Piaget And Vygotsky Synthesis Essay Argumentative Essay Help

Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky are one of the most influential scientists in the field of the developmental psychology. Piaget and Vygotsky’s approaches to the cognitive development of children are of extreme significance even nowadays. In the following paper, the theories of both scholars will be evaluated and compared from the perspective of their similarities and differences.

The article under analysis entitled “Piaget and Vygotsky: Many resemblances, and a crucial difference” was written by Orlando Lourenco in 2012. The author provides readers with the evaluation of Piaget and Vygotsky’s theories. Lourenco emphasizes the fact that despite many similarities, there are crucial differences between both approaches.

The author divides the article into four parts. First, he dwells on the commonly known differences between approaches. Second, Lourenco investigates the resemblances. In the third part, the author introduces previously unnoticed differences between approaches. In the last part of the paper, he summarizes the findings.

Lev Vygotsky’s theory is known as the sociocultural theory of the cognitive development. Thus, the scientist supports the idea that society and culture influence child’s development significantly.

According to Vygotsky, the individual develops in the social interactions with the help of particular tools and signs (Lourenco, 2012). Jean Piaget’s theory represents the constructivist approach to the acquisition of knowledge and skills. The primary emphasis is laid on the individual. Thus, the child develops knowledge individually through the discovery.

Lourenco identifies seven primary similarities between two theories. The first one is the developmental perspective. Thus, both theorists pay attention to the fact that psychological processes should be analyzed from the developmental standpoint. This view is used by Vygotsky in the examination of symbolic operation while Piaget employs it for the evaluation of mental and formal operations. The second similarity refers to the dialectical approach.

This approach presupposes that the constant contact between dissimilar but mutually depending processes is necessary for psychological development. Piaget uses the dialectic method for the analysis of processes of assimilation and accommodation. Vygotsky does the same to processes internalization and externalization (Lourenco, 2012). The third resemblance is that both scientists support the idea of non-reductionism of human conscience and cognitive abilities.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Piaget and Vygotsky share the opinion that the notion of intelligence cannot be merely explained by reflexes, for instance. The non-dualist view in relation to the social or physical context and the individual is the next common opinion. It means that individual and the particular context are interconnected and should not be treated separately. The next resemblance concerns the role of action. Both Piaget and Vygotsky agree that action is essential for understanding the particular phenomenon.

The sixth similarity is the superiority of processes. Scholars share the opinion that the external expression of development is not so important than the processes that comprise its basis. The investigation of the internal processes is essential for the proper evaluation of any phenomenon. The last similarity is the significant role of transformational modifications or qualitative changes. The example of qualitative change can be the occurrence of formal operation after the concrete operations (Lourenco, 2012).

The author of the article states that there are noteworthy differences in both theories. Lourenco investigates that core dissimilarity between theories lays in scientists’ understanding of the individual’s development. Piaget’s individual is autonomous, which means that no external aspects, such as society, do not influence the development.

Vygotsky supports the idea of the heteronomous individual that relies on the fact that the development is directly connected to external factors. Because of this finding, Lourenco concludes that five differences emerge from the diverse understanding of individual’s nature. The first one refers to dissimilar opinions about the source of the motor of development and knowledge. As far as Vygotsky supports the idea of a heteronomy, he considers that the motor of development and knowledge are influenced by social and cultural context.

Piaget’s notion of autonomy is supported by the consideration that the source of knowledge and motor of development is formed due to the instinctive uninfluenced processes (Lourenco, 2012). The second dissimilarity refers to the role of social interactions as sources of learning. Vygotsky believes that authority is significant for the development.

The child has to reach the same level of capability demonstrated by parents or other individuals. Piaget’s lays the emphasis on the idea of mutual respect and persuasion that promote the development. The social relations should be peer-based for the efficient development. The methods for studying developmental changes used by scientists also differ. Natural settings were the best option for Piaget’s observations while Vygotsky preferred the situation when adults were involved.

The next difference is the type of knowledge that should be acquired. The necessary knowledge is essential for Piaget’s theory as far as it is the direct sign of autonomy. According to Lourenco (2012), the formation of scientific concepts (true knowledge) is significant for Vygotsky because it is obtained in the process of growing in society. Finally, Vygotsky’ ideas are based on guidance and instruction while Piaget’s — on invention and construction.

We will write a custom Essay on Piaget and Vygotsky specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The better understanding of these theories is essential for having an insight into the problems of developmental psychology. Besides, Lourenco presents these ideas from the different perspective, laying particular emphasis on differences rather than on similarities. Such an approach assists in the proper evaluation of the theory and creates the ground for further implications.

Reference Lourenco, O. (2012). Piaget and Vygotsky: Many resemblances, and a crucial difference. New Ideas in Psychology, 30(3), 281-295.


Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Research Paper essay help free: essay help free

Abstract Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) refers to the use of packet-switched internet protocol (IP) networks to relay a voice message. VoIP is among the latest modes of communication. As with a majority of the novel technologies, VoIP comes with both opportunities and security challenges. It has a unique architecture compared to the conventional circuit-based telephony. As a result, VoIP is susceptible to numerous security risks.

The benefits of a VoIP system to an enterprise include flexibility and low operation cost. There are different forms of Voice over Internet Protocol systems.

They include mobile units, conferencing units, and the ordinary telephone handsets. For a VoIP network to meet the needs of a user, it has to guarantee the quality of service. A VoIP system has little tolerance for interruptions. There is no single solution to security challenges that face data transmitted over VoIP. Thus, organizations should ensure that they acquire the appropriate network infrastructure.

Introduction Voice over Internet Protocol refers to a collection of technologies and methods that facilitate the transfer of voice messages over IP networks. Other terms that are used to refer to VoIP networks include Internet telephony, IP telephony, and broadband phone service among others. VoIP systems can run on any form of computer. Additionally, the conventional telephone handsets can be modified to handle VoIP services.

Other equipment that can provide VoIP services includes mobile units, conferencing units, and “softphone”. Cheng and Lai (2010) argue, “Quality of service (QoS) is fundamental to the operation of a VoIP network” (p. 82). Thus, it is imperative to guarantee security measures when operating a Voice over Internet Protocol network.

Since the management of a VoIP system requires implementation of numerous safety procedures, it is hard to guarantee the quality of service. Among the challenges that affect a VoIP network include firewall delays, jitter, encryption-produced latency and blockage of call setups (Cheng


The Main Conditions of the Special Education Analytical Essay scholarship essay help

There is no use denying the fact that nowadays education plays an important role in the life of every person. The thing is that due to the achieved level of technical development a person obtains a great number of facts every day.

Moreover, he/she should process them and be able to use all information which comes from different sources. Besides, taking into account tempos of the development of science nowadays, it is possible to assume that new approaches to some traditional things will appear and a person should be ready to face these challenges

Under these conditions, the issue of special education obtains great importance. The thing is that there have always been people with some special needs. Thus, nowadays they also want to become the part of a scientific sphere and obtain a good education. Moreover, technical revolution created many various remedies which could help people with special needs to obtain knowledge. With this in mind, it is possible to say that the issue of special education should be given especial importance and researched nowadays.

Investigating this issue, it is possible to say, that it is quite easy to obtain the needed information. The thing is that the key words like special education, special needs, value-added assessment, teacher preparation could help to find the needed sources connected with the issue. Moreover, there are no certain search limiters as a great number of sources, found with the help of these key words, could be used for the investigation of the issue.

The only thing which should be given especial importance is the credibility of a source. A researcher could not use the information which is not proved and can distort results of the investigation. That is why, only scholarly sources could be recommended for investigation. For example, peer reviewed articles could be used to obtain the needed information connected with the issue.

The term peer reviewed means that specialists, who investigate the same sphere and are informed about the latest tendencies in it, have read and analyzed the given work and found it credible. This source could become very useful in any research project as it could suggest some new idea or vision of the problem and, moreover, it does not contradict to the leading thought. That is why it is vital to use peer reviewed sources in any research work.

The next two articles belong to the sources of this kind. The first one is Special Education Services Received by Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders From Preschool Through High School. It centers around special education services provided for students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. (Wei, Wagner, Christiano, Shattuck,


Federal Roads Maintenance Agency, Nigeria Dissertation college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Introduction Chapter 1 highlights performance appraisal as a fundamental strategic human resource management practice that organizations should adopt in their quest to promote their performance. This chapter involves a critical review of past literature on performance appraisal. The significance of this chapter is to identify gaps and areas of improvement with reference to performance management. The chapter is organized in into a number of sections.

Section 1 entails a review on the application of performance appraisal at FERMA in Nigeria. Thus, this subsection identifies the areas in which FERMA has erred in implementing performance appraisal. This goal is achieved by taking into consideration the research objectives. The second subsection entails an evaluation of the critical issues that organizations should take into account in designing an effective performance appraisal system.

The analysis in the two subsections provides insight on the critical issues that FERMA should take into consideration in using performance appraisal system as a tool for promoting organizational and employee development. Therefore, sections will form the basis upon which the study draws recommendations on the critical aspects that FERMA should integrate the necessary corrective measures. Therefore, the review will enhance the contribution of the dissertation to FERMA’s development.

Evaluation of performance appraisal at FERMA

Agbola and Abena(2011, p. 82) affirm that performance appraisal comprises a fundamental strategic technique in an organizations’ quest to maximize the value of their human capital. Despite the efforts by the huge budgetary allocation, Ogunleye (2013, p 12) emphasizes that a significant proportion of roads in Nigeria is in deplorable conditions hence making road transport unsafe and slow. This aspect indicates the existence of inefficiency in the FERMA’s approach in executing its road maintenance and monitoring role.

One of the factors that might have triggered this situation at FERMA is the lack of employee commitment towards the attainment of the overall organizational goals. Therefore, the Agency is not effective in exploiting the employees’ productivity, which highlights the firm’s inefficiency in applying performance appraisal as a tool for promoting employee productivity.

The quality of an organization’s working environment is correlated directly with the level of the employees’ commitment. The performance appraisal programs should be designed in such a way that they address the employees’ individual development needs. This goal can be achieved if an organization integrates the necessary competency development and training initiatives.

Bhattacharyya (2011, p.57) asserts that individual employee development is greatly enhanced by the feedback obtained from the performance appraisal process. On the basis of these views, the lack of employee commitment problem at FERMA is further compounded by the existence of poor working environment. Thus, firm’s performance appraisal program is weak in stimulating the establishment of an environment conducive for working.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Developing employee commitment is an essential human resource management role that managers must ensure. However, the attainment of this goal is influenced by the human resource management practices adopted by an organization. Effective integration of the performance appraisal process constitutes one of the fundamental aspects in promoting employee commitment. The performance appraisal system should be employee centric, which means that it should not only be a checklist on the ‘dos’ and ‘don’ts’.

On the contrary, organizations should be a basis through which an organization undertakes a wider understanding on the employees (Qureshi and Hassan, 2013, p. 60). Thus, the performance appraisal process should enable employees understand the firm’s commitment towards their development. Employees have personal and career development goals when joining an organization and intend the firm to facilitate their attainment (Falcone and Tan, 2013, p. 45).

Nevertheless, the current performance appraisal system at FERMA is ineffective in ensuring that the public servants working within the agency understand and are committed to attainment of the Agencies goals and vision.

The ineffective application of the performance appraisal program at FERMA has made the Agencies’ employees develop the perception that the firm’s performance appraisal program is ineffective in contributing to their personal and career growth objectives. Therefore, understanding the gaps in the current performance appraisal systems is critical in the Agencies’ quest to undertake requisite reforms.

The performance appraisal system should ensure that employees are conversant and committed to enhancing the attainment of the organizations’ goals and mission. Agbola and Abena (2011, p.82) maintain that performance appraisal “is a strategic tool to link employee activities with the organization’s mission and goals by identifying results and behavior needed to achieve the organization’s goals”. Goal alignment is a critical component in promoting organizational performance (Latham, 2013, p. 334).

The likelihood of employees performing at an optimum level is considerably higher if they accept challenging goals as compared to less complex goals (Ayers, 2015, p. 171). Moreover, effective feedback must be established to ensure that the assigned job roles are valuable in contributing to employees’ personal development and career progression (Arthur, 2008, p. 142).

The current performance appraisal system at FERMA fails to successfully enhance goal alignment. Despite the fact that the performance appraisal program is intended at stimulating employee performance, the system is characterized by gaps in promoting the best practices that the employees should observe in enhancing achievement of organizational goals.

We will write a custom Dissertation on Federal Roads Maintenance Agency, Nigeria specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the contrary, the firm has integrated a performance checklist that focuses on different areas. The checklist is comprised of a set of standards that employees are required to observe to achieve exceptional performance. Secondly, the criteria assert that employees must be actively engaged with other staff members in undertaking their duties. The third aspect highlights the importance of being fair, developing a committed workforce and continuously improving its performance.

The concept of fairness should be entrenched by eliminating errors such as rater bias. Integrating this approach is essential in ensuring that the performance appraisal system is effective by identifying the specific areas in which the employees are deficient in their performance.

However, the firm does not observe these issues in the application of performance appraisal system. For example, some employees are highly paid despite the fact that they do not undertake the assigned job roles. This illustrates existence of best practices in the implementation of the performance appraisal system due to failure to integrate performance based pay.

The FERMA has developed a Public Service Charter guides the Agencies operations. Article 21 of the Charter emphasizes that the employees should depict a high level of professionalism in their service to enhance their output.

Despite the formulation and implementation of a comprehensive performance charter in evaluating employee performance, the Agencies appraisal system is weak in that it is not aligned with the employees’ personal and career development goals. Thus, its efficiency in promoting the creation of positive perception amongst the employees is limited.

The effectiveness of the performance appraisal system is further determined by the performance appraisal process. The performance appraisal process should further be comprised of an effective performance feedback process. Furnishing employees with performance feedback improves their understanding on how their activities contribute or fail to enhance the achievement of the organizational goals. Thus, it can contribute to improvement in employee performance.

The feedback mechanism should be based on an extensive discussion with the employees. FERMA has not sufficient appreciated the value of employee feedback in conducting the employee appraisal. To overcome this limitation, it is essential for FERMA to consider undertaking a comprehensive discussion with the employees.

The discussion should be aimed at identifying the employees’ performance problems. This approach enables organizations to be effective in designing employee development programs such as the need-based training (Bhattacharyya, 2011, p. 57). Implementing need-based training based on the performance appraisal results will contribute to renewed knowledge and skills.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Federal Roads Maintenance Agency, Nigeria by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Qureshi and Hassan (2013, p. 66) assert that performance appraisal process should contribute to formulation of effective human resource management decisions. Thus, the performance appraisal process should be effectively designed to evaluate ‘within-individual’ and ‘between individual’ performances.

The ‘between individual’ performance evaluation seeks to gather information that would improves decision making on issues such as salary increment, employee demotion, promotion or transfer. The current performance system at FERMA has not factored in the evaluation of ‘between individual’ performance. This situation is well illustrated by the assertion by some of its members at AkwaIbom and Cross River states.

The staff members affirm that they have been receiving salaries without doing any work (Charles, 2015). This aspect illustrates that the company has not tied the employees’ pay to performance, which is a major weakness in the company’s appraisal system. Moreover, the failure to link employee pay to performance indicates existence of a remarkable gap in the organizations performance appraisal system.

Conversely, ‘within-individual’ performance evaluation aids in determining the employees training and development needs (Qureshi and Hassan, 2013, p. 60). FERMA must ensure that the employees perceive the performance appraisal program adopted by a firm to be valuable and, as part of the objective of this dissertation, we will try to establish whether this is the case by critically assessing the employees’ responses to our questionnaire and interviews.

This aspect means that the program should be designed in such a way that it incorporates issues related to the employees personal and career development needs.

The current performance appraisal system at FERMA has not clearly defined the Agencies commitment towards promoting employee development. Subsequently, the agency is experiencing an increase in the rate of employee turnover. The high turnover has arisen from development of a negative employee perception on the chances of attaining personal development and career goals.

In redesigning the performance appraisal system, FERMA must focus on ensuring that the system contributes to evaluation of ‘between individual’ and ‘within individual’ performances.

This approach will improve the capacity with which the firm utilizes the performance appraisal system as an employee personal and career development tool hence promoting their level of commitment to the organization and productivity (Selvarajan and Cloniger2013, p. 3064). Moreover, employing the best management practices will improve the contribution of the performance appraisal system to the firm’s overall performance.

Armed with the above theoretical insight about FERMA’s performance appraisal system, we will, as one of the objectives of this work, use the responses we will get from the employees to critically examine the gaps in the efficacy of the current appraisal program in structure and purpose regarding best practices and the organisational context.

Performance appraisal systems

The process of employee appraisal has become a basis for evaluating the employees’ strengths and weaknesses over the past few decades. Its relevance arises from its contribution to employee and organizational development. The performance results provide managers insight on how to increase productivity (Bhattacharyya, 2011, p. 57).

To succeed in developing an effective performance appraisal system, it is essential for HR managers to integrate the best performance appraisal practices. If the performance appraisal system adopted by an organization does not meet this objective, it is imperative for the management team to undertake an extensive re-look on the appraisal aspects that are defective.

For example, if the appraisal system is linked to rewards and only a small proportion of employees are rewarded, the employees who are not rewarded may be de-motivated (ibid. p. 55). On the contrary, the performance appraisal process should be fair and equitably administered. Moreover, it should illustrate the organization’s commitment in meeting the employee expectations.

The existing performance appraisal system indicates the prevalence of remarkable gaps. Thus, the organization should take into account several issues in designing and using performance appraisal framework. Incorporation of these aspects will contribute to remarkable improvement in the value of the current performance system at FERMA by eliminating the gaps.

Armstrong (2009, p. 67) identifies different issues that organizational managers should consider as a way of becoming effective in performance appraisal. First, the appraisal system should be based on a well-formulated policy. The purpose of the policy is to ensure that the expectations, roles, and competencies necessary for attaining the desired level of performance are stipulated clearly. The policy should not only be used as a benchmark for assessing whether the employees have achieved the desired level of performance.

Conversely, it should be used as a human resource management decision tool. For example, the performance appraisal system should involve a systematic approach to gathering evaluation information regarding job contents (Mello, 2014, p. 525). Consideration of this information will improve the FERMA’s performance appraisal system’s effectiveness in its job redesign process hence improving the value of job to employees’ development.

The appraisal system should be aligned with the stipulated departmental and organizational objectives. The individuals charged with the responsibility of undertaking the performance appraisal should be trained effectively to eliminate the occurrence of negative aspects such as bias. The performance appraisal process should be based on a comprehensive set of standards.

Some scholars criticize the adoption of evaluative performance appraisal arguing that it might lead to the reduction in the employees’ level of commitment and relationship amongst employees. Mello (ibid.) argues that the lack of predetermined performance standards increases the chances of the individuals charged with the responsibility of overseeing the appraisal process making subjective guesses or developing feelings that might have negative impact on the process.

Therefore, FERMA should ensure that appraisal process is accepted by the employees by ensuring that it is not subjective. This aspect will contribute to development of a positive perception regarding the performance appraisal system.

In addition to the above aspects, the process of appraising the employees’ performance should be based on individual targets. The purpose of setting such targets is to ensure that the employees’ evaluation, departmental, and employee goals are aligned with the overall organizational goal.

The organization should further ensure that regular monitoring of the employees’ performance is undertaken (French, 2011, p. 80). This assertion means that performance appraisal should not be confined to an annual formal HR event. On the contrary, the appraisals should be undertaken continuously to identify gaps in the employees’ performance.

This approach increases the likelihood with which an organization integrates prompt corrective actions. In undertaking performance appraisal, organizations should gauge the employee’s actual performance against the set targets. This approach is critical in ensuring that an organization succeeds in evaluating the effectiveness with which employees accomplish the assigned roles (Kirkpatrick, 2006, p. 47).

Moreover, integrating this approach enhances an organization’s efficiency in measuring performance outcomes that are difficult to quantify. Similarly, FERMA will successfully introduce a performance appraisal system that is valuable to employees.

The effectiveness of performance appraisal system is influenced by the extent to which an organization has appreciated communication. The importance of communication arises from the view that it aids in enhancing the value of performance appraisal by sharing information on employee performance. Kirkpatrick (ibid.) asserts that communication makes employees understand the expectations of the appraisal.

Moreover, communicating the purpose of the appraisal makes employees develop a feeling of involvement in the appraisal of their job performance. Armstrong (op. cit., 98) emphasizes that goals and feedback should be incorporated into the appraisal process to achieve the desired accomplishment. Through this approach, FERMA will succeed in improved acceptance of the appraisal system amongst employees at the subordinate and management levels.

The communication process should not only be limited to the purpose of performance appraisal. On the contrary, it should also entail the provision of feedback on the outcome of the appraisal. According to (ibid., p. 101), organizations should ensure that communication on performance appraisal is based on evidence (101).

The process of providing feedback should entail informing employees about the results of the performance appraisal, the critical incidents identified, and significant behaviors. Furthermore, the feedback should involve commending employees for exemplary performance, provide insight on how employees can improve their performance, and inform them of where they have performed dismally (ibid., p. 105). Effective communication will improve the level of employees’ acceptance on the performance appraisal system.

The available literature shows that the data obtained from the performance appraisal can be used in making managerial decisions relating to different such as salary administration, employee promotion, retention, and termination (Lyster and Arthur, 2007, p. 56). In its quest to use performance appraisal as a tool for employee and organizational development, it is imperative for FERMA to ensure that the data is not used negatively.

Agbola and Abena (2011, p. 87) maintain that in spite of the benefits that can be derived from performance appraisal, some managers might use it to victimize employees. For example, some managers might use appraisal ratings to coerce and dismiss some employees such as union members and sympathizers.

Additionally, some managers may use doctored appraisal results to promote certain people, which is against fairness and merit. Therefore, if FERMA intends to use performance appraisal as a tool for organizational and employee development, the firm must use the data fairly and accurately.

Limitations of literature review

The review of literature is limited to two main concepts of performance management, which include performance appraisal and the implementation of a performance appraisal system. However, the review has not evaluated the plan or approach that firms such as FERMA should follow in implementing a performance appraisal system.

Conclusion Based on this preliminary research, we could understand the Performance Appraisal System at FERMA is ineffective in ensuring that the employees understands the Agency’s goals and vision, hence the need to scrutinise the strengths and weaknesses of the system. This ineffectiveness could also be seen in the slow pace at which projects are executed at the Agency, which is likely caused by lack of motivation of the FERMA employees.

This informs the need to study and analyse the Performance Appraisal system of FERMA in this dissertation in order to recommend the best ways to develop the employees and the Agency as a whole through the use performance appraisal. The Agency must ensure that the employees perceive the performance appraisal to be a valuable one, and it is an objective of this dissertation to assess what their perception of the system is.

We have also established that a Performance Appraisal System must have a goal and some expected outcomes, hence, this dissertation would assess the goals and outcomes of FERMA’s current appraisal program. This will enable us to examine the gaps in the efficacy of the current appraisal program in structure and purpose regarding best practices and the organisational context.

Furthermore, different themes can be identified from the literature review. One of the major themes relates to employee performance. The effectiveness of performance appraisal in promoting employee development depends on whether it forms the basis of managerial decisions on issues such as employee training. Poorly designed appraisal systems might not be valuable in an organization’s quest to enhance the employees’ and organizational performance.

The behavior and attitude of employees in the workplace is subject to their perception of the HR practices adopted by the firm. Subsequently, employees may react differently to the application of performance appraisal system. The organization must ensure that employees understand that the performance appraisal system is intended at enhancing their personal and organizational development rather than to punish them.

Methodology Research methods and justification

The purpose of this research study is to examine how FERMA can implement performance appraisal as an employee and organisational development tool. The study’s rationale is based on recognition of the value of employees in promoting long-term organisational success. The work intends to achieve this goal by evaluating the strengths and gaps in the company’s current performance appraisal program.

The evaluation will provide insight into the fundamental strategic management issues that the firm should integrate in improving its approach to performance appraisal. The study can be defined as qualitative due to its exploratory nature. Thus, it will lead to the discovery of new ideas and insight regarding the problem under examination (Majumdar, 2011, p. 3).This chapter details the methodological approaches that will be taken into account in conducting the research study.

Research design and justification

To achieve the research objective, the study will be based on a simple descriptive research design. The rationale of the descriptive research design is to develop a comprehensive description on the state of affairs at FERMA. Tappen (2011, p.70) emphasises that ‘simple descriptive design focuses on a single group or population’. The effectiveness of the descriptive research design will be enhanced by incorporating the case study and descriptive survey research approaches.

By integrating the case study research design, it will be possible to undertake a comprehensive understanding of the gaps and strengths in the prevailing performance program at FERMA. The case study research design will ensure that the specific components of the firm’s performance appraisal process are evaluated.

The case study design will further lead to development of extensive understanding on the possible aspects that the Agency should focus in improving the performance appraisal process. Subsequently, integration of the case study design will aid in refining the performance appraisal at FERMA. Thus, the effectiveness of the performance appraisal as a tool of fostering employee and organisational development will be improved remarkably.

Alternatively, the descriptive survey design will improve the ease with which the requisite research data is collected. Hepper et al. (2015, p. 289) stipulate that descriptive survey design contributes to development of self-report on a particular subject.

The application of the descriptive research design will enable the researcher to understand FERMA’s opinions, habits, and attitudes towards the current performance appraisal program. Moreover, Hepper et al. (ibid.) stipulate that ‘survey research involves studying the patterns, causes and effects of issues within a certain population’. Thus, the survey design will increase the chance of identifying facts on the issue being studied.

Target population and sampling

Selection of the research site is essential because it influences the usefulness of the information produced from the study. The study’s target population will be comprised of employees working at different departments in FERMA Nigeria. The choice of employees from different departments as the research respondents will aid in obtaining varied and credible data on FERMA’s performance appraisal process.

The choice of this target population will aid in entrenching the concept of diversity in the construction of the sample study. Thus, the study will successfully identify the perception of different levels of employees on the prevailing performance appraisal system. Therefore, consideration of diversity in selecting the respondents will contribute to effective knowledge creation.

The inclusion of all the Agency’s employees in the study is not feasible because of resource constraints such as time and finances. To overcome the resource constraint challenge, the study will be based on the simple random sampling technique. This technique will aid in constructing the sample study.

Considering that a large workforce facilitates FERMA’s operations, a sample of 20 employees will be selected. Furthermore, the simple random sampling technique will aid in the construction of a representative sample size by eliminating subjectivity. This will improve the effectiveness with which the research findings are generalised to the entire organisation.

Data collection

The research data will be obtained from primary sources. The justification to obtain data from primary sources has arisen from the need to increase the credibility of the research findings. The primary sources will ensure that the research data is collected from the real environment. Therefore, based on the primary data, the reliability of the study’s findings will be improved. However, it will be ensured that the data collected is relevant and realistic.

To ensure that sufficient and reliable data is collected from the primary sources, the study will be based on the data triangulation approach. Crowther and Lancaster (2012) define data triangulation as the process of obtaining data from different sources in conducting a particular research study. The researcher will ensure that the three main dimensions of data triangulation, which include time, person, and space triangulations, are incorporated.

Time triangulation will be achieved by ensuring that the research data is collected at different points in time. Thus, it will be possible to obtain data from the targeted sources by eliminating inconveniences associated lack of limited time. Alternatively, space triangulation will entail collected data from different units at FERMA. This aspect will aid in gaining insight into the overall employee opinion regarding the implemented performance appraisal program at FERMA.

Conversely, person triangulation ensures that the study focuses on different individuals within an organisation. In this case, person triangulation will enable the researcher to gather the opinion of employees at different levels of management within FERMA on the application of performance appraisal.

To enhance the efficiency of the data collection process, the study will employ effective data collection techniques and instruments that include questionnaires and interviews. A comprehensive set of questionnaires will be developed to collect the required data. The questionnaires will specifically be based on the research objectives. In designing the questionnaires, the researcher will incorporate semi-structured questionnaires.

Thus, open and close-ended questionnaires will be developed. The close-ended questionnaires will aid in gathering specific response regarding the research topic.

Conversely, the open-ended questionnaires will aid in understanding different issues regarding the performance appraisal process such as the strengths and weakness of the performance appraisal and the employees’ perception on the prevailing performance appraisal program at FERMA. A comprehensive scrutiny of the questionnaires will be undertaken to eliminate grammatical errors and ambiguity hence improving the rate of response (Remenyi 2012).

To ensure that the data is efficiently collected, the research will integrate the survey monkey as one of the core data collection instrument. The surveymonkey is a software that enables researchers to conduct online survey efficiently and effectively in disciplines such as management and marketing.

The survey software will improve the ease with which research questionnaires are developed and distributed to the respondents. By using the survey monkey as a data collection instrument, it will be possible to distribute the questionnaires through iOS and Android enabled mobile applications. Furthermore, the monkey survey software provides the researcher options on whether to distribute the questionnaire through the web or social media network.

The data collection process will further employ the interviewing technique, which will be operationalised by incorporating the conducting a telephone interview on five officers selected from FERMA’s top management team. The rationale to adopting the interviewing technique is founded on the need to gather relevant research data (Connaway


Southwest Airlines Business Strategy Research Paper college essay help

Executive Summary This report entails an analysis of how Southwest Airlines should adjust its current business strategy, viz. the low-cost strategy to remain competitive. Currently, the airline industry is undergoing remarkable transformation due to different market forces such as intense competition and an increase in the intensity of competition.

Therefore, it is not feasible for the airline to continue relying on the low-cost strategy as a source of competitive advantage. On the contrary, the airline should evaluate the most effective strategy to adopt to sustain its long-term competitiveness. The report identifies three main strategies, which include market development, product development, and market penetration. However, the report recommends Southwest Airlines to adopt the market penetration strategy.

The rationale for this strategy arises from the fact that its adoption will enable the airline to stimulate its profitability in the long term. The report specifically identifies the Latin American airline market as the most feasible markets for the firm to consider. The report further outlines the specific aspects issues that the airline should take into account to penetrate the identified Brazilian market successfully.

Introduction Background information

Southwest Airlines Company was established in 1967 in Dallas, Texas. The airline offers scheduled air transport services in the US and near-international markets. Southwest Airlines mission entails providing Americans freedom to fly. The airline has been in operation in the US market for over 44 years and has succeeded in developing its infrastructure.

By the end of 2014, a fleet of 12 Boeing 717 aircraft’s and 665 Boeing 737 aircrafts facilitated the airline’s operations. Southwest Airline principally offers point-to-point transport as opposed to hub-and-spoke service. This approach has enabled the airline to optimize its resource utilization such as employees and aircrafts.

Thus, the airline has succeeded in minimizing occurrence of flight delays. Subsequently, the airline has developed adequate competitiveness due to increased level of convenience (“United States Securities and Exchange Commission” par.2).

Despite the economic fluctuations, the airline has managed to attain a relatively high level of profitability. The airline’s level of profitability was highest in 2013 where it amounted to $754 million from a low of US$99 in 2009. In addition to profitability, Southwest Airlines has a relatively strong balance sheet. At the first half of 2014, the airline had generated US$ 1.6 billion in free cash flow (“International Air Transport Association” par. 3).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Over the past four decades that the Southwest Airlines has been in operation in the US airline industry, the firm has managed to develop position itself as an iconic brand. This scenario has arisen from the adoption of aggressive marketing campaigns such as sponsoring sporting events and online advertising. Thus, the airline was ranked amongst the top five traveled brands by the American Brand Excellence Awards (“International Air Transport Association” par. 5).

The airline commenced near-international operations in 2014 by establishing routes into five Latin America countries such as the Dominican Republic, Mexico, The Bahamas, Jamaica, and Aruba to maximize profitability. Another strategy that the company has employed entails acquisition.

In 2011, the airline acquired AirTran Airways hence expanding and diversifying its route network. Moreover, the acquisition has increased the chances of Southwest Airlines attaining near-term growth. In its operation, AirTran Airways has adopted the hub-and-spoke system hence improving Southwest Airlines’ competitiveness.

Southwest Airline faces intense competition from three main airline companies, which include JetBlue Airways Corporation, Americana Airlines Group Incorporation, and Delta Airlines Incorporation.

The three companies have been in operation in the US airline industry for a considerable duration and have established a strong market presence. For example, Delta Airline accounts for 22% of the market share while the American Airlines and JetBlue airlines market share are estimated to be 12.7% and 1.9% respectively (“International Air Transport Association” par. 9).

Critical analysis of the company’s current strategy

Over the past four decades, Southwest Airlines has largely leveraged on the low-cost strategy. Through this strategy, Southwest Airlines has been in a position to develop an adequate competitive advantage in the domestic market due to the low-cost leadership that it has achieved.

According to Thompson, “an organization must be the cost leader and unchallenged in this position to implement the low-cost leadership strategy” (201). The objective of adopting the low-cost structure is to provide the airline an opportunity to maximize profitability by charging low fares. Currently, Southwest airline ranks amongst the carriers with the lowest unit costs in the US.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Southwest Airlines Business Strategy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More One of the factors that have made the airline succeed under the low-cost structure entails the usage of the Boeing 737 as the company’s aircraft type. Boeing 737s aircrafts are considered very efficient regarding the operation of point-to-point route structure.

By using a single aircraft type, the airline has simplified other operational activities such as training its workforce, flight maintenance, and flight operations. The airports in which the airline operates are not congested and optimally located, which increases the airlines’ asset utilization hence its operational efficiency. Moreover, the airline is characterized by a highly productive workforce (“United States Securities and Exchange Commission” par. 8).

The implementation of the low-cost strategy is based on identifying a distinct customer group characterized by consumption needs that can be described as slightly below average. In its operation, Southwest Airlines targeted tourists in the domestic market who were largely concerned about the price of airfares.

Subsequently, the company offered these customers air travel services at a lower price point compared to its competitors. It is imperative for an organization to integrate superior management practice to benefit from the low-cost strategy. One of the ways through which this goal is achieved is by eliminating including aspects that customers may consider unimportant in its product offering (Thompson 201).

Problem Statement

Since its inception, Southwest Airline has largely focused on the domestic market. Thus, the airline has not fully exploited its profitability potential by expanding its market into the international market. This aspect increases the economic risk that the firm might encounter due to changes in the domestic market.

For example, heightened competition in the domestic market might arise from the increase in the number of local and international carriers operating in the US domestic market. Furthermore, the industry players may imitate the low-cost structure adopted by the firm hence limiting Southwest Airlines ability to maximize its profitability using the low-cost model. Therefore, the airline must consider feasible approaches to sustain its profitability.

Due to the adoption of the low-cost structure, Southwest Airlines can be described as a production-oriented entity. Thompson defines a production-oriented firm as an entity that is concerned with reducing the cost of production through mass production to maximize its profitability (202). This phenomenon is evidenced by Southwest Airlines decision to operate a massive fleet of aircrafts. Despite its efforts to implement the low-cost strategy, Southwest Airlines can no longer be termed as a low-cost carrier.

Over the past decades, the airline has succeeded in attracting large customers based on the low-cost model. However, Smith emphasizes that low prices alone cannot amount to a sustainable competitive advantage (par. 1).

Not sure if you can write a paper on Southwest Airlines Business Strategy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, the global airline industry has changed significantly over the past few years. One of the major sources of change relates to the increasing cost of jet fuel. Wensveen cites jet fuel as one of the major determinant in airfares (320). Furthermore, the cost of fuel is very unpredictable because they are subject to external factors.

Wensveen further affirms that fuel consumption “varies considerably from route to route depending on the stage lengths, aircraft weight, and wind conditions” (320). By the end of 2014, the cost of jet fuel at Southwest airline had increased from $1.80 per gallon to $3.16 per gallon between 2007 and 2014.

Moreover, fuel costs account for approximately 35% of the company’s total spending, which is an increase from the low level of 29% in 2014 (Bachmana par. 3). Due to these changes, Southwest Airline is no longer considered as the low-cost leader in the US airline industry. On the contrary, the airline’s operating cost is close to its major rivals, viz. Delta Airlines, the American Airlines, and JetBlue.

In addition to the increasing cost of operations, Southwest Airlines is also facing a challenge arising from the elusive nature of the once robust profitable industry. Over the past decades, the industry’s growth has been facilitated by the low-cost carriers, which account for 25% of the total market share.

However, the influence of different exogenous factors has made it a challenge for airline companies to maximize their profitability. Subsequently, the industry players must integrate other strategies that will enhance their profitability despite the changing industry performance. Another challenge that the airline is facing relates to the increase in consumer expectations.

Percy argues that a production-oriented company should be cautious to avoid production inefficiencies, which might affect the quality of the final product (233). Besides, customer disaffection has become a major concern for airline carriers. Therefore, the changing customer expectations coupled with the increase in fuel cost poses a risk to the company’s profitability and competitiveness. Consequently, the firm should not understate the importance of adjusting its business strategy.

This aspect means that the effectiveness of the airline’s low-cost strategy in promoting the company’s future sustainability in the contemporary business environment is considerably low. Thus, failure of the company to adjust its business strategy might limit its future competitiveness.

Recommended strategic alternatives Despite the challenges that the firm faces due to change in industry trends such as high fuel cost, change in customer expectations and decline in the level of profitability, Southwest Airlines has an opportunity to achieve market leadership. The firm can achieve this goal by adjusting its strategic approaches.

Hill and Jones opine that a company should utilize its distinctive strengths to capture a high market share in an industry characterized by declining performance (220). Some of the strategic alternatives that the company can integrate are market penetration, market orientation, and product orientation.

Product development

Kumar defines a product to include the promise that a company makes to the target market in exchange for their money (10). The promise is comprised of different aspects such as emotional overtones, attributes, and status appeal amongst other benefits. Kumar asserts that a product-oriented company believes that a superior product attracts a considerably large number of customers hence increasing the likelihood of maximizing profits (10).

A company can focus on six different product development strategic orientations in implementing the product orientation strategy. They include low product cost, product performance, quality, reliability and robustness, and time-to-market (Saqib 65). Some companies have succeeded in leveraging on product orientation as a source of competitive advantage. Examples of such companies include Mercedes, a well-established automobile company. The company is renowned for its engineering excellence and status appeal (Kumar 10).

Therefore, to improve its competitiveness, the company should consider improving the quality of the product that it offers its customers, viz. air transport. This move will play a fundamental role in ensuring that customers develop a strong association with the firm.

Currently, most customers are attracted to Southwest Airlines because of its low pricing. However, changes in industry dynamics such as increase the price of jet fuel are challenges for the company to sustain its low pricing strategy. This situation is well illustrated by the company’s decision to adjust its prices.

Despite the effectiveness of the product development strategy for enhancing the company’s competitiveness, the strategy is not free from challenges. One of the notable challenges entails an increase in the cost structure. This aspect means that the strategy might result in the company engaging in vicious price wars (Hill and Jones 214).

Market development

The second strategic alternative that Southwest Airlines should consider entails position itself as a market-oriented entity. Hill and Jones affirm that a market-oriented entity is largely concerned with developing and utilizing market intelligence (212). This assertion means that Southwest Airlines will be concerned with understanding the customers’ wants and needs.

Thus, the market-oriented strategy is based on the concept of the customer being the king. Failure to position itself as a market-oriented entity will significantly reduce the company’s ability to satisfy its customers’ needs and wants.

One of the advantages that Southwest Airlines can gain by adopting the market-oriented approach entails an increase in the likelihood of the firm transforming itself into a customer-centric entity.

This assertion arises from the view that the firm leverages on the market intelligence gathered from the market research that the firm undertakes. Secondly, the market orientation strategy will enable the airline to develop a strong business culture that appreciates the customers’ behavior hence increasing its likelihood to deliver superior value to its target customers.

For example, in its product development process, the airline will be concerned with understanding the customers’ opinion regarding its products. Subsequently, the firm will provide insight on the areas in which product improvements are necessary. By adopting the market orientation strategy, Southwest Airlines will be in a position to undertake continuous product development.

Market penetration

Considering the saturated nature of the airline industry in the US, Southwest Airlines should consider integrating the concept of market penetration. If the company fails to penetrate new markets and only focuses its operation in the domestic market, Southwest Airlines will not maximize its profitability because of the intense competition.

Under this strategy, the airline should consider expanding its provision of air transportation services into new markets. One of the ways through which the airline can implement the market penetration strategy entails internationalization. In its internationalization strategy, the airline should avoid markets that are close to reaching the maturity level. On the contrary, the firm should identify airline markets that are characterized by a high rate of growth.

Hill and Jones affirm that market penetration is based on investing in extensive marketing communication to ensure that the product being introduced into the new market is effectively differentiated (213). For example, in its quest to penetrate the technology industry Intel adopted an aggressive marketing campaign to influence the target customers brand choice.

By investing in extensive market penetration, the likelihood of a firm increasing its market share is considerably high because of the positive influence created on the rival customers mind. For example, the aggressive market campaign might entrench the brand in the customer’s mind hence increasing the chances of charging a premium on its prices.

The intensity of competition in the global airline industry has increased the need for the industry players to increase their market share. The adoption of the market penetration strategy can increase the likelihood of the firm achieving the desired market share in addition to reducing the financial risk associated with intense competition (Geppert 35).

This view arises from the fact that the market penetration strategy provides an opportunity for companies to extend the lifecycle of their products. Therefore, by adopting this strategy, the probability of Southwest Airlines increasing its market share in the new markets will be increased substantially. The firm will achieve this goal by marketing its products into new market segments.

Despite the benefits associated with market penetration, implementation of the strategy is time intensive (Geppert 35). This aspect means that Southwest Airlines will consume a substantial amount of time in making its air transport services know in the new market. Moreover, the firm faces the risk of product imitation in the new market. This aspect might occur if the competitors in the new market entered starts offering air travel services similar to the firm.

Choice of strategic alternative

Market penetration

It is imperative for Southwest Airlines to consider adopting the market penetration strategy to survive in the changing airline industry. In its market penetration, the firm should target the international market. The choice of international market arises from the need to exploit opportunities available in the international market. Some of the markets that Southwest Airlines should consider entering include the Latin America and the Caribbean markets.

The Latin American countries are characterized by a relatively high rate of economic growth. This move will increase the likelihood of maximizing profitability. Neelankavil and Rai emphasize that operating in multiple countries enable an organization to smooth out their sales revenue flow (161).

This view arises from the fact that a company compensates for the decline in sales growth in countries characterized by a slow rate of market growth. One of the markets that the airline should consider entering includes Brazil. A study conducted by IATA in 2011 identified Brazil as the fastest-growing airline markets.

Decision criteria

One of the decision criteria considered in selecting the international market penetration strategy arises from the need to increase sales revenue by tapping international market opportunities. According to Thompson, the market penetration strategy enables an organization to concentrate on areas that it has developed competencies (329). Subsequently, market penetration amounts to an improvement in brand identity.

By adopting the market penetration strategy, Southwest Airlines will be in a position to achieve sustainable growth as opposed to explosive growth. Therefore, the likelihood of the firm attaining long-term growth will be improved substantially. The airline industry in Latin America is characterized by a relatively high rate of growth. Latin American countries have experienced a considerable increment in demand for air travel over the past few years.

According to the “International Air Transport Association”, it is expected that passengers in the air transport industry will increase to 7.3 billion by 2034, which represents an average annual growth rate of 4.1% (par. 7). The Latin American markets are projected to grow at a rate of 4.7%. Therefore, 607 million passengers are expected to be using air transport by 2034. Therefore, the likelihood of the airline increasing its sales revenue will be substantially high.

In the process of entering the international market, it is assumed that Southwest Airlines will not incur legal restrictions in the target market. For example, it is assumed that Southwest Airlines will not be required to partner with other domestic firms operating in the target market to access the market.

On the contrary, the airline will obtain a license to operate in the target international market immediately. It is also assumed that Southwest Airlines will successfully utilize its strengths regarding human and financial capital in exploiting the opportunities available in the international market.

The choice to enter the Latin America air transport industry such as Brazil is further informed by the favorable market conditions. Neelankavil and Rai assert that Latin American countries are characterized by a relatively lower labor costs compared to the US (161). Subsequently, Southwest Airlines will be in a position to maximize its profitability in the international market due to the relatively low labor cost.

In addition to the above aspects, the adoption of this strategy will enable the firm to avoid the market risk associated with an increase in competition in the domestic market. Companies enter into collaborative agreements with local firms in the international market to gain a relatively stronger competitive position (Neelankavil and Rai 160).

Moreover, international market penetration enables an organization to spread its investments. This aspect minimizes the negative effects of different risks such as political unrest. Through international market penetration, Southwest Airline will exploit the market opportunities available in the international market.

Recommended course of action

In its international market penetration, Southwest Airlines should consider adopting the concept of direct entry strategy. Therefore, the airline will adopt the concept of foreign direct investment. The choice of the direct entry strategy arises from the recognition of the high rate at which Latin American countries are adopting the concept of liberalization to open up air transport.

One of the notable efforts to liberalize air transport in Latin America is illustrated by the enactment of the establishment of regional initiatives such as the Mercosur Sub-region Agreement on Air Transport Services. Through direct entry, the organization will be in a position to penetrate the Latin America market successfully.

The direct market entry strategy will enable Southwest Airline to gain enough understanding of the air transport industry in Latin America. Neelankavil and Rai cite the lack of knowledge as one of the major challenges that organizations that seek to enter the international market face (160). Therefore, prior to entering the Latin America market such as Brazil, Southwest Airlines should conduct a comprehensive study to understand the prevailing market conditions.

Reasons why international market penetration is the best alternative

The choice of international market penetration as the best business strategy over product and market development strategies has arisen from the recognition of the value associated with the strategy. First, adopting the market development and product development strategies while still limiting its operations in its US domestic market might limit the firm’s ability to achieve and sustain a high level of profitability.

Considering the intensity of competition in the US low-cost airline market segment, Southwest Airline might not increase its sales revenue by solely relying on the local market. Moreover, the firm might experience product failure after adopting the product development strategy. This issue may arise if the competitors identify gaps in the product offered by the firm. By leveraging on such gaps, the company might not exploit the expected goal.

Thompson asserts that market development involves modification of the existing products to improve the attractiveness of the product in new or existing market niches (330). On the other hand, the product development strategy is customer driven. Therefore, the chances of encountering product failure are relatively high.

This situation may occur if the team charged with the responsibility of undertaking the product development processes fails to take into account all the necessary aspects that would amount to the satisfaction of the customers’ needs. This situation may further arise from a change in customer tastes and preferences. For example, customers may change their tastes and preferences regarding air travel before the completion of the product development process. Therefore, the value of the product development process to the firm might be limited.

Goals and objectives of the recommendation

In its pursuit of international market penetration strategy, Southwest Airlines should be guided by the following objectives.

To stimulate the company’s annual sales growth rate by 15%.

To establish international operations in the Brazilian air transport industry within the next one year.

To acquire a market share of over 15% in the Brazilian air transport industry within a period of one year.

To ensure that the firm succeeds in entering the target market within the allocated market entry budget

Methodological approach Southwest Airlines should consider several aspects to succeed in entering the air transport industry in Brazil. One of the fundamental aspects entails conducting a comprehensive market research. The rationale for undertaking the market research is to gather sufficient knowledge on the prevailing trends.

Subsequently, the company will be in a position to gather and utilize market intelligence hence increasing the likelihood of achieving the stipulated goals and objectives. This section highlights the methodological aspects considered in gathering conducting market research. These methodological aspects will aid in gathering relevant market intelligence that the firm will rely on implementing its strategy.

Research design

This report explores how Southwest Airlines can adjust its business strategy by implementing the international market penetration strategy. The report recommends the airline to consider entering the Brazilian market to maximize its profitability. The adoption of the market penetration strategy will enable the airline to overcome the challenge arising from the increase in competition in its domestic US market.

However, the airline should consider developing a comprehensive understanding of the prevailing industry dynamics. The market intelligence will enable the firm to undertake market penetration successfully by considering the fundamental aspects identified from the market research.

This study has integrated the concept of qualitative research design to achieve this goal. The rationale for adopting this design is to increase the company’s level of understanding regarding the prevailing market environment. By incorporating qualitative research design, the study has gathered a substantial amount of data from the field.

Therefore, the research design can be described as descriptive. The implementation of the descriptive research design will be achieved by incorporating the survey research approach. The survey research approach will enable the researcher to gather relevant data regarding the target customers’ attitude and opinion regarding air travel. Subsequently, the airline will be in a position to understand their tastes, preferences and expectations regarding air travel.

Data collection

The study has relied on extensive data collection to understand the customers’ attitudes, tastes, preferences, and expectations regarding air transport. The data used in the study has been sourced from primary sources. The choice of primary sources has arisen from the need to gather data that the organization can rely on in its international market entry. The survey was conducted by identifying consumers in Brazil who have integrated air travel in their transportation consumption patterns.

Identification of these customers was made possible by seeking information from air travel agents in Brazil. The air travel agents in Brazil have developed a database containing information on customers that seek air travel services from the respective agents. In addition to customers, the survey also entailed seeking information from industry experts.

The process of data collection was further enhanced by integrating different data collection instruments. Questionnaires were used in gathering information from the customers. The questionnaires were comprised of open and close-ended questionnaires. Subsequently, the two types of questionnaires enabled the researcher to gather facts and the respondents’ opinions regarding the air transport industry in Brazil. The questionnaires were designed optimally to eliminate ambiguity because of grammatical mistakes.

Due to the dispersion of the research respondents in the Brazilian market, the study has adopted the self-administration technique. Subsequently, the questionnaires were distributed to the target audience through online mechanisms such as e-mail. Moreover, the choice of this form of administration was informed by the need to minimize the cost of conducting the survey.

Consequently, the risk of a low rate of response due to the lack of understanding the questionnaires was reduced considerably. Moreover, the data collection process further involved conduction of a focus group interview with industry experts. The rationale for integrating the focus group interview was informed by the need to gather expert opinion regarding the air transport industry in Brazil. Integrating the two instruments significantly enriched the study’s findings.

Sampling design

The study has targeted customers in the air travel industry in Brazil. However, it is not feasible to conduct the survey on all the customers because of the high costs involved. The study has integrated the sampling technique to overcome this challenge. Subsequently, the study adopted the purposive sampling technique. Through this technique, the study has gathered relevant data from the field hence enriching the data.

The study only considered customers who consume air travel services to operationalize the purposive sampling technique. Moreover, the concept of sampling was further enhanced by integrating the concept of simple random sampling. The simple random sampling technique enabled the researcher to eliminate bias in constructing the research respondents. Subsequently, different customers in the air transport industry in Brazil were provided equal chances of being included in the study.

Based on the simple random sampling, a sample of 120 respondents was constructed. One hundred [100] of the respondents were comprised of ordinary air transport customers while 20 of the respondents included experts on air transport selected from the Brazilian market.

Thompson stresses that a “small sample size diminishes the power of a study while a large sample size increases the degree to which the research findings of a study are statistically significant” (23). Thus, the study is based on the assumption that the sample size of 120 respondents is sufficient and hence the findings of the study can be generalized.

Data analysis and presentation

The study is aimed at using the data collected from the field in making a decision on the recommended business strategy. Subsequently, the data collected has been analyzed to increase its value. Considering that the study is qualitative in nature, the study has integrated descriptive data analysis technique. Subsequently, the study has employed Microsoft Excel as the core data analysis and presentation tool.

The choice of the Microsoft Excel tool is informed by the need to ensure that the data collected is well presented using tables and graphs hence increasing the ease of understanding the data. Moreover, Microsoft Excel has enabled the researcher to integrate descriptive statistics.

Analysis of findings The study identified different aspects. First, the study showed the existence of a substantial market opportunity in the air transport industry in Brazil. Ninety-five percent (95%) of the customers considered in the study were of the opinion that they still consider air transport as their preferred mode of transport.

The respondents were of the opinion that air transport is relatively convenient and safe compared to other modes of transport. On the other hand, only 5% of the respondents were of the opinion that they are not certain of their continued usage of air mode of transport.

All the respondents interviewed through the focus group interview cited Brazil as the most attractive airline market in Latin America. In their opinion, the respondents cited the growth in the number of domestic and international passengers. This response corresponds with a recent report released by IATA. The report cites Brazil as the largest market as illustrated by table 1 below.

Country 2013 2014 Percentage change Brazil 90 million 95.9 million 6.60% Mexico 30.5 million 32.9 million 7.90% Colombia 23 million 21.5 million 7.90% Chile 9.5 million 9.8 million 4.60% Table 1

Despite the relatively low rate of growth regarding different passengers in Brazil compared to Mexico and Colombia, the size of the market in Brazil is considerably high.

In addition to the above aspects, the respondents in the focus group interview argued that the Brazilian airline industry is characterized by a relatively high market opportunity. In their opinion, the respondents cited the high rate at which the low-cost carriers operating in Brazil are considering expanding into the international market.

When asked why, 80% of the respondents in the focus group interview said that the market is considerably high because of increase in the number of international customers. This assertion corresponds with IATA’s findings on the growth of international passenger traffic in Brazil by 5.7% between 2013 and 2013.

The study also sought to understand the customers’ purchase behavior regarding air travel. Subsequently, the study integrated different questions aimed at developing a better understanding of the target customers. First, the study evaluated the reasons why customers have integrated air travel. Twenty percent (20%) of the respondents argued that they use air travel for business purposes while 55% said their air travel is necessitated by personal reasons. On the other hand, 25% of the respondents cited that they use air travel for leisure purposes.

This finding shows that customers are increasingly being concerned with acquiring unique experience in consuming air transport services. The “International Air Transport Association” asserts that airline companies are struggling to acquire a high market share because of the changing business environment (par. 6).

Thus, airline companies are experiencing pressure on how to gain additional market share and to sustain and improve the level of profitability. Therefore, to survive in such a market, the industry players should not ignore the importance of integrating customer relationship as a way of attracting and retaining customers hence optimizing their performance.

Therefore, in its market penetration process, it is imperative for Southwest Airline to consider integrating the concept of customer service as one of its organizational ethics. By integrating customer experience as one of organizational culture elements, Southwest Airlines will be in a position to attract a substantially large number of customers.

This aspect will arise from the fact that the positive customer experience will make the customers develop a high level of loyalty towards the firm. Therefore, the likelihood of the firm developing a high market share will be improved substantially.

This finding further highlights the importance of airline companies developing adequate customer knowledge. By leveraging on customer knowledge, the chance of airline companies generating ancillary revenue is increased considerably because of the high level of loyalty developed.

Moreover, leveraging on delivering unique customer experience will enable the airline to be competitive in the changing airline industry. For example, by taking into account this aspect, Southwest Airlines will be in a position to unbundle its existing services. Consequently, the company will charge a relatively high price based on the unique service being offered to customers.

Therefore, Southwest Airlines will not solely rely on charging customers a specific price. On the contrary, the firm will integrate a premium. This move will improve Southwest Airlines’ competitive edge both in the local and international markets.

Discussion Implementation and action plan

The above findings illustrate that Southwest Airlines can increase its profitability by entering into the Brazilian airline industry. Through market penetration, Southwest Airlines will benefit from the growth in the rate at which consumers in Brazil are consuming air travel services. However, to succeed in the new market, Southwest Airlines will be required to formulate a comprehensive implementation and action plan.

One of the fundamental actions that the firm should take into account in its entry entails seeking a license or a permit to operate in the identified market from the relevant authorities. During the process of seeking the license, Southwest Airlines should involve a team of experts on legal aspects.

This move will aid in ensuring that the contents of the license are well understood. Subsequently, the firm will ensure that its operations comply with the operational license issues. Southwest Airlines may be awarded a permit to operate in the Brazil market for a specified period.

The issuance of the operating license from the Brazilian government will be based on a number of aspects such as Southwest Airlines operational fitness, commitment to provide the proposed air travel services, financial strength, adherence to operational and safety standards amongst other aspects. In the course of its operation, Southwest Airlines has succeeded in establishing strength regarding adherence to industry standards and optimal financial and human capital strength.

The second action that Southwest Airlines should consider involves searching the most appropriate airport in Brazil to conduct its operations. The selection of the airport should be based on a comprehensive criterion. First, Southwest Airline should assess the efficiency with which the identified airport is managed and is not characterized by cases of congestion.

These aspects are critical in determining whether the airline will encounter delays in its operation. The airport selected should not be congested to sustain the airlines’ short turnaround duration. Secondly, the organization should ensure that the airport selected is strategically located to ensure ease of access.

The third strategic aspect that Southwest Airlines should take into account in implementing the strategy entails product standardization. The rationale for integrating the concept of standardization arises from the fact that the airline is entering a new market. Subsequently, the likelihood of the airline experiencing challenges due to cross-cultural differences is considerably high. Cross-border cultural differences are a major barrier in an organization’s quest to succeed in the international market (Julian118).

Product standardization can aid an organization in managing the negative effects of such cultural differences. This view arises from the fact that the organization will offer unique products in the target market. Julian asserts that cultural specificity in offering a product in the international market is critical in ensuring that the product being offered successfully penetrates the market (118). Cultural specificity refers to the extent to which an organization’s product addresses the specific needs of a particular need for a culture or sub-culture.

In the process of entering the international market, Southwest Airlines will be required to develop a comprehensive understanding of the cultural aspects amongst Brazil consumers. The intelligence gained from the cultural analysis should form the basis of designing the product that it intends to introduce in the market.

One of the critical aspects that the organization should take into account entail training its employees who will serve as expatriates in Brazil on the cultural aspects that they should observe in serving customers in the Brazilian market. Moreover, the firm will be required to source additional employees from the local market.

Training employees on cultural aspects will play a fundamental role in improving the efficiency and effectiveness with which they serve customers. Subsequently, the likelihood of the employees delivering exemplary customer service will be improved significantly. The outcome will be an increase in the level of customer satisfaction. Therefore, through product standardization, Southwest Airlines will be in a position to satisfy the target market.

In addition to the above aspects, Southwest Airlines will be required to standardize other aspects such as promotional aspects to gain an optimal market position. Julian asserts that international market penetration should ensure that its promotional activities are customized with the prevailing cultural idiosyncrasies in the international market (119).

Southwest Airlines will be venturing into a new territory. Thus, the level of familiarity with the services offered by Southwest Airlines is relatively low in the Brazilian market. Consequently, the organization will be required to engage in extensive promotional activities. According to Julian, a firm introducing a product that is not known in the market requires a firm to undertake extensive product familiarization (119).

The objective of the promotion is to create a high level of familiarity regarding the product that it intends to offer in the foreign market. Creating a high level of familiarity increases the ease with which a product or a brand enters the international market.

Julian specifies that creating “varying levels of awareness, knowledge, familiarity and experience with a product or brand may result in differential attitudes towards similar products” (119). Therefore, the airline must focus on ensuring that the product information created in the target market is universal.

One of the fundamental aspects that Southwest Airline should take into account in its international market penetration entails communicating the value that the organization intends to introduce in the market. The organization should communicate how customers will acquire unique customer experience by consuming the services that it offers. Market communication will aid the customer to identify Southwest Airlines’ point of difference against its competitors.

For example, despite the fluctuation in fuel price, Southwest Airlines has continued to exempt its customers from additional fees for first or second checked bags. This aspect has been made possible due to the integration of the ‘Bags Fly Free’ concept.

Moreover, communicating this point of difference will play a fundamental role in ensuring that customers develop a positive perception regarding the level of customer service. Other product features that the organization should communicate to the target customers entail its exemption of additional fees on aspects such as telephone reservations, curbside check-in, and seat selection.

The marketing communication process should further ensure that customers understand other in-flight services that customers can access by traveling using the airline. Currently, consumers are increasingly being concerned about the quality of in-flight services offered by customers.

One of the in-flight services that the airline should communicate entails its in-flight internet connectivity. Southwest Airlines has over the past few years commenced on implementing its aircrafts with internet connectivity. Creating such awareness will aid the airline in attracting customers.

Assignation of responsibilities

Southwest Airlines will be required to ensure that the activities outlined in the action plan are implemented successfully to penetrate the target market successfully. Therefore, to achieve this goal, the organization will be required to assign responsibilities to specific parties. The table below illustrates how the responsibilities will be conducted.

Activity Responsibility Marketing research Research and Development and the Marketing Departments Marketing communication Marketing Department Seeking operational license Southwest Airlines executive management team Customer service training Human Resource Department and Marketing Department Table 2: Assignment of responsibility


Southwest Airlines will incur substantial costs in implementing the above activities. Therefore, the organizations will be required to allocate a substantial amount of money in its budget. The table below illustrates the projected budget that the firm will incur.

Activity Projected cost [Amount in US$] Marketing research 2,000,000 Marketing Communication 4,000,000 Seeking operational license 10,000,000 Customer service training 1,000,000 Projected budget 17,000,000 Table 4: implementation budget


Southwest Airline intends to enter and establish its operations in the Brazilian market within one year. Subsequently, the organization will ensure that the activities identified are executed within a specific timeframe. Southwest Airline will undertake some of the activities concurrently as illustrated by the Gantt chart below to optimize on the available time.

Activity Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. April May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep Oct. Nov. Marketing research Marketing communication Seeking operational license Customer service training Commencing operation Table 5: Gantt chart illustrating implementation timeframe

Measures of success/failure for each activity

Southwest Airlines will ensure that the activities identified are implemented effectively. Subsequently, the airline’s management team should progressively evaluate the success with which the activities are implemented. The organization should use different metrics depending on the nature of the activity.

First, the success with which the firm undertakes market research should be evaluated by gauging the extent to which the data gathered from the market research contribute to the development of market intelligence. One of the issues that the organization should assess entails its level of understanding of consumer and competitor behavior in the target market.

Secondly, the level of success regarding marketing communication should be measured by assessing the degree of brand knowledge in the Brazilian market. Conversely, the organization should also assess the ease of penetrating the target market by examining the possible challenges that might be encountered in the process of seeking operating license from the relevant authorities.

The study identifies the development of unique customer experience as one of the core pillars in succeeding in the target market. One of the strategies that the firm intends to achieve this goal entails training its workforce on the fundamental customer service aspects.

Consequently, the airline will examine the degree to which its employees understand the cultural issues that they should observe in the new market. Moreover, the organization will further examine the degree to which employees have developed customer-centric skills in serving customers. The last activity entails actual commencement of the company’s operations. Thus, the organization will assess whether it commences actual business operation within the stipulated time.

Possible coordination issues

Effective coordination of the above activities is paramount in the organization’s quest to penetrate the foreign market successfully. However, considering that different departments will undertake the activities, the firm should not ignore the likelihood of encountering coordination issues. This situation might arise if the respective departments have developed a comprehensive understanding of the firm’s mission.

Therefore, to overcome this aspect, the airline’s management team should communicate its intended strategic decision prior to its implementation. Moreover, the organization should ensure that the employees understand that the attainment of the intended goals and objectives is dependent on the input of all the employees. By developing such understanding, employees in the respective departments will ensure that their actions are in the best interest of the organization.

Possible barriers

Southwest Airlines might encounter a challenge in its market entry due to the reluctance of some employees to serve as expatriates in the international market. Some of the employees might perceive serving as expatriates as a challenge because of the cultural differences. Considering that both the expatriates and local employees will facilitate the firm’s operations in Brazil, coordination of business activities might be hampered by differences regarding national culture.

Therefore, to overcome this challenge, Southwest Airlines will undertake comprehensive human resource training. The purpose of the training will be to ensure that all the employees appreciate the importance of diversity. Through this approach, the airline will successfully establish a collaborative working environment. Therefore, the level of customer service will be improved substantially.

Conclusion Southwest Airlines has gained significant dominance in the US airline industry. One of the factors that have contributed to its market dominance entails the adoption of the low-cost structure. Through this strategy, the airline has succeeded in developing a point of difference hence improving its competitiveness.

Furthermore, the strategy has made the airline attractive to a large number of customers. However, the global airline industry is currently experiencing a challenge arising from external forces. One of the market forces entails increment in the intensity of competition from other airline companies. Moreover, the cost of operation due to factors such as the increase in fuel prices has changed considerably. Consequently, the efficacy of the low-cost strategy in sustaining the firm’s high level of sales revenue and profitability is relatively low.

In the wake of these industry changes, it is imperative for the industry players such as Southwest Airlines to consider adjusting its business strategy. Some of the alternatives that the airline should consider include market development, market penetration, and product development. One of most effective strategy that the airline should consider entails market penetration. The justification of this strategy arises from the fact the organization will tap the market opportunities available in the emerging economies.

On the contrary, the product development and market development strategies might not contribute to an increase in the firm’s sales revenue because they will be concentrated in the local market, which is currently shrinking. In its initial phase, the airline should consider entering the Brazilian market. Available literature and market research conducted identifies Brazil as one of the largest airline markets. Therefore, Southwest Airlines should exploit the Brazilian market.

It is imperative for the organization’s management team conduct an extensive market research to enter the Brazilian market successfully. This aspect will aid in gathering market intelligence to be used in the entry process. Moreover, the organization should ensure that the product being introduced in the international market is aligned with the customers’ needs and wants.

Therefore, the firm will be in a position to customize its product offering. The market entry process should be conducted effectively by ensuring that all the necessary activities are duly completed within the set timeframe. This goal can be achieved by assigning responsibilities to different stakeholders.

Works Cited Bachmana, J. Southwest hangs up its low-cost jersey, 2014. Web.

Geppert, N. Success factors for market penetration in CIS countries; using the investment business model, New Delhi: Pearson Education, 2008. Print.

Hill, C., and Gareth J. Strategic management theory; an integrated approach, New York: Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.

International Air Transport Association: New IATA passenger forecast reveals fast-growing markets of the future, 2014. Web.

Julian, C. International joint venture performance in South East Asia, New York: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2009. Print.

Kumar, D. Enterprise growth strategy; vision, planning, and execution, Farnham: Gower, 2010. Print.

Neelankavil, J, and Anoop R. Basics of international business, New York: Routledge, 2014. Print.

Percy, L. Strategy integrated marketing communication; Theory and practice, New York: Routledge, 2011. Print.

Saqib, S. Business strategies and approaches for effective engineering management, Hershey: Business Science Reference, 2013. Print.

Smith, T. 40 years of profitable service; a case study on Southwest Airlines and target Pricing, 2011. Web.

Thompson, J. Understanding corporate strategy, London: Thompson Learning, 2007. Print.

United States Securities and Exchange Commission: Southwest Airlines Company, 2011. Web.

Wensveen, J. Air transportation: a management perspective, New York: Ashgate Publishing, 2012. Print.


How Does the Internet Aid Communication? Analytical Essay essay help site:edu

The Internet has become an integral part of the life of many people. The invention and spread of the Internet changed all aspects of modernity. Thus, the Interned made the life quicker and communication easier. The communication via the Internet is becoming more and more popular nowadays. People prefer sharing their ideas and best moments while being online. Although the Internet has become of extreme significance nowadays, there are both advantages and disadvantages of using it.

Communication and Its Forms Before examining the Internet and its role, it is necessary to be aware of the notion of communication and its various types. There are numerous definitions of communication. The central idea of all of them is that communication is a process of sharing thoughts. Thill and Bovee (2013, p. 3) define communication as ‘the process of transferring information and meaning between senders and receivers, using one of more written, oral, visual, or electronic media’.

The nature of communication is complicated as far as it can be presented in various forms and dimensions. According to the most general division, the communication can be of two types: verbal and nonverbal. Verbal communication presupposes the usage of words. Thus, when people communicate with the help of words (either orally or in writing), they are engaged in the verbal communication.

The distinctive feature of spoken communication is that people use different gestures, postures, movements, and facial expressions. All these signs are referred to as nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication is not formally accepted though it exists. However, one should always bear in mind that meanings of nonverbal signs may differ among cultures and countries (Sarvaiya 2013).

The sub-types of verbal communication are oral and written. The oral communication is spontaneous, personal, and flexible. Written communication is usually influenced by particular rules of writing and is rather formal.

Depending on the number of participants, the communication may be intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, and massive. An intrapersonal communication occurs when one thinks. All people practice internal communication. It assists in the better understanding of the world. An interpersonal communication is realized in the form of dialogues between two people. Group communication occurs between members of the particular unity.

The group is a company of individuals who are united by the common goal. There are small (from three to seven participants) and large (seven and more) groups (Sarvaiya 2013). The mass communication is the last form. This type is conducted via television, radio, or any other mass media channels.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Internet Communication and Its Forms Internet communication is more often called online communication. The aim of the Internet communication is the same — to transmit information between senders and receivers but with the help of computers or any other devices that have access to the Internet. The classification of the forms of online communication can be rather a challenging task due to its constant development and improvement. The Internet communication is divided into several types.

The first type is “one-to-one” messaging. It is the most popular method of communication. It presupposes sending “e-mails” or messages via other platforms or social media. The primary thing about one-to-one messaging is that it is the way of online intercourse between individuals. The second type is “one-to-many messaging”. This type means the automatic sending of messages to many recipients at the same time.

For instance, a person may visit some website, like it, and subscribe to it. All people who subscribe to the particular content will receive automatic e-mails about the news. “Distributed message databases” comprise the third type of communication via the Internet. In this case, people participate in group discussions. Thus, one person leaves a message, and others can write responses. All messages are visible to everybody.

Many forums may serve as examples of distributed message databases. The next type of online communication is known as “real-time communication”. It should not be confused with the first type where users read messages later. In a real-time communication, one can answer immediately. This form is possible in all social media as well as in many chat rooms or specially designed services (Methods to Communicate Over Internet n.d.).

Barret suggests another classification of the Internet communication tools. He differentiates traditional services, World Wide Web, video and phone calls, streaming video, and video games. Barret combines e-mailing, chat rooms, and forums into the group of traditional services. World Wide Web provides opportunities for every user to find required information. It is a service that works on the basis of the Hyper Transfer Protocol or HTTP. The user has to request particular information and the web server answers to that request.

Modern online communication is not limited by messaging. Video and phone calls are possible nowadays. One has to have the gadget that supports such function and the access to the Internet. Skype is one of the most popular platforms for video and phone calls. Barett suggests that streaming video is one more option for communication when one can download film or music. Finally, video games are the last type. Many gamers can play games and communicate with other players simultaneously (Barett n.d.).

Communication before the Invention of the Internet Human communication was realized in a variety of forms before the invention of the Internet. People used different media to transmit information. Drums were one of the first methods for sharing information. They were the primary way of communication in Africa in pre-historic times. The sound produced by drums could be heard from the distance of one hundred miles. In 2000 BC, Egyptian pharaohs established the other method of sharing information.

We will write a custom Essay on How Does the Internet Aid Communication? specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More They developed the courier service to deliver written messages. The first prototype of the modern postal system was first used in Ancient Persia in the 5th century BC. It happened when the Athenian messenger run to ask for help from Sparta when Persians invaded Marathon (O’Neil 2013). Smoke signals represent an easy and efficient way of the visual communication. They were first used on the Great Wall of China.

Pigeon post is regarded as the first most efficient system of communication. This type of message delivering was developed in the 12th century by Sultan Nur-ed-din. He built dovecotes in Damascus and Cairo, and pigeons carried messages over long distances.

Besides, pigeon post played a crucial role in World War I and World War II. Telegraph was the first technologically aided method to transmit information. It was invented by Samuel Morse in 1844 and gave rise to the further development of the modern ways of communication such as telephones or faxes (From Smoke Signals to Smartphones 2014).

The Development of the Internet The invention of the Internet is usually associated with the name Leonard Kleinrock. He was the first to write about ARPANET, the network that is considered to be the beginning of the Internet, in 1961. ARPANET is the abbreviation for the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network that was initially used by the U.S. Defense Department.

Leonard Kleinrock sent the message via ARPANET in 1969. Since that time, many communication protocols appeared, and they were used for transmission of messages. The term “Internet” was introduced in 1973. Telenet was the first Internet Service Provider that used ARPANET for commercial purposes. The standard protocol for the Internet (IP) was introduced in 1982. A year later, the Domain Name System developed the modern version of website names such,.com,.gov, and others.

In the 90th, the era of rapid development continued and became close to the modern version of the Internet. Thus, Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, worked on the HTML (HyperText Markup Language). A few years later, Microsoft and Apple Corporations started to work on the browsers for the access to the Internet (Zimmerman 2012).

A crucial point in the development of the Internet happened in 1998. The Google introduced the search engine system that changed the human communication. In 2004, Facebook was launched. This event is another milestone in the Internet communication as far as it gave rise to the social networking. In six years, the number of Facebook users increased to four hundred million. Since 2010, social media became essential for the human communication.

The Role of the Internet The Internet has changed not only the nature of communication. It modified a variety of other aspects of everyday life including:

Not sure if you can write a paper on How Does the Internet Aid Communication? by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Education is much more accessible nowadays than whenever before. People have opportunities to receive degrees online regardless of their location. Although the online education is still developing, it brings a substantial hope to the sphere of education;

Research. Millions of people use Google or other online sources to find answers to everyday questions. The World Wide Web has become a massive storage of helpful pieces of advice for every day;

Business. The Internet gave rise to the development of the electronic commerce. Nowadays, e-commerce is an essential part of the successful business. Also, the job search became much easier. An employee can send resumes via e-mails from one place without wasting too much energy;

Travelling and shopping. There is no need to go the travel agency anymore as far as one can reserve tickets to any place online. The same is with shopping. Online stores made it possible to buy everything without living home;

Entertainment. The Internet provides numerous opportunities for having fun in the virtual reality. Thus, one can play games, watch movies, or listen to music using the same computer or gadget;

Healthcare. Currently, an individual can use a variety of online applications that can calculate ideal weight, suggest necessary treatment or well-balanced diet (Mehta 2014).

Online Communication and Politics The topic concerning the way the Internet communication influences democratization and public engagement is one of the most discussed nowadays. Some scholars argue that the Internet has made communication more democratic and allowed people to be more open in their judgments.

One of the reasons to speak about online democratization refers to the increasing number of online protests or arranging of real protest with the help of online communication. The Internet gave people the possibility to collaborate and coordinate whenever there is a necessity.

Online communities, blogs, forums, websites — all of them can be used to demonstrate the particular attitude towards some issues. Tsatsou (2014, p. 88) writes that ‘the Internet can contribute to enhance the autonomy of citizens to organize and mobilize around issues that are not properly processed in the institutional systems’. The term “digital democracy” is used to define the notion of online democratic communication.

However, the increasing engagement in online affairs makes people distracted from the real-life citizenship and social life. In this respect, the Internet is believed to impede communication in real-life settings and, in its turn, decrease the role of democracy.

The other fact that undermines the notion of digital democracy refers to the ethical issue of privacy. Service providers can define who is hiding beyond the anonymous blog. Even more, personal data of users are now actively used for the variety of purposes. Consequently, people claim that their rights to privacy are violated.

The Influence of the Internet on Personal Communication: Advantages and Disadvantages Probably, the most significant impact of the Internet refers to the personal communication. Virtual communication is a subject of numerous discussions nowadays. There are both advantages and disadvantages when speaking about the role of the Internet in human intercourse.

Matusitz (2007, p. 23) writes that ‘a virtual community can be considered as a “real” gathering of people where they communicate, like in a physical environment, create webs of personal relationships, and strengthen weak ties over time, even if everything occurs in cyberspace’. Thus, the Internet makes communication accessible for all people regardless of their location. The second advantage of the online communication is that people can improve psychological well-being.

Virtual reality allows everyone to find individuals who share the same point of view on politics or like the same music. The Internet erases barriers and loneliness. One can communicate with everyone who has the same values or preferences. Finally, people feel free when they express their opinions via the Internet. It is possible to write a response anonymously. It gives the possibility to express such thoughts that could be regarded as unacceptable in the society. Thus, the Internet provides individuals with the feeling of digital freedom.

Nevertheless, there are adverse sides of online communication as well. Some scientists believe that the online communication is nothing but the illusion (Matusitz 2007). Virtual communities can never replace real as far as they lack such features of the human intercourse as touches, facial expressions, gestures, smells, and other non-verbal signs. One more disadvantage of the online communication refers to the fact that there is no moral obligation.

Thus, it is easy to deceive people about one’s beliefs, interests, or even gender. People who have bad social skills or are lonely often start to communicate via the Internet. However, Kim, LaRose, and Peng have demonstrated that such an escape from reality impedes the situation and deepens the feeling of loneliness and psychological dissatisfaction (Kim, LaRose,


Porter’s Model: LinkedIn Case Study online essay help: online essay help

Table of Contents Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

Success Determiners of LinkedIn



Porter’s five forces is a marketing analytical tool, which helps determine a current position of the company on the market (Harvard Business School Press, 2006).

Moreover, any company should consider the world from the systematic perspective, as there is a vehement interdependence between all contributors (Meadows, 2008). A primary goal of this case study is to analyze LinkedIn’s position on the market by using Porter’s model. Furthermore, two fundamental aspects, which determine company’s success, are analyzed. In the end, the conclusions are drawn.

Porter’s Five Forces Analysis Firstly, Porter’s five forces analysis is conducted. It could be said that the bargaining power of suppliers is low, as there is a significant number of possibilities to switch to in instance of necessity. Nonetheless, LinkedIn has a tendency to purchase its suppliers such as Lynda to ensure its positions on the market and broaden its area of operations (Morgan, 2015).

As for the bargaining power of customers, it remains insignificant to moderate as the individual users, organizations, and companies represent the customers. The primary income is collected from the businesses. In this case, it is apparent that LinkedIn provides unique services and can control the prices effectively.

A threat of substitute products is moderate, as LinkedIn plays the role of the job provider, and many companies with the similar services are present on the market. One of the job search engines examples is Simply Hired Inc., which allows users to view the tendencies of the labor market (Gage, 2010). In turn, a threat of new entrants is moderate, as it is apparent that the exit barriers remain insignificant, and companies such as Facebook and Twitter can quickly add job search engines to their interface.

Finally, the competitive rivalry is moderate. Despite having the moderate entrance barriers and increasing competition in this sector, LinkedIn remains the leader in this field, as it can combine a job search engine and social network. Nonetheless, other companies have a tendency to develop rapidly, and it might lead to the loss of its current position. In this case, LinkedIn has to ensure that the interface and features of the project remain unique.

Success Determiners of LinkedIn One of the determiners of LinkedIn success is its ability to combine job search engine and social network. In this case, the most important factor, which will determine LinkedIn future, is the threat of new substitutes. It is evident that LinkedIn has to able to combine and develop these features, as the inability to notice that innovation trends might lead to the dominating positions of the substitute products and strategic failure in future.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Another factor is the necessity to expand the services and activities, which are presented via the interface, to remain competitive on the market. It is apparent that taking uncertainties into planning is an essentiality (Wilson


Delta Airlines Research Paper a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Recruitment, selection, and orientation

Performance management

Staff development

Remuneration and rewards

Areas that require improvement


Delta Airlines, Inc. is one of the fastest growing global airlines. Recent data indicates that the airline is a prolific profit earner (Jones, 2013). It employs over 80,000 workers worldwide and has a turnover of about $ 277.6 billion. The company has many classy and luxury aircrafts.

Every year, Delta Airlines expands and gains international acceptance. The company’s operation and management plans have attracted millions of clients making it the top the largest carrier of passengers with approximately 348 destinations worldwide (Jones, 2013). Delta Air Lines has won several excellence awards. Its workforce is diverse as its employees come from different countries across the six continents it operates.

The success of the company is attributed to the hiring of diverse and experienced workers. Besides, the company has greatly motivated its employees through better remunerations.

The Company has gone an extra mile in promoting the employee’s skills and expertise. The above is achieved through training seminars and allowing workers to further their education. Another factor is the conducive and fascinating working environment offered by the company. The article below focuses on the human resource management programs of the airline.

Recruitment, selection, and orientation The company has put in place appropriate sourcing policies that attract a diverse variety of high-performing candidates (Jones, 2013). The approach has made the company to be a competitive employer internationally. The company has also implemented a transparent hiring procedure, which guarantees objective selection using pertinent criteria.

Through this, the company has been able to attract competitive and competent candidates (Volberda, 2012). Delta Airline’s orientation processes guarantee that new employees are informed about the company’s values, objectives, key policies, and measures.

Performance management The company has installed a cyclical performance management system (Jones, 2013). The platform enables the firm to assess and rearrange performance targets between employees and supervisors. The system also aligns performance assessment principles with approved research success factors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The airline’s management understands that extreme regulations or rules imposed with poor verdict are counterproductive. As such, the company’s vision, mission, and strategic objectives are some of the boundaries guiding the company’s employees.

Staff development In Delta Air Lines, employee development is connected with performance management procedures (Jones, 2013). The company also conducts regular training and seminars. Similarly, employees are given scholarships to encourage them to further their education.

In Delta Air Lines, training is conducted to inform the employees about the company’s goals and objectives, changes in airline standards, and ways of surpassing customer expectations. Training helps the company to move forward and aim at their objectives. It also encourages employees to increase their productivity, reduce their turnover, decrease the need for supervision, improve safety measures, and increase their capabilities to use new technologies.

Remuneration and rewards The airline acknowledges that recruitment and hiring of new employees contribute to the increase in operating costs (Jones, 2013). Therefore, the company has adopted a competitive reward scheme to reduce the employee turnover. Because the firm is among the top airlines in the world, the company’s reward system is competitive in the airline industry.

As such, the airline’s reward scheme indicates the individuals to be awarded and the reason behind the rewards. The practice has enhanced individual performance and firm’s outcomes. The reward scheme balances with the organization’s culture.

Areas that require improvement Following the current economic situations in the aftermath of 2008-2009 recessions and increase threat from terrorism, the airline industry acknowledges that undue and poorly controlled risk could result in financial damages (Siegel, 2015). In this respect, the airline should come up with a custom-made risked management system.

The program should comprise of risk documentation, risk evaluation, risk monitoring, and risk control. Comprehensive risk management plans will enable the airline company to take risks knowledgeably, decrease risks where suitable, and endeavor to plan.

We will write a custom Research Paper on Delta Airlines specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Jones, G. (2013). Delta Air Lines. Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia Pub.

Siegel, D. (2015). Special Issue of Strategic Organization. Strategic Organization Journal, 13(2), 163-165.

Volberda, H. (2012). Strategic Flexibility Creating Dynamic Competitive Advantages. Oxford Handbooks Online, 14(3), 23-34.


Importance of Consumer Research in Business Case Study college essay help: college essay help

Introduction Consumer research is an aspect of market research that focuses on the consumers’ inclinations, motivations, and purchasing behaviors through various methods (Czitrom and Spagon 17). Effective consumer research requires data collection through various methods, such as, sample observation, online surveys, direct interviews, phone interactions, and secondary data (for instance, demographic statistics).

The importance of consumer research in marketing cannot be overemphasized because it provides business managers apposite information for brand development and distribution strategies. Although marketers and managers are aware of this importance, their inability to perform consumer research makes it difficult for them to identify customers’ preferences (Montgomery 33).

Consumer research is important to business developers because it helps them identify an appropriate target market. A product that is released into the market without detailed consumer research is likely to fail. With consumer research, businesses can develop and release products that target the right customers and respond to the factors that influence peoples’ purchasing decision (Birkes 81).

Pricing is a common variable that influences consumers’ decisions. Thus, consumer research projects identify and respond to people’s income (Chatfield 43). The current paper is an analysis of consumer characteristics that tend to be used to predict the amount charged by credit card users.

Methodology As earlier stated, the aim of this research investigated how consumer characteristics influenced the amount charged on their credit cards. Three variables, namely, annual income, household size, and annual credit card charges were collected from a sample of 50 consumers.

The influences of annual income and household size on annual credit card charges were analyzed respectively, and the better predictor was identified. An estimated regression equation was developed using annual income and household size as the independent variables and credit card charges as the dependent variables.

Statistic Techniques Descriptive statistics and regression equations were used to analyze the data generated from the above methodology. The descriptive statistics and regression equations summarized the data while the regression equations tested the relationship between the three variables.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although regression equations can expose the inferential relationship between the variables, they do not provide established theories since other factors may affect data trends (Draper 92). Therefore, model diagnostics and goodness of fit tests were used to determine the validity of the findings and the generalizability of the research analysis.

Data Analysis using SPSS Results

Descriptive Statistics using SPSS

Descriptive statistics are a group of illustrational numbers that provide summary to a dataset and represent part, or all, of the participants. Table 1 comprises the descriptive statistics of the dataset.

Table 1: Descriptive Statistics Income ($1000s) Household Size Amount Charged ($) N Valid 50 50 50 Missing 0 0 0 Mean 43.48 3.42 3964.06 Median 42.00 3.00 4090.00 Mode 30a 2 3890 Sum 2174 171 198203 a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown The descriptive statistics in Table 1 comprise the mean, median, mode, and sum of the values in the dataset. The mean represents the average of the scores for a specific variable (Fox 55). Table 1 shows that the mean values for income, household size, and amount charged are $43.48, 3.42, and $3964.06 respectively.

The median is the central value, while the mode represents the most recurring value. The mode values show that most participants have an income of $30000 annually and a family size of two members. Figure 1, 2 and 3 are charts illustrating the frequencies of the each variable.

Estimated Regression Equations

Estimated regression equations are derived from linear regression analysis and are used to test the relationship between variables and predict the values of unknown variables. Two estimated regression equations were developed. The first estimation regression equation, which used annual income as the independent variable and household size as the dependent variable yielded the following results.

Table 2: Variables Entered/Removed Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method 1 Income ($1000s)b . Enter a. Dependent Variable: Amount Charged ($) b. All requested variables entered. Table 2 shows the variables entered/removed and shows that no variable was dropped by SPSS.

Table 3: Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .631a .398 .386 731.713 a. Predictors: (Constant), Income ($1000s) Table 4 summarizes the analysis of variance.

We will write a custom Case Study on Importance of Consumer Research in Business specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Table 4: Enova Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 16999744.786 1 16999744.786 31.751 .000b Residual 25699404.034 48 535404.251 Total 42699148.820 49 a. Dependent Variable: Amount Charged ($) b. Predictors: (Constant), Income ($1000s) Table 4 shows the results for the analysis of variance, which tests the significance of the factors. Since the sig. value is less than 0.01, the relation between the variables is statistically significant up to 1%.

Table 5: Coefficients Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 2204.000 329.049 6.698 .000 Income ($1000s) 40.480 7.184 .631 5.635 .000 a. Dependent Variable: Amount Charged ($) The coefficient estimates shown in Table 5 are analyzed from the ANOVA table. The coefficient of income shows that every increase in income by $1 causes the amount charged to increase by $40.480

The second estimated regression equation, which used annual income and household size as the independent variable and dependent variables respectively, yielded the following results.

Table 6: Variables Entered/Removed Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method 1 Household Size . Enter a. Dependent Variable: Amount Charged ($) b. All requested variables entered. Table 6 shows that no variable was dropped by SPSS.

Table 7: Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .753a .567 .558 620.793 a. Predictors: (Constant), Household Size Table 8 is the analysis of variance and shows that the relationship between the variables is significant up to 1%.

Table 8: Enova Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 24200717.481 1 24200717.481 62.796 .000b Residual 18498431.339 48 385383.986 Total 42699148.820 49 a. Dependent Variable: Amount Charged ($) b. Predictors: (Constant), Household Size Table 9 provides the unstandardized coefficients of relation between the variables.

Table 9: Coefficients Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 2581.941 195.263 13.223 .000 Household Size 404.128 50.998 .753 7.924 .000 a. Dependent Variable: Amount Charged ($) The values of B indicate that every increase in household members by 1 person causes the amount charged to increase by $404.128.

Estimated Equations for Annual Income and Household Size as Independent Variables

The results of the statistical analysis in the previous section are sufficient to develop an equation for estimating the increase in amount charged for every increase in income and household membership. However, a regression analysis that combines the tow independent variables will produce varying prediction coefficients. The following tables are the results derived by performing a linear regression in SPSS using the two independent variables.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Importance of Consumer Research in Business by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Table 10: Variables Entered/Removed

Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method 1 Income ($1000s), Household Size . Enter a. Dependent Variable: Amount Charged ($) b. All requested variables entered. Table 11: Model Summary

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .909a .826 .818 398.091 a. Predictors: (Constant), Income ($1000s), Household Size Table 12: ANOVA

Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 35250755.672 2 17625377.836 111.218 .000b Residual 7448393.148 47 158476.450 Total 42699148.820 49 a. Dependent Variable: Amount Charged ($) b. Predictors: (Constant), Income ($1000s), Household Size Table 13: Coefficients

Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 1304.905 197.655 6.602 .000 Household Size 356.296 33.201 .664 10.732 .000 Income ($1000s) 33.133 3.968 .516 8.350 .000 a. Dependent Variable: Amount Charged ($) The values of B for “household size” and “income” are 356.396 and 33.133 respectively. Therefore, every increase in household members by 1 person causes the amount charged to increase by $356.296 and every $1000 increase in income causes the amount charged on the credit card to increase by $33.133. The following equations are developed from the results of the linear regression analysis:

Predicted Credit-Card Charge for four-person household with an annual income of 45,000Euros

The twelfth participant in the dataset has an income of 48000 Euros and a household of four people. If the person were to earn 45000 Euro, then the person’s credit card charge will reduce by (356.296*3) Euros. The following are the values for the twelfth participant in the dataset.

Income = 48000

Household = 4

Amount Charged = 4,219

Therefore the amount charged for an income of 45000 Euros = 4,219 – (356.296*3) = 4,219 – 1068.888 = 3150 Euros.

Other Possible Independent Variables

Income and household size are not the only variables that influence annual amount charged on credit cards. Spending habits and location may contribute to the credit card charges incurred by members of the population. The amount charged in credit cards is related to people’s locations and their spending habits because a charge is applied each time the card is used. Due to their shopping habits, people living in urbanized areas may be charged higher than those in sub-urban areas.

Conclusion Due to the importance of consumer research for productivity, business organizations employ diverse methods to identify and analyze market data. Consumer research is a necessity for small and big businesses because it helps them effectively position their products in competitive markets.

The aim of the paper was to analyze consumer characteristics that predict the annual amount charged by credit card companies. Descriptive and regression analysis of the provided dataset showed that income and household size significantly influence the annual amount charged on credit cards.

Recommendation The results of the linear regression are applicable for estimating the annual charges on credit cards when “income” and household size is known. Although the findings of the research are conclusive and indicate the influence of income and household size on the annual charges incurred on credit cards, important variables were not considered during the study. It is recommended that future studies investigate the influence of other variables on the annual charges incurred on credit cards.

Works Cited Birkes, David. Alternative Methods of Regression. NY: John Wiley


Drones for Newsgathering essay help: essay help

One of the most notable aspects of post-industrial modernity is that, as of today, the pace of the ongoing technological progress attained a clearly defined exponential momentum, which in turn challenges the validity of people’s conventional outlooks on what the notions of ‘privacy’ and ‘journalism’ stand for.

The soundness of this suggestion can be illustrated, in regards to the fact that it now became possible for private citizens to be in the position to take aerial shots/videos of the important events in the making (newsgathering), as well as to spy on others (surveillance).

The development in question has been brought about by the recent breakthroughs in the field of avionics technology, which dramatically increased the affordability of the so-called ‘unmanned aerial vehicles’ (UAVs), or as they are informally referred to – drones. The term in question applies to the autonomously flown aircraft, as well as to those that fly in the remotely controlled mode.

However, the newly emerged newsgathering/surveillance opportunities, in this respect, appear to stir much of a public controversy – the direct consequence of the fact that the practice of drone-based newsgathering can be defined; as such that violates the provisions of the U.S. Constitution’s Fourth Amendment.

As Schlag (2013) aptly pointed out, “Under the Fourth Amendment, Americans are guaranteed a certain degree of privacy through the right ‘to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effect against unreasonable searches and seizures’” (p. 12).

At the same time, forbidding citizens to use drones, as the mean of gathering and publicizing information of a social significance, would clearly transgress the Constitution’s First Amendment, concerned with protecting freedom of speech, as the fundamental principle of how American society functions.

Therefore, it does not come as a particular surprise that during the course of recent years, there have been published a number of analytical articles that discuss the pros and cons of legitimizing the concerned practice from a variety of different perspectives.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Among the main advantages of using drones to gather information is being usually mentioned the sheer cost-effectiveness of the practice in question. According to Holton, Lawson and Love (2015), “Even the most effective UAVs available for journalistic purposes cost less than $1000 and can be operated at a fraction of the cost of their heavier and less reliable helicopter counterparts” (p. 638).

The advocates of drone-based newsgathering also point out to the fact that drones allow the types of live news-coverage that used to be considered impossible earlier (such as providing people with the aerial glimpse of a natural disaster in making, for example).

After all, due to being unmanned, drones can be flown even under the circumstances that most pilots would have found intolerable, “Drones… allow journalists access to places that are dangerous or unreachable, and they provide an aerial view that captures images in ways that photographs taken from the ground cannot” (McIntyre, 2015, p. 160).

Finally, there is a good rationale in believing that drones can help the law enforcement agencies to tackle the task of ensuring public safety. As Clarke (2014) noted: “Drones (provide)… relatively very safe and quick reconnaissance at emergency scenes, resulting in effective and relatively safe tactical responses” (p. 240).

Nevertheless, there are also those who believe that the concerned type of newsgathering/surveillance is socially counter-beneficial, because there are some rather substantial cons to it, as well. Alongside with the earlier mentioned fact that drones can be used to violate one’s privacy, it is commonly alleged that the practice of flying drones (some of them weight up to 150 kg.) over the densely populated areas, represents an acute threat not only to the citizens’ right to confidentiality, but also to their very lives.

Moreover, it is often suggested that the drone-based paradigm of newsgathering undermines the integrity of American society from within, because it establishes the objective preconditions for Americans to continue growing ever more intellectually marginalized. After all, it does not represent any secret that it is specifically the tabloid-type of journalists (paparazzi), who seem to be much more excited about the drone-enabled newsgathering opportunities, as compared to what it is the case with the mainstream journalists.

In fact, because of these newly emerged opportunities, some people claim that it is only the matter of time before journalism transforms into ‘voyeurnalism’, defined as a “corrupted journalism… in which information regarding events and issues is gathered and presented that is not ‘in the public interest’, but rather is ‘what the public is interested in’” (Clarke, 2014, p. 240).

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Functions of Human Resources Management Report college essay help near me

Human resources management is a very important function within an organisation that involves the management and recruitment of employees in an organisation. It also encompasses the provision of direction for employees. It is imperative that the human resources manager understands these functions to retain the organisations workers besides ensuring that they perform well. As organisations become global with regard to their operation, the management of people continues to become more complex.

This essay looks at several functions of human resources management based on interviews conducted on two human resource managers from a motor vehicle service company and retailer market store. The main objective of this essay is to understand the leadership requirements in organisations by looking at the way the managers spend their time in the handling of human resources.

The first person interviewed was a line manager from both the Toyota Company. The second interviewee was a line distribution manager in a retail market store. The two managers have been employed in the companies for over one year now. Both of them are responsible for 15 and 22 employees respectively in their departments.

The departments are involved in the production and distribution of commodities and services offered by the companies. To find out the importance of the human resource in the company, a questionnaire was prepared. The questions covered the importance of communication and human resources as a whole in the company.

First of all, it was important to know what the two managers found to be most challenging about human resources management. The two managers agreed that the most challenging part in the department was maintaining proper communication among the employees. It was realised that most employees usually had difficulties in interpreting orders issued from the top management. For this reason, many issues arose in the organisations.

This situation was seen to lower the performance at both individual and organisational levels. At times, it brought about various problems associated with customer delivery. The interview also revealed that the human resource managers always tried other innovative ways of communicating to their employees. However, in this regard, managers have improvised new ways such as emailing, internal memos, and reminder notice boards to encourage the employees perform as per the organisation’s expectations.

When asked to describe human resource in their companies, the two managers responded that technology was also one of the most challenging areas in communication. Some employees were not computer literate. This situation made it difficult for the human resources department to perform their work.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More It was also revealed that communication was the most vital part of the human resources management (Bennis and Thomas 134). In cases where there is a clear line of communication, managing employees became easier. In this regard, both companies had embraced new technologies as a way of improving communication.

With this state of events in put in place, the managers were also asked what distinguishes a successful human resources department. First of all, there must be a clear link between the systems in the company. The company must also have a clear vision and mission statements that ensure that all efforts in the company drive towards a common goal. All aspects of the business should be set up besides giving the employees an orientation immediately after recruitment.

Communication was also an important aspect of successful human resources management. The two managers agreed that a company must have a clear line of communication from the top to the bottom level of management. There should also be clear structures for employee motivation at all times. Workers should be rewarded for good work. Besides, methods of discipline should also be outlined. There should be room for promotion among other incentives that make employees feel appreciated (Kelly 94).

This state of events means that successful managers are those who allow people to work individually while at the same time appreciating their contributions towards the success of the company. According to Kelly, a successful manager should enable employees to utilize and develop their skills (102).

At the same time, the manager should observe the welfare of the employees to ensure low turnover rates. Communication channels were also mentioned as important areas for a successful manager. According to Bennis and Thomas, clear communication channels make the work of the human resources manager easier as employees adhere to similar regulations (134). Media such as loud speakers, internal networks, and extension lines for calling should be put in place to facilitate communication amongst the employees.

As leaders, the two managers agreed that employee motivation was an important aspect in human resources management. However, both parties held that operative enthusiasm varied from one human resource manager to the other. It is important that a human resources manager recognizes the effort of each employee with a view of rewarding them accordingly. Ways of motivating the employees included providing them with day offs, annual leaves, performance based incentives, scholarships, promotions, and salary increment among others. Lastly, the careers of the human resource managers depend on how well they treat the company’s personnel because their productivity depends on how they handle them.

Works Cited Bennis, Warren and Robert Thomas. Leading for a Lifetime: How Defining Moments Shape Leaders of Today and Tomorrow. London: Harvard Business Review Press, 2006. Print.

We will write a custom Report on Functions of Human Resources Management specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Kelly, Eamonn. Werful Times: Rising to the Challenge of Our Uncertain World. New York, NY: Wharton School Publishing, 2006. Print.


Charles Chocolates Report writing essay help: writing essay help

The case study indicates that Charles Chocolates is “a leading marketer of hand-wrapped chocolates, truffles, almond bark, brittles, caramels, nut-corn, and chocolate-covered ginger” (Zietsma, 2014, p. 2). The company was founded in 1885 thus becoming the oldest chocolate manufacturer in New England. Steve Parkland is considering various strategies in order to triple the company’s size within the next 10 years. However, the company should overcome various internal and external issues in order to emerge successful.

How Charles Chocolates can Deal with Internal Pressures The internal environment determines the efforts and strategies embraced by a company in order to achieve its potential. Charles Chocolates should address various internal pressures before embarking on a journey to grow the firm. To begin with, the company is associated with poor stocking and planning practices (Zietsma, 2014).

Data distortions have been affecting the company’s productivity. A powerful inventory system will ensure every store has enough stock. Most of the sales agents are unaware of the benefits of different links. The firm should empower these agents in order to address the needs of more customers.

The company’s workers are against new ideas and innovations. Steve Parkland should present new ideas and technologies in order to improve the level of production. The company operates 11 retail stores across the country. New stores should be opened in order to increase the level of sales.

The firm should hire competent marketers and collaborate with different shopping malls (Zietsma, 2014). The number of online consumers has also been increasing steadily. Charles Chocolates should therefore have a powerful online presence in order to attract more consumers.

Internal wrangles have also been affecting the company’s success. For instance, Mary Bird has been disagreeing with Ray Wong thus affecting the company’s productivity (Zietsma, 2014). Decision-making processes are also troubled thus affecting the firm’s marketing processes.

New incentives are needed such as teamwork. The new president should encourage these individuals to work as a team. They should also focus on the best leadership approaches in order to make the company successful. New production capabilities should also be considered in order to produce superior products (Zietsma, 2014). A new growth strategy will eventually support Charles Chocolates’ goals.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Dealing with External Pressures The company should also address some of the external issues affecting its future performance. For instance, the aging baby boomers are focusing on ethics and quality. The firm can therefore deal with this pressure by embracing ethical production processes. More people “prefer organic and dark chocolates because they have heart-healthy anti-oxidant properties” (Zietsma, 2014, p. 1). The company should produce such chocolates in order to achieve its goals.

Many consumers also want their companies to become socially responsible. The “idea of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is critical because many chocolate producers were engaging in forced and child labor” (Zietsma, 2014, p. 2). The issue of climate change is forcing many companies to embrace the best operational and packaging practices. The firm should therefore devise a powerful CSR strategy in order to address these needs.

Charles Chocolates is facing competition from companies such as Nestle and Lindt. Such companies have been producing and marketing quality products. Such products are marketed at cheaper prices. Other competitors include Delice Chocolates and Cardon’s (Zietsma, 2014).

Candy companies were also attracting more customers. The companies are also using powerful marketing strategies in order to emerge successful. Charles Chocolates should therefore use powerful practices in order to deal with competition. The firm should also produce new products that can satisfy the needs of its customers.

Reference Zietsma, C. (2014). Charles Chocolates. Ivey Publishing, 1(1), 1-15.


The Application of Seven Communication Traditions Analytical Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents The Phenomenological Tradition

The Cybernetic tradition

The Sociopsychological Tradition

The Sociocultural Tradition

The Critical Tradition

The Rhetorical Tradition


The Phenomenological Tradition It is a theory that deals with personal experience. People have a way of interpreting the things around them and coming up with a formidable experience (Griffin 2009).

The attributes can develop even from the time a person is young (Adler


Business Plan: Coffee Shop Report essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary


Market feasibility

Technical Feasibility

Financial feasibility

Human resource feasibility




Executive Summary Our new coffee shop will be situated in Melbourne. The business will target only female clients. The hotel will concentrate on gaining the allegiance of customers by providing them with an unparalleled experience of coffee beverage services. The cafe will offer many crafted dishes to fulfill our clients’ banquet, lunch, and supper desires. Our menu will comprise of omelets, benedicts, toasted bread, and toasties.

Introduction The article below focuses on a coffee shop’s business plan. The café will be registered as a sole proprietorship. It will be wholly owned and operated by one entrepreneur. The cafe will be established in the city of Melbourne.

Market feasibility What is the size of the market?

In Melbourne and its neighboring cities, coffee shop industry is estimated to generate revenue worth $4.78 billion annually (David 2015). The business is large and varied. Over the last few years, the number of coffee shops and cafes has increased.

What is the growth rate of the industry?

The industry’s revenues are expected to increase by 7.3% annually for the next two years (Hunter 2015). The increase has been boosted by growing incomes and the citizens’ unceasing love for quality coffee.

Is the market at full capacity?

We are predominantly interested in a coffee café because currently there are a few businesses that offer these services. Therefore, our venture aims to fill this market gap by delivering exceptional beverage services.

Where are our customers getting the product now?

The leading coffee cafes in Melbourne include Auction Rooms, Three Bags Full, Hardware Sociate, Di Bella Roasting Warehouse, Market Lane, Proud Mary, and Sensory Lab (Purnama 2013). All these cafes offer services to both male and female clients. We expect to face competition from these shops and other medium food kiosks spread across the city of Melbourne. The other competitors are restaurants and food stalls that offer beverage services.

Where are the customers?

We will target female clients who work or study in regions around Melbourne. The city currently has a population of 4.35 million people (Johnny 2015). Half of these residents are women. In the future, the population is expected to increase to surpass that of Sydney. The main reason for positioning itself in this segment is that the business has the opportunity of incorporating new features to the existing services to cater for the changing demands and needs of our targeted customers. We will offer our services to females. Through this, we will differentiate our services from our competitors.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More To gain a competitive advantage over our competitors, we will differentiate our products and services (Agnihotri 2015). One major way of fulfilling the above is through value addition. We will focus on improving our beverages’ package to enhance their aesthetic appeal. All drinks and snacks will be packed and served in impressive food packages designed to surpass our customers’ expectations.

We will only offer services to female clients to differentiate ourselves from our rivals. In Melbourne, a few coffee shops focus on particular communities such as religious, age, sex, or political minorities. If our café focuses on specializing in satisfying only women’s community, we will attract many clients and enhance our market share. The market segment presents an opportunity for the business.

How many would purchase from you?

With increased government expenditure, vibrant tourism, transport, and trade in the region, our business will be favorable and convenient to many women. An increase in government expenditure implies that there is more money in circulation, and more people can afford to enjoy the food services at our business center (Kwek 2015). We expect to serve up to 300 clients in a day.

What external factors come to bear? Government, Industry Dynamics

An important external factor that will affect our business is government regulations. We will have to satisfy all the standards required by the local governments.

How long will this opportunity last in the market?

Our projections indicate that during our earlier years of operation, we will experience less competition because we will only focus on female clients. However, competition is expected to increase in the future because we have a window period of two years. Over time, several players will enter the market eating into our company’s customers. Because of this, our company will experience enormous pressure from the new entrants. Such risks put pressure on our business’ future success. The above imply that we must always differentiate our products and services from those offered by our competitors. If we fail to do so, our rivals will fill the gap and gain an advantage over the company.

What keeps new competition from entering this market?

A threat faced by new entrants has been the inability to adapt to the ever changing service features and standards required by the clients. Another threat that prevents new competitors in the industry is competition from established rivals.

In the first months of our operation, we plan to focus on understanding the thoughts, desires, and behaviors of our clients. Through this, we will be able to come up with the appropriate targeting and positioning techniques in future. Equally, the chance will enable the business to identify efficient and reliable marketing channels to be utilized in the future.

We will write a custom Report on Business Plan: Coffee Shop specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Technical Feasibility Options for developing the technology

Our café will be registered as a sole proprietorship. The shop will be wholly owned and operated by five entrepreneurs. The cafe will be established in the city of Melbourne. The coffee shop will serve clients throughout the week as indicated below:

Monday 11:00 am – 9:00 pm Tuesday 11:00 am – 9:00 pm Wednesday 11:00 am – 9:00 pm Thursday 11:00 am – 9:00 pm Friday 11:00 am – 10:00 pm Saturday 11:00 am – 10:00 pm Sunday 12:00 pm– 5:00 pm Options for producing the product or service

Our products and services will be generated in house. Equally, we will utilize the same approach in our sales and distribution. As such, we expect our clients to visit our establishment. There will be no outside catering services. With increased turnover for startup cafes, the owners are expected to offer their skills and labor to fill in where required until the business starts to generate profits.

Options for sales and distribution

To reach our customers, we will utilize some approaches. Advertising will be our primary marketing strategy. We will create a series of television, the internet, and technology advertisement platforms. Through this, we will subcontract these functionalities to other firms. The firms will comprise of individuals knowledgeable in product information as well as customer service. Through social media, we will encourage more potential clients to access our services. The social media will also enable us to interact with potential customers to understand their expectations

Resources required for development

With respect to our limited inexperience in the industry, we will collaborate with reputable and competent suppliers. The vendors will offer sensibly priced products. The merchandise will be delivered according to an approved time timetable. The cost of establishing the shop is $363,000. The majority of the expenses will be used in purchasing the raw materials including furniture fixtures. Raw materials to be used at the café will be sourced from experienced suppliers. They include kitchenware, food processors, utensils, dishwasher, clothing, and stainless steel tables.

The laws and regulation relating to the business

Before opening our enterprise, we will obtain accreditation from relevant business licensing regulators in Melbourne. Similarly, we will get a permit that will illustrate that our company will work towards environment conservation.

Any moral or ethical issues that you are uncomfortable with

Our research identified that ethical issues of workers being mistreated by their supervisors are prevalent in the hospitality industry. The business will formulate and implement appropriate ethical cultures to prevent such incidences. The code of ethics should articulate the accepted standards. Similarly, ethical culture will be enhanced by all levels of supervision.

Technological changes are changing or emerging that may affect the business

During our research, we noted that a significant threat faced by coffee shops and other beverage outlets is speedy technological transformations. Many clients enjoy cafes with the latest technological facilities such as Wifi access. The threat puts pressure on the company’s future success. Every year, we will be required to adopt new technologies to be ahead of our rivals. If we fail to do so, our competitors will fill the gap and gain an advantage over our company.

Financial feasibility Projected revenues from sales of our products and services

The table below illustrates the expected sales volume in units sold and in dollars sold. Our approximate selling price per unit is $ 11.37. The expected revenues are indicated below.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Business Plan: Coffee Shop by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Annual Sales Forecast Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Sales Food and Beverage Revenues $1,028,422 $1,079,843 $1,133,835 Additional Revenues $0 $81,600 $102,000 Total Sales $1,028,422 $1,161,443 $1,235,835 Controllable Costs COGS $402,113 $414,176 $426,602 Payroll $269,987 $323,057 $340,027 Total Prime Cost $672,100 $737,234 $766,628 Controllable Profit $356,322 $424,209 $469,207 Financial dynamics and opportunities

Indicated below are the cost structures illustrated based on unit basis:

Price per unit minus is $11.37

Variable costs are estimated to be $4.51 per meal

Gross margin per unit minus is 44.90

Fixed costs per unit are 48.0

Net margin per unit is 8.0%

Indicated below is the income statement used in the calculations:

Pro Forma Profit and Loss Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Income Sales $1,028,422 $1,161,443 $1,235,835 Cost of Goods Sold ($402,113) ($414,176) ($426,602) Gross Profit $626,309 $747,267 $809,234 Expenses Accounting / Legal $12,000 $12,360 $12,731 Bad Debts $25,711 $26,482 $27,276 Shrinkage $90,000 $92,700 $95,481 Credit Card Fees $20,568 $21,185 $21,821 Insurance $75,000 $77,250 $79,568 Miscellaneous $44,112 $45,435 $46,798 Payroll Taxes $0 $0 $0 Permits and Licenses $7,356 $7,577 $7,804 Rent $68,000 $70,040 $72,141 Salaries $12,341 $12,711 $13,093 Wages $269,987 $323,057 $340,027 Total Expenses $625,075 $688,798 $716,739 Net Profit $1,234 $58,469 $92,494 Is the project worthwhile financially?

Indicated below are assumptions utilized in our financial plan

Meal Price ranges from $8.00 – $15.00

Average lunch price is 8.79

Average dinner price is13.74

The restaurant is located in the Melbourne City

Gross margin 45% and net profit are 8.0%. The figures indicate that the venture is economically viable. Below is a 1-year monthly cash flow statement:

How much investment is required and how they will be used

Investment required Buildings/real estate $ – Leasehold improvements $ 50,000 One time assets and startup expenses $110,500 Location/administration expenses $ 14,800 Initial inventories $ – Advertising/promotional expenses $ 4,000 Legal expenses $ 1,200 Experts $ 10,000 Operating expenses prior break even $172,500 Total Use of Funds $363,000 Financial risk

Total fixed costs linked with the coffee shop are $669,186. They represent yearly expenses. The variable cost is $ 4.51 for each meal. The breakeven revenue will be $1,108,970. It equals to 97,535 meals. We would not get better returns elsewhere, so we better invest in the shop. I will have to give up my mortgage to finance the project. The return of investment is $1, 229,334 after three years. The above illustrations are indicated in the table below:

Net Units Net Revenue Fixed Cost Variable Cost Total Cost Total Profit Fixed Cost: $669,186.01 Variable Cost: $4.51 Number of Units: 13,934 Avg. Unit Price: $11.37 0 $0 $669,186 $0 $669,186 -$669,186 13,934 $158,424 $669,186 $62,826 $732,012 -$573,588 27,867 $316,849 $669,186 $125,653 $794,839 -$477,990 41,801 $475,273 $669,186 $188,479 $857,665 -$382,392 55,734 $633,697 $669,186 $251,306 $920,492 -$286,794 69,668 $792,122 $669,186 $314,132 $983,318 -$191,196 83,601 $950,546 $669,186 $376,958 $1,046,144 -$95,598 97,535 $1,108,970 $669,186 $439,785 $1,108,971 $0 111,468 $1,267,395 $669,186 $502,611 $1,171,797 $95,598 125,402 $1,425,819 $669,186 $565,438 $1,234,624 $191,196 139,335 $1,584,243 $669,186 $628,264 $1,297,450 $286,793 153,269 $1,742,668 $669,186 $691,090 $1,360,276 $382,391 167,202 $1,901,092 $669,186 $753,917 $1,423,103 $477,989 181,136 $2,059,517 $669,186 $816,743 $1,485,929 $573,587 195,070 $2,217,941 $669,186 $879,570 $1,548,756 $669,185 209,003 $2,376,365 $669,186 $942,396 $1,611,582 $764,783 222,937 $2,534,790 $669,186 $1,005,222 $1,674,408 $860,381 Sources of funds

The money needed will be sourced as shown in the table below. There are higher chances that we are going to get all the money required for the project. We will have to sacrifice money needed for other investments to attain our objectives.

Source and Use of Funds Sources of Funds Owners’ and other investments $174,000 Bank loans $189,000 Other loans $ – Total Source of Funds $363,000 Human resource feasibility What technical and management experience is required?

The business will hire 20 employees. They will comprise of two managers and subordinate staff. The managers will be needed to have more than three years of experience in a similar environment.

The technical team should have at least one year of experience. Together, the management team will select every applicant. We have implemented an up-to-date interview procedure. The process will staff the coffee café with highly experienced persons for every position. Every candidate will be evaluated and ranked based on a pre-defined set of values intended for each vacancy. Hiring efforts will focus on recommendations.

Who are the owners and what are their roles?

The restaurant’s management team will comprise of the owner, the manager, and technical expert. The owner has a restaurant career. He has served for over 20 years in the foodservice industry. He will be the general manager of the business. The manager will oversee smooth operation of the facility.

As such, the hotel manager will manage the overall undertakings like hiring and making financial arrangements. The manager will report to the owner of the shop. A technical expert will direct every functional group. As such, the technical expert will ensure that all installations in the shop are up and working. The supervisor reports to the general manager.

What is the ownership structure?

The organizational fabric of the shop will represent a corporate divisional order. The divisional order will be predominant service sections of the cafe. They include housekeeping segment, food and beverage section, concierge block, and front desk management. For instance, the prominent sectors of the enterprise will be separated into semi-autonomous bodies. The smaller sections will be apportioned to a particular field of service.

Every semi-autonomous will have a group head. As such, the group leader will be selected as the managing officer of that particular segment. At the top of the hierarchy will be the hotel manager. The present-day economic conditions in the beverage industry are characterized by increased competition.

In this regard, the coffee shop will adopt the above organizational structure to save on the cost of operation. The organizational structure has many advantages. Through this structure, every section functions effectively for the reason that they are centered on certain precise task. By doing so, the shop will be able to enhance the output of every section.

What are the labor requirements?

Attracting, inspiring, and retaining a skilled workforce is significant and often challenging for today’s businesses (Hazelton 2014). Appropriate staffing measures will aid our coffee shop intensify the satisfaction of its workers, reduce recruiting costs and increase the hotel’s productivity.

In this regard, the business has put in place appropriate sourcing policies that attract a diverse variety of high-performing candidates. We have also implemented a transparent hiring procedure, which guarantees objective selection using pertinent criteria. Through this, the company will attract competitive and competent candidates. Our orientation processes guarantee that new employees are informed about the business’ values, objectives, key policies, and measures.

The shop will offer a positive working environment for its staff. Through this, the business will be able to attract and retain qualified workers. A positive work environment enables the employees to undertake their roles without challenges. Thus, the productivity of the cafe will increase.

Similarly, the business should identify, compensate, and support the right behavior to attract and retain a competent workforce. Through this, the worker’s morale will be boosted. By involving and engaging the employees, the shop will be able to motivate its workforce. As such, individuals are more dedicated and involved if they are allowed to add their thoughts and proposals towards the improvement of the business.

Equally, the firm will adopt fun in the workplace to motivate the employees. The initiative will enable the employees develop a positive staff culture, boost their morale and motivation, and enhance employer and employee relationship. Likewise, the approach will improve teamwork, increase employee satisfaction, help attract and retain the best people, and improve customer satisfaction. The initiative will also enhance creativity and problem solving, resolve conflict and difficult issues, and augment productivity and performance.

Likewise, the hotel manager will come up with policies that encourage relationship among the employees. Through building relationship among the employees, the managers will enable the employees to understand and appreciate each other’s social, religious, or racial background (Stafford 2013). They will be achieved by offering the employees with regular seminars, workshops, and other social events. Through this, they will get to know one another better enhancing mutual respect.

The managers acknowledge that recruitment and hiring of new employees contribute to the increase in operating costs. Therefore, the business has adopted a competitive reward scheme to reduce the employee turnover. Because the firm is aiming to be among the top coffee shop in Melbourne, its reward system is expected to be competitive.

As such, the reward scheme will indicate the individuals to be awarded and the reason behind the rewards. The practice will enhance individual performance and firm’s outcomes. The reward system will balance with the organization’s culture.

To enhance and maintain quality, the cafe’s executives will implement performance measurement strategies (Carlson 2013). The shop will adopt quality and time performance measures. Quality performance test will assess the value of the services rendered by the employees. Equally, time performance will determine the period it takes the employees to perform their services.

The hotel will undertake the above assessment regularly to enhance the efficiency of the performance measures. Changes in performance measures and requirements related to increasing the competency-base of workers to meet global requirements will also be monitored. Therefore, the cafe will implement a culture of accountability.

Similarly, they will focus on results. When goals and visions are brought into line with organizational accountability, the administration can hold employees answerable for their tasks. Equally, performance measures will encourage workers to accomplish the lounge’s goals, missions, and objectives.

What is the company’s growth strategy?

The shop’s organizational culture will change as the business grows. The appropriate succession planning measure will be instituted to recognize and develop internal staff with the possibility to fill future vacancy positions in the cafe (Catherine 2014). The process is the most efficient and appropriate way of filling organization’s vacancies.

Through this approach, the shop will reduce its recruitment costs and orientation training expenses and time. The approach will offer employees with abilities to advance their career through regular training. As a result, employees will progressively develop and advance their careers. Through career advancement, workers’ morale will be enhanced enabling them to dispense their knowledge and capabilities effectively. By improving on the workforce’s morale, the business will increase its productivity leading to an increase in returns.

Conclusion In conclusion, it should be noted that the cost of establishing the shop is $363,000. The majority of the expenses will be used in purchasing the raw materials including furniture fixtures. The business will target only female clients. As such, the coffee bar will offer many crafted dishes.

Appendixes Start-up Expenditures and Expenses Worksheet

Start-Up Expenses Amount Graphic Logo and Name Creation $1,000 Permits Lease Deposit $1,200 Contingency $10,000 Outdoor Sign $3,000 Building Improvements $50,000 Working Capital $172,500 Pre-Opening Expenses $14,800 Total Start-Up Expenses $252,500 Start-Up Assets Artwork $800 Walk In Cooler $8,000 Commercial Dishwasher with Sink in Table $7,000 Reach in Stainless Steel Freezers (2) $6,000 Stainless Steel Cold Station $3,000 20 quart food processor/blender $900 Ice Maker with Storage Bin $4,000 Stainless Steel Hood with Exhaust $11,000 3 Door Reach In Beverage Cooler w/Glass Door $3,500 Sandwich Prep Reach Ins (2) $5,600 Kitchen Small wares $1,500 Six Burner Restaurant Range (2) $3,600 Chrome Shelving Systems (6) $500 Reach In Coolers (4) $7,200 Stainless Steel Work Tables (3) $1,200 Hutch for Stainless Steel Table (2) $800 Liquid Fire Protection System $4,000 Stainless Steel 3 bowl sink $1,500 Liquid Fire Protection System $4,000 Stainless Steel 3 bowl sink $1,500 20 wood round / oval tables $20,000 86 bleached wood Café Chairs $5,000 20 track lighting $1,000 Table cloths , napkins $1,200 Art, Décor $2,000 Fireproof Safe $500 Cash register POS System $4,000 Ofc PC $1,200 Total Start-Up Assets $110,500 Total Required Start-Up Costs $363,000 SWOT analysis

References Agnihotri, A. 2015, ‘Extending boundaries of Blue Ocean Strategy’, Journal of Strategic Marketing, vol. 32, no. 8, pp.1-10.

Carlson, K. 2013, ‘Designing Business Training for Fun and Results’, Performance Improvement, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 45-46.

Catherine, F. 2014, ‘Sustainable cultures: Engaging employees in creating more sustainable workplaces and work styles’, Facilities, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 438-454.

David, B. 2015, Coffee culture in Australia. Web.

Hazelton, S. 2014, ‘Positive emotions boost employee engagement: Making work funbrings individual and organizational success’, Human Resource Management International Digest, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 34-37.

Hunter, B. 2015, Melbourne CBD, Melbourne. Web.

Johnny Y. 2015, Start a new business/Café Business. Web.

Kwek, G. 2015, Australia makes its mark on global coffee culture. Web.

Purnama, M. 2013, Melbourn Top 10 Cafes. Web.

Stafford, K. 2013, ‘Does Fun Pay? The Impact of Workplace Fun on Employee Turnover and Performance’, Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 370-382.


Project Knowledge Management Analytical Essay essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

The concept of knowledge attracts the attention of a number of researchers in different spheres. They consider the way it is created and utilized. Organizational studies are also tightly connected with knowledge. The knowledge foundation of the companies is under investigation.

Knowledge management targets at the application of “technical and organizational capabilities to improve the processes of creating, storing, retrieving, transferring, and applying knowledge and greater a greater emphasis has been placed on the management of knowledge and the development of the channels through which knowledge and information flow, they note” (Rooke et al. 2009, p. 3). The epistemology of knowledge management varies in different organizations. Our attention will be paid to the artefact-oriented one.

The structure of the project management is said to be influenced by the artefacts both paper-based and computerized. They can be found in the public access and can be easily utilized to enhance cooperation among the participants of the project (Borghoff


Chinese Tourism in Victoria Report college essay help near me

Table of Contents Executive Summary





Future Focus/Limitations


Works Cited

Executive Summary This field study is about tourism in Victoria. It focuses on the experiences, challenges and issues that require improving to enhance the visitors’ satisfaction. A qualitative research was carried out on three focus groups that included tourism agencies, Chinese immigrants and students. The researcher used interviews to collect data.

The study revealed that language barrier is the primary cause of the problems that the Chinese visitors encounter in Victoria. The main limitation was that the participants were unable to respond to the questionnaire because of the language barrier. The study recommends that tourism agencies create websites that translate English to Chinese for easy understanding.

Introduction China is the most populous nation in the world. Therefore, it is the nation with the majority immigrants in Canada. Cultural and language differences between the two countries are the primary cause of the problems that Chinese tourists experience in Victoria. The problems render the majority of Chinese tourists being less satisfied as compared with other tourists in the region. Hence, this research aims to find out the possible solutions that can enhance satisfaction of the Chinese visitors who tour Victoria on a regular basis (Poy and Cao 56).

Tourism is one of the sources of economic revenue for most economies in the contemporary world. Hence, there is a reason for states that rely on tourism to uphold cultural differences that exist among people from different ethnic backgrounds. Promoting cultural differences attract potential tourists. Because China is the most populated nation in the world and has the fastest growing middle-income population, every nation that values tourism sector should have policies that can attract Chinese tourists.

The policies should be modified to mitigate challenges that often face visitors due to cultural and language differences. Every person wishes to feel loved and valued. Thus, there is a need to address the challenges that the Chinese visitors encounter and look for permanent solutions.

Background Chinese tourists have been experiencing numerous challenges whenever they visit Canada, and in particular Victoria. The large number of Chinese immigrants in Canada attracts many tourists from China every year. Hence, Canada has the benefit of getting visitors from China compared to other countries in the world except the United States. The United States has the majority of Chinese immigrants in the world. However, there are major cultural and language differences between the two countries.

Cultural and language differences contribute to the problems that Chinese tourists encounter during their expeditions. Canada is a multicultural economy. Thus, there are no definite cultural heritages and norms. The majority of the Canadians have mixed cultural backgrounds. Indeed, the Canadians have adopted a non-cultural lifestyle where they have less or no attachment to cultural norms (Scott and Laws 98).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More On the other hand, Chinese are firmly attached to their cultural heritage. Consequently, they have difficulties in adapting a non-cultural lifestyle. Some basic norms such as greetings and recognition of age differences have an immense effect to a Chinese. Such norms have less or no impact to a Canadian. However, there is nothing that can be done to rectify that problem.

As a result, the Chinese tourists should be prepared to encounter issues that contravene their cultural norms in Canada and view them as inoffensive. Language barrier is a major concern for both the Chinese and Canadians. A few Canadians know the Chinese language. Conversely, a few Chinese understand English.

Since the two countries rely heavily on each other for tourism, efforts should be made to mitigate the language barrier as a way to enhance tourists’ satisfaction. In Shanghai, tourists who understand English encounter a few problems since directions, signs, and billboards are written in both Chinese and English languages (Conrady and Buck 93).

It would be difficult to write billboards and signs in both Chinese and English in Canada. Canada has a multi-cultural population with different native languages. Nonetheless, it is imperative to use both English and Chinese in Victoria where the majority of Chinese tourists often visit. Alternatively, a study should be conducted to establish areas where most Chinese tourists prefer visiting. Moreover, effort should be made to ensure that servers who understand the Chinese language serve the visitors.

Also, there is a need to address the social issues that contribute to tourists’ dissatisfaction. They include transport and hospitality issues. In Canada, the principal mode of public transport is the bus.

The Chinese use trains and cabs. Hence, it would be imperative to have signs on the buses that guide tourists on how the buses operate. The signs should be written in Chinese to ensure that the tourists manoeuvre without difficulties. On the other hand, hotels should have staff members that are fluent in Chinese and capable of offering hospitality services to foreign visitors.

Process/Methodology The purpose of this study is to improve the experience of Chinese tourists in Victoria. As aforementioned, the methodology for this study was designed in such a way that it would enable the researcher to get information from three focus groups. The first group comprised the travel agencies that are located in Victoria and Vancouver.

We will write a custom Report on Chinese Tourism in Victoria specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The researcher issued questionnaires to ten travel companies in Victoria and three in Vancouver. The three travel agencies that operate in Vancouver are managed by the Chinese. Consequently, they served as suitable sources of information about the Chinese tourists.

The questionnaires were structured in a manner that would help the researcher to get information about who visit Victoria, the objective of the visit, and the activities the tourists engage in when in the region. Also, information about the activities of each agency was collected to enable the researcher to understand how travel companies attract clients as well as the number of visitors that they serve. The interview also focused on client experience, common complaints, and the approach that the travel agencies use to handle the complaints.

The busy schedule hampered efforts to get Chinese tourists participate in interviews. As a result, the researcher had to choose international students and immigrants as the participants. The intention was to get information about their first experience in Canada and how it has changed over time with respect to language barrier and foreign travel policies.

The researcher found it important to include literature review in the methodology. Nevertheless, it was exigent because there were no study materials on the research problem. The researcher contacted students from Royal Roads who were pursuing a course in Tourism Management and requested for research works, which could be relevant and useful for literature review purposes.

The literature review had credible theories about challenges that the Chinese tourists face in Victoria. Hence, it formed the theoretical backbone for the study. After analysing the results, it was established that Chinese tourists encounter ethnic problems in Victoria. The problems are attributed to historical experiences.

Victoria serves as the capital of British Columbia and has strong connection to China since it was the harbour for international trade during and after the colonial period. For this reason, Chinese tourists view it as an extension of international relations.

However, the nature of the business that created strong connection between China and Victoria has significantly changed. The residents of Victoria do not consider themselves obligated to accord special hospitality to Chinese tourists. Therefore, the tourists exaggerate the problem upon seeing the locals as unwelcoming, which is not the case in the real terms.

Consequently, the researcher’s spotlight switched from exploring challenges that affect the Chinese tourists in particular to a more generalised case. The researcher opted to concentrate on the challenges that affect tourists from other cultural and ethnic backgrounds. Above all, visitors encounter similar problems even though ethnic relations are given less attention.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Chinese Tourism in Victoria by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Results According to the research, the results show that the Chinese tourists face numerous challenges in Victoria. The majority of the interviewees indicated that they were attracted to Victoria because of fascinating views. However, they said that they sought information about sightseeing before deciding to come to Victoria. The information was derived from the answers given for the first two questions in the questionnaire. The information was necessary in arriving at the conclusion.

All the tourists agreed that Victoria has beautiful sceneries for tourism. Therefore, the primary reason the Chinese tourists choose Victoria over other destinations is due to its scenic beauty. Chinese tourists consider the sightseeing data as the most critical information that one should have before visiting Victoria. Hence, they end up encountering numerous challenges such as those that arise from cultural shock, transport inconveniences, entertainment, and residence dissatisfactions.

As aforesaid, Victoria has a large number of Chinese immigrants who play a significant role in promoting tourism in Canada. They do so by inviting their families and friends for tourism expeditions in Canada. Indeed, the majority of the interviewees said that they got information about Victoria from either their family members or friends residing in Victoria. Hence, the reason for the absence of Chinese travels agencies in Victoria despite the region having a vast population of Chinese immigrants.

From the above information, it emerged that the travel agencies lack websites that can translate English to Chinese because most tourists do not bother to seek the assistance. The absence of the websites is not a scheme to ignore the visitors as it has been the assumption. From the questionnaire, it was discovered that the majority of the interviewees said that they preferred the Chinese restaurants. A few participants said that they preferred restaurants that served Western delicacies.

Those who preferred the Chinese restaurants said that they encountered problems associated with language barrier since there were no Chinese-speaking servers (Bowerman 24).

Hence, one can come up with the assumption that majority of Chinese tourists are conservative. As a result, they do not want to experience other cultural delicacies. However, the restaurants that offer Chinese foods do not have policies that enable them to hire servers who are fluent in Chinese language to enhance the quality of services they offer to tourists (Martin and Nakayama 128).

Besides lacking Chinese-speaking servers, there are no Chinese posters or signs that guide the tourists. Hence, it becomes tough for the tourists to communicate with the residents as well as understand what they should do in the course of their tourism expedition. The majority of interviewees choose buses as the convenient means of transport.

The interviewees confided that they could not hire cars because of difficulties in reading road signs and traffic rules. Worst still, the coaches lacked Chinese signs to help them understand what they should do for the driver to stop the bus whenever they need to disembark.

The study concluded that language and cultural barriers are the leading causes of dissatisfaction to the Chinese tourists in Victoria (Nyíri 98). The visitors do not take the time to learn a language that can help them to communicate with the locals. Instead, they want the locals to know the Chinese language. Also, there is little that has been done to make Victoria a hospitable environment for Chinese tourists because of the language barrier.

Future Focus/Limitations As stated earlier, the efforts to get Chinese tourists to participate in the interview were hampered by their busy schedule. Hence, it was not possible to get information from the tourists themselves. Also, it was challenging to make the interviewees understand the questions because of the language barrier. As a result, the researcher had to seek the help of another individual who was fluent in Chinese.

The biggest challenge that the researcher encountered in the course of the study was a task to remain impartial to the participants. However, it was difficult to stay neutral after learning that Chinese tourists experience a lot of problems in Victoria because they expect the Victorians to understand their language.

The researcher discovered that the Chinese do not bother learning English, which is the official language in Canada. Hence, the conclusion was that Chinese tourists experience problems in Victoria because of self-inflicted problems. The future study should focus on how to encourage the Chinese visitors to enrol for English lessons to ensure that they communicate effectively with the local Canadians.

Recommendations The research found language barrier as the cause of the problems that the Chinese tourists face. Hence, the more confined a tourist is to the language barrier the more s/he is confined to cultural barriers. It underlines the reason most visitors choose Chinese restaurants. Therefore, the research recommends that the Chinese tourists take the time to study a foreign language to have basic communication skills when they get to foreign nations.

Also, the study recommends that there be measures to enhance the satisfaction of Chinese tourists in Victoria by ensuring that restaurants that offer Chinese delicacies have servers who are fluent in Chinese language. The bus should have Chinese labels to enhance transport services in Victoria.

It would be significant to note that Victoria is the leading destination for Chinese tourists in Canada. Therefore, there should be measures to mitigate the language barrier that tourists encounter. These measures should address issues such as the installation of Chinese signs in places where tourists are fond of visiting to help them understand basic things. It would also be important for the travel agencies to install language interpreter programs in their websites to enable Chinese tourists to understand the information from the website.

Works Cited Bowerman, Gary. The New Chinese Traveler: Business Opportunities from the Chinese Travel Revolution, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. Print.

Conrady, Roland, and M. Buck. Trends and Issues in Global Tourism 2011, New York: Springer Science


Project Risk Management Analytical Essay online essay help: online essay help

Abstract The ability to effectively prepare, prevent and manage key risks forms one of the most important concepts in project management. Understanding risks facilitates the ability of a management team to determine which risks are related and have greater implications to the whole project’s objectivity.

To effectively identify a project’s risks, it would be important to first ascertain possible uncertainties that may arise from the project choice such as influence, decision making and environmental impacts. Identifying risks in a housing project may be ranked on two major benchmarks. First, it would be the assessment of whether the risk will actually occur and second, the holistic impact that it would accrue to the whole project.

Project lifecycle is a term used with reference to the whole project execution. It describes a project from its beginning to completion. To begin with, the initiation phase determines a project’s feasibility and formally authorizes its kick off. Besides, it provides the necessary project description for the participants so as to enhance the flow of events during the project.

Planning provides the required definition for all the activities and also derives the necessary schedules that are to be followed during the project. To effectively manage all risks in a project, all parties and staff involved should be subjected to training on different risks, their mitigation and the need for addressing them as key problems.

In addition, monitoring is very critical as the project progresses to facilitate evaluation of whether the set targets are being met by the project implementers. Moreover, instantaneous analysis of possible considerations for improvement should be executed. As an extension of the monitoring process, further instantaneous assessment is critical in assessing possible emergent risks during the project. Finally, a risk management department or unit would help in coordinating the assessment of different risks in a project.

Introduction The ability to effectively prepare, prevent and manage key risks forms one of the most important concepts in project management. To effectively manage risk, it is important to first identify possible uncertainties that may arise from the project choice (Toegel


“Trends in College Pricing” by Sandy Baum and Jennifer Ma Critical Essay college application essay help: college application essay help

Sandy Baum and Jennifer Ma published an article about the rising cost of college tuition in the United States of America. The article, which was fully sponsored by College Board, examines the historic trend in college education with the aim of explaining why the country has experienced a consistent rise in tuition fee at rates higher than that of median income.

The two authors are experts in the field of education with many years of experience both as consultants and educators at various institutions. It is no doubt that their current employer, the College Board, has influenced the content of this article, making it very biased.

This is not only seen in the precise topic chosen for article but also the content provided. Instead of pointing out the rapid increase in the cost of college tuition, they have provided a trend in college pricing with a series of justifications why these increases were necessary.

The biasness is obvious given that this board is an interested party. It is one of the bodies in the education sector that are directly responsible for the rising costs of higher education, especially its unnecessary exams and other requirements for individuals who are planning to join colleges. In this paper, the researcher will critique this article and use it to confirm that rates of college tuition in the United States are high.

According to Kelly, college education in the United States is increasingly becoming unaffordable. It is becoming a preserve for the rich and if measures are not taken to address the problem, then things may become worse in the near future (87). Campos believes that one of the major reasons why this cost is increasing is due to unnecessary programs that students are subjected to before joining college (par. 3).

The scholar points out College Board as one of the examples of bodies that are becoming redundant and inflating the cost of college tuition for no good reason. The board has exceeded its mandate by introducing a myriad of exams that should be sat by candidates who are planning to join college. The cost of sitting for their exams has been increasing consistently over the years, something that has been criticized by students, parents, and human rights activists.

The institution was established as a non-profit making organization meant to enhance entrance into college. However, its top executives currently earn massive income from the proceeds of the services they render. By sponsoring this article, the aim was deliberate, biased, and meant to convince the public that all is well.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The article that purports to agree with the current statistics about the rising cost of college tuition was choreographed with the sole intention of convincing its audience that there is nothing alarming with the current cost of college tuition.

Baum and Ma say that “Prices at public two-year colleges remain relatively low” (7). Recent studies by Davidson show that the cost of tuition at both public and private two-year colleges has also been on the rise (par. 4). Private institutions, especially those that offer 2-year diploma courses, know that they are in competition with public institutions. Therefore, the tuition fee they charge may not deviate much from that in public schools (Healy par. 2).

The increasing tuition fees at these private facilities only mean that public institutions are also charging high fees. However, the article erroneously states that this cost has remained relatively low. A research by Selingo confirms that there has been an average increase in cost of higher education in the United States (85).

The biasness of the authors is understandable because their sponsor, College Board, benefits a lot from the current system. Publishing a report that may make their institution to be seen as one of the root-causes of the problem may jeopardize its credibility as a non-profit institution funded by tax payers’ money.

According to Ehrenberg, one of the reasons why the cost of college tuition has been on the rise is the associated costs that colleges have to incur to admit students (47). Both public and private higher learning institutions currently run programs which ensure that they are self-sufficient.

It means that public colleges are now at liberty to admit privately sponsored students as a way of boosting their income. To do this, they need information that can help them identify students who may want to enroll in their institutions. College Board has data about students who have sat for their exams and the courses they desire to undertake in colleges. Ehrenberg observes that currently, the board is charging a fee to give out such information to the colleges (46).

This is an increased cost that must be factored into the tuition fee. This further confirms that the sponsors of this research are interested parties that cannot allow truth about the rising cost of higher education to be revealed. It explains why the authors are not very clear in their explanations. On one hand they accept that the cost of higher education is increasing. On the other hand, they give a series of justification why there is a sudden increase in the cost.

We will write a custom Essay on “Trends in College Pricing” by Sandy Baum and Jennifer Ma specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The authors have used their expertise in the field of education to come up with a compelling argument about the issue at hand. A critical analysis of their content reveals that their main aim was to eliminate the concern about increasing tuition fee in the country. The two authors have skillfully waded into the debate by accepting that tuition fee is on the rise. This enables them to be in agreement with critics and victims of the problem.

As Selingo notes, it is easier to convince people when they feel you are part of them than when they view you as an outsider (112). The author finds themselves into the heart of the masses that are aggrieved by the increasing cost of learning.

After gaining this advantage of being insiders, they then deliberately explain forces that could have led to this rise and possible solutions that can be used to address the problem. Not a single one of the solutions provided in this article mentions the need for elimination of unnecessary costs arising from charges made by College Board.

The article reviewed was very comprehensive in terms of statistical figures it collected and compiled. The information provided confirms the fears of the American society that the cost of college tuition has been on the rise over the past few decades. However, it is easy to identify the biasness in the information provided in the article. The authors are keen to justify the increasing tuition fee because their sponsor is one of the institutions responsible for this problem.

Works Cited Baum, Sandy, and Jennifer Ma. “Trends in College Pricing.” Trends in Higher Education Series 12.6493 (2012): 1-40. Print.

Campos, Paul. “The Real Reason College Tuition Costs So Much.” The New York Times. 2015. Web.

Davidson, Adam. “Is College Tuition Really Too High?” The New York Times. 2015. Web.

Ehrenberg, Ronald. Tuition Rising: Why College Costs so Much. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on “Trends in College Pricing” by Sandy Baum and Jennifer Ma by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Healy, Patrick. “Hillary Clinton to Offer Plan on Paying College Tuition Without Needing Loans.” The New York Times. 2015. Web.

Kelly, Andrew. High Costs, Uncertain Benefits: What Do Americans Without a College Degree Think About Postsecondary Education? New York: Center on Higher Education Reform, 2015. Print.

Selingo, Jeffrey. College (un)bound: The Future of Higher Education and What It Means for Students. New York: Cengage, 2013. Print.


China’s Energy and Environmental Implications Quantitative Research Essay college essay help near me

Introduction The world today is driven by a global economy that is based on demand and supply of goods and services. The situation has pushed manufacturers and producers of goods and services to work extra hard to satisfy the demands of the global economy. The manufacture of goods requires several inputs, which contribute to the goods coming out as final products for consumption by end users of the production chain.

Production of goods and services has become the main driving force of many economic giants on the global stage, which export their goods and services to other nations that need them. Such giants include China. Production of goods and services in China is fully dependent on energy to run the heavy machinery in various industries.

China is the most populous country in the world with an average population of approximately 1.3billion people (Index Mundi). The size of China as a country is approximately 9million square kilometres with a population density of approximately 140 people per square kilometre.

China is the second largest economy in the world behind the United States of America. It was able to record a GDP of $8.28 trillion in the year 2012, which is a representation of about 12% of the world economy. This was at a growth rate of about 7.8% per annum.

A concise synopsis of China Vs the US production and consumption of energy China and the US have become the largest consumer of energy in the world due to the demand for energy for its industry as well as for domestic use. The need for a lot of energy has driven China to use all possible means to produce it. So far, the available means for energy production are not environment friendly due to the amount of pollution they cause in the surroundings.

China’s major source of energy is fossil fuels, which are oil and coal. The high dependence of China on fossil fuel is due to the easiness with which the fuels can be used to produce energy. Fossil fuels are some of the cheapest and economically viable sources of energy and hence their popularity in China and the US.

Other forms of energy are limited in nature and thus the over reliant on fossil fuel by not only China, but also by many countries, which need to generate electricity. Therefore, the need for a lot of energy has compelled China to produce the same and to import where there is a need.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Production of energy using ‘not so clean’ methods has led to environmental pollution as well as degradation of the same. According to the EIA report (2012), China’s annual production of energy using different resources as well as its consumption has been recorded as follows:

Annual Production The annual production of China’s energy comes from different energy sources, which are petroleum, coal, hydroelectricity, geothermal, natural gas, and nuclear energy among others.

For natural gas production, according to the year 2011 report on energy production, China recorded a total 3628 billion cubic ft of natural gas as having been produced by the country. Relative China, the US that produced 22902 billion cubic ft in the same year as shown in the graph below.

This realisation was an improvement from the previous years for both countries. China’s petroleum production has been recorded on different scales depending on the type and form of petroleum product, which can be categorised into various groups. For instance, the production of crude oil, which includes lease condensate, was recorded at over 4.05million barrels per day.

The production of crude oil and other liquids was recorded at 4.1million barrels per day while the production of other liquids from petroleum was recorded at 47,000 barrels per day. Petroleum production has been further divided into refined products. The refinery output of distillate fuel oil was recorded at 3.05 million barrels per day while the production of Jet fuel was recorded at 260,000barrels per day.

Moreover, the production of kerosene was recorded at 152000 barrels per day while the production of liquefied petroleum gas was recorded at 662000 barrels per day while that of motor gasoline was recorded at 1.7 million barrels per day. These among other products made up the refined productions as recorded for the year 2010 and 2011. Bio fuels have also been produced by China.

Their production was recorded as follows: Bio diesel was recorded at 78000 barrels per day, fuel ethanol was recorded at 39000 barrels per day, while the total bio fuel production was recorded at 48000 barrels per day. Geothermal production of electricity has been recorded at 0.162 billion kilowatt-hours in China in 2011. This amount is far too low compared to that of the US, which is 16.7 billion kilowatt-hours.

We will write a custom Essay on China’s Energy and Environmental Implications specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The production of hydroelectricity has been recorded at 687 billion kilowatts-hour. The production of different types of coal has been summed up into one figure in short tones as 11838158000 as per the year 2011’s production. This production as summed up makes up the main energy sources that are produced by China.

Energy Consumption by China Vs the US

China’s energy consumption comes from different energy sources, which are not restricted to what it produces. Stern finds that, due to China’s high affinity for energy, it has been forced to import some of its energy as well as energy sources (14). Over the years, China has produced lower amounts of petroleum in comparison to the United States.

For example, since 2000, the production of petroleum in the United States has been way above that of China. In fact, the graph above indicates that, even when the production of petroleum went down very much in 2006, the United States had 7323.03 thousand barrels per day, which were far above that of China at 3704.03 thousand barrels per day.

The implication of such big gaps in petroleum production can explain the reasons for the better performance of the United States in the World. America has excelled in industrialisation. Its economy relies so much on energy.

The big margins in economic performance in 2010 and 2011 can be explained by the fact that, when petroleum production in America rose from 8154 to 8624 barrels per day, China’s production was going down. For example, the graph indicates that, during the same period, China’s oil production dropped from 4121 to 4105 thousand barrels per day. This drop affected the performance of the economy of China.

The energy consumption is thus recorded as follows: China’s coal consumption has been dubbed as the highest in the world at about 3826868.9 thousand short tones. China is the global principal manufacturer and consumer of coal. Its expenditure takes virtually the entire coal manufactured in the globe.

According to the U.S Energy Information Administration report (EIA) of September 2012, coal has been noted as the major supplier for China’s energy accounting for over 70% of China’s energy needs. The report further states that the total energy consumption was recorded at 90 quadrillion British thermal units (btu).

Not sure if you can write a paper on China’s Energy and Environmental Implications by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In terms of petroleum consumption, China has been touted as the second largest consumer of petroleum behind the United States of America. From the above graph, in the year 2012, the United States of America produced 10028.03 thousand barrels of petroleum each day while China was the second in production at 4174.88 thousand barrels.

Being the second largest economy in the world after America, China was therefore dragging behind. It needed to import more energy to supplement its production. According to statistics by the Index Mundi, China’s consumption of crude oil was estimated at above 9.5 million barrels per day, which translate into an annual consumption of about 3467.5 million barrels per annum.

Inferring form the above graph, China imports much of its petroleum from other countries. The amount of petroleum produced domestically is therefore far below the levels of consumption. In fact, inducing from the graph, one realises that it is due to the differences in oil that the two economies vary in performance. The consumption of ethanol has been recorded as 38000 barrels per day as per the 2010 statistics.

The consumption of natural gas has been recorded at 38000 billion cubic feet per year. On the other hand, the expenditure of electricity has been recorded at 4.2 billion kwh per year while that of nuclear electric power has been recorded at 56 billion kwh per year. The utilisation of other electric power was recorded at 6 billion kwh per year.

Kerosene consumption was recorded at 18000 barrels per day while liquefied petroleum gas was recorded at 640000 barrels per day. Jet fuel use stood at 240000 barrels per day. Finally, the expenditure of motor gasoline was recorded at 1.4 million barrels per day while that of distillate fuel oils, which include fuels such as diesel, was recorded at 2.8 million barrels per year.

Imports China was known for a long time to be an exporter of energy especially petroleum products to the international market. Nevertheless, since the demand for the same products increased domestically, it has become one of the largest importers of energy especially petroleum products and coal. This case can be explained by the fact that China’s industrial capacity was previously limited by its participation on the partial world market.

Gee, Songnin, and Xiaolin reveal how China could therefore not exploit its full production potential, as it had to sell the surplus energy and energy products that it produced (425). This situation however changed when its participation on the global market increased thus increasing its potential to consume its own energy and energy products.

The case led to a deficit also because the energy needs now exceed its production potential thus leading to the need to import some energy as well as energy products. The leading energy products that China imports, which it either leads in the world in its importation as well as consumption is coal and oil in the form of crude oil.

Although China uses different forms of energy across board, its importation of energy is limited to a few forms that are economically affordable for massive industrial use. The disadvantage that comes with such forms is that they contain a lot of carbon, which is the biggest pollutant.

According to Index Mundi, China imports the following forms of energy from different parts of the world: It imports dry natural gas – 580 billion cubic feet per year, coal – 200 million short tons per year, Jet fuel – 85000 barrels per day, kerosene – 56000 barrels per day, liquefied petroleum gas – 90000 barrels per day, and motor gasoline – 48000 barrels per day.

It also imports other petroleum products at 150000 barrels per day, residual fuel oil – 400000 barrels per day, and crude oil – 4.8 million barrels per day. The list above indicates that China solely imports fossil fuels, which are purely carbon-based.

Exports China’s list of types of energy that it exports is not as diverse as the types of energies it imports and consumes. Thus, it can be assumed that it only exports energy that it finds to be surplus to its requirements. According to Medan, most of the energy exported by China is mostly fossil fuels, which are either in primary form, secondary form, or in tertiary form (593).

The exports vary with the types of energies exported with some breaks in some years. For instance, it exports crude oil at 100000 barrels per day, dry natural gas (141.9 billion cubic feet per year), and coal – 22658.08 thousand short tons per year. This number however is dropping year by year due to China’s increased affinity for coal use.

It also exports distillate fuel oils – 12000 barrels per day, kerosene – 113.6 thousand barrels per day, liquefied petroleum gas – 21.58 thousand barrels per day, and Motor gasoline at 47.53 thousand barrels per day. It exports other petroleum products at 91.68 thousand barrels per day while residual fuel oil exported stands at 133.51 thousand barrels per day.

The list indicates figures that have been are not consistent yearly because there have been some breaks in exporting of some of the energy products in the preceding years of the information provided. The list also provides the last recorded numbers for specific products exported but which are no longer in export now.

Reserves and Carbon dioxide Emissions of China Vs the US China is a big country in terms of territorial size as well as population. It also qualifies as one country that are endowed with so many minerals underground. It is known to have some of the biggest coal reserves in the world as well as unexplored and unexploited petroleum reserves both inland and off shore. It has crude oil reserves that run to a tune of 20.4 billion barrels of proven oil reserves.

The figure is estimated of the year 2012 (EIA) indicating a 4 billion barrel increase from the estimated figures of the year 2009. The above numbers are for the proven oil reserves that are found within China’s territory.

However, there are more proven oil field reserves whose rights China has acquired from other countries across the world. According to Medan, it can be rightly assumed that China’s oil reserves are much higher than the 20 billion barrels proved to be within the Chinese territory (602).

China has some of the largest “proven gas reserves in the world, which run to the tune of 107 trillion cubic feet (tcf)” (U.S Energy Information Administration Para. 4). This amount is the second largest within the Asia Pacific region. China’s coal deposits can be dubbed as the third largest in the world behind those of the United States of America.

One can therefore deduce that, if China has the ability to exploit all its energy reserves accordingly, it can move close to performing as well as how the United States of America is doing or even perform better. America has been able to exploit much of its energy reserves and hence the high economic performance. China’s coal deposit reserves are estimated at 128 billion short tons, which account for 13% of the proven coal reserves in the world.

According to the 2008 United Nations statistics, China recorded carbon dioxide emissions to the tune of 7031916000 metric tons registering a steady annual increase in carbon dioxide emissions making it the single most world largest emitter of carbon dioxide. This emission can be linked to the high rate of industrial growth and development in China over the past few years.

However, carbon dioxide emission from industries in America has been relatively stable. In fact, the graph below indicates that the levels of carbon dioxide emission from the United States of America have been on the decline over the past ten years. In the year 2000, the level of emission was at 5863.26 million metric tons. However, by 2012, it had dropped to 8715.71 million metric tons.

This drop can be explained by the fact that America has been on the industrial production business for a longer period relative to China. There has also been a sharp rise in the number of environmental conservation organisations that advocate for environmental friendly sources of energy.

There has also been enactment of various statutes that regulate the amount of carbon dioxide that an industry is supposed to emit into the environment. Such legal guidelines may have played a big role in the reduction of carbon dioxide production by industries in the Unites States of America.

Contrary to what happens in the United States of America, there has been a sharp rise in carbon dioxide emission since 2000 in China.

In fact, the above graph indicates that the level of carbon dioxide emission rose from 3271.81million metric tonnes in 2000 to 8715.71 million metric tonnes in 2012 in China. The implication of such emission is high levels of environmental degradation. However, China has put in place mechanisms to reduce the levels of Carbon dioxide emissions.

Electricity In terms of its total net generation, China has achieved its highest electricity generation at 645365000000 kwh as per the 2009 statistics. Such high levels of energy are a requirement for sustenance of the current high levels of industrial production in China.

This figure comes together with a 1073 gigawatt generation capacity as of 2011. In terms of imports and exports, China does not export electricity. Actuality, China uses all its domestically produced electricity within its domestic markets.

The United States of America of America exports much of its electric energy. For example, in 2000, it imported 48.59 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity, which is way ahead of the total electricity that China imported that stood at 1.55 billion Kilowatts-hours. However, it is worth noting that the level of electric energy import by China has also been on the rise.

For example, her total imports have risen over the last ten years from 1.55 to 6.5 billion kilowatts in the year 2012. This has resulted from the concerted efforts by the government and the energy regulatory authority to increase the levels of energy to meet the energy demand by the industry. The United States of America had its least electricity import over the last ten years at 30.39 billion kilowatts hours in 2003.

One can thereof deduce that the level of domestic power production within the United States of America was high enough and hence the need for low electricity import. However, the low levels did not last for long. By the year 2008, the level of import had risen to 57.02 billion kilowatts hours.

Such a high level of electricity import would have been necessitated by the low levels of domestic electricity production. In addition, it may have been necessitated by the increasing levels of industrial energy that the country required.

Environmental effects of China’s Production and Use of Energy China’s production and use of energy has had huge negative impacts on the environment in general leading to one of the highest environmental pollution cases in the world. The specific use of non-green energy such as fossil fuels is the biggest contributor of environmental degradation due to the high amount of carbon composition and carbon emission that follow their processing (Lanchberry 5).

The use of coal and petroleum products leads to high emissions of carbon dioxide, which when let out into the atmosphere lead to the expansion of the ozone layer, which again leads to global warming. Though the theory of the ozone layer is still disputable, it has been proven that carbon dioxide leads to global warming, which in turn has negative effects on the environmental as a whole.

Global warming contributes to thawing of glaciers, which in turn lead to flooding in different parts of the world. Gee, Songbin, and Xiaolin posit that too much emission of smoke into the atmosphere has led to the darkening of skylines in China causing the natural blue sky to be replaced by a black skyline (432). This case has led the country to experience acidic rains.

When elements such as coal are burnt to produce energy, they produce residues in terms of ashes, which also need to be disposed. The residues are not biodegradable. Thus, whenever they are disposed, they become an environment hazard.

Excavation of coal leads to scaring of the landscape that attracts huge craters on the surface of the earth, which affect the surface run off when it rains thus leaving behind unwanted dams full of water. Too much carbon in the air has led people in different regions of China to suffer from respiratory disorders and other opportunistic ailments caused by pollution of the environment.

Carbon emissions in the air leading to global warming have led to the alteration of the climatic conditions of different regions in China (Gee, Songbin, and Xiaolin 436). This case has distorted the agricultural calendar making it difficult for farmers to plan properly. Huge carbon deposits in the air have also affected crops thus leading to diminished yields.

The whole process of oil exploration, drilling, tapping, transporting, and processing is full of environmental hazards. Oil drilling has very negative environmental impacts especially when there is a case of the oil spilling on to the ground surface or in water. Whenever oil spills on the surface of the earth, it inhibits the life of both the flora and fauna killing them all in the process.

Every time oil pours, no life can be sustained for a long time until the surface dissolves it completely. Transportation of oil on both land and water has led to accidents that affect the environment negatively. Whenever oil tankers on Chinese roads are involved in accidents, they always lead to spilling of the fuel being transported thus posing environmental hazards.

Offshore exploitation of oil has led to oil spilling into the sea thus leading to destruction of delicate marine life and hence the extinction of some marine species. Stern finds that the use of nuclear energy is one of the biggest hazards due to the high risk of nuclear disasters (29).

Nuclear accidents expose radioactive elements to the environment, which are very difficult to clear. All forms of engines running on any form of fuel lead to hazardous depositing of carbon dioxide to the environment.

Recommendations China’s energy is self-sufficient because it is one of the countries in the world with some of the biggest reserves in different forms. This claim is coupled with its ability to exploit and use its available energy for both domestic and industrial use. China’s energy is adequate because it is able to export some of the surplus energy it produces.

It has also developed plans to expand its energy capacities for future use as a long-term measure to its growing needs for energy. China should adopt more environment-friendly energy sources as a way of securing its environment. It should expand its hydroelectric power production capacity because it qualifies as one of the cleanest energy resources that have minimal if any negative environmental impacts.

It should also exploit its capabilities to develop other clean sources of energy such as wind and solar energy. Wind power, solar energy, and hydroelectric power generation have no negative effects on the environment as compared to fuels and nuclear powers, which are very hazardous.

Works Cited Gee, Robert, Zhu Songbin, and Li Xiaolin. “China’s Power Sector: Global Economic and Environmental Implications.” Energy Law Journal 28.2 (2007): 421-441. Print.

Index Mundi. China’s Energy Production and Consumption, 2012. Web.

Lanchberry, John. “What to Expect from Kyoto.” Environment 39.9 (1997): 4-8. Print.

Medan, Michael. “Shaping China’s Energy Policy: Actors and Processes.” Journal of Contemporary China 18.61 (2009): 591-616. Print.

Stern, Nicholas. “Raising Consumption, Maintaining Growth and Reducing Emissions.” World Economics 12.4 (2011): 13-34. Print.

U.S Energy Information Administration. Report on China, 2012. Web.


Impressionism and Post-Impressionism: Technique Evolution Compare and Contrast Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

As a rule, any style of painting as a culture phenomenon has its roots hidden in a separate individuals’ techniques, their vision of how the picture should be composed, painted and perceived. Individuals with common vision and ideas are associated with one painting style.

However, a problem with such distribution may occur when, in spite of the general similarity of style, the painters use different techniques and follow different aims in their art. Thus, Post-Impressionism emerged while impressionists were still creating their most famous works, which made it hard to distinguish these two styles clearly.

However, there are some changes in the style which caused a shift from Impressionism to Post-Impressionism. These changes will be analyzed in this paper using the comparison of two works: Camille Pissarro, The Goose Girl at Montfoucault, White Frost, 1875 and Vincent van Gogh, The Rocks, 1888.

Both of the chosen paintings represent individual styles of their authors, as well as the major tendencies of Impressionism and Post-impressionism, correspondingly. Indeed, vague forms and mild effect of Pissarro’s painting can give a clear picture of Impressionistic vision, while Van Gogh’s work represents the out-and-outer style of Post-Impressionism with its sharp forms, contrasts and dazzling colors.

The major detail that allows detecting different techniques in the two paintings is the technique of using a brush. Pissarro uses paint with a paste consistency to place dots and clouds on the canvas, which, in combination with each other, create certain forms. The surface of the painting seems smooth, or at least of one level. The artist applied mostly thin brushstrokes.

A peculiar detail is that the direction of the brushstrokes does not depend on the form or shape of the objects; their shape is shown with the help of tones and light values. A different approach can be observed in Van Gogh’s painting; the artist uses energetic brushstrokes with tones of thick paint, and, unlike the Impressionistic method, the artist emphasizes the geometric forms of the objects with the direction of the brushstrokes.

If we transformed the two pictures into black and white, we would see that Pissarro’s painting has vague and rather light objects depicted, and it would be hard to distinguish certain details. In contrast, Van Gogh’s painting has an illusion of having a number of edges, as every brushstroke has a function of building some object and intensifying its shape.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The thick paint gives an additional volume to the painting and also contributes to the general geometry. The artist used thick and confident brushstrokes. At some areas of the painting, Van Gogh seems to have literally pressed the paint in the canvas, which gives a very vibrant impression. This technique also gives the picture another dimension, allowing to see not only the content of the painting, but also its actual texture.

Another striking difference between the two paintings is the use of color. The palette of Pissarro is rather discreet, with all the hues being chosen carefully. Burnt umbra is a basis for some tones of green and yellow in the trees and background, and cool bluish whites of the sky and the ground are combined with strokes of warm ochre, which helps the whites stay in accord with the rest of the picture.

This way of using color values is consistent with the Impressionistic art aims, as these colors allow making the impression of an evening in September. As for Van Gog’s painting, its colors are very rough, contrasting to each other and competing for leadership. Cold blue and snowy white cover the major part of the canvas, and the brushstrokes of ochre and warm green, as well as spots of pure sun yellow make an impression of mosaic.

Moreover, the artist used pure black to outline the rocks and show shadows. Such contrasts make it hard for the viewer to define the general value of the painting, to see what tones are dominating, and as a result it distracts from analyzing the picture and makes the viewer simply perceive it as it is.

Unlike in case of Pissarro’s painting, Van Gogh’s picture does not allow getting a clear idea of a certain season or time of the day. Only the colors of the painted bushes and grass make the viewer suppose that it could be autumn.

Similar difference can be seen in the role of light in the two paintings. Pissarro has its painting divided into two areas: light, where the light from setting sun is covering the objects, and shadowy, where the mild shadow of the trees is sheltering the gooses and the girl. This use of light awakens the feeling of comfort and stillness.

A totally different feeling occurs while looking at Van Gogh’s “Rocks”: there is no source of light defined by the artist, and the light areas can be found on any side of the rocks. In addition, the painter did not make any clear shadows; the only way of showing the geometrical form of the objects is the use of black strokes.

We will write a custom Essay on Impressionism and Post-Impressionism: Technique Evolution specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This specialty of Van Gogh’s light depiction can be determined by the setting, as there are no flat areas depicted, which makes it impossible to show areas of shadows or of light.

The painters’ positions are similar in the two pictures. Pissarro has painted his picture as if he was standing in the yard together with the goose girl. This position is traditional to a man’s eye, and it causes a calm and relaxed mood. Despite the fact that Van Gogh’s perspective also implies looking at the object, the horizon is not visible, as it is beyond the rocks.

In addition, the top of the oak is extremely close to the upper line of the canvas. These two aspects of the picture composition leave no space for the viewer, causing a feeling of panics and lack of space. However, it should also be noted that both of the paintings are spatial.

The light background and shadows in the yard in Pissarro’s painting give an impression of three-dimensionality. Van Gogh also shows the different levels of rocks, making the painting look rather deep.

The textures of various objects are shown by Pissarro by the more or less smooth brushstrokes. For instance, the goose girl’s apron and the gooses’ plumage are shown as smooth and solid stains, while the tree’s bark has its texture shown with dynamic brushstrokes of different hues.

The artist also uses black to show the sharp texture of the bark. Van Gogh also focuses on depicting the texture of the objects, giving them exaggerated values compared to the ones they have in real life. Van Gogh’s stones are depicted with curly brushstrokes, which make them rocky; the sky seems to be embroidered with thick threads, and the bushes seem very sharp, although no sign of their texture was depicted.

The motifs of the two paintings also differ. Pissarro covered a wide range of objects in his composition, focusing on the situation rather than on a separate object. As for Van Gogh’s painting, it can be said that the main objects in his composition are rocks, as they take the majority of space, and the whole composition is built around them.

One of the major differences between the paintings is that one of them depicts a cultivated landscape, and another shows a wild place. Thus, Pissarro’s painting depicts a small rural glade with natural surroundings, but some details in the picture point to the human presence, such as gooses (domestic birds) and a small wooden fence. The presence of a girl in the picture has an effect of harmony between nature and human.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Impressionism and Post-Impressionism: Technique Evolution by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In contrast, Van Gogh’s picture shows a wild piece of nature, which seems to have never been explored or intruded by human. Absence of people and piles of sharp rocks make a wild impression, in every sense of this word.

As it can be seen, the two analyzed works have many contrasting aspects, such as use of color, light, composition, theme, aim, and painting technique. However, it is obvious that these two styles root from one idea: to make an impression. For Impressionism, it is an impression of atmosphere, mood, and situation. For Post-Impressionism, it is an impression of inner state of the artist, perception, and mood of surroundings.


Economic Policies in The Global Economy Qualitative Research Essay essay help online

The recent spate of economic recession in the global economy and eventually national economy has prompted policymakers to consider diverse aspects of expansionary economic policies. To some extent, policymakers have adopted policies that can be considered unconventional and highly aggressive in hope that desirable economic conditions can be obtained.

Whereas monetary policy has been used to ease quantitative pressures, fiscal policies have attempted to reduce taxes and increase government spending. There have been widespread changes in the way economists view the efficacy of discretionary policies by the Federal government since the publication of Keynes’s work of ‘General Theory’ (Keynes).

Indeed, the experiences of the 1930 depression and the subsequent World War II brought about consensus amongst economists about the importance of fiscal multiplier effect. Furthermore, it became apparent that expansionary economic policies were important in sparking business cycle in an economy through contraction of economic downturns.

Numerous historical experiences served as important aspects of opening up the economic understanding about the importance of monetary and fiscal policies in enhancing economic growth and revival from recessionary effects. For instance, the 1960s and 70s revealed to economists that monetary policy was an important component of economic performance.

Furthermore, the experiences of 1970s and 80s opened up the understanding about the importance of supply-side of expenditure and tax policies and how they affected the economy. Indeed, carefully developed monetary and fiscal policies can ultimately salvage an economy in depression and recession.

Bureaucracy within emerging markets can be defined as the study of roles and functions of government departments and agencies. It also encompasses the association between the various government bodies and important national arms such as the Judiciary and Legislature. Additionally Bureaucracy defines the institutional set-up as well as the conduct of the various government departments.

Max Weber (1947) argued that in a bureaucratic system there needs to be separation of tasks, qualified man power with distinctive skills, a well defined institutional arrangement that depicts a clear chain of command; with each unit having its unique obligations, and finally there should be elaborate regulations that define the channels of power and ensures responsibility.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The first analysis of the American Bureaucracy is attributed to three individuals, Goodnow, Gulick and Taylor.

Although Goodnow acknowledged that it is difficult to detach politics from governance he believed that the two can function outside of each other and as such advocated for their separation. The separation of roles brought about certain achievements; there was a deliberate attempt to research and execute bureaucracy in a methodical way.

In the meantime attention was drawn towards the planning of administrative agencies that would create, embrace and execute guidelines. There were also attempts made towards unearthing the best practices of governance, discovering the most effective means of creating labor procedures and defining the institutional composition.

The idea of creation of labor procedures is mostly associated with Fredrick W. Taylor (1919) who had done a number of trials to conclude on how labor should be organized.

The separation of duties was vital with top administrators tasked with defining roles and their subordinates mandated to respond to the roles as discharged. There was a shift in focus from all procedures entailed in achieving desired outcomes to other essential factors.

Fiscal policy and expansionary policy Prior to the 1930s, classical economists were of the opinion that there was no need for government intervention in economic downturns as the economy would eventually adjust. Therefore, the government was to assume nothing was wrong and wait for the economy to correct itself without any interference.

Nevertheless, the subsequent massive negative economic downturns of the 1930s and WWII prompted policymakers to rethink their stand (Hemming et al.). Thus economic policy intervention was given some serious thoughts. The enactment of fiscal policy is often through the Congress and the White House. It particularly seeks to make adjustments in the level of government spending as well as the level of taxation.

We will write a custom Essay on Economic Policies in The Global Economy specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Economic slowdowns often attract expansionary fiscal policies. Consequently, there are increases in the level of government spending and also reductions in the level of taxation.

The classical economists were the earliest to make an attempt towards the development of a theoretical framework through which aggregate demand could be explained. Similarly, classical macroeconomists offered a good background through which Keynes developed his economic findings.

Keynes in reaction to the classical approaches towards economic depressions and recessions was motivated by the apparent failure of the classical arguments. Various aspects of the classical economists especially during recession and depression showed that nothing would restore the economy back to the path of growth (Keynes).

For instance, Keynes criticized the manner in which classical macroeconomists presented their views about velocity of money and other economic aspects of depression and recession. According to Keynes, government was an important player in the process of correcting economic depression and recessionary pressures.

Certain economic declines during depression and recession such as continuous unemployment could only be hastened towards recovery through government intervention. Keynes identified various aspects necessary for the increased employment.

To start with, Keynes argued that production level had a direct relationship with output. Secondly, he argued that planned expenditure level for businesses in the economy affects the production level (Keynes). Additionally, Keynes argued that employment in the economy is dependent on the level of expenditure.

From the background of expenditures and taxation level, it is evident that the federal government can greatly influence the rate at which the economy moves from recession and depression. The federal government can undertake discretionary fiscal policies with the aim of applying government spending and taxation to salvage the economy from recession (Hemming et al., 2002).

Indeed, a change in government is not always associated with corresponding change in the fiscal policies. However, the application of discretionary fiscal policy by the federal government during depression and recession often results to expansionary condition.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Economic Policies in The Global Economy by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The motivating factors for businesses and households are normally selfish. Therefore, it is impractical to expect households and businesses to undertake actions for social benefit without corresponding gain (DeLong et al.).

Consequently, firms and households do not swim against the tide during recession by investing more and increasing consumption respectively. Instead, there are massive increases in saving level by households and less spending as well as reduced investment by firms.

When the federal government undertakes fiscal expansionary policies, people are upbeat about positive outcomes in the future such as job security, increased profits and sales as well as pay rises. As always, firms and households also swim with the tide thus stimulating economic growth towards full employment.

The functioning of expansionary fiscal policy by the federal government is associated with three main economic functions (DeLong et al.). The first important factor to be considered for the expansionary fiscal policy is Aggregate demand. Normally, fluctuation in investment, spending and net exports affects aggregate demand.

Owing to the power of the multiplier effect, the changes in income, employment and output become higher than the initial adjustment. The main objective of applying expansionary fiscal policy is to affect the aggregate demand curve by shifting it as well as increasing the level of equilibrium and eventually the GDP (Hemming et al.).

Additionally, the federal government needs to first establish the desired level of national income before deciding on the extent of fiscal policy to undertake. Therefore, the recessionary gap is bridged through expansionary fiscal policies aimed at attaining full employment.

Expansionary Monetary Policy by the Federal government Whereas fiscal policies are undertaken by the Congress and the White House, monetary policies are undertaken by Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve often undertakes changes in the supply of money in the economy. In fact, the Federal Reserve often undertakes various measures aimed at restoring the economy in recession to normalcy or better performance.

Various changes in monetary policy such as the federal bank rate can have profound implications on the economy (Federal Reserve Bank). Federal funds rate has serious impacts on the market interest rates on various financial commodities such as auto loans, mortgage as well as bond rates.

Periods of economic recession require expansionary monetary policies to be adopted by the Federal Reserve. Therefore, there is a lowering of the Federal funds rate leading to various economic incentives to the firms. Consequently, firms are motivated to hire more workers coupled with increased investment. On the other hand, there is a general increase in the level of consumption by the households.

Various measures are often adopted by the Federal Reserve in creating expansionary monetary policy. For instance, the Federal Reserve has a responsibility of increasing or decreasing the reserve ratio. The Federal Reserve usually determines total amount of money to be held by financial institutions (Keynes). During expansionary policy, the reserve ratio is reduced.

This creates credit due to availability of excess reserve by banks. At the same time the level of money supply is determined by interest rates charged. Household spending also increases due to the increased money supply as well as aggregate demand. The availability of credit encourages investment thus increase in GDP as well as employment.

Expansionary monetary policy can also be undertaken though the increase in discount rate for the Federal bonds as well as open market operations. By increasing the discount rate, the Federal Reserve encourages bondholders to sell (Federal Reserve Bank). Consequently, there is an increase in money supply. Furthermore, the Federal Reserve can buy back the available government bonds and securities from the public.

These two expansionary policies are aimed at increasing money supply in the economy. Money supply increases aggregate demand level as spending by households increases while investment by firms increases too. There is an increase in employment level through the multiplier effect leading to increase in GDP.

The Federal Reserve is always an important player in the economy. It is no wonder that the actions of the Federal Reserve are monitored closely by economists, businesses, politicians as well as households with keen interest (Keynes).

The action of the Federal Reserve in increasing money supply affects both households and firms. Thus firms have extra money to undertake further investment while households have extra money to spend. These situations are important for economic growth through increased employment and aggregate demand. The outcome of these situations is a growth in GDP of the nation.

From the foregoing, it is evident that interplay of expansionary fiscal policy and expansionary monetary policy has immense positive impact on the economy. Whereas fiscal policies are undertaken by the Congress and the White House, monetary policies are executed by the Federal Reserve and have an objective of increasing money supply during recession.

The main focus of expansionary policies in an economy during recession is an increase in aggregate demand and employment level eventually stimulating economic growth in terms of GDP. Indeed, carefully developed monetary and fiscal policies can ultimately salvage an economy in depression and recession.

Economic development in GCC Region The Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) region has experienced profound social and demographic changes in the past few decades. Indeed, the trend is set to continue for the next decade or so. Consequently, serious questions on various issues such as immigration policies, labor, adequacy of public services and infrastructure as well as the role of women have been raised.

The GCC is increasingly becoming a region of utmost economic significance globally. This trend is undoubtedly envisaged to continue since the regions collaborates equitably with other markets based on investment trade and other economic activities.

Indeed, the 21st century has become a period of advanced economic growth and development in the GCC region. The period has seen enormous infrastructure expansion coupled with economic development of the region.

The 21st century has witnessed massive construction of major skyscrapers in the region. For instance, the Burj Tower in Dubai became the World’s tallest building in 2007 at a height of 800m. The economic boom in the region has been associated with numerous factors. Firstly, the region has massive accumulation of private and public sector capital which is readily availed by high revenues from natural gas and oil (Duke).

Similarly, the GCC region has continued to become a haven of peace and stability hence the creation of an environment favorable for business. Therefore, infrastructure projects worth billions of dollars have come up. The region has seen creation of natural islands such as Palm Jebel Ali.

Moreover, the immense wealth and peace has attracted people and firms from all corners of the world. Consequently, demand for various infrastructure and services such as banking, office, housing, entertainment and other amenities has led to further explosion of economic development in the region.

Economic development refers to the advancement of all aspects of an economy in a progressively sustainable manner. Therefore, economic development leads to wholesome growth of all sectors of an economy leading to lasting positive consequences. This is exactly the experience in the GCC region at the moment. The economic development of the region has made it a focal point of the global economy (Habibi).

Details of the extent of economic development of the GCC region reveal an increasing dependence of various global economies on the GCC region. In particular, the GCC region has established a strong partnership with China and India. China and India are very important strategic customers for GCC region’s oil. On the other hand, GCC region is a reliable supplier of oil to meet the needs of China and India.

Recent statistics reveal China and India were the largest trade partners to UAE in 2011. Furthermore, increasing trade volumes are being registered between the Arabian Peninsula Monarchies with India and China.

Academics have tried to debate on the role of exports towards the attainment of economic development in a region. The GCC region has not been exhaustively discussed in terms of its economic development brought about by massive endowment with oil and other natural resources (Harb). Studies have established that a strong link exists between trade and economic growth and development.

The GCC region has been able to cheat the Dutch disease often associated with massive export of natural resources. Therefore, the region is experiencing massive industrialization due to the existence of appropriate mechanisms to compensate the absence of labor.

Indeed, the GCC economy has been developing tremendously due to the availability of all the factors of production. Therefore, the region’s balance of payments has not deteriorated in any away. The outcome is a progressively developing economy.

Eurocurrency market A Eurocurrency deposit is a deposit with a bank in the currency of a country which is not the country in which the bank is located, e.g. the deposit of sterling pounds with a bank in USA or a deposit of US dollars with a bank in UK. Most banks deposits of currency outside the country of the currency’s origin are in US dollars and so the term “eurodollars” is occasionally used to describe all euro-currencies.

The euro-currency market describes the depositing and lending of euro-currencies. In other words, the euro-currency markets are international money markets in which; banks obtain deposits of foreign currencies and re-lend them, often to other banks; or banks borrow euro-currencies from other banks and then re-lend them.

Euro-zone Monetary Performance

International capital markets Larger companies may arrange borrowing facilities from their bank, in the form of bank loans or bank overdrafts. Instead, however, they might prefer to borrow from private investors by issuing Eurobonds.

Eurobond refers to a bond issued in a capital market denominated in a currency which often differs from that of the country of issue and sold internationally. Eurobonds are therefore, long-term loans raised by international companies or other institutions in several countries at the same time.

The interest rate on a eurobond issue may be fixed or variable (floating rate bonds). Many variable rate issues have a minimum interest rate which the bondholders are guaranteed, even if market rates fall even lower. These bonds therefore, convert to a fixed rate when market rates fall to the minimum interest rate.

An investor subscribing to a bond issue will be concerned about; Security where the borrower should be of high quality. Marketability, where investors wish to have a ready market in which bonds can be bought and sold. The return on the investment as indicated by the coupon interest rates.

Types of eurocurrency loans The types of eurocurrency loans available are:

Fixed Interest loans, which is usually a medium term loan of up to 5 years. The borrower knows in advance what his interest payments will be.

Roll over (variable interest rates) loans. These are loans whereby the bank agrees to provide finance to the borrower for a given period but the interest rate on the loan is subject to renegotiation at pre-arranged intervals of every 3 or 6 months.

Stand by credit: This is an overdraft facility offered by a bank to its customers in a eurocurrency. The bank charges an agreed interest rate together with a commitment fee of about 1% for funds made available to the customer under the credit, but which he then fails to draw.

Syndicated credit, which are large Eurocurrency loans put together for a single customer by a syndicate of banks, usually for a longer term than the Eurocurrency loans.

The customer approaches a bank for a loan and if the bank is unable or unwilling to provide all the loan itself, it can arrange, by means of a placement memorandum, for a number of other banks to contribute to the loan as a member of a syndicate. The bank which sets up the syndicate is known as the managing bank

Euro commercial paper (or euro notes): This is a short-term financial instrument; Issued in the form of unsecured promissory notes with a fixed maturity of up to one year, Issued in bearer form, Issued on a discount basis (so the rate of interest) on the commercial paper is implicit in its sales value). The eurocommercial paper is denominated in any currency – usually a hand currency.

Factors to consider when choosing between euromarkets or domestic markets The currency that the borrower wants to obtain is one of the considered factors. Multinational companies usually want to borrow in foreign currency to reduce their foreign exchange exposure and therefore borrow in euromarkets rather than the domestic market. There is often a small difference in interest rate between eurocurrency and domestic markets.

On large borrowings, however, even a small difference in interest rate result in a large difference in the total interest charged on the loan. It may be possible to raise money on the euromarket more quickly than in the domestic markets.

Also security is involved, where Euromarket loans are usually unsecured, whereas domestic market loans are more commonly secured. Large borrowers may therefore prefer euromarkets. Finally, the size of the loans; It is often easier for a large multinational to raise very large sums on the Euromarkets than in a domestic financial market.

Exchange Rate Arrangements, 2008—2012

(Percent of IMF members as of April 30 each year)

Major economic powerhouses are expected to continue controlling the market in the year 2013. However, credit Suisse anticipates that most policy makers from emerging markets, especially those dealing with fix exchange rates at times applies inappropriate measures. Variuos reports on currency anticipate the same inappropriate measures within various markets.

However, nature of competitive strategy applied enables adequate realization of stated company objectives. Porter tries to justify this point by embarking on the potential theoretical concepts associated with how a firm would achieve its competitive position in its industry or marketplace.

As long as competitive advantage is a primary consideration, there is a relevant truth pertaining to the ultimate capacity of competitive strategies to help an organization realize its prevailing plans and objectives, as it could be either defensive or offensive actions that could ensure defendable position in the industry (Porter 34).

The existence of competitive strategies is common everywhere today because of the tough competition, particularly in the realm of business.

Strategic entrepreneurship is one detailed subject in this area, where strategic management perspectives are present in order to pursue sound and excellent entrepreneurship for an existing firm’s competitive advantage, the very reason why many studies surfaces in order to understand why other firms generated successful performance and others do not (Rezaian and Naeiji 3).

Strategic entrepreneurship is a common theme especially in the age of global economy, by which the organizations have the chance to explore a vast stretch of market area. Competition has become so tough, but one has to find way out by securing a move towards strategic entrepreneurship hence achieving competitive advantage.

This is relevant to some existing companies at present where they initiated global strategic alliance for instance in order to define more critical point of doing entrepreneurship that would make a difference in their industry or specific market niche.

They have strong orientation towards competitive advantage and wealth creation (Rezaian and Naeiji 4). Concerning this point, innovation in entrepreneurship has therefore become a new existing area for exploration in the field of strategic management (Oliver 7).

The bottom line of some firms’ ultimate move for competitive strategies is to increase their market share, which in general is an essential indicative factor of the achievement of competitive advantage.

Competitive strategies for the achievement of competitive advantage have long been an essential topic in the business world, because when investors and stakeholders employ them they would have the opportunity to possess a strong hold in the market, particularly when they generate their competitive edge, create wealth, initiate product leadership and achieve financial and economic return (Luke, Kearins and Verreynne 314).

They would have the chance to initiate intense force that at some point would try to create a remarkable impact on their prevailing competitors, rival firms and the new market entrants. It is for this reason that studying competitive strategies and competitive advantage and integrating them into the concept of strategic entrepreneurship has triggered substantial attention.

Many studies have already set for further explorations regarding this concern (Rezaian and Naeiji 3). These studies have promoted us with some essential suggestions at the entrepreneurial level.

A vast red ocean has become widely explored based on Porter’s relevant basis of formulation of competitive strategies, for outperforming competitors (Porter 34). As many key players try to take part of the competition in an industry, there is a high inclusion of competitive strategies (van Rensburg 15). Innovation for instance has become the major key indicator of formulating competitive advantage (Oliver 7).

For instance, the highly differentiated offerings are positive indications of a marketplace with major key players who are after of creating a significant market share. This happens in many industries where their ultimate goal is to add substantial value for their customers and the target potential market.

In the same way, the existence of strategic entrepreneurship is a way used by investors and stakeholders in order to promote more value for their product or service offerings, as they continue to pursue to achieve remarkable differentiation and gain customers’ loyalty and trust. The result would be the creation of potential value for their target markets as they continue to provide them with their product or service offerings.

This study seeks to create a meaningful connection between strategic entrepreneurship and the creation of competitive advantage in the midst of a dynamic environment where competitors are trying to move ahead. Their ultimate goal is to create meaningful value for the society.

However, the creation of such value is a remarkable area of investigation particularly if there is a strong connection that would link it to a firm that has generated competitive advantage.

This is a major point that would require substantial investigation especially in today’s time when firms have to face the truth that competitive strategies at the entrepreneurial level would have the potential to bring them forward to competitive advantage or not, an essential field of study requiring addition of fundamental empirical evidence.

Financial Capital Financial capital is the ultimate need prior to establishing a successful move forward to entrepreneurship within global market (Kariv 203). Every firm has individual needs when it comes to financial concerns. Financial capital could indicate the level of growth that a firm should initiate because at the bottom line every business requires to have it enough to start.

Without sufficient financial capital, it is hard to promote a successful business that would last and ensure its competitive advantage. For instance, it is hard for every firm to expand without the need to consider financial concerns. In fact, many firms are willing to go for expansion, but the bottom line is that they are not able to do so right away because of the associated cost of such activity.

They would only look forward to invest if they would be able to see remarkable opportunity that they think would bring them to a competitive edge. For this reason, financial capital is strongly associated with other relevant concerns in the making of value.

In the case of companies trying to promote differentiation strategy for their competitive advantage, financial capital is at the forefront of their plan. Financial capital would help them sustain their business above any other considerations. For this matter, many firms try to first enhance their financial capability.

In fact, one of their ultimate goals is to incur substantial revenue in order to acquire remarkable profit that would allow them to sustain their business in the end and become a cut above the other.

There is therefore an implication that the creation of value has corresponding relevant connection to the financial capital of a certain firm. This therefore calls for a relevant move for every firm to initiate relevant strategies that would make them a cut above the other in terms of their financial concerns.

Social capital is another consideration in order to create value and formulate successful competitive advantage (Bartkus and Davis 205). This requirement is a relevant component for the emancipation of relevant message and information linked up with a certain product or service offerings.

This requirement allows every firm to establish the appropriate channel in order to promote a relevant social network that would help establish the creation of its name together with its product and service offerings. Social capital is a necessary requirement because many firms need to establish identify for their entire business.

The establishment of their name alone is a remarkable competitive advantage because this could generate potential benefits. For instance, the creation of brand has proven to be effective especially in ensuring a remarkable market share. There is value associated with the brand name in the first place (Porter 85).

It could be intrinsic value, but the bottom line is that one could transform it into a monetary value. This is the reason why social capital is necessary because there is a need for creating a channel that will socially enhance the firm’ created product and service offerings.

Another important requirement is the human capital. For many years, the human resource has become a substantial consideration particularly in the creation of certain product or service offerings. The human resources are the ones to perform the plans and ensure that they have executed it well for the creation of value.

In an organization, the human resource is the best asset because the fulfillment of organizational plans lies on their ability to implement or execute the moves for the achievement of goals. This is due to the point that human capital tries to define the link between HR practices and business performance (Armstrong 81).

Resource orchestration Based on the above discussion of the required resources in order to ensure competitive advantage, resource orchestration is a fundamental move that would eventually process all resources accordingly in order for the firm to produce certain output that is heading forward to differentiation applied in its prevailing product and service offerings.

This company tries to invest in its technology and from time to time produces new potential offerings primarily to those potential customers.

Apple changes the face of mobile phones and invents the latest development for smartphones. Smartphones come in different variants, but Apple creates a design that is unique and highly differentiated from other prevailing offerings coming from the production of other key players in the industry.

Concerning this potential move, Apple is able to promote a specific name for its brand, which has a remarkable competitive advantage in its industry. It allows the firm together with its brand to achieve high recognition from its potential customers and target market niche across the global marketplace.

The global strategic alliance between General Motors and Peugeot is another relevant proof that firms continue to engage in strategic entrepreneurship. There are remarkable reasons why GM and Peugeot together have determined to go into a global strategic alliance. In the prevailing trending in the car manufacturing industry, the economic factors have strong influence on the returns every car manufacturer produces.

This has evidently pulled the trigger and allowed the two firms to look for other sustainable strategies that would lead them a cut above the other car manufacturers. For this reason, GM and Peugeot, with primarily the same intention, agreed to initiate actual global strategic alliance, which is the first in their industry.

GM, renowned in its market in the US and in the other parts of the world, continues to face a remarkable challenge when it comes to the amount of profits and revenue it produces.

Firms engaging in strategic entrepreneurship Various firms try to engage in strategic entrepreneurship. In this section, we would be able to take a closer look in each of their individual case. Many firms try to engage in strategic entrepreneurship. This is evident in the case of Apple Incorporated by which their ultimate goal is to provide highly differentiated product and service offerings that could ultimately stand as a cut above the other (Apple Incorporated).

In many cases, Apple Incorporated became a trendsetter and recognized as such, because its innovative products proliferate in its industry and have become the leading sources of modeling opportunity for a vast stretch of opportunity for customer acceptance.

Apple Incorporated primarily employs one of Porter’s generic competitive strategies and that is its combined focus the same way, Peugeot builds up a substantial reputation in the European market.

With their current strategic move, here are some important strategic advantages they might have eventually obtained, considering the point that each of these firms have created potential market share across vast geographic considerations, combining their potential would eventually extend their total coverage together, increasing their opportunity to cover and explore a huge market together.

In addition to that, GM and Peugeot would be able to save on associated cost when it comes to production due to the following reasons (BNP Media; BBC News).

Combining the available resources of GM and Peugeot would also mean expansion of their coverage to look for available raw materials. This would eventually allow them to have potential strong market power because one could consider them a huge and giant firm as user of raw materials.

They have strong demand, which would allow various sources to consider them as significant priority. This would also increase the chance for GM and Peugeot to save cost because they have a strong market power to suggest a certain price for raw materials. This would even allow them to combine their various sources of raw materials, leading them to have various options.

The two firms’ global strategic alliance is not only about integrating their resources. It is also about trying to combine their technology and implement researches and studies together to ensure more improve quality and design of their product offerings. The bottom line of this move is to establish a certain value for the two firms to experience a competitive advantage.

This means that the two firms, by combining their capacities in the car manufacturing activity are trying to promote the idea that they would want to produce high quality for product offerings. Another essential point why GM and Peugeot agreed for global strategic alliance is for them to be able to experience lower cost in the actual production and distribution of their product offerings.

With their new prevailing system for production, GM and Peugeot would be able to experience substantial reduction of cost along the value chain.

This means that these two firms are also employing overall cost leadership, by which the bottom line is for them to take control of a highly competitive product price without compromising the level of revenue and eventually profit.

The essential moves of GM and Peugeot are certain that they aim to achieve competitive advantage, by being able to create substantial moves that will lead them to provide high value for their target market and customers.

McDonald’s is an international food chain that has thousands of outlets across the globe. This company provides product offerings that are based on what the customers exactly want and need. This means that they provide products that at some point may have considerable diversification because they also tries to establish the point of catering the prevailing cultural need when it come to foods across their vast marketplace.

For instance, McDonald’s in India does not serve beef even if in its other outlets outside the country it has become its primarily fast-moving product offering. This means that the firm eventually tries to seek the opportunity to cater the worldwide market by trying to act in a local context (McDonald’s).

It cannot undergo a certain move to centralize its production of offerings because there are many factors to consider beforehand. These include culture and other relevant heritage associated with the existence of a prevailing civilization or society particularly in the mobile communication gadgets (Apple Incorporated).

This at some point could be its temporary competitive advantage as other firms are trying to emulate and even create much better design in the future. Apple therefore has been setting the trend, but its competitors are also doing relevant move for them to earn relevant market share and dominate in the marketplace.

The case of GM and Peugeot is new in the car manufacturing industry. However, there is one bottom line of their linked up move to finally take the plunge into the global strategic alliance and that is to obtain a remarkable competitive advantage (BNP Media; BBC News). These two firms are trying to initiate a move that is the first in their industry.

This means that they are trying to perform what is unique and as they head towards trying to become sustainable when it comes to their operation and other relevant matters. However, it is clear that these two firms are trying to promote sustainable competitive advantage.

Nevertheless, based on Oliver’s idea, it is hard for them to achieve sustainability with their competitive advantage because there are many firms today that could actually emulate their recent strategic move.

For this reason, Oliver has become the ultimate proponent of the idea that there is only temporary competitive advantage, a term that specifically holds true when it comes to the recent level of competitive advantage of a certain firm.

For Oliver, the associated corporate learning in line with the relevant competitive advantage could be the ultimate advantage of GM and Peugeot in their industry because these two firms would try to combine their effort in learning things just for them to come up with highly innovative product offerings in the market.

Firms could implement strategic entrepreneurship leading them to establish competitive advantage. At this point, let us take a closer look once again how some companies we mentioned in the previous discourse have established competitive advantage.

Incorporated Cases Apple engages in strategic entrepreneurship and as a result, it earned the opportunity to establish its competitive advantage. What is the ultimate competitive advantage of Apple Incorporated may be its potential learning that has its application primarily on the production of highly innovative and differentiated product offerings and customer service (Apple Incorporated).

The firm tries to invest deeply in the creation of new technology because it has the belief that the introduction of something new into the market will pave the way for its remarkable strength in the marketplace.

This according to Porter is a significant move that will have to help initiate competitive forces in an industry. For as long as Apple continues to display its vibrant dominance in the ongoing competition in its industry, we could always have a clear word concerning its business that it has successfully established its competitive advantage at some point.

This does not mean this is going to be forever, because according to recently discussed concept, competitive advantage may not be entirely sustainable because of the ongoing innovation and other relevant strategic moves that every competition firm tries to initiate.

This therefore means that the trending Apple showcases today may not necessarily be the same trend in the future because of the other relevant moves of differentiation and innovation initiated by the other potential key players and new market entrants in the marketplace.

Apple today has remarkably gained its competitive advantage aside from its leading vibrant ideas, but through this output, this firm is able to set the trending in technology. Players in the same industry are its brand name. This brand is unique, and one of its kind.

However, its strategic moves may not be that unique at all knowing the fact that there are many key players trying to imitate what it has already started.

Aside from the fact that this firm establishes its name in the international context, it is also able to promote the idea of trying to serve its target customers with the product they deserve under the local context. For this reason, this firm has the chance to serve its customers with the appropriate product service offerings that they need and deserve to acquire.

Successful firms have various stories to tell, but one essential message they could provide us concerns the information on how they have made it to the top today. They may have started out from a very humble inception, but the result might be stunning as they might be the top key players now in their respective industries or chosen market niche.

Some of these firms employed strategic management moves. Strategic entrepreneurship could not be too far from these, as there are various firms trying to establish themselves at present with the aid of various strategies pertaining how they could sustain their entrepreneurial activities.

The presence of competitive strategies is an indication that there are elemental moves that are trying to provide opportunity for those companies that are employing strategic management activities.

Known to be one of the right courses of actions that would make the firm able to implement activities leading to the emancipation of corporate strategies and achievement of competitive advantage, strategic management has become the ultimate way to carry out new business opportunities. There are diversified activities in line with strategic management and one of them is strategic entrepreneurship.

Entrepreneurs use strategies in order to obtain the linked up goals relevant to the firm’s growth and expected accomplishments. For this reason, they have the chance to explore in the field of strategic entrepreneurship.

The area of strategic entrepreneurship just like in any field requires exploration and meaningful understanding. There are many things to learn from it and the point whether it would bring competitive advantage to an existing firm that is adapting it requires substantial investigation for that matter.


History Response Paper Response Essay college admissions essay help

The memories of Japanese soldiers help people understand the gravity of war and how it affects lives of ordinary human beings. Their memories show what they felt at the time and how their actions affected their character. Japanese soldiers were indoctrinated initiated through violence because their government had a strong intent to conquer other nations by applying brute force.

Japanese recruits were forced to torture and maim their victims by their seniors to display their commitment and loyalty. This shows that many wars are waged to satisfy interests of a few selfish people in government. Torture, violence and murder are weapons of war which have been used in the past to make the oppressed populations submit to the wishes of their conquerors.

This is evident in the way Japanese recruits were prepared for their roles as soldiers. They decapitated, butchered and killed Chinese prisoners of war without any feelings of remorse, after being pushed by their seniors.1 This proves that some collective national goals can be used to harm other nations which are thought to be weak.

The massacres carried out by Japanese soldiers against Chinese prisoners of war were barbaric and traumatizing. Japan used advanced military equipment to carry out atrocities against her neighbors in Asia. This shows that a country with aggressive imperialistic policies is easily tempted to attack other nations which are weaker.

Japanese soldiers were affected psychologically after the conditioning process used by their seniors made them brutalize defenseless innocent civilians.2 This explains why they did not restrain themselves from attacking innocent civilians in China. They had been indoctrinated to believe that their actions would help their country become stronger and more powerful.

This justified their use of full scale violence against civilians of other countries. During that time, Japanese soldiers were heavily influenced by imperialistic attitudes which drove them to attack other nations.

Japanese soldiers knew what they were doing was wrong and this affected their conscience. However, military propaganda broadcasts on radio made them believe that their country was making good progress in the war. They believed they had the license to do whatever they wished against soldiers and citizens of states they had occupied. This made them become more aggressive.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They thought that by unleashing terror on defenseless prisoners of war and civilians, they were performing their patriotic duties. Japanese soldiers felt that victory in the war was going to make their country become more powerful.3 They knew that their country would have benefited heavily by exploiting natural resources of other states in the region, which were already vanquished.

Japanese soldiers thought they were highly respected by other Japanese civilians because of their willingness to defend their country. They were encouraged to use their authority to ensure citizens of conquered territories easily conformed to wishes of the Japanese government. Japanese soldiers knew they had to act strong to make citizens of conquered nations conquered nations more obedient to their Japanese masters.4

They made their prisoners perform difficult labor tasks in farms to produce food which helped sustain them in foreign lands. They failed to realize that they were being used by senior government officials to achieve their own interests.

Senior government officials were only interested in using state power to attack other neighboring countries which had a lot of natural resources. Japanese junior military officers had been manipulated to think that their participation in war would offer them positive rewards.

Bibliography Berger, Thomas U. War, Guilt and World Politics After World War II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Cook, Haruko Taya and Theodore F. Cook. Japan At War: An Oral History. New York: The New Press, 1992.

Footnotes 1 Haruko Taya Cook


New Social Media Marketing Tools Exploratory Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Social media marketing involves a process that focuses on creating specialized programs and websites that attract customers. A corporate message that is spread through these tools also encourages online users to share this content with their social networks.

Social media is regarded as a platform that provides an access to internet content and ensures close communication between an organization and their customers. There are a great number of new media tools for marketing and advertising through social networking, including blogs, social bookmarking sites, and famous social networks.

Mostly 80 % of marketers are inclined to use blogs as the most efficient and expensive way to advertise their goods and services. Indeed, focusing on blogs has become a beneficial tool of influence and attention grabbing (Stelzner, 2009).

Attention given to blogs introduces a number of advantageous opportunities for marketers. This is of particular concern to defining customer’s feedbacks and engaging actively into discussions and forums (Stelzner, 2009). Clients are now overtly debating on various topics regarding the products they buy because online websites provide immediate information on price and quality of available goods.

Using social networks as a platform for marketing campaign is also approved to be efficient in carrying out business. According to Camusio (2013), “A full 88 % of respondents use social media networks, and 81 % of them reported gaining business exposure as a result” (Camusio, 2013).

Widespread social networks, such as FaceBook, have become the leading instruments of corporate influence because there are millions of users who are in pursuit of beneficial propositions and constant exchange of information. What is more important is that these media platforms are efficient for analyzing and predicting consumer behavior.

Additionally, it is possible to define age categories, gender, nationality, and geographical information about clients who are interested in an advertized product. Such data is a valuable contribution to a marketing process because it outlines further steps in conquering the identified market segment.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Social bookmarking is a process that provides a quick access to websites promoting goods and services of a certain company. Bookmarks are helpful for exposing a list of topics and resources for users to find the information they need. Cooperative tagging is among the techniques that most organizations use (Barnes, 2010). This tool focuses on a phrase or word that is directed at a focus group with similar interests.

The collection development, therefore, is an excellent means for exchanging relevant content with users, as well as finding the topic that interest them most of all (Barnes, 2010).

Additionally, cooperative tagging through bookmarking is beneficial in terms of possibility to trace other clients identifying resources (Educase Learning Initiatives, n. d.). Hence, introducing bookmarks to a specific website does not only allow to facilitate the advertising process, but also provides new tools of highlighting the percentage of people attending this website.

In conclusion, social media marketing tools have been advanced greatly due to the emergence of social networks and online blogs. Such tool as social bookmarking is another important approach to marketing goods and attracting client’s attention because it encourages users to attend the company’s websites and learn more about the product.

Social networks are beneficial for companies because they provide valuable information about clients, including their age, gender, and preferences. This data contributes to analyzing and predicting trends of product development and branding in future.

References Barnes, L. L. (2010). Social Bookmarking Sites as Collection Development Tools. The Informant: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Illinois Chapter of the Social Libraries Association. Web.

Camusio, Z. (2013). Social Media Networks as Marketing Tool. Starup Nation. Web.

We will write a custom Essay on New Social Media Marketing Tools specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Educase Learning Initiatives. 7 Things You Should Know about Social Bookmarking. Web.

Stelzner, M. (2009). Social Media Market Industry Report. Social Media Marketing Industry Report. Web.


Sequencing Bacterial Genome Expository Essay essay help site:edu

Among the five classes of living things, bacteria remain the largest kingdom and the most successful in terms of reproduction. They happen to be a major source of plant and animal diseases. As Grenfell et al. (2011) observes, the Earth’s biomass is significantly accounted for by mass bacteria cells. It has been documented that 100 trillion bacterial cells live inside the human body.

This is a ratio of 10 bacterial cells per every human cell (Qin et al., 2010). Statistics have show that the leading causes of death in the world are bacterial related infections; pneumonia, diarrhea and tuberculosis (World Health Organization, 2008).

Treatment of bacterial infections has been effected through application of antibiotics. Recent studies have however shown a significant inapplicability of antibiotics due to evolution of resistant strains of these bacteria (Davies


Should Democracy Be Adopted by All Nations? Essay best essay help: best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction



Responsible and stable administration

Better governance




Introduction Democracy refers to a system of government in which citizens participate in decision-making and decide how they want to be governed (Cheibu


The Ancient And The Medieval Worlds: The Use Of Water Power Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Before the introduction of the water turbine in the 1830’s, the horizontal wheel was widely preferred to the vertical wheel for use due to its practicality, simplicity of manufacture, and affordability. The vertical wheel was in two forms, the ‘undershot’ and the ‘overshot’ configurations. Unlike the horizontal wheel, it was far more efficient than its predecessor.

Ancient engineers developed both the undershot and overshot wheels. The overshot method used water fed into buckets that were built into the circumference of a wheel.

It was not a success even though it had an efficiency of up to 70% with an average output of 7 horsepower. In addition, ancient engineers had developed only two applications that made use of the water-wheel, the flour mill, and the Noria (a device that was used to raise water into small aqueducts).

In the Medieval world, economic and social-economic needs played a major role in the harnessing of water power. While the nobles saw it as an alternative means of getting revenue from the peasantry, the clergy had a vested interest for its personal use (Reynolds, 1984). The growth in the variety applications of the water-wheel led to the invention of flour mills, beer mills, industrial mills, and hemp industries.

During the periods between the 10th and the 15th centuries, Medieval technicians were able to come up with ingenious plans to change rotary motion to linear movement through the use of a cam and crank. This coupled with certain geographical features might also have contributed to the wide adoption of water power with regions like Europe being littered with small perennial streams which flowed into the Mediterranean basin.

During the early middle ages, the European iron-masters smelted iron by burning it in a mixture of charcoal and ore, with the use of a hand or foot powered bellow.

This method turned out to be tedious and wasteful as every now and then the furnace had to be shut down in order for the smelter to remove a sponge-like residual mass known as ‘bloom’ from the furnace. The use of water-power led to the adoption of larger, more powerful bellows by smelters. This led to the development of a semi-continuous growth process which drastically reduced the use of manual labor.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The need for water power grew rapidly with the invention of the combined cam and a water wheel. This facilitated the growth of more industries such as the sawmill industry which used this technology to pull down a rip-saw while it was pulled back up by a spring pole. It was also used two centuries later to lift hammers for crushing ore while also controlling piston pumps for mine drainage.

Later in the medieval times, a crank which was an alternative to the cam was in use. Even though it was formerly used to manually rotate millstones in the ancient times, it found new use when it was combined with the water wheel to replace the cam.

Even without the use of water power in the textile industry, until later, in the medieval times, other processes that led to the making of cloth had already started using waterpower with examples ranging from the silk mills to the furling of wool.

The differences compounded in the comparison of the ancient and the medieval times are the conversion and improvement of already existing inventions to have greater efficiency by increasing their power output.

Reference Reynolds, T. (1984). Scientific American. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.


Sales Team Structure Qualitative Research Essay college essay help

Executive Summary This report is focused on building an effective sales model for Austvending vending machine company that has business operations in Australia and New Zealand. The company has ten years of experience in providing cost effective, specialized, innovative, and customized business solutions and services to meet the needs and expectations of the market using vending machines.

The company takes responsibility for the most difficult parts by delivering the services and taking the machines closer to the customers to enable them to optimize the profits earned from the delivered of services using the electronic vending machines.

Service delivery relies on the use of web based applications which use a service distribution model defined by a sales team structure which is composed of a hierarchical reporting relationships framework. The structure has the national sales director at the top of the management hierarchy and line managers composed of regional sales managers, sales managers, and sales representatives at the lower levels.

The managers are geographically distributed based on the business activities and characteristics of the market segments and the state the company’s operations are found.

To ensure effective business service delivery, the company has a well-defined organizational structure which shows the roles and responsibilities of each member in the sales team which is composed of the national sales manager who devices and regulates the company’s national strategy, the regional sales manager who is responsible for defining and creating the job description of company employees, and the sales manager who drives the performance of the organization.

To provide efficient service delivery to the customers, the sales representative of the company take that responsibility to ensure the services meet the needs of the customers, who are the most critical stakeholders of the company. Appropriate remunerations, commissions, bonuses, and incentives are provided to the each manager for motivational purposes

Background of Austvending Austvending is a vending machine company that is mainly based in Australia and New Zealand. The corporation enjoys an experience of over 10 years having started its business in the year 1996. It’s main mission is to provide the best vending machine equipments, which help in establishing vending businesses (Monley 133).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The company also provides supportive services that help vending businesses to be more profitable and efficient. It mainly targets people with the desire to have financial independence in terms of investment opportunities, and a stable income source.

Austvending provides its clients with a personalized business structure that is best suited for that particular client. Its business model exists almost in all towns in Australia (Zoltners, Sinha


The Economic Recession of 2007-2009 Report essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Abstract The 2007-2009 economic recession was mainly caused by collapse of the housing sector. It was characterized by high rates of unemployment, low interest rates, decline of the stock market, loss of payroll jobs, and decline of GDP growth. Unemployment rate rose to 10 percent, the highest since 1983. The Federal Funds rate was reduced to 0%. The government created the stimulus package to stimulate economic growth.

The Fed conducted quantitative easing (QE) to counter the recession. QE1, QE2, and QE3 contained varying incentives. The GDP growth declined and the stock market declines.

The Dow Average went as low as 6,594.44. Today, the economy has recovered significantly experiencing a 0.4 %GDP growth in the first quarter of 2013. Unemployment rate has dropped to 7 %, the lowest rate since 2008. Economic recovery is evident even though effects of the recession are still evident.

Introduction The main objective of this report is to examine and evaluate factors that led to the 2007-2009 recession. It will present a critical evaluation of the monetary and fiscal policy measures put in place by policy makers to avert the recession’s adverse effects. Section 2 will analyze the causes of the recession. Section 3 will analyze the impact of the financial crisis on the US economy in different sectors.

Section 4 will discuss monetary policy measures put in place by the Federal Reserve to alleviate the negative effects of the recession on the economy. This will be followed by section 5 that will discuss the fiscal policies established y the government in reaction to the recession.

Section 6 will evaluate the effectiveness and usefulness of fiscal and monetary policies. Section 7 will evaluate the current state of the economy after the recession. Finally, section 8 will conclude the entire report by reiterating the findings.

Causes of the recession The global financial crisis of 2007 largely distorted the economic landscapes of many countries leading to what has been labeled as the “great recession.” The crisis was triggered by collapse of the housing market in the US towards the end of 2007 (Moseley 35). The housing bubble originated in the 1980s. The role of Government Sponsored Enterprises increased thus expanding the secondary mortgage market (Brezina 45).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More This led to creation of a new type of mortgage referred to as mortgage-backed securities (MBS). For example, the Federal National Mortgage Association and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation bought mortgages from the secondary market and later sold them as mortgage-backed securities (Brezina 48).

This led to issuance of mortgage to lenders without legal documentation at rates that did not match the risk involved (Grusky et. al 64). As a result, rate of mortgage lending went high. Buyers from foreign countries invaded the US housing market. Oil-producing countries used dollars obtained from oil to purchase houses in the US. As a result, borrowers took mortgages whose servicing was long-term.

On the other hand, surge in house prices stopped and the house prices collapsed (Grusky et. al 67). Many borrowers failed to service their mortgages because many of them lacked financial ability to do so (Grusky et. al 64).

As a result, borrowers defaulted on payments, MBS were rendered useless, banks and other financial institutions began to collapse, and foreclosures increased. For example, institutions central to the mortgage bubble went bankrupt and credit markets froze causing the recession.

Another cause of the financial recession was decline in interest rates that encouraged borrowing. As a mitigation measure of the 2001 terrorist attacks and disintegration of the dot-com bubble, the Federal Reserve lowered interest rates to levels that raised rates of borrowing and lending (Grusky et. al 72). In addition, high debt deficit piled pressure on interest rates.

This happened at the same time when the housing sector was in shambles. Low interest rates encouraged people to take loans from banks and other financial institutions (Jagannathan and Kapoor par2). It also increased demand for financial assets thus lowering their interest. At one time, the interest rates were as low as 1% (Wall Street Journal Staff par4).

This measure effectively managed the 2001 recession. However, it contributed and paved way for the 2007 recession. Loose policies by the Federal Reserve lowered rates below expectations. High rates of borrowing led to bad debts because loans were issued based on borrowers’ personal income information.

We will write a custom Report on The Economic Recession of 2007-2009 specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The inflation-suppression policy also contributed to the recession. Regulation of inflation using the policy created a superficial notion that the business cycle was less volatile due to lowering of interest rates (Jagannathan and Kapoor par5).

Consequently, this led to a misleading notion of financial sufficiency by many households that increased their borrowing. Many households increased their spending and neither saved nor invested in financial assets that had potential for high returns (Jagannathan and Kapoor par6).

Impact of the financial crisis on the US economy One of the impacts of the 2007 recession was high rate of unemployment. At the close of 2007, unemployment rate was 5.0 percent (Sum and Khatiwada 2010). This was an increase from previous rates. The situation worsened as the recession carried on. In 2009, the rate of unemployment increased to 9.5 percent (Sum and Khatiwada 2010). Few months after end of the recession, unemployment rates went as high as 10 percent.

This rate had been experienced in 1982 when unemployment rate was as high 10.7 percent. During the recession, job opportunities and rate of employment declined by a big margin. The stock market was also affected adversely by the recession. Before the recession, the Dow Jones Industrial Average closed at 14,164.43 (Stockman par3).

However, after collapse of several large corporations and decline in GDP, the Dow Average dropped by 20%. The stock market declined further after collapse of Lehman Brothers. Investors panicked and the markets lost $ 144 billion as investors fled (Stockman par5). This almost caused collapse of the stock market. The decline continued and the Dow Average went as low as 6,594.44.

Monetary Policy First, the Federal Reserve lowered the Federal Funds rate (Frieden 63). Prior to the recession, the Fed had increased the rates to 5.25 %. The recession prompted the Fed to lower rates to 4.75 % in 2007 when the recession set in. As the recession persisted, the Fed continued to lower rates. In April 2008, rates were as low as 2 % (Yilmaz 76).

The Lehman crisis led to further cuts that lowered rates to a range between 0% and 0.25 % (Abel 33). These rate cuts were ineffective in averting the recession because financial markets were not responding appropriately. As a result, the Fed resulted to open market operations (Hubbard 502). They established the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP).

TARP was a program developed by the Federal Reserve that involved purchasing assets and equities from financial institutions in efforts to address the crisis in the housing sector (Frieden 65). This involved purchase of short-term treasury instruments and mortgage-backed bonds (Yilmaz 78). The objective was to leverage the mortgage and housing markets.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Economic Recession of 2007-2009 by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Expansion of the Fed’s balance sheet was a threat that increased risk of inflation (Chukwuogor 88). Another strategy by the Fed to alleviate effects of recession was quantitative easing (QE). QE refers occurs when the FED purchases bonds mainly using mortgage-backed securities and treasury notes (Hubbard 503).

It involved QE1, QE2, and QE3. For example, EQ1 involved buying MBS worth 500 billion dollars. It was later increased by $750 billion. Operation Twist was launched in 2011. The Federal Reserve used earnings from auction of short-term treasury bills to purchase long-term treasury bills (Chukwuogor 91).

Fiscal Policy The fiscal policy involved implementing several tax and spending measures in efforts to increase spending by households (Hubbard 549). Spending was increased by raising government’s purchase of goods and services. In 2008, the government created a stimulus package that included tax rebates that aimed to increase spending and enhance operations of businesses.

The stimulus package created by President Obama cost $787 billion (Moseley par4). The main objective of the package was to stimulate economic growth that would emancipate the US from the adverse effects of the recession (Abel 39). In addition, it aimed to create approximately 2 million jobs.

The contents of the stimulus package included $288 billion to cover tax deductions, $224 billion to cater for education, healthcare, and unemployment benefits, and $275 billion to create new jobs ((Hubbard 551). The stimulus package was highly successful because it surpassed its initial objectives.

Evaluation of Fiscal and Monetary Policies The bad state of the US economy during the recession necessitated expansionary monetary and fiscal policies. For example, the stimulus package was necessary because rate of employment was 10% in 2008 (Brezina 99). It was necessary to stimulate economic growth by creating more jobs. The fiscal stimulus was criticized because its effects on deficit spending were adverse.

It caused high debts that raised the nation’s debt deficit (Wall Street Journal Staff par5). This piled pressure on the economy that was declining. In 2013, US debt deficit stood at approximately $ 11.959 trillion. This is approximately 75% of the United Sates’ GDP. The total public debt is currently $16.805 trillion, including intra-governmental debts and holdings.

Increase in size of deficit and federal government debt affects economic growth because it increases interest rates, which consequently crowd out private investments (Brezina 105). In addition, high debt levels predispose the economy to inflation (Moseley apr6).

The measures implemented by the Federal Resave to handle the recession involved expanding money supply to stimulate economic growth. Their response to the recession put the economy at risk of inflation. The Fed claimed that incase the monetary policy became inflationary they were prepared to handle it.

Current state of the economy Currently, the economy is doing well based on statistics obtained from the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Economic growth of 2.5 % was observed in the first quarter of 2013 (Bureau of Economic Analysis 2013).

This was preceded by GDP growth of 0.4 percent in the fourth quarter. Increase in GDP during the first quarter resulted from increase in personal consumption expenditure, exports, fixed investments, and private inventory investments (Bureau of Economic Analysis 2013). In the first quarter of 2013, the market value for goods and services increased by 3.7%, and a further 1.3 percent in the fourth quarter (Bureau of Economic Analysis 2013).

In February, unemployment rate dropped to 7.7 % down from 7.9 % (Schwartz and Appelbaum par4). This resulted from creation of 236,000 jobs in February. This rate was lower than any rate experienced since the start of the recession in 2007.

This is an indication that the economy is improving and recovering from the adverse effects of the 2007 recession. The Dow Jones Industrial Average responded to decrease in unemployment rate by surging to a value of 14,397.07.

Conclusion The financial recession of 2007 had adverse effects on the economy. It was so severe that its effects are still felt today as the global economy struggles to recover. It was caused by collapse of the housing sector, and poor monetary policies by the Federal Reserve. The recession had several similarities and differences from previous recessions.

For example, failure of the stock market was greater during the depression than during the great recession. Unemployment rates during the great recession and great depression were comparable. The monetary and fiscal policies implemented by the government were highly effective in alleviating the effects of the recession. For example, the stimulus package reduced unemployment rates by creating new jobs.

Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac played critical roles in the recession. They headed the Federal National Mortgage Association and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation respectively. They bought mortgages from the secondary market and later sold them as mortgage-backed securities. This led to freezing of the credit markets that resulted in recession. The economy would have crumbled completely if the government did nothing.

The monetary and fiscal policies helped to stimulate economic growth. Otherwise, more financial institutions would have collapsed and unemployment rates would have soared. Creation of acts such as the Dodd Frank Act brought regulation to the financial markets.

Poor regulation of the financial markets would have deteriorated the economy further because financial institutions would have acted to remain on the markets regardless of potential dangers of their actions to the economy.

The effects of the recession are still felt today. However, the economy has improved tremendously. Unemployment rate has gone down to 7.7% due to creation of new jobs. There is danger of inflation because of high government debt deficit.

Works Cited Abel, Andrew. Macroeconomics. New York: Pearson, 2001. Print.

Brezina, Corona. America’s Recession: the effects of the economic downturn. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2011. Print.

Bureau of Economic Analysis. Gross Domestic Product, First Quarter 2013. Web.

Canterbury, Ray. The Global Great Recession. London: World Scientific, 2011. Print.

Chukwuogor, C. The U.S Financial Crisis and Economic Recession 2007-2010: Causes, Local and Global Implications, Actions Taken, and the way Forward. Philadelphia: Chiaku Chukwuogor, 2012. Print.

Frieden, Jeffry. Foreseeable and Preventable. 2011. Web.

Grusky, David, Western, Bruce, and Wimer, Christopher. The Great Recession. New York: Russell Sage foundation, 2011. Print.

Hubbard, Glenn and O’Brien Anthony. Macroeconomics. New York: Prentice Hall.

Jagannathan, Ravi, and Kapoor Mudit. Causes of the great recession of 2007-2009: th financial crisis is the symptom not the disease. Web.

Moseley, Fred. The U.S. Economic Crisis: Causes and Solutions. 2011. Web.

Schwartz, Nelson and Appelbaum, Binyamin. Unemployment at 4-year low as U.S. Hiring gains Steam. 2013. Web.

Stockman, David. State-wrecked: the corruption of capitalism in America. 2013. Web.

Sum, Andrew, and Khatiwada Ishwar. The nation’s underemployed in the great recession of 2007-2009. Web.

Wall Street Journal Staff. NBER makes it official: recession started in December 2007. 2008. Web.

Yilmaz, Zozan. Between Recession and Depression. New York: Arima Publishing, 2010. Print.


Level Of Species Diversity In Two Habitat Areas Report writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction




Introduction This experiment was conducted to determine and measure the level of species diversity in two habitat areas. The two areas include forest and urban ecosystem. Biodiversity can be described by determining the number of species in an ecosystem. It also refers to as species richness. In general, the diversity of species includes both the richness and evenness of species.

Evenness compares the resemblance of the size of population of individual species within the litter sample. Species richness is used to quantify the number of different organisms present in an eco system. The purpose of quantifying species is the main sampling consideration when examining richness and evenness of species. It becomes much easier to quantify the species if the level of taxonomy is known.

Taxonomy makes the process simple by giving names to individual species in a sample. It is possible to have a clear variation between individuals of one species. For instance, depending on the adaption, there can be four variations of spider species.

These spiders can be distinguished using their physical characteristics including shape, size, color, and body segment. In particular, this only happens if the process of sorting is accomplished with the help of morphological characteristics.

Two main approaches are used in classification of species. They include biological species concept and the morphological species concept. In the latter, individual species with similar biochemistry are considered to be morphospecies. However, the first approach involves the use of biological characteristics to classify species. For instance, individuals that breed together are classified as one species.

The experiment relied on Simpson Diversity index to measure the level of biodiversity in the two habitats. The quantity is normally used to determine the biodiversity of an eco system by considering the richness and evenness of species. A diverse habitat will be represented by a large value of Simpson Diversity Index.

Methods The experiment was done in groups and was aimed at sorting, identifying, and counting the vertebrate morpho species’ in each of the two litter samples provided. The groups were provided with Litter samples and details of their collection location.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In a group of four, a sample of each litter type was taken and placed in separate trays. The trays were labeled with the litter type as the group made notes of the physical structure and appearance of the litter samples. Using forceps the group sorted through the litter samples to find invertebrates. This exercise was done with caution because some of the individual species in the sample could bite or sting. The starting time was noted as the group searched through each sample for approximately 20 minutes.

The group then sorted the invertebrates into major categories and placed them in different sample containers. The containers were properly labeled in order to know where the individual species came from

Once the step of sorting out the species was completed, the group pooled the invertebrates for further sorting into morphospecies. In order to do this, the group use structural characteristics as far as possible. These include the shape of individual organism, number of body appendages, and body segment. Color and size could not be used as structural characteristics because they are considered to be unreliable.

Once the sorting process was completed, counting the number of species began and the data recorded on the class data sheet. The morphorspecies were given specific names for their identification. The group then calculated the species diversity by computing the Simpson diversity index, species richness, and species evenness for each of the litter samples provided.

Results Data for the first sample set

Results for second sample set

The result shows differences in species evenness and richness in the two litter samples. The first sample had a total of 32 individual organisms while the second had 50. The total number of species was 11 and 31 respectively. The result for the first litter sample was 0.6774 while that for the second litter sample was 0.9527.

Discussion The Simpson Diversity Index calculation was used to measure the level of biodiversity in the two habitats. The Simpson Diversity Index is also referred to as the Dominance index. In calculating species evenness, equitability index was used. When the dominance index is high, the habitat is more diverse. But when it is low, the habitat lacks diversity.

As such, the dominance index for the first litter sample is.6774 while that for the second litter sample is.9527. Comparing these two figures, one can easily conclude that the second litter sample has a high level of species biodiversity. This can be attributed to the fact that the sample litter was collected from a forest habitat. However, the first sample litter was collected from an urban eco system.

The same conclusion can be drawn in regard to species richness. The first sample only had a total of 11 species while the second sample had a total of 31 species. Since the second sample had the most number of species, it is apparent that the sample had the highest measure of species richness. This can be attributed to the habitat where the species were collected. It can also be attributed to the physical features of the species.

The set of biodiversity used in the experiment is sensitive to factors such as pollution and environmental change. This explains why the species collected from urban environment are less diverse and lack richness than those collected from the forest environment. The species are still vulnerable to the effect of climate change because human activities in urban areas continue to degrade the environment.

We will write a custom Report on Level Of Species Diversity In Two Habitat Areas specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The experiment also came with its share of limitations. The process of sampling and sorting out individual species was not simple. In most cases, sampling areas of interest usually constitute large eco systems. This limits the process of quantifying species because not every species can be examined.

Consistency in the method of sampling is recommended because applying different methods can lead to varying results. It was relatively difficult to distinguish some groups of individual species using their morphological characteristics.

In conclusion this experiment sought to compare biodiversity in two different habitats: forest, and urban environment. From the analysis of the data, forest environment has a high measure of biodiversity, species evenness, and species richness. The experiment found high level of variety in members of same species living in forest environment. The samples were truly representative of their habitats.


Price of Football Players Analytical Essay a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Supply Demand Theory

Skill Sets

Bargaining Power


Other Factors


Introduction Why do football players cost so much? Why do players transferred from one club to another get so very high price of £82,500,000 while another players a sum of £21,000,000? What determines these prices and are they determined? All these questions poses a potent reason for a demand supply analysis of football players.

This paper analyses the reason why players are given higher transfer rates and the economic theory that lies behind this transfer. The players that we choose for this analysis are Nacho Monreal from Arsenal and Jack Butland from Stoke City.

Supply Demand Theory While discussing the price that footballers receive from the clubs are astronomically high. Some players receive very high transfer prices while others do not receive such high wages. The transfer costs are actually, in economic sense, the price, or the wages that is determined through the interaction of supply and demand. The footballers who have a very high degree of skill and have a proven past record are priced very high.

The supply curve of a commodity as we know in economics is a positively sloping line, whereas in case of football players is a vertical line indicating a fixed supply. This is because, the service that the footballers have to offer is their skill sets as a player which cannot rise or fall with the price. It remains same at any price, showing a highly inelastic supply curve.

However, the demand curve of the footballers is highly elastic that varies with the prices. When there is an interaction between the supply and the demand curves, and the price at which they interact, becomes the equilibrium price at which the player is transferred. This price is the transfer cost that clubs pay.

Figure 1: Demand and supply curve of a footballer

In figure 1 the supply curve is shown as a perfectly inelastic curve and the downward sloping demand curve shows that with an increase in the price of the player shows that the demand for the player would reduce.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Skill Sets In case of Nacho Monreal from Arsenal and Jack Butland a comparison has to be made in terms of their skills. A comparison of their past performances shows that Nacho was a defender who had 2 goals to his credit, he had assisted in making 8 goals, in 35 matches he had played. On the other hand, Jack a goalkeeper, had conceded 69 goals and missed 13 goals in the 49 matches he had played.

This shows that if a performance ratio is considered, Nacho’s performance was far better than that of Jack. Hence, it may be concluded that the higher price that was offered to nacho was due to the better performance he had shown in the previous matches he had played.

The theory of marginal revenue product of the players demonstrates that the price of a product or marginal revenue of a product depends on the price of the last good that was sold and on the productivity of the good. In case of a football player, the marginal revenue i.e. the price the clubs are willing to pay for a player. This price also includes the ability of the player to draw sponsors and advertisements money.

In a way, this is directly dependent on the media popularity fo the football player. Earlier, the amount of the transfer price has not been very high, which has increased exorbitantly in the recent years. Many believe that the high price paid to the footballers is due to the higher media popularity paid to the player.

Many television channels and media houses willingly pay premium sponsorship prices to get a particular player to endorse their program or product. This again increases the market value of the player. For instance, Manchester United may just have to pay a meagre sum to its employees as they hire only few people but they earn revenue of £1 million per game, which is much higher than what they pay .

Bargaining Power From the point of view of the bargaining theory, a player who has a unique and commendable skill sets and is popular with the media would be in a better position to bargain with the clubs while a transfer cost is being determined . The reason being, even the player is aware of the amount of revenue he can fetch for the club through good performance on the field as well as through sponsorships.

Further, the marginal productivity of a player is not assessable. But a good player can help his team to perform better and therefore, the skills he has a footballer would help the team to gain a higher position in the league matches which would increase the popularity of the club. For instance, Messi is a great asset for Barcelona, as he almost singlehandedly helps the club win, as well as become the champion.

We will write a custom Essay on Price of Football Players specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A player of his calibre would definitely fetch a higher price for he has a higher level of skill sets and performance to offer . Therefore, a player who has the potential to make the club win or reach the finals or semi-finals of the premiere leagues would definitely have a higher bargaining power as well as price.

Sponsorship Another aspect that has a strong influence on the price of the football players is the sponsorship that he can draw. For instance, David Beckham, Messi, or Christiano Ronaldo is the poster boys of all big companies who are the primary sponsors of football.

As these players are immensely popular with the football watching and non-watching audience, they have a higher endorsement price that eventually goes to the club. Therefore, if a player is media friendly and is priced high by the media, he would eventually cost high to the clubs too.

Other Factors Another factor that may have an influence on the transfer cost of the players is their degree of competitiveness. The clubs in the English Premier League are highly competitive and they vigorously compete against each other for a good player. Therefore, when the demand for the good is very competitive, this would increase the price of the product, supply being constant.

High bidding on a player from the top clubs also results in higher costs of players. Furthermore, there are rich clubs who are willing to pay a very high price for the right player and this knowledge in the market increases the expectation as well as the price of the footballers.

Price of a player is dependent on various factors. However, the whole mechanism of the bidding prices and the price is determined through the process of demand and supply interaction as explained through economic theories.

References Andrear, L. 2007, Are football players paid too much? Web.

Bowman, B. 2011, Is international football migration simply another type of labour migration? Web.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Price of Football Players by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Devecioğlu, S. 2011, The Valuation of Human Capital in the Football Player Transfer Market. Web.

Dobson, S.


Academic Integrity Journal Report writing essay help: writing essay help

Academic integrity is a noble ethic which all educational administrators, instructors and students need to observe Recently, there have been several incidents of cheating which have compromised the quality of education offered in several learning institutions.

Cheating and plagiarism are dishonest academic practices which affect educational standards negatively. This paper will discuss how cheating and plagiarism affect academic practices in different learning environments.

Many learning institutions in the country are affected by incidents of cheating and other academic malpractices. Students cheat in exams due to different reasons. Many students cheating to enable them get good grades after their exams have been marked. They cannot tolerate failure because they feel it has a negative impact on their reputation.

They resort to cheating to avoid being held responsible for their academic shortcomings. Students are tempted to cheat in exams to satisfy their teachers’ and parents’ expectations. Parents exert a lot of pressure on their children to perform well at school, which drives them to cheat in exams. Some parents do not take failure by their children in examinations, lightly (Daly).

They scold their children whenever they receive poor grades in school. Parents need to encourage their children to improve their academic performance, even when they fail. This will reduce the pressure which students have to deal with in educational institutions.

Teachers and other education professionals need to observe high moral standards in their duties to discourage students from cheating. Academic dishonesty reflects negatively on an instructor’s professionalism because it shows that he or she failed to prepare students for exams. Instructors need to understand their students to find out what drives them to cheat in exams.

They need to teach students to have integrity in learning to make them good citizens in future. Academic dishonesty needs to be discouraged to make students learn virtues of hard work, patience and resilience. Students who are morally upright are willing to accept results they get after sitting for their exams. Students need to be made aware on how cheating impacts negatively on their future (Strauss).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some students register good grades in college but they are unable to perform responsibilities assigned to them at work. Students who cheat in college examinations fail to acquire skills to help them perform their work responsibilities effectively.

Educational authorities need to put in place strict measures to curb academic dishonesty. Students and teachers who engage in cheating and plagiarism need to be punished to make them stop this habit. Harsh penalties need to be imposed to make more instructors and their students aware of the consequences of cheating. This approach will serve as a deterrent to academic dishonesty.

Educational authorities need to come up with laws that criminalize cheating to ensure the habit does not take root in many institutions. Instructors who are found to abet or encourage cheating by students need to have their teaching licenses revoked.

This will make them take their professional responsibilities more seriously. Administrators and other stakeholders in educational institutions, need to discourage their students from cheating, to ensure they maintain high levels of integrity in their studies (Strauss).

Academic dishonesty is a critical issue which needs to be tackled effectively by all education professionals in the country. Teaching professionals who supervise and evaluate examinations need to be more vigilant to ensure students do not engage in any form of cheating. Educational institutions need to work with relevant authorities to recommend how examinations.

This will ensure questions which students are asked are not very complex. Students should only sit for exams which conform to their levels of education and syllabus coverage. Robbins reveals that students are motivated to cheat when they feel exam questions are too complex for their understanding.

This makes them resort to cheating to help them pass their exams (Robbins). Educational experts who formulate exam questions need to liaise with teachers and other curriculum experts to ensure students sit for appropriate exams.

We will write a custom Report on Academic Integrity Journal specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Collaborations between teachers, examination boards and curriculum experts help to reduce cheating incidents in educational institutions. Students need to be told which sections of the learning curriculum are examinable, to enable them prepare for exams properly. This will reduce the temptation that drives them to cheat in examinations.

Recently, Washington DC, Atlanta and Texas have been in the news for wrong reasons because of rampant cheating in exams by high school and college students (Robbins). One of the leading academic institutions the country, Harvard, has also been affected by a cheating scandal. Investigations which were carried out revealed that some students plagiarized answers and others copied their friends’ work.

This scandal has tarnished the reputation of the institution. This shows how academic honesty has become widespread and need to be controlled before educational standards deteriorate.

In conclusion, all stakeholders in educational institutions need to work harder to reduce incidents of cheating by students. This will discourage students from engaging in academic malpractices which affect educational standard in the country. This will reduce cheating incidents in academic institutions thereby improving learning outcomes.

Works Cited Daly,Tim. “Atlanta Cheating Scandal: Why Don’t More Kids Cheat?” Huffington Post. Hufffington Post, 29 Apr. 2013. Web.

Robbins, Rebecca D. “Harvard Investigates “Unprecedented” Academic Dishonesty Case.” The Harvard Crimson. Harvard Crimson, 30 Aug. 2012. Web.

Strauss, Valerie. “How They Cheated on D.C Tests: Excerpts from New Report.” The Washington Post. Washington Post, 14 Apr. 2013. Web.


The Leadership Theory Research Paper custom essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Literature Review

Leadership Theory

Constructs of the Theory

Theory Evaluation

Works Cited

Introduction The exertion of influence or authority over a group in a given direction in order to achieve certain objectives constitutes leadership. There are different leadership theories that explain how leaders apply their skills in management. Numerous research papers have defined, analyzed, and explored several theories of leadership and their applications in daily life.

These research documents have dealt on the qualities that make one a successful leader among his/her employees or followers. Moreover, the leadership studies have paid due attention on perception of leaders and the feeling he/she commands from the group. Notably, people have been identifying leaders using their emotions and not on rational and objective basis.

The society has been considering those who succeed as best leaders irrespective of the conditions they have undergone in the leadership process (Mattiuzzi par. 6). However, the studies have failed to connect the nature of the environment, the characters of followers, and the leader-preferred style of ruling the people.

These are the primary foundation to success for any leader. This report will explore why some leadership styles succeed in other regions but not in others even if the same person implements the style in different environments.

Literature Review Leaders have their own ways of ruling; they can successfully realize their goals when in one place but fails to do so in another environment. This can occur even if one applies any leadership style. Leadership does not necessarily imply exercising authority on followers; it has to take into concern the behaviors of the followers, the mood of the leader and the situation at hand.

Environmental factors can affect the outcomes of leadership; for instance, societal culture and practices can be a source of impediment to the success of organizational leadership.

According to the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research Program (GLOBE), cultural differences between a leader and the followers can hinder or aid effectiveness and success of leadership (“How Cultural Factors Affect Leadership” par. 2). Markedly, whatever people can view as a source of success for leadership on one culture can be an obstacle to success on another culture.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Globally, businesses have different cultures even if they operate in the same industry; the employees and other stakeholders determine the organizational culture. To understand the influence of culture on leadership, we can imagine of an African executive who trains at a British School of Management and is required to run a Brazilian manufacturing facility in Japan.

The leader will have to comprehend the culture within which he/she exercise his/her authority and the employees’ perceptions on the leadership style. Clearly, one leadership style cannot fit in all situations. As a result, the African executive ought to develop vast leadership attributes that will accommodate the unique cultures (“How Cultural Factors Affect Leadership” par.4).

Leaders have to develop a transformational system of leadership in order to realize success in different situations. This broad charismatic character educes the interests of employees thus motivating them to go beyond the set targets of the organization at the expense of their self-interests.

Moreover, various cultures perceive communication skills differently; this alters what constitute a good communicator among different cultures. In America, managers prefer face-to-face communication when passing information to their subordinates. On the other hand, in Japan, managers mostly use memos to do the same.

Therefore, American culture reflects the individualistic behavior while Japanese cultures favor the collective custom of “face-saving” (“How Cultural Factors Affect Leadership” par. 8). Interestingly, a nonverbal cue of interruption, which most cultures consider as a rude way of communication is a means of conveying one’s interests in the Latin cultures.

Cultural dynamics are essential factors in the success of any leadership style. Since the world has different cultures, leaders should be ready to change from one situation to another; this approach could help them understand the nuances that exist in different cultures. The global economy requires leaders who are highly sensitive to different cultures.

Leadership Theory The contingency theory believes there is no single approach that leaders can apply in their leadership style since there are variations of circumstances. The situation is a key factor to successful leadership; therefore, leaders must change their behaviors and styles of leadership to fit to the environment.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The Leadership Theory specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fielder came up with this theory in 1964 after he noticed that successful leadership was eminent when leaders alter their behaviors to be in line with the environmental factors (Smith par. 2). Therefore, if one matches the organizational settings with the leadership styles, proper function becomes an automatic assurance. The key constrain to different leadership style is personality which is a fixed parameter in all individuals.

In his research, Fielder used the Least Preferred Coworker Scale (LPC) to rate leadership styles that leaders prefer (Smith par. 3). In this scale, leaders rate people they have worked with poorly. Those who score high in the scale prefer interpersonal relationship to other factors while leaders who score low favor task achievement at the expense of interpersonal relationships.

The task-oriented leaders have a poor relationship with their followers hence may not realize success in their management. Leaders must endeavor to match their personal traits with the task requirements and, at the same time, incorporate personal interactions with employees in order to be successful. The organizational environment also plays a role in the success of any leadership style.

It entails the parameters that exist within a firm that can aid the exertion of influence on a team. The subdivisions of the situational variables include position of power, nature of relationship between a leader and the members and task structure. Task structure is the level of job exactness among the employees.

Position power, on its self, refers to the level of authority that a leader commands within an organization due to his/her position. Lastly, leader-member relationship touches on the level of cooperation and recognition that employees or followers have towards their leader. Contingency theory holds that for leaders to realize the success, they should institute strong links between them and other stakeholders of their firms.

Further, leaders should specify jobs within the organization so that each employee performs different tasks. Leaders ought to carry out job specificity during job design process. Leaders should use their powers to fire and reward employees within their firms (Smith par. 8). These three scenarios inculcate two essential groups of leaders, which are relationship and task oriented leaders.

Therefore, depending on the situation at hand, leaders should evoke an appropriate leadership style. For example, in case of fire within their organizations, leaders will find it effective to apply the task-oriented approach since this will create fast response hence not delaying outcomes.

In blue-collar jobs, task oriented relationship becomes appropriate since this group of employees requires job specification and direction. At the same time, the leader must maintain a strong relationship with the workers; for instance, by rewarding employees who achieve high outputs. Predictable environments such as research institutions favor relationship-oriented style of leadership.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Leadership Theory by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In these scenarios, employees expect little or no interference from their leaders on the requirements of their jobs (Smith par. 13). For that reason, leaders will have to develop a strong working relationship with their employees.

These different scenarios at hand reveal that one cannot group leaders as successful or unsuccessful without considering the numerous parameters that affect leadership outcomes. A leader cannot be effective in all situations, but by altering their leadership style to match the appropriate situation, he/she can realize success.

Constructs of the Theory The main constructs of this theory are classified into dependent and independent factors. The dependent factors are efficiency and organizational performance (“Contingency Theory”). Efficiency is the rate at which the leadership style respond to various impediments that arise within the organization. Organizational performance measures the output that firms records within a given period under a leadership style.

When leaders match their traits with the situations in the environment, they are likely to record growth in their capacities. Independent constructs include technology, strategy, firm’s size, and culture (“Contingency Theory”). Technology is the innovations that leaders institute in their organizations so that they can match the competitive market.

For example, the use of online shopping where customers can view and order new products has become common among many companies. Strategy involves the plans that organizations put to guide their future operations. It also involves environmental screening and forecasting; these programs enable firms to predict into the future thus gaining competitive advantage over their competitors.

Theory Evaluation Contingency theory represents a state of relationship that exist between a leader and his/her followers. A strong relationship between a leader and the subordinates will result to high output. Moreover, it connects the task and the leadership styles that leaders can adopt. Leaders who tend to be task-oriented in their leadership will find their style remarkably appropriate under circumstances that require urgency like fire outbreaks.

The theory assumes that the ability of any leader to guide successfully is dependent on situational parameters such as the employees’ behaviors and capabilities and the leader’s leadership preference style (“Contingency Theory” par. 1). Unsuccessful leaders are those who do not consider the above factors during their reign.

Again, success is not a-one directional initiative; it requires multi-purpose approaches that a leader must be willing to follow. The above constructs represents reality in their own measure. For instance, efficient leaders are at high levels of recording positive output in comparison to inefficient leaders.

Additionally, an organization that records low performance has inefficient leaders who are not flexible to changes in the culture and structure of the system. The relationships in the contingency theory are logical as it starts with the leader to employees and finally with other stakeholders in the organization.

Contingency theory relates to situational theory of leadership in the aspect of no one way of successful leadership. However, the latter emphasizes on behaviors that leaders ought to accept while contingency theory includes other parameter like capability of a leader. This theory is parsimonious as it identifies other factors that can affect leadership outputs. It does not rely on one parameter like situational theory.

I will test this theory on organizations that are located in different counties with diverse cultures. On the quantitative aspect, I will use a small organization and a large company to test the outcomes of my theory.

This theory can help current global executives to guide employees from diverse cultures towards realizing the organizational goals (Karthikaeya). In addition, managers will be free to exercise their leadership skills worldwide with ease.

Works Cited Contingency Theory. Changing minds and persuasion. Changing Minds, n.d. Web.

Contingency Theory. IS Theory. Brigham Young University, 15 Nov. 2011. Web.

How Cultural Factors Affect Leadership. [email protected] Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, 23 July 1999. Web.

Karthikaeya, Paul. “Leadership styles and theories.” SlideShare Inc, 15 Dec. 2010. Web.

Mattiuzzi, Paul. “Leadership Research: are we asking the right questions?.” Everyday Psychology. N.p., 18 July 2008. Web.

Smith, Carolyn. “Contingency Theory of Leadership.” ArticlesBase., 25 Feb. 2010. Web.


Business-Level and Corporate-Level Strategies Research Paper best essay help: best essay help

The beverage industry has several players that strive to out do each other in order to gain competitive advantage. This report will discuss both the business level strategy and the corporate level strategy of The Coca-Cola Company. This company has over 500 brands and has branches in over 200 countries.

Some of the brands include coke zero, diet coke, sprite, powerade, coca-cola among others (Coca-Cola Journey, n.d.). It has remained operational for the last 126 years and controlled the beverage industry amidst competition from their competitors.

Business-level strategies encompass the initiatives that organizations take towards giving quality products to their customers. Giving value to customers raises the level of customers’ satisfaction thus enabling a company to gain competitive advantage over its competitors in the dynamic and global market. Firms must identify their customers, understand their needs, and set how they intend to meet or satisfy these needs (Finlay, 2000).

The Coca-Cola Company on its part has employed differentiation strategy that distinct them from other firms in the industry. This strategy involves using unique features on products instead of lowering the overall products prices. Their unique products have created value in themselves. Moreover, their products have non-price attributes hence do not attract a premium payment from customers.

In ensuring that the consumers remain loyal and committed to continuing using their brands, the company applies distinctive marketing and sales promotion concepts. For instance, their dominance on the Digital Satellite Television (DStv) can attest to this unique style of marketing as they involve various consumers in the advertisements. Those who rely on modern technology will meet the advertisements on Facebook and Twitter.

In addition, Coca Cola uses light bottles for packing their products. Customers tend to like unique and different shapes; light bottles enable consumers to purchase products at any time even when travelling. The launch of plastic bottles reveals this desire to meet the customers’ needs at all events. This innovative idea has made it difficult for competitors like the Pepsi Company to match the levels of this company.

Additionally, the company has enticed consumers by introducing the Coca Cola Free Style machine that helps consumers to mix and produce their own beverage of different flavors (Coca-Cola Journey, n.d.).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Coca-Cola Company has also employed cost leadership strategy in its operations. The large size of the company has enabled it to offer numerous brands at relatively low prices as compared to their competitors. The company can practice this strategy since it has a large volume of production thus lowering their costs of production.

In the end, they will still make profit and sustain competitions from other firms that enter the market. Moreover, if suppliers increase their prices, the company will be at an advantaged position to adjust to the new prices by effecting the changes on consumers with ease. In case of economic instabilities, Coca Cola can remain operational given the internal efficiency and capability to lower the cost of their products and still make profit.

The differentiation strategy is the best option for the long-term success of Coca Cola as it has enabled the company to be distinctive from its competitors. However, the company should continue introducing unique products that will maintain their public identity over their competitors.

The introduction of new beverage brands is essential since the differentiation strategy is prone to imitation by the competing companies within the industry. This brand loyalty remains undisturbed even if the company increases their prices. Further, the company has the assurance of continued profitability even if another beverage company enters the industry.

This will occur if Coca Cola does not alter the nature of their products since loyalty and trust among the consumers will be difficult to overcome (Coca-Cola Journey, n.d.). Naturally, customers are always skeptical of the products of a new company that enters the market; therefore, it is almost impossible to withdraw the Coca Cola’s customers within a short time.

Customers tend to value quality that satisfies their needs; as a result, the company will be able to raise their prices and maintain or improve the quality of their brands. Customers brand loyalty will make them lowly sensitive to price changes provided the company meets their needs.

From this perspective, Coca Cola will record high sales thereby continuing to gain competitive advantage over their competitors in the beverage industry (Coca-Cola Journey, n.d.).

We will write a custom Research Paper on Business-Level and Corporate-Level Strategies specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Corporate level strategy offer guidance to companies in totality. All strategic decisions that firms make are incorporated in the corporate strategic plans. This level of strategy discusses factors that can affect the performance of a company and its competitors at present and in the future (Finlay, 2000). After a thorough forecasting, firms design strategies that may enable them go over these challenges.

Corporate level strategy has some subdivisions. A stability strategy or value-neutral strategy exists where a firm decides to maintain its situation signifying that it is satisfied with its present situation. A growth strategy embarks on business expansion. There is also the typical growth strategy or value-creating strategy that encompasses concentration strategy and vertical integration strategy.

Under concentration strategy, a firm enters the market by offering efficient services for a limited brand while vertical integration involves additional responsibilities like distribution and supply of products. From the analysis of the company’s annual report of 2011-2012, it is evident that the best corporate-level strategy that Coca Cola should continue using is the value-creating strategy.

In the company’s website, it has indicated that it has been steering towards maintaining their customers in all their branches worldwide. It is also clear that the company has been attempting to increase its market share by introducing other brands in the market. Moreover, the company has been diversifying its products by offering varieties such that consumers can have the power to choose their preferred product.

Value creation remains the best option for long-term success since the current global market has dynamic consumers who experience drastic changes in tastes and preferences.

The strategy will enable Coca Cola to remain up to date in the market hence maintaining a competitive edge over its perennial competitors like Pepsi. This strategy coupled with the differentiation strategy will continue making the company profitable even if several beverage companies enter the market.

Competitive environment is the external system in which a business operates. For competition to exist, different businesses must share the same market in selling their products (Finlay, 2000). For instance, in the beverage industry, Coca Cola is facing competition from the Pepsi Company. Pepsi is also committed to achieving financial and even leaving a positive mark on the society.

Some of its 22 brands include Tropicana, walkers, Doritos, Fritolay among others (PepsiCo Americas Beverage, n.d.). Pepsi also has its presence in over 200 nations in the world. Given the diverse brands that Coca Cola produce, its nature of differentiation has made its numerous products overshadow the Pepsi’s brands.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Business-Level and Corporate-Level Strategies by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In addition, the ability of Coca Cola product consumers to mix and obtain over 100 different choices of drinks has made it difficult for Pepsi to match their strength on differentiation strategy. On cost leadership strategy, Pepsi has also initiated this approach in order to attract and retain customers.

It has taken advantage of the large economies of scale to practice the low-cost and differentiation program (PepsiCo Americas Beverage, n.d.). Since all organizations ought to be in touch with their marketing environment, Pepsi has taken this step so that it does not lose touch with its customers.

The crowded beverage market had also posed pressure to Coca Cola when Pepsi launched their plastic brands of Pepsi, aquafina water and mist natural. This prompted Coca Cola to move swiftly to introduce plastic bottles for their brands like coca-cola and coke zero.

On the corporate level strategy, Pepsi focuses on expansive model; for instance, it restructured its beverage and food business in the US to include regions like Canada and Mexico. It went ahead to create PepsiCo sectors in Europe and Asia. These initiatives created new gates of innovation and brand development.

In 2001, Pepsi recorded a growth of 13.9%, which was after it had acquired Quaker Oats in 2000 (PepsiCo Americas Beverage, n.d.). These two companies have almost the same strategies in both the business and corporate levels. After a close comparison of the initiatives by the two companies, I think that the Pepsi Company has an upper hand in experiencing success in the long-term.

Pepsi’s actions of acquiring other beverage-related companies will enable consumers to link the relationships between the products. Coca Cola should also move to cooperate with other beverage companies that produce alcoholic drinks like whiskey since most consumers order for coca-cola and whiskey.

Coca Cola has not addressed this weakness while its competitor is continuing to collaborate with these alcoholic companies. Moreover, the few brands that Pepsi produce cannot confuse consumers on their preferred brands. At the same time, new customers will take the shortest time possible to choose a brand they want to consume.

Slow cycle markets are markets where resources are protected against external competition. It is a form of monopoly where one company can produce unique products thus dominating the market (Finlay, 2000). Pepsi’s approaches will not fit in the slow cycle type of market since lack of competition may not impel them to work in order to gain competitive advantage over their competitors within the industry.

In this market, I would prefer Coca Cola over Pepsi as the former has well-established historical brands and orchestrated plans on how to maintain the loyalty of their consumers. The market dominance will not create competition for the Pepsi Company that expects to realize its long-term success. On the other hand, in fast cycle markets, competition is eminent among companies in attempting to control the market.

This scenario will force Pepsi to continue strategizing on how to gain competitive advantage over its competitors. In this market, competitive advantage takes several steps and requires strict management that can sustain the firm in order to achieve its long-term goals. Even though there may be exploitation in the process, Pepsi will realize high returns over time as it will continue moving to the next advantage level.

References Coca-Cola Journey. (n.d.). The Coca-Cola Company. Web.

Finlay, P. N. (2000). An Introduction to Business and Corporate Strategy. Toronto: Pearson Education Limited.

PepsiCo Americas Beverage. (n.d.). Web.


Looking for a Job Essay (Critical Writing) writing essay help: writing essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Places to Look for a Job



Introduction It is the dream of every student to find a well paying job after graduating from college. Times are hard, opportunities are few, and one must really hunt for desired jobs. This paper seeks to enlighten job seekers on the areas to look for jobs. Five potential areas will feature prominently in the paper.

Places to Look for a Job College internships have often translated to permanent jobs. In this regard, students need to take their internships seriously. A survey carried out by revealed that 45 percent of students who had previously engaged in internship received appointment letters to permanent jobs in 2003 (Randinelli, 2004).

The easiest way to convert internship into a permanent job is by working diligently on the tasks allocated regardless of the amount of pay during internship.

Secondly, it is crucial to solicit for feedback from superiors and other staff members during the internship (Randinelli, 2004). It is important for the intern to network as much as possible during the internship. In addition, it is significant to keep in touch with employees and superiors on completing the internship (Randinelli, 2004).

Cold calling is another way of looking for jobs (Randinelli, 2004). It involves sending resumes to any company that interests the job seeker. The job seeker does not wait for advertisements but randomly sends resumes to different companies.

It is important to contact the person who actually hires employees by sending resumes directly to them (Randinelli, 2004). Later on, the job seeker should call the person in charge to enquire on any progress or vacancy.

Another way of seeking for job is enrolling in a career center (Randinelli, 2004). This method has produced about 12 percent of all job appointments by way of interviews in the college. These centers coordinate on campus job placements by various companies and offer programs designed to assist students match up with potential employers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The centers receive resumes from potential employees and key them in a database from which employers pick those that fit their need. The career centers have job advertisements from time to time. In addition, the centers assist the job seekers in drafting quality resumes. Some centers specialize in distinct disciplines making it easier for corporations to locate potential employees based on the discipline (Randinelli, 2004).

The internet is another area through which one can seek a job. The internet sites contain thousands of advertisements of job opportunities in various corporations (Randinelli, 2004). It is easy to seek for a job of choice on the internet by typing the preferred job. These online jobs are usually more detailed as they include the company profile and personalized methods of placing an application.

Job sites have the option of subscribing to updates, which the subscriber receives automatically through their email address on a fixed period like weekly, daily or monthly (Randinelli, 2004). Other than uploading one’s resume through customized templates on companies’ websites, the same websites display existing vacancies and the job seeker easily applies for the job through a template (Randinelli, 2004).

Conclusion Every job seeker must be aggressive and patient. Various places assist the job seeker in getting jobs or applying for such jobs. As such, the job seeker should acquaint himself with such places like the internet, internships, and career centers and be ready to cold call with the aim of securing a position in a company.

Reference Randinelli, T. (2004). The Ultimate Job Search Guide. Career Watch , 44-47.


Ethics in the Film “A Time to Kill” Analytical Essay essay help

One of the main characters in the movie “A Time to Kill” is Carl (, 2013). Carl realizes that some goons have assaulted his daughter sexually, a few hours after it occurred (, 2013). He immediately runs home to rescue the young girl from the traumatizing experience. It is upon arriving home that he faces an ethical dilemma. He is stuck between dealing with the case individually and reporting the case to the courts.

After thinking carefully, Carl resolves to deal with the two suspects individually (, 2013). He reacts by killing the two suspects on the spot.

Carl decides to kill the two men when he recalls a case that had happened the previous year, whereby four white men raped a dark-skinned girl and the court dismissed the case (, 2013). According to Carl, the verdict reached by the court was unfair. As a result, Carl undermines the possibility of the courts doing justice to the two men this time round.

He views the actions of the two white men as a plan by white Americans to terrorize the African- American people. Therefore, he decides to take the law into his own hands (, 2013). By so doing, Carl hopes to protect all children of the African origin, including his own daughters and the entire black society from the injustices of the white men.

I choose to explain this action through the theory of utilitarianism. The principle of utilitarianism emphasizes on the need to rely on reason and not metaphysics. This principle originated from the ideas of John Stuart Mill that the correctness or fairness of an action can be recognized by examining its outcomes or consequences (West, 2004).

If the results are favorable, Mill considers an action or decision as moral. On the other hand, Mill considers an action or decision as immoral if the consequences are undesirable. Therefore, the theory of utilitarianism is a “teological principle or a consequential theory” (Carroll


Relevance of Skills in Services Essay essay help free: essay help free

Table of Contents Introduction

Relevance of Skills in the Service Industry

Job Complexity

Task Discretion



Introduction In the contemporary business environment, it is vital for people to possess skills that would enable them perform their activities efficiently. Academic knowledge may help in gaining some of these skills. However, some skills are outside the realm of academia (Rao, Tang


Islamic Concepts of Humiliation Expository Essay best essay help

Humiliation is a sensitive issue in many Islamic societies because it influences how Muslims relate with the people who have different religious beliefs. Many Muslims are very sensitive to any action they consider humiliating to their religion and dignity. Any violation of this dignity provokes feelings of retaliation against people or societies perceived to be enemies of Islam and its teachings.

The issue of humiliation is strongly related to gender because religious teachings have a big influence on cultural practices, which many Muslims observe (“Islamism Humiliation” 2). Both men and women living in Islamic communities are expected to observe these norms to fulfill their religious obligations. This paper will discuss the role gender plays in entrenching Islamic concepts of humiliation across the world.

Many Islamic societies value the role women play in their progress. The female gender is regarded as a valued treasure, which needs to be protected from any form of shame and humiliation. In many Islamic societies, any act of humiliation is taken as an insult on the ability men to protect their community.

Masculinity is valued in Islamic religious teachings because it is believed that men help protect Islam and its believers from unwanted foreign influences (Moisi 10). Muslims believe that masculine power deters people of other faiths from humiliating Islamic communities and people who live there.

In many Islamic societies, humiliation is taken as an affront to their men as it is compromises their ability to protect the dignity of their faith and its believers (“Islamism Humiliation” 12). Any act of humiliation is considered as a desecration of Islamic lands, likely to expose people living there to corrupt and immoral foreign influences.

Men living in Islamic societies feel motivated to revenge against perceived perpetrators of humiliating acts, which their societies go through. The concept of masculinity in Islamic societies mandates men to do all they can to maintain the dignity of their communities. They are required to protect women and children from any harm that may violate their dignity.

Therefore, they are required to restore the dignity of their communities by retaliating against those who, they consider, have humiliated them (“Islamism Humiliation” 14). Retaliatory humiliation is a practice that is deeply entrenched because it shows men living in Islamic societies as courageous and honorable.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More They believe they are backed by God’s spiritual guidance, which enables them to easily vanquish their perceived enemies (Hafez 103). Retaliatory humiliation is used to make ‘enemies’ of Islam learn the wrath that awaits them if they dare offend Islamic believers and their communities.

Female chastity is highly valued in Islamic societies and any violation of a woman’s dignity provokes feelings of resentment and shame. Women are considered weak and vulnerable and need to be protected from any physical or psychological harm (Patai 78). Humiliation violating a woman’s purity can only be restored through retaliation.

This makes the male members of the society, in which such an event may happen, feel ashamed and powerless. They are mandated to restore this dignity by retaliating against people or organizations that humiliate Muslims. The rhetoric of humiliation in Islamic societies is used by women to show support for the male members of their society as they retaliate against perceived enemies of Islam.

In the case of the Quran burning incident in Afghanistan, rhetoric humiliation was used to denounce activities of US soldiers who destroyed Holy Scriptures. This portrayed insensitivity shown by US soldiers and alienated them from this society.

Works Cited Hafez, Muhammad M. “Martyrdom Mythology in Iraq: How Jihadists Frame Suicide terrorism in Videos and Biographies.” Terrorism and Political Violence, 19 (2007): 95-115. Print.

“Islamism, Humiliation and the Political Mobilization of Masculinity.” Euben Essay (2013): 1-45. Print.

Moisi, Dominique. “The Clash of Emotions: Fear, Humiliation, Hope and the New World Order.” Foreign Affairs, 86.1(2007): 8-12. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on Islamic Concepts of Humiliation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Patai, Raphael. The Arab Mind. Tucson: Recovery Resources Press, 2007. Print.


Demystifying Chinese Art and Its Relation to Culture Analytical Essay online essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

History of Chinese Art

Social Aspect of Ancient Chinese Paintings

Painting as Fine Art


Works Cited

Introduction Anthropologists strive to understand the lives of people in various regions. Therefore, they may use various tools to understand the lives of these people. Art is one of the major tools that anthropologists use to understand the lives of people in various regions. Generally, people use art for aesthetic purposes. However, art may have also have hidden information about the culture or life of the artist.

This is because artists usually use art to express their feelings and emotions. In so doing, they usually create artworks that strive to capture their lives and surroundings. Different artists use different styles to express their ideas using their artworks. The study of ancient art may help in providing insights into the lives of people during the periods. China is one of the countries that have a distinct ancient artwork.

The color and pattern that the Chinese used in their ancient artworks was very distinct. In addition, the ancient Chinese artists ensured that their artworks had an element of elegance and simplicity. The simplicity of the artworks may help in providing insights into the lives of people during various ancient Chinese dynasties. In addition, the artworks may provide insights into the life of the royal society of the ancient Chinese dynasties.

Artists may use their artworks to express their feelings and emotions. Therefore, a study of various artworks by a certain artists may help in providing insights into the life of the artist. The study of ancient Chinese art may help in providing insights into the culture of people during the ancient Chinese dynasties. In addition, it would help in determining the social norms of people during the ancient period.

History of Chinese Art Archaeological sources show that China started practicing art many centuries ago. The Chinese used different media to practice their painting. During the early period of China’s history, most artists used wall paintings to express their feelings and emotions. However, since very little ancient Chinese architecture has survived, the wall paintings have greatly reduced over time.

In addition, in ancient China, most artists did their paintings on screens. The screens acted as portable walls. However, very few screens have survived. During the Song dynasty, artists started painting in more portable mediums. These included the hanging scrolls and hand scrolls. These artworks were very durable. In fact, these artworks are some of the major ancient Chinese artworks that exist to date.

These paintings usually provide vital information about the customs and details of the life of people in the ancient Chinese society. Various texts from the ancient Chinese periods are usually unable to capture these details. Therefore, the study of the paintings may provide invaluable insights into the lives of people during the early periods.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More During the ancient periods, most people valued the aesthetic aspect of the paintings. Paintings acted as one of the highest cultural achievements. Therefore, the study of the ancient Chinese paintings would help in determining the aesthetic values and tastes of people during the ancient periods.

During the Song dynasty, painting developed greatly. The Song dynasty was the high point of the development of China’s fine art. During this period, landscape themes started becoming a dominant form of painting.

Social Aspect of Ancient Chinese Paintings During the Song dynasty, there was a significant expansion of the acceptable forms of paintings. Painters started using their artworks to depict the daily life of people more frequently. One may decipher more information from the paintings than from the texts from this period. The study of the paintings would help in understanding the dressing, social interaction, and trade of people during this period.

The study of the paintings from the Song dynasty shows the differences between the urban and rural life. From the paintings during this period, it is clear that trade was the major economic activity of people living in urban areas. People sold their wares in shops or open markets. A sophisticated transport network helped in the economic expansion of the urban areas.

Movement by land was one of the major methods that goods moved from one location to another. On the other hand, large-scale merchants and itinerant peddlers moved various goods via the Grand Canal. Paintings during the Song dynasty show that fortunetellers were prominent personalities in the society.

People sought fortunetellers to determine the right time to undertake various activities that were important in their lives. These included when to start a business or hold a funeral. When couples wanted to get married, they usually requested the services of fortunetellers. Fortunetellers used the characters of their names to determine whether the match was favorable.

The study of ancient Chinese art would help in determining the means of transportation that people used during the ancient periods. From various ancient Chinese artworks, it is clear that donkeys and oxen were the main beasts of burden in ancient China. During the ancient period, donkeys and oxen were the main beasts of burden that helped in the transit of goods to various locations.

We will write a custom Essay on Demystifying Chinese Art and Its Relation to Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People used different types of carts to transport their goods using the beasts of burden. Generally, oxen carried heavier loads than donkeys. People carried smaller goods using pole baskets. This enabled them to avoid the expenses of maintaining a beast of burden.

Sedan chairs, donkeys, and horses helped in the transportation of people. Women usually moved around using covered sedan chairs. On the other hand, officials or scholars usually rode on horsebacks. Therefore, horses were a sign of royalty. They were more expensive than other beasts of burden.

Ancient Chinese art provides insights into the street life of people during this period. From various paintings, it is clear that women were not a common feature of the street life. Women joined members of the public during holidays or various special events. Men were the dominant figures in most streets.

Most merchants or street traders were men. The huge presence of men in the streets necessitated the establishment of places where men could relax. This offered the men with a cool environment away from the hassles of the streets.

Teahouses were some of the major establishments that provided men with a place to relax. Teahouses were a place where friends could gather as they take refreshments. In addition, they provided people with entertainment. This helped to relax the nerves of people after a busy day.

During the Song dynasty, domestic life started becoming a common feature of most paintings. Women and children were the major specialty of most artists who depicted domestic life in their paintings. Artist from this period usually used artistic effects to depict the personality or class of an individual. The artists used clothing to portray the social status of people in the society.

In addition, artists used paintings to depict the social interaction of people during this period. Paintings of children were some of the most popular paintings during this period. People considered paintings of children as an appropriate theme for New Year’s pictures.

Throughout the history of China, there is very little information on the lives, habits, and appearance of various women. However, during the Song and Yuan dynasties various artists depicted women in various social functions. Therefore, these pictures may provide insights into the lives of women during this period. Most paintings did not depict women in close proximity to men.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Demystifying Chinese Art and Its Relation to Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Women could only interact with men in very few social functions. Most artists did not depict women from lower social classes (Huang and Zürcher 239). In addition, they restricted the views of people from lower social classes. This is a clear example of the social segregation that was present in ancient China.

Funerary art was one of the major forms of art in ancient China. Tomb murals were very common. Artists usually used the funerary art to idealize various subjects. In addition, the artists used funerary art to express their views on various issues facing the society. These included materialism, royalty, and honesty.

A study of the paintings of a certain artist may provide insights into the life of the artist. Usually when artists were in a sad period of their lives, they painted paintings that depicted the sad situations.

On the other hand, when they were joyous, they painted paintings that depicted the joy in their lives. Use of poetry in the paintings enabled the artists to express their views more clearly (Elkins 80). Supporting positive behaviors enabled the artists to help in improving the welfare of the society.

Painting as Fine Art During the Song dynasty, landscape painting started becoming popular among various artists. Mountains were the major feature of most landscape paintings. This is because the Chinese considered mountains as sacred features. According to the Chinese, mountains were the homes of the immortals. This is because they were very close to the heavens.

Landscape paintings provided people with a view that was different from their urban or official life. In addition, landscape paintings depicted various types of trees that existed during the period. Most landscape paintings did not give more emphasis to life in the paintings.

In addition, there was very little emphasis on the manmade structures in the landscape paintings. Landscape paintings that depicted various manmade structures strived to show how the manmade structures fit with their natural surroundings.

Most artists who painted landscape paintings were court painters. Scholars accounted for the largest percentage of the court painters. These painters included poems in their paintings. The poems helped in providing information about the paintings. This enabled the artists to express their ideas more clearly. Landscape painting is the major form of painting that incorporates poems.

Various artists used the poems in the paintings to provide moral teachings to the society. The poems helped in reinforcing various positive behaviors. Therefore, a study of the paintings from this period may show the norms of the society. In addition, it may show the beliefs of people during this period.

Confucianism is the major factor that affected the behaviors of people in ancient China. Therefore, the study of the paintings may provide insights into the beliefs of Confucianism during this period.

Rulers in various ancient Chinese dynasties valued paintings. These rulers sponsored various paintings. In addition, they commissioned paintings in various locations. Court artists created various decorative patterns in palaces. This helped in improving the appearance of the palaces. The paintings depicted the grandeur of the palaces. In addition, certain paintings depicted the leadership style of the rulers.

Various rulers ensured that court painters possessed exemplary painting skills. Therefore, they ensured that painters received training. Training enabled the artists to improve the technical finesse of their artworks.

In addition, it enabled them to use different styles to improve the quality of their paintings (Ebrey 165). Court painters had tests and ranks. Copying old masterpieces enabled court painters to improve their painting skills. In addition, it enabled them to preserve the old masterpieces.

Conclusion A study of ancient Chinese paintings may provide insights into the culture of the people during this period. According to ancient Chinese paintings, donkeys and oxen were the main beasts of burden. In ancient China, women appeared in public on very few occasions. Men crowded the streets of various urban centers. Ancient Chinese paintings also had an aesthetic value. Various ancient rulers commissioned paintings in their palaces.

The paintings helped in improving the physical appearance of the palaces. Incorporation of poetry into paintings enabled artists to express their views clearly. Artists used poetry to reinforce various positive behaviors. The study of ancient Chinese paintings may help in providing insights into the social norms of people during this period.

Works Cited Ebrey, Patricia Buckley. The Cambridge illustrated history of China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.

Elkins, James. Chinese landscape painting as Western art history. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010. Print.

Huang, Junjie and Erik Zürcher. Time and space in Chinese culture. Danvers, MA: BRILL, 1995. Print.


Social Media as a Way to Capture the Present-Day Reality Analytical Essay writing essay help: writing essay help

Introduction: When Social Media Offers More than One Can Consume In the modern world, when social media has become an integral part of people’s lives, it seems practically impossible to imagine the humankind without the blogosphere, the existing social networks which can be considered another place for people to discuss and evaluate current events.

However, the effects of the existing social media appears to be quite controversial; while social media opens a whole lot of new opportunities, it also has spawned a number of discussions concerning its negative effects. Creating an imaginary world, yet offering more opportunities for communication, social media deserves to be looked at closer.

A Business Venture Ahead: Powered by the Blog Comments Among the numerous spheres which social media impacts to a considerable extent, business and entrepreneurship should be mentioned first.

Looking for a free promotion campaign

One of the most obvious choices to consider when deciding on the way to use social media for a company’s benefit is to create a basis for the promotion campaign out of it. If looking at the research conducted by Kriescher, one will notice that social media helps spreading the word about a number of issues starting with the local gossip and up to the recent developments in technology.

Hence, social media can be easily used as a means to push up sales and make a product more attractive, even if at first, it does not seem marketable and functional enough: “According to survey results, 88 percent of businesses are eager to start using social net-working primarily to advance business functionality” (Kriescher, 2009, p. 63).

When employees get angry

However, the above-mentioned does not mean that the strategies of involving more employees into sharing their ideas about the company will not stab the latter in the back later. According to the results of the recent research, the outcomes of employees’ negative posts in social network can seriously damage and even ruin the company’s reputation:

There are five principle worries that management has in regard to social networking: perceived loss in staff productivity, data leakage from staff gossiping freely in an open environment, damage to a company’s reputation, scams practiced by “cyber crooks,” and the open access to company information because of outdated passwords (Baker, Buoni, Fee


Joe Turner’s Come and Gone: Bynum Walker Analytical Essay essay help free

Joe Turner’s Come and Gone is an America play by August Wilson that chronicles the confrontations and fights of African Americans in the twentieth century. While dealing with the themes of racial discrimination, identity, and migration, the play also focuses on separate characters who are concerned with their searching for self-recognition and connection.

The themes of slavery and inequality, as well as protection of human rights, are brightly illustrated through Bynum Walker, one of the main heroes, a freed slave originating from the South and living at the Holly’s house.

Because Walker is a “conjure”, he is engaged with voodoo activities, which also indicates his affiliation to the African identity. In fact, Bynum Walker is a multi-faceted character that is considered as a mysterious personality who is endowed with unusual qualities.

The idea of identity and connection is explicitly represented through Walker’s portrayal in the play. He is among few protagonists who feel comfortable with his origins and who understand the importance of sustaining his identity. Therefore, the hero personifies the individuals’ constant searching for identity, as well as his aspiration to maintain traditions and customs from the past.

The actual representation of identity issues is also shown through depiction of some mysterious events, such as Bynum’s stories about inner song and shining man. By implementing this style of narration, Bynum prefers using the wisdom of previous generations in treating the surrounding world. His strong commitment to spiritual and historical heritage points to his full reliance on his ethnicity and identity.

The heron evident connection with the African heritage also reveals the theme of racial discrimination and identity. Bynum is described as a wise person in his sixties who has lived enough to realize his goals in life. Although the former slave had been separated from his origins, he still remembers of previous times, his roots and whom he was.

Understanding the flashbacks from the past allows Bynum to live the present life and shape certain values and opinions about people surrounding him. Therefore, he criticizes most of the African Americans, who ignore their heritage and who prefer living in accordance with the principles accepted in white society.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In the play, Bynum often refers to music that plays an important force facilitating the hero’s affiliation to the identity. Therefore, the hero often sings songs that characterize his attitude to the history of African slaves. In addition, Bynum’s singing through the play provides a clear picture of his spiritual and cultural relationship with his African heritage.

His signing, therefore, is attributed to his rich experience and wisdom; he seems to know African songs for all characters and occasions. By performing his songs, the hero emphasizes his strong commitment to the traditions and cultures he preserves.

In conclusion, Bynum walker is a form African slave who has been liberated. Despite his human rights are protected now, the hero still relies on his cultural and historic roots to sustain his identity. In addition, the hero pays much attention to the African songs that also constitute an inherent component of cultural heritage.

In such a manner, Bynum calls for retaining the wisdom and traditions of previous generation because they belong to one identity. Therefore, song symbolizes the sense of identity and connection of the protagonists of the play and defines their affiliation to the history ancestry.


Logistics: ATB Manufacturing Report (Assessment) best essay help: best essay help

Well-developed logistics system has strategic importance in terms of efficient product distribution and supply chain management. However, although mass merchandizing technique allows ATB Manufacturing company to stand the fast-growing competition, it creates challenges for developing appropriate logistics system and inventory control.

Within a broader network of a supply chain management, logistics is a multi-stage process that involves a number of such important operations as warehousing, transportation, materials handling, inventory, and packaging that are integrated under unified production process. Therefore, it requires a great amount of resources, including recruiting more staff and developing new human resources strategies (Shapiro 314).

In addition, advances in technology can also eliminate the communication problem between the logistics warehouses and delivery destination points so that each unit will be able to share all necessary information in the most efficient and timely manner.

The ATB Manufacturing company is a bright example illustrating what challenges it should face while developing mass merchandising strategy through development high quality inventory control (Aliawadi and Singh 184). In this respect, there should be an integrated logistics department that could coordinate all deliveries irrespective of destination and schedule.

With the above-described logistics challenges, the mass merchandising strategy should be reconsidered to decide what should be made to improve logistics process, including warehouse storage and delivery terms. In this respect, the criteria for the decision-making process should correlate with both mass trading and logistics to adjust to high competition.

In this respect, the ATB Manufacturing company should be more concerned with efficient supply chain management principle that can introduce a harmonized system of logistics, serving the basis for mass merchandising. As soon as the company learns the main aspects of logistics, the managers will be able to meet the highest requirements of customers, as well as take control of the costs (Gattorna 567).

Logistics creativity is also critical for enhancing communication between various supply chains of production and points of mass merchandising (Fernie 88). The existence of diverse consumer sectors testifies to the diversity of demand for goods and services.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Mass customization constitutes strong evidence of movement toward shifts in terms of large marketing segments with a high variety of services. The decision-making process should be interrelated with logistics department and mass distribution of products.

The rapid growth of competition introduces the necessity of developing efficient logistics metrics that could define what strategies and frameworks should be implemented in future.

Due to the fact that mass merchandising and logistics are premised on common features including delivery of goods, warehouse storage, and inventory control, the monitoring of these areas is indispensible for sustaining high quality of products distribution (Gattorna 567).

The effectiveness of the monitoring and controlling these departments depends on the successful performance of employees. In this respect, testing procedures and training programs should be introduced to assess the overall corporate cultural, level of interpersonal communication, and employee competence. These measures will allow the managerial staff to highlight possible gaps and eliminate them in future.

Technological innovation is vital for ensuring high quality work of logistics department. Consequently, the analysis of these aspects is possible through presenting inspection control, which can also contribute to the image of the company in general. Therefore, mass merchandising can also be checked on the basis of logistics characteristics, as well as the level of employees’ engagement into the production and distribution processes.

Works Cited Aliawadi, Satish C., and Rakesh Singh. Logistics Management. US: PHI Learning, n. d. Print.

Fernie, John. Logistics and Retail Management: Insights into Current Practice and Trends from Leading Experts. US: Kogan Page Publishers, 2004. Print.

We will write a custom Assessment on Logistics: ATB Manufacturing specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gattorna, John. Strategic Supply Chain Alignment: Best Practice in Supply Chain Management. US: Gower Publishing. 1998. Print.

Shapiro, Jeremy F. Modeling the Supply Chain. New York: Cengage Learning, 2007. Print.


Soft Systems Methodology Analytical Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

One of the 21st century’s foremost discursive aspects is the fact that, as time goes on, more and more people realize the essentially relativist significance of the very notion of methodology.

This is because, due to the recent breakthroughs in the fields of physics, psychology, cybernetics and sociology, the assumption that the practical application of a particular methodology is being concerned with discovering the de facto ‘truth’ can no longer be considered conceptually legitimate.

After all, these discoveries suggest that in this world, there is only the objectively existing reality and different informational models that describe the qualitative/discursive connotations of its observable emanations.

However, given the fact that the process of constructing methodologically sound informational models (theories) is being inevitably affected by biologically and environmentally defined cognitive predispositions, on the part of the concerned scientists, it is specifically the extent of these models’ practical usability, which should be regarded as the actual measure of their ‘truthfulness’.

Therefore, it is fully explainable why Peter Checkland’s Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) continues to become ever more popular, as a practical tool of addressing systemic issues with a strongly defined human factor to them – SSM appears thoroughly adjusted with the provisions of the earlier mentioned methodology-related discourse of modernity. In my paper, I will aim to explore the validity of this suggestion at length.

The main theoretical premise, upon which SSM is based, is the assumption that, unlike what it happened to be the case with non-human mechanistic systems, the dynamics within human systems (e.g., the collective of employees) are not being solely defined in regards to the qualitative specifications of these systems’ integral elements, but also in regards to the varying aspects of an ‘interconnectedness’ between the elements in question.

In their turn, the discursive features of this ‘interconnectedness’ never cease undergoing a spatial/qualitative transformation, as they reflect the process of people’s worldviews being continually adjusted, in accordance to what happened to be their carriers’ inborn cognitive predispositions and the situational quality of external circumstances, which affect the concerned individuals’ decision-making inclinations.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Hence, the SSM’s foremost conceptual postulate – those in charge of ensuring the functional integrity of a particular human system/organization, should not be concerned with finding a universally applicable ‘solution’ to what they perceive constitutes a performance-impending problem, but rather with identifying the problem’s discursive connotations.

As Checkland noted, “We had moved away from working with the idea of an ‘obvious’ problem which required solution, to that of working with the idea of a situation which some people, for various reasons, may regard as problematical” (2000, p. 15).

In its turn, this is supposed to establish objective preconditions for the extent of the affected people’s perceptual subjectivity, in regards to the problem in question, to be substantially reduced – hence, ‘empowering’ them, in the organizational sense of this word.

The SSM’s foremost methodological guiding-principles can be formulated as follows:

Assess the discursive significance of a particular ‘real-world’ situation by the mean of measuring the complexity of its integral parts.

Explore the identified relations via the applicable models of purposeful activity, based on explicit worldviews.

Conduct an inquiry by questioning the perceived situation, while using the models as a source of questions.

Formulate an approach towards improving the situation in question by identifying the scope of possible ‘accommodations’ (versions of the situation, with which the concerned stakeholders can be more or less comfortable).

Even a brief glance at these principles, allows us to pinpoint the main conceptual characteristic of SSM – as opposed to what it is being the case with the methodologies of ‘hard’ sciences, Checkland’s methodology implies its theoretical premises being the subject of a continual transformation/alteration.

This is because, while assessing the significance of ‘real-world’ situations, we invariably do it from our highly subjective existential perspectives, reflective of the essence of the relevant external circumstances, which affect the mechanics of our cognitive engagement with the surrounding reality.

Therefore, even though that the very name of Checkland’s methodological approach connotes the notion of ‘systemness’, within the SSM’s theoretical framework, this notion is not being concerned with the process of researches categorizing the essence of people’s responses to external stimuli.

We will write a custom Essay on Soft Systems Methodology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Rather, it is being concerned with the process of SSM’s practitioners identifying primary and secondary motivations behind the studied behavioral patterns, as ‘things in themselves’.

According to Ledington and Donaldson, “(In SSM), The use of the word ‘system’ is no longer applied to the world, it is instead applied to the process of our dealings with the world” (1997, p. 230). The consequential steps of how SSM’s practitioners go about increasing the efficiency of a particular ‘soft’ system’s functioning can be outlined as follows:

Practitioner formulates the planned transformation actions justification, its aims, and identifies the scope of associated activities.

Practitioner selects the activities that can be executed independently of others.

Practitioner selects the activities, the successful execution of which depends on the efficacious implementation of the independent ones, and analyzes the qualitative essence of emerging dependencies.

Practitioner reduces the number of established dependencies by removing the overlapping ones – hence, outlining the most resource-efficient method towards the tranformation’s implementation.

Hence, the essential components of SSM’s paradigm, commonly abbreviated as CATWOE:

Customers – individuals that may be potentially affected by the intended transformation, Actors – individuals in charge of the transformation’s implementation, transformation – the efficiency-facilitating process, ‘Weltanschauung’ – the qualitative aspects of the concerned parties’ worldviews, Owners – individuals capable of preventing the desired transformation from taking place, Environmental constraints – external circumstances, capable of affecting the pace of the transformation’s implementation (Hardman and Paucar-Caceres 2011).

By remaining thoroughly observant, as to the discursive implications of an interconnectedness between these elements, SSM’s practitioners are expected to be able to come up with a circumstantially justified plan for applying changes to the functioning of just about any ‘soft’ system.

The validity of SSM’s conceptual provisions can be easily illustrated in regards to what accounts for the specifics of a post-industrial living in Western countries, which in turn causes more and more middle-level managers to experience difficulties while on the line of executing their professional duties.

For example, even today, it represents a commonplace practice among many of these managers to believe that the extent of employees’ efficiency positively correlates with the amount of money they are being paid. However, it now became a well-established fact that the practice of increasing employees’ salaries does not necessarily result in increasing the quality of their professional performance.

The reason for this is apparent – as time goes on, people’s attitudes towards the very notion of ‘professional satisfaction’ continue to attain qualitatively new subtleties.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Soft Systems Methodology by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Whereas, the prospect of receiving an adequate salary may serve as a perfectly sound performance-stimulating incentive for individuals that suffer from economic hardships, this cannot be the case, once those that enjoy comparatively high standards of living are being concerned.

This is because, in full accordance with Maslow’s ‘theory of needs’, after having satisfied their ‘first-order’ existential desires (e.g., securing well-paid jobs and buying houses/apartments), people move on to seek the satisfaction of their’ second order’ and ‘third order’ desires, such as attaining self-actualization, for example (Sadri


Internship Report essay help site:edu

Table of Contents Executive Summary

Company Description

Functions of Different Departments

Internship activities

How Al Yamamah University prepared me for the internship

An assessment of the internship


Works Cited

Executive Summary Almutlaq Holding Company specializes in the manufacturing and selling of furniture. The vision of the company is to raise the level of performance and increased productivity locally and internationally. In realizing this long-term vision, the company is currently changing some activities in order to be a franchise system. This plan will cover the Gulf region and the Middle East on completion.

There is also a move to include Almutlaq Holding in the Saudi stock market to convert it from a closed-joint holding company into public company (Tong 550). This will enhance participation opportunities and financial securities for the Saudi citizens.

However, in the future, the company plans to choose business areas carefully based on the new and existing economic and social development variables in order to provide quality products and services to the consumers at reasonable costs depending on economic segments of society.

The company’s mission is to “develop the idea of showing, production, sales, and the endless work to raise efficiency and professionalism” (Green and Madison 106) to enhance economic development of the kingdom.

Based on this founding mission accompanied with the strong and professional supportive teams that manage its five vital departments (the IT department, the department of sales and marketing, procurement, accounting, and human resource), it has been registering a steady increase in sales and customers’ satisfaction.

It has also opened new companies, City. W Saudi Arabia, Sudair Furniture Factory, Real Estate Investment, and Almutlaq Co. Ltd to supply international and local furniture. Therefore, the report details the activities undertaken during the internship training at Almutlaq Holding Company.

The company attached its internship students to various departments depending on their areas of study. Having been attached to the accounting department, I had the pleasure to undertake the role of preparing financial statements, routine functions, inventory management, and promotion.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Company Description Almutlaq Holding,

HQ – Olaya Main St., Opp. Alandalus Market

Having been established under the name of Almutlaq Company Limited by Almutlaq in the mid 1960s, the Almutlaq Holding has been expanding gradually in its mission of manufacturing and selling furniture in the Arab Kingdom and the world at large.

Under the management of commitment, loyal, and hardworking second-generation leaders, the company has gained a great reputation among local and global consumers (Green and Madison 109).

Through the establishment of Real Estate Invest, Sudair Fur Factory, City Saudi Arabia, and Almutlaq Co. Ltd, the company specializes in the manufacturing and selling of home furnishings such as sofa sets and wooden cabinets to employees, retailers, wholesalers, and other manufacturers in the United Arab Kingdom.

Figure 1 represents the organizational chart of Almutlaq Holding. It comprises the top management: the company CEO, CEO office manager, and the internal editor. Below the top management are five departments headed by the respective managers. Accounting department is headed by accounting manager working together with seven accountants responsible for managing the company’s finances.

The commercial operations manager works in collaboration with Almutlaq Co. purchasing manager, warehouse general manager, city warehouse general manager, and the purchasing manager, as well as internal purchasing manager. Under the human resource manager, there are other staffs comprising one personnel manager, two personnel coordinators, and two government relation representatives.

We will write a custom Report on Internship specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Under the leadership of IT manager are the programmer, ERP, systems and network administrators, and e-services manager. Marketing manager aided by the advertising manager, customer relations manager, and the photographer head the sales and marketing department.

Functions of Different Departments The accounting department is responsible for routine functions such as recording transactions, reconciling bank statements, preparing interim and annual financial statements, securing the confidential accounting information, and carrying out inventory management (Kessler and Grant 129). The commercial operations department does not directly generate income into the company. However, its role is inevitable.

The department carries out procurement activities, collects company’s support functions of other departments by enhancing collaborative working environment, fosters development, and implements the company mission, policies, and guidelines.

Human resources department does the management of employee population such as “recruitment, training, compensation, employee benefits and relations, communications, and performance management” (Green and Madison 101).

The information technology department in Almutlaq Holding updates its website besides providing IT support requirements to the company.

The sales and marketing department carries out promotional activities as well as product definitions in terms of “color choices, package sizes, feature modifications, and even shifts to a new product line” (Kessler and Grant 130). The department is also charged with the responsibility of modifying the furniture according to preferences and quality demands. Besides, it receives and responds to customers’ feedbacks.

Internship activities Working under the accounting department gave me a lot of impeccable experience to complement and apply my theoretical college knowledge into the real life situation. Having been ushered into the company by Ehab Dwedar, the accounting manager, and guided through by a team of professional accountants led by Abuobaidah Ahmed (my supervisor), I was at total ease carrying my specific tasks.

I have the greatest pleasure to acknowledge the experience gained from Almutlaq Holding Company as diverse and very vital for my future career.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Internship by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More I have experience in inventory management, recording transactions in the invoices, bills and vouchers, keeping bills and vouchers, collecting and monitoring debtors, reconciling bank statements with the company’s bank account, preparing trial balance, revenue statement, and balance sheet (Kessler and Grant 136).

Through the help of Reda Zeid as the e-services manager, I have also gained experience in social media business promotions. In Almutlaq Holding Company, motivation of employees through training, offering transportation services to customers, giving warranties, evaluating customers’ needs and preferences, printing, and social media promotions enable the company to be more effective and efficient.

How Al Yamamah University prepared me for the internship At the university, I have gone through a vigorous training in finance. The course enabled me to specialize in entrepreneurial finance and financial management, learning financial statement and ratio, investment analysis, valuation and sources of finance, venture capital, and business angel financing (Tong 534).

Therefore, I developed knowledge of financial planning, investment and financial analyses plus income and cash flow statements, and balance sheets, which enabled me to effectively undertake and implement internship duties and responsibilities. Moreover, having learned how to prepare financial statements using secondary data at the University, I was able to relate my theoretical experience to the work at hand.

An assessment of the internship My main responsibility at the Almutlaq Holding Company was to prepare the company’s financial statements such as trial balance, revenue statement, and balance sheet.

However, to broaden the capacity in my field of study, I took the initiative of supplementing the role with other responsibilities. I was also charged with the responsibility of recording transactions in the invoice, bills, and vouchers as well as keeping, collecting, and monitoring debtors, reconciling bank statements with the company’s bank account (Kessler and Grant 126).

Besides, I was given the role of making and keeping stock of furniture, maintaining inventory books such as stock transfer and physical stock register. Working under accounting department gave me a lot of impeccable experience to complement and apply my theoretical college knowledge into real life situation.

I have the greatest pleasure to acknowledge the experience gained from Almutlaq Holding Company as diverse and very vital for my future career. I have a firsthand experience in inventory management, business promotions, as well as preparing and managing financial statements, which are needed in business organizations.

Conclusion Internship training is very vital in exposing a student to the real work environment because it does not only give experience to an individual. Rather, it supplements practical skills with skills, which I will not be able to acquire in classroom. The training also exposes one to more accounting and financial challenges thus providing relevant solutions that lead to a more technical expertise in the field of finance.

During my financial training at Almutlaq Holding Company, I got a chance to work with its co-branches, City Saudi Arabia, Sudair Furniture Factory, and Real Estate Investment. Therefore, I was exposed to several activities within the financial discipline such as company routine functions, inventory managements, and preparing interim financial statements (Green and Madison 100).

The skills and experience I acquired can enable me to work in any business venture. In addition, I acquired communication, organizational, leadership, and analytical skills, which have enabled me to realize that, at work, non-technical skills are equally very important.

Most significantly, I experienced various activities associated to my career and professional development because I was able to apply my theoretical knowledge to accomplish practical tasks effectively.

Works Cited Green, Brian, and Roland Madison. “An Exploratory Study of the Effect of Professional Internships on Students’ Perception of the Importance of Employment Traits.” Journal of Education for Business 86.2(2011): 100-110. Print.

Kessler, Lara, and Rita Grant. “Internships as a Beneficial External Learning Environment: A Survey and Case Study of Accounting Interns and Employers.” International Journal of Learning 16.8(2009): 125-140. Print.

Tong, David. “Negative Opinion of Company Environment Mediates Career Choice of Accountancy Students.” Education


Key Variables and Therapeutic Factors Expository Essay college essay help online: college essay help online

Group process refers to actions that are specific to groups. Such actions are a result of emotional construction. As far as group process is concerned, the main variable is cohesion because it is discussed widely in many clinical and therapeutic studies. However, there is a big difference regarding operational and conceptual definition of the variable.

In many studies, cohesion is used to mean emotional bonds among members of a particular group. It also refers to the shared values within a group. The values serve as the blueprint of the group because they control group behavior. Group dynamics studies employ cohesion in therapeutic association. However, it means something different in the group process because it refers to the positive therapeutic results.

Scholars use the variable in a number of ways, depending on what they want to express. Regarding group process, the variable means blending, oneness, infectivity, and groupthink. Regarding group dynamics, the variable refers to anti-group culture, aggregation, disintegration, and individuation.

By understanding applicability of the variable, the therapist can comprehend how members of the group perceive their leader (Bednar, Melnick,


Alves Family Case Study essay help online

Introduction The financial planning process enables an individual or a family to plan for his earnings with an aim of converting finances to wealth.

The process comprises of six basic steps these are, establishing and identifying a relationship with the client, gathering client data including goals, analyzing and evaluating the financial status of the client, coming up and presenting financial planning recommendations and alternatives, implementing the financial planning recommendations, and monitoring the implementation of the recommendations (Keown et. al. 10).

This paper aims at carrying financial planning for Alves Family.

Gathering qualitative and quantitative information of the Alves Family The table below summarizes the current financial situation of the family.

Item Amount ($) 1 Total assets: Marianne 234,650 Marianne 1,300 George 69850 Combined assets 163500 2 Total liabilities 101, 800 Current liabilities – line of credit for Marianne 1,800 Long term liabilities – mortgage 100,000 3 Net worth of the family (Total assets – total liabilities) 132,850 4 Total working assets (assets which continuously flow in and out of the family) 15,500 Goals of the family George expects to retire at the age of 60 while Marianne will not retire at the same time with George. Both will continue with the internet business.

The monthly after tax income needed after retirement is 60% of their current net income (60% * $65,000). This amounts to $39,000 at current prices.

The family requires the 60% income until the last expectancy age of 90.

To meet the education goals of the family, they need to save $7,000 annually. It is equivalent to $583 monthly. (Explanation: The family intends to save half of the fee per child for university education. It is be payable at the beginning of each academic year. Fee per child $7,000. For two children, the total amount is $14,000. Therefore annual savings is half of $14,000 = $7,000. The monthly savings is $7,000/12 = $583).

Analyzing other qualitative details When it comes to asset allocation, the family portrays an aggressive investor. It is shown by the ratio of assets and debt or net worth. Most resources are allocated to assets hence a high net worth.

The total value of long term care assets at risk amounts to $55,650.

The net estimated Life Insurance Needs Shortage for George amounts to $93,000.

The net estimated Life Insurance Needs Shortage for Marianne amounts to $ 2,000.

George and Marianne do not have wills.

George and Marianne have Durable Powers of Attorney.

Both George and Marianne have Health Care Powers of Attorney.

Financial Statements of Alves Family Statement of income and Expenses

Item Amount ($) Net income George 55,000 Marianne 10,000 Total 65,000 Annual expenses Housing: Mortgage payment 10,716 Property tax 1,200 Property insurance 700 Maintenance 2,000 Utilities, heat, phone and others 5,600 Automobile: Payments 8,500 Gas, insurance, repairs 4,445 Parental care 6,000 Health and hygiene 4,100 Groceries 3,200 Clothing 3,500 Miscellaneous (Charitable donations, gifts, etc.) 8,500 RRSP contribution 2,000 Leisure and travel 4,000 Total expenses 64,461 Surplus 539 From the previous year’s values, total net income after taxes amounted to $65,000 while total expenses amounted to $64,461. Alves Family made a surplus of $539.

Net worth Statement

The table below shows the net worth statement of Alves Family.

Assets ($) ($) Liquid assets: Chequing Account 14,200 Savings Account 1,300 15,500 Investment: Registered (RRSPs): BlueBell Canadian equity fund 24,000 Non – registered: Government of Saskatchewan bond 10,000 Canada savings bond 5,200 GIC 8,000 BlueBell Canadian Equity Fund 8,450 55,650 Personal: Residence 120,000 Household furnishings 35,000 Car 8500 163, 500 Total assets 234,650 Liabilities Current liabilities: Line of credit – Marianne business 1,800 1,800 Long term liabilities: Mortgage 100,000 100,000 Total liabilities 101,800 Net worth (Assets – liabilities) 132,850 Analyzing information Ratio analysis

Ratios can be computed to determine the leverage, profitability and liquidity of Alves Family. The table below shows various financial statement ratios.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Ratios Value Liquidity 1 Current ratio = current assets/current liabilities 8.61 Profitability ratios 2 Return on assets = net income/total assets 8.42% 3 Net profit margin = Net profit/revenue 30.39% Leverage ratio 4 Debt to asset ratio = total debt/total assets 43.38% Four ratios are computed to analyze the financial position of the family. From the calculations, it is evident that the family has very high liquidity amounting to 8.61. It shows that the family is in a position to meet their obligations which fall due within a year. In addition, we can also deduce that the family puts plenty of liquid assets idle. Return on assets is at 8.42%.

This indicates that the family receives dismal returns from their assets. They need to consider venturing into more profitable areas. However, this depends on risk appetite of the family. The net profit margin of the family is high at 30.39%. Finally, the debt of the Family is adequately covered by the total assets at 43.38%.

Tax planning

The aim of tax planning is to organize the financial resources of the company with an intention of reducing tax liability. The net effect is an increase in disposal income of the family. There are three ways the family can reduce taxes these are, reducing income, increasing expenses and making use of the tax credits. Before retirement, the family operates within a tax bracket of 28%.

After retirement, the family will be in a tax bracket of 25%. Further, the family lives in a region where sales tax is 8.5%. As a measure to reduce taxes, the family can increase the length of their investment so that they mature after retirement. This will enable the Family pay the lowest amount of tax.

Cash and debt management

George keeps money in a chequing account which earns no interest but attracts a monthly charge of $15 while Marianne keeps her money in a savings account which earns interest. In case of emergency, George relies on the money in the chequing account which amounts to $14,200 and the investments in GIC and Canada investment bond. The family has a gold card for George and a companion card for Marianne.

The cards attract an annual fee amounting to $185. In addition, the family has a mortgage with a balance of $28,972. Debt comes with costs. Therefore, the family needs to reduce debt so as to eliminate the cost associated with it.

This should be done after prioritizing which should be paid off first, the cost implication and the benefits that will arise from such decision. The family decided to pay off the mortgage first in two years and use a credit card only when necessary.

We will write a custom Case Study on Alves Family specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Risk management and insurance

Work carried out by George involves high risk. Despite the riskiness of the job, the employer does not provide any disability coverage since mishaps are negligible. The company also offers its employees sick leave provision for three months.

George’s employer provides a group life insurance policy up to a three times the gross salary. George took coverage amounting to $185,000. Further, George has liability coverage against accident in his homeowner’s package. The table below shows the insurance summary of the family

Company name Insured George Owner George Beneficiary George Type Term Death benefit $185, 000 Annual premium Total premiums paid Current cash values There is an insurance cover for George only in the whole family. The insurance is paid by the employer and it benefits only George. Further, the family did not have any insurance included in the estate.

Survivor need analysis

In the event that premature death happen, survivors may not have adequate earnings to enable them keep their lifestyle. Therefore, it is necessary to take insurance coverage that will be adequate to take care of all immediate needs. Comparison of current and future household expense levels with anticipated surviving spouse’s income together with anticipated benefits gives an estimate of appropriate level of life insurance to take.

Others family assets such as pension and retirement accounts are also used in the survivor need analysis. It is of essence to calculate life insurance basic needs estimate for each spouse. This will help reveal additional life insurance coverage that the spouse needs to take (Keown et. al. 15).

Disability income insurance

Apart from death, disability of a spouse may also distort financial planning of a family. Disability have an effect of increasing the annual expenses (increase arising from increase medical cost) accompanied by a decline in income. Therefore, a family may run out of funds easily.

Disability insurance aims at restoring the earnings after tax of the insured earnings earner. This helps in restoring the existing life style of the family (Keown et. al. 27). The table below shows the disability income insurance needs for the family.

George Marianne Current income $55,000 Current income $10,000 Replacement ratio * 65% Replacement ratio * 65% Suggested insurance need $35,750 Suggested insurance need $6,500 The suggested need of disability insurance for George is $35,750 while that of Marianne is $6,500. The total disability income insurance need for the family is $42,250 per annum. Other factors may also affect the disability income insurance needs.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Alves Family by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some of these factors are the amount of pension income, the inflation rate in the country, variation in living expenses, and changes in tax rates among other factors. These factors have the effect of varying the amounts used in computing the disability income insurance amount.

Long term care

Long term care denotes continued custodial or medical care in a health institution of a nursing home or at the residence of the patient. Long term care is provided to people who are unable to carry out one or two activities of their daily life that is, they cannot take care of themselves. Therefore, long term care insurance provides coverage for expenses for care needed beyond a prearranged duration.

The benefits of this insurance policy start after meeting certain conditions. The needs to be insured under long term care insurance are impaired cognitive ability and inability to carry out daily living activities.

From the information gathered from various centers, the cost of long term care in a hospital ranges between $58,000 and $100,000 per annum. This might not be affordable by many families. In addition, the amount required for the long term care increases as an individual ages (Keown et. al. 28). The table below shows estimated long term care requirement for the family.

George Marianne Probable daily care cost $185 $185 Probable annual care cost $67,525 $67,525 Probable years of care 7 7 Inflation rate 2.5% 2.5% The amount of financial assets that is exposed to long term care expenses at risk amounts to $55,650. It is not adequate to meet the long term care needs for the family. The family has a shortage of about $79, 400.

Looking at insurance, risk management and insurance, it is clear that the family is not adequately protected. The family only relies on the insurance protection that comes with the homeowner’s package. Other than that, Mr. George has insurance cover that is paid for by the employer. It is evident that the family is not well protected in case of any eventuality.

In the event that one spouse dies or his disabled permanently the family may not be able to maintain their lifestyle since they are not insured. In addition, the family is not adequately covered for the long term care needs. During their old age, they will not be able to provide for their needs thus depleting the family wealth rapidly.

Investment management

Investment management aims at managing the risks associated with investment and maximizing returns. Basically, there are three common risks associated with investments these are, market risk, inflation risk and credit risk. These risks have the effect of reducing the value of investments or losing the whole amount invested.

Inflation risk denotes the risk of the value of investment wearing down as a result of raising living standards in the economy. Market risk arises from fluctuations in prices and performance of investments in the market. Credit risk arises from loss of value of investment for instance bonds of a bankrupt company. Therefore, asset allocation is important to help distribute assets so as to minimize investment risk.

Allocation of assets is based on past market trends and volatility. The past trends help in allocating resources for the future. This is based on the assumption that the past will repeat itself (Keown et. al. 13). The table below summarizes the investments of the Alves Family.

Investments Liquid assets: Chequing Account 14,200 Savings Account 1,300 15,500 Investment: Registered (RRSPs): BlueBell Canadian equity fund 24,000 Non – registered: Government of Saskatchewan bond 10,000 Canada savings bond 5,200 GIC 8,000 BlueBell Canadian Equity Fund 8,450 55,650 Total investment 71,150 The total investment need to be distributed in such a way that the investment risk is minimized to a great extent while returns are maximized.

From the table above, the total investment asset of the Family is $71,150. It is necessary to point out that the family keeps a lot of ($14,200) in accounts which do not earn interest. The family needs to invest the money in profitable investments. The current and suggested asset allocation is shown in the table below.

Asset allocation Current Suggested Change Cash


Punjabi: the Culture Essay writing essay help

Punjabi is a specific area located in the region of five rivers. This is a particular area of Pakistan and northern India with the oldest culture which has been distributed all over the countries. Speaking about the cultural peculiarity of the place, it is important to start with the language.

Frankly speaking, the place does not contain one language as there are a lot of dialects. Saraiki/Multani, Dogri and Pothohari/Pothwari are the largest accents in the rejoin, however, they are not the only and there are officially more that 20 dialects.

Those who know Arabic and Persian state that Punjabi accent is a combination of those two languages. Punjab women are treated specifically as being Eastern area, the tradition and religious canons require from women specific behavior.

Religious aspect is important in considering the culture of the area. Punjabi follows three main religions, Islam, Sikhism, and Hinduism. However, this is not the whole list and there are many religions which are pursued in small regions of the area. Islam, Sikhism, and Hinduism are similar religions, however, there are a lot of differences there.

Marriage is not just the registration of a new family, it is a specific event which is to be followed in accordance with the cultural needs. Marriage may have differences depending on the religious peculiarities. In most cases, Punjabi marriage is full of customs and traditions which are to be followed.

Even nowadays, when Western culture has penetrated into the smallest parts of the world having changed the perspectives and visions of many events, marriage in Punjabi still remains a sacred and purely traditional issue.

For example, Jaggo is a specific tradition which insists on women going at night to the neighbors and waking them up, singing and dancing to them, the day before the marriage. This is like the announcement to the wedding and an invitation to it.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Cuisine is one more reflection of a culture. Speaking about Punjabi, the cuisine of this area is distinguished from other cultural meals by species. Punjab cuisine is very spicy. Each of the products is prepared under particular technique, therefore, the distinguishing feature is in the number and the nature of species.

Many people have not got used to Punjab cuisine are unable to eat it due to pepper and other hot species, such as paper and others. Finally, speaking about Punjab culture, it is impossible to avoid cloths. The tradition of clothes is too particular. National dresses and suits for women presuppose absence of short skirts. Punjabi Salwar Kameez is one of the well-known suits for women in Punjabi culture.

Even though Western culture effects Punjabi area and many cultural aspects have changed under its influence, the main characteristics of traditional Punjabi clothing has not changed.

Finally, speaking about Punjabi and its culture, it should be stated that ye recent changes are connected with the intrusion of the Western culture, however, this specific are has conserved the specifics of the ancestry’s traditions and try to follow them now.

Religion plays an important role in the area even though due to the lengthy territory there are three major religions in Punjabi and a number of smaller ones. Language differs as well that makes it possible for the closest regions to speak different accents and fail to understand each other.


Human Rights Violations in Turkey Problem Solution Essay essay help online: essay help online

Background The relationship between the EU and Turkey is one where both parties have what the other wants: the EU has the capacity to let Turkey ascede into it while Turkey acts as a buffer state between the EU and the tumultuous Middle East. The desire for Turkey to join the EU is based on potential economic benefits as well as its cultural background. As a “middle ground” so to speak between Europe and the Middle East, Turkey can be described as a melting pot of both European and Middle Eastern influences (Glyptis 2005).

Due to its proximity to other European countries as well as its past as the Ottoman Empire, Turkey has a distinct European influene despite its main religion being Islam. Combined with the general instability found in its neighboring states in the Middle East, this makes the country far more inclined towards developing a relationship with its European rather than Middle Eastern counterparts (Wood


Child Soldiers in the Republic of Congo Proposal best essay help

The deadly conflicts experienced by the Democratic Republic of Congo at the end of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first centuries caused numerous negative consequences resulting in the severe social crisis in the country. The Second Congo War that started in 1998 has become one of the most dreadful armed conflicts of the second half of the twentieth century (McMullen, O’Callaghan, Shannon, Black,


Human Development. Role of Agriculture. Importance of Technology and Foreign Aid in Mozambique Analytical Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Mozambique is a poor country even though its economy develops during the last several decades, which influences the poverty rates and gender equality. Recently females became widely occupied in politics, education and health. Still, the discrepancy between different parts of the country shows that their position regarding employment, agriculture and income varies.

Emphasizing macroeconomic stability and growth, the government claimed that by enhancing the state of physical infrastructure and social sectors a step forward can be made. Many households continue to be involved in agriculture, and informal economy helps them to gain enough income.

Generally, Mozambique has gone through “changing paradigms of socialism, neo-liberalism and current liberal economic policies with an emphasis on social development” (Tvedten 2011, p. 24). It has positively influenced human development: the index is 0.393, which is still extremely low, but the progress cannot be denied, as it was only 0.246 in 1980 (Human development report 2014).

The achievements of Mozambique are tightly connected with agriculture, as about 80% of its population are engaged in this field and belong to rural households. Smallholder farmers produce many cash crops such as potatoes, tobacco, tea and paprika, which allows them to increase their income and pay their laborers. It provides 80% of the population with relatively cheap products and contributes to export.

The sector is grooving for about 6% per year and reduces poverty in rural areas providing people with food, work and money (Mucavele, n.d.). To make the improvement stable, agricultural technologies are used, including fertilizer and small-scale irrigation, etc.

Unfortunately, only 3% more farmers referred to them during this time, so the government implemented technical support services and training under the New Green Revolution Strategy. They are low-cost but effective, which allows people to gain profit (Investing in rural people in Mozambique 2014).

The access to wage labor, which enhances the state of agriculture and the whole country, depends on the people’s education. Utilizing it, they can manage the household efficiently and increase their earnings. That is why this sphere gains investments that allow new schools to be built in villages (Tschirley


Marketing Strategy: ASOS Report (Assessment) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary

New Product Development

Brand Positioning

Social Media and Emotional Attachment


Executive Summary ASOS must consider the following three recommendations based on the following themes: 1) New Product Development ; 2) Brand Positioning; and 3) Use social media to create emotional brand attachment. ASOS must prioritize strategies related to new product development.

It is aligned with the need to create a new product line for children. Corporate leaders and the members of the marketing team must work together for the implementation of the said strategies, because it is the only way to sustain its competitive advantage, and increase the company’s profitability in the long run.

In order to enhance value of the company’s brand, ASOS’s corporate leaders must evaluate the impact of three recommendations based on the following themes: 1) New Product Development ; 2) Brand Positioning; and 3) Use social media to create emotional brand attachment.

An overview of ASOS business model reveals the fact that new product development is not a priority for the company (Botha, Strydom and Brink, 2007).. However, it is high time to consider the value of new product development, especially when it comes to the clothing needs of children.

New Product Development Corporate leaders and the head of the marketing department must seriously consider the application of new product development principles. The purpose of the new initiative runs parallel with the company’s tag line stating that ASOS is a one-stop fashion destination. It can be argued that young parents purchasing clothes for personal use will find it convenient to find clothing merchandise suited for toddlers, preschoolers, and grade-schoolers.

Brand Positioning After making the decision to create a new product line, the next step is to apply the principles of brand positioning (Gitman and McDaniel, 2009). The main thing to keep in mind is to offer something different. Thus, ASOS must create a new product line that sells clothes with a parent-children theme.

For example, there is a sub-category in the product line wherein parents are able to purchase clothes that matches those for their children. Thus, it is not enough to simply create clothes for preschoolers and grade-schoolers. This strategy is enhanced by the application of brand hierarchy principles that enables the company to differentiate products depending on the target market.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Although the parent-children theme is already evident in the new product line, the company recognizes the need to supply high-end products and affordable products for those looking for top quality wear in an affordable price range.. In this group, the clothes are more expensive with products that were created using more complicated materials and manufacturing techniques. The second group is comprised of customers looking for high-quality products at a more affordable price range.

Social Media and Emotional Attachment ASOS must develop a clever strategy to leverage the power of social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter, as well as video-sharing websites like YouTube. The appropriate use of social media will enable ASOS to strengthen the emotional appeal of their products. In the past, the use of mass media tactics created an impersonal approach to product distribution and product promotion processes (O’Connor, 2012).

In other words, in using social media, ASOS will make the customers feel that they are valued and that their inputs matter to the company. ASOS must learn to move away from conventional promotion strategies that only promotes the value of the product without considering the needs and aspirations of the consumers.

In the case of ASOS, the company must go beyond the creation of a website in order to satisfy the basic requirements of e-commerce. The next step is to create a link within ASOS’s website that opens to a new portal. The purpose of the new portal is to focus the spotlight on customers’ feedback and how they enjoy the clothes they purchased online. The creation of the said site will create two types of advantages for the company. First, it will make the customers feel that they have a personal connection to the brand.

ASOS must make the customers feel that the company values their feedback. In the new portal, customers can share their ideas on how to improve the product line. ASOS will benefit from this interaction if customer’s feedback are integrated into the development of new products.

Aside from the creation of a dedicated site that enhances the interaction between the company and its customers, the company must develop creative ways in leveraging the power of social media. For example, ASOS will create a Twitter account, and the followers of the said Twitter account will receive exclusive invites from ASOS.

Thus, loyal followers will receive rewards from the company. In a typical invite the company will provide information about a product launch or how to access discount coupons. The company must develop similar promotional strategies, because these strategies will create more endearing moments between the company and the customers.

We will write a custom Assessment on Marketing Strategy: ASOS specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More ASOS must never underestimate the power of social media in its ability to deliver a specific message to a specific target market (Manrai, 2014). Facebook and Twitter possess certain capabilities beyond the reach of traditional promotional strategies that were created on the foundation of mass media networks like Fox News or BBC (Meiselwitz, 2014).

Consider for instance a social media network’s ability to connect people from all walks of life and compels them to interact over a particular image or video (Dennhardt, 2014). Thus, ASOS must create a Facebook page that allows the company to announce a corporate sponsored competition with the exclusive participation of customers. Prizes will be given to participants sporting the latest product from ASOS.

ASOS’s ability to improve certain aspects of customer relationship marketing creates an indirect enhancement of the brand’s value in the eyes of consumers. Creating a new product line strengthens the company’s competitive advantage.

The inspiration for this strategy comes from the company’s mission statement that says ASOS is a one-stop shop when it comes to menswear and womenswear. At the same time, the implementation of these three strategies will make customers feel that the company is doing everything in it power to satisfy their needs in the context of the fashion and beauty industry.

The company will face challenges along the way; however, corporate leaders and the members of the marketing team must never allow the roadblocks and other constraints to force them to stop the initiative in creating better services for their customers. It is the only way to sustain its competitive advantage, and increase the company’s profitability in the long run.

References Botha, J., Strydom, J. and Brink, A. (2007). Introduction to marketing. Cape Town, South Africa: Juta and Co. Ltd.

Dennhardt, S. (2014). User-generated content and its impact on branding. New York: Springer.

Gitman, L. and McDaniel, C. (2009). The future of business: the essentials. San Francisco, CA: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Marketing Strategy: ASOS by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Manrai, L. (2014). The Routledge companion to the future of marketing. New York: Routledge.

Meiselwitz, G. (2014). Social computing and social media. New York: Springer.

O’Connor, R. (2012). Friends, followers and the future. CA: City Lights Books.


Stanley Lynch Investment Group Case Study essay help online free

Table of Contents Summary of the Case

The Underlying Issue

Analysis of the Case Using Management Principles and Theories

Recommendations to Resolve the Issue

Reference List

Summary of the Case Stanley Lynch Investment Group has been using an advanced information technology system to support its investment funds. However, the system does not link its departments. Each department is also supposed to set up its computer system for storage of information. Documentation is a major problem because the individuals tend to have different versions and storage methods. The departments do not share information effectively.

The CIO does not understand the major challenges associated with the firm’s information storage system. The leaders also fail to consult and interact with different employees in order to improve the firm’s performance. The current situation has affected the productivity of different employees. The firm does not measure the performance of its employees. Members of a specific group are usually unable to interact with other teams.

The firm has also failed to embrace the opportunities associated with modern information systems (Bateman


The Impact of Radio-Frequency Technology on Retailing and Wholesaling Evaluation Essay college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Technological innovations have altered the business landscapes. Today, for instance, many interactive technologies that rely on Internet platforms have introduced disruptive traditional practices and forced many retailers and wholesalers to review their business practices. Innovative, interactive technologies have provided platforms for new robust business models such as Netflix, Amazon, eBay, and Alibaba, among others.

The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is not new, and many large organizations have successfully used it in the past. In the recent years, however, retailers and wholesalers have discovered the benefits of RFID technology as means of enhancing business processes in highly competitive business environments.

Retailers and wholesalers have noted the RFID technology would assist them to improve business efficiency and create competitive advantage. In this paper, the impact of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology on retailing and wholesaling is explored.

As retailers and wholesalers create strong markets for RFID, they have recognized some specific importance of the technology that drives it adoption. Specifically, retailers and wholesalers strive for processes optimization and effective tracking of goods. These businesses aim to attain enhanced speed and visibility with RFID technology. Consequently, they will achieve more significant operational advantages, efficiency and effectiveness along the supply chain.

Wholesalers use the RFDI technology to ensure that products can be delivered to warehouses and distributors at the right time to improve purchase. When retailers and wholesalers achieve improved visibility through the RFID technology, they reduce inventory levels, cut labor costs and increase sales. For many retailers and wholesalers, the cost reduction advantage achieved from adopting the technology is the most appealing.

In this regard, retailers and wholesalers expect to reduce costs through effective management of inventory and expenses. Specifically, cost-reduction through RFID technology targets waste reduction, manageable inventory levels, elimination of manual processes, reduction in costs of product handling and logistic costs, reduce cases of claims and enhance asset usages.

Retailers and wholesalers also focus on increased revenues through the deployment of RFID technology. In most cases, retailers and wholesalers are deploying the RFID technology to drive sales. Consequently, they can offer innovative solutions, which meet specific needs of customers.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The RFID technology helps retailers and wholesalers to reduce out-of-stocks, increase the rate of fill rates, avoid shrinkage, enhance inventory movements, and customer support. At the same time, retailers and wholesalers use RFID technology to curb counterfeit products.

It has been observed that many manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers globally lose sales and profits because of the increased production of counterfeit products. It is also imperative to recognize that counterfeit products are primary safety and security risk for consumers. As such, many wholesalers and retailers have deployed the RFID technology to identify counterfeit products in their supply chains.

Original products are tagged with RFID supported with real-time access to databases and, therefore, any counterfeit products can be quickly identified and separated. The RFID technology also reduces cases of theft, shrinkage and diversion tendencies. The deployment of the RFID technology has assisted retailers and wholesalers to identify cases of theft and diversion across the supply chain, including at the factory floor, the warehouse, the shelf and points of sale.

Finally, the RFID technology has also assisted retailers and wholesalers to create competitive advantage. Efficiency in business processes and increased profitability attributed to the RFID technology assist retailers and wholesalers to meet their business goals and establish competitive advantage. Firms can easily compare their performances against the industry peers to determine their competitive advantage.

The RFID technology has been touted across industries as a tool for enhancing competitive advantage. In this regard, competitive advantage derived from the RFID technology may include enhanced productivity along the supply chain, increased output from employees, flexibility, cost advantage and determine the required by a specific date.

Retailers, wholesalers and distributors may also realize the impact of the RFID technology in their overall mission. Generally, organizational mission or purpose shows the primary functions of an organization. It may also reflect organizational endeavors to achieve the needs of its customers using specific tools, including technologies and related devices.

As such, this view posits that organizational mission is growth-oriented by focusing on specific practices that identify the needs of customers and potential tools for meeting such needs. At the same time, it also stretches further to account for changes in the business, including competition. Organizational mission is therefore dynamic and always seeks for continuous improvement on business processes and outcomes.

We will write a custom Essay on The Impact of Radio-Frequency Technology on Retailing and Wholesaling specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It always focuses on strength and weaknesses for critical assessment for improvement. In this regard, the RFID technology, as a tool of business, can impact the mission significantly. First, the RFID technology has enhanced effective communication between customers, retailers, wholesalers and distributors. Consequently, these businesses are able to meet clients’ needs fast. Availability of information has ensured that the company can understand future supplies and demands based on future wishes and needs of customers.

Preparation for the future promotes organizational mission. Second, the RFID technology assists organizations to realize their mission by understanding business activities. For instance, it helps organizations to monitor and project business activities, including what the competition does. When a company is able to identify changes and react promptly to manage them, then it can advance its business goals and achieve its core mission.

The RFID technology ensures that organizations develop superior supply chain systems relative to competitors. Hence, customers will most likely to use superior services.

Third, the RFID technology promotes organizational mission by determining available potential. In this regard, retailers, wholesalers and distributors are forced to use their strategic tools to enhance their respective growth strategies. Besides, it helps organizations to position themselves strategically based on their technological capabilities and human resources and, therefore, enhancing differentiation.

Fourth, the RFID technology helps organizations to advance their mission by facilitating changes. For instance, retailers, wholesalers and distributors may obtain generic technologies and later acquire new ones to reflect ongoing changes in the industry. In this manner, an organization would not be left behind technologically. Fifth, the RFID technology assists organizations to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses relative to strategic position.

Consequently, retailers, wholesalers and distributors can adequately understand the industry dynamics and changes that facilitate performance. Finally, the RFID technology can assist organizations to realize their mission through evaluating their achievements and results. If these achievements are not desirable, then an organization can use the information to improve business processes and, therefore, advance its mission.

It is imperative for retailers and wholesalers to implement, train, focus on, or mentor someone on RFID technology. However, the RFID technology, just like any other technologies, may face resistance in an organization despite its robustness and obvious benefits. If any retailer or wholesaler can implement it properly, then it can realize massive advantages and enhance competitiveness.

In addition, it is essential to note that many organizations that have attempted to implement the RFID technology have found it more challenging and eventually failed. Implementation of the RFID technology is a complex initiative that requires upfront user education and effective planning to enhance successful implementation. The retailer must recognize that the implementation of the RFID technology requires assistance from more experienced users.

Not sure if you can write a paper on The Impact of Radio-Frequency Technology on Retailing and Wholesaling by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This would ensure that technical challenges are effectively handled before they can derail the implementation. For effective implementation, organizations should manage expectations. That is, all business activities and expectations from the RFID technology should be evaluated to determine actual capabilities of the new system.

Implementation also requires retailers to undertake process evaluation to understand major processes that require the RFID technology. The technology should be implemented to improve the processes and practices while taking into consideration possible future developments.

All the necessary software and hardware materials for successful implementation of the RFID technology should be available and documented. Functional responsibilities must be clearly identified to ensure smooth implementation. Documentation would be essential for review all stages and ensure system adoption and acceptance among end-users. Changes in requirements can be effectively managed when they are documented.

Retailers should also determine that the physical installation location lacks any possible interference to ensure that successful deployment of the system.

In addition, more robust hybrid RFID technology may be chosen to develop the best solutions. For instance, the RFID technology may have capabilities to read bar codes and still allow users to read the codes manually. On the same note, retailers should also select the preferred tags properly because of diverse configurations. Different tags are developed because of harsh environmental conditions.

Finally, successful implementation of the RFID technology requires end-user training and effective change management. Retailers and wholesalers should focus on change management to enhance adopt and acceptance of the RFID technology in their organizations. It has been noted that challenges associated with the implementation of new technologies sometimes emanate from employees rather than the technology itself.

Hence, addressing the change process during implementation can mitigate some noted issues. Change is a major challenge in any organization notwithstanding the level of approach. Thus, planning, effective communication and training of end-users are imperative for change management.

Retailers should select influential employees to manage change and ensure successful implementation of the RFID technology. The RFID technology is most likely to impact several aspects of organizational operations. Change management requires adequate resources, as well as management support, communication and buy-ins for users.

Retailers should involve employees during early stages of the RFID technology implementation to minimize resistance.

Retailers and wholesalers can still incorporate the RFID technology into their current occupational structure successfully. It is observed that some large retailers like Wal-Mart have successfully integrated new RFID technologies into their existing operations to account for new customer demands and enhance operational efficiency.

In fact, the RFID efforts should be continuous and sustained. It is advisable that organizations should use simple approaches and minimize many complex processes during installation and integration. In this case, the integration process should be gradual to be successfully incorporated before the full system can be completely adopted.

Retailers should assemble the best team across various departments, including business units, IT and financial departments alongside other stakeholders such as vendors and support team to assist with the system integration. Testing and evaluation of the system are critical during this stage to ensure that solutions are found for any noted issues. In addition, it is recommended that the integration should be initiated at a single location by focusing on friendly tags.

The process can then be tested with tag placement, while processes can be reviewed and eventually go live with fully integrated RFID. The status quo should only be maintained for a given period to enhance change management and manage smooth transition. Overall, integrating the new RFID technology into retailer’s existing occupational structure can assist critically in improving customer service, cost-cutting and streamlining the supply chain.

During then integration process, retailers should fully incorporate the new system into their current policies, practices, culture and people to ensure the technology is fully tapped and full potentials realized. Besides, new implementation strategies such as incorporating cloud computing are available to reduce costs.

The essay has focused on the impact of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology on retailing and wholesaling. It shows that the RFID technology offers multiple benefits to retailers, wholesalers and distributors along the supply chain, including operational efficiency, competitive advantage and cost reduction.

At the same time, the RFID technology helps organizations to advance and realize their mission while growing business. It is also possible to implement and train the staff on the RFID technology. Retailers that integrate the new RFID into existing occupational structures have also noted positive outcomes, specifically if the process is well managed and transition is gradual.

References Attaran, M. (2012). Critical Success Factors and Challenges of Implementing RFID in Supply Chain Management. Journal of Supply Chain and Operations Management, 10(1), 144-167.

Harps, L. H. (2005). Supply Chain Technology: Integrating the Old


China essay help online

Abstract This paper dwells upon a trade theory that best explains the economic growth of China and India. It is stated that the Heckscher-Ohlin theory is the most applicable in this case. Thus, China and India have entered the global arena due to their competitive advantage, comparatively cheap labor force.

Introduction China and India are seen as the most promising emerging markets. These countries managed to enter the global scene within decades. At present, these two states are leading exporters of apparel and textile (Kennedy, 2014). Notably, China is also becoming a serious competitor to the USA and Japan in such area as electronic products industry.

Notably, the development of the countries cannot be explained by such theories as wealth accumulation or specialization as they are too broad. They do not explain the factors that contributed to the empowerment of China and India. This rapid rise can be explained with the help of the theory developed by Heckscher and Ohlin.

Heckscher-Ohlin Theory The two Swedish economists developed the approach in the 1930s (Gaspar, Arreola-Risa, Bierman, Hise


Diversity and Inclusion in Relation to Music in the Workplace Opinion Essay scholarship essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary

Situational Overview

Recommendations- Actions

Implementation Issues

Desired Result/Impact

Works Cited

Executive Summary All organizations endeavor to streamline diversity and inclusion in their workplaces. In most scenarios, diversity and inclusion is a key component of a company’s mission statement. Diversity and inclusion applies to all relationship components in an organization including customer-to-employee and employee-to-employee contacts. This paper addresses a diversity and inclusion issue that involves the type of music that is played in the office.

The main office houses approximately twenty-five employees who have diverse cultural backgrounds. The issue of the music that is played through the main sound system has been raised by various employees. Most of the employees have complained that the genres of music that is played in the office do not apply to their cultural affiliation and they fail to represent the majority of the employees’ listening needs.

This diversity issue requires to be addressed in respect to the goal of increasing productivity among employees. This paper seeks to address the issue of the music genres that are played in the workplace, and how it can be handled in respect to diversity and inclusion. The method of handling this diversity issue in the workplace involves both collective and individual efforts.

Situational Overview The diversity and inclusion issue in the workplace started when the human resource department received several complaints involving the genres of music that are played in the workplace. Our organization features five offices that house different departments in the organization. However, the main workplace is contained under one floor with employees having desks as workstations. Initially, employees were allowed to play music individually.

However, the sounds of various types of music playing in the work floor ended up being the source of disharmony and distraction among workers. The management resolved to allow people to listen to music via headphones and earpieces. However, this development started interfering with inter-personal communication between workers thereby lowering overall productivity. The final resolve was to install a sound system in the main work floor. The idea was to make a sound system that would match the professional ambience of the office.

Having a single sound system has eliminated the confusion that was common when workers listened to different kinds of music. The sound system has also brought a harmonic tone in the work environment. Nevertheless, a significant number of workers have filed complaints with the human resource department complaining about several issues in relation to the type of music that is often played through the sound system.

First, some workers have complained that the music that is played only caters to African Americans and the majority Caucasian cultures. More specifically, some workers have complained about lack of Latin, punk, and heavy metal genres of music in the office playlist. Workers have argued that some cultures are ‘hogging’ a music system that was supposed to serve all people in the office.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Some workers also recognize that in the first few days, the initiative brought class and harmony to the office but soon ‘some elements’ took over the music system. For instance, some workers have requested that they be allowed to listen to music in their own computers because they ‘do not enjoy’ any of the music that is played through the music system. The other issue is that some workers have complained that some of the music that is played in the work place is offensive.

Furthermore, some workers have requested that the speakers in the workplace be used to play radio-music. The person in charge of the current playlist selection is Mike, a twenty-five year old African American who mostly works in the shipping and receiving department. The human resource department has resolved to solve this music playlist problem in relation to the diversity and inclusion policies in the workplace.

Recommendations- Actions The first recommendation is to make the playlist all-inclusive. Making the music all-inclusive might involve having employees make up the playlist collectively. For instance, it is recommendable to have employees deposit their music in a single storage and then play it randomly. Consequently, if all employees dropped one hundred tracks each, the music that is more popular will most likely be on heavy rotation.

Furthermore, all employees will have contributed to the music equally. Another recommendation is to have a ‘play-list launch party’ where all employees celebrate the diversity of all cultures. In this kind of party, all employees can dance to all kinds of music and possibly learn to appreciate other genres.

The third recommendation is to have designated days/weeks/months when specific genres of music are highlighted. For instance, there can be hip-hop Mondays, rock Wednesdays, and other genre-themed days in the office. This music-of-the-day concept can have an impact in equalizing the significance of all genres of music among workers. This inclusivity can end up creating a workplace that aligns with the organization’s policy of cultivating diversity.

Implementation Issues The first factor to consider when resolving the issue of music that is played in the workplace is to have a general overview of how inclusion and diversity would relate to a problem. In this case, a workplace that embraces diversity and inclusion would play music that embodies these concepts. Furthermore, in a diverse and inclusive environment, workers would have the ability to enjoy music that is not necessarily from their own culture.

The other issue to consider is our organization’s definition of diversity in relation to its mission. For instance, it is the mission of the organization to maintain a work floor that embraces diversity with the view of improving productivity. Diversity also depends on the demographic composition of the organization. This is a central issue in the consideration of music genres in the workplace. It is important to consider how the recommendations will impact the organization’s overall functions.

We will write a custom Essay on Diversity and Inclusion in Relation to Music in the Workplace specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For example, a work floor that has no harmony can cause various types of problems for the company. The history of the organization’s work floor inclusion and diversity is important in determining how changes in the process will affect a firm.

Another important consideration when making inclusion and diversity adjustments is the economic and time resources that are required to effect these changes. In matters of inclusion and diversity, it is important to consider “any additional monetary or in-kind resources the organization will commit to its diversity work (staff time), as well as other funding” (Thomas 65).

Desired Result/Impact The recommendations for inclusion and diversity will achieve various benefits for the employees. For instance, the recommendation to have employees collectively constitute a playlist will enhance collaboration. The collaboration between employees can be transferred into other aspects of productivity within the workplace (Roberson 212). The recommendation to have an event that celebrates music diversity among employees develops a sense of communal practice.

The communal practice can aid in an organization in achieving its goals and objectives. The recommendation to have themed-days also sensitizes employees against issues that accompany lack of inclusion and diversity. For instance, the overall question in matters of inclusion and diversity is whether “we are willing to live with discomfort for a time in order to achieve healthy and whole communities” (Syrett and Sepulveda 487). Themed days can create discomforts for some individuals but they are also great tools for accessing diversity.

Through diversity and inclusion, “diverse teams aim at achieving greater innovation and creativity, thereby enabling them to outperform homogenous teams” (Cox and Blake 46). Consequently, a work floor that features a diverse but homogeneous team is more likely to perform better than one that is divided along the lines of music genres.

On the other hand, conflict and communication problems affect both progress and innovativeness in an organization. Cox and Blake also recognize that inclusion and diversity attracts a more qualified workforce (48). In this case, conflicts between cultures in the work floor might lead to problems in workforce management therefore, lowering productivity.

The first two solutions to the problem of music choices within the workplace provided only temporary solutions to this issue. The reason for the initial failures of the inclusion and diversity issues is that it was solely engineered by the human resource department without the overall involvement of all the workers (Jayne and Dipboye 413).

The current recommendations seek to initiate a process that gradually brings about diversity within the workplace. For instance, a music/dance event that brings about inclusion and diversity is an agent of change as opposed to it being a tool (Chavez and Weisinger 332). The current process of achieving inclusion and diversity is gradual but the results are likely to be more long lasting.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Diversity and Inclusion in Relation to Music in the Workplace by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Works Cited Chavez, Carolyn, and Judith Weisinger. “Beyond Diversity Training: A Social Infusion for Cultural Inclusion.” Human Resource Management 47.2 (2008): 331-350. Print.

Cox, Taylor, and Stacy Blake. “Managing Cultural Diversity: Implications for Organizational Competitiveness.” The Executive 3.4 (1999): 45-56. Print.

Jayne, Michele, and Robert Dipboye. “Leveraging Diversity to Improve Business Performance: Research Findings and Recommendations for Organizations.” Human Resource Management 43.4 (2004): 409-424. Print.

Roberson, Quinetta. “Disentangling the Meanings of Diversity and Inclusion in Organizations.” Group


Consumer Perception About Alteration in Marketing Mix: Franchise Business in Saudi Arabia Proposal essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

There is no use denying the fact that nowadays the world and society evolves rapidly. That is why, the main approaches towards the economy and marketing also change, obtaining new features. Aftermath of the world financial crisis influence the traditional approach to the sphere of marketing greatly and nowadays new and alternative ways to develop a company is being found.

Under these conditions, Saudi Arabia, traditionally being taken as the dependent on the petroleum-based economy, starts to make some steps in order to diversify away and find some other powerful sources of incomes for the budget. That is why, the shift towards a small business can be observed even there.

Nowadays, rather orthodox Saudi Arabia goes through a great number of various significant process which are able to change the character of its economy and obtain independence from the oil extraction industry (“Saudi Arabia – Marketing and Sales Strategy” para. 3).

With this in mind, it becomes possible to suggest the idea that the consumer perception about the alteration of some traditional patterns and increase of the role of franchise business in Saudi Arabia could be investigated in order to determine the attitude of people towards this shift and state whether it faces some significant problems or not.

Additionally, the main concepts of the notion of Marketing Mix could also be applied to the situation in Saudi Arabia. The alteration of some traditional patterns peculiar to the economy of a state means also the change of the categories which comprise the given marketing tool.

Thus, it is obvious that under modern conditions, such categories as product, price, promotion and distribution obtain new meaning under the influence of a great number of external factors. That is why, it is also vital to take into account the idea that the consumer perception could be affected by the set of factors that promote a certain development of the situation peculiar to Saudi Arabia.

Objective of the study With this in mind, having outlined the main tendencies peculiar to the economy of Saudi Arabia nowadays, it is possible to outline the main objectives and goals of the given study.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Thus, the evaluation of the consumer perception about alteration in marketing mix and analysis of the franchise business and its peculiarities in Saudi Arabia could be taken as the main goals of the given paper. Moreover, four categories which comprise the Market Mix should also be analyzed. They are product, price, promotion, distribution. Additionally, the following hypothesis will be used

H1. The changes in the attitude towards franchises could be observed due to the main tendencies on the world market.

H2. Market Mixs alteration influences the change of the consumer perception.

Methodology Taking into account the main aim of the given paper, it is possible to say that the survey which main aim is to collect the data connected with the attitude towards the shift of priorities towards the small business and franchising should be conducted. SPSS tool will be used to process and analyze the data.

Conclusion Thus, it is possible to say that conclusion of the given paper will provide the final thought connected with the consumer perception about the Market Mix and the issue of franchising in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the modern tendencies peculiar to the economy of the given state will also be outlined and analyzed.


# Activity Completion Date 1 Literature Review 2 Designing the survey 3 Completion of the survey 4 Analyzing the data 5 Writing a report Works Cited Saudi Arabia – Marketing and Sales Strategy. n.d. Web.


SWOT Matrix for Unilever Case Study college essay help online

Unilever is a leading Dutch-British multinational company (“About Unilever” par. 1). It is currently “headquartered in London, United Kingdom, and Rotterdam, Netherlands” (Zisa 12). Unilever is “known for its superior spreads, cleaning agents, food materials, beverages, and personal care products” (“About Unilever” par. 2).

Unilever’s leading brands include “Knorr, Lipton, Hellmann’s, Blue Band, Suave, Axe and Dove” (“About Unilever” par. 2). The corporation markets over 400 brands in different nations. The firm’s products are designed to promote the wellbeing and health of its customers. The company uses a powerful business model in order to support its goals. This discussion presents a SWOT matrix for Unilever.

SWOT Matrix Internal Environment Strengths Unilever markets its superior products in over 190 nations. The firm’s brands are admired by many consumers in these countries.

The company has numerous products. Such products address the changing expectations of many consumers.

Unilever embraces the power of Research and Development (R


Entrepreneurship of ENEC Problem Solution Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Company Description Through a declaration, President Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan inaugurated the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC) in 2009. The core mandate of the corporation entails implementing a program for nuclear energy with the goal of producing safe and clean energy to aid in economic development of all UAE people (ENEC par.1).

The inauguration of the corporation was appropriate, considering that the UAE energy requirement increases at the rate of almost 10%, which is roughly four times the international standard. The corporation is responsible for overseeing prime contractors’ work in all stages of operation.

It also ensures the development of human resource capability in the management of nuclear energy programs across the UAE. The company educates people on the nuclear energy program while providing information on the progress of the project implementation process (ENEC par.3). It forms the arm through which the Abu Dhabi government invests in the nuclear energy sector.

While executing its mandate, soon after the 2009 inauguration, the country’s nuclear energy regulator, the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC) successfully awarded a USD20 billion bid to a coalition of companies led by the Korea Electric Power. The contract entailed constructing the UAE’s first nuclear power plant in Barakah, more than 300 Kilometers from the capital Abu Dhabi.

The flagship project and the construction of the first reactor of the four scheduled reactors began in 2011. The scheme is scheduled to be operational in 2017. The construction of the second reactor began in 2013. It is expected to be accomplished in 2018 (Dincer and Rosen 11).

The construction of the remaining two reactors has already commenced and will be concluded in 2019 and 2020 respectively (Darwish and Mohtar 109). The capacity of the four reactors is expected to reach 5.6GW, which will play a critical role in supporting the country’s increasing demand for energy.

Problem Statement and Problem Definition ENEC has already made a significant progress in providing clean and safe nuclear energy through the ongoing construction of nuclear plants. However, in the execution of its mandates as discussed in the background section, it is important for the company to identify and resolve some of internal and external problems that may hinder it from becoming technologically savvy. This paper proposes a solution to one of such problems. The problem is in the finance department, specifically the area of management accounting.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The department utilizes a manual budgeting process. This problem reduces the speed of processing and analyzing budgetary accounting information. The speed of processing and analyzing accounting-related information is critical in making rapid decision during a project execution process and running it upon its full implementation. To solve this problem, ENEC needs to implement an accounting information processing system that does not incorporate manual excel sheets.

Proposed Solution Management accounting scholars contend that managerial accounting extends to three main crucial pillars. These pillars comprise strategic management, risk management, and performance administration. The pillar of strategic management permits the role of accounting management professional to include making the accounting management professionals strategic partners of the organization they serve (Porteous and Tapadar 26).

Risk management entails discovering structures together with performances that allow the recognition, measurement, administration, and coverage of various risks with the aim of attaining a company’s goals. Performance management focuses on the development of business decision, which makes it possible to manage cutely the performance of a company.

Management accountants utilize their skills and knowledge in the process of preparing and presenting financial and any other decision-related information. This process is accomplished in ways that aid “management in the formulation of policies and the planning and control of its operations” (Porteous and Tapadar 31).

In the execution of the role of management accountants, ENEC encounters challenges due to the use of manual budget system. To resolve the problem, a recommended solution involves designing and implementation of an Oracle application that does not utilize any manual excels sheets.

An emerging question is whether the solution is appropriate for ENEC. The responses to this question may be addressed from the context of value analysis of the solution in six stages. The stages are problem observation, problem definition, idea generation, idea synthesis, idea evaluation, and solution implementation.

Problem Observation Manual budgeting of an organization, including ENEC, presents significant challenges because of the complexity of the budgeting process. Such a system is time-consuming. Management accountants will have to locate individual budgetary item entries, which may involve perusing multiple documents.

We will write a custom Essay on Entrepreneurship of ENEC specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such information may need to be copied for presentation, which proves quite difficult in a manual budgetary system. Another critical concern of the manual budgetary system is its subjectivity to errors. However, this situation does not imply that the automated budgetary system does not experience the problem of errors such as transposing of figures or erroneous entries due to human faults.

The challenge here is that the manual budgetary system does not possess any internal checks and balances, which can help in tracking and identifying errors. Another important concern for the budgetary system deployed by ENEC is its susceptibility to security threats. The manual budgetary system permits employees to review confidential and sensitive budgetary data.

Although employees may still copy files stored in computer systems in case of the automated systems, measures such as the use of passwords and user identifiers may limit such accessibility. Hence, the manual budgetary systems are highly susceptible to embezzlement and fraud from unauthenticated access. Disgruntled employees can irreparably and maliciously destroy crucial financial budgetary data.

Problem Definition The main concern for ENEC’s current budgetary system is that although efforts may be put in place to track errors, the organization will need to make rapid decisions. In this process, the use of data and information derived from it cannot be avoided since decisions must be evidence-based. Therefore, for ENEC, decision-making requires budgeting, which is a critical tool employed in managerial accounting to facilitate planning.

Apart from planning, budgeting also facilitates control. For example, in an attempt to cope with operational challenges, organizations use budgeting in their planning for various reasons. For instance, planning provides a framework on which decision-making is pegged in the quest to achieve organizational goals, strategies, and even objectives.

Indeed, Porteous and Tapadar assert that many organizations deploy budgets in the evaluation of divisional managers’ performance and/or tying bonuses to levels of achievement of preset goals (42). How can ENEC make urgent decisions without a fast means of retrieving, analyzing, evaluating, preparing, and reporting budgetary information?

Idea Generation To address ENEC’s problems, it is recommended that it implements a computer-based application for recording, preparing, and reporting budgetary information. Such a solution should permit users to conduct workforce planning, ensure position-based budgeting, and/or introduce high-tech visibility to ENEC budget development process, its review, and approval processes.

The most appropriate solution is the one, which ensures consistency, uniform, and comprehensive budgeting process across the organization. Such a process is important in ensuring transparency and dependability of the information transmitted to various ENEC’s stakeholders, especially the contractors, the UAE citizens, and the UAE government. An Oracle budgeting system without any manual excel sheets constitutes a good idea.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Entrepreneurship of ENEC by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Idea Synthesis Oracle budgeting and planning cloud application will permit ENEC to incorporate a state-of-the-art budgeting and planning application, which does not demand investment in CAPEX infrastructures. This strategy can guarantee great functionality of ENEC’s budgeting process while utilizing flexible options that ensure almost absolutely no curve for user learning (Oracle par.3).

The application will warrant reliability and security associated with cloud deployments from Oracle. It will provide built-in applications for ensuring reporting and provision of an important mechanism for management decision-making process. It supports rolling forecasts and best practices in budgeting and planning capabilities of any large organizations such as ENEC.

Idea Evaluation The proposed Oracle solution has a set of disconnected planning tools. It uses automated spreadsheets in the collection and storage of budgeting information. While the tool meets the concerns identified in the problem identification and idea generation, an emerging question is whether the system has been implemented elsewhere so that ENEC can benchmark from it.

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts needed an application for planning and budgeting system to integrate its decision-making abilities while increasing its visibility for budgeting process. It engaged in partnership with ANF (administrative agency for management and finance) in developing and implementing “Oracle’s Hyperion Financial Planning, resulting in the first successful statewide implementation of Oracle Hyperion Planning/Budgeting” (Accenture LLP US par.2).

The state developed the capability for meeting its budgetary needs. The implication was an all-inclusive, unswerving, and uniform budgeting process that ENEC required. Therefore, the proposed solution is effective for mitigating the challenges posed by the current manual budgeting system deployed by ENEC.

Solution Implementation The necessary Oracle software can be customized and developed in-house with the permission from the Oracle Company, following the modeling approach shown in figure 1. It can also be sourced from a vendor who can customize it to suit ENEC’s needs.

This option is preferred to reduce challenges associated with new applications and platforms such as system learning and the high probability of the occurrence of bugs that may lead to failure of the system soon or after its implementation. ENEC should source the application from Oracle. The company (Oracle) will also ensure user training so that ENEC can begin using the new system reliably soon after completing the customization process.

Figure 1: Design process for the proposed ENEC’s Oracle system

Source (Turban and Leidner 300).

Discussion Protection

Protecting critical information of an organization comprises an important aspect of any computer-based system. Hence, the Oracle planning and budgeting application developed and implemented at ENEC should have security features to ensure the information collected, processed, and stored in it remains the intellectual property of the corporation.

The fact that an Oracle system has in-built algorithms for protecting data and information from an unauthorized accessibility, the proposed system can help in preserving and protecting the corporation’s intellectual intelligence. Hence, the system will guarantee ENEC of accountability and transparency due to the development of policy perspectives based on reliable and dependable planning and budgetary data and information.


After the selection and successful implementation of the new system, work teams are crucial for running the system. This situation requires change management. The system entails the alteration of the processes that employees utilize to carry out budgeting and planning for ENEC. Since many operations that were previously executed by the employees manually or with partial intervention of computers will now be integrated and automated, employees will require retraining on how to use the new system.

Fryling asserts that upon the introduction of any new computer-based system, employees require training on how to share common practices and information throughout an enterprise. They also need to know how to access and produce reports in real time (392). Hence, work teams must be prepared to face and accept change from the past manual budgeting system to the new Oracle system without the labor-intensive excel sheets.

Sources of Finance

The government of the UAE funds the nuclear program that is currently under implementation. ENEC, the government organ in charge of overseeing the implementation process and reporting to both the government and the public on the progress of the nuclear program, has the mandate of implementing new solutions to guarantee smooth running of nuclear programs.

Therefore, the government of the UAE is expected to fund the process of designing and implementing the new solution through ENEC. Alternatively, the cost for the solution can be met from contingency fund that is provided as a resort to mitigating risks such as the introduction of new approaches or work repetition in the execution of a project.

Stakeholder Analysis

ENEC stakeholders comprise people and entities that are influenced by the activities of the corporation. They include the public whom the nuclear power energy installation is being developed for, the government, the primary contractor, and other contractors and the neighborhoods within the location of the construction of the nuclear power installations. All projects are constrained by time and monetary resources (Zekic and Samarzija 101).

Therefore, the stakeholders have a stake in the budget of ENEC since it sets out various monetary allocations to mitigate the likely costs that may be incurred by the stakeholders. For example, the government is interested about accurate and reliable budget for the corporation.

This transparency helps in the allocation of scarce resources to other government projects. Unreliable budget is inappropriate for the government since it may lead to delays in the completion of the project when the government allocates money to other projects, which may not be as urgent as the nuclear power program due to the misguided budget. In the same capacity, constructors need assurance that the budget for the nuclear program will be adequate to complete the work.

Conclusion Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC) is a government corporation in charge of implementing a government-initiated nuclear program in the UAE. In its management accounting department, there exists a problem of using manual budgeting system. The paper has proposed, analyzed, and evaluated an Oracle computer-based system without manual excel sheets to guarantee automation of management accounting processes, including planning and budgeting.

The system will be in the best interest of the stakeholders. By benchmarking from Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the system is most appropriate for ENEC. The solution ensures speedy, reliability, increased visibility, uniformity, consistency, and comprehensiveness of the corporation’s budgeting process.

Works Cited Accenture LLP US. Client case study: Commonwealth of Massachusetts: Public service transformation, 2015. Web.

Darwish, Mohammed, and Rabi Mohtar. “Prime energy challenges for operating power plants in the GCC.” Energy and Power Engineering 5.1(2013): 109-128. Print.

Dincer, Ibrahim, and Martin Rosen. Exergy: energy, environment and sustainable development, New York, NY: Newnes, 2012. Print.

ENEC. History, 2015. Web.

Fryling, Meg. “Estimating the impact of enterprise resource planning project management decisions on post-implementation maintenance costs: a case study using simulation modeling.” Enterprise Information Systems 4.4(2010): 391–42. Print.

Oracle. Oracle planning and budgeting cloud service, 2015. Web.

Porteous, Bruce, and Pradip, Tapadar. Economic Capital and Financial Risk Management for Financial Services Firms and Conglomerates, New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. Print.

Turban, Efraim, and Dorothy Leidner. Information Technology for Management, Transforming Organizations in the Digital Economy, Massachusetts, MA: John Wiley


“Relational Practice in the Workplace: Women’s Talk or Gendered Discourse?” Critical Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Janet Holmes and Meredith Marra (2004) attempted to investigate the specifics of relation practice in their article “Relational practice in the workplace: Women’s talk or gendered discourse?” published in Language in Society. The authors have managed to create a well-structured and informative article by choosing an appropriate approach to presenting the information and supporting each of the claims with much evidence.

The main aim of the article stated by the authors is to discover diverse ways of manifestations of relational practice at a workplace and focus on its specific instances to illustrate how it is discounted in New Zealand workplaces. The analysis provided by the authors is aimed at extending Fletcher’s research and support the researcher’s statement about the importance of relational practice, which is publicly ignored with relevant evidence.

To achieve their goal, the authors have created a well-developed structure of the article. This structure helps the reader to understand the specifics of the main topic fully and explore the main claims presented by the authors and supported by evidence. The first part of the article is devoted to defining relational practice. The second one helps to explore the manifestations of relational practice at a workplace. The third part is dedicated to discovering the relation between the investigated phenomenon and gender and workplace culture.

The authors define relational practice by exploring its three main components: orientation to facing the needs of others, serving to advance the primary objectives of the workplace, and being regarded as dispensable or peripheral (Holmes


Budget Planning and Control: Tootsie Roll Industries Research Paper custom essay help

About the company Tootsie Roll Industries is based in the United States and it deals with the production of food items that have high levels of Carbohydrates and sugar. The company was established in 1896 and it operates in the confectionery industry. Currently, it is a public company that trades on the New York Stock Exchange with the ticker symbol TR.

Currently, the shares of the company are trading at $31.86 per share. Further, the company has a market capitalization of 2.0 billion. At the end of the year 2014, the total revenue of the company amounted to $544 million while the operating income totaled to $84 million, an equivalent of 15.4% of sales. The net income for the year amounted to $63 million. The total assets at the end of the year 2014 amounted to $910 million, while liabilities and equity amounted to $220 million and $691 million.

A review of the balance sheet shows that the company has more equity than debt in the capital structure. A review of the trend of the performance of the company over the years shows that the performance of the company has improved. Finally, the company has engaged more than 2000 employees. The paper seeks to analyze various aspects of budgeting for Tootsie Roll Industries.

Reasons for budgeting There are a number of reasons why companies need to prepare and manage budgets on a period basis. The first reason is that budgets enable the management to plan for the future (Brigham


The State of Texas Academic Readiness Research Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Introduction The state of Texas has had a statewide program for academic assessment since 1979 (Keating 562). The State of Texas Assessment of Academic Readiness (STAAR) was enacted in 2007, and the implementation started in 2011. The main aim of the STAAR is to appraise the knowledge of students and skills.

The scope of the STAAR is to test students in grades three through to eight in reading, math, science, and social studies (Guisbond, Neil and Schaeffer 35). In addition, it includes assessments carried at the end of the course and taken between grades 9 and 12. The STAAR has experience mixed reactions in Texas.

Proponents argue that it provides the best alternative to measure knowledge and skills of students. On the other hand, there are counter arguments that the program causes mental and emotional strain on the key stakeholders i.e. the students, parents and teachers (Dutro and Selland 342). This paper analyzes the issues facing the program based on the counter argument.

Measuring Knowledge using STAAR The STAAR is designed to ensure that a student passes a minimum of 11 end-of-course exams (EOC) in order to graduate. The students must achieve a minimum cumulative score on all the given exams. According to Dutro and Selland students are supposed to pass all EOC assessments in order to graduate from the high school (347). The EOC accounts for 15% of the students’ grade. Thus, a failure in an EOC may bar a student graduating from high school.

According to Featherston, the STAAR places a lot of emphasis on testing, this negates the teaching to acquire basic skills and knowledge (3). Teachers have resulted in teaching towards the tests. In addition, the students are more anxious about the tests due to the time pressures and formalities that relate to STAAR that end up placing strain on them to perform well. Thus, the students may fail due to the pressure or pass with flying colors due to the fear of the consequences.

This is due to the fact that the current standardized testing is based on ‘test and punish policies’ (Weiss par. 3). While substantiating the claims, Warren and Grodsky stated that STAAR does not measure the knowledge of students (647). For example, a study conducted by Dutro and Selland, established that majority of tests contain information that is hard to understand and thus, the tests do not properly assess skills and knowledge (357).

In the study by Dutro and Selland, a student exclaimed that “I was finally happy when I could read chapter books, but I know I’m not good at it. I do badly on those tests. When we take them, I just know it will be another low point, so the books I like, I know they are too low for those tests” (359).This is a pointer that the STAAR has not been able to evaluate the students’ knowledge.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Warren and Grodsky added that the tests under STAAR are too many and thus causes the students to lose interest in the learning process (648). Cramming of the content being taught has replaced the basic learning process, which builds the students critical thinking skills. This is contrary to basic the teaching process in which testing is supposed to link the learning materials and the student in order to promote critical thinking and understanding the concept of issues being taught.

However the advocates of the STAAR state the standardized testing is the only viable option to assess students’ knowledge and skills. This is because some teachers and parents trust that STAAR determines the academic situation of students in relation to writing and reading.

Featherston added that the STAAR develops and administers tests that assess students’ knowledge against the set standards for learning (4). As a result, this ensures that all students have the required proficiencies in knowledge and skills and that as they progress to the next grade they are not falsely promoted.

Preparedness of Teachers to Give Students what they need for STAAR The state of Texas has developed new curriculum for subjects such as World Geography and Biology. The standards for the new curriculum have been adopted by the State Board of Education (Guisbond, Neil and Schaeffer 36). However, the state of Texas has not provided materials required to boost the program. The teachers lack textbooks that promote the new curriculum standards.

Dutro and Selland stated that the STARR has shifted the focus of teachers from guiding students to gain critical thinking skills that students require for their college and future careers to ‘teaching to the test’ (360). Furthermore, the EOC evaluation tests are normally written in a complex language, three Lexile levels. This implies that the student may be aware of the subject matter but may not understand the tests because they are written in language that is higher than their normal grade.

In the support that teachers are not giving the students what they need to prepare for STAAR, a university professor, Walter Stroup posited that STAAR is about how well the students are at doing the standardized tests (Weiss par. 1). Thus, teachers do not teach the right content. However, proponents argue that STAAR has led to teachers proving the students with the content they require in order to prepare them for college and future careers.

For instance, it has led to a shift from grade-based to course-based assessments. In addition, the standardized tests have revolutionized the teaching process because teachers can link performance standards to external evidence of postsecondary readiness. Thus, there is the need to device other measures to evaluate the educators and students in order to improve academic performance and equity.

We will write a custom Research Paper on The State of Texas Academic Readiness specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion Based on the arguments, it can be generalized that STAAR has increased the test workload for teachers, students, and the parents. The emphasis on the standardized testing has led to teachers aligning the teaching strategies to ‘teaching to the test’. This has negated the principle that education is about learning and understanding.

However, it is worth noting that STAAR is not entirely terrible. The lack of proper standardized tests, teachers and parents will not know the academic progress and preparedness of students to move to the next level of education. Thus, there is the need for test standards that uphold holistic learning of students and that motivate teachers rather than pressurizing them.

The tests should be designed in relation to understanding the implications of standardized testing and their effects on students’ mental and emotional wellbeing. The tests should be designed in a manner that incorporates the empowerment ability in which teachers are provided with learning materials to prepare students to achieve the set standards.

Works Cited Dutro, Elizabeth, and Makenzie Selland. ““I Like to Read, but I Know I’m Not Good at It”: Children’s Perspectives on High‐Stakes Testing in a High‐Poverty School.” Curriculum Inquiry 42.3 (2012): 340-367. Print.

Featherston, Mark. High-stakes testing policy in Texas: Describing the attitudes of young college graduates, Texas: Texas State University, 2011. Print.

Guisbond, Lisa, Monty Neill, and Bob Schaeffer. Resistance to high-stakes testing to spreads. District Administration 48.8 (2012): 34-42. Print.

Keating, Daniel. “Formative evaluation of the Early Development Instrument: Progress and prospects.” Early Education and Development 18.3 (2007): 561-570. Print.

Warren, John, and Eric Grodsky. Exit exams harm students who fail them– and don’t benefit students who pass them. Phi Delta Kappan 90.9 (2009): 645-649. Print. Weiss, Jeffrey. Texas’ standardized tests a poor measure of what students learned, UT- Austin professor says. 11 Aug. 2012. Web.

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Tencent Company Evaluation Essay best college essay help

Introduction of Tencent Tencent is a China-based investment holding company that was founded in 1998, and one that provides a wide range of internet services. The company’s headquarters are located in Shenzhen, China. Some of the ventures that Tencent engages in include entertainment, media, and value added internet and phone services. Currently, Tencent holds a significant market share of China’s internet services.

The company has continued to come up with innovative products including Tencent QQ, which was first released in 1999. The company’s Mobile QQ was launched as a joint venture in the year 2000 and it went on to become the third largest mobile phone service provider in the world. Mobile QQ revolutionized communication at the time of its inception because it allowed users to send messages directly to personal computers. Tencent started trading publicly in June of 2004 at the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.

By the year 2013, the company had an annual total revenue of $9.913 billion dollars and an average growth rate of approximately thirty-eight percent. WeChat is one of Tencent’s flagship products and it has often served as the company’s strategic tool for growth. Consequently, WeChat has spawned various other products and services for Tencent.

Tencent’s Market Position Tencent has mostly centralized its operations in China but the company formally launched its international operations in 2005. The company ventured into worldwide market through an international business group. Currently, Tencent has market presence in North America, Europe, and Southeast Asia. Since the company became an international outfit, it has also become the fourth most innovative company in Asia according to “Forbes Lists”.

In 2003, “Forbes” listed Tencent at position eighteen in the category of World’s Most Innovative Companies. Tencent’s entry into the international markets was also aided by the company’s acquisition of overseas brands such as Epic Games and Flash Sales Website Fab. Both of these companies are based in the United States and they have since been incorporated into Tencent’s portfolio.

In china, Tencent remains a dominant market force on several fronts. First, two of Tencent’s third party payment platforms are widely used within China. Both WeChat and Tenpay are ranked third and fourth respectively when it comes to the most regularly used third-party payment platforms in the country. The top two market performers in this category are Alipay and Paypal, and they both have presence around the world.

Tencent’s most successful product integration happened in 2014, when the company partnered with Didi Taxi as method of raising the consumer profile of WeChat’s third party payment application. Tencent has an absolute market grip on the Chinese mobile market through its product integration efforts.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More For instance, Tencent has integrated seven distinct businesses with the aim of catering for customers’ needs from a single location. Tencent’s leading products in china include; Tencent QQ- an online instant messaging software, Qzone- a restrictive multidimensional communication software, and Tenpay- a secure online payment platform.

WeChat WeChat is one of the most recent additions on the Tencent’s innovative products profile. WeChat began as a mobile phone based application that was provided free to customers. Through this free application, customers were able to send instant messages and share photos and videos across various platforms. WeChat was instituted in the year 2011 by a dedicated team of designers. WeChat functions are similar to those of WhatsApp, another popular mobile-based communication application.

However, WeChat provides customers with the ability to communicate through video interfaces. In addition, WeChat has a functionality that integrates geographical positioning with communication thereby giving communicators the ability to discover other like-minded individuals who are close to them. In total, WeChat has four distinct features; Shake, People Nearby, Moments, and the Public Platform.

Research for the development of the WeChat application began in 2010 at Tencent’s Research and Project Centre. In China, the first final version of the application was known as ‘Weixin’ but it was later rebranded to ‘WeChat’ in order for it to have a more ‘international’ appeal. Currently, WeChat boasts of more than six hundred million users per month. The number of active users has also been on a constant growth trajectory.

The WeChat Public Platform is intended for use by both individuals and companies. The platform allows users to create accounts that can consequently attract subscribers. ‘Service’ WeChat accounts allow organizations to interact better with their customers. The ‘Shake’ and ‘People Nearby’ applications are designed as tools of social interactions where people could chat with other individuals in close proximity. WeChat’s ‘Moments’ platform is designed to allow sharing of media including photos, videos, and music files.

‘Moments’ has been instrumental in increasing WeChat’s overall user-base by a factor of one hundred and twenty one percent per year for the last two years. Tencent used WeChat’s popularity with users to launch a mobile-based payment system. WeChat Payment contains elements of Tencent’s Tenpay to create a system that allows customers to make payments for goods and services.

WeChat Payment has since partnered with other major brands such as Starbucks and McDonald’s. WeChat has also partnered with Didi Taxi through a US$15 million direct investment by Tencent. The Didi-WeChat acts as a connector between passengers and taxi drivers, and also offers a payment platform for services rendered.

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Uber Company Essay best essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Current Business Issues

Potential Future Business Issues

Factors for Uber’s Success in International Markets

Challenges to Expand Business in Other Countries



Introduction Nowadays, the taxi industry has been considerably improved and varied. There are many interesting options on how to satisfy customers, offer appropriate services, and gain a number of financial and organizational benefits. Though there may be certain challenges and mistakes in a decision-making process, taxi companies try to solve the problems in a short period of time and make sure employees and customers are satisfied with the conditions offered.

Uber is one of the well-known taxi companies around the whole globe. Its services can be offered in a number of the American cities, as well as in the European cities such as Rome, Minsk, Lisbon, Turin, etc. Uber is the company that offers a good work for drivers and high-quality services for passengers.

However, like any developing or developed company, Uber can be under a threat of some financial instabilities or organizational challenges. The current paper aims at analyzing Uber’s current and potential future business issues, the factors that define the success of the company or may challenge it in different countries. In fact, the analysis of the Uber’s financial perspectives is a good chance to understand different aspects of the international market and define the most appropriate solutions.

Current Business Issues Uber is a young company. It was founded in 2009 by the Americans, Travis Kalanick and Garrett Camp (About Uber, 2015). However, during the last five years, the company has survived a number of conflicts, discussions, and evaluations. The current business issues are based on the experience gained from 2009 till today.

Being introduced as a private taxi company, Uber expanded its services from a city to a city. In 2012, Uber became an international company and offered its services for the citizens of Paris. Nowadays, Uber is available to people in 58 countries of different continents. The citizens of more than 300 cities worldwide are able to use the Uber’s services any time they need.

The company is valued at about $50 billion (Higson, 2015). These indicators may tell a lot about the current situation of the company and make some predictions about its possible development. On the one hand, it is evident that customers are satisfied with the possibilities to have more convenient as the company’s founders can open new departments in different parts of the world.

On the other hand, the information that can be found online proves that Uber faces a lot of challenges with other international and local taxi companies (Cheok, 2015). For example, French and Russian representatives admitted that Uber could not offer its services to the citizens without appropriate licenses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Germany, Belgium, and Spain, Uber has to solve many legal problems (Cheok, 2015). The Taiwan government identified the services of Uber as illegal. In fact, the current business affairs of the company under consideration are not as good and satisfactory as they are expected.

As a sprawling logistics company, Uber has already achieved a lot in the taxi industry (McAlone, 2015). Despite numerous misunderstandings and the necessity to prove its appropriateness and correctness, Uber has survived. Its current situation has good prospects. Its founders admit the justification of the attempts made during the last six years. Now, they enjoy and use the benefits Uber offers.

Potential Future Business Issues Sometimes, it is hard to realize what to expect from such companies like Uber that have been developed within a short period of time and become successful at the international level. The evaluation of its potential future business issues is unpredictable. Still, it is possible to offer several ideas.

For example, one of its co-founders, Kalanick believes that Uber has all chances to spread its services in the way it can be more effective to be the Uber’s passenger than to own a car (Shontell, 2015). In fact, the prospects described by the owners of the company and the abilities help to realize that the future of the company can be successful.

It is possible to provide people with taxi services for affordable prices around the whole world. Even the point that some people want to travel without drivers does not create a problem for the company. Kalanick thinks about the possibility to provide people with taxi services without chauffeurs (Shontell, 2015).

It is expected that people learn more about Uber and want to have such services available in their towns. It is possible for the company to think about the possibility to offer its services in small towns. The access to the Internet is possible in villages nowadays. That is why it should not cause a problem for a person to register and become a passenger of Uber within a short period of time. Still, the business issues that can be developed in the nearest future are connected with the possibility to have more countries and towns being involved.

It is also possible to have more benefits due to the possibility to offer diverse services of various qualities. Passengers with various incomes can use Uber. Another potential issue is the cooperation with huge international companies. The question of comfortable and appropriate transportation rises in a number of companies. Business people want to be sure in the services they order. That is why Uber can offer taxi for people as well as cargo transportation around the whole world.

We will write a custom Essay on Uber Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Factors for Uber’s Success in International Markets The concepts of international marketing help to understand what skills should be developed, clarify what knowledge is necessary to work effectively, and make the decisions that can define the success of companies under analysis (Doole


Motivation in Higher Education Report (Assessment) cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Motivation in higher education is the area of special concern for many researchers. Müller and Palekčić focus on the continuity of motivation in the context of higher education. The researchers explore the way autonomy, competence and social relatedness affect motivation during a specific time span. It is found that the overall degree of motivation does not change significantly, but the influence of autonomy and competence deteriorate while social connectedness becomes a leading factor affecting motivation (Müller and Palekčić 31).

The research in question is a quantitative study. 104 students took part in the survey aimed at identifying their motivation and its change throughout three years of their study. The dependent variable was the motivation, and the independent variables were the three time points at which the data were collected (Müller and Palekčić 34).

Notably, literature review provides the necessary context and aligns the research with other studies in the field. The researchers also provided the information on the gaps in the existing research. At that, it would play the same role if the research was based on qualitative or quantitative method.

The present research is based on the self-determination theory (SDT) developed by Deci and Ryan. The researchers employ the concepts of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Müller and Palekčić 32). The theory was the foundation of the study as the researchers traced the way both types of motivation changed throughout their studies.

The researchers focus on quantitative data, and the theory was used to identify major aspects of motivation. If the researchers chose another design, they would focus on attitudes of students and reasons for the motivation change rather than identification of the trend.

Research Questions It is necessary to note that social interactions have proved to be an important constituent part of students’ motivation in higher education (Jones 272). This element can be associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Holder 245; Savage, Birch and Noussi 40). It has been acknowledged that academic engagement enhances if social integration is involved (Nukpe 13).

Such forms of connectedness as socializing, peer assessment and counselling are especially valuable (Topping 631). At that, proper relations with the faculty also plays an important role in the construction of motivation. Importantly, it has been found that the level of social relatedness remains stable throughout students’ studies (Müller and Palekčić 31).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The purpose of this research is to identify the role of social relatedness for motivation in higher education as seen by students.

Therefore, the research question for the qualitative study can be formulated as follows: How important is social relatedness for undergraduate students of different higher educational establishments?

The sub-questions of the present research are as follows:

What are students’ ideas on their relations with peers as well as educators?

Do students think these relations have an impact on their academic performance?

Why or why not do these relations influence students’ academic performance as seen by students?

To what extent has the degree of students’ social relatedness changed throughout their studies?

We will write a custom Assessment on Motivation in Higher Education specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Why have these changes (if any) taken place as seen by students?

What motivates students as regard social links as seen by students?

Methodology The present research will be based on the case study design. The research procedure employed will be long interviews. The participants of the studies will be undergraduate students of three different colleges. These will be local higher educational establishments. Two male and two female students from each college will be interviewed.

This will increase the validity of the data obtained. The samples will be randomly chosen among undergraduate students with the academic score higher than 70%. The age of students will be 20-23 years old. It is noteworthy that students living on campus, as well as students living outside, will be interviewed. This will unveil the difference (if any) between social relatedness in students who spend most of their time on campus and those who are not fully integrated (live at home).

The interviews will be held in the college territory to help students feel comfortable. The interviews will be tape-recorded. The students will answer a variety of open-ended questions aimed at eliciting their attitudes towards and ideas on the role of social relatedness in their academic life. The researcher will encourage students to reflect on their performance provided social contacts were excluded from their academic life.

The special attention will be paid to existing contacts of the participants. Thus, the researchers will identify the degree of students’ relatedness and the number of their social links within their academic environment. Students ideas on motivation will also be analyzed. Thus, students will contemplate on factors motivating them to study harder. The questions will be developed prior to the research, but the researcher will be able to ask additional questions based on the participants’ responses.

The primary data analysis procedure will be coding. To ensure the validity of the data, member checks will be utilized. Confidentiality and anonymity will be ensured, and written consent will be obtained from the students.

Works Cited Holder, Bruce. “An Investigation of Hope, Academics, Environment, and Motivation as Predictors of Persistence in Higher Education Online Programs.” Internet and Higher Education 10.1 (2007): 245-260. Print.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Motivation in Higher Education by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Jones, Brett D. “Motivating Students to Engage in Learning: The MUSIC Model of Academic Motivation.” International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 21.2 (2009): 272-285. Print.

Müller, Florian H. and Marko Palekčić. “Continuity of Motivation in Higher Education: A Three-Year Follow-Up Study.” Review of Psychology 12.1 (2005): 31-43. Print.

Nukpe, Philip. “Motivation: Theory and Use in Higher Education.” Investigations in University Teaching and Learning 8.1 (2012): 11-17. Print.

Savage, Nick, Roy Birch and Eleni Noussi. ” Motivation of Engineering Students in Higher Education.” Engineering Education 6.2 (2011): 39-46. Print.

Topping, Keith J. “Trends in Peer Learning.” Educational Psychology 25.6 (2005): 631-645. Print.


Uber Company Essay cheap essay help

Table of Contents Introduction

Current Business Issues

Potential Future Business Issues

Factors for Uber’s Success in International Markets

Challenges to Expand Business in Other Countries



Introduction Nowadays, the taxi industry has been considerably improved and varied. There are many interesting options on how to satisfy customers, offer appropriate services, and gain a number of financial and organizational benefits. Though there may be certain challenges and mistakes in a decision-making process, taxi companies try to solve the problems in a short period of time and make sure employees and customers are satisfied with the conditions offered.

Uber is one of the well-known taxi companies around the whole globe. Its services can be offered in a number of the American cities, as well as in the European cities such as Rome, Minsk, Lisbon, Turin, etc. Uber is the company that offers a good work for drivers and high-quality services for passengers.

However, like any developing or developed company, Uber can be under a threat of some financial instabilities or organizational challenges. The current paper aims at analyzing Uber’s current and potential future business issues, the factors that define the success of the company or may challenge it in different countries. In fact, the analysis of the Uber’s financial perspectives is a good chance to understand different aspects of the international market and define the most appropriate solutions.

Current Business Issues Uber is a young company. It was founded in 2009 by the Americans, Travis Kalanick and Garrett Camp (About Uber, 2015). However, during the last five years, the company has survived a number of conflicts, discussions, and evaluations. The current business issues are based on the experience gained from 2009 till today.

Being introduced as a private taxi company, Uber expanded its services from a city to a city. In 2012, Uber became an international company and offered its services for the citizens of Paris. Nowadays, Uber is available to people in 58 countries of different continents. The citizens of more than 300 cities worldwide are able to use the Uber’s services any time they need.

The company is valued at about $50 billion (Higson, 2015). These indicators may tell a lot about the current situation of the company and make some predictions about its possible development. On the one hand, it is evident that customers are satisfied with the possibilities to have more convenient as the company’s founders can open new departments in different parts of the world.

On the other hand, the information that can be found online proves that Uber faces a lot of challenges with other international and local taxi companies (Cheok, 2015). For example, French and Russian representatives admitted that Uber could not offer its services to the citizens without appropriate licenses.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In Germany, Belgium, and Spain, Uber has to solve many legal problems (Cheok, 2015). The Taiwan government identified the services of Uber as illegal. In fact, the current business affairs of the company under consideration are not as good and satisfactory as they are expected.

As a sprawling logistics company, Uber has already achieved a lot in the taxi industry (McAlone, 2015). Despite numerous misunderstandings and the necessity to prove its appropriateness and correctness, Uber has survived. Its current situation has good prospects. Its founders admit the justification of the attempts made during the last six years. Now, they enjoy and use the benefits Uber offers.

Potential Future Business Issues Sometimes, it is hard to realize what to expect from such companies like Uber that have been developed within a short period of time and become successful at the international level. The evaluation of its potential future business issues is unpredictable. Still, it is possible to offer several ideas.

For example, one of its co-founders, Kalanick believes that Uber has all chances to spread its services in the way it can be more effective to be the Uber’s passenger than to own a car (Shontell, 2015). In fact, the prospects described by the owners of the company and the abilities help to realize that the future of the company can be successful.

It is possible to provide people with taxi services for affordable prices around the whole world. Even the point that some people want to travel without drivers does not create a problem for the company. Kalanick thinks about the possibility to provide people with taxi services without chauffeurs (Shontell, 2015).

It is expected that people learn more about Uber and want to have such services available in their towns. It is possible for the company to think about the possibility to offer its services in small towns. The access to the Internet is possible in villages nowadays. That is why it should not cause a problem for a person to register and become a passenger of Uber within a short period of time. Still, the business issues that can be developed in the nearest future are connected with the possibility to have more countries and towns being involved.

It is also possible to have more benefits due to the possibility to offer diverse services of various qualities. Passengers with various incomes can use Uber. Another potential issue is the cooperation with huge international companies. The question of comfortable and appropriate transportation rises in a number of companies. Business people want to be sure in the services they order. That is why Uber can offer taxi for people as well as cargo transportation around the whole world.

We will write a custom Essay on Uber Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Factors for Uber’s Success in International Markets The concepts of international marketing help to understand what skills should be developed, clarify what knowledge is necessary to work effectively, and make the decisions that can define the success of companies under analysis (Doole


Improving the Quality of Staff’s Performance Proposal argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Executive Summary Promoting change and the improvement of quality standards is essential for a company aiming to become a global leader. The given objective, however, often requires the reconsideration of the leadership strategy adopted by the company managers and its further adjustment to the requirements of the global market.

However, in most instances, the company managers may be unwilling to alter the traditional behavioral patterns, including both theirs and the ones of the staff due to the difficulty of the procedure and the need to change their values.

A training session aimed at promoting a different leadership strategy and, therefore, a different approach toward the workplace issues, including conflicts, the distribution of roles and responsibilities, the communication process, etc., will help the managers gear the employees’ efforts the right direction; as a result, a significant increase in the quality of the products and services provided is expected.

The training session will include a set of short personal interviews regarding the issues such as the personal values of the managers, their concept of quality and corporate responsibility, and the information concerning the unique personality traits of the respondents.

The training, which will include several scenarios, in which the managers will have to solve leadership-related issue, will close with another assessment. Afterward, the results of each evaluation will be compared and the verdict regarding the effect of the training will be provided. It is expected that the training program will have a huge effect of both the managers and the staff members.

Overview Statement Investing in the development of the company’s human resources is an essential element of a reasonable financial strategy and an adequate HRM approach as it provides premises for the promotion of stakeholder-oriented values in the firm and the consistent improvement of product quality (Thite, Kavanagh, and Johnson 24).

By enhancing the process of staff’s professional development, one will create premises for the steady development of the organization since the employees’ competencies are going to upgrade along with the progress of the organization.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Background Company M has only recently started operating in the U.S. market by providing services in the food industry. By putting a very strong emphasis on the production of the food that is healthy, tasty, and vegetarian, the organization has gained recognition in the local market.

However, the need to expand triggered the necessity to change the existing leadership style and the tools for managing the staff and improving their performance has emerged. To make sure that the quality of the goods produced complies with the existing regulations, the firm will have to consider the tools for boosting the staff’s motivation.


In light of the fact that the significance of healthy food has been growing consistently over the past few decades, the emergence of numerous companies operating in the same area, as well as the enhancement of the global organizations’ positions was rather expected. Therefore, to enter the designated environment, the firm will have to make sure that the quality of the products is high enough to satisfy the customers, meet the standards of the global market and, therefore, increase the firm’s competitiveness rates.

Herein the need to improve the skills of the staff lies; by teaching the current staff instead of hiring new members, Company M is likely to advance in the target market. Since the firm will not have to recruit the new staff and make them acquire the skills that the current company members already have, it will have ample opportunities for saving an impressive amount of money.

More importantly, Company M will use the services of devoted staff members, who will be loyal to the organization and appreciate it, thus, promoting its further development.

The process of acquiring new skills is, however, fraught with several difficulties, the issue of motivation and the approach to be taken to advance adult learners being the key ones. Indeed, applying the learning theories that are typically used to teach students does not seem reasonable, as adults have different values, goals and, therefore, patterns of learning.


The purpose of the study, therefore, concerns the development of a viable strategy for manager training, which will help improve their skills so that they could enhance the process of knowledge acquisition among the staff and the organization could live up to the standards set by the firms operating in the environment of the global economy.

We will write a custom Proposal on Improving the Quality of Staff’s Performance specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Particularly, the set of exercises and the information layout will have to be identified so that the plan could be completed and the improvement of the level of the employees’ expertise could be upgraded correspondingly.

Company Description Company M can be defined as medium entrepreneurship that is willing to expand by attracting an increasingly large number of customers. The organization has been focusing primarily on the promotion of its product to the target audience, research and development, the branding strategy and the new marketing tools (e.g., social networks).

Market Performance

Becoming successful in the food industry is a challenging g task due to the abundance of middle and small entrepreneurship in both the Middle east and the global markets. Moreover, the fact that the latter is dominated by massive corporations operating in the food industry means that Company M may be squashed by its influential rivals when emerging in the designated market.

Nevertheless, it can be assumed that, by increasing the quality of its goods and enhancing the production process, the firm may gain significant weight in the target environment by offering the unique products of the Arab cuisine, an opportunity, which other companies may overlook.

Organizational Behavior

The members of the company are affected by the leadership style chosen by the company leader and accepted by managers to a considerable extent. Particularly, the fact that the firm is handled with the help of a laissez-faire approach sets a range of obstacles to achieving success in the global economy.

As a recent analysis of the company has shown, the firm may suffer from the lack of cohesion between the actions of the staff; particularly, the cooperation between different departments of the organization may be viewed as one of the most questionable aspects of its performance.

Herein the key issue regarding the required change lies; instead of using the laissez-faire leadership style, which provides the employees with an excessive amount of options as far as their professional choices are concerned, the managers should direct and motivate them, at the same time making sure that the employees should be both independent and ethical in their decision-making. In other words, both the company’s leader and the managers should adopt the transformative leadership style.


Defined as “is a part of new leadership paradigm and explains a process that changes the people and is connected to values, moral characteristics and long-term goals” (Baharlou 609–610), the transformative leadership approach creates the environment, in which the staff’s motivation can be enhanced significantly.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Improving the Quality of Staff’s Performance by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to a recent study, the specified tool “increases satisfaction of subordinates and their trust in leadership and their emotional commitment” (Baharlou 610). However, to make sure that the managers use their power reasonably and carry out an adequate policy by providing employees with enough support to boost their motivation and engagement rates, one will have to redesign the company’s values and promote them to the managers.

While one might argue that the adoption of the laissez-faire leadership style as a management tool is not a bad idea, seeing that it reinforces the significance of the staff’s professional independence, it may hinder the process of cooperation between the firm’s departments in the realm of the global economy.

Seeing that the affiliates of the entrepreneurship will be quite distant from each other, making certain that the managers comply with the uniform leadership policy and promote the same values to the staff members are essential steps.

Herein the significance of the transformative leadership lies; putting a strong emphasis on the corporate values, it sets the stage for the further promotion of the Corporate Social Responsibility among the managers and the employees alike. The development of CSR, in its turn, will trigger an immediate increase in the quality of the products, simultaneously reducing the possibility of a corporate fraud.

Educational Approach: Summary Andragogy

As it has been stressed above, there is a significant gap between the learning behavior of adolescents and that one of adult learners. As a rule, in contrast to younger learners, adult ones know exactly what they want to achieve and how. Therefore, without a goal or set of objectives to strive form, adults will be unable to acquire the necessary skills and learn the required information in a proper manner.

Thus, it will be reasonable to suggest andragogy as the theoretical foundation for teaching the members of Company M. Andragogy is used widely as a tool for addressing the needs of adult learners and allowing them to develop in the manner that they are comfortable with (Melick and Melick 108).

Theory and Practice

Applying the above-mentioned concepts to practice, one must put the stage involving the clarification of the company’s goals and the significance thereof to the staff members at the top of the priorities list. In other words, it is essential that the employees should be able to relate to the program and have a clear idea of the stages that they will have to pass through in order to meet the requirements set by the organization.

Workshop Lesson Plan Needs Assessment Components

Because of the necessity to attain the goals of the firm and at the same time convince the staff members that they need the specified training session as instructed by the andragogy theory, one will have to consider an introductory assessment, which will help the organization acts in their best interests of the staff members. In addition, the course of the further training session will have to be outlined.

The needs assessment will be carried out as a series of personal interviews. Particularly, the managers will have to answer the questions regarding their goals, aspirations, and demands. Thus, the means of promoting the designated leadership strategy to each of them efficiently can be identified.

For instance, several managers have been displaying a strong tendency to avoid conflicts in the workplace. Therefore, the specified members of the organization will have to be taught about the significance of the negotiation strategy based on compromise as opposed to the one based on avoidance.

It should also be noted that the principles of the MBTI approach should be incorporated into the assessment. Specifically the test results should provide the managers and the company with the information concerning the manner, in which the former can be approached and the tools that may increase motivation rates among them.

According to the existing definition, the MBTI tool helps carry out the procedure of “psychological typing” (Ao 175). Hence, the individual characteristics of the managers can be identified so that the further course of the training process could be adjusted to meet the company’s quality requirements and help the managers acquire the corresponding leadership skills to boost the staff’s initiative and performance rates.

The needs assessment will include the questions concerning the elements of the workplace operations that the managers find the most exciting, the ones that they consider the most tedious, the staff’s expectations and whether the company meets them, and the employees’ wishes concerning the possible changes in the workplace.

It is believed that there is no need to ask the questions regarding their motivation, since the managers may possibly refuse to speak their mind in fear of providing the answer that will define them as lacking initiative and corporate spirit.

Last but definitely not least, the issues regarding the unique characteristics of the Arab Middle East residents need to be taken into account when carrying out the training process. Specifically, the cultural issues such as the concept of personal space will have to be taken into account.

To be more specific, the training process should occur in the setting that will presuppose a close communication between the managers and the instructor. Moreover, it will be required that the communication should be carried out with very little physical distance between the coach and the managers. The given modification of the traditional training session is predisposed by the fact that the Arab Middle East culture involves very close communication, during which the participants reduce the amount of space between each other to a minimum.

The specified characteristics of the Arab Middle east culture stands in sharp contrast to the European and American ones (Rinke and Röder 1277); nevertheless, it has to be appreciated and complied with so that the managers of Company M could feel inclined toward changing their typical behavioral patterns in the workplace and accepting new and improved ones.

The change in question can be carried out by sitting close to the respondent when conducting an interview mentioned above. Thus, the managers are unlikely to be reluctant to share the details of their workplace experiences with the interviewer.

Program Design Theories

Approaching the issue, one must consider the theory of change as the basis for the design of the program in question. Although being a part and parcel of every single domain, including business, change is not typically accepted warmly by employees.

The reasons for the specified type of behavior are quite understandable; apart from having to carry out the tasks related to their daily routine, the employees will have to adjust to new requirements; therefore, the number of responsibilities that they will have to accept is going to snowball.

Herein the significance of choosing the proper theoretical foundation for the program design lies. Seeing that it is the change that creates the greatest obstacle on the staff’s way to accepting the new design of the organization and the new roles and responsibilities, the key tenets of the theory based on the integrative model will have to be included into the design of the program because the specified model allows the managers to “not only look at the different aspects of competency development within an organization but also assess the interconnections between these aspects, putting competency development in a broader perspective” (Vos, Hauw, and Willemse 7).

Evaluation Components

The staff of the organization will be evaluated twice in the course of training. First, the employees will undergo a series of questions concerning their motivations, their idea of corporate responsibility, their willingness to acquire new knowledge and leadership skills, etc, prior to the training. As soon as the training is over, the managers will be interviewed once again and asked similar questions allowing the staff to show what they have learned during the training session.

The evaluation will consist of the questions concerning the personal impressions and expectations of the staff members, the location and assessment of their unique characteristics, and their potential as leaders. A comparison of the interview results retrieved after the first and the second evaluation will be carried out afterward.

Thus, the rate of the employees’ readiness for the alterations of the workplace to occur and the acceptance of their new roles and responsibilities can be identified. It is expected that the company members will reconsider their values and be ready to alter their behavioral patterns and values as far as the key workplace processes are concerned.

Recommendations It is strongly suggested that the company in question should reconsider the current leadership approach so that the staff’s motivation rates could be enhanced and that the premises for improving the quality of the goods produced could be created. As the analysis of the company’s components conducted above has shown, the organization thrives on the marketing strategy and the promotion of a single brand, which as an approach, is quite adequate since it makes the organization competitive.

However, the lack of emphasis on the quality control processes along with the inconsistencies in the motivation rates of the staff shows that the current leadership strategy and the tools for promoting corporate values could use a major improvement. Therefore, the training process should be aimed at promoting new corporate values and goals, which will help reinforce the significance of corporate ethics and help the staff members develop the required amount of corporate social responsibility.

Making a firm succeed I the environment of the global economy is a challenging task; however, with a set of strategies aimed at improving the quality of the firm’s production by carrying out a series of training sessions with the staff, Company M is going to become competitive in the global market.

Works Cited Ao, Xiaolan. “Effective Communication With USA and China Community Leaders: Using Psychological Typing Analysis.” Journal of US-China Public Administration 10.2 (2013): 174–183. Print.

Baharlou, Nazila. “Investigating the Effect of Transformative Leadership on Promotion of Employees: Job Performance Based on the Role of Trust as a Mediator.” Journal UMP Social Sciences and Technology Management 3.2 (2015): 609–618. Print.

Melick, Richart R., and Shela Melick. Teaching that Transforms: Facilitating Life Change Through Adult Bible Teaching. Nashville, TN: B


Using Leadership to Improve Ethical Performance Response Essay essay help online: essay help online

Background This paper is premised on an interview between the author and the head teacher of Delaware school. The interview centered on leadership whereby the author sought to unravel the connection between leadership and ethics. To achieve the stated objective, the author based the interview on pre-prepared questions that she posed to the interviewee. The interviewee’s responses were weighed against the literature to test their reliability.

How would you define leadership?

Based on the interviewee’s response, leadership refers to the provision of guidance and the necessary support to the junior staff by the managers. This definition of leadership is congruent with the definition offered by other scholars. Bolden and Gosling (2006) define leadership as the ability of a team leader to organize and plan tasks and to provide the necessary support to the junior staff in the course of dispensing their roles.

Selznick (2011) claims that leadership involves the use of the leadership skills to organize groups and to mobilize them to work hard towards achieving the set targets. It involves assigning tasks and conducting regular checks to detect any deviations from the normal business practice.

My interviewee noted that she cultivates a culture that fosters teamwork to achieve the objectives of the firm. Additionally, she consults her subordinates before making decisions that may affect the firm’s operations. She exercises a democratic style of leadership whereby the ideas of each employee counts. She claims that she furthers her leadership skills from listening to the employees’ ideas.

As a leader, what do you do when people on your team are not pulling their weight?

Schein (2010) states that personal issues coupled with the lack of skills contribute to the employees’ failure to work as expected. In that regard, leaders should avoid imposing punishments on employees for under performance. Instead, leaders should find the underlying cause of the problem to make an informed decision regarding the approach to adopt. My interviewee’s response to the stated question seems congruent with the findings in the literature.

She acknowledged the need to investigate the causes of the employee’s performance as opposed to confronting them. She stated that when faced with such a situation, she first talks to the employee personally to determine the reasons for the underperformance.

From the interview, I learnt that the leader exercises a servant style of leadership whereby she assists every employee in accomplishing his/her tasks. Where difficulties arise in accomplishing tasks, the leader investigates the causes of the underperformance. The leader then tailors the support to the problem identified.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More What is one of the greatest leadership challenges you have ever faced?

My interviewee cited dealing with negative attitudes towards children by tutors, as one of the greatest challenges she has ever faced in her career. The first instance occurred in Charles County, where the interviewee had to manage a group of staff who were not children oriented.

She responded by promoting a culture that would favor teamwork and promote employees’ development. Additionally, the leader held every individual personally liable for his/her actions. A universal code of ethics was formulated to guide the staff in their endeavors to mitigate undesirable behaviors. The leader embraced the code of ethics and encouraged employees to follow the suit. She acted ethically and encouraged others to follow suit.

Her actions to act ethically encouraged every other employee in the company to embrace ethical behavior. Northouse (2015) states that employees look at their leaders as their role models hence leaders need to be ethical and professional in their performance to encourage their juniors to follow the suit. The leader’s approach to act ethically and to mobilize her subordinates to do the same was based on the said view.

How would you describe your communication style?

Carroll, Levy


PESTEL and Trend Analysis for the Hotel Industry in Spain Report writing essay help

Hotel industry comprises one of the biggest areas of touristic business in Spain. PESTEL and trend analysis for the hotel industry in Spain reveals that though the severe financial crisis caused a temporary decline in this sector, hotel business quickly recovered from the crisis and is currently on the way to a new period of prosperity. Spanish political, economic, and legal conditions are rather advantageous for both employers and employees in the hotel industry and should encourage its extensive development in the nearest future.

Spain Political Analysis Government Stability

According to the data collected by The World Bank (2013), the index for political stability in Spain is currently growing, though it was significantly under 0.00 index during 2006-2011 (par. 2). Therefore, the risks of destabilization of the government are higher than in other Western European countries but are not as critical as it was during the previous years (A. M. Best Company Inc., 2015, p. 3).

The lowered rates of government stability experienced by Spain during the recent years Spain influenced hotel industry by making the country less attractive to foreign investors. However, current government stability is favorable for foreign investors.

Taxation Policy

The Value Added Tax in Spain is due for any services sold in the country, including hotels and cultural events.

2013: The Spanish government increased hotel tax from eight to ten percent (Berman, 2012, par. 2).

The taxation policy significantly affects the hotel industry, as high hotel taxes decrease the rates of tourism. The two percent hike in hotel tax in Spain has not caused significant changes in the hotel industry, but further tax hike is not desirable.

Hotel Industry Specific Regulations

In Spain, hotels are obliged to communicate the rates they apply to the Local Tourism Authority and to place them in a visible place (CMS guide, 2008, p. 58).

Detailed regulations approved by the Ministry of Industry govern health and safety issues in the hotels, including the size of the room, disabled access, fire and escape plans, etc. (CMS guide, 2008, p. 59).

A hotel license from the Regional Tourism Authorities is required to commence trading.

The hotel industry regulations in Spain are highly effective in ensuring the safety of the customers and the fairness of charged fees.

Social Welfare Policy

Spain has a smaller welfare state than most central and Northern European countries.

The social services provided by the Spanish social security include protection in case of maternity, illness, unemployment, retirement, etc.

Healthcare and education are universal (Aguilar, Escobedo,


Mallorca Hotel Industry: Porter Five Forces Report argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Introduction Porter’s five forces analysis is necessary for the Mallorca Hotel Industry as it assists in comprehension of the market strengths and weaknesses. Although the Mallorca Hotel Industry has been a household name in the general tourism industry in the last five decades, the hotels in Mallorca Island have expanded business portfolio as a strategic competitive advantage initiative.

The expanded portfolio provides the hotels within the Mallorca Hotel Industry with a competitive advantage in the sense that they can still maintain profitable performance even in instances where the market swings in the tourism industry are negatively skewed. Through diversification and portfolio balance, the hotels within the Mallorca Hotel Industry are in a position to survive turbulence in the harsh economic environment characterized by stiff competition and sensitivity to market dynamics.

The paper attempts to explicitly carry out a Porter’s five forces analysis for the Mallorca Hotel Industry by reviews the elements such as bargaining power of suppliers, bargaining power of buyers, threat of new entrants, threat of substitutes, and industry rivalry. Besides the paper explores the hotel target market in Mallorca and how the market will evolve by 2020.

Mallorca Hotel Industry: Porter Five Forces The five forces determining the competitive advantage of hotels operating within the Mallorca Hotel Industry in the Mallorca Island are discussed below.

Potential entrants

The current players in the Mallorca Hotel Industry have been in existence for long and have very large production capacities. For instance, Palma de Mallorca, Acudia, and Playa de Plama hotels among others have diverse and very attractive tourism packages spread across the island. In fact, there are more than 1,200 well established hotels ranging from three stars, four stars, and five stars within the island.

Therefore, it is easy for these players to lower their prices as a competitive strategy since they directly benefit from economies of scale. Thus, a new entrant is disadvantaged in terms of pricing of its hotel services since it will not benefit from economies of scale in the same magnitude as the current industry players (Porter 21).

The cost of putting up a single well furnished hotel within the Mallorca Island is very expensive for a new entrant since the current players such as Palma de Mallorca, Acudia, and Playa de Plama hotels among others have breakeven and can easily manage the cost of running the hotels with clear market projections.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A new entrant will find itself in the mucky waters of trying to manage the cost of creating a new hotel brand name to compete the average industry cost, which may not be practical for a small establishment (Tynan and McKechnie 510). Players in the industry such as Palma de Mallorca, Acudia, and Playa de Plama hotels among others have diversified their products as part of portfolio balance strategy.

For instance, each of the above players have diversified hotel services to include business package, premium package, and economy package to boost the total revenues each year by serving clients within the high, middle, and low economic ends. A new entrant may not be able to compete with these players since their diverse products and strong brand presence is almost impossible to challenge, especially when the new entrant plans to start small (Porter 39).

The Mallorca Hotel Industry is characterized by capital intensive ventures since most of the hotel establishments are very expensive to maintain because of the high service quality standards and high cost of running the hotels. For instance, Playa de Plama has a capital worth of 1.2 billion dollars.

It is very difficult for a new entrant to easily enter this market and breakeven within two to three years since such ventures require a lot of capital in putting up the hotel, hiring skilled workers, and creating affordable and quality hotel services and packages targeting different classes of domestic and international tourists.

The cost of switching to different hotel service packages at the peak and off-peak periods is very high since it requires complete overhaul of the pricing, billing, service chatter, and logistic support (Tynan and McKechnie 509). This is not sustainable in the short run for new player with relatively limited capital. Within this aspect, switching cost for a new entrant may translate into closing down such a hotel.

The players in the Mallorca Hotel Industry such as Palma de Mallorca, Acudia, and Playa de Plama hotels among others have partnered booking agents spread across the Island and beyond, opening numerous business opportunities in all major cities and centers within the Spain territory. It would require massive capital for an aspiring investor to outperform their business prowess, in terms of established distribution channels.

A new entrant will be in a disadvantaged position when attempting to penetrate this industry. There are stringent rules by the government that must be followed by any player in this industry. As a legal requirement, each company in the industry is expected by the regulatory authorities to be tax compliant and meet the minimal threshold in terms of safety, environmental friendliness, labor laws, and other business requirements (Porter 36).

We will write a custom Report on Mallorca Hotel Industry: Porter Five Forces specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The approval process is very long and expensive for a new entrant with limited capital. From this analysis, it is apparent that the threat of a new entrant is very low since the switching cost and capital requirement are very high for a new player. Besides, the current players have high competitive advantage as a result of benefits from brand differentiation and economies of scale.

Threat of substitutes

Palma de Mallorca, Acudia, Playa de Plama, and other hotels pose the greatest threat to existence and business performance of a new player in the Mallorca Hotel Industry. These hotels have been in the industry for long period and are well established. The above hotels have almost similar hotel service packages that are customized and sometimes offer big discounts to customers.

In the Mallorca Hotel Industry, loyalty to a brand plays an important role in customer behavior since the hotel industry is very sensitive to changes in customer preference for different products and services (Tynan and McKechnie 511). Therefore, Palma de Mallorca, Acudia, and Playa de Plama among other hotels have the ability to offer an alternative perfect substitute to customers who may be unsatisfied with hotel service packages offered by other players within the Mallorca Hotel Industry.

Unsatisfied customers have other alternatives from where they can get similar and competitive hotel service packages within the Mallorca Hotel Industry from the numerous players (Porter 34).

However, the threat of substitutes is moderate since changing a brand is very expensive for customers in terms changing loyalty points, flexible services for repeat visits, and customized nature of the services in each hotel. In order to remain relevant, the hotels within the Mallorca Hotel Industry have established unique market for their customer through tailored optometry hotel products that are customized.

Power of suppliers

Suppliers in the Mallorca Hotel Industry have power owing to the existence of many players and high demand for different hotel related services used by the establishments within the Mallorca Island. Since suppliers within the Mallorca Hotel Industry operate at local and international levels, their influence differs (Tynan and McKechnie 513). For instance, China, India, and Spain supply the largest volume of services to the hotels within the Mallorca Island.

As a matter of fact, suppliers may instigate market demand and supply variances since most of the raw materials used in this industry such as menus, ingredients, transport services and booking are imported from Asia, Europe, and the US. All the players depend on the suppliers such as tour company operators directly for the delivery customers that can pay competitive prices for different services offered by hotels within the Mallorca Hotel Industry.

This leaves the suppliers with the power to dictate on proceedings in the industry such as the cost of agency fees as a percentage of each hotel service package and their availability (Tynan and McKechnie 513). However, through series of partnership agreements with independent manufacturers and ticket vendors, the players in the Mallorca Hotel Industry have managed to curtail the power of the suppliers to moderate since there are series of jointly negotiated deals on the cost of these services through formal contracts and outsourcing from more than one supplier. Besides, the major players in the Mallorca Hotel Industry have endeavored to use their deep reservoirs as a strategy for balancing the supply forces in the fragile hotel services market of the Mallorca Island.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Mallorca Hotel Industry: Porter Five Forces by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Power of buyers

Reflectively, the amount of output in terms of turn over sales depends on the buyers’ purchasing power within the Mallorca Hotel Industry since the hotels fully depend on the availability of customers. The higher the purchasing power, the better the turnover in total sales realized over a definite period of time.

The performances of Palma de Mallorca, Acudia, and Playa de Plama among other hotels in the Mallorca Hotel Industry depend highly on the power of the hotel service package consumers who are local and international tourists visiting the Mallorca Island. On the other hand, unreliable and weak purchasing power translates into losses and underperformance (Porter 24).

For instance, during the off-peak (winter), most the hotels record booking equivalent to half of their capacity during peak season. The players must therefore do everything within their means to ensure that service delivery and quality meets the expectations of customers since the power of the buyers is very high in this industry by customizing the hotel service packages, offering discounts, and delivering high end services.


There are several players such as Palma de Mallorca, Acudia, and Playa de Plama among other hotels operating in the Mallorca Hotel Industry with virtually all of them dealing in a variety of hotel service packages, which can perform similar functions to customers. With many customers looking for good value for their money, quality, and affordability of the hotel service packages have remained the main basis upon which customers make their final decision to purchase products in the dynamic and stratified Mallorca Hotel Industry.

All the players in the industry are putting measures in place to ensure they attract more customers and therefore expand their market share through creation of a smooth supply chain, diversification, and brand positioning (Porter 19). Therefore, the size, in terms of space occupied by business premises, defines the temperature of the competition.

For instance, the hotels are divided into three stars, four stars, and five stars to serve specific customer segments. In line with this, the Playa de Plama boosts of being the biggest and most luxurious hotel in the Mallorca Island. The influence of rivalry is very high due to existence of very many players with the same product brands that have similar price range (Porter 24).

Conclusion From the above analysis, it is apparent that the Mallorca Hotel Industry is dominated by strong hotel brands that have been in the market for a long period of time. The players in the industry offer very competitive hotel service packages as a strategy for sustaining their business activities in the dynamic Mallorca Island. Apparently, the influences of all the five force of porter are very high in the Mallorca Hotel Industry.

For instance, it is difficult for a new hotel brand to enter and penetrate the industry due to high capital outlay, strong brand presence, and stringent registration and regulation laws. In terms of threat of substitute, a new entrant in the market will have to come up with very unique products since hotel package services within the Mallorca Hotel Industry are perfect substitutes, despite slight variances in pricing and packaging.

Suppliers in the Mallorca Hotel Industry have very high power due to existence of many hotels within the Mallorca Island demanding for services such as ticketing agencies, tour guides, and different menus/ingredients for local and international clients. The power of the buyer is very high since the common business-to-customer platform is dependent on customer satisfaction and perception of quality of the hotel package service.

The hotels within the Mallorca Hotel Industry are very sensitive to changes in customer preference. Therefore, the players in the industry must Endeavour to create high quality products that meet the expectations of customers to remain competitive.

Lastly, in terms of rivalry, the industry has several players such as Palma de Mallorca, Acudia, and Playa de Plama among other hotels competing for similar customer and market segments. Therefore, each player must expand its market share through creation of a smooth supply chain, diversification, and brand positioning to survive rivalry since the impact of rivalry is very high in the Mallorca Hotel Industry.

Hotel Target Market in Mallorca Targeted clients

The hotels in Mallorca target the domestic and international tourists in need of hotel package products such as accommodation, meals, and other services. The clients are further segmented into low end and high end customers. The low end customers are clients in need of affordable but comfortable hotel services while the high end customers are tourist in need of luxury hotel services (Cheverton 35). Each segment of the customers may consist of family, individual, corporate, and institution tourists visiting the Mallorca Island.

The needs of the targeted clients

The needs of the target customers are competitive prices, high quality products, flexible services, friendly environment, and authentic product presentation as part of the outcome driven creativity. This means that the targeted customer are interested in innovative service provision model that guarantee their satisfaction since choosing these hotels signifies deep trust they have towards the different hotel brand within the Mallorca Hotel Industry (Ulwick 28).

There is need to increase the scope of operations through strategic and innovative ideas of tourism service delivery to customers to meet the desires of the clients. There is also need to provide efficient, cost effective, and comprehensive logistics services to customers to guarantee complete satisfaction (Ulwick 29).

Te customer expect the hotels to incorporate interesting features to the existing hotel service so as to cater to the changing demands and needs of different service packages. Besides, the targeted customers want excellent marketing, advertisement and promotional strategies that can win their confidence and loyalty to the different hotel brands within the Mallorca Hotel Industry (Ulwick 31).

The other factor is the choice of distribution channel that the company decides to use. A company should choose a channel that is most appealing and convenient to customers. The second factor that determines success is the product line breadth of the company in addressing the desires of customers. For a company to be successful, it must offer a wide variety of differentiated products that are designed to meet the needs of different customers.

The third factor is the pricing strategy that the hotels use. A hotel within the Mallorca Hotel Industry will be well positioned in a business industry when its products are relatively cheaper as compared to its competitors as perceived by the customer. The final factor that can contribute to success as perceived by the customer in the Mallorca Hotel Industry is the geographical coverage of the hotel in terms of multiple product brands with different purchase/uptake bundles (Ulwick 21).

How Mallorca Market Will Evolve by 2020 The Mallorca market will evolve by 2020 into a more complex, technological oriented and highly stratified as the demographic dynamics of customers are not static. Since the industry targets clients across the globe, the customers may not be the same if integrative marketing strategies are misapplied.

In trying to ensure that the marketing strategies for the industry are effective, there is the challenge of sustainability, especially in the dynamic Mallorca market since majority of the targeted customers in this sector can easily change their preference (Bowden 69). It may not be easy to create a sustainable marketing plan to cover the market dynamics of the 2020 if the strategic marketing approach is skewed towards a single business platform.

Besides, the needs of the customers will not remain the same since clients are often responsive to innovative ideas and would want to associate with what they perceive as ideal. The difference in the need by the year 2020 could be attributed to the dynamics that determine customer behavior as influenced by the current and future customer relationship management strategies.

It is very difficult to create a strategic and effective customer relationship management approaches to guarantee customer loyalty for a period of more than five years since the needs of customers will not be the same. Through the laggard activism strategy, some hotels might be able to guarantee customer loyalty in the long term by offering premium customer experience, low charges, and compact customer care support.

In the long term, any hotel that wants to remain competitive by the year 2020 must establish a contact management system that integrates the standard operating procedures that promote consistency in customer service. These strategies are aimed at ensuring continuous expansion and customer satisfaction through the business to customer (B2C) strategy for sustainable business (Blythe 34).

Works Cited Blythe, Jean. Essentials of Marketing Communications, New York, NY: FT/Prentice Hall, 2006. Print.

Bowden, John. “The Process of Customer Engagement: A Conceptual Framework.” Journal of Marketing Theory


Big Box Store Competition Case Study argumentative essay help

Table of Contents Executive Summary



Analysis and Evaluation

Costco SWOT Analysis

Sam’s Club SWOT Analysis

BJ’s Wholesale Club


Reference List

Executive Summary North America’s wholesale club industry is characterized by three major competitors. These competitors include Sam’s Club, Costco Wholesale, and BJ’s Wholesale Club (Thompson, Strickland,


Problems of Ethnic Discrimination in US Essay college essay help

The level of ethnic discrimination influences the average socioeconomic status and upward mobility of the second generation immigrant minorities. This is the most notable distinguishing factor followed by the different rates of cultural assimilation between the immigrant minorities and the non-immigrant majorities.

Ethnic/racial discrimination This issue determines the level of socioeconomic growth and the rate of upward mobility due to the existence of racial and ethnic inequalities that deny them chances they otherwise would have.

The Asian Americans are less discriminated by the vast non-immigrant population in America, especially when it comes to structural discrimination, as compared to the Latino Americans who are structurally more discriminated by the different generations of non-immigrant minorities. Thus they are less favored then Asian Americans are.

Social economic status of the immigrant parents influences the level of bias. It means if a person from a minority group happens to have well-to-do, prosperous parents, a child tends to be less discriminated as compared to the fellow immigrants whose parents have a low socioeconomic status.

Hence this affects their relations to other people as well as their socioeconomic status since those who are less discriminated have more chances to succeed socially and economically than their discriminated counterparts do.

The racial appearance of a person from the minority group includes one’s skin color and specific racial features. Black people face more discrimination than those who have white skin do. Discrimination of the Hispanic Americans is considered to be higher as compared to that of the Asian Americans due to a more intense skin pigmentation of the first group.

Different rates of cultural assimilation This is the second most significant factor that determines the difference in the average socioeconomic status and mobility of minorities of the second generation immigrants. Assimilation refers to the process of adaption to the cultural practices and norms of the indigenous population by an immigrant group.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Hispanics are less assimilated as they are bilinguals, which makes them belong to two cultures at the same time. They also tend to have a stronger ethnic identity than their Asian American counterparts do.

Hispanics identify themselves by their nationality primarily, which refers to their country of origin and implies that if a person is a Cuban American, he/she considers him/herself as a Cuban or simply as the one having a pan-ethnic Latino identity.

The strong pan-ethnic identity shows that there is an increase in the ethnic and cultural diversity in the Latino community.

The Hispanics also have a high rate of intermarriages; there are about thirty percent of marriages with people from the other non-minority and nonimmigrant communities. Thus they have a high rate of assimilation and acceptance among the indigenous communities.

Though the number of non-Hispanic white Americans will considerably reduce in the future, they will still be socially and economically powerful since they will continue to hold high positions in the American society.

Cultural assimilation is vital since the rate of upward mobility is directly proportional to the rate of cultural assimilation. The intermarriages lead to a higher rate of acceptance of the second generation.

This creates a new race of biracial people, which leads to the elimination of ethnic and racial prejudices. Such a situation will lead to reduced racial discriminations, prejudices and inequalities, hence creating a free and fair second generation with a high rate of upward mobility.

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Major Trade Routes of the Post-Classical World Essay custom essay help: custom essay help

The emergence of trade routes marked a major development in the history of humankind. Observably, the rise and fall of most classical empires played a crucial role in these historical developments. Indicatively, the sociopolitical and economic elements provided the greatest center stage for these historical advancements. In addition, the economic and religious factors also had remarkable levels of manipulation.

These were observable within different geographical destinations within the globe. Evidently, the major trade routes of the post-classical world helped in the emergence and establishment of an empire. A classical example is the initiation of the famous Roman Empire. Notably, all empires sprouted within or along major trade routes.

The availability of currency influenced the capacity to initiate taxation policy. Taxation and levies formed the fundamental backbone for most ancient empires (Rodriguez 1). For instance, Ceaser levied taxes on the traders within the territories of the kingdom. Religious concerns contributed immensely to the establishment of trade routes and empires. The failure of Han Empire in China led to many changes.

For example, Buddhism emerged in China because the Confucian administration lacked effective decentralization. When the Roman Empire collapsed, other small and fragmented regional authorities rose. It is imperative that these kingdoms were created along the major trade routes.

Political influences had significant impacts on these developments. These patterns of events were notable in India after the collapse of the famous Gupta Empire.

It is evident that the practice of Hinduism led to the establishment of trade lines within the region. Consequently, other small kingdoms emerged along these important trade lines. The period also marks the rise of the powerful Indian Ocean trade route. There was an obvious transfer and shift in the focal of power from the western Rome and China.

To some extent, historians argue that these developments could have also occurred due to favorable foreign policies. The major occurrences after 600 were purely influenced by religious groups and trade routes (Rodriguez 1).

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More However, it is important to note that the religious formations catapulted the foundation of various dynasties and empires. These occurrences and formations can be traced in major parts of Africa, the western nations and the great Southwest Asia.

The influence of geopolitics and social orientations in these processes cannot be underestimated. A classic example is the Umayyad Caliphate of the 6661 C.E. This clan managed to initiate their own hereditary system of monarchy in Damascus. During the process of initiation, they conquered major destinations. The major trade routes acted as the basic guide towards these conquered geographic locations.

Some of the places that were conquered include the Syria, Persia, Egypt and North Africa. These operations were only possible due to a large base for taxation supported by the identified trade routes. All social practices and cultures were accepted within this dynasty so long as the subjects remained loyal to the taxation policies.

Trade routes were also instrumental in the rise of empires in western Africa. The Sahara trade route had its start point in Sub-Sahara Africa. It extended through the Sahara desert towards Europe. It is linked to the rise of empires in Mali and Mali. Many scholars note that trade was the way of life for the West African people, and it ensured growth of empires in the region.

Merchants who participated in the trade carried foodstuffs form Ghana Kingdom and exchanged them for products produced locally in Mali and Algiers. The commonly traded products included gold, cotton clothes, metal ornaments and salt.

Ghana Empire was endowed with a large quantity of gold while kingdoms located in the northern parts of Africa had plenty of salt. The exchange of gold and salt fueled the trade and ensured the success of some of the empires that participated in the trade.

The start point of the trade route was Sidjilmassa in Northern Africa (Rodriguez 1). The route passed through Taghaza village that was endowed with plenty of common salt. Finally, it ended in a Gold rich region called Wangara in the Ghana Empire. All these villages and towns flourished because of to the trade. The administration systems used in the towns along the trade route also ensured growth of the empires.

We will write a custom Essay on Major Trade Routes of the Post-Classical World specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The leaders maintained control over valuable commodities, especially gold. This was done to ensure that the prices were maintained at high levels. Possession of gold nuggets was prohibited. Only the leader had gold pieces while the rest of the population held gold dust. Taxation in the kingdoms was also high. The administration levied taxes on all merchants who used the trade routes.

This also ensured the success of the empires along the trade route. Thus, it can be concluded that trade routes promoted the success of empires in Western Africa. However, the empires existed before the trade routes were formed.

From all the examples provided, it is evident that the empires existed before the trade routes were formed. The trade routes simply promoted the growth of the empires. Hence, this paper concludes that the trade routes resulted from the existence of empires.

Works Cited Rodriguez, Joel 2012, Questions of Periodization. Web.


Skopos Theory: Person’s Development as a Translator Report (Assessment) best essay help

Introduction The contemporary globalized world is associated with the need in development of various communicative approaches. The translator is playing an important role as a mediator between people pertaining to different cultural backgrounds (Cui, 2009: 8). The Skopos theory was developed in the 1970s to address the new trends that started appearing in the information era (Parker et al., 2008: 36).

I believe the theory provides a variety of valuable tools for translators to deal with numerous texts. The theory is applicable in the majority of spheres, but in some cases translators cannot rely on the tools offered.

Nonetheless, as far as I am concerned, a successful translator should be aware of the major peculiarities of the theory as this will help him/her self-develop and encounter a variety of interesting approaches to fulfil different tasks.

Major Peculiarities of the Theory The central point in the theory is that the target text is dominant as the original text is less important since it is based on different cultural peculiarities. For instance, when it comes to advertisement, the target text should appeal to the target audience and the exact translation is quite irrelevant as it tends to miss specific characteristics of a target audience pertaining to a different cultural background (Malmkjær, 2005: 35).

When translating an advertisement, translators should render ideas but speak the language the target audience will easily perceive. Importantly, proponents of the theory stress that it is not enough for a translator to be bilingual as the translator should be bicultural (Snell-Hornby, 2006: 52). Functionality of the translation is brought to the fore by the proponents of the theory.

Importance of the Theory for a Translator Where the Theory Is Applicable

I believe the major concept of the Skopos Theory is very important for a translator as it helps to achieve the major goal of translation, i.e. to make an original text understandable for a target group. As has been mentioned above, this approach is especially important in advertising as the major objective of an original text to tell about the product and sell it, i.e. make it attractive to potential customers (Garces, 2008: 124).

Thus, it is the translator who understands cultural peculiarities of the target audience and ‘sells’ the product to specific people. The theory is not only important for advertising, but it is also applicable in business.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Translators become mediators when it comes to signing contracts and arranging deals (Gile, 2009: 250). Admittedly, translators have to take into account specific cultural background of the partners to make them speak the same language.

Where the Theory Should Be Used Carefully

However, translators should also understand that there are areas where the theory should not be employed to certain extent. For instance, legal communication needs precision in ideas and terms (Kocbek, 2008: 54). Sometimes complete adherence to concepts of the theory can be harmful as trying to make the terms clearer can lead to distortion of data (Cao, 2007: 35).

I go along with this view and think that translators should pay specific attention to legal terms. However, it does not mean the theory is absolutely inapplicable in legal communication as translators can make the target text clearer for recipients (Kocbek, 2006: 233). Of course, this will require a lot of effort and skills on the part of the translator.

Some may think that these difficulties cause troubles for translators, whereas I see lots of opportunities for self-development. In the sphere of legal communication importance of the major concepts of Skopos theory become evident.

The theory helps translators develop as adherence to major concepts of the theory will require a variety of skills. Translators need to know peculiarities of cultural backgrounds as well as legal systems of the original texts and target texts.

Where the Theory Should not Be Used

Nonetheless, there is a sphere where the theory should not be used or rather can be used only to a certain extent (Munday, 2008: 81). Literary works should not be perceived as a source of information to be understandable for the target audience.

The translator should understand that the literary work has a specific literary value which cannot be distorted by changing devices to fit the cultural background of the target text (Leon, 2008: 19). It is necessary to remember that any literary text is a certain introduction to the culture (Mason, 2001: 67).

We will write a custom Assessment on Skopos Theory: Person’s Development as a Translator specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In other words, reading a piece of fiction writing, the reader learns more about culture and the very way other people perceive the world. Every literary device serves for a fact about the other world. I believe it is crucial to make readers feel the difference in other people’s perception. Therefore, the translator should be much closer to the original when working with a literary work.

Why the Theory Can Be an Interesting Way to Self Develop Obviously, adherence to the concepts of Skopos theory makes it a bit harder to translate texts as translators have to take into account a variety of issues. Nonetheless, this also makes the translator’s work more interesting. Translators learn a lot of interesting facts about other cultures. I also think that it is interesting to try to find ties between two different cultures.

It is exciting to make a text perceivable for people brought up in a different cultural reality. Major concepts of the theory require attention to a broader scope of details and cultural interactions. As far as I am concerned, it is much more interesting to understand all tinges of meaning available in the text.

I believe that it is really interesting to see the whole cultural strata behind a phrase or even a single word. Therefore, it is clear that following major postulates of the theory is not only important for a translator’s development but it is interesting as well.

Conclusion It is necessary to note that the central concept of Skopos theory, i.e. to provide a target text which is understandable for the target audience rather than close to the original, can be regarded as one of the most important approaches for a translator. The theory provides tools which help translators self-develop. Adherence to the concepts of the theory is associated with learning more about different cultures.

Translators acquire a lot of skills and learn a variety of facts, which helps them develop. It is also important to note that concepts of Skopos theory make translator’s work really interesting as he/she does not only translate specific words, but translator searches for ties between two cultures. Therefore, Skopos theory can be regarded as an interesting way for a translator to self-develop.

List Of References Cao, D. (2007) Translating Law – Nop/077, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Cui, Y. (2009) ‘The Goal of Advertisement Translation: With Reference to C-E/E-C Advertisements’, Journal of Language


McDonald’s Restaurant Research Paper a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Table of Contents Background of McDonald’s

Product Positioning

Key Issues

Analysis of the Issues

Hypothetical Strategies

Implementation Procedures

Expected Results


Works Cited

Fast food businesses managed to survive the global financial crisis that the entire world faced since 2007. However, the fast food businesses too began to suffer the consequences of the crisis. In 2009, some fast food chains closed some of their branches as they posted low sales levels. McDonald’s, Yum Brands, KFC and Pizza Hut all posted decline in sales in 2009. The crisis intensified competition in the fast food industry.

Participants in the industry tried to beat competitors through the introduction of new products and prices. McDonald’s is one of the companies that participate in the fast food industry. It faced stiff competition from numerous competitors worldwide. Some of the key competitors include Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), Pizza Hut and Yum Brands.

McDonald’s can use product positioning to ensure that it leads in the fast food industry. It can use this strategy to enhance its brand and lead other companies in the industry. This strategy requires that it pays close attention to the needs of the customers (The Times 100 1).

This is essential because there is international promotion and export, psychological and sociological issues that can affect the position of a product in a market. This paper examines product-positioning strategies that McDonald’s can use to promote itself and stay ahead of its competitors in the international market.

It mainly focuses on India and Africa as segments of the international markets. Additionally, it considers the international markets as areas outside the United States.

Background of McDonald’s McDonald’s is a well-known brand internationally. It is a company that has international operations. Two brothers, Dick and Mac, established the company in 1937. In 1948, the company began to sell fries, hamburgers, soft drinks and shakes. In 1953, the company began to franchise the business.

The first franchises were in California and Arizona. The brothers adopted a system of operations that was efficient and ensured fast movement of customers. Currently, the company operates approximately 31000 restaurants internationally. Moreover, the company has employed about 1.5 million individuals in its restaurants. The company has operations in more than 120 countries.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The advantage that the company has had is that it uses a system that ensures efficiency in operations. The company uses intense media hype to support the efficient process that it adopted. The media hype has been a campaign strategy that the company adopted.

Product Positioning Product positioning involves stimulation of a company’s brand and its services. The brand image of a company shows how clients perceive an organization. Companies promote their brands to develop personalities of their organizations.

Product positioning and branding are effective only if a company maintains consistency (The Times 100 1). Consistency is important in promotion strategies that a company adopts. Images and colours that a company uses in promotions like adverts provide a brand with distinguishable features. McDonald’s uses the Golden Arches logo to position its products in the fast food industry.

McDonald’s faces stiff competition in all the markets in which it has operations. In addition, it faces other challenges in its international operations. Economic statuses of some of the countries in which it operates pose promotion challenges. Technological and legal challenges also affect the operations and competitiveness of McDonald’s. Success of McDonald’s in some countries is also affected by social factors.

These challenges necessitate the need for identification of market needs. McDonald’s must identify the needs of customers to develop effective promotion strategies. After identification of the needs of customers is when it can position its products appropriately within each market (Mueller 29).

Through identification of the needs of the customers, McDonald’s has a better chance to satisfy the market compared to its competitors. The company has to identify its customers before it positions its products in the market. It must identify possible clients in all the markets in which it has business operations. To achieve this, McDonald’s must perform market research.

After McDonald’s has identified its target population, it has to develop a promotion mix that appeals to the recognized group. It has to develop a promotion strategy that incorporates price, product and place characteristics. The company has to ensure that its products are well received in the market, and the clients are able to afford the set prices (The Times 100 1).

We will write a custom Research Paper on McDonald’s Restaurant specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, the company has to identify the television programmes that the targeted population like to watch. Identification of these programmes also assists the company to position its products appropriately. The identification of a promotion strategy and mix helps McDonald’s to improve sales and increase consumer loyalty.

Market research also assists McDonald’s to identify factors that influence the behaviours of its customers. There exist factors that influence the purchase decisions that people make. Thus, McDonald’s has to know that these factors complement the features of the products that it offers to the customers. These factors can be psychological, sociological or economical.

All these factors are vital in product positioning. Moreover, these factors can be crucial to the customers than the products sold. Through identification of these factors, McDonald’s can shape the minds of the customers. Hence, it can determine how to position its products appropriately within a market.

Key Issues McDonald’s faces a number of challenges in its attempts to position its products within the international markets. The challenges can be in terms of prices, perception and competition among others. The issues can be classified into three broad categories. These categories are international promotion and export management, psychological and sociological.

International promotion and export management relate to price strategy and methods of operations that a company uses in its overseas operations. McDonald’s faces challenge in the establishment of the appropriate price for its products in some of the markets in which it has operations. Poverty and low amount of disposable income are key issues that the organization has to tackle.

The products that the company offers are perceived as expensive in some countries. In Africa and India, for example, many people cannot afford the prices. Additionally, the company has to target cities only with the products that it offers. People in semi urban regions are unable to afford the products sold by the company. They have low levels of disposable incomes and most of them practice agriculture.

The layout of McDonald’s is also a source of challenge in some of the international markets. Some societies are used to the hotel environment and not the fast process system associated with McDonald’s operations. This challenge emanates from the consumption patterns of such societies. They are used to consumption of breakfast, lunch and supper. Normally, lunch and supper involves consumption of a balanced diet meal.

The composition of breakfast depends on the culture of a household. However, the layout of McDonald’s restaurants promotes the consumption of burgers and other fast foods. However, Burgers are not considered as healthy foods for consumption, especially at lunchtime in these societies (Misra and Yadav 27).

Not sure if you can write a paper on McDonald’s Restaurant by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Psychological challenges faced by the company in international markets relate mainly to religion, personality and lifestyle. McDonald’s sells hamburgers that contain beef or pork. However, extremely few people in some countries in which it operates consume beef and pork. In India and some Arab countries, cows are considered sacred (Tiffany 1).

Hence, it is a challenge for the company to enter these markets and increase overall sales revenues. Many people in such countries are vegetarians. They cannot consume the burgers that the company sells.

The company has to find ways through which it can capture these markets. These markets have high populations and can assist the company to increase revenues. India, for example, has a population of over one billion people (Misra and Yadav 28).

The perception and lifestyles of many people in international markets is also an issue that brings challenges to McDonald’s promotion strategies. Perception and lifestyle patterns are sociological issues. However, they affect the strategies that the company can use to position its products within some of the international markets.

Consumption patterns, for example, affect the strategies that the company can use to promote its products. People in some societies prefer to eat together at lunchtime. However, the pattern that McDonald’s has adopted encourages people to eat away from home. This is not common in some societies especially in Africa and India.

Analysis of the Issues Based on the challenges described above, McDonald’s must identify suitable solutions. It must identify the challenge that it faces in each market and formulate a strategy that will position its products appropriately. One psychological factor that McDonald’s can identify is vegetarianism. Vegetarianism is widespread in some of the countries in which it has operations.

Some of these countries have high populations and promise high sales returns. The company must identify a strategy through which it can position its products in these markets and increase its sales revenues. This can assist it to stay ahead of its competitors like KFC and Pizza Hut. For example, in India, consumption of beef is prohibited. However, India has a large population and can assist McDonald’s to increase its sales revenues.

Muslims and Indians do not consume beef or pork. Furthermore, they consider cows sacred. However, McDonald’s was interested in the high population of the country. Hence, it developed a product that was able to position itself appropriately within the Indian market. KFC and Pizza Hut do not have a product that can position itself in the Indian market like the Aloo-Tikki burger developed by McDonald’s (Amoako-Agyei 1).

The Hamburgers that McDonald’s normally produce are made of beef. However, since many people in India are vegetarians, the company developed Aloo-Tikki. It is made of potatoes and spices and with no beef. The company also made hamburgers made of chicken and fish fillets. Moreover, the company separated the preparation processes of the hamburgers.

This was done to promote the “vegetarian experience” idea that the company developed for the market. Thus, the company managed to position its products after it identified the needs of the market. It understood the psychological factors associated with beef consumption in the Indian market (Tiffany 1).

One sociological factor that influences product positioning is consumption habits. In many countries, people like to eat out only on extraordinary circumstances. In Africa, for example, people meet and eat at home to share their experiences during the day. However, due to globalization, growth of cities and increase in full time employment opportunities, the trends have changed.

The growth of cities has promoted the need for fast food restaurants. However, consumption behaviour in Africa is different from that of western societies. Hence, McDonald’s had to develop new products and services for the African market. The strategy positioned its products before those of its competitors. Many African countries are used to the restaurant environment and not the streamlined structure of fast food businesses.

Additionally, consumption pattern in many African countries involve breakfast, lunch and supper. Lunch and supper involve consumption of meals that provide appropriate nutritional balance. Breakfast is normally based on a household’s culture. McDonald’s had to develop a strategy that considered these factors. The strategy has helped the company to position its products appropriately within the African market (Amoako-Agyei 1).

Product positioning is also influenced by international promotion and export management factors. Valuation of food in monetary terms is a sensitive matter in some of the countries in which McDonald’s operates. McDonald’s had to adopt a strategy that focused on the ability of customers to pay. Normally, the strategy of McDonald’s is to enhance sales volume.

It normally provides its products and services at prices that are considered affordable. However, many people perceive the prices that it offers as high. Therefore, it has targeted certain sections of the populations with its products in international markets. For example, in India and Africa, it targets the wealthy and the upper middle class people with its products.

These people have the ability to pay for products offered by the company (Amoako-Agyei 1). Moreover, it targets people who have been exposed to western culture. It also operates in principal cities only in India and Africa. People in semi urban areas are not able to afford the set prices.

This strategy has helped the company to position its products appropriately within international markets. The strategy has ensured that the company operates in urban areas where there is continuous growth in disposable incomes. This has enabled the company to maintain leadership in the fast food industry.

Hypothetical Strategies There exist hypothetical strategies that the company can use to tackle the challenges identified. The company can determine an appropriate promotion strategy that can assist it to position its products in the international markets. It must identify the objectives of a promotion strategy that it can use. Objectives express the goals that a company hopes to achieve through a promotion strategy.

Objectives also direct the promotion plans adopted by a company and are vital in the assessment of the strategy used. Objectives can focus on acquisition of market share or improvement of sales volume and so on. The company has to identify its long term and short-term objectives to position its products. Notably, the long-term objectives can be divided into short-term objectives.

Hence, in India, the long-term objective can be to increase sales while the short-term objective can be to introduce the products in the market. On the other hand, the short-term objective in Africa can be to change consumption patterns while the long-term objectives can be to increase sales (Mueller 29).

The second step is to define the methods that can be used to achieve the objectives formulated. In this hypothetical strategy, a promotion mix can be used. McDonald’s has to offer products that clients want. The company has to ensure that there are numerous choices for its potential clients. It must also be ready to change products regularly to ensure that clients are satisfied.

Hence, in a market like India where people do not eat beef, the company can develop numerous alternatives to products that already exist. However, it has to ensure that it does not interfere with the sales growth of a product that customers already know.

Thus, it is essential for the company to monitor the life cycle of a product that it has developed for each market. Additionally, the company has to use adverts to position its new products within the international markets.

The promotion mix that the company can use also has to consider prices of products sold. The company has to consider the psychological aspects associated with prices of products. It must consider the perception of customers about the prices that it charges for products sold in the restaurants.

Hence, the company should charge relatively uniform prices in all markets even though some customers may feel that they are high. Low prices may make certain sections of the markets feel that the quality of the products is low. Thus, the company must protect the image and integrity of McDonald’s brand in its price strategy.

Low prices may also make competitors like KFC match with the costs of McDonald’s. This may not result into an increase in demand for products offered by the company. Hence, price reduction is not an effective strategy that McDonald’s can use to improve the position of its products within different markets.

Promotion mix that the company can use should include all communication methods. Adverts are the most effective method that the company can use to tackle sociological and psychological issues that affect a product’s position. The company can use radio and television adverts to promote the products that it sells. The company can then use adverts and other promotion methods like displays at the point of trade and fidelity schemes.

McDonald’s can develop a communication strategy that involves different promotion methods. This can assist the company to tackle the challenges posed by sociological and psychological factors associated with different markets. For example, television adverts can inform Indian clients that the hamburgers sold at McDonald’s do not contain beef.

On the other hand, newspaper adverts can provide the same Indian customers with more details about the hamburgers. Additionally, it is essential that the messages provided by the different promotion methods complement each other. Any contradictions may confuse the customer and affect the position of products sold by the company.

The promotions that the company adopts must also catch the attention of the customers. The adverts must ensure that psychological, sociological and other issues are tacked. The adverts must inform potential clients the benefits that the company provides.

For example, it can inform customers that the fast process system saves their time. It saves their time so they can be punctual at their work places. This can make customers who prefer to go home at lunchtimes reconsider their actions.

Finally, the company has to use layouts that are efficient and that make customers comfortable. The place of operation is vital in the promotion of a product. The place of operation has to consider many features other than the layout and points of distribution. McDonald’s must consider social aspects that are essential to some communities. For example, some communities like to eat together.

On the other hand, McDonald’s like a system that is fast and efficient. Hence, in such communities, the company can adopt a layout that considers the sociological needs of clients and at the same time ensures speed and efficiency in service delivery. The area of operation also has to consider the ease in management of all the activities that take place within the restaurants.

Implementation Procedures The first step is to conduct a market research. This can assist the company to identify the potential customers, their ability to pay and their characteristics. Additionally, the company can determine psychological, economic and sociological aspects of the markets that can affect the position of the products that it offers. Secondly, the company can determine the best market entry method.

The company can identify the best method based on the features and beliefs of the potential customers. It can develop and promote products that meet the needs and features of the customers. The company can then develop promotion methods that explain to the customers why the products suit them (Doole and Lowe 8).

In this way, the company will tackle issues that it identified through market research. The promotion strategies used must also ensure that the international brand of the company is not compromised by the modifications made on the products offered to the customers of a region.

Expected Results The implementation of the hypothetical strategies described should assist the company increase the volume of sales. The strategies can assist the company to shape the minds of clients and at the same time meet their needs. The strategies can enable the company to maintain international standards in promotion and export and tackle sociological and psychological issues associated with different international markets.

The strategies can also enable the company to develop new versions of products that it normally sells (Doole and Lowe 8). The new versions can suit the needs of different segments of the international markets.

Finally, the strategies can assist the company to maintain leadership in the fast food sector. This can be achieved since the strategies can assist the company position all its products appropriately within the different markets in which it has business operations.

Conclusions The goal of this paper was to determine ways through which McDonald’s could position its products within international markets. It examined ways through which the company could do so by identification of effective strategies. It considered international promotion and export, psychological and sociological issues that can affect the position of products offered by the company.

It then provided different examples in Africa and India and provided strategies that could be applied to solve the problems posed. Additionally, this paper provided hypothesized strategies that can be used to improve the position of products offered by McDonald’s.

It discussed promotion strategies that the company can employ to tackle the challenges posed by the different markets. It also discussed the advantages that can be realized through implementation of the strategies. Finally, it provided a brief procedure that can be used to implement the hypothesized strategies and the expected outcomes of the plans.

Works Cited Amoako-Agyei, Erika, Egypt’s McArabia: How McDonald’s and other global firms integrate into African markets. 2011. Web.

Doole, Isobel, and Lowe, R. International Marketing Strategy: Analysis, Development and Implementation, London: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.

Misra, Sanjay, and Yadav, P. International Business: Text and Cases, New Delhi: PHI learning, 2009. Print.

Mueller, Barbara. Dynamics of International Advertising: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives, New York: Peter Lang, 2011. Print.

The Times 100, The marketing process: A McDonald’s Restaurants case study. 2012. Web.

Tiffany, Hsu, Vegetarian McDonald’s: Its first non-meat restaurant to open in India. 2012. Web.


Education and society Opinion Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Education plays a very important role in the development of a society right from the individual level all the way to the national level. Education helps develop a person’s critical thinking, expand their mental horizons and increase their capacity to innovate and think creatively.

Education helps develop a person’s ambition, and in the process follow their dreams and helps chart a person’s destiny towards self-actualization. This article aims to show the importance of school in development of an individual and society as a whole.

In life, change is inevitable but the crucial thing is to be able to adapt to changes that occur in our day-to-day environment. Change develops us as it challenges the status quo, hones our survival skills and keeps us in tune with the environment around us.

A degree in human resource management is important as it helps one understand people, and how to deal with them effectively, harnessing their talents and skills towards achieving organizational goals.

This has a ripple effect on the entire economy as a booming national economy is highly dependent on thriving business enterprises. Human resource management therefore, helps develop a person’s ambition, and enables them to achieve their dreams and live a more fulfilled life.

Developing HR in an organization has a roller effect of developing the society. Using Maslow theory, human beings will always strive to achieve more, which in turn leads to higher productivity.

An educated population will function better in high tech industries like IT and telecommunications, which are more efficient and have higher returns than low tech industries like agriculture. An educated population is also more innovative, leading to production of unique products and services that boosts the economy.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Homeland security plays an important role in protecting the lives of a country’s nationals and keeping the domestic environment peaceful. Without such peace, development and growth would be nonexistent or minimal. Homeland security therefore ensures that people are able to go about their day-to-day economic activities, thus ensuring a thriving economy.

It is for this reason that I would like to join Homeland Security after leaving the military. For me to get a well-paying position, I need to further my education. Over and above that, I now have the resources to pursue my education.

These resources are both in terms of finances and time, which will enable me, concentrate better on my studies. I also believe my experience in the military will be of great additional value as I have had ample knowledge in dealing with security related issues.

In conclusion, education is important to both the individual and the society as a whole. Education helps develop a person’s skills, which in turn are applied in the job market making the economy prosper more than, if the society was less educated. This paper has discussed the importance of education in the life of an individual, as well as the economy.


Miles Davis contribution to African American music Essay online essay help

The history of African American music is long and rich in content. This is why the question about who qualifies as the greatest African American musician of all time always elicits big debates. When it comes to the greatest African American musician of all time, more than a dozen names come up. There are those who came earlier like Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong, and Charlie Parker.

Then there are later participants like Al Green, Jimi Hendrix, and Marvin Gaye. Both lists feature personalities of great talent. Most of these musicians qualify for the title of the greatest musician.

However, when it comes to modern music, I believe Jazz musician Miles Davis deserves this title. Miles, a Jazz trumpeter has his origins in Missouri. This paper will trace Miles’ roots, his career, his contribution to African American music, and his influences.

Unlike most African Americans of his time, Miles was brought up in a wealthy household. He was born in 1926 in Alton Illinois. His father Henry Davis was a successful dentist. His family owned a big town house as well as a 100-acre ranch. In his younger days, Miles frequented the ranch where he loved to ride horses. When he was young, Davis’ mother wanted her son to learn how to play the piano.

However, when he was about thirteen years old, his father gave him a trumpet. After noting the young boy’s interest in the instrument, Miles’ father decided to hire a tutor for his son. Therefore, St. Louis’ musician Elwood Buchanan became Mile’s first trumpet teacher. Buchanan was the one who taught Miles how to play the trumpet without vibrato. Miles used this style throughout his career.

Miles Davis was once quoted commenting on the role music played in his life. He said that music was “like a curse” to him because it dominated his every thought. However, as a young boy Miles dreamt of being a baseball player. This all changed when his father gave him his first trumpet.

At Lincoln high school, Miles’ talent was well known. It is said that his first encounters with jazz were on St. Louis-Mississippi’s riverboats where artists were paid to entertain commuters.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Miles showed great talent when it came to playing the Trumpet. By the time he was seventeen years old, Miles had already managed to penetrate the music society. When in high school, Miles used to follow the performances of Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie. Finally, the two musicians asked Miles to replace a sick trumpeter in their band. This incident marked Miles’ first appearance with a popular band.

After a few gigs with Charlie Parker’s band, Miles moved to New York to study music. This was right after he had graduated from high school and Miles thought that a chance to study classical music at the prestigious Juilliard Music School would help launch his career. After arriving in New York, Miles sought to continue his music relationship with Tony Parker.

After he succeeded in doing so, Miles would be a student in the daytime and a professional musician at night. It was during these night jam sessions at Harlem nightclubs that he got the chance to interact with several musicians. Later in his career, he ended up collaborating with most of these musicians.

Mile Davis is considered a pioneer of bebop style of jazz. However, this style was invented by Charlie Parker one of Miles’ earliest jazz influences (Gridley and Cutler 34). This style would later be one of the main influences of modern jazz.

When studying music at Juilliard, Miles had a hard time adjusting to the school’s mostly European Classical music curriculum. It is possibly the reason why Miles opted to drop out of the school with his father’s blessings. However, in his biography Miles admitted to benefitting greatly from the training he got during his stint at the music school. After dropping out of music school, Miles became a full time Jazz musician.

The first band he worked with was Charlie Parker’s Quintet. Miles continued to work closely with Parker between 1945 and 1948. During the many times Davis recorded with Parker, it was becoming clear that he was already breaking out with a unique style. This style featured a deviation of Parker’s bebop style and it was later to be known as Cool Jazz (Meadows 98).

When with Parker’s quintet band, Miles Davis had the chance of touring expansively across the United States. It was during one of such tours in Los Angeles that Parker suffered a mental breakdown and had to be hospitalized for a few weeks. Following Parker’s absence, Davis found himself without a permanent band. It was during this period that Miles experimented and finally found his unique playing style.

We will write a custom Essay on Miles Davis contribution to African American music specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During this period, Davis teamed up with other jazz artists like Charles Mingus and Billy Eckstine (Stewart 197). After Parker came out of the hospital, his relationship with Miles began becoming more strained. Finally, the two parted ways in 1948.

In 1949, Miles formed a band that featured his original ideas. The band incorporated extraordinary instruments such as the tuba. Using this band, Miles was able to make the first significant contribution to jazz music through his album “The Birth of Cool” (Meadows 45). His collaboration with composer and arranger Bill Evans was a significant development in the realization of this project.

His band at the time consisted of musician Roach, piano player John Lewis, and Saxophone player Gerry Mulligan. Initially, there was controversy over the inclusion of white members in Miles’ band. Soon after, Miles moved on to another band that he co-lead with piano player Tad Dameron. However, Davis’ career hit a roadblock when a heroin addiction proved too hard to manage.

By 1950, Miles’ recordings had become more haphazard mostly because of his drug problem. However, in 1951 he signed a deal to record for Prestige Records. His work for this label continued for the next few years. Somewhere in the mid 1950s, Davis was able to overcome his addiction and focus solely on his music.

The strongest indication that he had completely recovered was during his performance of “Round Midnight” during the Newport Jazz festival in 1955. This particular performance caught the eye of executives at Columbia Records a major recording label at the time. He then signed a very prestigious deal with the company.

His financial security made it possible for him to form a permanent band. In 1955, his Quintet began work on the band’s debut album at Columbia. The album was titled “Round about Midnight”. This band included drummer Philly Joe, base guitarist Paul Chambers, Saxophonist John Coltrane, and Red Garland as the pianist. His previous contract with Prestige Records was however not over and he still had some work left.

This meant he had to work with two recording outfits at the time. However, his new permanent band enabled him to finish his previous commitment with Prestige Records. This band also became one of Miles most recorded outfits. Later on, Miles again teamed up with Bill Evans to work on his second project for the new label. The album was called “Miles Ahead” and it included the flugelhorn as the lead instrument.

This album was later inducted into the Grammy hall of fame. After the release of this album in 1958, Miles Davis went to Paris where he met Cannonball Adderley an adept saxophone player. He then made the saxophonist an addition to his band making it a sextet. This new band’s first project was the album “Milestones”.

Not sure if you can write a paper on Miles Davis contribution to African American music by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In July 1958, Miles collaborated with composer Bill Evans and an orchestra to record a compilation that was known as “Porgy and Bess”. By that time Miles had began experimenting with his sextet. He was trying to make his inventions based on music-scales as opposed to chord-changes. His next album “Kind of Blue” featured some of these experimentations and it went on to become one of the most influential jazz albums to date. The album is practically his most popular recording and it managed to sell over two million copies.

This is quite a milestone especially for a jazz album. From that time onwards, Miles formed a pattern of alternating his releases between collaborations with Evans and work with his sextet. One of his collaborations with Evans was “Sketches of Pain” an album that featured traditional Spanish music.

The album was quite successful. His subsequent works mostly featured Coltrane, the sixth member of his band, as a guest. His quintet was also involved in the recording of two LP sets in 1961.

In 1963, Miles recorded the album “Seven Steps to Heaven” using a completely new outfit. He featured future jazz heavy weights like Tony Williams and Ron Carter. The album performed well in both the charts and the awards circuit managing to earn a double nomination at the Grammys.

Using a saxophonist from his 1958 band and other players from his 1963 band, Miles was able to record back-to-back successful albums. These albums featured original compositions and they include “Miles in the Sky”, “Files de Kilimanjaro”, “Sorcerer”, and “Nefertiti”

In the following years, Miles kept alternating between old and new band members. With his new album of 1969 “In a Silent Way”, Miles was able to come up with an original Jazz-rock fusion. “Bitches Brew” was the most successful album that featured this new genre. In 1971, he was able to record five albums using this popular genre.

In the following year, Miles was involved in a car accident that rendered him inactive for the next five years. During this period, he fell back into alcohol and cocaine addiction. In 1980, he made a recovery from his drug addiction and made a successful comeback with “The Man with the Horn”.

Thereafter, he went on a successful tour. However, by this time he was already an honorary jazz-musician godfather. The next years marked an extensive touring period for Miles. He however continued to record music. His last recording was a collaboration with the famous musician Quincy Jones.

Miles Davis suffered from respiratory complications that took his life in1991. Some of his music was released posthumously. He also managed to win a Grammy award in 1993.

During his later years, Miles refused to perform his earlier recordings. When asked why he did not want to play them, he simply said that their influence was over (Iyer 56). Nevertheless, there were those who felt that his earlier work was more solid content-wise.

Miles is undoubtedly one of the greatest musicians in the history of African American Music. His innovative approach to music has come to dominate modern music. The Rolling Stone magazine noted that Miles was influential in every change assumed by Jazz music from the late 1940s. His role in this change has always been controversial.

There is no other musician in the history of Jazz music that came close to Miles in terms of influence. His “Kind of Blue” album is still the best selling jazz album to date (O’Meally 135). The album was also recognized by the United States House of Representatives. Miles has influenced tens of jazz musicians. Many other musicians also rose to prominence after being members of Miles’ ensembles.

One of the things that made Miles such a great performer was his incorporation of traditional African American Music into his work. For instance, his love for Blues was particularly great. Miles also managed to preserve some of the greatest elements of African American music in his recordings over the four decades he was active.

Works Cited Gridley, Mark and David Cutler. Jazz Styles, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1978. Print.

Iyer, Vijay. “Microtiming in African-American Music.” Music Perception 19.3 (2002): 387- 414. Print.

Meadows, Eddie. Bebop to Cool: Context, Ideology, and Musical Identity, New York: Praeger Publishers, 2003. Print.

O’Meally, Robert. The Jazz Cadence of American Culture, New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. Print.

Stewart, Earl. African American Music: An Introduction, New York: Schirmer Books, 1998. Print.


Advantages a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Numerous advantages accrue to teachers who utilize technology not only in their teaching but also as a tool to interact with students across space and time. One of the significant advantages of using technology is that it enables teachers to design and implement interactive course materials that could be used to enhance learning experiences that are more pleasurable and meaningful to students.

There are millions of readily available applications and downloadable programs that teachers could use to design self-assessment tests to be administered to students via online protocols, not mentioning that science teachers often benefit immensely from the use of these free programs to design animations and simulations that could be used to elaborate complex scientific content to students.

From own experience, it can be stated that using simulations designed to teach students about the blood circulation system not only expose learners to a more pleasurable and exciting learning experience, but also ensure that learning outcomes are grasped and internalized with relative ease.

The second advantage of using technology, especially the World Wide Web, is that it has the capacity to bring isolated learners together in “virtual” groups without the limitations of space or time. Unlike in a traditional classroom context, teachers using the Web for teaching purposes enjoy the opportunity to teach and interact with disparate groups of learners located in diverse locations around the world.

Recent discoveries in Web-based technologies ensure that teachers are now able to interact with their students in real-time and to share resources across the network. In my teaching experience, I have made use of virtual classrooms to reach out to numerous students without necessarily making physical contact, not mentioning that I have also made use of the Web to get learning materials from my course instructors.

The third advantage is rested on the premise that it is indeed possible to not only protect intellectual property through the application of passwords and access codes but also to support confidential exchange of learning materials and information between registered users (Cantillon et al. 2003).

This implies that online technologies avail a safe and secure framework where learning, communication, and exchange of information can take place.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Using technology in education has obvious disadvantages. First, it is a well-known fact that teachers who use online assessments have no capacity to control the students’ unauthorized use of online resources and content to complete their assignments. Many teachers often face this hurdle and are unable to provide competitive assessments that could then be used to grade students on their performance.

However, in my view, performance in teaching should not be emphasized at the expense of task comprehension, implying that these assignments should be given in a manner that the teacher is able to evaluate the task comprehension of each student despite their use of online content to complete the tasks.

The second disadvantage arises from the fact that technology, if not well designed and adopted, will definitely provide students with the opportunity to collaborate with each other in taking their tests, therefore adversely affecting the core principles and justifications of good educational practice.

However, from own experience, it is indeed clear that teachers can now use the latest applications and plagiarism software not only to set availability dates and times for all assessments but also discourage students who would want to copy other people’s work and pass it as their own.


People Management in Siemens Evaluation Essay custom essay help

Siemens approach to people management is very effective and facilitates achievement of great results. The approach to people management is one of a kind and its components, which include encouragement of talent optimization, teamwork, and performance management, substantiate its importance.

Rainey explains that with a good people management approach also known as ‘People Excellence Program ’, Siemens Company is in a good position to achieve its goals and outsmart its competitors (235).

Consequently, the plans that Siemens has put in place make the sustainability of adopting the approach easy and efficient. Since the approach improves the level of motivation, the performance achieved is sustainable. By using people management approach in management of its employees, Siemens can successfully sustain the adopted approach.

Some of the factors that can influence the effectiveness of teams in Siemens include appraisals, goal setting, talent management, and creation of an innovative environment. By appraising employees and setting goals, Siemens can easily promote the level of performance that individuals undertake themselves as well as in teams. Evans and Evans note that for teamwork to thrive and produce the expected results, employees need personalized motivation (28).

Moreover, a shift from individual to team focus is paramount in advancing the performance required in the contemporary market characterized by the ever changing and trendy consumers.

With the understanding on the essence of shifting from individuals to team focus, the company undertakes effective talent management programs and creates a culture that encourages its employees to optimize their talents. When the company sets goals and gives each individual responsibility within the team, the individuals strive to achieve their goals, while meeting the collective goals incorporated in the team.

Appraisals are very important in helping create shared understanding about organization and employee objectives. Practically, genuine motivation that fosters success and excellent performance emanates from the heart of an individual after an appraisal (Vance and Paik 332; Johnson 207). The motivation transpires because appraisals recognize and appreciate the efforts that an individual undertakes to propel the organization towards success.

Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More When employees working in Siemens receive the recognition from the company, a feeling of respect and value develops within them and the willingness to deliver the best for the company increases. As such, the individuals can successfully meet their personal objectives, while meeting the objectives of the team.

On the other hand, Siemens provides an innovative environment and uses it as part of an overall focus to motivate its people. The environment created by the company facilitates innovation and development of new ideas that are useful in achievement of company’s progress. Notably, because the management of the company understands the essence of innovation and creativity, they skillfully develop an innovative environment and use it to foster the level of motivation amongst its human resources.

The appropriateness of the innovative methods used by Siemens is considerable. Berger and Berger state that innovative methods, which include talent, people, and performance management, are very important and are core ingredients that help organizations win the market share and optimize their human resources (25).

In effect, the methods of innovation that Siemens employs not only promote its success in the short run, but also facilitate long term and sustained development. Therefore, these methods are important and the roles that they play in effecting the company’s success are integral.

Principally, the innovative solution that can foster the working environment of Siemens has its basis on the Behavioral Management Theory, which explains that employee motivation is primary in achievement of company success. Therefore, it is important for Siemens to continue engaging in plans that enhance people management program.

According to Benowitz, the Behavioral Management Theory outlines that human resources are very important and their management determines the growth of a company (17). Therefore, for Siemens to continue enjoying the current market share and sustain the adopted programs, people management needs to employ advanced initiatives that transpire from extensive research of the working environments practiced by various successful organizations.

Works Cited Benowitz, Ellen. Cliffsquickreview Principles of Management. Hoboken: Wiley Pub, 2014. Print.

We will write a custom Essay on People Management in Siemens specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Berger, Lance, and Dorothy Berger. The Talent Management Handbook: Creating Organizational Excellence by Identifying, Developing, and Promoting Your Best People. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004.Print.

Evans, James, and James Evans. Quality and Performance Excellence: Management, Organization, and Strategy. Mason: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.

Johnson, Richard. Effective Performance Management. Victoria: Trafford, 2006. Print.

Rainey, David. Enterprise-wide Strategic Management: Achieving Sustainable Success through Leadership, Strategies, and Value Creation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.

Vance, Charles, and Yongsun Paik. Managing a Global Workforce. New York: Routledge, 2015. Print.