1866, there was adopted the Lower Canadian Civil Code gave dower more rights in order to preserve the inherited land.

Nevertheless, few women inherited their land, and became real landowners. Women suffered from lack of public recognition. Consequently, the women’s role was isolated. The condition of aboriginal women worsened the superior status of the western-European communities.

Gradually, a woman’s role was decreased, as there spread the idea that a husband is the only responsible family member in terms of money making. The status of a man as a family supporter overshadowed the women’s positions in society. Thus, a woman turned into a home worker who looked for children, and did domestic work. However, the life of an urban woman was different.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The role of women’s labor in British Columbia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In cities, the families were smaller; for this reason, an urban woman had less cares. Besides, labor-saving technological advantages facilitated women’s housework (for example, in 1890s, a washing machine appeared). A woman did not need to take care of her children, because a half of a day they spent at schools. Unfortunately, not each family could afford a technical domestic device, as it was rather expensive.

In 1891, about 40 % Canadian women were involved in domestic service. Thus, the considerable portion of feminine workforce found itself in this employed area. Exactly young women became domestics, most of all.

Some white women believed that domestic service was more suitable for black domestics. This way, among some white women, racial and ethnic prejudices and stereotypes were cultivated. The unfairness toward colored feminine population grew; in its turn, it resulted on their poor financial condition.

Thus, a domestic became a live-in servant (she had a free room and board), her feminine employer – a mistress. Also, a domestic was vulnerable to be sexually exploited by mistress’s husband or son.

Sometimes, it even led to pregnancy, abortion, dismissals, voluntary redundancy and trials. That time, one could even meet a servant without pay, or a servant who had become a prostitute. The wage of a servant was not high: from $8 to $20 per month. Of course, it can hardly be called a living wage.

By 1871, about 40 % of children (mostly, they worked in mills) and women constituted the industrial workforce in Canada. Especially, the textile and cotton industries were in demand. Some textile companies could recruit experienced women from abroad, as women were most welcomed in such industries.

However, the unemployment rate among women increased, and many women left their native land, and went off in search of a good job. For example, in 1909, about 10 thousand women moved to the USA. The number of active young women increased in the following years.

Gradually, women experienced the advantages of protective legislation. In 1884, Ontario adopted the law that facilitated the life of a woman, engaged in a hard industrial manufacturing labor. The work hours were limited to 10 per day. However, there flourished immorality toward female industrial workers. Some women could be even spanked if they refused to do a certain thing.

The development of protective legislation did not exclude inequality of women. The situation worsened: more and more women earned a small wage that was less than a living wage. Numerous women had to do a hard and poorly paid job. Thus, it is not surprising that many women turned to feminists who wanted to protect their legal rights and gain the equity with men.

In XIX, women were occupied not only with domestic service, but teaching, as well. In Canada, there appeared special schools hat gave a future teacher a certificate. Nevertheless, the feminization of teaching was a challengeable process for women, as male teachers were more welcomed. Lots of female teachers became nuns as clergy opened doors to women.

In general, women made certain contribution to the development of public and religious education. Women earned less than men; in rural territory, a female teacher earned even less that urban ones. Promotions among women were rare. Consequently, the women’s struggle for recognition in society faced many obstacles on their professional way.

Also, thousands of women were involved in nursing services (especially religious nursing). The number of public health nurses, school and private-duty nurses increased. It was evident that women faced numerous barriers in their career ladder: there were few fulfilled female workers in health care industry. In addition, some women dedicated their lives to jurisdiction. More and more women became advocates.

By the middle of XX century women had realized their secondary status, and started civil rights movements. Boycotts, sit-ins, freedom rides, marches were only one of the forms of protests. Analyzing the women’s role in industrial capitalistic world, one can not avoid the discussion of the following phenomenon.

In XIX-XX centuries, the suffragettes’ movement proved to be the natural reaction to the gender inequality in human society. The activity of suffragettes led to the Canadian feminization. As suffragettes and feminists pursued practically the same aims, some key elements of this movement should be pointed out.

This feminine movement appeared as a reaction on such issues as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, voting rights, and sexual violence. In addition, this movement was concerned with racial and ethnic oppression of women. This way, suffragettes and feminist wanted to exclude unfair discrimination of the feminine class in political and economic life of the society.

Marching in the Canadian streets, women wanted to dispel the Victorian stereotypes about womanhood. Mostly, the movement used nonviolent methods of the struggle, and was directed to securing civil rights and expansion of social justice. Their way to civil freedom was long, and achieved its final destination only in the middle of XX century.

The Canadian women were engaged in journalism, as well. Women wanted to take an active part in the newspaper business: they became editors, redactors, writers, etc. In Canada, it was possible to buy numerous women’s magazines and journals, edited by women. For example, the published “Provincial Freeman” in the middle of XIX century publicized the condition of African Canadian women.

Performing arts were also attracted many women. Canadian women have an opportunity to show their literature, musical talents, and present their creative pieces of art in public. Cinema and theatre studios welcomed actress, and made them cinema stars. Successful women achieved high results in their career ladder in the business sphere.

In XX century, women entered business sphere, and became to show good performance on equal terms with men. Lots of people thought that business activity was not for women who could have either domestic responsibilities or an ordinary work. Nevertheless, women’s activity was evident.

Taking into consideration everything mentioned, one can make the following conclusions. The industrialized and capitalized world presented a difficult life style, full of challenges and obstacles for women. In the same time, it gave an opportunity for lots of women to perform themselves in the economic sphere of Canadian life.

The aboriginal portion of Canadian female population was exploited. They had to do a poorly-paid and hard job to survive. It made them feel pinched and discriminated members of human society. Rural and urban life presented various difficulties for women. For this reason, migration was the only possible way to find a better life for some women.

Most of all, women were engaged in productive activities, manufacturing industries, domestic service, etc. The servant-mistress relationship was a wide-spread phenomenon in Canadian life of XIX century. However, the industrial revolution introduced technical devices in women’s life, and put them on the back burner.

In XIX-XX centuries, male workers dominated practically in each sphere of human life. Nevertheless, some changes were inevitable, and women became to take an active part in different professional spheres. Gradually, women became equal members of Canadian society. The feminine movements expressed women’s desire to equity and worthful status.


Age discrimination at the Workplace Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Background

Legal Implications

Forms of Age Discrimination

Preventing Age Discrimination


Background Age discrimination occurs when an employee is discriminated against on grounds of age. In theory, the term can refer to any age group, however, the group that is most commonly discriminated because of their age is that aged 40 years and above. Employee age groups are divided into three:

The youth;

Those aged 40 years or more; and

The elderly.

Many organizations simply refuse to hire persons who have passed a certain age despite the growing lifespans of the general population (Doyle, 2011).

Some employees practice age discrimination as they believe that younger people are more energetic and give the organization a positive image and that older employees lack the experience required to meet job expectations, other real concerns like laws that give older workers higher pay or other benefits also come into play.

Besides, it is common knowledge that younger employees cost the company less with regards to salaries, insurance costs, and pension benefits. Although it is illegal to discriminate a person at the workplace because of age, the practice is not so easy to identify, and preventing it is even harder (Devine, 2011).

Legal Implications It is illegal to discriminate a worker simply because of his/her age: the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) is a regulation that protects persons aged 40 years or more from discrimination because of age (HR Hero, 2011). An employee who is discriminated against may file his case under the ADEA legislation (EEOC, N.d).

Another legislation, the Older Workers Benefit Protection Act of 1990 (OWBPA) particularly forbids organizations from denying benefits to workers aged 40 years and above, including retirement benefits.

While an older worker is also protected by other workplace legislations, the ADEA and OWBPA are the main laws that protect workers against age discrimination (Workplace Fairness, 2011). The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforces both of these legislations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Forms of Age Discrimination The ADEA legislation states that no organization can take action against a worker for questioning organizational practices that seem to tolerate age discrimination. Besides, a company may not include age preferences, restrictions, or requirements in job adverts. An exception occurs when the company can prove that age is important in carrying out of one’s duties.

Most instances of age discrimination normally occur during recruitment procedures although others occur in form of unfair dismissals, promotions, job appraisals, training programs, and age-biased comments, among others (Directgov. 2011).

Preventing Age Discrimination The first step to preventing age discrimination in a company is for the management to understand the meaning of age discrimination and its effects on the company. This demands the adoption of sound policies against this vice. The policy should be clear on how to report age discrimination, investigation, and the penalties.

The organization must take serious measures on all complaints. Besides, the organization must monitor the workplace routinely and to talk freely to workers in order to identify any potential problems not necessarily related to age discrimination.

Other effective ways of preventing age discrimination include appraisal of the company’s culture, preventive training, amendment of recruitment procedures, cautiously prepared benefits and retirement guidelines, and an improved commitment to present a work environment that caters for all age groups (Epson, 2011). Training sessions and peer reinforcement can also help in preventing age discrimination.

References Devine, J. (2011). Age Discrimination in the Workplace. Web.

Directgov. (2011). Age Discrimination. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on Age discrimination at the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Doyle, A. (2011). Age Discrimination: How Old is Too Old? Web.

Epson. (2011). Avoid Age Discrimination in the Workplace. Web.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). (N. d). Age Discrimination. Web.

HR Hero. (2011). Age Discrimination in the Workplace. Web.

Workplace Fairness. (2011). Age Discrimination. Web.


Honda Corporation: Corporate Responsibility with a Focus on the Community and Honda Employees Report college essay help online: college essay help online

Executive Summary This report has been aimed at examining Honda Corporation in terms of its relationship with employees and community. While discussing this issue, we relied on the Stakeholder theory which explains how an enterprise can be influenced by various external and internal forces. Findings of this report indicate that on the whole, Honda Corporation invests heavily in its stakeholders and particularly and promotes their wellbeing.

The ethics program at Honda Corporation is such that all employees are treated equally and are provided with the same at-work benefits even wearing the same uniforms regardless of their position with the corporation. Behavioral guidelines include provisions and requirements for mutual respect among employees and management.

Apart from that, this report has demonstrated that Honda Corporation greatly contributes generously to community and education programs. Nonetheless, this study has also identified the key problems, faced by the company, especially in its relations with the stakeholders.

In particular, the company should not pay more attention to the demands of trade unions whose representatives argue that the company very resists unionization of the workers. Additionally, it is crucial that this company will establish better relations with the consumer unions which attract the public’s attention to the fact that the company does not provide full information about their products.

Introduction This work has reviewed a large volume of literature relating to the Honda Corporation and its ethical policies and corporate social responsibility principles and the way in which they impact Honda stakeholders, in particular, the community and the employees. This discussion will be based on the stakeholder theory which explains the relationship of an organization with the employees, customers, governmental organizations, and so forth.

This theoretical framework explains how corporate social responsibility can contribute to the overall success of an enterprise. While discussing Honda Corporation we focused on such parameters as transparency of HR policies, the willingness to comply with consumers’ demands and governmental regulations.

This analysis will enable to us to point out those areas which require improvement. Yet, at first, it is vital for us to discuss the concept of stakeholder and how this person or organization can shape the performance of the company.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The role of stakeholder Such approach as the stakeholder theory has become extremely popular among modern managers. The representatives of this approach urge the business administrators not to forget that the concept of a stakeholder should not be limited only to those people, who own the stock of the company since such a view overlooks the role of customers, community, and certainly employees (McWilliams et al, 2006).

It should be that the interests of various stakeholders do not always coincide with one another, and the management of the company must be able to reconcile them. Overall, it is possible to argue the relations between a private business and its stakeholders can be described as a form of interdependence.

Furthermore, the existing research shows that corporate social responsibility should not be viewed only as some moral obligation imposed from outside; more likely it is a necessary condition for the survival of the organization.

Overall, it is possible to argue that Honda is an example of company that does care about its stakeholders. As a matter of fact, it is rather difficult to point out those areas which require improvement, and the record of this company seems always impeccable.

Findings Honda’s relations with the employees


The investment in the individuals and their community is critically important to Honda’s stakeholder strategy. A primary part of the compliance and ethic program at Honda Corporation is the company’s ‘Egalitarian’ culture characterized by: (1) All employees wearing the same uniform and being addressed as ‘associates’; (2)

All employees eating in shared cafeterias and all employees parking in the same parking area with no reserved parking spots; (3) Managers at Honda are located on the production floor with offices being well-planned in an open design with no designation of high rank employee workstations. (Gupta, et al, 2010, paraphrased)

Honda reports that it is key to “promote accessibility across the company by removing physical and social barriers, thereby eliminating the natural intimidation employees often feel when they wish to speak with their managers.” (Gupta, et al, 2010 p.1).

We will write a custom Report on Honda Corporation: Corporate Responsibility with a Focus on the Community and Honda Employees specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the whole, the existence of these strategies indicates that the management of Honda Corporation does care about the needs of its employees and attempts to prove that they personnel is the most valuable asset of the company. To a great extent, the HR policies of Honda Corporation resemble that one of Toyota Motor Company.


Certainly, Honda always tries to pursue honest policies in its relations with the personnel, however, in some cases even they infringe upon their rights. In particular, one has to bear in mind that the company resists unionization of the workers and such an attitude can be regarded as a violation of their rights (Bybee, 2008, unpaged).

It seems by restricting the rights of these people, Honda only compromises its reputation and public image. It should be mentioned that the management refused to acknowledge the existence of the trade union in Great Britain (Clement, 2001). Apart from that many critics of the company believe that the company’s hiring policies are marked by racism (Bybee, 2008, unpaged).

In particular, they maintain that they avoid employing African-Americans and the unionized employees (Bybee, 2008). These are the key issues to which the management of this enterprise should pay attention to. Again, we have to emphasize an idea that these accusation of racism may result of a misunderstanding.

The thing is that the company hires only those people who live within a certain radios from the factory. Many critics believe that in this way the management tries to exclude the black or unionized workers. This is why the company should take a closer look at this issue.

Honda Corporation and its interaction with the community


It should be mentioned that the concept of community includes a great number of components, for instance, people, living in a certain area, governmental and non-governmental organizations, environment protection group, and certainly customers.

Honda has as its fundamental approach in business ethics the goal of earning the trust of customers and society and toward this end they have frameworks in place “to ensure a systematic approach to compliance and risk management” along with the “formulation of behavioral guidelines and procedures for self-assessment.” (Gupta, et al 2010) (p.1)

A group governance system establishes behavioral guidelines that serve to “guide the behavior of all employees through conduct guidelines” in combination with “division wise specific guidelines according to specific attributes.” (Gupta, Priy, Kundu, and Dixit, 2010)

Not sure if you can write a paper on Honda Corporation: Corporate Responsibility with a Focus on the Community and Honda Employees by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More President and CEO of Honda Corporation, Takeo Fukui states that Honda Corporation is “sharing dreams with people everywhere, striving to become a company that society wants to exist.” (Gupta, et al, 2010) (p.1)

This is stated to be based on corporate activities focused on “…creating value, expanding value through globalization and realizing its commitment to the future.” (Gupta, et al, 2010) (p.1) Findings in this report on the impact of Honda Corporation on its Community-Stakeholders includes the Honda pursuit of daily business interest under the principles stated as follows:

Honda will strive to “recycle materials and conserve resources and energy at every stage of our products’ life cycle;

Honda will strive to minimize and find appropriate methods to dispose of waste and contaminants that are produced through the use of Honda products and in each stage of the life cycle of these products;

Honda associates, as members of the company and society will focus on the importance of making efforts to preserve human health and the global environment and will do what they can to ensure that the company as a whole acts responsibly.

Honda will consider the influence that corporate activities have on the regional environment and society, and strive to improve the company’s social standing. (Honda, 2010, North American Environmental Report) (p.1)

It was reported by Market Research World that Honda “…ranks top in UK companies for corporate social responsibility” (Market Research World, 2006) (p.1) in a study that was carried out for the purpose of understanding the public perception of automotive companies in respect to compliance and “contribution towards corporate, social, environmental and philanthropic activities.” (Market Research World, 2006) (p.1)

Key practices of Honda Corporation include: (1) product planning and development; (2) manufacturing; (3) recycling and green guiding; and (4) communication. (Honda, 2010, North American Environmental Report)

Honda is reported as having been a consistent leader in fuel-efficiency technology and specifically with its commitment to advancing internal combustion engine fuel efficiency including VTEC and Variable Cylinder Management along with an expansion in Honda hybrid technology. (Market Research World, 2006) (p.1) Honda is reported to have:

“…gone beyond development new vehicle technologies including: (1) development of photovoltaic solar cells which are reported to “significantly reduce the energy and CO2 emissions in the manufacturing phase1.; (2) FFVs- Flexible fuel system; (3) Bio-fuel; and (4) MCHP or micro-combined heat and power cogeneration bringing about a 30 percent reduction in energy use and associated CO2 emissions. (Honda Corporation, 2011) (p.1)

One example of community commitment is illustrated in the actions of Hero Honda Motors, a retail Honda dealership who has reported “…taking considerable pride in its stakeholder relationships, especially ones developed at the grassroots.” (Hero Honda, 2006) (p.1)

Hero Honda relates that the foundation has “adopted various villages located within vicinity of the Hero Honda factory at Dharuhera for integrated rural development”. (Hero Honda, 2006) (p.1) These initiatives include: (1) installing deep bore hand pumps to make the provision of clean drinking water; (2) construction of metalled roads and connecting these to the National Highway;

(3) renovation of primary school buildings and making the provision of hygienic water and toilet facilities; (4) ensuring a proper drainage system at each of these villages to prevent water-logging; and (5) promotion of non-conventional sources of energy by providing a 50 percent subsidy on biogas plants.(Hero Honda, 2006, paraphrased)

American Honda Motor Company reports being committed to running an enterprise “of real and continuing value to society.” (Hero Honda, 2006) (p.1) The corporate objectives pursued by the American Honda Foundation toward this end include the following corporate objectives:

To apply to the Foundation’s grantmaking program the same professionalism and creative management processes that characterize the other activities of American Honda Motor Co., Inc. Resources used in this program are reported to have come from capital revenues which will be invested with care and planning;

Identification of activities for contributions that provide special emphasis;

Operation of the Foundation in a manner that is flexible and responsive to the changing needs of society and to provide momentum for innovation and leadership;

Complementing rather than substituting the role of public institutions and funds;

To provide contribution funding that is reflective of American Honda Motors Inc. level of success;

To make sure the grants of the Foundation accomplish the most possible good. (American Honda Foundation, Contributions Policy, nd) (p.1)

The American Honda Foundation states that the grantmaking it will engage in will be consistent with characteristics as follows related to youth and scientific education:

Programs dedicated to making the human condition better;

Programs that are managed properly and administered by individuals who are “enthusiastic and dedicated”;

Programs that look to the future;

Programs that are innovative and creative;

Programs with a broad scope, intent, impact, and outreach;

Programs that have a great potential for success;

Programs that operate from a position of financial soundness;

Programs that urgently need funding and which are important to the public; and

Programs that “represent a minimal risk in terms of venture capital investment”. (American Honda Foundation, Contributions Policy, nd) (p.1)


When speaking about the problems in relations with the community, we need to discuss its relations with consumer unions. Some of them accused the management of the failure to inform about the faults in their vehicles (Skrzycki, 1998). Certainly, the company has already made numerous recalls and each of them was aimed at protecting the lives of customers throughout reforms.

In fact, the company filed a lawsuit against several consumer unions charging them with defamation. The key objective of the management is to establish better relations with these unions since they have a profound effect on the customers’ opinion.

Conclusion Overall, these findings indicate that Honda does tries to managing the interests of different stakeholders. This enterprise attempts to act as a company which creates value for the customers, stockholders, the employees, community, and environment.

The key problems, are connected with the following areas: attempts to stop with the unionization of workers; 2) accusation of alleged racial discrimination, and unwillingness to acknowledge the faults or defects in the products.

Recommendations On the basis of this discussion we can make a set of recommendations which can improve the company’s interactions with the stakeholders. They are as follows: 1) the management should take a more lenient stance toward trade unions, the attempts to stop the unionization of workers usually only spoil the public image of the company.

Moreover, the employees may be forced into belief that the management tries to subdue them. The top executives must prove that there is no need for trade unions, instead of trying to forbid them. 2) The second step which must be taken is the evaluation of hiring policies. The company has to make sure that that there is no loophole for the discrimination against employees on the basis of their sex, age, or race. 3)

The third recommendations is to establish a better partnership with customer unions which represent a large part of the community. Namely, the management should prove to them that Honda does everything possible to eliminate any risks for the customer’s health or life. These strategies can strengthen the company’s reputation of a responsible corporate citizen.

References American Honda Foundation Contributions Policy. Web.

Bybee Roger. (2008) Whitewashing Honda. Multinational Monititor pp 8 – 9.

Clement Barry. (2001) Honda workers vote for union recognition. The Independent.

Company Information (2010) Honda Motor Company Limited. Web.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Report (2010). Web.

CSR Report (2006) Honda Corporation. Web.

Environmental Technology (2011) Briefs and Reports – News


Organisational Management Essay scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Functional Organisational Structure The structure is designed on hierarchies such that positions as well as functions of each individual within the company are clearly stated. The organisation is segmented into key functional departments where each department encompasses all the activities related to it and all the departments within the organisation work towards achieving the common goal of the organisation.

Organisations which mostly apply functional structure usually deal in one product or service just like Barclays Bank which offers financial services to customers. In Barclays Bank for example, there is the human resource, sales and marketing, accounts and finance, security, wealth management, mortgage, banking and insurance departments. Under these departments are other sub departments (Barclays 2011).

Functional structure offers Barclays various advantages in its management and business processes. Since the structure ensures that Barclays has a well structured hierarchy as well as functions for each department and individuals, executing projects and providing instructions to employees in particular departments is easier (Miles


Foreign Market Entry and Diversification Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Trends in the Global Beer Market

Modelo’s International Expansion Plan

The Next Foreign Market

Challenges that Modelo Faces from its Competitor, InBev




Introduction Foreign market entry refers to the process through which companies join overseas markets in order to expand their operations. Businesses expand in order to increase their market share and competitiveness in the market.

Diversification refers to the process through which companies invest in different industries in order to improve their growth and stability. This paper focuses on the application of the concept of foreign market entry and diversification in the context of Modelo and the beer market.

Trends in the Global Beer Market The global beer market is characterized by the following trends. First, the companies that operate in the industry are focusing on market consolidation. This has been done through international expansion and acquisitions. In 2008 the top ten firms in the industry accounted for 59% of the market. Second, the sales volume in the developed Western economies is steady.

However, in a few developed economies the sales are slowly declining. The sales in the emerging economies in Asia and Eastern Europe are growing rapidly. Third, the rise in sales in the market is attributed to high quality of beer products, rise in disposable income and effective marketing and sales campaigns. Besides, local spirits are being substituted by beer due to “increased responsiveness to brands and marketing”.

The rate of consumption in the developed economies depends on the level of product differentiation. Finally, most markets are divided into two levels. The lower end of the market features discounted brands while the higher end of the markets features premium and imported brands.

Modelo’s International Expansion Plan Modelo’s rapid expansion in the global beer market is attributed to strategic partnerships with experienced distributors. The company implemented this strategy in two ways. First, the company formed strategic alliances with other brewers and soft dinks manufacturers. Under these alliances the company distributes the products of its partners in various markets (Modelo 2011).

Second, the company has formed joint ventures with independent distributors in various parts of the world (Modelo 2011). The distributors are responsible for selling the five brands that are exported by the firm. The company has established offices in all markets where its products are sold.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The offices are responsible for coordinating and supervising the activities of its distributors in order to ensure that sales targets are achieved (Modelo 2011). The joint ventures have enabled the firm to serve the global market without necessarily establishing production plants in every market.

The Next Foreign Market Modelo should join the East African market using the joint venture strategy due to the following reasons. First, there is low competition since there is only one main brewer in the region, EABL. Second, the emerging breweries in the region lack the capital to expand. Thus Modelo can partner with them in order to introduce its products in the region.

Third, the East African region is currently encouraging foreign investors to join the region in order to achieve rapid growth. This means that foreign investors enjoy incentives such as low taxations in return for their presence in the region. Finally, several independent distributors have emerged in the region due to the steady economic growth and availability of infrastructure.

Challenges that Modelo Faces from its Competitor, InBev InBev is one of the main competitors of Modelo since it controls a better part of the global beer market. Modelo finds it difficult to compete with InBev due to the limited number of brands that it offers. While Modelo has only 13 brands, InBev has 200 brands (Modelo 2011). This gives InBev a greater competitive advantage as compared to Modelo since the customers of the former have a wider range of brands to choose from.

In response to this challenge, Modelo has formed alliances with other brewers in order to expand its brand portfolio. InBev also controls the distribution channel in the major markets since most of the well established distributors have partnered with it. This makes it difficult for Modelo to expand by partnering with distributors.

Modelo can respond to these challenges by focusing on product differentiation and cost leadership strategies. This will enable it to position its products as the best in the market. Besides, it will be able to increase its market share by selling its products at low prices.

Diversification Modelo should diversify its business by investing in two industries namely, the soft drink and shipping and logistics industry. This proposal is informed by the following reasons. First, the high threat of substitute products in the beer market is attributed to the goods that are produced in the soft drink industry.

We will write a custom Essay on Foreign Market Entry and Diversification specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus investing in the soft drink industry will enable the company to cushion its investments from the threat of substitute products (soft drinks). Second, the company will be able to use its subsidiary in the shipping industry to import and export its products in time and at low costs. Besides, the firms in the shipping industry are likely to be profitable since the industry is very stable.

Conclusion The above analysis indicates that the global beer industry is yet to reach its maturity stage. This means that firms can increase their profits by expanding their operations in the market. Modelo has achieved its expansion objectives by partnering with experienced distributors (Modelo 2011).

The firm can use the same strategy to join the East African market that is associated with low competition. The company should also diversify its business by joining other industries such as shipping and soft drink industry.

References Modelo. (2011). Annual reports: 2010.

Wade, J. (2010). Heady days for beer. Business Wire, vol. 23 (1) , 67-101.


Teachings of Hebrew Wisdom Essay cheap essay help: cheap essay help

The Bible covers all aspects of human life. Christians always refer to the teachings in the Bible when coming up with their decisions. The book of Proverbs covers the teachings of Hebrew wisdom on contemporary issues such as relationships, marriage, wealth, family, and self-control (Hindson, 2003).

Solomon, the author of the book, associates diligence with terms such as riches, abundance, busy, power, and wisdom (Yates


Yayi jia Essay online essay help

One look at the Yayi jia ritual wine vessel and it is already apparent that such an object is more inclined for use by the upper class of Chinese society. The reasoning behind such a statement is due to the relatively large size of the object (roughly the same proportions as a man’s chest) and that it was made of solid bronze.

Considering that the working class of Chinese society focused more on practicality and functionality rather than ostentatious displays of wealth for mere decoration, it is more than likely that the Yayi jia belonged to a rich household1. For example, in the painting “Life along the River” by Zhang Zeduan and the animated version created for the 2010 Shanghai Expo in China, the lives of everyday people in Chinese society can be seen with various depictions of people drinking and enjoying themselves2.

In no instance throughout the entire painting, which is one of the most acclaimed vessels of Chinese artwork in the world, is the Yayi jia ritual wine vessel seen. When people were depicted as eating and drinking, their jar of choice seemed to closer to that of the amphorae of ancient Greece rather than the large and hugely elaborate Yayi jia.

This is further proof that the item was most likely used as a means of depicting wealth and was utilized primarily as a household decoration or during funerals since its size makes it impractical as a method of actually serving everyday liquids that people would drink. The association of luxury goods with wealth and prestige is actually nothing new and is seen throughout many examples within past and present day Chinese society3.

Utilizing impractical objects as a method of showing off wealth and prestige is seen in many cultures and, as such, it is not surprising to see such an example exemplified in historic Chinese society. It is based on this example that I have come to the conclusion that historical Chinese society is dominated by the influence of popular culture (in this case showing wealth and prestige) with many believing that in order to fit in or be popular there is a distinct need to look the part.

This particular assumption is exemplified by the Yayi jia ritual wine vessel since it is an impractical method of serving drinks. The trend in purchasing luxury goods to look the part is a practice that is unlikely to be going away anytime soon. Up till today, such a practice continues to be prevalent within China.

After doing a brief skim through various articles on Chinese history and culture, I have come to the conclusion that one of the belief systems within China during the time of the Shang dynasty when the Yayi jia was created was that people who look the part and act the part were more likely to be given more opportunities than a person who chooses to base their look on what they perceive as an adequate dress code for their social and financial class4.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ostentatious nature of the Yayi jia is meant as a method of showing that a family is wealthy enough that they can afford to waste money on useless depictions of wealth. This creates an impression on visitors which results in greater levels of prestige which, more likely than not, would create more opportunities for them in the future.

It is due to reasons such as this that luxury brands and external trappings of wealth within various cultures around the world from thousands of years in the past till the present have continued to thrive the way they do. They represent an aspect of society that people want to attain in order to show success and be judged as being successful.

While this may indicate that human society itself has a streak of vanity, this is not far from the truth when taking into account the fact that throughout history, the classes of society have been distinguished not by accomplishments but rather by their appearance wherein the peasantry, the middle class and the upper class itself have been distinguished by the manner in which they dressed or what sort of possessions they had within their home.

Fully Identify the Object The Yayi jia is a ritual wine vessel that was made sometime during the Shang dynasty in China (roughly during 1600 – 1050 BCE). Its overall size is roughly the same as that of a man’s chest and its original purpose was as a type wine vessel that was used during ritual ceremonies at the time. This can be related to funeral practices, celebrations and other such events that include the consumption of alcohol.

The surface of the vessel is covered in motifs that have been etched into the oxidized metallic surface and have long since faded away. Overall, the artefact itself is quite interesting and says a lot about the practices and rituals that took place within China during this particular period of time.

What is impressive about this wine vessel is that despite the base which seems out of balance and fragile, the entire artefact actually stays steady. On the other hand, it cannot be stated that there is balance in the creation of the work since the shapes on the surface seem to be haphazardly added here and there along with hard geometric lines. Such a distinction though may just be due to time removing the original details of the vessel itself.

Visual Examination When first examining art, one must take into account each art’s inherent theme and message in order to understand the stylistic justifications that went into the usage of colour, shapes, contours and lines in the art itself.

We will write a custom Essay on Yayi jia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While the metal work itself is far from the quality of the old masters of Ming dynasty art work, it does bring out a certain emotional response as the dragon head motif on the handle is probably meant to connote some sort of awe since dragon symbols were permitted by use on personal belongings only by important members of Chinese society at the time.

The vessel itself was most likely painted or emphasized in some way as it can be seen through the use of relatively thin lines, its slightly open composition in terms of the scarcity within the work and its emphasis on the accurate usage of lighting in the vessel itself. This means that it was either minimalist in design or had some form of outer decoration that wore away over time.

The entire bronze sculpture seems to exude a feeling of artifice wherein through its use of curving straight lines any form of actual emotional connection established with viewers is lost. The art work feels too “modern” (i.e. it lacks any of the beauty seen in Ming dynasty vases) and too “artificial” in the sense that it has lost its artistry by trying to appeal to too many audiences (the overall appearance does not seem all that unique).

While there are various colours utilized in the work (though this could just be the result of age affecting the vessel over time resulting in a distortion of its overall appearance), they feel flat, dead and lack any form of actual liveliness. While it may be true that the work itself may have been created through some use of bronze working, this just further emphasizes its divergence from other types of Chinese art that I am used to that usually portray a sense of delicateness to the vessel.

In fact, in terms of the overall balance and texture of the vessel it just seems too “clean” in the sense that it feels far too planned out, that the realism that can be captured in the moment is not there at all.

While it may be true that its utilization of space and contours is efficient, therein lies the problem wherein the wine vessel seems too “perfect” in the sense that it lacks any divergent emotion from the artist and merely looks like a vessel that can be created within a few hours by a bronze worker.

While there are many interpretations of what can be called “art”, the fact remains that I know what I like and this bronze work diverges from everything that I would actually call “likable” art. On the other hand, from a more positive perspective the use of light and shadows lends the bronze work a surreal realistic quality wherein the dragon head handle seems almost lifelike.

This is surprising when taking into consideration the rather minimalist perspective the bronze worker utilizes wherein the surface of the wine vessel is nothing more than a series of striated and curved lines that have faded over time.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Yayi jia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The most striking and realistic feature is the face of the dragon on the handle where the use of lines, slightly raised ears and the use of a distinct curve to emphasize a mouth on the left most portion of the handle while emphasizing the ears on the top side creates an almost lifelike like realistic effect where the subject within seems to have been paused momentarily in a stitch in time.

In fact, when examining the rest of the wine vessel it can be see that the most painstaking detail applied to it was concentrated on the surface with the rest of the subject’s body being akin to a sparse outline.

This particular facet of the work itself could be considered purposeful on the part of the artist as he attempts to concentrate the perception of the viewer directly on the face of wine vessel and bring about the fanciful introspection of wondering what the various symbols on the jar mean and, as a result, causes the viewer to come closer to the object for a better look.

Overall, the use of lines in this particular vessel is dominated by either thin line outlines as seen in a majority of the work or faded curled lines utilized to create some effect that has long since faded. The one dominating colour in this artwork is the colour green as seen directly in the middle of the work which is evidence of considerable levels of oxidation which lends credence to the authenticity of the vessel.

Aspects of Civilization and Cultural Development Just by viewing the Yayi jia itself, it becomes obvious that it represents not only the advanced nature of the field of bronze metalwork during this particular time period within ancient Chinese civilization but it also represents how important iconography was to the ancient Chinese people since the vessel itself is rife with various faded icons that used to cover its surface.

Influence of Previous Civilizations It must be noted that the Yayi jia is not unique in the sense that it is the only example of its kind, such an assumption is fallacious since that the iconography of the Yayi jia (i.e. the dragon head motif) was featured prominently in various other artwork from ancient China hundreds of years before its creation.

Rather, a far more accurate statement would be that the Yayi jia from the Shang dynasty is merely one of the largest and most well known example of its kind (i.e. a ritual wine vessel) and is a representation of hundreds of years of ancient Chinese tradition in which the dragon was known as a guardian of tombs, temples and a representation of an aspect of their society.

Related to Artwork within the Same Civilization It is quite interesting to note that the Yayi jia has several stylistic elements which were quite prominent within this particular period of ancient Chinese civilization. For instance, the same dragon theme often was utilized on a variety of dragon statues on temples.

In the case of the Yayi jia, it can be stated that the overall shape of the body is somewhat dragon like in nature with the tripod like formation at the bottom looking almost like legs. In fact, it can even be said that the Yayi jia is nothing more than an older and smaller version of its counterparts seen in a variety of ancient Chinese tombs and temples.

My Thoughts on the Work Art is completely subject to interpretation however in this particular case I would have to say that in my opinion, while the bronze sculpture does look overly intricate, it lacks a sufficient “pull” so to speak in that it does not capture the attention as much as other vessels within the area.

While it is interesting to look at, the use of rusted colours of the sculpture actually makes it rather forgettable since it makes itself seem rather subdued and not eye-catching or memorable. Further examination of the vessel reveals that the sterile green colour of the sculpture and the use of geometric shapes with a hardness and sharpness not found in nature is in fact intentional which gives it a nice contrast to the overly natural shapes in the background.

Overall Impact In terms of its impact on me, I would have to say that I was not significantly affected in the least due to the fact that the sculpture seems overly subdued when it could have had a greater impact if the colour was different instead of the rust colour it had.

As such, while the work is being featured by a museum, I would still say that it lacks the necessary impact necessary to continue to attract visitors, however, art is completely subject to interpretation with others having a different interpretation of the sculpture itself. I do have to admit though that its vivid nature and the way it stood in stark contrast to its surrounding environment makes one think of the nature of man and how he stands in contrast to nature.

While I do not disparage the work of the artist, it definitely seems subdued and less eye-catching as compared to the various examples of Ming Dynasty art that I have seen. It is based on my impression of the vessel that I definitely agree that it belongs in a museum and that its worth as a vessel of art is in its ability to create a deep contrast between the artificial nature of humanity and the shapes of the natural world.

How does your object fit into a broad historical context? An examination of the work of various Chinese sculptures during the Shang dynasty reveals a continuing theme in most of the metal work which often incorporates unique animal forms. These forms are usually skeletal in appearance yet when hit with the light at a certain angle they show a unique representation of an animal from China’s natural environment or mythologies.

From a broad historical context, the vessel actually represents the excesses of the Chinese upper class at the time since the ostentatious nature of the wine vessel far outpaces its overall level of practicality since it is far too big and heavy to act as a conventional drinking receptacle.

Illustration of Object

Example of Yayi jia ritual wine vessel as seen in Mysteries of Ancient China5

Bibliography Childs-Johnson, Elizabeth. The Meaning of the Graph YI and its Implications for Shang Belief and Art. London: Saffron Books, 2008.

Ebrey, Patricia. Chinese Civilization: A Sourcebook. New York: Free Press, 1993.

Ledderose, Lothar. Ten Thousand Things: Module and Mass Production in Chinese Art. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Rawson, Jessica. Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties. New York: Braziller, 1996.

Footnotes 1 Elizabeth Childs-Johnson, The Meaning of the Graph Yi and its Implications for Shang Belief and Art (London: Saffron Books, 2008), 33

2 Patricia Ebrey, Chinese Civilization: A Sourcebook (New York: Free Press, 1993), 11

3 Jessica Rawson, Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties (New York: Braziller, 1996), 5-6

4 Lothar Ledderose, Ten Thousand Things: Module and Mass Production in Chinese Art (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000), 1-4

5 Jessica Rawson, Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties (New York: Braziller, 1996), 5-6


Yayi jia Essay college essay help

One look at the Yayi jia ritual wine vessel and it is already apparent that such an object is more inclined for use by the upper class of Chinese society. The reasoning behind such a statement is due to the relatively large size of the object (roughly the same proportions as a man’s chest) and that it was made of solid bronze.

Considering that the working class of Chinese society focused more on practicality and functionality rather than ostentatious displays of wealth for mere decoration, it is more than likely that the Yayi jia belonged to a rich household1. For example, in the painting “Life along the River” by Zhang Zeduan and the animated version created for the 2010 Shanghai Expo in China, the lives of everyday people in Chinese society can be seen with various depictions of people drinking and enjoying themselves2.

In no instance throughout the entire painting, which is one of the most acclaimed vessels of Chinese artwork in the world, is the Yayi jia ritual wine vessel seen. When people were depicted as eating and drinking, their jar of choice seemed to closer to that of the amphorae of ancient Greece rather than the large and hugely elaborate Yayi jia.

This is further proof that the item was most likely used as a means of depicting wealth and was utilized primarily as a household decoration or during funerals since its size makes it impractical as a method of actually serving everyday liquids that people would drink. The association of luxury goods with wealth and prestige is actually nothing new and is seen throughout many examples within past and present day Chinese society3.

Utilizing impractical objects as a method of showing off wealth and prestige is seen in many cultures and, as such, it is not surprising to see such an example exemplified in historic Chinese society. It is based on this example that I have come to the conclusion that historical Chinese society is dominated by the influence of popular culture (in this case showing wealth and prestige) with many believing that in order to fit in or be popular there is a distinct need to look the part.

This particular assumption is exemplified by the Yayi jia ritual wine vessel since it is an impractical method of serving drinks. The trend in purchasing luxury goods to look the part is a practice that is unlikely to be going away anytime soon. Up till today, such a practice continues to be prevalent within China.

After doing a brief skim through various articles on Chinese history and culture, I have come to the conclusion that one of the belief systems within China during the time of the Shang dynasty when the Yayi jia was created was that people who look the part and act the part were more likely to be given more opportunities than a person who chooses to base their look on what they perceive as an adequate dress code for their social and financial class4.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The ostentatious nature of the Yayi jia is meant as a method of showing that a family is wealthy enough that they can afford to waste money on useless depictions of wealth. This creates an impression on visitors which results in greater levels of prestige which, more likely than not, would create more opportunities for them in the future.

It is due to reasons such as this that luxury brands and external trappings of wealth within various cultures around the world from thousands of years in the past till the present have continued to thrive the way they do. They represent an aspect of society that people want to attain in order to show success and be judged as being successful.

While this may indicate that human society itself has a streak of vanity, this is not far from the truth when taking into account the fact that throughout history, the classes of society have been distinguished not by accomplishments but rather by their appearance wherein the peasantry, the middle class and the upper class itself have been distinguished by the manner in which they dressed or what sort of possessions they had within their home.

Fully Identify the Object The Yayi jia is a ritual wine vessel that was made sometime during the Shang dynasty in China (roughly during 1600 – 1050 BCE). Its overall size is roughly the same as that of a man’s chest and its original purpose was as a type wine vessel that was used during ritual ceremonies at the time. This can be related to funeral practices, celebrations and other such events that include the consumption of alcohol.

The surface of the vessel is covered in motifs that have been etched into the oxidized metallic surface and have long since faded away. Overall, the artefact itself is quite interesting and says a lot about the practices and rituals that took place within China during this particular period of time.

What is impressive about this wine vessel is that despite the base which seems out of balance and fragile, the entire artefact actually stays steady. On the other hand, it cannot be stated that there is balance in the creation of the work since the shapes on the surface seem to be haphazardly added here and there along with hard geometric lines. Such a distinction though may just be due to time removing the original details of the vessel itself.

Visual Examination When first examining art, one must take into account each art’s inherent theme and message in order to understand the stylistic justifications that went into the usage of colour, shapes, contours and lines in the art itself.

We will write a custom Essay on Yayi jia specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More While the metal work itself is far from the quality of the old masters of Ming dynasty art work, it does bring out a certain emotional response as the dragon head motif on the handle is probably meant to connote some sort of awe since dragon symbols were permitted by use on personal belongings only by important members of Chinese society at the time.

The vessel itself was most likely painted or emphasized in some way as it can be seen through the use of relatively thin lines, its slightly open composition in terms of the scarcity within the work and its emphasis on the accurate usage of lighting in the vessel itself. This means that it was either minimalist in design or had some form of outer decoration that wore away over time.

The entire bronze sculpture seems to exude a feeling of artifice wherein through its use of curving straight lines any form of actual emotional connection established with viewers is lost. The art work feels too “modern” (i.e. it lacks any of the beauty seen in Ming dynasty vases) and too “artificial” in the sense that it has lost its artistry by trying to appeal to too many audiences (the overall appearance does not seem all that unique).

While there are various colours utilized in the work (though this could just be the result of age affecting the vessel over time resulting in a distortion of its overall appearance), they feel flat, dead and lack any form of actual liveliness. While it may be true that the work itself may have been created through some use of bronze working, this just further emphasizes its divergence from other types of Chinese art that I am used to that usually portray a sense of delicateness to the vessel.

In fact, in terms of the overall balance and texture of the vessel it just seems too “clean” in the sense that it feels far too planned out, that the realism that can be captured in the moment is not there at all.

While it may be true that its utilization of space and contours is efficient, therein lies the problem wherein the wine vessel seems too “perfect” in the sense that it lacks any divergent emotion from the artist and merely looks like a vessel that can be created within a few hours by a bronze worker.

While there are many interpretations of what can be called “art”, the fact remains that I know what I like and this bronze work diverges from everything that I would actually call “likable” art. On the other hand, from a more positive perspective the use of light and shadows lends the bronze work a surreal realistic quality wherein the dragon head handle seems almost lifelike.

This is surprising when taking into consideration the rather minimalist perspective the bronze worker utilizes wherein the surface of the wine vessel is nothing more than a series of striated and curved lines that have faded over time.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Yayi jia by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The most striking and realistic feature is the face of the dragon on the handle where the use of lines, slightly raised ears and the use of a distinct curve to emphasize a mouth on the left most portion of the handle while emphasizing the ears on the top side creates an almost lifelike like realistic effect where the subject within seems to have been paused momentarily in a stitch in time.

In fact, when examining the rest of the wine vessel it can be see that the most painstaking detail applied to it was concentrated on the surface with the rest of the subject’s body being akin to a sparse outline.

This particular facet of the work itself could be considered purposeful on the part of the artist as he attempts to concentrate the perception of the viewer directly on the face of wine vessel and bring about the fanciful introspection of wondering what the various symbols on the jar mean and, as a result, causes the viewer to come closer to the object for a better look.

Overall, the use of lines in this particular vessel is dominated by either thin line outlines as seen in a majority of the work or faded curled lines utilized to create some effect that has long since faded. The one dominating colour in this artwork is the colour green as seen directly in the middle of the work which is evidence of considerable levels of oxidation which lends credence to the authenticity of the vessel.

Aspects of Civilization and Cultural Development Just by viewing the Yayi jia itself, it becomes obvious that it represents not only the advanced nature of the field of bronze metalwork during this particular time period within ancient Chinese civilization but it also represents how important iconography was to the ancient Chinese people since the vessel itself is rife with various faded icons that used to cover its surface.

Influence of Previous Civilizations It must be noted that the Yayi jia is not unique in the sense that it is the only example of its kind, such an assumption is fallacious since that the iconography of the Yayi jia (i.e. the dragon head motif) was featured prominently in various other artwork from ancient China hundreds of years before its creation.

Rather, a far more accurate statement would be that the Yayi jia from the Shang dynasty is merely one of the largest and most well known example of its kind (i.e. a ritual wine vessel) and is a representation of hundreds of years of ancient Chinese tradition in which the dragon was known as a guardian of tombs, temples and a representation of an aspect of their society.

Related to Artwork within the Same Civilization It is quite interesting to note that the Yayi jia has several stylistic elements which were quite prominent within this particular period of ancient Chinese civilization. For instance, the same dragon theme often was utilized on a variety of dragon statues on temples.

In the case of the Yayi jia, it can be stated that the overall shape of the body is somewhat dragon like in nature with the tripod like formation at the bottom looking almost like legs. In fact, it can even be said that the Yayi jia is nothing more than an older and smaller version of its counterparts seen in a variety of ancient Chinese tombs and temples.

My Thoughts on the Work Art is completely subject to interpretation however in this particular case I would have to say that in my opinion, while the bronze sculpture does look overly intricate, it lacks a sufficient “pull” so to speak in that it does not capture the attention as much as other vessels within the area.

While it is interesting to look at, the use of rusted colours of the sculpture actually makes it rather forgettable since it makes itself seem rather subdued and not eye-catching or memorable. Further examination of the vessel reveals that the sterile green colour of the sculpture and the use of geometric shapes with a hardness and sharpness not found in nature is in fact intentional which gives it a nice contrast to the overly natural shapes in the background.

Overall Impact In terms of its impact on me, I would have to say that I was not significantly affected in the least due to the fact that the sculpture seems overly subdued when it could have had a greater impact if the colour was different instead of the rust colour it had.

As such, while the work is being featured by a museum, I would still say that it lacks the necessary impact necessary to continue to attract visitors, however, art is completely subject to interpretation with others having a different interpretation of the sculpture itself. I do have to admit though that its vivid nature and the way it stood in stark contrast to its surrounding environment makes one think of the nature of man and how he stands in contrast to nature.

While I do not disparage the work of the artist, it definitely seems subdued and less eye-catching as compared to the various examples of Ming Dynasty art that I have seen. It is based on my impression of the vessel that I definitely agree that it belongs in a museum and that its worth as a vessel of art is in its ability to create a deep contrast between the artificial nature of humanity and the shapes of the natural world.

How does your object fit into a broad historical context? An examination of the work of various Chinese sculptures during the Shang dynasty reveals a continuing theme in most of the metal work which often incorporates unique animal forms. These forms are usually skeletal in appearance yet when hit with the light at a certain angle they show a unique representation of an animal from China’s natural environment or mythologies.

From a broad historical context, the vessel actually represents the excesses of the Chinese upper class at the time since the ostentatious nature of the wine vessel far outpaces its overall level of practicality since it is far too big and heavy to act as a conventional drinking receptacle.

Illustration of Object

Example of Yayi jia ritual wine vessel as seen in Mysteries of Ancient China5

Bibliography Childs-Johnson, Elizabeth. The Meaning of the Graph YI and its Implications for Shang Belief and Art. London: Saffron Books, 2008.

Ebrey, Patricia. Chinese Civilization: A Sourcebook. New York: Free Press, 1993.

Ledderose, Lothar. Ten Thousand Things: Module and Mass Production in Chinese Art. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Rawson, Jessica. Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties. New York: Braziller, 1996.

Footnotes 1 Elizabeth Childs-Johnson, The Meaning of the Graph Yi and its Implications for Shang Belief and Art (London: Saffron Books, 2008), 33

2 Patricia Ebrey, Chinese Civilization: A Sourcebook (New York: Free Press, 1993), 11

3 Jessica Rawson, Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties (New York: Braziller, 1996), 5-6

4 Lothar Ledderose, Ten Thousand Things: Module and Mass Production in Chinese Art (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000), 1-4

5 Jessica Rawson, Mysteries of Ancient China: New Discoveries from the Early Dynasties (New York: Braziller, 1996), 5-6


Bonus Banking: Case of UBS Report essay help online free: essay help online free

Introduction Background

Employees of financial institutions have been considered for quite some times as being among the top earners in the country. Indeed, financial service organizations have defended their compensation and bonus structure, claiming that it helps them attract, recruit and retain the best talent. In addition, these organizations have previously claimed that their employee are remunerated based on their performance.

Therefore, employees will be motivated to work hard and in return create long-term value to all the organizations’ stakeholders. On the other hand, it would be expected that when an organization underperforms, the employee will similarly be affected and hence their bonus reduced (Pert


Who are the Europhiles and who are the Euroskeptics? Essay writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Who are Europhiles and Eurosceptics?

Creating European Identity: possibilities and challenges

Europhiles and Eurosceptics: which side seems to win?


Works Cited

Introduction Different literatures have postulated how the process of Europeanization has been perceived with great enthusiasm by some people, while others have perceived it with intense skepticism (Smits p.1).

Since the advent of the call and much effort exhibited to the European integration process, both Europhiles and Eurosceptics in almost equal measure have argued their case that some time have motivated vigorous debates about the very nature of this European project (Smits p.1). What needs to be known is the fact that both the Euroscepticism and Europhilia base and pursue their different particular views of how largely citizens interests should be represented.

According to many citizens of the countries that have formed the European Union, views and positions taken by leading advocates of Europhiles and Eurosceptics have influenced the positions taken by the citizens of the different countries of European Union. Within the European Union jurisdiction the key issues that have led to existence of these two schools of view revolves largely around the economy, politics, legal, financial system, identity, culture, and sometimes language.

The point of note here is that European integration process has largely been perceived and regarded to be possible after integration of the above highlighted key aspects. Subsequently, the above highlighted key aspects constitute the very aspects that have divided citizens of EU into Europhiles and Eurosceptics, which each group arguing its case decisively for or against Europeanization.

Therefore, the essence of this research paper is to explore in detail ‘Who are the Europhiles and who are the Euroskeptics’ within the perspective of the above-outlined aspects. Further issues of national identity will also be explored and how it has further influenced Europhilia and Euroscepticism ideas and dreams.

Who are Europhiles and Eurosceptics? Definition of these two terms has been varied and multiple. For example, Euroscepticism has no one single usage where in some cases, the term has been used to refer to the lack of enthusiasm over the increasing powers of the European Union that exists, especially within the British public debate (Harmsen and Spiering p.15).

Other people have adopted a more broad definition, which decompounds and perceive Euroscepticism to constitute negative view of the process of Europeanization. The kind of position taken by this later group is one that has criticized EU policies and their position has been to oppose vehemently the EU enlargement where they express fears that with European integration then pursuit of social justice will be endangered (Smits p.2).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another group has defined Euroscepticism as “states’ fear of losing sovereignty and the subsequent consequences this has for the legitimacy of decisions that directly touch upon the rights and obligations of citizens” (Smits p.2). In other words, Eurosceptics express worry and fear about the diminution of national autonomy and the leaking away of the national parliaments’ power as democratic law-making institutions.

The general fear for Eurosceptics is that of the EU turning and evolving into a bureaucratic super-state that has powers to decide upon the numerous issues that affect its citizens in an undemocratic way (Smits p.2).

Overall, Eurosceptics are characterized by their tendency of: being against EU integration, defense of the national state sovereignty, oppose EU federation, oppose globalization, oppose foreign immigrants, and are against multicultural for the national cultural identity, and lastly, many of them have become emphatic xenophobia and Islam-phobia (Arato and Kaniok p.46).

On the other hand, Europhiles constitute a group of European citizens who have expressed unequivocal support and confidence in the European Union integration (Arato and Kaniok p.41). The position taken by Europhiles is that EU integration has more benefits to European citizens as compared to individual national sovereignty, which has tended to block developments in the regions (Hoogmoed p.1).

Europhiles point numerous reasons within the economy, political, information, trade, financial, governance, climate and environmental management, and many more others as key aspects that are likely to benefit the people of European upon integration. The argument of this group is that national cultures and identities should not play as barrier to the integration of the EU countries.

Europhiles counter the position of Eurosceptics by observing some of the notable positive impacts of EU integration. For instance, Europhiles content that, with integration of EU, there will be a strong economy, which in turn will lead to alleviation of poverty among member countries (Hoogmoed p.1). At the same time, Europhiles are confident that with Integration of EU there will be removal of trade and legal barriers.

As a result, there will be more free movement of people between the nations without having to fulfill many strenuous legal requirements. Further, EU integration for Europhiles will enable integration of individual country military forces, a situation that will lead to availability of more and enough funds to modernize the military to perform to their extreme capacities (Hoogmoed p.1).

We will write a custom Essay on Who are the Europhiles and who are the Euroskeptics? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More EU integration further is seen to important in making global citizens within the EU jurisdiction with elimination of national, cultural, and even religious differences. Crime issue is an aspect that is drawing attention in most parts of the world, and the issue is further aggravated by the advent of increasing and sophisticated terrorism.

As a way of countering and responding to these crime threats, Europhiles are convinced that integration of EU countries will results into establishment of a well trained and equipped police force that has the capacity to respond well to challenges of crime and other illegal activities (Hoogmoed p.1).

Cross-border and growth of a diverse human resource manpower is another element that characterize Europhilia where the belief is that with EU integration, there will be more highly trained human resource manpower who will be able to contribute to the economy growth of the EU countries.

Lastly, on overall Europhiles are confident that with EU integration there will be enhanced industrial development, there will be increased potential, new global business, the living standards of the people will increase, and there will be increased and improved human rights aspects (Hoogmoed p.1).

Creating European Identity: possibilities and challenges The end of the Second World War had far-reaching impacts on the European countries where efforts were started to integrate majority of European countries with hope that such an initiative would results into prevention of future conflicts since the old rivalries would be diminished (Castano p.40).

This grand and ambitious process was in the leadership hands of the elites who at the same time owned the whole process and drew inspiration from the neo-functionalist approach (Castano p.40).

One key principle that was incorporated in the entire integration process rested on the idea that all citizens of EU member countries would in gradual process but inevitably “shift their loyalties away from their national government toward the European institutions, which were going to provide greater material benefits” (Castano p.40).

By the signing of the Maastricht treaty, Eurobarometer data indicated that Europeans had a positive perception that European integration process was a good thing (Castano p.40). Despite this positive perception, observation made is that it has not translated into national citizens of various European countries abandoning their national loyalty to embrace a common European identity.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Who are the Europhiles and who are the Euroskeptics? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It can be deduced that the call for European identity was untimely and very fast and was done before the existing constraints had been resolved, especially with regard to institutions (Castano p.40). The same data collected by Eurobarometer indicated that European institutions have experienced a slow but steady increase in their popular support though the acceptance level of the institutions is still low.

Integration process for EU has become standstill and there has been a constant call for improvement in the legitimacy of the EU, a situation that calls and requires fostering sense of belonging among the citizens of the national member states (Castano p.42). The common and wide misconception has been that with improved economic policies then this integration will be possible to be achieved, a notion that is not true at all.

Economic integration is perceived and even proving to be insufficient to instill a sense of belonging at the European level and some people have further argued that fostering European identity through formation of a single European cultural identity again is likely to fail.

Paramount reason given by these people is that it is actually diversity, which is needed for European integration and not homogeneity (Castano p.43). In order to realize some genuine integration for EU countries, more people and suggestions have been leveled against the need to establish itself as a possible self-representation at the collective level for its citizens.

In a 2006 opinion poll among the European citizens it became evident that majority of the citizens were satisfied with the economic developments that had taken place although pessimism remains over political integration (Aulich p.1).

The findings of the poll showed that the living standards in the major country members of EU was extraordinarily high, much higher that other regions of the globe, a situation that had led to expression of satisfaction among the member countries.

For instance, statistical data of the poll showed that 90 percent of Europeans perceived themselves to be happy in their current family life and 84 percent expressed satisfaction in their current occupation (Aulich p.1). Further, 90 percent expressed their confidence in the sovereignty of their countries, although some slight differences were noted among different member states (Aulich p.1).

According to these data and overall conviction among the European citizens, the EU has succeeded and achieved economic integration for the member states, and which to them is enough as far as the basis foundation of the EU is concerned. On overall, European citizens in their individual countries considers themselves to have achieved success, happiness, fulfillment, and satisfaction, and generally enjoy social and economic status hence no nudging need to preoccupy with needs of integration (Aulich p.1).

French and Dutch constitute two countries of EU, which rejected the Euro-constitution that advocated for political integration. The position and conviction of majority of citizens in these two countries was that their level of economic advancement has gone up and therefore do not see likelihood of any tangible benefits arising from EU integration to them (Aulich p.1).

Further, the conviction of the two countries was that with the growth and advancement of their economies any likelihood of integration especially with less developed countries had ability to lead to retardation in economic advancement as there will be need to sacrifice their current economic status and overall standards of living in order to compensate and uplift the benefits of the poorer nations (Aulich p.1).

In other words, political and legal integration of EU member states has been hampered by perception economic of member states will disintegrate instead of growing and it is an aspect that has largely influenced the voting behavior of citizens in the member countries.

Different reasons have been given as to why EU integration process has appeared to be a tall order and difficult. For a start, EU as an entity is seen to receive less attention as compared to individual nations in the media (Castano p.43). This particular aspect of featuring less in the media is an aspect that has relegated EU to sidelines as more citizens of EU pay more attention to their national identity.

The media at the same time, is seen to reinforce more national identity than European identity. Furthermore, it has been suggested that when EU receive media attention it is largely because of internal disputes between the representatives of its member states or the inability to reach a common position in international arena.

As it can seen the attention of the media to these aspects are not basically aimed at reinforcing European identity, in fact the aim is to portray the dysfunctional of EU hence making integration impossible in the minds of the citizens (Castano p.43).

Another reason that continues to undermine efforts of the EU at integrating has to with entitativity of the EU in international context, which has largely been undermined by the direct actions of individual governments.

For instance, these governments have engaged in actions that can be described and viewed to be circumventing and sometimes contradicting the position of EU, a situation that generally embarrass the European citizens (Castano p.43).

Lastly, the EU integration process is seen to get hindrance from a lack of geographical boundaries. This particular aspect has largely weakened the efforts of the EU to evolve and establish itself as a real entity. In sum, EU aspect is yet to become a psychological existence in the minds of its citizens, a situation that continue to weaken and play against the European identification.

Europhiles and Eurosceptics: which side seems to win? Debate over the integration of the EU is likely not to disappear from the political elite and media any time soon and opposing sides are likely to be sustained. Nevertheless, many opinion polls across European citizens still portray a divided citizen group over the issue of integration.

There is no yet consensus as to how integration process should proceed or be facilitated, and members are much divided as to what should constitute the integration content.

As some members express confidence that political and legal integration can be achieved, other members are of the view that the basis of integration was to be realized through economy, which in turn has been achieved or fulfilled; hence, members should not be burdened by increased responsibility of working out a political and legal integration.

However, it should be noted that integration of political and legal structures and system of the EU chances appear to be scarce or just bleak due to existing numerous reasons. For example, national identity and national cultures have proved to be the strongest factors contributing to the un-realization of EU integration.

The national identity has superseded that of EU and member countries together with their citizens seem not to be ready to relinquish their paramount sovereignty to EU. Cultural differences have become evident as hindrance to EU integration process success as evidenced in the case of Turkey application for admission (Anonymous p.1).

Cultural differences manifests in different attitudes the citizens of different countries have over the EU, the different languages, where some citizens are opposed to the idea of creation of one language to unite member countries of EU (Anonymous p.1).

In addition, cultural differences in manifested in religious affiliations of different communities in different countries, existence of different interests that members see may not be addressed by the macro and mega institutions of the EU, existences of different laws that sometimes are designed on the cultural aspects of each country hence largely unique in nature.

Regulations regimes and systems among the EU member countries are totally different an aspect that might prove to be difficult to harmonize given that some countries have strong regulation mechanisms while others have largely weak mechanism (Anonymous p.1). Poverty levels among countries are another issue that poses danger to the integration of EU countries.

Different countries have manifested different levels of poverty and even some countries have come out to oppose integration on the basis that it will lead to their economies declining and standards of living ion their respective countries going down. Way of life, customs, and different political and administrative structures constitute another class of factors that continue to limit chances of EU integration.

Consideration of these factors it becomes clear that each country manifest different forms of ways of lives, societal and national norms and totally different political and administrative structures which cannot be merged into one structure bringing together the citizens of the countries.

Economic differences again constitute a set of factors that are perceived may block the likelihood of EU integration process from succeeding.

This economic difference are manifested in areas such as: different economic structures; different tax systems; labor costs; worker’s rights; different levels of wages, different social security contributions; welfare systems that are different; safety standards that are totally different; different environmental regulation mechanisms (Anonymous p.1).

Other notable differences in this category include different professional training schemes; different levels of economic standards, and lastly, the nature of state interference in economic activities also differ (Anonymous p.1). Last set of factors that hinder integration originate from geographical differences, whereby distance, climates, sizes of states, and landscape are seen to negatively contribute to the integration of EU member countries (Anonymous p.1).

Conclusion Formation and calls for formation of European Union were met with greater enthusiasm, as members held broad vision of how such integration would benefit the county members. Nevertheless, after its establishment, many views have erupted as to whether the EU has the ability to tackle key issues facing its member countries.

This situation has led to emergence of two groups of people Europhiles and the Eurosceptics where each group has presented its case for or against intention to integrate the EU. Seen and the way it has been identified in the paper, integration of EU is likely no to be achieved very soon as more national identities and cultures are reinforced among member states.

Works Cited Anonymous. European Integration: Reasons, Problems, and Criticism. Web.

Arato, Krisztina and Kaniok, Petr. Euroscepticism and European Integration. Zagreb: Political Science Research Centre.

Aulich, Sebastian. “United State of Europe?” European Courier. Web.

Castano, Emanuele. ‘European Identity: A Social-Psychological Perspective’, in Richard K. Herrmann, Thomas Risse and Marilynn B. Brewer (eds.), Transnational Identities: Becoming European in the EU. Oxford: Rowman


Social Theories in Conflict and Examples of Application Research Paper essay help: essay help

Introduction Conflict is part of human existence. Theories expounded by scholars and theorists state that conflicts are the result of human needs not being met, or as a result of competition. When these needs are addressed to, conflicts lose significance. There are a number of theories discussed in this essay and most delve on the interconnectivity of society and the individual members.

Paramount is the study of Lewis Coser which states that conflicts have a positive effect on society. Historical events relate that social groups are strengthened by conflict. Conflict and social upheaval are common in history. Oppression characterizes historical events. If there was no conflict, it would have been very difficult to write history because history is filled with conflicts of tribes and peoples, kings and their dominions, and nation states against nation states.

People and organizations deal with conflict day in and day out. Human nature is complicated; it is filled with emotions and feelings which can be the cause of conflicts. In an organization, there are complexities, errors, and successes, because organizations are manned by humans. We are not governed by theories but we formulate these theories out of our experiences and continued socialization. In the course of time, these theories seem to rule over our behavior and activities.

In our socializing activities, we commit errors which are a part of our behavior in making judgments, interpretations, assumptions, and beliefs about our social world, the people within it, and our place in it.

This essay will try to delve on the many aspects of conflict, but most especially on the theories of conflict, and on the why and the how of conflicts encountered by man.

The Theories Human Needs Theory – John Burton (1990)

The theory states that conflicts are caused by human needs that are not met. These needs can be psychological, social, economic, political, etc. The needs and problems of the people involved in conflicts have to be understood and addressed so that the issues that preoccupy the groups and people lose significance and therefore conflict can be resolved.

Another argument by Burton and Dukes (1990 as cited in Anyanwu, 2009, p. 58) states that satisfying human needs seems to be present in all conflicts although there are many kinds of conflicts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Common to the Human Needs theory are self-actualization and self-determination. Human needs are strong motivating factors which influence the way people behave and act in society. (Webster, 2006, p. 84)

The theory also asserts that people have urges relative to the three needs which are the need for achievement, the need for affiliation, and the need for power (Firth, 2002, p. 86; Kopelman et al., 2006, p. 233). The need theory is focused on the acquired needs that people learn in the process of acquiring new life experiences over their lifetime. (Armstrong, 1998)

Justice was a human need for people during the time of Martin Luther King and the civil rights movement. Justice should have been addressed to for the African Americans who sensed injustice. When this was met after years of demonstrations and rebellion by the coloured population, conflict seemed to die down.

According to Abraham Maslow (1943), our needs are arranged like a pyramid or ladder.

The physiological needs can be found at the bottom of the pyramid. This includes food, water, oxygen and sex. As one set is met, the need moves up the ladder to the next. Belongingness and love needs come next which include the need for recognition, acceptance and approval of others. Self-esteem needs include how we value ourselves and our love and respect for ourselves and for others. We also have the desire to know and understand. (Firth, 2002, p. 85)

It is the motivations that people have for certain attitudes towards their work and their relations with their employers. Affiliation is the need that people try to satisfy in the work place. Organizations must provide their employees with favorable conditions for professional and personal development in the work place and encourage growth and career advancement.

Realistic-group-conflict Theory (The Robbers Cave Experiment) – The Sherifs (Carolyn and Musafer Sherif)

This theory involves conflicts between groups which can be nations, tribes, ethnic groups, etc. Competition between different groups is a continuous phenomenon. The causes that the groups compete for may range from power and prestige to wealth or property. There is heightened animosity toward each other.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Social Theories in Conflict and Examples of Application specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Muzafer Sherif (1961, as cited in Goldstein, 1994, p. 98) and his research team conducted studies on the causes of intergroup competition. The research was known as the summer camp studies. They recruited 24 12-year-old boys who came from middle-class families. The boys were not informed of the experiment; instead they were told that it was just a summer camp. The Researchers planned the experiment to be in three stages including group formation, conflict between the groups, and reduction of the conflict.

The first stage involved transporting the boys into two separate groups and classifying them according to their psychological and physical characteristics, and separating those who were friends. Inside the camp, the two groups were separated from each other in two distant locations, avoiding possible contact with each other. Activities for the boys involved athletics, hiking, camping, swimming, and developing group structure.

Toward the end of the first week, the two groups realized that they were sharing the same facilities and were beginning to exhibit a different kind of behaviour against the rival group. The two groups were now aiming for competition. The Researchers staged the games of baseball, tug-of-war and other contests, increasing the tension among the boys, until it escalated into verbal insults and other hostilities.

Throughout the period, the attitudes of the two groups became more hostile but were cohesive towards their own team. More activities or experiments, disguised as games, were conducted by the Researchers, and each time the boys showed bias toward their own group.

When they were asked to indicate their best friends, they chose their co-members of the group when in reality their best friends before they were brought to the camp were those from the opposite group.

The experimenters created instances where the two groups could cooperate with each other and this was when they had to pool their money for a movie that they all wanted to see. Another was for all to help in rescuing the water truck when it got stuck. All other activities involved interdependency for the two groups. The result was that there was a reduction in hostility. (Goldstein, 1994, pp. 98-9)

Team development is designed to improve the effectiveness of team members with interdependent jobs, where effectiveness refers to managing problems and accomplishing group goals. The experiment proved that behaviour of groups could escalate conflict and how easily hostilities can form. The experimenters designed tasks wherein the two groups had no other recourse except to help each other.

Functionalism – Emily Durkheim and Talcott Parsons (1902-1979)

This is sometimes known as ‘the society perspective’ or the ‘social-system perspective’. The original work of the French sociologist Emile Durkheim links this theory to the existing system at the time, but it was provided further study by the American sociologist Talcott Parsons.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Social Theories in Conflict and Examples of Application by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This theory was dominant in the United States during the period 1940s to the 1960s. It gained wide prominence but soon waned down although insights for this theory are linked to the existing social issues. According to this theory, human nature is irrational and self-centred. (Willis, 1996, p. 117)

Society has a great influence to the order of things and can prevent the escalation of conflict and war.

Willis (1996, p. 117) describes the tension between society and the individual members:

‘… the civilizing influence of society keeps irrationality in check, and individuals do not actively create social lives but are products of the external society. Individuals can be free and happy only within the confines set up by society.’

In this theory, society has a great influence on the individual members. It can be said that society comes first and the interest of the majority is ahead of the interest of the individual members.

The studies of Frederick Taylor are somehow linked to the society-individual interaction in the functionalism theory. He defined work in terms of the specified tasks designed for the workers to follow, and with no chance of freedom or judgment left on the part of the workers. There is no motivation during those early years of industrialization, which is the basis of Taylor’s theory. (Luecke


Concept of Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) Essay essay help online: essay help online

Abstract This paper takes a critical look at market efficiency as well as the efficient market hypothesis (EMH). The three forms of market efficiency are defined and illustrated while a correlation of the three forms of market efficiency proportionate to analysis is also identified and discussed.

Effective market hypothesis is further discussed and illustrated and academic evidence regarding the different stands and viewpoints on market efficiency is examined. In addition, different financial analyst’s explanation in relation to the role and impact of an investor in the financial market is examined and discussed.

The prices of shares are also discussed together with the elements in the market that greatly influence the prices of shares and securities in general. The stability of various stock indices is also looked at and relevant factors that contribute to the alteration of the indices either through speculation or economics are discussed from different analytical perspectives.

Finally, examples of market inconsistencies are discussed in order to identify instances where the share prices of particular firms have deviated greatly from the standard equilibrium. The paper goes ahead and further identifies and discusses the prevailing circumstances that led to the abnormal deviation of share prices and the subsequent corrective measures taken.

Introduction In order to be in a position to discuss the three forms of market efficiency, it is very important to comprehend the fundamental nature of market efficiency which is usually a major component of capital market efficiency. By definition, market efficiency is the level at which the present value of a given asset correctly replicates the existing information of the asset in the market place (Taleb, 2008).

Market efficiency necessitates a well organized capital market given that it is in such a market that new information on an asset is rapidly and accurately reflected in share prices and the current price is an objective estimate of its accurate economic value based on the revealed data.

Efficient Market Hypothesis on the other hand requires that all relevant information is in total and instantaneously mirrored in an asset’s market price, therefore presupposing that an investor will acquire an equilibrium rate of return (Shiller, 2003). An investor should therefore anticipate generating a standard return through the application of both technical analysis and fundamental analysis.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The three forms of market efficiency Three forms of efficiency have been identified and grouped according to the nature of information which is replicated in prices.

Weak-form efficiency This efficiency means the information contained in historic price action of a share can be recognized in the current share prices though analyzing the historic prices has no predictive effect on the future prices since different information will be released in the future.

A number of varieties of fundamental analysis techniques are apt to offer surplus returns in Weak-form efficiency, whereas most technical analysis systems will fail in this form of efficiency or intermittently produce surplus returns (Keynes, 1936).

This is largely owing to the fact that the historical share prices in addition to other historical data cannot be utilized for an extended period of time in investment strategies to make surplus returns. Share prices have no price patterns that can assist in the assessment of current prices and hence lack serial dependencies.

Future price movements are for that reason determined entirely by the information disclosed at that particular time which is not currently enclosed in the price series (Fama, 1998). The history of share prices can therefore not be studied so as to forecast the future in any unusually gainful approach. Serial correlation in daily stock returns is close to zero as shown in the table below

Table 1. Serial Correlation of Daily Returns on Eight Stock Markets

USA 0.03 Germany 0.08 France -0.01 Holland -0.02 UK 0.08 Belgium -0.02 Italy -0.02 Switzerland 0.01 Source: Solnik, B. A Note on the Validity of the Random Walk for European Stock Prices. Journal of Finance (December, 1973).

We will write a custom Essay on Concept of Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Semi-strong-form efficiency Entails that share prices fully and rapidly mirror all the major publicly available information in a neutral manner thus investors cannot earn excess returns through the trading on that information (Fama


Managing Diversity at Workplace Report argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Outline


Why Diversity Management?

Different Dimensions

Benefits of Workplace Diversity

Diversity Management and implementation of diversity policy

The link between workplace diversity and good management



Outline Workforce diversity should be treated as a business initiative and not a human resource or personnel department function. There is a strong business case for diversity in the workplace. The 21st century enterprises have a felt need to value, and leverage diversity. It is top agenda item for successful CEOs. It is commonly accepted business reality that heterogeneous groups outperform homogenous groups.

Heterogeneous groups are better at problem solving, effective at decision making, and they are particularly well equipped in generating creative ideas. The advantage comes from the fact that the diversity of the workforce background itself imparts a fertile launch pad for creativity to work at its best. Two brains are better than one is a truism aptly applicable to business situations.

The power of brainstorming to create a dramatic impact in finding creative solutions to business problems is enormous. Modern work teams can do wonders in workplace. Productivity, and work quality significantly go up when employees have, or perceive they have, a full opportunity to contribute in a meaningful way.

3M typifies such philosophy abundantly. There is a sense of job ownership, project ownership, ownership of the outcome. Even the most die-hard critic of workforce diversity will be unable to refute the obvious benefits of diversity.

Introduction We live in a society that is known for its differences. Diversity in terms of multiculturalism, gender politics, affirmative action, preferences, and mandates have become part of our existence. We are today more actively dividing ourselves by race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, cultural norms, physical ability, and socioeconomic status, than in the past (George, 1961).

Though diversity is in existence since long, it is only recently that it has attracted greater attention from the corporate mandarins. Managing diversity is nothing but changing the organisational culture or its standard operating procedures. The fostered culture should enable employees to closely examine their values and beliefs and question themselves as to why others look different for them.

Diversity management must essentially create an environment that works naturally for the total diversity mixture. Keeping this in view the present paper attempts to clarify some of the real life business challenges in an environment characterised by diversity in workforce.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Why Diversity Management? Human beings tend to see through their own views and interpret the views by what is accustomed to them. There is an addiction to seek the aggregation of those makes a lot of agnate to them for the acquisition and assurance in similarities. It is difficult for humans to conceive power, and history shows that it is rarely done voluntarily. They abide by the external changes and always strive for an accompaniment of homeostasis.

This amusing absoluteness makes an atmosphere appropriate for diversity, which includes anybody; adolescent, old, abandoned and affluent, Hindu or Muslim or Christian. Assortment calls for anniversary being advancing to agreement with his or her attitudes, beliefs, and expectations about others and accepting abundance with the differences.

To achieve from the affluence of talents and perspectives that can alone appear from accepting an advanced array of humans in adjustment of authoritative roles, managements accept to alternation advisers to accept the differences that abide aural cultures and as well amount the similarities that abide amid capricious cultures.

Even to absorb humans with altered backgrounds and characteristics who are able with appropriate skills, organisations accept to ensure that such advisers are not appropriate for their different claimed and cultural ancestry as the amount of inclined behaviour in the organisation; they may acquire their own way to other firms who wish them on their own terms.

Different organisations are viewing diversity’ in different ways. By diversity, we commonly mean differences based on ethnicity, gender, age, religion, disability, national origin and sexual orientation.

But technically speaking, “diversity goes beyond these visibilities and encompasses an infinite range of individuals’ unique characteristics and experiences including communication styles, physical characteristics such as height and weight, speed of learning and comprehension, socioeconomics, and education” (Anthony, 2005, p. 1).

The diversities associated with education, socioeconomic and work experience are, of course, considered more critical for organisational success today. In this context, diversity has become a resource for organisations.

We will write a custom Report on Managing Diversity at Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the workplace, diversity, if properly managed, optimises the willingness and ability of all employees to contribute to the organisational success by encouraging each employee to draw fully on the talents, different points of view, skills, and practices that have been brought into the system for the benefit of both the individual and the organisation.

Today, flourishing companies are taking action to appeal people who are blessed with talents, adventures and perspectives, socioeconomic accomplishments and again to alone and aggregately empower them to accord aggregate they accept in adjustment to attain business objectives.

The ambition of assortment is not to calculate humans by category, but to account from the best mix of humans of such a category. It is the organisations that could instil variety into the organisation in tune with their eyes and cardinal objectives accept reaped added benefits.

Different Dimensions People exhibit abundant differences in how they recognize changes in the organisation based on claimed characteristics. Of course, there is a hypothesis in psychology, which says that behaviour of an individual is an action of the being interacting with his or her environment. For example, an annoyed worker gets balked while alive for a close that requires approval of place from abounding levels.

That is how assortment in the workforce fosters mixed responses, ideas, and outputs in the organisation. Researchers observe particularly seven major differences: Humans alter in productivity; humans alter in adeptness and talent; humans differ in their ability for accomplishing top superior results; humans alter in how abundant they wish to be empowered and involved; humans alter in the appearance of administration they adopt and need; humans alter in their charge for acquaintance with added people; and humans alter in their bulk of charge and adherence to the firm.

Personality differences are another source of diversity. The personality factors such as sociability, affecting stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, artlessness to experience, self-monitoring of behaviour and affecting intelligence make an impact on employee’s achievement at work places. It determines how an employee gathers and evaluates information.

Sensation displays individuals’ ability to accept and orderliness in their job action area as employees’ admiration to accept an all-embracing viewpoint and as well adore analytic new problems. Feeling blazon humans are about conformists and by all agency try to abstain disagreement. Contrarily, cerebration blazon individuals await added on their ability rather than affect to break problems.

It is believed that a diverse work force is always superior to a homogenous group. A heterogeneous group is proved to be capable of producing higher-quality ideas and is likely to take quality decisions for greater the diversity, greater will be the innovation in the organisation.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Managing Diversity at Workplace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A company’s mere willingness to employ diverse workforce such as people from different races, genders, cultural backgrounds, the disabled, etc., may make it a darling of the market and thus give a boost to its market cap and sales volumes (Gregory, 1980).

Organisation image: The image of an organisation follows same connotations and meanings as that carried by an individual in real life. The organisations also exhibit same traits and behaviour as exhibited by individuals.

So organisations must create a culture that values diversity; practices policies that foster mutual respect, a sense of belonging for all, and the acceptance of differences, promote a culture where diversity is valued; and corporate wide diversity training serves to promote this image.

Concern for equality: In their practices, organisations must demonstrate equal respect for minority and majority group members. To achieve this, companies must develop performance expectations and reward systems that are unbiased. Often, minority-group members feel that they work harder than majority group members, but still are not compensated equally (Orlando, 2000).

Career development: Companies that want to create a climate where diversity is valued must promote minority group members with the opportunity for development and promotion. Most important, they must provide minorities an access to top-level management positions. Minorities who hold high-level positions can send a message to those in the lower ranks that this is a company that values diversity.

Hiring practices: Organisations must work hard to recruit and hire multicultural employees. At the same time companies must provide those prospective workers with an opportunity to be hired into well-paying positions, equal to the opportunities extended to majority groups. Companies can benefit from setting goals and guidelines for minority hiring.

Unfortunately, some organisations seek to build a diverse work group by hiring many minority group workers into low-paying, unskilled positions. Rather than creating an image of a positive multicultural environment, however, this crowding of minorities at lower positions fosters negative feelings. Minority members sense that they must do the “dirty work” and feel they are being used by the organisation (John, 1982).

Benefits of Workplace Diversity In the global economy, lack of cross-cultural understanding among the business people may lead to delays in getting the job done right, poor performance, decreased revenues and lost opportunities. Similarly, the need for adaptability is found to be quite essential for success in the globalised economy and diversity enhances adaptability.

It is only by employing a wide assortment of people; richness of talents and perspectives can be brought into organisations. There are thus more than one reason why companies deliberately take initiatives to build diversity among its employees, of course, in tune with its stated vision and mission statements.

Organisations that manage their diverse workers can increase their productivity substantially through many ways, one of which is increased problem-solving ability. Such productivity may result from increase in creativity that has been hypothesised to be related to heterogeneity. For example, bilingualism and biculturalism have been found to be related to divergent thinking, which in turn has been hypothesised to be associated with creativity (John, 1995).

Recently, it has been demonstrated that ethnic heterogeneity in small groups is associated with increased quality of ideas generated for solving problems. Increased heterogeneity also brings in another benefit the prevention of group think phenomenon that occurs only in cohesive groups.

Such factors however depend on how factors such as amount of diversity, ease of discussing differences, cultural awareness training, and background information on group members affect the quality of idea generation.

With the advent of digital economy one of the greatest challenges facing the organisations is the increasing diversity of workforce. It has become an essential business concern. There is a talent war raging among companies to retain their best talent in a bid to retain their competitive advantage. Diversity management and change management go hand in hand.

They mutually support each other (Anton, 1970). Organisations that adapt themselves to change are more likely to be comfortable with managing diversity better. Likewise, organisations are comfortable with diversity and are more likely to be able to anticipate and adapt to changes in the globalised business environment.

They will be nimble footed to react instantaneously to the situational demands. It is known that organisations that are ready to accept changes can be stronger inherently as it would benefit them in terms of achieving adaptability to manage complexity, contradictions, and paradoxes.

Office technology has felt the revolutionary nature of change the most. The technological sophistication is a natural enabler to the manage diversity in a planned and systematic manner. Technology offers a level playing field to each individual regardless of gender, race, age, and so on. It is a great equaliser (Bertallanfy, 1968).

It eliminates the human bias. Electronic meeting is case to point as an example. It is a way of exchange ideas for free. Everyone has an active participative role shot. An electronic meeting paves the way for a secured atmosphere in which ideas and suggestions can be shared and proposed easily.

As a marketing strategy in today’s global economy it makes eminent sense to make the workforce represented by people from all walks of life covering a broad spectrum like different ethnicities, races, ages, abilities, genders.

To ensure that their articles and casework are advised to address to this assorted chump base, advancing companies are hiring people, from those walks of activity for their specialised insights and knowledge.

Similarly, companies having direct interface with the clientele are finding increasingly important to match the profile of the workforce with the profile of their customer base. Homogeneous workforce always result in less external interaction and communication and companies that retain such a workforce would not be effective in framing policies and programmes in consultation with people of different tastes and preferences.

To stay competitive the workforce diversity helps the companies as a capacity-building strategy. They need to sprint in order to stay where they are. The dynamics of change is no more evolutionary in nature rather it is revolutionary.

Companies that advance accept the accommodation to actually break problems, bound acclimate to new situations, readily analyse new opportunities and capitalise on them instantaneously. The scope of talent, experience, knowledge, insight, and acuteness accessible in their workforces can go a continued way in architecture the accommodation for the enterprise.

Whatever may be reasons that prompt companies, it is an obvious fact that companies that diversify their workforces will have a distinct advantage over those that don’t. The huge allowances of workforce diversity will be experienced, not by the companies that accept abstruse to apply humans in animosity of their differences, but by the companies that accept abstruse to apply humans because of them.

Diversity Management and implementation of diversity policy The acceptation of workforce diversity has been a cause for worry in contemporary years. Not continued ago, diversity referred to a person’s gender or indigenous group.

Diversity today encompasses differences in age, administration in an organisation, educational background, human acclimatisation or preference, concrete abilities or qualities and amusing status, bread-and-butter status, lifestyle, religion, ethnicity, and genders a part of abounding added characteristics (James, 2001).

Also the abstract suggests that diversity administration refers to efforts to animate a amalgamate workforce to accomplish up to its abounding abeyant in an candid plan ambiance area no one accumulation has advantage or disadvantage. Its focus is on alone differences rather than ability differentials. The main arguments identified in these definitions can be summarised by defining diversity as:

Diversity is an authoritative behaviour, which acknowledges and ethics differences and similarities a part of humans and how the differences can plan to advance the organisation. It as well agency compassionates the authoritative environments with an acknowledgment for gender, culture, and indigenous lifestyles.

Developing and maintaining programs that foster diversity have proven difficult for companies in which embracing diversity amounts to a cultural change. Because, company cultures are deeply rooted and the resulting beliefs are widely held, and culture is difficult to change.

Many organisations have attempted to find quick fixes for diversity enhancements, but sooner or later those firms have learned that there is no such thing as a quick fix. Fostering and managing diversity requires a comprehensive and carefully planned approach.

Given below is a diversity management model that the authors have developed through extensive literature review and issues raised by researchers and scholars in the field. The differences in ethnicity, culture, gender, age, and lifestyle impart variety of perspectives to the workplace.

All perspectives are not only essential but should be actively sought. The spirit of alternate regard, cooperation and investment through acquainted accomplishment to advance development of agents leads to synergy the action in which alive calm yields after-effects greater than the sum of alone efforts.

Proactively create and sustain an internal climate of equal opportunity for all through work force development initiatives such as job growth opportunities, through mentoring, job shadowing and training, tuition reimbursement, employee recognition, and improved communication on relevant issues and activities.

The link between workplace diversity and good management The organisations are also waking up to the fact that managing workplace diversity is imperative. Though organisations acknowledge the importance of maintaining a diverse workforce, efforts are not in tandem with the prominence given to the issue.

Workforce diversity is throwing up complexities no doubt, but looking at the broader picture, we see that there has been a movement from simple to complex in all realms of the workplace.

System thinking has replaced a simplistic cause- effect relationship. Managements are trying to integrate and benefit from a diverse workforce by coming up with options like flexi time benefits. Gender diversity training programs aimed at highlighting the politically correct work practices and individual behaviours are gaining popularity worldwide (Christopher, 2000).

The flip side is that some managers feel that increased workforce diversity may cause management problems. Diversity brings with it the need for more flexibility, which makes management more complicated (e.g., scheduling, compensation plans, interpersonal communication, ethnic differences) (Philip, 1974).

The crux of the issue lies in the fact that women in workforce is a reality and the aim of organisations must be to think of how best to harness this vast pool of talent and not glorify the issues as complications.

The boards of companies, which expressed faith and backed their women employees, have been rewarded handsomely. Management research is now focusing on a feminine style of management that highlights the success of adopting a feminine or a softer approach to managing people. Many studies have shown that women in fact can make better managers.

Workforce diversity can be managed only through a change in the mindset. Integrating the people working in an organisation successfully should be a product of the organisational culture and not a stand-alone training program. The day the women in organisations are accepted as being indispensable, just as in a family, that will be the day the term gender diversity with its negative connotations will cease to exist.

Efforts to build a diverse climate and creation of multicultural opportunities will not by themselves create an organisation that values diversity unless management practices reflect this commitment (Robert, 2001). If diversity is to be optimised, top managers must recognise the capabilities of all employees, take their ideas seriously, and support both minority and majority-group employees.

Managers must communicate effectively and accept employees who do not speak the local language. Finally, managers must respect the cultural beliefs and needs of employees and truly value the diversity of the workforce. Strategies that can lead to diversity include diversity-awareness training and the hiring of managers and top executives who reflect variety in gender, race, and ethnicity.

The role administration practices plays in acknowledging assortment highlights the charge to appoint and advance top-level agents associates who are acute to the apropos of multicultural employees. The management can do this by incorporating this in their hiring practices to hire people who are sensitive and can relate to multicultural workforce.

Conclusion Diversity among workforce becomes an asset business. It enables organisations to have a command over choice. Diversity brings to organisations unique perspectives. Understanding the demographic differences among the workforce can help organisations capitalise on diversity and avoid negative stereotyping.

If managed properly, diversity optimises the willingness and ability of all employees to contribute to organisational success besides, encouraging each to draw fully on the talents, different points of view, skills, and practices that have been made available by diverse workforce. Diversity, if managed badly, can become a liability.

References Anthony, Ferner, Phil Almond and Trevor Colling (2005), Institutional Theory and the Cross-National Transfer of Employment Policy: The Case of ‘Workforce Diversity’ in US Multinationals. Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 36, pp 1- 86.

Anton, C. Zijderveld (1970), The Abstract Society-A Cultural Analysis of Our Time, Penguin Books, Middlesex, England.

Bertallanfy, Von Ludwig (1968), General System Theory: Foundations, Development and Applications, George Braziller, New York.

Christopher, Earley P. and Elaine Mosakowski (2000), Creating Hybrid Team Cultures: An Empirical Test of Transnational Team Functioning, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 43, No1, pp-26-49.

Gregory, Bateson (1980), Steps to an Ecology of the Mind (chapter on Double Bind Theory of Schizophrenia), Ballantine Books, New York.

George, H. Sabine (1961), A History of Political Theory (Chapter Hegel: Dialectic and Nationalism’pp-620-668), George G Harrap


The Position Lacanian Psychoanalytic Theory Allots to the Art Object Regarding Desire in Postmodernities Coursework argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Lacanian Psychoanalytic Theory and Art Introduction

Importance of the issue

Appreciating pieces of art is a great pleasure as it gives us time for imagining the personalized meaning of those objects through our own personal mirrors of our egos and minds. Sometimes, we try to find the meaning of what we see or hear with the help of our instinct or intuitive feeling beyond the logic and strict reasoning to understand the pictures or sculptures.

The same can be claimed about psychology and different theories that are aimed at explaining human desires and unconscious intentions. The perception of art objects can be understood with the help of applying Lacanian psychoanalytic theory to objects depicted and the way people usually understand those.

As psychological interpretation of contemporary art suggests abundant sources for comprehending our experience on art, it is possoble to use Lacanian psychoanalytic theory to understand the essential aspects of postmodern artworks in terms of the concept of desire. The relation between the concept of desire according to Jacques Lacan’s theory and such aspects as what is shown, what is seen, and the way of perception in the objects of art are of the main focus of the current paper.

Aim and scope

The current paper is aimed at showing the number of different explanations that can be evoked by implementation of Lacanian psychoanalytic theory while observing and discussing the objects of art such as mixed media sculptures created in contemporary conditions with the help of modern materials, techniques and methods including postmodern tendencies.

In particular, reviewing the works designed by Louise Bourgeois including Arch of Hysteria (1993) and Cell (Eyes and Mirrors) (1989-1993) and Yayoi Kusama’s Infinity Mirror Room – Phalli’s Field (1965) and Narcissus Garden (1966) can demonstrate the most prominent features of Lacanian theory in these art objects regarding desire in postmodernities.

The art objects mentioned above will be analysed in the current paper in accordance with the Lacanian psychoanalysis theory that includes such aspects as concept of mirror, phallocentrism, femininity, and mirror with regard to desire and psycho-sexual tendencies.

Theoretical Background

Lacanian Psychoanalytic Theory

Lacanian psychoanalytic theory’s main purpose is to evoke hidden side of human mind, the unconscious, so that people could explain things that seem ambiguous or, on the contrary, obvious. The number of explanations of the unconscious desire can vary due to the background of every person involved in the process of discussion. For instance, certain events, either negative or positive, in the life of a person influence his/her perception of self and individual desire in different ways.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Lacanian theory of mirror stage in terms of personality development, the aspect of Narcissism is the shared feature of personal human desire. “The mirror stage is also closely related to narcissism”1 as the Greek myth dwells on the beauty of a young man who fell in love with his own reflection in the water.

“Lacan develops Freud’s concept by linking it more explicitly with its namesake, the myth of Narcissus”2. The mirror image in early childhood serves to mould a self-image that is not actually a self-image, but an ideal one of what we want to be, and, consequently, it serves to set a psychological drive toward self-definition based on a imaginary structure forced by the identification with external social order.

In this respect, Lacan’s theory does not focus only on biological aspect of mirror stage of psycho-sexual development; the mirror stage is suggested as the primary stage in the perception of a person that helps to conceive the real image from the self and from others. The scope of ideas on the concept of mirrors can be presented in a multivolume work whereas the main ideas can be found in the theory of psychoanalysis established by Jacques Lacan.

Though Lacan’s theory has proven to be one of the most insightful interpretations of our time, some critics found explanation and analysis of certain concepts gender-oriented and discriminating. For example, French feminists Julia Kristeva and Helen Cixous have argued about the objectivity of presentation of concepts of phallocentrism made by prominent theorists, philosophers, and psychologists Jacques Lacan and the person influenced by Lacan’s ideas, Jacques Derrida.

Female writers criticized Lacanian theory because it suggested lack of self in women making them penis-less creatures deprived of the ego and associated more as a part of the male essence. In this respect, Helene Cixous’s essay ‘The laugh of the medusa’ is aimed at discussing the influence of gender aspects on cultural life of people, art objects, and language in particular.

The author dwells on the difference between cultural concepts and gender aspects that, as the author claims, should not be mixed with one another and with biological peculiarities of life.3 The more we try to tie the aspect of gender to other areas of human life, the less appropriate these concepts may become.

Different problems with the perception of this or that idea or object of art can be the main reason for treating the phallocentric concepts as those discriminating femininity as a feature of the gender. Julia Kristeva suggests the idea of “drives [that] involve pre-Oedipal semiotic functions”4; this statement can be considered one of the most appropriate ideas for discussion with regard to desire and drives in the process of analysing the objects of art.

We will write a custom Coursework on The Position Lacanian Psychoanalytic Theory Allots to the Art Object Regarding Desire in Postmodernities specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Phallocentrism is defined here as irrelevant panegyric on make sexual organ and behaviour of male representatives associated with their attitude to this organ as well. In this respect, the desire related to the objects of art can be found in the issue of glorification of the male sexual organ.

The more theories try to approach the concept of the mirror, the more ideas appear in the process of analysis even on the simplest phenomena that did not suggest that many explanations of a specific term before. In this respect, it is necessary to emphasise that Lacanian psychoanalytic theory is aimed at provoking human thoughts on different subjects as a person who knows about the suggested concepts would use those ideas while analysing the objects of art.

For instance, Jacques Lacan introduced a concept of mirror and explanation of the function of the unit I as suggested in psychoanalytic practice. His work “Mirror stage as formative of the function of the I as revealed in psychoanalytic experience” demonstrates the inner stage that is suggested to analyse as the initial condition or a ‘mirror’ as the inner reflection of all actions performed by a person.

This mirror is treated as a specific place or an object used for analysis of actions, behaviour, and deeds by a person; such a self-analysis and counter-analysis are used for signification and counter-signification of the self.5

This concept was not critically perceived by female writers Cixous and Kristeva because it was not treated as the one that is posted against the femininity, female concepts, and feminine gender in general though the concept of mirrors helps to assess the role of desire in the analysis of the self.

Desire in Postmodernities

Postmodernism is a movement in art and architecture that can be considered one of the most influential trends in twentieth century due to its simplicity and complicatedness at the same time. Though different styles in art can be claimed to have found their application in culture, postmodern movement had a prominent impact on the architecture and art objects.

As suggested by Tobin Siebers in his book Heterotopia: postmodern utopia and the body politic, the postmodernities can be compared to desire that cannot be explained and understood completely.6 On the other hand, it is necessary to trace the real meaning of postmodern art objects that can be insightfully explained using psychological analysis theories aimed at explaining human desires, fears, and intentions.

The analysis of the self can be performed through the use of mirrors that represent the relations between what a person wants to show and others want to see or are able to see. Besides, as suggested by Jacques Lacan, the desire can be clearly understood after analysis of the body: Fragmented body is analysed in terms of the desires and fears and the hidden intentions behind the reflection of different parts of the human body.7

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Position Lacanian Psychoanalytic Theory Allots to the Art Object Regarding Desire in Postmodernities by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most postmodernists are sceptical of the concept, ‘certainty’ or ‘authentic truth’ because the function, meaning, and symbolic value are varied in the context or situation; the same can be traced in psychoanalysis where every detail is thoroughly examined to trace the connection between the desire and images usually reflected in the inner mirror.

Though every object of art can be analysed in a different way, there is a number of traits that can be traced in most of them with regard to the gender of the author, the inner reflection of the actions, and attitude to the self, and other concepts that can be easily found in psychoanalytic theory established by Jacques Lacan.

So, the objects of art created with regard to the tendencies and concepts established for postmodernities can be easily analysed with the help of Lacanian psychoanalytic theory designed merely at the same time as the postmodern movement.

In this respect, it is possible to apply the concepts of psychoanalysis such as self-criticism by Freud8 to the objects of art designed by contemporary authors due to the background of authors and their reflection of the self in those art objects.

Position of Theory to the Art Object

Louise Bourgeois, Arch of Hysteria, 1993

The first object of art that should be analysed with regard to the concept of desire in postmodernities and the basic concepts revealed in Lacanian psychoanalytic theory is the one designed by Louise Bourgeois. This piece of art was created in 1993; the Arch of Hysteria can be considered one of the most feminine and delicate works created by this author.9

At the same time, it is powerful demonstration of the human body. And the name of the sculpture created using polished patina on the hanging piece made of bronze talks for itself. The attack of hysteria makes people change the positions of their bodies.

The same can be traced when a person experiences some strong emotions or feelings and is not able to control the movements, gestures, and emotions expressed on his/her face. Every attack of hysteria can be depicted in another way because every individual has his/her own reflection of the self and is able to analyse the self using the inner mirror.

The discussion of femininity is related to the ideas the author of this object of art found relevant due to the feminism movements and active involvement in those.10 The author manages to create her works without being too gender-discriminating toward the representatives of the opposite sex. Moreover, her work Arch of Hysteria (1993) can be considered the one that makes the male body the core concept of the overall image created.

In this respect, the idea of phallocentrism vigorously criticised by Cixous and Kristeva can be easily traced in this particular object. Moreover, the body hanging in the air can be analysed using the concept of fragmented body with regard to the wholeness of the subject, totalization and autonomous self. In other words, the concept of desire in postmodernities can be explained with the help of this sculpture that seems to be aimed at dethroning the power of the male body by making it more feminine with the help of hysteria that was considered a female disease.

Every person has certain secrets whereas all hidden desires and intentions can be revealed with the help of the psychoanalysis suggested by Lacan who based his theory on the concepts explained and analysed by Sigmund Freud.

The main idea of the current object of art can be considered the real human emotion captured in the earthly body while every gesture and movement made by the person helps to reveal this emotion and explain the reasons for experiencing it.

In the same way, every person can be read as a book with the help of Lacanian psychoanalytic theory when every image, dream, or idea is the result of some events and situations that took place in the life of this person; the same events and situations can be treated as the reasons or causes of other events.

The concept of desire can be considered the core idea of every piece of art because every author has certain desires and intentions and can use those as inspiration while designing the object of art. Moreover, the sexual desire can be traced in every art object that is aimed at reflecting the author’s intentions through the presentation of the human body.

Louise Bourgeois, Cell (Eyes and Mirrors), 1989-1993

The next object of art is designed by the same author. This creation is represented through the cell which contains specific eyes and mirrors. In this respect, it is necessary to trace the meaning transferred with the help of those objects to the meaning of the whole piece of art.11 The more different objects we introduce to the piece of art, the more complicated it becomes.

The complicatedness of the object can be traced through the number of meanings attributed to every object it contains. In other words, the meaning of this Cell (Eyes and Mirrors)12 should be analysed with regard to the meaning of cell, eyes as parts of the human body, and mirrors and the concept of desire in postmodernities.

It is possible to analyse every concept in turn and, after that, try to explain the meaning of the whole object of art bearing in mind the meaning of each separate object that is included in the structure. For instance, the work of art Cell (Eyes and Mirrors) designed by Louise Bourgeois in 1989-1993 can be analysed as a set of objects each having its own meaning and contributing to the meaning of the entire object.

As every object can have meanings with regard to the context, it is necessary to analyse the possibility for occurrence of meanings and the number of meanings that can depend on different factors. In other words, the background knowledge and situations that occurred in the life of a person prior to observation of a concrete object of art should influence his/her perception of this work.

So, cell can be considered as the limitation or restriction imposed on a person by his/her parents, friends, or supervisors. Besides, certain prohibition can be treated as the reason for author to use such an object in the overall construction. If a person had no negative experience related to the image of a cell, this work of art would not evoke any negative emotions.

The concept of eyes in combination with mirrors represents the reflection of the ideas with the help of mirrors. In addition, this combination can be treated as the desire of the author to show the audience something hidden in her inner self which can be seen only through the eyes. Thus, the eyes reflected in mirrors suggest a hidden desire of the author to reveal her hidden feelings or something she cannot say aloud.

Another idea that comes to mind while looking at this object of art created by a woman is the female aspect of this work. In this respect, it is necessary to remember about the concern of all women about their look. As they often look in the mirror, they can see something that cannot be seen without a mirror.

In other words, the mirror can be used as an instrument to show and see something mysterious or at least something that cannot be seen without this magical device. The desire to say something can be treated as the core concept of this work because mirrors and reflections can often say something a person is afraid to reveal to him/herself or is confused about the consequences of such information transferred to a stranger.

Masks and disguise contribute greatly to the overall image of the object of art called Cell (Eyes and Mirrors) designed by Louise Bourgeois in 1989-1993 because it is a feature of most women to have many identities and play many roles while only a mirror can reflect the real image of a woman.

Yayoi Kusama, Infinity Mirror Room – Phalli’s Field, 1965

It is necessary to mention that the object of art designed by Yayoi Kusama, Infinity Mirror Room – Phalli’s Field created in 196513 can be considered one of the most original objects of art designed under the influence of postmodern trends and technologies. This work can be easily analysed applying Lacanian psychoanalytic theory to practice because mirrors play the core role in this work.

The more a person reflects on his/her self image in the mirror, the more he/she is likely to change in the inner world to adjust to the conditions of the outer world. On the other hand, it is possible that a person changes the inner world to have it as a shelter from the oppression and all negative factors that exist in the outer world.

In this respect, it is possible to treat the mirrors as an instrument for initiating self-analysis. As suggested in the work by Peter Gay who analyses Freudian theory of psychoanalysis, “The physician should be opaque to the patient and, like a mirror, show nothing but what is shown to him.”14

For Lacan, however, mirror image has some deceiving aspects that alienate human from the real self by representing the Narcissistic illusion of self-autonomy. In this regard, the mirror in the Kusama’s work is the place for searching human identity on the dialectical relationship between ‘seeing and to be seen’.

Lacan’s key concept regarding the mirror stage is for challenging the integrated identity that reflects human’s narcissistic desire for wholeness, totalitarian or self-autonomy which we should overcome to be mature.

In addition, he thought integrated identity to be illusion of synthesis which is not really existent in the real world. For Lacan, human is in fragmented body in the real world and the fragmented body refers not only to images of the physical body but also to any sense of fragmentation and disunity.

The life in society can be considered another influential feature in creation of this object of art due to postmodernities with regard to desire and values typical of times and cultures; many identities are reflected in the mirror and it is up to a person to see or not to see them.

The objects on the floor of the mirror room can be treated as obstacles for analysis because the roles we play in the everyday life can differ greatly from what we are and who we are because of the necessity to adjust to the conditions of the outer world. Besides, the society that we live in often imposes the roles on its members in order to protect itself from misunderstandings.

This aspect can be regarded as a great obstacle for analysis of a person, his/her real desires, fears, intentions, and beliefs. In addition, the efforts of a person to take away those obstacles can be considered unavailing because the mirror room is closed whereas all objects are inside it and there is no way out except the door.

It is possible that the only way to walk through the door is to recognise the reflection in the mirror and confront the uneasiness of the fragmented body in the number of identities assigned by contemporary life.

Yayoi Kusama, Narcissus Garden, 1966

The next object of art for analysis is the mixed media Narcissus Garden created by Yayoi Kusama in 1966.15 The author managed to use the reflection received while looking in the water. This object consists of a pond and silver balls in the water. These balls are light enough not to drown while their reflection in the water can be treated as the reflection of each person in the mirror in the previous work of art.

As suggested by Sigmund Freud in his study ‘On Dreams’, every dream has specific content16 that can be analysed. Moreover, every object depicted in the dream has a specific meaning with regard to the situation in which it appears. In this case, the balls that can be seen on the water surface can reflect the desire of a person to swim opposed to the possibility of drowning.

Every object that can be analysed can be influential in terms of hidden desires or fears that can be revealed in the process of analysing those dreams. Though some dreams may seem strange, it has some points to try to analyse each of them in order to see the real nature of the soul.

The pond with silver balls can be associated with a desire to see the number of identities. If a person reflects the pond with silver balls in the object of art, she may have some problems with self-identification. In other words, a person that experiences difficulties with analysis of the self can try to reflect those problems in this way.

For instance, the number of balls can correspond to the number of identities or roles a person has in everyday life and uses those while communicating with colleagues, building relationships in the family, and other situations.

However, the surface of the water shows everything that is reflected while some reasons can be found for this. In this case, the balls are reflected in the outer world while an inner mirror is situated in the inner world. In this respect, the number of identities will be reflected in the water every time.

Every identity has its own reflection in the outer world as well as every person can find his/her reflection in the mirror being a parent, a friend, or performing some other roles. In this respect, an inner mirror of the ego should show our Narcissistic desire towards independent entity.

Every concept of life can be reflected in the inner world whereas it depends upon a person whether to let certain concepts into the inner world or leave those outside. As the personal life of every individual is full of certain events, all those events can influence successive events and the condition of the inner worlds.

Thus, a reflection in the inner mirror can distorted due to the impact of all events that take place in the life of a person. The pond with silver balls can also be treated as the outer world with all its imperfectness and obstacles that appear on the way of a person when he/she wants to look at the Narcissistic reflection on self but can only see the numerous identities. Every identity can be reflected in the mirror of the outer world though it is up to a person whether to let those identities into the inner world to be reflected in the inner mirror.

Conclusion The concept of self, reflection in the mirror, the number of identities and roles assigned to every person, feminism and male sexual organs can be traced in the objects of art. As the theory of Lacan is mainly based on the theory established by Sigmund Freud, it is necessary to mention the significance of his study for analysis of sexuality and gender differences.

The Arch of Hysteria reflects the power of human body whereas it can be treated in a different way when applying Lacanian psychoanalytic theory to it. In this respect, a human body can be considered the symbolic representation of human desires reflected with the help of postmodernism trends.

Female critics of Jacques Lacan’s theory do not blindly criticise his theory; they try to see the discrimination of identity of woman in the analysis through rejection of the phallocentrism as a core aspect of most psychological analyses. In other words, Helene Cixous and Julia Kristeva apply Lacan’s psychoanalysis as the assessment of sexual features, desires (often sexual), and fears related to the gendered self.

Lacan’s theory of the mirror stage demonstrates that our self-identification is based on an illusion of an idealistic image of completeness that does not actually exist in the real. And the imaginary identity created by the co-operation between Narcissistic desire and external forces is subject to the fragmentation of identity in reality.

Thus, the ideal-I acts in similar way as Sigmund Freud’s ego in that it prevents this fragmentation from emerging to the surface. The main aspect that can be traced in the objects of art such as Cell (Eyes and Mirrors) by Louise Bourgeois and Infinity Mirror Room – Phalli’s Field and Narcissus Garden designed by Yayoi Kusama is the mirror and reflection of the self including the further analysis of the self.

Works Cited Bourgeois, Louise, Arch of Hysteria (1993). Web.

Bourgeois, Louise, Cell (Eyes and Mirrors), (1989-1993). Web

Cixous, Helene, ‘The laugh of the medusa’, in Peter Simon (ed.), The Norton anthology of theory and criticism (London: W. W. Norton


Revision and reversionary in The Empire Writes Back Term Paper college essay help near me

To begin with, upon seeing the title, I immediately thought of the Star Wars movie. The content is very far from the movie though. In general the book is a very helpful and clearly articulated accumulation of the main issues and problems in post-colonial scholarship. Although some scholars call it outdated and too academic, I think it has its historical value and will be used to teach postcolonial literatures for a long time.

In this paper I was trying to concentrate on the issues of revision. The notion of revision and the term “reversionary” have been discussed widely, although not theorized, by many feminists and postcolonial critics over the past few years. Harold Bloom is a pioneering critic who has theorized the nature of revisionism by describing it as anxiety, an “anxious expectation” in the Freudian sense (Agon Viii).

Revision in the Blooomian model suggests a mediated vision whose agonistic spirit “[contests] for supremacy, with other spirits, with anteriority, and finally with every earlier vision of itself” (Agon ViiI). However the agonistic fighting that Bloom proposes represents more of “a loving conflict” with previous works than one with the world. Bloom stresses agonistic revisions of texts, not of contexts.

Revision is given a pivotal emphasis in the influential work of Ashcroft, Griffiths and Tiffin, The Empire Writes Back, in which they remark that the “ ‘revisioning’ of received tropes and modes…and the rereading of ‘canonical’ texts possess a powerfully subversive textuality, which emerges as the major post-colonial discursive practice” (Empire 194).

They argue that revision in a periodic modality has become the preeminent genre for writers of the colonial arena. Allusions to the Western classics and the borrowing of the Western model are not accidental. Those who grow up in colonial cultures are encouraged to imitate their Western fathers (Key 139).

Admittedly, the notion of mimicry, in the form of imitation, is effectively combined with the notion of revision of colonial terms. As Ashcroft, Griffiths, and Tiffin note, “When colonial discourse encourages the colonized subject to ‘mimic’ the colonizer, by adopting the colonizer’s cultural habits, assumptions, institutions and values, the result is never a simple reproduction of those traits” (Key 139).

The result, rather than a mere copy or mockery, is the “blurred copy”, ambivalent and menacing. Ashcroft, Griffiths, and Tiffin argue that mimicry is the overt goal of the postcolonial projects. They take V.S. Naipaul’s novel The Mimic Man as an example to illustrate that mimicry is implicit in postcolonial conditions (Empire 88).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to Ashcroft, Griffiths, and Tiffin, literary revisions as mimic texts that stylistically and generically imitate Western classics disable the imperial center and spread disorder on the margins of empire. In mimicry, the dominant discourse constructs Otherness by a continual process of “repetition and displacement” to maintain control over the other. Mimicry serves as a partial representation that disturbs and mocks the narcissistic desire of colonial authority (Empire 115; Key 139-142).

Ashcroft et al. point out the disabling effect of colonial mimicry as it constructs an “otherness”, menacing the imperial discourse. Bhabha stresses the double vision of mimicry, its resemblance and menace evolving from the process of representation. These criticisms, although laudatory, have overlooked gender differences. I believe that colonial mimicry should be discussed and racial and sexual differences should be examined.

Due to my thesis topic I am very interested in the matters of postcolonial hybridization. Ashcroft, Griffiths, and Tiffin in their seminal study note that various postcolonial cultures produce a form of hybridization.

They argue that postcolonial literatures are intrinsically hybrid because they reveal inherently contradictory elements of different discourses that result from the translation and imposition of European thinking, grounded in ancestry, history, and time, onto a colonial space. The history of the dominant culture is exported to different colonies, but the amputated timeline makes the colonial history replete with internal competing voices (Empire 33-7).

Another point that drew my attention is the matter of language importance. Language has been regarded as an important medium by which colonial hierarchy is perpetuated and imperial domination is reified (Empire 7). The metropolitan assumptions of truth, order, and civilization are maintained and reinforced by an imperial language education that “installs a ‘standard version’…as the norm, and marginalizes all ‘variants’ as impurities (Empire 7).

Language is given a capacity to territorize. In the formation of imperialism, the King’s language, the center, with its Eurocentric standards of judgment, is the privileged form; the marginal or peripheral is denied or excluded.

A dispensation standard was instated at the crux of the development of English studies as a cut-out for the defiance of the value of the subsidiary uncolonized literature. The standardization became central to the civilizing enterprise by the colonists who sought to hue their subjects with their norms and practices in order to vanquish and subdue their cultures so that they can have an overt dominance over them in all spheres of their collective lives.

We will write a custom Term Paper on Revision and reversionary in The Empire Writes Back specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Essentially, when the indigenous sought to disentangle themselves from the spooling supremacy their tactical move threatened the restricted claims of the centre (George 112-116). Consequently, they were subtly integrated this through the process of conscious affliction arranged under the semblance mimicry purposely to be both accepted and adopted.

This stir notably propelled those who were suspending at the periphery to It plunge themselves into the imported culture, consequently, denying their origins and as (Harris 133) puts it they attempted to become ‘more English than English essentially, English stands out as a sacrosanct tenet positioning its dominance over the other cultures, its unquestioned nature exerted its potency in cultural formation and in ideological schooling institutions (Memi, 28).

Nonetheless, with the advanced growth and development of the post colonial literatures, scholars have sought to establish why English garnered such dominance in the educational realms exerting its rule in the literal cycles.

After a keen scrutiny at the literature written after the upsetting colonial era, I established that the work produced immediately after the wallowing colonial eon went through various stages of development. At first, it was written and aligned with the colonial objective, neither did it display the ingenuous sentiment of the native writers, nor did it stand out as an original English text (Memi 76).

It couldn’t be deemed as a blend of the local with the colonial, it was a mimicry which lacked basis and an underpinning dangled in a balance where it could not assert its stand for it was a copy of the original. The paranoia and the dread of the colonial masters suppressed the native writers from lettering what they candidly believed; their creative work had to be forfeited and shelved because they lived under the shadow of colonial ascendancy.

The original work was tackled and handled in accord with the colonial master hence it had to be attuned to match up their interests and proclivity. Most of the original indigenous work was translated by the colonial masters, logically they molded it to fit their interests and convey the message they intended to convey to the world.

During the second stage of the literature development, the writers sought to blend what they believed to be true as they had learned and construed from their cultures yet they had to tone it down because they viewed the world through the lens of the colonialists (Memi, 31).

As Ashcroft et al focuses on; the conflict elicited by variation in the context and content in regard to background orientations they assert that the thinking and creativity of the invaded culture had been shaped through the educational program which was systematically programmed by the imperialists to sway their thinking to favor colonial rule at their own exepense.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Revision and reversionary in The Empire Writes Back by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Their minds had been colonized and brainwashed adjusted to think in favor of the colonial ruler so their written text was still tainted with the spots of the imperialism. The breed thus spawned out of the colonial influence could not be termed as English neither could it be termed as indigenous it became a hybrid, tethered by the colonial influence (Griffiths 178-180). The stages in literature development are evidently paired with the phases of both national and the regional consciousness in the plagued societies.

It’s against this back drop that a new breed of freethinking literature intellects sort to revisit and revise the already published post colonial literature in order to give it and edge to stand out free from the colonial manipulate.

Whilst the invaded civilizations sought to equivocate and purge the imperial influence in their literal work, they were ensnared by the very fact that the imperialists gave them the communication language through which they could spawn ideas and reach an extensive audience. The regal rule was the platform through which they could aver their work; in essence they were made from a replication of the fellow colonists but they could not match up the imperialist (Memi 76).

The imperial domination over the local cultures spawned forth intrinsic challenges which garnered problems seeking resolution. In an inimitable way the domination is inexorably entrenched in the dominated cultures. I realized that there were various tensions which could not be disentangled in the post colonial literature.

There two world orders being enmeshed despite their divergent attributions, there was a clash between the old cultural aboriginal ways of life with the incoming dominating settler culture (Ngugi 86). In my view the settler culture sought to assuage the old style indigenous culture by imposing its values and provenance and this of course was broached with dissent from the dominated culture.

According to the book the new culture brought in by the settler was incongruous with the old native culture; there was resistance because the native populace was deeply entrenched in its own systems which were by far very different from the settler culture (Memi, 49). There was the ever nagging clash of the language, the newly imported language from the settler did not match with the new locality, and hence the settler had to impose his language on the native people in order to have a universal accord with his subjects.

I realized according to the literature that the colonial influence from the indigenous literature was nearly impossible, because the essence of the literature being revised was etched in the colonial insignia. Colonialism had given it subsistence; colonialism frog spawned the post colonial literature myriad facets of its content were interwoven having their root in colonialism.

Whilst language served as the media through which the colonialists exerted their rule over the subjects its still the same media through which the work written by the indigenous writers garnered pre-eminence due to its universal nature having exerted its rule in the world.

I realized that irrespective of the relentless exertion by indigenously bred writers from the colonialzed countries to curve out a niche in their texts to illumine their intrinsic cultures, values and attributions the hybridization of their mores by the colonial rule perverted their literature so that it does not come out as either aboriginal or imperial.

There is an inevitably effort to assert a variation between the local culture and the imposing centre of the colonialists (Ashcroff 63). Notably, in all the literature written immediately after the colonial period, there is an allege to remain objective in the matters being discussed yet after a deeper analysis it becomes clear that there is a deliberate effort to conceal the colonial discourse within which the literature was created (Ashcroff et al 94)

Here the hurdle is on the budding writers, the by products of the colonial governance and dominance, how can they evade their models, in what way are they able to sort and understand the imposition of new trends and values? The new information and knowledge they derived from the colonialists has to be matched with their cultures and intrinsically attained attitudes.

I found out that writers sought to identify any extensions of what they already knew in order to develop their texts from their own stand point yet the looming imperial influence chiefly altered their innovation blending their prior knowledge with the imposing colonial attributions and values.

The colonization occurrence and the myriad hurdles spawned by the experience garnered a new breed of writers in English language. The diverse and potent body of literature created unambiguous post-colonial writing in the various cultures affected by the colonial dominance which both defied the customary canon and overriding ideas of literature and culture.

The instant literature produced from the invaded countries identifies with the colonizing powers because the initial text is produced through coordinated activity of the colonized and the colonizers (Memi, 22). In my opinion such literature cannot in any way form a foundation for the indigenous cultures because its production is marred with the colonial intrusion.

Colonial rule essentially dominated and subjugated the indigenous culture, reeling under the austere rule of the imperial power; the writers spawned from the native culture had to adhere to the modalities of the colonial rule (George 52). The literate too has been aligned to match up the interests of the colonizers, the values and beliefs in the native cultures are subdued under the prevailing colonial dominance.

The number one strategy that the European settlers, the former colonies used to subdue and rule the indigenous civilization is by imposing their language on their dominated cultures.

This way they stamped a symbol of their supremacy over the culture reeling under their authority. Moreover, other facets of the colonizers civilization like education and moral codes were imported and vehemently instilled into the dominated cultures. Consequently, the indigenous cultures were overwhelmed and subdued under the colonial callous rule.

The settlers had a goal of imbibing into the resources and facilities of the native cultures, in order to exert their rule over such people they had to pacify and suppress them deeming their cultural elements as both uncouth and invalid (Ashcroff 45). This kind of approach was geared towards swaying the mode of thinking amongst the natives so that they venerated the foreign cultures at the expense of their own.

As the dominated cultures gradually attained their independence they could not phase out some tenets from the imperialists which had been inherently entrenched in their culture by the settlers. Such tenets included language and educational systems so the non indigenous language filtered its way in to the native culture and was easily utilized in the post colonial literature.

There was sense of displacement as the indigenous people held on to the imported language deeming it as an adequate media through which they could express their views. I noticed that the colonizers did not delve into enlightening the native cultures on the richness of their own language; this meant that the local language lacked rank and they feared that once they utilized it in their literature it would bring ruin since it was popularized by the colonial powers.

This was logical because even the education they had attained was conveyed through the imported settler language. Critics have subsequently come out to question the appropriateness of utilizing imported language in native cultures. Harris asserts the view that such brain wash was ensconced through the education system where the native civilization was debased in comparison to the imported culture which was given prominent extol.

The colonial rule dominates the native culture, as the imperialists stealthily crept into their culture and imposed their values on the indigenous people the old culture is progressively undone as guns and new language filter amongst the locals. The words and the diversity of culture from imperialists is aped and gradually etched in the minds of the native cultures as they follow blindly into dominating circular ways of the imperialists which swallow their ways from within.

As time elapses whether it’s in Canada, Africa or India, myriad revisions to the literature written immediately after colonial rule has to be taken through a rigorous revision in order to ape the intrinsic indigenous culture. The now elite and unconventional generation seeks to unshackle the previous literature from the dominating forced lens of the colonialists through which the work was spawned. Ironically, the revision is done in the same colonial language; Kafka uses German while Chinua Achebe uses English.

A major attribution exuded by the dominated literatures is the foreseeable tendency towards insurrection and a keen analysis of the tactics employed by the dominating rulers in their effort to pacify and rule over their subjects. The studies carried by the dominated scholars to illuminates the strategies of subjugation bring into light all the configurations of supremacy of the dominant cultures.

Conversely they also pay attention to the ingenious and imaginative responses exerted by the dominated cultures to this condition openly and obliquely. Thus empires writes back to gear to the imperial axis through nationalist contention asserting its centrality exuding its overt determination to seek answers on European metaphysics challenging the world view that can polarize centre and margins in the first place (Harris 67).

Works Cited Ashcroft, Bill T. Key Concepts in Post-Colonial Studies. New York and London: Routledge, 1998.

Ashcroff, Bill T. Post colonial futures: Transforming the imperial culture. London: Routledge, 2001.

Ashcroft Bill, Griffiths Gareth and Tiffin Helen. The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures. New York and London: Routledge, 1989.

George, Lamming G. The pleasures drawn from exile. London: Alison and Busby Publishers, 1960.

Griffiths, Gareth G. Double exile: African and West Indian writing Boyars Marion. NY: Kniff, 1978.

Harris, Willy C. On History Myth and Fable. Chicago: Calaloux publications. 1970.

Harold, Bloom T. Agony: Towards a Theory of Revisionism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Memi, Waltz A. Understanding the colonizer and the colonized. Boston: Beacon Press, 1965.

Ngugi, WA T. Mind Decolonizing: Language use in African literature. London: Macmillan press, 1981.