What does this research indicate about trends for physician group practice? The article “Physicians Moving to Mid-Sized, Single Specialty Practices” examines the new trend in healthcare practice. New group practices “are experienced in different regions” (Tollen, 2008, p. 4). The “number of solo physician practices has decreased significantly in the past few years” (Sultz
US-China Business Affiliation Analytical Essay best essay help
Introduction China, which is a rising market, has shocked the whole world in terms of its pace of monetary development. There is a high probability of the country continuing to characterise the manner in which its globalisation efforts open up in the 21st century. For this reason, as DG Trade confirms, the speedy growth of the Chinese financial system has the implications of resulting in a worldwide feel of trade affairs and contracts between China and different nations or local areas of international commerce such as the European Union (EU)1.
China is undergoing immense number of changes, including social, economic, and political modifications that are deemed pivotal in enhancing its integration in the global trade. Some of the changes such as the increased industrial activity in China produce some impacts on the environment. Thus, it is likely that the trade agreements and collaboration treaties, which are made with China, will take different dimensions compared to accords that the US has with other nations.
The liberalisation of doing business and its subsequent impacts will demand an analysis to be conducted with particular focus on China, Europe, and the US. The three countries outline a large team of expenditure bazaars. They also hold enormous manufacturers. This effort is perhaps well exemplified by the instigation of the European Union and China’s PCA consultations, which reflect the intention of the two trade partners to intensify and/or broaden their commercial links2.
Nevertheless, as it will be revealed in this dissertation, regardless of the fact that profound investments in mutual business associations between China and the US create myriads of opportunities, the affiliation has also developed some overriding disputes. How then maintainable is the US-China business affiliation? Can China step into the shoes of the US? By considering two case studies, the paper confirms that China is neither able nor ambitious to step into American’s shoes.
Background According to Meer, Geest, and Evans, China continues to realise an impressive growth rate. However, there have also been some economic imbalances3. Their implication means that even though the Chinese financial system is quickly rising, it is also dependent on overseas sales to various nations, contrary to home expenditure. This situation makes China experience some troubles in the overseas bazaars.
The repercussion for this situation is the surfacing of commercial pressure between China and its mutual partners, as it has been the case for the business dealings between China and the EU. As Alavi says, for mutual commercial dealings to flourish, it is crucial to have equilibrium of imports and exports to and from partners that participate in the commercial association4.
Regrettably, this anticipation seems contrary to the situation between China and the US upon considering Dreyer and Erixon’s words that the US business shortfall with China has enlarged speedily in the previous decades from approximately 50 billion EUR 13 years ago to around 200 billion EUR eight years ago5.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The difference marks a more than three times boost. This business shortfall develops nervousness concerning the financial amalgamation of the mutual business between the US and China, especially by noting that the main trading associates of China include Europe and the US.
Although the aggravation in the mutual trade association emanates from both sides, China may end up being the major loser if the business connection between it and the US becomes unpleasant. For instance, according to Razeen, China holds the awareness that the US does not value business dealings that are of reciprocal advantage to both parties6.
Therefore, it is discouraged by persistent demands by the US for China to put in place business defensive strategies. As Foot confirms, the US encounters enormous challenges while attempting to access the Chinese market7. For the US, the most difficult challenges in fostering the bilateral trade relationships with China arise due to the reason that the US bumps into the substantive bazaar accessibility issues in regions where its merchandise and services are aggressive in China.
Upon considering the issue of overdependence on the foreign markets in the US due to some of the Chinese-made products, the main interrogative is whether China is able or is ambitious enough to step into America’s shoes. Amid the economic boom in China, the US remains highly influential in the international trade and global relations.
Hence, if China needs to enhance further growth of its economy, it must retain a positive relationship with the US. However, can it convert its economic power to military supremacy in an attempt to occupy the position of a superpower that is currently occupied by the US? This question is considered in the sections on case studies and their analysis.
Cases 1 Animosity between China and the US came out publicly in 1971 during the presidency of Richard Nixon. He announced that bad relations between the two states had amounted to a matter that was hard to resolve. Nixon added that he was prepared to engage in dialogue with China to improve the relationship between the US and about 750 million people living in China. The US also objected to improve the relationship between China and the rest of its trading communities.
In 1970, many Americans regarded the trip of President Nixon as equivalent to visiting the moon. Indeed, Dong reported that the bad relationship was a major concern to the US since it was later indicated by fiscal policies8. Towards the end of 1971, President Nixon considered devaluing the country’s currency by 8% in an effort to address the problems of unemployment and increased challenge of inflation.
We will write a custom Essay on US-China Business Affiliation specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consequently, many other nations embarked on floating their currencies against the US currency. However, Shanghai experienced little impacts, if any. China held that the economic policy for the US did not influence it in any way. Dong quotes the government of China responding that no open proof was available in the industrial regions of China concerning anyone who might have demonstrated the least concentration to Washington’s fresh financial guiding principle.
Was the US experiencing negative impacts from the then bad relationships with China? The paper confirms that it was encountering terrible effects. By 1971, China was almost insulated from other parts of the world. After 36 years, in 2007, Shanghai stock market experienced massive decline (9%) in its stock exchange.
Up to date, the affairs between US and China have incredibly been upgraded. In 2009, China emerged the third largest purchaser of the US produced products. On the other hand, the US became the second largest export destination for China-produced products9. Can China engage in conflicts, which may destroy this economic relationship with the US in a bid to replace it as a superpower?
Case 2 Economic power is critical in enhancing a nation’s geopolitical power. The immensely growing economic status of China raises the question of whether it (China) can transform its economic wealth into military power in a bid to improve its geopolitical power so that it can take critical roles in global decision-making processes. The case of dominance of economic giants in the UN Security Council and other international organisations evidences this assertion.
For instance, in the WB and IMF, the voting authority is a function of opinionated supremacy that nations reflect on international platforms and the amounts of capital donations. The G7 parties assume the most momentous position in strategy improvement. While the US, Japan, France, the Great Britain, and Germany have one manager for each, 19 other managers are designated from about 150 affiliated states.
The convention for the selection of the MD for the WB is essentially to fix an American individual while that of the IMF is to fix a European. In case of IMF, the G7 selection influence is 46 percent as Gretchen confirms10. An effective international system must promote political, profitable, and collective impartiality.
With the governance of the most influential nations in the management and setting of policies in the intercontinental organisations, the question that emerges is whether indeed the intercontinental humanity, as suggested by the English school of thought, can precisely reveal the interactions of states in the current world order. Considering the growing economic wealth of China, it is debatable that it has the desire to acquire a stronger position in decision-making processes in international organisations, including the UN Security Council.
However, can it accomplish this goal with objective of competing with the US-established stronger position? Layne asserts that from the late 1980 until 1990s, China’s economy grew by an average of 10. Later, it grew by 8% to about 9% until 2005. In 2006 to 2007, this growth rose to 11%.
Not sure if you can write a paper on US-China Business Affiliation by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This finding implies that economic growth can translate into the rising of China as a great power. As nations grow economically, some of them gain power while others lose it to the growing nations. As such, the growth of China into an economic power means loss of power to the existing superpowers, including the US. Layne reveals how these virtual financial adjustments have signalled the coming up of fresh grand authorities, which will soon have a significant influence on the martial/protective command12.
China understands the relationship between its economic power and geopolitical weight. Measured from the context of GDP, if it continues with its current growth rate in this decade, it will surpass the US economy, thus making it the largest economic giant of the world. Indeed, as Layne confirms, the US military intelligence agency projects that China will have become a first class-military power by 2020, thus qualifying as a rival to the US13. However, is China determined to achieve this status? This question remains a puzzle even to date.
Comparison and Evaluation of the Two Cases
Nations do not want to lose their dominance in the global decision-making process. They want to retain their ability to influence others to behave in certain ways. The two cases are similar in the extent that they depict the US as a more powerful nation than China, although the two countries are also mutually dependent on one another for economic propriety.
Kurlantzick supports the probability that the US will remain more powerful than China well over some unpredicted period in the future14. Minimal evidence is available for scholars to believe that that China will develop to become the global superpower, as it will most probably experience some future turmoil in its current economic growth15. The likelihood of the ‘one child’ policy will lead it into some social burdens. Shrinkage of labour forces compared to the total population translates into increasing salaries and wages.
The situation causes the depletion of a nation’s competitive advantage. The suggestion is that China may lose its competitive advantage that it experiences today due to the availability of cheap and readily available labour supply in its industries.
Toppled economic success of China is probable upon considering that the one-child policy will make the Chinese labour force constitute the elderly in the near future. Their sole daughters or sons, akin to the one-child policy, will only replace such people. This situation will constrain household savings to the extent of compelling China to create an expensive social welfare scheme, which will deplete most of its current gains.
Consequently, even if it can currently fight for the superpower position with the US, it may soon lose the power to sustain the position. Considering that its good relations with the US will be lost, China will remain in a tricky position since it may never recover its economic success.
The two cases are similar in the extent that they indicate uncertainties that are accompanied by a low probability of China engaging in confrontations with the US to the level of destroying its diplomacy relationships. However, Kurlantzick reveals China’s increased involvement of in cyber crimes that are aimed at destroying their enemies16.
He also reckons, “China has begun to challenge the United States’ militarily, sending attack submarines to patrol closely American warships, and launching a missile as a test for destroying satellites, potentially boosting the militarisation of space”17. Although this situation poses a threat to the US security, the significance of the threat when analysed in time domain depends on the ability of China to experience continued economic growth to support investment in military equipment, training, and development of more technologically enhanced military confrontation strategies.
However, Kurlantzick says that such capability remains unclear18. The two cases show that for a nation to become a superpower, it must pose a significant threat to other nations so that it develops the capability to influence global policies. In 2009, Pentagon claimed to have used about 100 million dollars in less than seven months in the effort to counter to and/or refurbish the damage that had accrued from cyber threats and other inconveniences of computer systems.
On 1st April 2009, as Rid confirms, the US policy developers campaigned for the engagement of a White House virtual safety ‘czar’ to radically raise the US resistance in opposition to cyber assaults by designing suggestions to authorise the administration to lay down and implement defence principles for classified business for the initial instance19. On issues on cyber attacks, the emerging Asian economic giants, including China, are becoming a major threat to the safety of many nations.
At the beginning of 2012, startling allegations of India’s involvement in hacking one of the United Sates’ commissions systems of e-mail communication hit many local and international media headlines. The communication system essentially dealt with security and economic relations between China and the US.
Many reports contended and confirmed that Indian government spy hackers succeeded in placing an Indian cyber spying military intelligence document on the internet. The document discussed mechanisms of targeting China-US communication processes with the help of expertise from mobile phone manufacturers of the western world. Reportedly, email transcripts of the mails changing hands between the commission members were also included in the document.
Among many other cases of operating system’s software hacking, an attack was speculated on 21st November 2011 in the US. It was claimed in the media that a trespasser had cracked a Curran-Gardner’s municipality water siphon in the state of Illinois. Nevertheless, it was afterwards revealed that the message was bogus.
The two incidents exemplify an ongoing trend of access of organisations and states’ internet computer resources without authenticity. Many of such attempts are suspected to originate from the emerging Asian economies. The first case evidences that good the international relation between China and the US has experienced some challenges in the past.
However, after 1970s, the two nations considered resolving their diplomatic issues so that they could support each other in their economic growth. However, as suggested in the second case, improved relationships between the two nations increased the economic growth of China to levels that the US is now suspecting it of attempting to overthrow it from the superpower position.
This issue raises the fear concerning whether the relationship between China and the US will follow the same path that was followed by the trading relationship between China and the EU. The EU accused China of producing counterfeit products and damping them in the EU member states. Based on the aforementioned allegations, in 2008, several China exports antidumping cases were established.
The cases were linked to the merchandise that originated from China such as steel and candles20. In his book, Chinese Foreign Relations, Sutter investigates the course that was adopted by the EU-China business associations21. The main technique he uses is to examine the rulings of the cases where Chinese businesses have often been caught up in standoffs involving the indictment of engagement in indecent antidumping exercises.
Sutter studies more than 40 scenarios that have been put forth by the EU targeting the Chinese businesses based on the antidumping indictment22. The results of Sutter’s work indicate that China observes that its businesses are not handled reasonably during the EU antidumping examinations. This awareness originated from the participation of Chinese businesses in more than five antidumping examinations in 2007.
In fact, as Sutter observes, out of the six examinations that led to the setting of conditional responsibilities in 2007, Chinese businesses featured in almost of them. Surprisingly, out of the eight new explorations that led to the campaigning of unambiguous consequences, Chinese bazaars took the biggest portion by being held responsible for over 60% of the cases.
Considering that the US currently occupies the position of a superpower by default, it can also raise issues that can destroy its trading relationship with China as witnessed in the case of EU so that it reduces the size of the Chinese market in the US in a bid to lower its economic growth rate. Unfortunately, China is now targeting to build trading relationships with developing economies in Africa and other Asian nations. Consequently, the US may fail to herald the economic boom in China. However, upon considering the US military capability, China may not be able or even be ambitious to step into the US shoes.
Analysis of Issues in the Cases The speculation on local business dealings is dated back to the early 1950s when Johnston posited in 1954 that in case states do not participate in business treaties, they would endeavour to levy business in the attempt to ensure that they exploit the worldwide market within their reach as Giovanni says23. Following these developments, the established symmetry often translates into a business conflict between nations as evidenced by the two scenarios.
Worldwide business contracts act as a tool for ensuring that such business disagreements are alleviated. This line of opinion was further established by the work of Bagwell and Staiger in 200024. They extended the frameworks in situations where the government was subjected to various political pressures. Politically stimulated administrations also opt to take part in trade concords to the extent that they can promise that their business entities are corrected.
As Mitra asserts, this claim suggests that the pursuit of achieving political potential does not essentially act as basis of enthusiasm during engagements in the business contracts, particularly with politically influential countries such as the US25. This finding raises the subject of China’s inspiration to take part in business associations with the US so that the US becomes the second largest market for the China-produced products.
China has an interest in forming business associations with countries, which will provide a clarification to all international matters, including the repercussion of the international monetary crunch that began in 2008-2009. However, its intention to step into the shoes of the US in a bid to overthrow it as a superpower nation is not backed by evidence.
Since China has the benefit of low cost of manufacturing its products, it sounds imperative to deduce that through business collaboration with the US, it is possible for it (China) to take incredible advantage of this potency to successfully benefit from on the US market to place its commodities and services. Being a nation of low manufacturing charges justifies why China is considered a sufficient answer to the monetary catastrophe as Chaudhuri observes26.
Following the friction in business associations between China and the US in the early 1970s, the US will not appreciating parting ways with China as an economic associate. China will also aim at inducing a conflict with the US by stepping into its shoes at the expense of losing its established markets for its (China) products.
Given the large manufacturing aptitude of China and the size of expenditure bazaar for the US, Chaudhuri says that China cannot pause to determine various matters that hamper its business dealings with the US27. If China is to give up on business discussions in the US-China conferences, it implies that it has to resort to reinforcing its fiscal and commercial dealings with the EU and other trade associates.
However, the search for guaranteeing that it does not put all its eggs in a single creel acts as a delicate motivator for the nation to continue perusing the means of lessening its business connections issues with the US, but not offending it. The above expositions provide insights that both China and the US have a large number of common interests to share through trading relationships. Nevertheless, this observation does not imply the absence of areas in which conflicts of interest can arise.
In this extent, Hanso asserts that China, which is an upcoming country, regards the US as an imperative financial associate, although it also deploys it to offset the supremacy of the US that China considers a premeditated competitor in the international matters28. By gaining economic power, it implies that China becomes even more assertive in fighting for her position in the international trading treaties.
Consequently, in comparison with the US, Europe presents a less threatening trading partner to China. This situation exposes the EU to tough trading relationship choices between it and China in the future, as China becomes more economically powerful and wealthy. Unfortunately, China cannot step into the shoes of the US due to the US’ already strong competitive position in the global affairs.
China can rise to the same current economic position of the US. However, it may take time to overcome the US-established global dominance and acceptance of its ideologies. By attaining almost equivalent monetary competitive benefit, parties that take part in trading conformity often come across some issues.
Chaudhuri reinforces this claim by providing an insight that profitable collaboration paves a way for the two parties to labour jointly for their collective advantage, even if disparities in opinionated administrations and significant philosophies and estimations of relative growth lead to troubles in the joint dealings29. This matter is more considerable upon noting that the US has been struggling to handle the upshots of the worldwide fiscal catastrophe.
The connotation of this claim is that the negotiation authority of the US relative to that of China in the US-China trading association is severely destabilised. The US has to hold and discover the immense responsibility that China is assuming in the worldwide market. Subsequently, the US needs to adopt practical schemes to ensure that it is not disadvantaged in the trading contracts between the two.
However, the claim does not mean that cessation of the US-China business association is an option. The position that is held by China in the worldwide markets makes several nations and local trading associates seek collaboration with China. Therefore, it is not urgent for the US to lose the prospect of seeking business incorporation with the upcoming universal moneymaking giant.
According to Giovanni, local business contracts will not cease to exist in the near future30. Hence, China and the US will want to engage in conflicts that can destroy their trading agreements that have been benefiting them mutually. Almost 50% of the international business takes place via local trade contracts. These unions can be two-sided, meaning that they are established between two states.
They can also be multilateral as McMillan reveals31. The comprehension of the pressure that business deals have in terms of boosting the sales volumes of a nation’s commodities translates into the certifying of a myriad of local commercial contracts across the globe. For instance, with reference to the worldwide economic crunch, almost 30 RTAs were reported to the World Trade Organisation at the close of 2009 as Freund confirms32.
This state of affairs brought the sum of local business unions to 300 by 201033. Subsequently, an enquiry arises on whether business localisation acts to impede the many-sided trading scheme. This issue equally disturbs research intellectuals such as Freund and Ornelas who further worry whether local business contracts need to be distinguished or they are a bother to the intercontinental society34.
The aforementioned intellectual probing of the impact of local contracts creates impressions that business dealings or relationships between diverse nations of different geographical areas may develop issues or lead to monetary donations of both parties coming into the business associations.
The accord may also serve to create prosperity for only one nation, which forms the business union. This situation may form fertile grounds for China’s attempt to step into the shoes of the US. However, China cannot be willing to follow this path since both nations equally benefit from one another.
Conclusion Political scholars see China’s growing economy as a major threat to the sustained position of the US as the world superpower. As suggested in the two cases, operating in an environment of uncertainty about the future of the Chinese economy, it is most improbable that China will attempt to step into the shoes of the US.
Any sliding from the economic growth curve means destruction of the existing good trading relationships between the two nations. After threatening to overthrow the US from a superpower position, China will be the overall loser. Besides losing its competitive advantage, it will lose its second largest market for its products. Consequently, the paper holds that it is neither able nor ambitious to step into the shoes of the US.
Bibliography Alavi, R., An Overview of Key Markets, Tariffs and Non-tariff Measures on Asian Exports of Select Environmental Goods, International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, Geneva, 2007.
Good Wristwatches Design Thesis essay help online free: essay help online free
Table of Contents Problem statement
Mapping the dimensions of the problem
Scenario for what could be
Problem statement When it comes to discussing the deficiencies of a particular artifact’s design, it represents the matter of a crucial importance to be able to identify the extent of this item’s compatibility with currently predominant socio-cultural discourses.
The reason for this is quite apparent – in order for a particular design to be considered thoroughly efficient, it must be reflective of people’s discourse-related existential anxieties/expectations (Foucault, 1978).
In its turn, this provides us with the objective reason to suggest that the conventional design of circularly shaped mechanical/quartz wristwatches, which features hour, minute and second hands, can no longer be considered discursively relevant, because it does not reflect the actual realities of a post-industrial living. Let me begin arguing the case from afar.
Even though that there can be few doubts, as to the fact that conventional wristwatches do allow their owners to keep a good track of time, these watches’ design mirrors what is now being proven a theoretically fallacious concept of the universe.
After all, throughout the course of the early 20th century (when a conventional design of wristwatches came to its prominence), people had very few doubts, as to the ‘orderly’ essence of the universe’s workings. Back then, scientists saw the universe as a giant complicated mechanical devise.
The idea was that the universe was a huge and intricate machine that obeys orderly mathematical rules. If you knew the rules of how the machine was configured to start with, as you turn the handle over and over again, it would behave in an entirely predictable way.
In essence, the universe was believed to be a huge cyclically functioning celestial ‘mechanism’, which in turn implied the predictability of its observable manifestations. Hence, the philosophy of the mechanical wristwatches’ design – it was meant to uphold the people’s Newtonian view of the surrounding reality and their place in it.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Just as the planet Earth revolves around the Sun in a thoroughly orderly and predictable manner, so does the hour-hand in mechanical watches. The movement of the minute-hand reflects the Newtonian subtleties of the Moon’s rotation around the Earth.
In its turn, the movement of a second-hand can be well seen, as such that reflects people’s deep-seated expectations, concerned with the Earth’s rotation around its own axis, which causes watch-wearers to experience the sensation of a cyclical flow of time.
As Aveni (1989) noted, “On your wrist, you may see yet another mechanism we have made to control both the passage of events and the rhythm of our behavior. This device’s very shape conveys the notion of the daily round of time and the natural form of the sky” (p. 88).
This explains the metaphysical significance of many mechanical watches’ complications, meant to ‘predict’ evolutions in the celestial ‘sphere’, such as the moon-phase indicator.
Apparently, by wearing these watches, people unconsciously strive to overcome their growing suspicion that there is in fact no God in the universe, which in turn makes them more emotionally stable.
Nevertheless, as history goes on, it becomes increasingly harder for people to remain thoroughly comfortable with the cyclical passage of time, which they get to observe on their conventionally designed wristwatches.
This is because, due to the recent discoveries in the field of physics, the concept of the universe, as a fully predictable celestial mechanism, has grown hopelessly outdated.
We will write a custom Thesis on Good Wristwatches Design specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After all, in light of these discoveries, the universe appears to be not a mechanism, but rather an organism, which continually evolves and which will eventually age and die, due to the forces of entropy.
The discovery of the ‘uncertainty principle’ by Werner Heisenberg in 1927, created objective preconditions for the earlier mentioned discursive development to occur. According to this principle, it is fundamentally impossible for researchers to be simultaneously aware of the atom’s location and its speed.
This is because, contrary to the classical conceptualization of an elementary particle, the theoretical provisions of quantum mechanics point out to the fact that the atom’s actual location is being spatially ‘dispersed’ – the same atom can be found in a few different locations, at the same time (Heelan, 1975).
The discursive implications of the ‘uncertainty principle’ are quite apparent – the universe’s workings cannot be predicted by definition, because the universe itself is being made out of fundamentally unpredictable ‘bricks’, commonly known as atoms.
Thus, the conventional design of mechanical/quartz watches, which extrapolates the philosophical significance of the 19th century’s scientific conventions, can no longer be considered fully attuned to the discourse of relativity.
Yet, this particular discourse nowadays defines the qualitative aspects of the 21st century’s living. Partially, this explains why, as of today, it became a commonplace practice among many people to complain about the fact that, while wearing conventionally designed wristwatches, they experience the sensation of having no control over their own lives.
Apparently, while being exposed to the visually observable movement of minute and second hands, people have no other option but to consider the possibility that they themselves are nothing but the replaceable elements of a ‘social machine’.
Therefore, it will not be much of an exaggeration, on my part, to suggest that, as of today, there are a number of discursive preconditions for the classic design of wristwatches to be radically revised.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Good Wristwatches Design by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Instead of serving the function of prompting people to lead ‘socially-responsible’ lifestyles, wristwatches should serve the function of increasing the extent of people’s emotional comfortableness with the notion of a godless and chaotic universe, in which the flow of time has an unmistakable relativist subtlety.
Mapping the dimensions of the problem Given what has been said earlier, the conceptualization (mapping) of the discursively relevant design for wristwatches should be concerned with the following:
a) Abandoning mechanical movements. As it is being the case with the design of just about every life-enhancing gadget, the design of wristwatches must reflect the practical implications of an ongoing technological progress.
Therefore, the practice of powering wristwatches with mechanical movements can no longer be deemed appropriate. After all, as compared to mechanical wristwatches, battery-powered quartz and digital wristwatches are being much more accurate and price-friendly.
Even though that, as of today, mechanical watches continue to enjoy popularity with many intellectually inflexible people, this state of affairs will not last forever, as it is being inconsistent with the objective laws of history.
b) Abandoning minute and second hands. Ever since the notion of ‘design’ came into a practical prominence, it never ceased being considered synonymous with the notion of ‘improvement’.
In its turn, the notion of ‘improvement’ cannot be discussed outside of how improving the design of a particular device result in its simplification – without affecting the concerned device’s functional integrity.
As Balazs and Brown (2000) argued, “The design simpliﬁcation problem is the problem of ﬁnding another design that has the same function as the original design and its complexity is less than that of the original design” (p. 2).
Therefore, it will only be logical, on my part, to suggest that the improved design of a wristwatch should feature the absence of minute and second hands. This is because, as it can be seen in the picture below, a thoroughly effective timekeeping can be well accomplished with only one hand.
There may be only two objections to this particular method of a timekeeping – the fact that the majority of watch-wearers will find it hard to adjust to it, and that this method is not being just as accurate, as the conventional one. These objections, however, can be successfully addressed.
First, once people realize the advantages of tracking time with only one hand, such as the absence of a ‘time pressure’, for example, they will be willing to switch to it.
The sheer swiftness, with which people switched from riding three-wheeled bicycles to riding two-wheeled ones, during the course of the early 20th century, validates the legitimacy of this statement.
Second, the realities of a post-industrial living suggest that wristwatches no longer need to be capable of indicating the passage of short periods of time (e.g. minutes and seconds). This is because, as of today, the notion of a ‘time-efficiency’ has been deprived of its original discursive significance.
The validity of this suggestion can be well illustrated in regards to the fate of Concord supersonic passenger planes, which have been declared economically unfeasible and consequently ‘retired’.
The reason why it happened is simple – even though these planes were capable of flying over the Atlantic ocean within a matter of four hours, they were not offering passengers a de facto opportunity to ‘beat the time’.
This is because, due to the safety-ensuring measures, implemented in today’s airports, the process of passengers registering for the flight and boarding the plane, takes as much as 5-7 hours.
Therefore, there are no good reasons to believe that, due to not having minute and second hands indicating the flow of time on their watches, the concerned individuals would suffer from the extent of their existential competitiveness being severely undermined.
Quite on the opposite – without being constantly reminded that the ‘time is money’ (the subtle message, conveyed by conventionally designed watches), the wearers of single-hand watches would be more likely to effectively address their mentally unhealthy anxieties, in regards to their realization of their own mortality.
c) Abandoning circularly shaped displays. As it was mentioned earlier, the circular shape of wristwatches originates out of its original designers’ assumption that the universe ‘s functioning is being essentially cyclical.
Nevertheless, along with being conceptually fallacious, this assumption has a number of the counterproductive effects on its affiliates. The foremost of them is the fact that, while wearing conventionally designed wristwatches, people are being subtly prompted to believe that their life-experiences are bound to ‘reoccur’ periodically.
In its turn, this makes them less capable of grasping life-advancing opportunities and consequently – undermines their chances to attain a social prominence. This simply could not be otherwise, because while assuming that these opportunities come and go, people do not quite realize the social implications of their existence’s spatial limitedness.
Therefore, the discursively sound design of wristwatches must feature a rectangular display, so that the watch-wearers may be indirectly reminded of the fact that the observable emanations of the surrounding reality are being dialectically predetermined (causes define effects).
In its turn, this should provide the concerned individuals with an additional incentive to think twice, before deciding in favor of a particular course of action – hence, making them more ‘existentially fit’.
Scenario for what could be In light of the earlier outlined theoretical/discursive premises, which I believe justify the introduction of a revolutionary new design for wristwatches, the identification of resources that may be deployed, within the context of advancing this design, does not represent much of a challenge.
First, I plan to take advantage of what appears to be the foremost qualitative aspect of today’s living in Western countries – namely, an ongoing ‘de-westernization’ of public discourses.
Whereas, even as recent as a few decades ago, it used to represent a commonplace practice among Western politicians/educators to assess the reality through the perceptual lenses of euro-centrism, this has now effectively ceased to be the case.
This, of course, establishes objective prerequisites for more and more people to be willing to express their opposition to the Judeo-Christian ‘mechanistic’ worldview – especially if they happened to be ethically visible (non-White). Wearing unconventionally designed watches will come in particularly handy, in this respect.
Second, I will utilize the fact that the realities of a modern living naturally prompt many people to grow increasingly concerned with exploring their sense of self-identity.
After all, as of today, only not particularly bright individuals continue to believe that, in order for them to be considered productive individuals; they must adhere to the socially upheld conventions of a behavioral appropriateness.
This is exactly the reason why in today’s Globalized world, it is specifically the people’s strive to attain an ‘individuation’, which appears to affect their purchasing choices to an ever increased extent.
Therefore, while being exposed to wristwatches, designed in accordance with the earlier outlined design-guidelines, the ‘individuation’-seeking potential buyers should be naturally prompted to find them aesthetically appealing.
The rising popularity of those watch-making companies that specialize in manufacturing unconventionally designed wristwatches, such as MB
The Future of Family Planning and Fertility in Iran Research Paper a level english language essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The case of Iran
Introduction One of the post-modernity’s main aspects is that fact that, as of today, the growth of the human population has attained a clearly defined exponential momentum. This raises certain concerns about whether the human civilisation will be able to maintain its resource-related sustainability in the future.
After all, unlike what it happened to be the case with ‘human resources’, the natural ones are not self-renewable, which in turn implies that, despite its politically incorrect sounding, the notion of overpopulation is indeed legitimate. What also adds to the sheer acuteness of the earlier mentioned issue is that there are no universally accepted discursive explanations as to what can be considered the actual causes of the exponentially defined process, concerned with the planet population’s continuial growth.
Moreover, there are no thoroughly comprehensive explanations as to the fact that there are a number of unmistakably phenomenological overtones to the issue at stake. The main of them is that some countries, formerly associated with the skyrocketing birth rate among their citizens, were nevertheless able to reduce this rate by 60% within the matter of a decade (Cohen 161). In this respect, Iran stands out as the perfect example.
However, there is a good reason to believe that, contrary to what it is being commonly assumed, there is nothing ‘mysterious’ about the ongoing ‘demographic boom’, on the one hand, and the fact that this process appears to be thoroughly manageable, on the other. In this paper, I will explore the validity of the above suggested at length.
There will be two consequential phases to how I intend to address the task: a) outlining the most relevant theoretical approaches to tackling the issue of high/low fertility, b) utilizing the obtained insights, in order to come up with the suggestions, as to the discourse-related implications of the current demographic situation in Iran.
Literature review As of today, the most commonly deployed approaches towards dealing with the fertility-related issues can be generalised as ‘neo-Malthusian’, ‘phenomenological’ and ‘neo-Marxian’. The origins of the first of these approaches date back to the late 18th century, when Thomas Malthus published his famous Essay on the Principle of Population.
In this essay, Malthus promoted the idea that whereas the accumulation of a ‘surplus product’ increases in the mathematical progression to the flow of time, the simultaneous growth of the population, which makes the production of this product possible, occurs on an essentially geometrical (exponential) basis. As he pointed out: “The only true criterion of a real and permanent increase in the population of any country is the increase of the means of subsistence…
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More There must be periods when population increases permanently, without an increase in the means of subsistence” (Malthus 41). What it means is that people’s enthusiasm in ‘baby-making’ is a strongly counterproductive category as the more populous a particular society happened to be, the higher are the changes for it to collapse due to overpopulation.
There is one more implication to this Malthusian suggestion: the assumption that it remains well within the range of just about every government’s executive authority to exercise a control over the demographic dynamics within the concerned society (Yew 52).
Malthus was able to illustrate the validity of the earlier mentioned idea mathematically, therefore there is nothing odd about the fact that throughout the first part of the 20th century the Malthusian outlook on the humanity’s grim future (due to overpopulation) used to be shared by many prominent intellectuals/social activists of the time. In this respect, we can well mention the name of Margaret Sanger – one of the early proponents of birth control and eugenics as the instruments of ensuring a high biological quality of a nation.
According to Sanger, the birth-control policies, enacted by the government, cannot be solely concerned with addressing the dangers of overpopulation. Rather, they should reflect the fact that after having realised themselves in the position to exercise a rationale-fueled control over their destiny, as the representatives of Homo Sapiens species, people are now thoroughly capable of applying a conscious effort into increasing the extent of their evolutionary fitness: “We must first free our bodies from disease and predisposition to disease.
We must perfect these bodies and make them fine instruments of the mind and the spirit” (Sanger 270). Nevertheless, the Germany’s defeat in 1945 has effectively ended the popularity of Sanger’s idea in this respect. The reason for this is that ever since the end of the WW2, the very concept of eugenics had become strongly associated with the notion of ‘Nazism’.
As time went on, more and more Western sociologists were becoming increasingly aware of the fact that there is a link between the rate of fertility, exhibited by a particular society, and the measure of this society’s socio-cultural advancement. Such awareness on their part became the conceptual premise, upon which the proponents of neo-Malthusianism base their view on what accounts for the actual significance of what happened to be the spatially localized rate of people’s self-reproduction.
This premise is concerned with the assumption that unlike what it happened to be the case with people who reside in large cities, the well-being of rural dwellers overwhelmingly depends on how successful they are while tending crops. Hence, the explanation to the phenomenon of the rurally-based people’s high fertility: by conceiving as many babies, as possible, these people simply try to survive physically, as even young children can be well turned into the agricultural helpers.
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Future of Family Planning and Fertility in Iran specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In its turn, this implies that the rate, with which people go about ‘making babies’, is consistent with these people’s place on the hierarchical ladder of evolution. The more complex a particular society happened to be, the fewer are there the objective preconditions for the society’s members to preoccupy themselves with procreation.
What is being rarely mentioned in this respect is that in the technologically advanced Western societies, the Darwinian laws of natural selection no longer work, which in turn sets these societies on the path of degradation and extinction. The currently endorsed Western policy of encouraging mentally inadequate citizens to ‘celebrate uniqueness’, even at the expense of allowing them to pass their defective genes to the representatives of next generations, illustrates the validity of the earlier suggestion perfectly well.
Partially, the above-mentioned provides us with the insight into the causes of the recent rise of neo-Malthusianism (commonly associated with the name of Paul Ehrlich – the author of The Population Bomb) – a theory that forecasts the eventual collapse of the human civilisation due the effects of overpopulation (Ehrlich 130).
The reason for this is that, as the mentioned book implies, it is not the rising level of poverty (assumed to have been caused by overpopulation) among people in the Third World, which concerns Westerners the most, but rather the fact that while continuing to increase in numbers, the ‘poor and needy’ from these countries will begin to pose an acute danger to the Western civilisation’s continual well-being.
The full soundness of this statement can be well illustrated in regards to the fact that, for example, within the matter of the last sixty years, the population of Ethiopia has tripled, despite the fact that throughout this time Ethiopians continued to suffer from the never-ending civil war and famine.
On the other hand, it is not only that, throughout the course of recent decades, the rate of the White people’s fertility has been reduced down to its all-time minimum, but they have also grown increasingly incapable of addressing even the most basic challenges of life (McArdle 35).
Nevertheless, the apparent biasness of the neo-Malthusian (positivist) assumption that the less there are children ‘per woman’, the better, and that the more there are children in a particular family, the greater is the measure of this family’s technological/cultural backwardness, can also be shown in regards to a number of the assumption’s methodological inconsistencies. For example, there appears to be very little rationale in associating the high rate of fertility with the high rate of illiteracy.
As Motavalli noted: “Education usually does produce smaller families, but there are exceptions. Tanzania had achieved 90 percent female literacy by the early 1990s, but parents in 2002 had an average of 5.3 children” (3). Also, there are no good reasons to believe that the strength of people’s sense of religiosity always positively relates to the strength of their taste for ‘baby making’.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Future of Family Planning and Fertility in Iran by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Even though the total rate of fertility (TRF) among religious women in the Second and Third World countries has always been much higher, as compared to the TRF among the perceptually secularized females in the West, as time goes on, there appears to be more and more exemptions from this rule.
The most striking of them is concerned with the phenomenon of the annual birth rate in Iran having been reduced rather drastically throughout the course of the recent decade and a half, despite the fact that just as it was the case fifteen years ago, the Iranian society continues to remain strongly religious (Vahidnia 260).
This explains why it is namely the ‘phenomenological’ outlook on the significance of the fertility rate in a particular society, which nowadays affects the dynamics of the ongoing fertility-related public discourse to an ever-higher degree. According to the advocates of a ‘phenomenological’ sociology, it is utterly inappropriate to refer to the TRF in a particular region of the world as being reflective of the concerned people’s socio-cultural development alone.
For example, according to Bongaarts and Watkins, the essence of the fertility-dynamics in the society cannot be discussed outside of what accounts for the phenomenological subtleties of how the society’s members socialise with each other. As the authors pointed out: “Development alone is insufficient to account for the observed variations in the timing of the onset of transitions (in fertility)…
Before the transition onset, social interaction can inhibit fertility change” (Bongaarts and Watkins 669). Nevertheless, just as it happened to be the case with neo-Malthusians, ‘phenomenologists’ tend to regard the notion of high fertility in largely negative terms.
This stance, is being challenged by the so-called ‘neo-Marxian’ sociologists, who believe that it is namely the workings of the greed-fueled ‘free market’ economy, which legitimise the idea that there can be no ‘room under the Sun’ for all on this planet. According to these sociologists, it is in the very nature of Capitalism (as an economic system that goes about optimizing its functioning by means of reducing the affiliated operational costs) to seek out the ways to have as few people employed, as possible (Malakoff 545).
What it means is that if the Capitalist society continues to function ‘unattended’, it becomes only the matter of time before it begins to exhibit the signs of being demographically stagnant. After all, there is simply no other way for such a society to be able to maintain the adequate standards of living among the citizens, other than by means of preventing them from being able to reproduce in sufficient numbers.
This explains the actual origins of the process of Western societies growing progressively ‘aged’ (Herrmann 28). This is also the reason why the main challenge of Capitalism has always been the overabundance of workers, whereas the Socialism’s main problem has been the permanent shortage of the available workforce.
The above-mentioned suggests that the ‘problem of overpopulation’ cannot be referred to as being thoroughly objective, as it is only Capitalism that creates the situation when, as time goes on, more and more people realize that they represent the world’s ‘human burden’, regardless of the rate of these people’s fertility (Von Eschen 420).
The earlier provided theoretical considerations as to what can be deemed the actual forces behind the fluctuations of the TFR in a particular country should prove rather enlightening within the context of discussing the specifics of the demographic situation in Iran.
The case of Iran Probably the main feature of the modern history of Iran is the fact that through the years of 1986-1996, the country’s population of 60 million was enlarged by 10 million, hence, becoming to account for 70 million ‘strong’ by the beginning of 1997. In its turn, this implies that the total rate of fertility in Iran throughout the mentioned period was 6 births per woman. However, during the course of the next decade (1996-2006), the Iranian TRF was reduced down to 2.8 births per woman.
Moreover, as time goes on, the total rate of fertility in this country continues to decline rather rapidly: “The own-children estimates of fertility for Iran based on the 2000 Iran Demographic and Health Survey show that the TFR has declined further and reached replacement level (2.26) during the period 1998-2000.
The figure for the year 2000 is 2.17” (Abbasi-Shavazi 425). The main reason behind the earlier mentioned reduction of the TFR in Iran was the fact that ever since 1985, the government started to implement the policy of ‘family planning’, the main objective of which was to slow down the uncontrollable growth of the country’s population. The following is the list of the main factors that contributed towards this particular policy, on the part of the Iranian government, proving itself utterly effective:
a) Ever since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, the Iranian government never ceased to invest rather heavily in providing the educational opportunities for as many citizens as possible. In this respect, the emphasis was placed on educating women.
In its turn, the increased rate of literacy among Iranian women resulted in the latter becoming secularised to an extent, hence, providing the additional incentives for these women to choose in favor of ‘family planning’. This confirms the validity of the earlier mentioned neo-Malthusian assumption that the rate of people’s literacy positively relates to the extent of their educational accomplishments.
b) The country’s top-ranking clergyman thoroughly supported the government’s fertility-reducing effort. In 1980, Ayatollah Khomeini declared that the use of contraceptives on the part of Iranian citizens is fully consistent with the main theological provisions of Islam.
This, aided the mentioned governmental effort rather substantially, because of the Khomeini’s approval of contraceptives, even the country’s utterly religious citizens were growing emotionally comfortable with the idea of exercising caution, while indulging in the sexual socialisation with each other. There are clearly defined ‘phenomenological’ undertones to it, as the example of Iran indicates, there can be no good reason in believing that the Church always acts as the fertility’s main agent.
c) The implementation of the earlier mentioned fertility-reducing initiative on the part of the Iranian government proceeded hand in hand with the process of the country’s continuous urbanization. It has been estimated that by the year 1996, 60% of the country’s population consisted of urbanites (Abbasi-Shavazi 430).
This established the additional preconditions for the governmental initiative to succeed. After all, as it was pointed out earlier, there are no objective reasons for city dwellers to consider ‘baby-making’ an activity that is crucial to ensuring their very survival, in the physical sense of this word.
d) Through the years 1985-1996, the Iranian economy sustained a number of setbacks. In its turn, this naturally caused the country’s sexually productive citizens to experience a certain psychological anxiety related to the prospect of not being able to secure a well-paid job on their part. Consequently, the rate of reproduction among these people has declined rather dramatically.
In light of the above-mentioned, we can come with suggestions as to what predetermined the essence of the Iranian demographic policies in the recent past, and also as to what will account for the country’s demographic dynamics in the future.
First, the sheer successfulness of the implementation of the ‘family planning’ policy in Iran has been largely predetermined by the essentially authoritarian paradigm of a political rulership in this country. The reason for this is apparent as after having decided to proceed with enacting this policy, the Iranian governmental officials continued to exercise a full control over every consequential phase of the policy’s implementation.
Second, the foremost reason for the Iranian government to choose in favor of implementing the earlier mentioned policy was that, despite being strongly committed to the traditional values of Islam, the Iranian society continues to remain essentially Capitalist. This explains why in the time of peace the Iranian policymakers tend to regard the prospect of the country’s population continuing to boom in terms of a ‘problem’, rather than in terms of an ‘economic asset’.
Third, contrary to what it is being assumed in the West, Iran is not preparing actively for war with America and its allies in the region. Had this been otherwise, the country would have pursued with implementing the aggressive pro-natalist policy, just as it was the case during the course of the Iran–Iraq War (Goldstone 5).
The popularity of the anti-natalist sentiment in today’s Iran can also be explained by the fact that, as time goes on, this country grows increasingly secularised, which reduces the chances for the outbreak of yet another Persian War even further.
Finally, if the current ‘family planning’ policy in Iran remains enacted, in about 20 years from now the country’s economy will face the acute challenge of having to sustain the existence of the exponentially proliferating population of senior citizens.
This challenge will prove especially serious, given the fact that at this time the number of fully employed young Iranians will be severely undercut, as a direct result of the currently implemented ‘family planning’ policy. This implies that in order for Iran to be able to maintain its economic sustainability as an independent country, it will need to put away with the concerned anti-natalist policy.
Conclusion The earlier provided line of argumentation as to what accounts for the qualitative essence of the ‘neo-Malthusian’, ‘phenomenological’ and ‘neo-Marxian’ approaches to fertility-management and as to what can be considered as the discursive significance of the currently enacted ‘family planning’ policy in Iran, appears thoroughly consistent with the paper’s initial thesis.
Apparently, there can be indeed a very little rationale in believing that the notion of ‘fertility’ is thoroughly objective and that, as such, it is not being affected by the currently predominant socio-cultural discourse. The deployed arguments also imply that the most effective instrument of addressing the problem of overpopulation would be concerned with overthrowing Capitalism on a global scale and with adopting the Socialist methods of managing the population/economy.
Works Cited Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad. Recent Changes and the Future of Fertility in Iran. 2007. Web.
Bongaarts, John and Susan Watkins. “Social Interactions and Contemporary Fertility Transitions.” Population and Development Review 22.4. (1996): 639-682. Print.
Cohen, Joel. “Population and Climate Change.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 154.2 (2010): 158-182. Print.
Ehrlich, Paul. The Population Bomb. New York: Ballantine Books, 1971. Print.
Goldstone, Jack. “Population and Security: How Demographic Change Can Lead to Violent Conflict.” Journal of International Affairs 56.1 (2002): 4-22. Print.
Herrmann, Michael. “Population Aging and Economic Development: Anxietiesand Policy Responses.” Population Ageing 5 (2012): 23–46. Print.
Malakoff, David. “Are More People Necessarily a Problem?” Science 333.6042 (2011): 544-546. Print.
Malthus, Thomas. An Essay of the Principle of Population. 1798. PDF file. Web.
McArdle, Megan. “Europe’s Real Crisis.” The Atlantic Monthly 309.3 (2012): 32-35. Print.
Motavalli, Jim. The Numbers Game. 2003. Web.
Sanger, Margaret. The Pivot of Civilization. New York: Brentano’s, 1922. Print.
Vahidnia, Farnaz. “Case Study: Fertility Decline in Iran.” Population
Fleet Sheet Company Case Study essay help: essay help
Abstract This paper is a case study for Fleet Sheet Company (a Czech-based company). The paper highlights the potential challenges of operating the business in a transition economy and the possible strategies for overcoming these challenges. Similarly, through a SWOT analysis, this paper analyses the company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
Through this analysis, this paper proposes the adoption of diversification, joint venture, and product differentiation strategies for overcoming the company’s threats and weaknesses. The transformation of the business from a small enterprise to an international business outlines a key argument for the advancement of these strategies.
Introduction This paper is a case study of Fleet Sheet Company. The company publishes selected business articles for foreign-based companies in the Czech Republic. This case study comprises of four parts that outline four distinct issues facing Fleet Sheet Company.
They include how to overcome the challenges of operating in a transition economy, how to use the company’s key competencies to achieve international business success, the identification of the right strategies for international business, and how to align the business to exploit the benefits of international entrepreneurship. This paper analyses these issues sequentially as outlined below.
Potential difficulties of starting a business in a transition economy Starting a business in a transition economy poses serious challenges to entrepreneurs like Erik Best (Fleet Sheet’s founder). Because Czech Republic was a transition economy, it posed significant challenges to new businesses, such as Fleet Sheet. One such challenge was the lack of entrepreneurial skills among the people (Maciejewski, 2002).
Coming from a background of socialism, many people did not have the experiences of starting, or managing, new businesses in a transition economy. This challenge made it difficult for new entrepreneurs to share ideas with other people who may have similar ambitions. This situation forced entrepreneurs to try new businesses without proper research and support from a business savvy standpoint.
This challenge further spread to the recruitment of new employees because companies like Fleet Sheet lacked skilled human capital (Maciejewski, 2002). Indeed, from the lack of an entrepreneurial spirit in transition economies, entrepreneurs, such as Erik Best, suffer from the lack of skilled employees to run their businesses (Cullen, 2011). Therefore, sometimes, they recruit incompetent employees who may mismanage the business.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Unfortunately, the lack of adequate entrepreneurial skills in a transition economy cannot be resolved in the short-term. Ideally, people need to learn entrepreneurial skills in schools and apply the same skills in the business environment to solve this problem (Maciejewski, 2002). Nonetheless, as a short-term measure, small business owners, like Erik Best, could employ people from other economies to support their business growth (Maciejewski, 2002). This measure could however be costly for such businesses.
The lack of a sophisticated legal system to support small and growing businesses is also another challenge associated with transition economies. Erik highlighted this challenge as one problem facing Fleet Sheet Company (Cullen, 2011). He said government bureaucracy inhibited the company’s potential to distribute its products (Cullen, 2011).
Small businesses can confront this challenge through lobbying to increase government sensitization about the need to have a supportive legislative environment for small businesses (Maciejewski, 2002). Legislators therefore need to understand the importance of having this supportive environment by equally understanding how the lack of a sophisticated legal system prevents the growth of small businesses.
SWOT Analysis This SWOT analysis examines the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the Fleet Sheet Company.
A key strength of the Fleet Sheet Company is its pricing strategy. The company offers an affordable and flexible pricing framework that encompasses all types of customers. As explained in the company’s pricing framework, the company charges $0.5 (minimum) and $4 (maximum) per day for its publications (Cullen, 2011). This pricing strategy means that all types of customers can afford the company’s products.
The provision of quality publications is also a key success factor for Fleet Sheet Company because it differentiates it from its competitors. In fact, the company’s main customers are loyal to the company because of its high quality publications (Cullen, 2011). Coupled with the fact that most of these articles are written in English, Fleet Sheet appeals to a niche market of multinational companies that pay a premium for its products.
Fleet Sheet’s structure as a small company is its greatest weakness. From the lack of a “grand” strategy for growth, there is little room for expanding the company into a big enterprise. This situation stifles the company’s growth.
We will write a custom Case Study on Fleet Sheet Company specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Opportunities
Fleet Sheet’s opportunities exist in the virtual space. Unexplored potential exists in the company’s entry into the technological world. The introduction of a company website was the first step to exploiting this potential (Cullen, 2011).
However, the company could further exploit the same potential by using feedback from the company’s website to improve its products (Aswathappa, 2010). Furthermore, the company could use the website to market the company’s products to new markets. This strategy would improve the efficacy of the company’s marketing strategy (Aswathappa, 2010).
Competition is Fleet Sheet’s main threat. About seven new companies compete with Fleet Sheet by offering similar products (Cullen, 2011). The growth of such competition means that the company’s market share would decline.
The spread of the internet and the availability of alternative information also threaten the company’s sustainability (Cullen, 2011). Particularly, the availability of alternative information (published in English) threatens the company’s product strategy because Fleet Sheet thrives on the fact that it offers translated information to its English-speaking customers.
Three strategic moves for Erik Best to consider Joint Ventures/Mergers
Fleet Sheet should pursue a joint venture, or a merger, strategy to reduce the threat of growing competition (and expand its markets at the same time) (Aswathappa, 2010). Although these strategies may be complex and time-consuming, they would help to reduce competition. For example, a merger with one competitor (preferably the biggest competitor) would reduce the competition in the domestic market and leave little room for other rival companies to succeed (Aswathappa, 2010).
Through this strategy, the company would enjoy economies of scale and make it difficult for its competition to match its dominance (Grubb
Semantics Coursework online essay help: online essay help
Semantics definition Semantics is a literary field that studies meaning of signs, symbols, words, and phrases and how they are used in linguistics. It is a wide field of study which has two main branches: lexical semantics, which focuses on the meaning of words and their relations when used together, and logical semantics, which is concerned with references, sense, implication and presupposition.
Semantic properties refer to the parts of linguistic units that give its elements meaning of words or phrases. The property deals with the other meanings associated with the part, or any ambiguity resulting from the relation of the words in the phrase.
Semantics is essential since it determines how language users acquire a sense of meaning for different linguistic elements. It also determines how users understand the change in language over time, also referred to as semantic shift, and how languages are utilized in any social context. A group of words or a phrase that has been used to refer to the same object or concept is called a semantic field or a semantic domain, and gives meaning to a word in relation to the other phrases used together with the word.
Semantics feature analysis is a teaching technique that uses a grid to determine how a set of objects are related. This technique is the most effective in teaching kids by letting them analyze and complete the grids. This technique also enhances vocabulary and comprehension process in learning and the students are able to learn concepts while making connections.
Denotative meaning of a word is the cognitive or reference meaning that describes the central meaning associated with the word and can also change over time. Connotation is the effect the word has on someone which can either be personal or emotional. It is the basis of approved denotation, that is, a popular connotation is made a denotation that is standard over a given period of time.
The relationship between semantic development and reading and writing skills is centered on the use of words to communicate. Age is a crucial factor that determines the development of reading and writing skills. First, we note that at a young age children first seek to understand before learning to use the words or a language.
The word “Dear” The word “dear” is a noun whose synonym is “precious”. The most important semantic property for this word is the rate at which its connotations surpass its denotation. The word means something that is costly or treasured. Some of its connotation meanings are either girlfriend or boyfriend and its use is especially common for people in a relationship.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Vocabulary instruction Vocabulary instruction is a vital teaching technique that teaches students to read and improve their knowledge. It encompasses comprehension, fluency, word study and phonemic awareness. The understanding of how important vocabulary is to the learning process allows students to be knowledgeable about their background and enable them to have better comprehension in and out of class.
Common core standard tests have relatively detrimental impacts on vocabulary instruction, such as limited knowledge of English due to the limited exposure time provided to students as a result of studying for examinations and no broad understanding of the extensive impact of one’s vocabulary on their comprehension skills. Tests do not encourage students to explore more outside what they learn in class and worse still standard tests do not really consider the challenges of learners with disabilities.
One way of teaching vocabulary directly is by creating a word rich environment using word walls, reading a room, word jars, word books and vocabulary rings. This will enhance the ability of students to learn and retain this knowledge. Games such as boggle, Pictionary and scrabble can also be used to foster independent vocabulary learning due to their easiness to learn and remember yet at the same time they are still fun activities.
Impact of Power on Organizational Culture Research Paper cheap essay help
Introduction Heneman (2007) describes the traditions of a group or organization as the model of shared fundamental statements the grouping acquires as it works out its dilemma of external adjustment and internal dealings, which are good enough to be adapted and entrenched as the blueprint and accepted means of socialization within an organization.
Heneman (2007) also asserts that organizational learning, development, and premeditated change cannot be comprehended devoid of acknowledging culture as the prime cause of opposition to change. If leaders are not conscious of the culture in which they are set in, those cultures will control them. Cultural consideration is not only advantageous, but it is essential for leaders if they are to manage effectively.
Organizational Culture Organizational culture is increasingly growing in popularity and is an enticing element to organizational change. For this reason, managers find a pressing need for methods by which culture and culture change can be systematically and reliably evaluated.
The key ranks by which culture manifests itself is rather basic and looks for demonstrations of underlying theories in regard to an organization’s co-relation to its surroundings, authenticity and accuracy, and the character of people in general.
Tannenbaum and Schmidt Model of Leadership Organizational customs subsist concurrently on three levels; artifacts are at the surface, followed by values and at the nucleus are the fundamental assumptions. Assumptions stand for taken-for-granted viewpoints concerning reality and human character.
Culture thrives through societal interaction, the network of communications that make up a group of people or society. Here, a common language is predominantly important in articulating and signifying a distinct organizational way of life.
Teamwork and Communication Margerison and McCann (1995) define a team as a group of people carrying out work collectively. Success in the work done is achieved if a good team is chosen. In course of executing duty, the individual members of a group that forms a team should have a common goal towards success.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The qualities of a good team are capable, intelligent, communicative individual with a clear understanding of the problem at hand would like to cooperate in order to solve the problem as a team. The team should achieve the intended goal as a team and not as individual members of the team. According to Levy (2005), this is the right path to success.
There is a connection between teamwork and looking for ideas such as problems and conflict solving ideas. These factors are interconnected and dependent on each other and therefore cannot be separated. In this regard, communication and cooperation are common and present everywhere.
Ideas in the teamwork: every member in the team is important. Ideas in the teamwork involve the collection of ideas from the team members in order to achieve the group goal. Ideas can be collected in the team through brainstorming sessions where participants state their ideas as they are noted down.
Teamwork and conflict resolution: teamwork is an effective means of solving conflicts in an organization. The conflict or problem at hand can be subjected to the views of the participants whose solutions to the problem differ. Conflicts are many and may arise from the steps towards achieving of the given a group goal or the members in the team can disagree on the goal itself.
There is no necessity of the team to solve the problems to be performed by a group of individuals. However, the synchronization of individuals, mutual adaptation and co-operation are necessary for solving problems. In addition, the main goal of teamwork is to solve problems. The diversity of the group members means that there are many different opinions concerning the solutions to the problems as the individuals.
In order to arrive at the best solution, the team settles of the optimal solution to the problem at hand (Mohrman et al., 1995). Conflicts regarding the given solution to the problem are important because it enable the team to come up with a better solution. A never-ending circle in the diagram means that whenever the group is trying to solve the problem, other problems come up.
For an optimal solution to be reached, the group should let go the conflicts and arrive at optimal solution to the problem. Solving problems: this involves ideas that can solve a problem. The solution on the problem is obtained from the ideas obtained from the participants. For the success of teamwork, mutual-cooperation and communication among team members is very important.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Impact of Power on Organizational Culture specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For participants to adjust, they need to communicate and cooperate. Without communication and mutual cooperation, teamwork is unsuccessful. The communication used in teamwork can be either verbal or non-verbal. Through teamwork, the management of an organization can establish the goals of the organization regarding specific aspects with the help of teamwork.
Stevens and Campion (1994) add that effective teamwork can be achieved through motivation of the participants. Successful teamwork leads to quality work and better organizational operations with increased success at all levels of the organization (Linden, 2002).
Recognition This is an important part of the success of a team. The team members usually search for recognition. An organization should positively recognize the members of the various teams in the department. Positive recognition entails recognizing outstanding performance, continued performance, and improved performance.
Positive Feedback The results of a team are measured against the feedback received. Therefore, without feedback, the team is unable to measure the results of its efforts. With no feedback, confusion will characterize the activities of a team and make them miss their expectations as they produce so many disappointments.
The growth of a team depends on the frequency of feedback concerning the performance of the team. Feedback should be provided on a regular basis. In addition to the above, there is also the provision of opportunities for employees.
Espoused Values The values an organization upholds can be viewed as its deliberate strategies, aspirations, and philosophies that have intrinsic significance. Organizational groups are glued by evaluative factors entailing social prospects, and standards or the ideals and beliefs that keep people as one.
The leadership strategies adopted by managers in practice tend to lie in between the autocratic and the democratic styles are extremes. The two contingency theorists Schmidt and warren put forward a leadership style that tends to vary along a given continuum.
Depending on the situation at hand hospital management may shift from the autocratic extreme by allowing their respective teams to participate and involve in the decision making process. They can make decisions on issues related to workplace violence even when they are victims. Under this leadership model, the balance between autocracy and democracy is determined forces in the leader, forces in the situation and forces in the follower.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Impact of Power on Organizational Culture by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For example, an employee who is a follower may be affected negatively by aggression at the workplace; the management must take stern measures against the perpetrators to avoid the recurrence of the same within the team. Access to support has been identified as an important strategy for coping with workplace violence.
Management support has a direct or moderating effect on psychological distress that occurs under different circumstances. Despite this noble role, hospital management often fails to provide the needed support to the employees who have fallen victim to workplace aggression.
The managers need to receive comprehensive training directed toward supporting staff in an organization. Such formal organization-wide support may curtail or at least minimize a decrease in the employees perceived professional competence.
The provision of management support to employees who have been victims of aggression will be translated in the form of increased quality of patient care. In most cases, the employees’ managers who may have been victims of aggression in the past may lack the necessary expertise to support and manage employees who suffer occupational violence.
Impact of Power on a Firm’s Culture In one of the few studies conducted in to establish the effect of power on the process of decision making and establishment of a good organizational culture, it was found that participative practices are significant predicators of effective utilization of competence. Power distance affects leadership that in turn affects other aspects of culture in an organization such as sharing of information, making decisions that have far reaching outcomes and satisfaction of employees in their working environment and jobs.
Therefore, these factors should be considered strongly in establishing a strong working culture of any given corporation. Moreover, in another study conducted by Riad (2005), all three components of justice components closely related to power in organizations had an impact on satisfaction. The study analyzed the impact of organizational justice on self assessed performance and job satisfaction of employees in a work environment.
In a 2009 study by Bakhshi, a better working environment, which is a major component of the culture of an organization, was found to be positively related to both job satisfaction and organizational commitment. There is significance in perceived fair treatment as a predictor of the level of job satisfaction for employees.
Moreover, employees place a greater importance on being treated well interpersonally by decision makers than on formal procedures. Riad (2005) further argues that employees in organizations are likely to be less satisfied with unfair perceived outcomes than fair perceived ones and that these issues result in their poor performance.
The level of unfairness is measured by employees on how much they receive as compared to other employees in similar positions in other organizations. Unfairness in workplace results in lack of job satisfaction, lack of commitment of employees to the organization leading to overall poor employee performance.
Impact of Power on an Organization’s Employee Motivation Strategies
Managing employees’ performance is essential in facilitating modern organizations’ effectiveness in business. An effective performance management system therefore should work towards improving the overall performance of corporations. May and Grubbs (2006) noted that this occurs through managing individuals and teams performance to allow the company to attain its business goals/objectives and ambitions.
This is applicable in firms where power distance is small since the management can easily communicate and interact with employees. An efficient performance management system can be established by such management with the system playing these roles:
Ensuring that the staffs/employees understand the significance of their contributions to the company’s objectives and goals
Ensuring all employees understand the company’s expectations from them while also ascertaining whether the staffs access the required support and have the relevant skills in fulfilling the company’s expectations
Ensuring effective linking and aligning of the company’s objectives while also facilitating efficient communication across the company
Facilitating harmonious and cordial relationship between the employees and their line managers on the basis of trust and empowerment
An effective performance management system should have proper planning of the work and setting of expectations, continually monitor the employees’ performance, develop the employees’ capacity to perform, periodically rate the staff performance and reward the good performers (Lanza, Zeiss
Globalization and Its Implications Term Paper college essay help online: college essay help online
Table of Contents Major Themes
Methods of Inquiry
Key Findings and Conclusions
Globalization means a lot to international corporate organizations and governments across the world, particularly when it comes to governance and public administration. The different forms of globalization define the numerous challenges facing corporate organizations and the civil administrative institutions of many countries.
Here, note that globalization plays the role of shaping the current trends in the global economic markets and the increasing interactions among nations and people from different parts of the world. On the other hand, the new forms of interactions among nations imply that the contemporary governments must assume new roles and functions, and thus, globalization impacts governance and public administration in different ways.
Several research studies have examined and documented the implications of globalization on the type of governance being practiced by different governments and international corporate organizations such as the World Bank and the United Nations (Abonyi
Analysis of Love Canal Environmental Disaster Research Paper essay help site:edu
The Love Canal was intended to connect upper and lower Niagara River; the novel 1892 project to harness electrical power production, however failed midway when the economic went into depression.
Eventually, the local municipal bought it as a waste disposal area and high on the client disposal list was Hooker Chemical Corporation, which later sold for $1 it to the Board of Education.
Hooker slightly warned of the dangers of the site absolving itself from any responsibility; failing to mention the dangers were twenty thousand tons of toxic waste. Yet unknowingly, the board of education built a school and people settled in the area, by 1978, it had above 700 homes.
Of interest in regards to the Love Canal, is the blatant disregard of environmental reports by the city even when a study was undertook.
The consultant in their report, found high levels of chemical waste, recommending the drastic changes to the canal to protect residents. In total disregard, the city undertook minor improvements to remedy the situation. ( History of love canal)
Secondly, Community action to protect the environment and themselves from the effect of ignorance of best practices of environmental management practices is a worthy attribute. The establishment of the Love Canal Homeowners’ Association in 1978 was to push for the community’s say in the area’s chemical scandal.
It had far-reaching consequences, which the city did not acknowledge, such as in children birth deformities, and high level of stillbirths and miscarriages in the area. (Gibbs, L. M., 1998)
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More A thought emanating from this topic worth mentioning is the necessity to undertake environmental assessments such as project environmental impact assessment. In Novel Canal, it took more than 40 years experience negative effects of the disposal site. (Brayan, N., 2003)
Research paper Outline Introduction
Research effect of environmental disasters on human reproductive health
Research environmental disasters impact on child birth deformities Does the environment, especially environmental disturbances affect women’s wombs?
Furthermore, what is its effect on childbirth?
Research environmental disasters effect on inherited traits Describe effect of environmental disasters on the human genetic construct.
In cases where an environmental disaster had an impact on successive generations, is it viable to pursue it in court under environmental law.
Research environmental disaster effect on male reproductive health Through use of environmental case studies, can environmental disasters affect male sperm health
Discuss bias in claim child defects are due to effect of environmental disaster on women. Can men join a environmental suit in using this argument.
Research government steps to protect reproductive health. Is the environment considered?
Environmental assessment reconsideration in reproductive health.
Conclusion The research topic undertaken should show a clear relationship between maternal health and the environment.
References Brayan, N., (2003), love canal: pollution crisis (environmental disasters), Gareth Stevens Pub publishers
Gibbs, L. M., (1998). Love Canal: The Story Continues, 20 Anniversary edition, New Society Publishers. History of love canal. Web.
Lessons from love canal project, A Public Health Resource. Web.
Risk Management: Barclays Bank Evaluation Essay essay help online
Table of Contents Introduction
Current Risk Management Process
Risk Monitoring and Control
Risk Management Issues
List of References
Introduction Risk management involves identifying and assessing the risk factors with intention to minimize their impact in the organization. There are risks that can be controlled and those that cannot. The role of a manager will be to develop a strategic plan for the risks both internal and external risks.
Barclays bank is a world leading financial service provider that has its branches in 50 countries worldwide and employs about 147,500 people. The bank deals inn variety of financial products and service ranging from corporate banking to mortgage services. Barclays bank is listed on the London stock exchange as a public company that complies with the UK combined code on corporate governance (Gorrod, 2004).
Barclays bank has a clear risk management strategy whose objective include
Identifying the bank significant risks
Ensure business growth is supported by conclusive risk management structure
Establishing strong and independent review on risk management policies
Enable management and executive group control and coordinating of risk responsibility in the bank
Communicating risk management policies within the bank
The bank group risk management policies have remained unchanged since 2009 when it was last reviewed. The responsibility of risk management in Barclays bank group is mandated to all levels of management within the group starting from the top management and executive committee to each unit managers and risk managers. Barclays bank has a risk oversight committee that is responsible for reviewing and formulating the risk strategy in the organization (Barclays Bank, 2010).
In management of risk, the bank employs several models and approaches in dealing with uncertainty. This models range in their application. They can be used in decisions concerning credit determination, pricing, and portfolio management, risk assessment regulatory capital calculation. This types of strategy covers credit, market, and operational risk (Hallenbeck, 1986).
The bank uses the following models in analyzing risks factors in their operating environment. These models of estimation include probability of default (PD), exposure at default (EAD) and loss given default (LGD).To minimize the risks factors, the bank developed a group model risk policy (GMRP) that is reviewed annually and is managed by the independent group risk function.
The group risk policy minimizes the potential for risk by setting minimum standards for implementation and model development process. The model also sets governance policies concerned with risk management (Horne
Program Evaluation Proposal for Schools in Ontario Evaluation Essay online essay help: online essay help
Learning setting Saint Michael Catholic High School was started in 1989 in Ontario, Canada. It has a capacity of 940 students in total and it shifted to its present location in 2004. Currently, the school provides nearly 170 courses to its students. The courses offered comprise of four key programs in:
Tourism and hospitality
Strategic Goals To stop cyber bullying among the students and the community at large
To promote a positive school climate
To assist in the improvement of academic performance of students
Overview Cyber bullying denotes the self-willed and constant application of computers, mobile phones, or any other electronic communication gadgets to disturb and terrorize others. Some of the methods employed in cyber bullying include Instant messaging, electronic mails, and fake messages on web sites. Information technologies came with challenges to those who rely on them to accomplish their chores (McDavid
An LCA Consultant Faces a Dilemma: Industrial Ecology vs. Soda Can Packaging Options Report (Assessment) college essay help online
Activity Description Being a life-cycle assessment consultant means helping industries provide the population with the goods that are one hundred percent ecologically clean. Therefore, when it comes to the decision on the soda cans packaging options, an LCA consultant’s involvement is crucial. In the case in question, it is necessary to choose the most reasonable and ecologically safe packaging option possible.
Stakeholder and His/Her Motivations As for the stakeholder, the latter is going to be represented by the clientele. In the given case, the target client is Dr. Pepper. Since the company seems to be suffering from a severe competition, according to the recent new (Dr. Pepper Snapple Group, 2012), Dr. Pepper might use a bit of product redesigning to attract more customers.
The Functional Unit Since it is necessary to evaluate the performance of the given product system, i.e., a soda can and its shelf time, it will be most reasonable to consider the volume of a soda can. In the given case, the volume is not restricted; it is important to mention, though, that the bottles over 2 l should be designed in such a way so that carrying them should be easy enough.
Geographical System Boundaries It seems that in the case of developing a soda can design, one does not need to be concerned with any spatial restrictions. Therefore, there should be no restriction concerning the geographical system.
Study’s Temporal Boundaries When developing the design of the beverage bottle, one must consider the shelf life of the soda bottle. In the given context, it is obvious that plastic does not seem as viable as, say, aluminum. However, it is important that plastic, in contrast to the aluminum can, can be re-used as a container for other types of liquid and, therefore, has longer temporal boundaries (Wald, 2012).
Study’s Conceptual Boundaries Since bottles of literally all shapes are recyclable, the key idea at the given point will be to offer the customer a can that will serve its purpose best. Therefore, the traditional bottle shape seems to be the most reasonable design decision. It is essential, however, that the buyer could use and recycle the bottle easily, which would be a problem once a bottle is shaped in an unusual way.
Choosing between a traditional round plastic bottle and a square one, one might consider the latter a better idea, since it is more stable and, therefore, more practical (Noe, 2012).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Activities Object design
This step starts with the search for the companies that will supply raw material (plastic) and ends up with the process of soda can design.
Soda cans are created, marketed and sold to the soda producing companies.
Disposal and recycling
Soda cans are collected by a recycling company and are recycled to produce more soda cans.
Capital goods In the process of soda bottles creation, such capital goods as the required equipment, the trucks to deliver raw materials, as well as the money for the promotion campaign are going to be included.
Major Flows Speaking of flaws, such issues as CO2 emissions, energy and solid waste must be mentioned. In addition, it is important to mention that it takes long for plastic to decompose (U.S. National Park Service, n. d.), which means that, if not recycled, it poses a considerable threat to the environment.
Reference List Dr. Pepper Snapple Group (2012). Web.
Noe, R. (2012). Andrew Kim’s square Coke bottle design. Web.
We will write a custom Assessment on An LCA Consultant Faces a Dilemma: Industrial Ecology vs. Soda Can Packaging Options specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More National Park Service (n. d.). Time it takes for garbage to decompose in the environment. Web.
Wald, W. (2012). Toward a greener soda can. Web.
Russia Joins the World Trade Organization Research Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Why Russia sought membership
Technical obstacles to accession
Political obstacles to accession
Economic obstacles to accession
Benefits of joining the WTO
Costs of joining the WTO
Introduction Russia took 18 years to join the World Trade Organization, yet it had the largest economy outside the institution’s membership. It is imperative to understand why this process took so long in order to clarify whether those obstacles will resurface again among other bidding countries. Additionally, it is necessary to demystify why Russia wanted membership in the first place and why this desire fluctuated from time to time.
Several theorists have come up with their own explanations on why accession dragged through two decades; it is likely that elements of truth exist in each analysis. After accession, one must also anticipate what will happen to the country. Benefits of WTO membership are contingent upon certain qualities. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze Russia’s ability to maximize on this membership, so as to offer suggestions on how the country can improve in the future.
Why Russia sought membership Russia wanted to become a member in the WTO because doing so would give it influence over global economic decisions. The country’s leaders realized that membership would not solve all their problems at one glance. However, the institution would give it a platform for increasing the nation’s global presence. To a certain extent, this intention has some hidden implications. The country would gain from the prestige of being a WTO member as well as apply international norms in trade.
Furthermore, the country was interested in exposing its economy to foreign investment or competition. It knew that the external environment refrained from investing in Russia because of some perceived hindrances, like corruption. The country’s leaders felt that they would eliminate these obstacles through assistance from an international institution like the WTO (Milthorp, 2009).
Russia needed to improve its ability to deal with some of the challenges it encountered when trading with the EU. Prior to the accession, 160 billion Euros worth of oil and gas were exported to the EU. However, matters were not streamlined between these two entities. There were disagreements over energy policies in Russia and its trading EU member countries.
Additionally, difficulties concerning the poor democratic principles in this nation also affected Russia. The latter country reacted by asserting that EU members were interfering in their internal issues. Excessive tensions between Russia and such a key partner necessitated an intervention in the form of WTO. Since 2007, there was not agreement between the two countries as it had been stalled.
EU members awaited Russia’s accession in order to resume talks with them. Therefore, the WTO was perceived as a contributor to improved relations between Russia and its key trading partner. It would assist them in negotiating with such a partner. One should note that a third party was necessary because the EU had frustrated Russia on several occasions.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More In 2004, it persuaded Russia to enter a bilateral agreement in which it would engage in climate change alterations. The EU wanted to pursue its climate change goals but did not offer Russia something substantial in return. Therefore, Russia required a mechanism for holding this partner to account, and the WTO fit the bill.
Technical obstacles to accession One of the reasons why the accession process took almost two decades was the technical difficulty of gaining membership (Asland, 2010). The WTO expects candidates to send their applications first. The global institution then sends this information to all affected member sates for analysis. A country must also hand – in a tariff profile as this allows interested nations to access its status.
Thereafter, bilateral protocols should be negotiated with all the interested/ committee member states. They have a right to ask new questions and seek clarification on unanswered ones from the previous round. After this process, then individuals must come up with an accession package.
For Russia, this process took a relatively long time because interested countries were approximately 50, and some of them had very poor relations with the applicant; Georgia was especially infamous for this. The applicant grew frustrated at these developments as it had the onus to respond to their concerns all the time. Therefore, one can state that Russia took so long to enter the WTO because of the lengthy accession process.
It is too dependent on negotiations among member states that may not always be in the applicants’ good books. In addition to a lengthy accession process, Russia had selected a poorly – experienced team to carry out its negotiations. Things were further complicated by a downgrading of the negotiating team in the 1990s. In the 2000s, some of the political figures that were in charge of the process either left the team or had too many responsibilities to handle.
A case in point was the state deputy to the Prime Minister. He was overwhelmed with other ministerial activities and thus may have undermined the membership bid. Additionally, in 2004, the country used WTO accession as a tool to accommodate a demoted minister of economic development. Therefore, he did not regard his accession duties as his first obligation. Such an attitude undermined the process (Fean, 2012).
Russia had to meet the high threshold that had been set by certain member countries prior to their accession. China had acceded to the WTO after engaging in seamless bilateral talks with most member nations. It had a comprehensive accession deal that would be difficult to match. Additionally, Ukraine had also acceded after accepting bilateral talks with the US.
We will write a custom Research Paper on Russia Joins the World Trade Organization specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Consequently, expectations from members countries concerning what an applicant can concede had risen sharply. This explains why Russia received so many demands from WTO member states. Whenever Russia protested to the demands, it would get the same reference. They were asked to imitate recently acceded countries.
Political obstacles to accession During the application process, the country was marred with a series of political challenges. At the time when the country first made its application, it was changing from a communist regime to a democratic one. President Boris Yeltsin governed the country during a tumultuous period, and this minimized its commitment to WTO membership.
Furthermore, before a country accedes, it must demonstrate that it has the right political environment to support WTO requirements. Russia’s unstable political leadership was unable to do this during the first decade of the bid (Fean, 2012). As mentioned in the above section, Georgia was one of the members in the WTO committee of interested countries.
Georgia regarded this bid as an opportunity to secure its interests. The conflict between Georgia and Russia at its borders was an opportunity for the country to deal with this problem. Before Russia could accede, it has to accept Georgian border crossings inside the Russian territories of Ossetia and Abkazia.
However, Georgia was not willing to concede to Russia’s membership unless it received a guarantee from the WTO that Russia would deal with these border crossings. Switzerland was selected as the mediator between the two entities in 2011. It was only after this assurance that Georgia accepted the deal.
Russia also had intentions of using the accession to further its Eurasian ambitions. Two years before its accession, the country announced that it would form a customs union with Belarus and Kazakhstan. The country’s president – Putin – claimed that the only way it would enter the WTO would be through this customs union. The WTO objected to such an approach because Belarus and Kazakhstan were not at the same level of preparedness as Russia.
Furthermore, it had never accepted a trading bloc as one applicant into the institution. Tariff agreements between members of the small trading bloc contradicted tariff limits set by the WTO, and Russia had to privilege the latter’s requirements over the former’s. In fact, these varied demands on Russia’s part made many analysts question the state’s commitment to WTO membership.
Negotiators’ activities were often tempered by utterances made by senior officials. If an official spoke about the difficulties in meeting certain trade agreements, then the negotiators would take this as a cue to refrain from pursuing the matter. Therefore, the inconsistent utterances made by government officials undermined the negotiation process.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Russia Joins the World Trade Organization by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More If a common strategy for the Russian government existed, then chances are that the process would have taken a shorter time (Asland, 2010). The country’s President prior to the accession also had a profound influence on the country’s lengthy bid. He developed a skeptical attitude towards the WTO, and this influenced the speed with which they negotiated the application.
President Putin felt that the international community already imposed several concessions on the Russian people, so he did not see the point of joining the WTO. His assertions illustrated that the President did not treat membership as an avenue for trade liberalization, but he saw it as an opportunity to protect the country against concessions. Such attitudes dramatically hampered the membership bid.
The President’s words would have been of little consequence if the country’s population lobbied for accession. Locals did not care about the accession so they did not prompt their leaders to alter their attitude towards the process. Another issue that may have delayed the accession process was the relationship between Russia and the US. These countries had poor relations especially during Preside Bush’s tenure.
The Bush-Iraq invasion in 2003 and its intentions for enlargement of NATO were a source of disagreement between the two countries. Russia felt that US wanted to pursue unilateral goals while the US continued to distrust Russia on its ammunition strategies. The US claimed that Russia supported its rivals in the Middle East, such as Iran. In supporting their armament processes.
Therefore, the rivalry between these two nations was in need of some serious intervention from either party. In 2009, President Obama participated in a reset agreement between the two countries. Washington wanted to trade with a partner that utilized rules in its economic transactions. Therefore, this was one of the agreements in the reset.
The US pushed for Russia’s WTO membership because this would be a dependable way of ensuring that the key reset goals were achieved (Milthorp, 2009). Several countries made demands concerning economic agreements. The US was top on the list especially with regard to intellectual property. The latter country lost approximately 6.5 billion dollars worth of intellectual property over a five year period because of Russia’s efforts.
Prior to accession, the US required Russia to implement these changes before it could participate in a bilateral agreement. In response to the challenge, Russia could not merely hope to deal with the problem through minor steps; it needed a radical shift from its prevailing policies. Russia responded to those demands by creating a government commission that would deal with piracy syndicates.
It also passed new laws in order to punish wrongdoers. As a result, the country dealt with the problem, albeit partially. These demands on intellectual property prolonged the accession process and thus contributed to such an excessive delay.
Economic obstacles to accession Some of the economic policies and structures in Russia were simply incompatible with WTO terms. Certain geographical locations in the country were entirely dependent on one industry; a typical case is the automotive industry. Trying to change these patterns not only requires a lot of commitment from the government and a strong resolve to change the status quo (Fean, 2012).
WTO had to negotiate with Russia the amount of time it would take to eliminate uncompetitive components in these industries. Russia wanted a seventeen – year traction, yet the WTO could only allow seven, on condition that the country involved was underdeveloped. Russia went back and forth with this issue thus explaining why it took so long to change.
Russia’s main export item is oil, and this product has no tariffs. Therefore, many influential members of the country did not see the usefulness of WTO membership. They felt that other states, other than Russia, would benefit more from its accession. The development explains why the country kept making progress and reneging on earlier commitments.
Their inconsistencies during negotiation stemmed from their uncertainty about the benefits of WTO membership (Asland, 2010). One of the reasons why the country backtracked was the haphazard performance of its economy. In certain circumstances, global oil prices would go up, and this would enhance the confidence that the Russians had in their economy. At the time, they believed that they did not need the WTO.
It was only until these patterns changed again in 2009 that they realized how useful the trade organization would be to them. The global financial crisis led to decreases in oil prices and the need to establish economic modernization tactics for the country. Protectionism is also another reason why the accession process took longer than it should have.
Key stakeholders and analysts felt that a number of industries in Russia were still at their infancy. Consequently, they needed government intervention to stay profitable. The truth behind these assertions was placed into question after a number of analysts pointed out the excessive length of time that these industries (metal, aluminum and aviation) had claimed to be in their infancy.
Whether or not stakeholders were right in resisting concessions is irrelevant. What matters is that their beliefs in these ideas were sufficient enough to slow their accession process. Some economic policies were seen as incompatible with trade liberalism. These may have made it difficult for both sides of the negotiation to envision Russia’s commitment to the deal.
One such instance was demonstrated when the country imposed limits on gas and oil trade partners. Additionally, Russia was in an aggressive trade war with Belarus and Georgia; therefore, these countries imposed limits on the amount of timber that could enter their country from Russia. Such tactics illustrated that much had to be achieved in terms of meeting WTO’s criteria.
It is likely that Russia may have been wary of these changes. Additionally, it took too much effort to deal with the requirements at the time. Russia was also confident about its numerous sources of wealth. Manufacturing companies span across various sectors of the economy. Consequently, the country did not feel pressured to make radical reforms within its economic sector.
The negotiators may also have been concerned about meeting the needs of the country’s major industrial leaders. Merging all their concerns with WTO requirements was difficult thus explaining why the accession process took so long (Milthorp, 2009).
Benefits of joining the WTO Russia will be expected to fulfill certain obligations to the WTO. If the country implements them, then it may report an increase in GDP of 3.3% in the near term. In the long term, the country’s gross national product may increase by as much as 11%. Therefore, Russian leaders should think of these long term measures rather than threat the concessions as a price to pay for WTO membership.
These benefits will stem from a series of avenues. First, tariff reduction in a number of export-oriented industries will increase access to international markets. Metallic industries are likely to gain substantially from this membership. Other export-oriented industries like chemicals are also likely to enjoy these concessions. The metallic industries needed these interventions because whenever they would transport their commodities to different countries, they would experience export discrimination.
It is likely that players in this industry will reap the greatest reward for their efforts (Fean, 2012). Besides tariff reduction, WTO membership will liberalize trade by exposing the Russian economy to foreign investment. These benefits are likely to spread into different sectors of the economy at a high rate. Investors often appreciate climates in which trade policies are predictable.
WTO membership will assist Russia to achieve this status, and thus encourage several investors to try out the country as an investment destination. Russia is in urgent need of a modernization program as the economic crises of 1998 and 1990 proved that the systems inherent in Russia needed revamping. If the economic conditions were left unaltered then the country’s ability to survive in future circumstances can be put into questions.
In the past, Russia had to contend with impediments to trade among its trading partners. However, membership will give the country the ability to negotiate and challenge these restrictions. Dispute resolution has always been difficult for the organization because it was on its own. Now Russia can utilize the WTO as a mediator that would secure it more favorable deals.
Membership will contribute towards a stronger multilateral trading system, especially between Russia and its key trading partner – the EU. The region will be confident about doing business with Russia because international trade norms are likely to prevail in the country. The country has a number of opaque industries that need to be shaken up. The WTO will be the tool needed to do so; a case in point is the telecom industry as well as banking.
Monopolistic tendencies and unfair training policies have hampered growth in these sectors for so long. After the WTO, the country will probably benefit from greater transparency and thus more competitiveness. Aside from transparency in these sectors, entry of foreign investors will also increase demand for skilled workers in Russia.
Many households could do with greater expansion of their traditional industries, and WTO membership could be the means with which the country can achieve this. Corruption has a been a difficult thing to tackle for Russia; an external entity may be the solution towards this problem.
The country could also benefit from the prestige that stems from belonging to such an institution. This will also illustrate that the country is capable of joining the OECD. In fact, President Putin affirmed that the OECD would be the ultimate target as it would demonstrate Russia’s status as a rich country. Foreign investors would respect the country simply because of belonging to such an entity.
WTO membership is also likely to affect the country’s foreign relations. While the political will was questionable during the negotiation process, membership status will demonstrate to others partners that Russia is willing to cooperate with them. Since this was a lengthy process, Russia will take pride in the process and will be more confident bout its capacity to negotiate such deals in international relations.
Costs of joining the WTO Accession into the World Trade Organization will not come without a price. The country will have to contend with certain transitional challenges. For instance, an increase in foreign investment may increase the level of competition with local goods. This would probably be extreme in industries that had traditionally gained from quotas and other form of protectionism.
Typical cases here include the aluminum industry as well as the automobile sector. Additionally, it may trigger unemployment among locals, which could cause mild unrest. Unless the country equips its individuals with the necessary skills needed to enter into new industries or compete with foreigners, then it could encounter many difficulties in the short term.
Russia’s legal systems are weak, yet implementation of WTO obligations highly depends on the strength of its legal institutions. Therefore, the country will have to work on its legal systems in order to ascertain that the rule of law prevails in the country. Russia will not benefit from full WTO membership if it does not correct this challenge.
Trade partners could be very frustrated if Russia does not rise to the occasion because the WTO’s capacity to resolve disputes is limited. Disgruntled partners have to go through a tedious process that does not even guarantee them favorable outcomes. In essence, if Russia does not take its international commitments seriously, then chances are that it will not realize the gains of WTO membership (Fean, 2012).
It should be noted that the President who spearheaded the final agreements prior to accession was President Medvedvev. While the previous President – Putin – was ambivalent about the WTO’s usefulness to Russia, Medvedev was certain about its benefits. He was deeply committed to completing these negotiations.
It was under his leadership that the country entered into bilateral agreements with all the member states (Georgia was exempted). President Putin came back into office in 2011 and he was responsible for the final paperwork. Therefore, one may question Putin’s commitment to implementation of WTO agreements during his tenure in office.
Most of Russia’s economy depends on the raw material exports. The WTO mostly protects the manufacturing sector. There is a danger of expecting too much from this process because raw materials are exempt from these benefits. Some countries have often criticized the Russian government and its political structures. They claim that Russia does not listen to the will of its people and it often undermines their freedoms.
However, many Russian citizens were willing to trade off these freedoms for stability and growth. Therefore, it seems their main priority was economic strength rather than political development. With accession into the WTO, the country may have to make political changes which could create a certain level of instability. This could undermine the social pact in which Russians are operating thus leading to a level of unrest.
After accession Russia needs to demonstrate its commitment to the WTO by making the required changes. Failure to do so could prove that the country is not really interested in pursuing the liberal agenda. This could lead to disillusionment among the international community and Russia as well. It should be noted that failure to comply with the WTO has occurred in the past.
Post accession environments can be sources of turmoil if governments are not aggressive about implementation. A case in point was China just after it had acceded. Many of the stakeholders who intended on partnering with the country felt disillusioned about the country’s membership. This prevented a number of them from engaging with China. To avoid such a scenario, Russia will have to act quickly and in accordance with WTO norms.
Nonetheless, China responded accordingly later on by closing small shops and allowing big firms to prosper; the country has a lot to show for these changes today (Milthorp, 2009). With several alterations in the economic environment, it is likely that Russia will diversify its economy. It will reindustrialize and focus on adding value to its products. Furthermore, this is likely to translate into a stable economy.
Overreliance on oil and gas may explain why Russia’s economy kept fluctuating from time to time. It will be necessary to look for more dependable sources of income for the country. Global oil prices may increase but this may not affect Russia substantially if it will have a diversified economy, the WTO will help the country to achieve this.
Conclusion The ascension of Russia into the WTO was an illustration of how negotiations can stall when too many variables are involved. In this case, economic challenges like protectionism and tariff benefits, foreign relations challenges like armed conflict between Russia and Georgia as well as political challenges like idealistic leadership and unstable governments contributed to the lengthiness of the negotiation.
Russia probably felt that it had invested too much time and resources to abandon the deal. Its persistence was indicative of the perceived benefits that would emerge from the project. Membership in the WTO is likely to increase competitiveness as well as economic sustainability. Although some critics oppose the number of tradeoffs and sacrifices that Russia will have to make, most of them do not look at the big picture. The country had the option of protecting its uncompetitive industries and undermining economic growth.
Alternatively, it could join the WTO and make some short-term adjustments which can eventually translate into expansion of its economy. This country had the choice between protection in a small economy or exposure in a large territory. The latter is a more sustainable approach for development.
References Asland, A. (2010). Why doesn’t Russia join the WTO? Washington Quarterly, 51.
Fean, D. (2012). Decoding Russia’s WTO accession. Retrieved from
Milthorp, P. (2009). WTO accessions: The story so far. The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 4(3), 108-109
Bigelow Aerospace: International Business Case Study college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
The business issues facing Bigelow Aerospace
Introduction Bigelow Aerospace is a space technology company based in North Las Vegas. The company is pioneering the development of expandable space vessels. The company was founded in 1998, by Robert Bigelow – and operations are funded, largely by the Budget Suites Hotel of America, which is owned by Bigelow (Bigelow, 2011). As of 2010, the founder had injected USD 180 million into the project.
The founder, together with his staffs, is working towards the development of configurable, flexible space habitats. This paper explores the business issues facing Bigelow Aerospace in different areas: tariffs, exchange rates, quotas, local laws and customs, marketing, and copyrights. The paper also presents possible solutions to the issues identified (Bigelow, 2011).
The business issues facing Bigelow Aerospace According to Anonymous (2011), EIAST (Emirates Institution for Advanced Science and Technology) has partnered with Bigelow Aerospace to develop a future-looking human spaceflight initiative for the Middle East. EIAST is the organization that initiated the DubaiSat project. The two partners plan to establish the project in Dubai and the UAE, bringing into existence research and development institution (Anonymous, 2011, p. 1-3).
The center will present the potential of exploring business, space-related projects and advanced biotechnology. The deal between the two institutions is part of the UAE’s strategy, towards reinforcing space capacity, through working on the DubaiSat project as using projects like DubaiSat-1 (Anonymous, 2011). The New programs are expected to enhance business applications across the region (M. Gold, personal interview, June 2009).
The director general of EIAST, Mansoori informed Satellite Today that plans of installing other satellites were in waiting. He said that the EIAST anticipated initiating DubaiSat-2 in 2012, which would be followed by the launch of DubaiSat-3 (Anonymous, 2011).
Among the business issues facing Bigelow Aerospace is the issue of taxation due to business across the US national borders. In the particular case of a partnership with the EIAST, with the plans of launching operations in the UAE and Dubai, they face the issue of the application of tax treaties, in their current case, where it is not clear whether the partnership is allowed to enjoy treaty benefits (Seevers, 2002).
The business issue gets deeper as the states involved are different, in the tax treatment of partnerships. For instance, a classification conflict is likely to face the partnership, which may result in double non-taxation or double taxation (Rhoades, 2008). There is also an issue of the application of tax treaties in the context of the business between Bigelow Aerospace and EIAST (Seevers, 2002).
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The business issues to be explored during and after the progress of the project include the tax regimes to be applied to the partnership, whether the projects can be taxed on the basis of the domestic laws of the US, and rules to be applied by the UAE and America – when classifying foreign and domestic organizations for taxation purposes. There is also an issue of the application of tax treaties to the international partnership (Seevers, 2002).
A possible solution to the taxation issue facing the business of Bigelow Aerospace, while executing partnerships with EIAST of the UAE, includes that proposed by Latham
Methodological Relationalism as Dialectical Psychology: Article Evaluation and Analysis essay help free
There are many ways to draw the line between order and chaos. By far the simplest one, however, would be to imagine that the links between all objects and phenomena are removed. What one will get will be chaos (Hayles, 1991). The truth of the matter is that every single object or phenomenon in the objective reality is somehow connected to several other objects or phenomena, whether directly or with the help of a specific mediator.
Offering the theoretical foil for the given idea, methodological relationalism helps define the place that a specific object or phenomenon takes in the universe. In his article Interpersonal relationships and relationship dominance: An analysis based on methodological relationalism.
Ho attempts at proving that Asian psychology in general and methodological relationalism, in particular, is based on the study of people’s common social behavior patterns rather than on the analysis of the behavioral patterns of the Asian society. Though the author also refers to cultural contrasts, the focus of the study is the analysis of social interactions within any cultural context.
Ho also offers a unique construction of methodological relationalism. Ho means to “explicate methodological relationalism as a general framework for the analysis of human thought and action, informed by Asian views reflecting the omnipresence of self-other relations in all social life” (Ho, 1998, 3).
Therefore, Ho restricts the possibilities of methodological relationalism to outlining the key factors that enhance people’s behavior, contribute to the development of specific behavioral patterns and influence the mechanisms of the decision-making process in people’s lives.
However, the deciding point at which one can see clearly that Ho’s interpretation of the meaning and purpose of methodological relationalism is authentic comes when the author announces that he uses the given theoretical foil for analyzing interpersonal relationships (Ho, 1998, 3-4).
According to Ho, the theory of methodological relationalism is also applicable in a multicultural context: “Next, cultural contrasts are explored, with reference to:
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More the formation of relationships,
cultural roots of how interpersonal relationships are defined in myths and legends, and
the dominance of specific relationships in different cultures” (Ho, 1998, 4).
Also, Ho offers an interesting idea concerning the dominance of specific relationships in different cultures. According to Ho, “Cultural definition plays a role in governing not only the formation but also the termination of relationships” (Ho, 1998, 9).
The means mentioned above that the ways of conduct that are established traditionally in a specific country define the patterns of behavior of the members of the given society and, therefore, presuppose that specific relationships between its members are encouraged.
Ho’s research, therefore, is hardly groundbreaking, yet it offers an interesting perspective on people’s behavioral patterns. Also, it is essential to stress that Ho manages to overcome such obstacles as the Asian cultural staples, proving that the Asian philosophy provides universal postulates that solve the mysteries of human nature and the human condition.
With the help of methodological relationalism, one is able to cognize the ways in which people behave and develop, since the given teaching helps understand the role of an individual within a specific society, evaluate the significance of social relationships and use “the methodology employed to study the phenomenon or its conceptualization”, as Ho defines it (Ho, 1998, 3), efficiently.
Reference List Hayles, N. K. (1991). Chaos and order: Complex dynamics in literature and science. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Ho, D. Y. F. (1998). Interpersonal relationships and relationship dominance: An analysis based on methodological relationalism. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 1(1), 1-16.
Strategy as Ecology Essay essay help: essay help
The successful creation of a product depends on quite a number of factors such as the company’s collective health. Organizations have a special role in the business ecosystem and should enlighten its stakeholders on issues regarding the ecosystem. The use of stand-alone strategies is no longer suitable for companies that have an intention of improving their production and delivery systems.
Business ecosystems are very critical in the day to day running of organizations. Companies that have enjoyed considerable success such as Microsoft and Wal-Mart employ aggressive strategies that enhance the success their business ecosystems. A business ecosystem is a network of different companies ranging from suppliers, outsourcing firms, distributers, product manufacturers and technology providers.
All the components of a business ecosystem have a special contribution towards the success of an organization. The internal capabilities of a company can only be enhanced with a healthy business ecosystem. The sharing of real-time information among different members of a business ecosystem enhances its performance and at the same time making organizations to be very competitive.
The symbiotic relationship between different members of a business ecosystem brings customer satisfaction. Companies that have a working relationship with market leaders such as Microsoft and Wal-Mart benefit from the creativity and innovation within the industry. Some companies establish business networks beyond their respective industries o promote a healthy business ecosystem.
The concept of business ecosystems has become very popular in modern business due to the success that companies like Microsoft and Wal-Mart continue to enjoy. Many organizations are not well informed about the concept of business ecosystems and this has led to the mismanagement of ecosystems. The health of a company’s business ecosystem should be assessed on regular basis using the recommended framework.
There are lot of companies involved in the manufacturing and distribution of a single product such as a personal computer. All the companies involved in the manufacturing and distribution of a product form a business ecosystem. A complex eco-system can also be subdivided into different segments known as business domains.
The domains should be healthy for the entire ecosystem to deliver the desired results. There are a lot of similarities between a business ecosystem and a biological ecosystem especially when it comes to assessment. The health of an ecosystem depends on its productivity, robustness and niche creation. The transformation of inputs such as raw materials and technology into quality products at a lower cost demonstrates the productivity of a particular company.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The productivity of a company can be used to determine how healthy a business ecosystem is. The returns from a capital investment reflect the effectiveness of a business ecosystem. The ability of a business to survive all kinds of disruptions is another indicator of the state of an ecosystem’s health. The disruptions may be brought about by unexpected technological changes or other external shocks.
Companies should be able to create new business niches to demonstrate diversity. Diversity is another perfect indicator of a healthy business ecosystem. The biological ecosystem is therefore a very useful analogy when it comes to modern business networks. Companies that have common assets which are predictable and stable enjoy healthy ecosystems.
Organizations with stable systems and assets are referred as keystone organizations. Keystone organizations are very important especially when it comes to introducing robustness in a business ecosystem. The keystone strategy is meant to create and share value among other organizations within a business ecosystem. The aims and objectives of an organization determine the ecosystem strategy of a company.
Keystone strategies are very useful when a company is involved in complex interrelationships with other companies. A company can benefit a lot from business ecosystems by extracting some maximum value form the assets within the network. The ecosystem strategy is not a must for companies that operate independently. Flexibility and innovation are some of the benefits that companies with effective keystone strategies continue to enjoy.
Some keystone organizations may want to dominate an ecosystem because of their powerful position within the system. The domination of a business ecosystem by keystone organizations can either be direct or indirect. Physical domination takes a direct form whereas the value domination takes an indirect form.
The niche strategies are very useful when it comes to differentiating a company from others within the same business ecosystem. Companies tend to leverage their niche as a way of enhancing their domain. Leveraging a company niche within a business ecosystem protects smaller firms from staying in the shadow of keystone organizations.
The ecosystem strategy clearly highlights the need for companies to work together. Business managers have to consider a business ecosystem strategy when it comes to product design and policy implementation. Business ecology enables companies to access resources from other companies within the ecosystem. Integration is a new form of innovation that promotes business operations within a business ecosystem.
We will write a custom Essay on Strategy as Ecology specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Technological evolution is a product of innovation across the different domains of a business ecosystem. Business competition has shifted from individual companies to between ecosystems and the trend is expected to remain the same in the future.
The Renault Nissan Alliance Negotiations Case Study custom essay help
Negotiations are part of our daily activities. In commerce, effective negotiations are the pillars of all successful businesses (Fowler 3). Companies who adopt effective negotiation strategies can be able to generate assessable business values for themselves and for their clients. Unlike in the past, negotiations have become very important to every business organization.
This has been brought about by deals becoming more complex, more professional buyers joining the marketplace, competitive behaviors in the market, and increase in internal negotiations within companies. Business experts classify negotiations into several types based on critical variables such as time, conflicts, and participants (Sparks 12).
In this regard, this case study seeks to analyze the Renault-Nissan alliance negotiations. Through this, this paper will bring into light the negotiation strategies that enabled these companies to reach a winning coalition despite the mutual challenges that faced the two companies.
Prior the year 1999, Renault and Nissan companies were faced with numerous fiscal challenges that threatened their future business successes. As such, Nissan was virtually insolvent in the year 1999. From the year 1990, the automobile company had progressively lost its money and market share.
By the year 1998, its automobile production had decreased by 600, 000 units. On the other hand, Renault was slowly regaining its production and market share after a devastating loss of $ 680 million in the year 1996. Equally, before the alliance Renault was still trying to come into terms with their much-publicized alliance with Volvo that failed to materialize.
In the year 1999, the two companies initiated approaches towards an alliance. Several meetings were later held to assess the prospects of their alliances. Notably, the media and the business experts have applauded Renault’s approaches during the negotiations for their unique negotiation strategies.
As such, the Renault negotiating team applied the six steps needed to reach the target and a winning coalition as described by Lax and Sebenius in their article A Guide To Complex Negotiations Published in the year 2012.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More According to the Lax and Sebenius, a successful alliance can be achieved by identifying the right parties and grouping them into fronts, assessing inter-dependencies among fronts, determining whether and when to combine fronts, determining how much information to share and when, and being ready to learn and adapt to changing situations.
In the year 1998, Renault’s executive Schweitzer wrote to Nissan’s executive informing him of his strategic plan to form an alliance with Nissan. Schweitzer’s initiatives were against the bankers and investors’ wishes. After identifying the barriers that existed between their companies, Schweitzer was determined to convince all the parties involved of the importance of their alliance.
To carry out its initiatives, Renault had to get the approval from the government, their employees and the shareholders. The French government helped the company overcome most of its regulatory roles since they had power over board decisions. Equally, for successful negotiations Renault had to convince Nissan’s stakeholders, which included the Japanese government, labor unions, and investors.
These investors were Fuji Bank, Fuyo, and Industrial Bank of Japan. Renault was able to convince these parties with the help of Japanese government officials from the ministries of business, international trade, finance, and fair trade. By assessing the inter-dependencies among Nissans shareholders, Renault was able to determine how they affect one another (Lax
Multinational Strategies, Structures, and Learning of Pearl River Piano Analytical Essay essay help free
Table of Contents Executive summary
Analysis of the problem
Alternatives and criteria selection
Executive summary The case study is of Pearl River Piano, a company, based in China. The company is seeking to enter into US market. The move is steered by the desire or the company’s CEO to improve quality of the company’s product and secure a Global market. The company’s CEO, Mr. Tong is convinced that the company’s big goal is achievable only if the company secures US market.
Since the US market is mature and piano brands in it are of high quality, the company senses the possibility of failing to achieving its major goal. The company made some efforts to enter the market to no avail. There exist various alternatives for foreign market entry.
Among them are strategic alliance, assembling, joint venture, licensing and contract manufacturing. It is recommended for the company to use strategic alliance to make the entry. The experts say that considering the company’s financial position and US market perception of products from China, strategic alliance is the best way.
Background Pearl Rivers Piano Group (PRPG) was established in 1956, in the southern city of Guangzhou. It emerged from a state owned enterprise with less than 100 employees. During that time, the company recorded low yearly production units of 13 pianos. The company’s production process involved the use of manual skills (Anne
Methods of Environmental Assessment college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Table of Contents Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment Tool
Flash Environmental Assessment Tool (FEAT)
Differences in Methodologies
Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment Tool – This method of environmental assessment was designed to help local councils as well as various organizations to create a preliminary assessment and environmental screening of a proposed project or activity in order to determine whether it has a negative, neutral or positive environmental impact (Schianetz et al., 2007).
Leopold Matrix -Similar to the Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment Tool, the Leopold matrix is similarly utilized to measure the impact of a project on the environment (Safont et al., 2012). What differentiates the Leopold Matrix from other methods of environmental assessment is the way in which it utilizes measures of importance (i.e. from a measure of 1 to 10) to magnitude (i.e. from -10 to 10) in order to determine the overall impact of a particular activity (Safont et al., 2012).
Fuzzy logic – Often utilizing quantitative data as a means of assessment, Fuzzy logic can be considered a means of processing data so as to extend classical set theory to the extent that it can handle partial membership. In other words, fuzzy logic is used as a means of clarifying concepts related to “safety”, “health” and “acceptable” to the extent that it can be clearly understood based on quantitative analysis of data sets involving appropriate measures that deal with such abstract concepts (Ridgway, 2005).
It should be noted though that due to the complications involved in fuzzy logic applications and methods of utilization, it is rarely utilized in risk assessment or environmental policy due to the presence of better tools of assessment (Ridgway, 2005).
Flash Environmental Assessment Tool (FEAT) While not utilized on a daily basis, the Flash Environmental Assessment Tool is one the best methods of assessing any existing or potential environmental impact risks that can be considered as a “significant” risk to locals and the environment through the release of unnatural or exotic chemical compounds into the surrounding environment (Saeed et al., 2012).
FEAT is normally seen in use when a tanker ship, a truck or other vehicle has accidentally let loose its shipment of chemicals. During such incidents, it is important to determine the level of danger involved so that proper cleanup procedures can be implemented (Saeed et al., 2012).
Differences in Methodologies The Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment Tool utilizes 14 potential environmental factors in a checklist format as a means of assessing the impact of a particular project or activity (Chang et al., 2013). Utilizing a color code scheme, it is able to determine whether an activity would be positive for the environment or not.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More The Leopold Matrix on the other hand utilizes a set of columns which show the various activities of a project with each being measured on a scale of -10 to 10 as to whether or not they are good or bad for the environment (Chang et al., 2013). Fuzzy logic assessment differs from the previous examples in that it utilizes a theoretical framework in order to utilize imprecise and uncertain factors in a way that generates an output that is logical.
Examples of this can consist of determining how the amount of trees cut on a daily basis impacts the amount of carbon dioxide in the hair which can adversely affect people and the environment. FEAT on the other hand utilizes a large array of information on compounds and their impact on local environments in order to create its method of assessment.
Similarities Differences Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment Tool Both utilize a ranking system to create an environmental assessment Utilizes a 14 point check list to assess the environmental impact of projects Leopold Matrix Examines individual activities on their potential environmental impact Fuzzy logic Utilizes statistical data on imprecise factors to create a conclusion Flash Environmental Assessment Tool (FEAT) Utilizes prior scientific information on chemicals to conduct an analysis Reference List Chang, T., Nielsen, E., Auberle, W.,
The Sexualization and Objectification of Young Female Musicians in Print Ads Research Paper best college essay help
Table of Contents Introduction
Young Female Musicians and Society
Negative Effects of Objectification/Sexualization
Arguments Favoring Sexualization
Discussion and Conclusion
Introduction Sexualization and objectification of women in the mass media has been a common practice by majority of the media outlets in the Western world. This practice has been fueled by the perception that sex sells. Sexualizing images have therefore become prevalent in corporate advertising and popular media. A significant industry that has capitalized on sexualization and objectification of women is the music industry.
The phenomenon has spilled over to the print advertisement where young female musicians have their images displayed. A report by the American Psychological Association (2007) asserts that the sexualization and objectification of girls through mass media has broad and far-reaching harmful effects on women. This paper will discuss the effects of sexualization and objectification of young female musicians by the print media.
It will begin by highlighting the influence that young musicians have on the society to underscore the impact of their sexualization. The paper will then expound on the numerous negative effects of this objectification by the print media.
Young Female Musicians and Society Young female musicians have significant influence on American youth of all ethnic and racial heritages. Artists especially in the hip-hop genre have influenced the youth who make up the bulk of this genre’s audience and customer base. Studies reveal that popular culture in general and hip-hop culture in particular heavily influences teenagers and informs how they make sense of their lives and the world in general (Emerson, 2002).
The society is therefore likely to view the female musicians as role models, and copy some aspects of their lives including fashion. For their part, young female performers are required to live up to the prevalent notions of physical attractiveness and measure up to the rigid standards of beauty; a fact made clear by the lack of variety in body size and weight by the many female music stars currently enjoying widespread success.
The musicians who try to define themselves differently often face opposition and their commercial success may be hampered. This is in line with findings by Gordon (2008) which declare that young female artists who refuse to be defined by their sexuality and try to project a positive sense of self often risk alienation and marketing invisibility.
Negative Effects of Objectification/Sexualization The objectification of young female musicians in advertisements has led to higher levels of body dissatisfaction and lower self-esteem and body esteem by women in the general public. Lavin and Cash (2000) suggest that this objectification of female musicians negatively influences how women feel about their bodies. Objectification of female musicians leads to self-objectification by women in the general population.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Calogero (2004) declares, “All women who live in a culture where the female body is treated as an object to be evaluated and measured are at risk of self-objectification (p.20). Women have come to expect that their bodies are constantly on display, and this anticipation of being the object of an observer’s gaze trigger the negative consequences associated with self-objectification.
This self-objectification is developed as an adaptive strategy by women who anticipate being focused upon by men and judged based on their appearances. Women therefore grow to be over conscious of their physical appearance even when no one is looking at them. Research by Calogero (2004) states that when women are conditioned to anticipate a male gaze, they experience greater body shame and social physique anxiety.
This causes negative emotional experiences that are detrimental to the mental health of the women. Sexualization of young musicians in print ads helps perpetuate the stereotypes of women. Sexualization of young musicians in the print media distorts the ideologies of women’s sexuality by reinforcing the stereotype of women as sex objects.
Aubrey, Hopper and Mbure (2011) argue that the images portrayed are often constructed around the “pornographic imagination” in which women are simply sex symbols existing primarily for the pleasure of male spectators. This is especially the case with Black women representations that exacerbate the exploitation of the African American woman’s body.
Research by Emerson (2002) demonstrates that video and print appearances of African American music stars emphasized on black women’s bodies. Black women are often presented as hypersexual, promiscuous and of low moral standings. Young female musicians are used to portray the idealized body shape that is tubular and thin.
In the context of the print advertisements, these famous girls are used to promote the idea that the ideal body shape is tubular and thin and that achieving it is relatively easy. Monro (2005) demonstrates that in most of these advertisements, the images portrayed have been heavily edited and refined with computer software.
This leads to significant body dissatisfaction especially among adolescent girls who read magazines that contain these advertizing images. Studies demonstrate that after viewing magazine where thin ideal media images were portrayed, the subjects experienced greater body dissatisfaction (Monro, 2005; Cattarin, et al., 2000).
We will write a custom Research Paper on The Sexualization and Objectification of Young Female Musicians in Print Ads specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The media has significant effect on the attitudes and beliefs of its audience. The Cultivation theory suggests that regular media exposure will result in an adoption of beliefs and attitudes similar to the messages conveyed in the media (Gordon, 2008). Regular exposure to the sexualized and objectified young musicians in print ads will therefore lead to the gradual adoption of the values that such messages convey.
Teenagers and youth are particularly prone to these media influence due to their significantly high levels of media material consumption. Sexualization has also served to inform women on what it takes to be successful (Labennett, 2011). The female musicians represented in advertisements are often beautiful and they are judged and evaluated primarily based on their looks.
Gordon (2008) states that such a portrayal leads women to hold the view that physical beauty is an important asset both for attracting partners and for being successful in life. Sexual images are not only dangerous to the youth but also to children aged between six and eleven. Sexualization of young female musicians in print media is hazardous to young children.
Egan and Hawkes (2008) demonstrate that when these children are exposed to the images of their pop stars, they become unduly concerned with activities such as applying makeup and imitating the dressing of their favorite musicians. Such preoccupations distract the children from the developmentally appropriate activities that they would otherwise be engaging in at their age.
Children are pressured to adopt a certain look that is deemed desirable. Through the images of the young female musicians, they are encouraged to develop anorexic tendencies therefore creating body images issues in young girls. Hobbs (2011) notes that young girls evaluate their bodies within the context of their culture, which is mostly informed by the young musicians.
The negative effects of sexualization are not only limited to girls as young boys are also introduced to habits such as “checking out a girl” and they learn to view women as objects of pleasure at an early age. Objectification and sexualization plays an important role in facilitate acts of violence against women.
This is because when a person has been objectified, their perceived moral status is reduced and this precipitates less moral treatment of the objectified other. Loughnan et al. (2010) suggest that objectification contributes to the perpetration of violence since when a person is objectified, they are depersonalized and it is easier to treat them in a depraved manner.
Sexual objectification by young musicians also creates a distorted view of female sexuality and encourages interpersonal violence in sexual relationships. When female musicians engage in the sexual objectification of their bodies through the print ads, they create a negative perception among men. Aubrey, Hopper and Mbure (2011) suggest that an adversarial sexual belief is developed by young men who perceive that women use their bodies and sexuality to manipulate men.
Not sure if you can write a paper on The Sexualization and Objectification of Young Female Musicians in Print Ads by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Such a mentality increases the rates of sexual harassment that women in society experience since sexually aggression related attitudes are fostered. A study by Burgess and Burpo (2012) revealed that viewing highly sexualized portrayals of female artists by college males led to a higher acceptability of date rapes.
An even more troubling result of the sexualization of young musicians is that it promotes pedophilia. Some of the musicians who are sexualized and objectified through print ads are in their teenage years. Their images perpetuate the “grooming of children for pedophiles” (Egan
Strategic Audit: Home Depot Inc. Report writing essay help: writing essay help
Current Situation Home Depot Inc has grown tremendously since its inception back in the 1970’s when it was formed by three business executives who had left Handy Dan Stores. Then the company had only one store and annual earnings of $ 23M; however now the company has grown and is one of the largest retailer and installer of home improvement appliances serving individuals and professional customers.
The company’s founder retired back in the year 2000 after opening the 1000th store and Bob Nardelli was appointed C.E.O. This move has proved highly decisive because since then the company has even performed better. The new C.E.O has overseen the opening of over 900 stores and is prospective to open the 2000th store soon.
The retailer is now among the top 3 retailers in the world behind Wal-Mart, though it is the Americas’ largest Home Improvement selling company (Wheelen
IMAX Analysis Case Study argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
Table of Contents Company, customers, competitors, and context
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
IMAX’s marketing strategy and why it is changing
Whether the changes have been effective
Company, customers, competitors, and context IMAX is a large format film production company that has a presence in approximately 40 countries. It focuses on film production, theatre operations and IMAX systems sales. Initially, the company was a niche player that produced and displayed educational films and documentaries; this explains why most of its theatres were located in museums, aquariums and similar educational institutions.
However, currently the company is changing that strategy by displaying Hollywood movies in IMAX format and moving its theatre locations to other places other than educational institutions. The company’s customers range from educational institutions, conservatories, museums, theatre owners, individual movie lovers, tourists and film distributors.
Since the company converts films to IMAX formats, then it can either sell the systems to theater owners or lease them out. Here, typical clients include Regal cinemas and AMC. Movie lovers are also another client base for the organization. These are individuals who enjoy movies immensely such that they do not mind watching it again in a new format.
Most of them are educated and earn medium to high incomes. They appreciate the uniqueness that IMAX movies provide with regard to 3D movies. Therefore, many of them do not mind paying extra for this exclusive experience. Another category of customers are the educational, historical and scientific institutions. Usually, these buyers stock IMAX movies for the purpose of showing them to information seekers.
These corporations make IMAX a niche player owing to their focus on educational material. They are responsible for bringing the company’s name to the fore in terms of this need. On the other hand, IMAX also displays educational films in its own theatres. Therefore, non institutional clients also account for a large share of the firm’s sales. These include tourists, students and families (Nair 3).
Key competitors for IMAX include studios that make educational films, producers that target similar demographics like children. One such group is Disney, which offers serious competition to IMAX’s family films. The company also faces stiff competition from large format service providers like Iwerks. The later company not only produces but also displays large format films.
Another entity called Pollavisation also helps large format theatres maximize their service output. Competitors also exist in other related industries such as DVDs, TV programs and the internet. Alternative sources of entertainment drive away potential consumers who may prefer the conveniences and affordability of these sources.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats One of the major strengths exhibited by the company is its investment in technology. Prior to introduction of 3D films, the organization worked on its projection systems such that their images became sharper and brighter than those found in other movie theatres. Additionally, the firm has a strong research and development team that was responsible for the perfection of the 3D systems.
In film production, the company leverages on its strong brand name to minimize production costs. Unlike conventional studios that have to hire famous stars to promote their films, the business often pegs on its unique brand image. Additionally, it does not have to use conventional marketing channels to sell its movies because other parties do it for them.
For instance, when showing Hollywood movies, customers will come to watch the films in IMAX’s theatres owing to movie producers’ campaigns. By riding on other people’s marketing efforts, the organization minimizes its overhead and increases profitability. Additionally, the company does not have to use aggressive marketing because movies can stay within their libraries for years on end.
Another strength that IMAX can boast about is its unique location. Most IMAX theaters are found in areas of great historical value, such as New Jersey’s Liberty Science Center. In this regard, many potential clients can identify with the organization and thus purchase their services. The firm is also a niche player in the family entertainment sector. It has leveraged on parent’s inclinations to develop their children’s intellectual capabilities.
A need exists for education and entertainment for children, and this is available at IMAX theatres. In the theatre systems supplies sector, IMAX’s key strength is its commitment to quality. The organization maintains theatre systems for its suppliers regularly and projected maintenance updates are always quite accurately. Besides this, the organization offers advice on how to maintain those theatre supplies thus building trust among its consumers and ensuring repeat business from them.
One of the major weaknesses for the organization is its high level of expenditure and hence debt. Production and distribution of films is always a costly affair as it is technology – intensive. IMAX has had to pay a lot of money upfront before undertaking a new technology endeavor and this has increased its debts. Additionally, the organization depends on the success of its theater owners, yet their industry is quite risky.
Prior to the mortgage crisis, the theatre owners over expanded in order to accommodate IMAX’s projection systems, but this plunged them into debt. Their situations affected their ability to honor pledges made to IMAX thus dragging IMAX along with them. Opportunities for the organization include partnerships with more theatre owners to offer movies in IMAX format.
We will write a custom Case Study on IMAX Analysis specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Currently, the organization has partnered with theatre owners like AMC to offer its film in 3D. In return, the company will benefit by sharing revenue generated from their ticket sales. If the firm liaises with other theatre owners, it could increase its reach without having to run theatres on a daily basis. The company simply needs to be involved in the initial set ups; other aspects of sales should be left to partnering firms.
It needs to refrain from selling its systems to theatres as this only yields one-time only revenue streams. Making long-term agreements with the organizations can lead to long term sources of revenue. In essence, expansion of its Hollywood movie conversion portfolio could lead to greater profit margins and long term sustainability.
Additionally, the company needs to convince movie studios to release their films simultaneously in IMAX format as well as the traditional format. Some studios may worry that traditional film formats will not do as well if releases are done in both layouts. However, IMAX should use past successes on such simultaneous premieres to convince them about the viability of the idea (Nair 8).
Key threats for the company include the threat of vertical integration. Several entities in the production and distribution business are merging with members of the supply chain. For instance, Miramax has been vertically-integrated into Disent while Columbia Pictures is a subsidiary of Sony. As a result, these conglomerates have substantial control over the production process.
They can make movies at more efficient rates than IMAX and this poses a serious threat to the company. It must decide whether it is feasible to stay independent or merge with a larger production firm. Additionally, the company faces a serious threat from educational film makers as competitors are numerous and prospects for recovery of investments are also minimal.
Estimates indicate that only three-fifths of all movies recover the initial investment they made in production of the film. Therefore, profit margins in the IMAX film production department are diminishing owing to increased competition as well as risks of production. Other organizations in the film education niche are also offering similar services to IMAX, and this could undercut their competitive advantage.
A company like Pollavisation now does consulting and maintenance of large format films, yet this is a core aspect of IMAX’s business portfolio. Other threats also exist for the organization in different industries. The proliferation of the internet has intensified cases of piracy. Customers may choose to watch a film on the internet rather than watch it in IMAX theatres.
Additionally, technology development is also a threat to the organization because it enables new film entrants (like Pixar) to leverage on cheaper equipment. This could increase competition for the company. Piracy through camera recordings at theatres may also threaten the viability of IMAX’s offerings.
Not sure if you can write a paper on IMAX Analysis by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Lobbyists may also act as deterrents to the organization when they object against some of the films that IMAX displays. They may oppose the use of vulgar language or obscenities found in these films. IMAX will need to consider these concerns if it plans on increasing the number of Hollywood film conversions.
IMAX objectives IMAX’s first objective is to increase its profit margins by expanding into multiplexes and diversifying its product range by offering its films in IMAX format. After conducting an analysis on the average demographics of movie goers in its facilities, the company realized that it was missing the mark as most of its customers fell outside this bracket.
It was essential to come up with a strategy that would bring this key demographic under their wing. Statistics indicate that a fifth of IMAX’s consumers are school groups. Additionally, most of them fall within the 19 to 65 age bracket.
Conversely, the age group that accounts for the highest feature film attendance is the 12-24 year-old group. Additionally, they accounted for 41% of all movie attendants. It was essential to create a business strategy that would attract such a group (Nair 15).
IMAX’s marketing strategy and why it is changing The company utilized its partners’ marketing efforts to sell its products. Furthermore, it took advantage of location to sell its offerings to consumers. For instance, the company partnered with successful institutions like the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago in order to make it stand out from the rest. Clients came to trust its films through its affiliation to these institutions.
Their marketing efforts would cause clients to try out their products as well. The company also had sales teams in key destinations such as the US, Canada, China, Europe and Japan. The teams were responsible for the sale of theatre systems. Films were not part of the product package as they were sold independently to the partnering firms.
Little marketing was involved as IMAX already established long term relationships with these institutions. Additionally, the continual availability of the movies in IMAX theatres was a way of selling the product continually to the market; they were always assured of finding the product there.
This reliance on educational institutions for marketing is changing dramatically. Now the company is relying on marketing strategies made by Hollywood studios. Prior to the release of a film, most organizations will use internet websites, television advertisements, the press and commercials in order to market their films. If IMAX plans on showing a Hollywood movie in IMAX format, then it also relies on these marketing channels to sell the film.
Some studies often liaise with restaurant chains like McDonalds and other commercial enterprises to promote an upcoming film. Additionally, several of these institutions also rely on the presence of celebrities to promote a film. If IMAX plans on showing the film on concurrent dates with the traditional formats, then similar marketing channels will be utilized.
Aside from other studio’s marketing efforts, the company has also invested in its own marketing efforts. The company used conventional marketing channels like television for its Everest movie. Additionally, the organization is collaborating with some partners to promote its films in public venues.
A case in point was its collaboration of Showtime, which promoted the film T-Rex at stores affiliated to Imaginarium in US malls. As result, the company’s income increased substantially. The traditional IMAX approach is currently changing because of the strategic shift to more conventional films. Additionally, the company has realized that it needs to be aggressive about staying in business, and this explains its strategic shift.
Whether the changes have been effective The new approach seems to be working because box office sales for marketed films are much higher than sales for un-marketed films. Additionally, using other studio’s marketing campaigns to sell IMAX converted films appears to be working as well. When IMAX and multiplex screens released the film “The Day the Earth Stood Still” box office sales reaches a soaring $31 million.
Analysts state that this was the highest rate ever reported on an opening weekend. 12% of the sales were attributed to IMAX. Other theatres made average sales of $8,100, yet each IMAX theatre made approximately $ 30, 800. This indicates that using other studios’ marketing strategies is working. Nonetheless, the organization can still do a lot to change the way it markets its own films.
Additionally, it may also develop its own advertisements for IMAX format Hollywood films. The marketing plan will entail five aspects. The first part of the plan is conducting audience research. The company needs to carry out this aspect in order to know the most effective release dates as well as the best way of reaching their clients (Wasko
The Asian Tigers Financial Crises Essay best college essay help
Table of Contents An overview of the Asian Tigers financial crises
The Asian tigers’ growth strategy before crisis
The pre-crisis growth strategy
Productivity, human capital, and investments
The consequences of the 1997 Asian Financial Meltdown
Changes in the post-crisis growth strategy
An overview of the Asian Tigers financial crises The occurrence of the financial crunch stormed the South East Asia Tigers economies from mid 1997 to early 1998. The world most impressive and highest economic development rates were listed in South East Asian republic of South Korea, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand in the past decades.
From the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the compounded economies of these nations expanded to nine point five percent form six point five percent (6.50%-9.50%). However, owing to the implosion of the currency and local stock bazaars of these countries in the fiscal 1997, the appearance of the Asian wonder came to a sudden stop.
Approximately more than 71.0% worth of stock markets in various Asian Tigers states was lost at a time when the dust of financial crisis started to calm down in early 1998. The frontrunners of these nation states that were at one time full of pride had to humbly strive for an enormous aid from the IMF (Corsetti, Pesenti
Rumsfeld’s Memo argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
The grotesque fear of terrorism continues to elicit much attention in the public domain, particularly after the 9/11 terrorist attacks on American soil demonstrated that terrorist attacks can no longer be perceived as isolated, far-away, or unavoidably rare events. Various multi-faceted campaigns against terrorism have been ongoing for the past one decade, but opinion remains divided on whether the global war on terrorism is achieving desired outcomes.
By using the popular Rumsfeld memo of 2003 as the basis of this presentation, this paper aims to not only outline some of the metrics showing that the war on terrorism is being won, but also to espouse several recommendations necessary in order to effectively suppress terrorism.
In the memo addressed to a number of military and civilian personnel, Rumsfeld felt that the U.S. initiated war on terrorism was, at best, achieving mixed results. The then secretary of Defense felt that an organization as huge as the DOD was unable to tame the techniques used by contemporary terrorists since it could not change fast enough.
Hence the need to establish a new institution that faultlessly focuses the capacities of several departments and agencies on the challenge of global terrorism (USA Today, 2005). Rumsfeld expressed the need to come up with the right mix of rewards, amnesty, safety and confidence for people who may assist in suppressing terrorism through sharing of information.
To win the war on global terrorism, the secretary also expressed the need for DOD to design new techniques to organize, train, and equip military personnel, the need to develop metrics to show if the U.S. was winning or losing the global war on terrorism, and the need to come up with a broad, integrated plan that could be employed to stop the next generation of terrorists (USA Today, 2005).
The recent killing of Osama bin Laden by American elite forces demonstrates that the war on global terrorism is being won, albeit slowly. Rumsfeld was right in expressing the need to come up with new ways of rewarding and protecting those who provide information about terrorists (USA Today, 2005), as it can be recalled that it is through information sharing that Osama was finally clipped.
By sending more troops to countries that are traditionally known to support terrorist networks (United States Department of Defense, 2006), it can be argued that the U.S. has to some extent succeeded in disempowering terrorism operatives from willingly planning and executing terrorist activities. This is in line with Rumsfeld’s suggestion in the memo that the DOD need to come up with new ways to organize, train and equip its personnel to be successful in the war on global terrorism.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Today, the U.S. still maintains a heavy presence of military personnel in Afghanistan and Iraq, and this strategy has borne fruits in terms of restricting terrorists to have a safe haven from where they can plan and launch terrorist attacks. A number of top-ranking terrorists are either dead or languishing in prisons (Apostolou, n.d.). Consequently, it can be argued that this strategy has succeeded in reducing the terrorists’ scale of planning and executing attacks.
There have been suggestions that the U.S. obsession with Iraq weakened the fight against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan (United States Department of Defense, 2006). Rumsfeld memo is clear that the U.S. need to come up with a broad, integrated plan that could be used to stop the next generation of terrorists (USA Today, 2005).
Such a broad plan, it could be argued, entails targeting terrorist operatives in entirety, not just focusing on one location. The knowledge that Iraq under President Saddam Hussein was a safe haven for terrorist networks is in the public domain. After the U.S. initiated a regime change in Iraq and sustained its efforts to smoke out, capture or kill terrorists in Afghanistan, there has not been a single terrorist attack on U.S. soil since the September 2001 attacks (Gardiner, 2008).
Information sharing among countries committed to fight global terrorism has so far succeeded in stopping the terrorists on their tracks. These are yet other metrics that can be used to show the war on global terrorism is being won, and they can in one way or another be credited to Rumsfeld’s suggestion about the need to come up with broad, integrated plans to stop the new blend of terrorists.
An integrative approach on fighting global terrorism, as suggested by Rumsfeld in the memo, has also succeeded in rallying more counties around the main objective of fighting global terrorism. A metric that can be used to reinforce this assertion is that countries that have been traditionally viewed as offering either moral or material support to the terrorists are now “…tackling the terrorism that lurks within [their] borders” (Apostolou, n.d., p. 2).
This, according to the author, is a point in the right direction. To keep winning the war on global terrorism, the U.S. needs to stay on the offensive and elevate preemptive strikes against terrorist targets with a view to either kill the operatives or keep them on the run (Apostolou, n.d.). Several issues, however, need to be incorporated in the war on global terrorism to keep it on track.
It is known that this war has received much criticism from some quarters due to a lack of clear understanding on its dynamics and challenges (United States Department of Defense, 2006). As such, the U.S. government needs to develop effective communication mechanisms by which the public can be helped to understand the basics and rationale of the conflict (Apostolou, n.d).
We will write a custom Essay on Rumsfeld’s Memo
Development of an Online Business Expansion for Mercy Hospital in Miami, Florida Proposal online essay help
Viability of the Product Healthcare is one of the most important aspects of the social life of a human being. Mercy Hospital in Miami, Florida offers a product that is considered a basic need in the lives of people who live around this place, as well as visitors coming from other parts of the world.
Given the fact that Catholic Church owns the hospital under the Augustinian mission, it is expected to serve various clients, some of whom may come from regions outside Florida. Healthcare is very important and various facilities offering this product have come out strongly to improve their services to customers. This product is very sensitive because any little mistake committed by the doctor or a nurse in charge may be fatal.
It is therefore very important for the concerned individuals to use appropriate equipments that would ensure that services delivered to customers are of high quality. This firm has a website that helps it reach out to clients both within Florida and abroad. This website helps in communicating with the clients in order to understand the status of the firm.
The website must reflect the current condition of the firm. It would be illogical for the firm to advance without showing the advancement on its website. It is therefore a necessity for the management to ensure that the website is changed regularly to reflect the status of the firm. According to Salehnia (2002), online business has gained a lot of popularity in the past one decade.
Firms have come to realize that the best way to reach out to customers is through online means. With the changes taking place in the social structure in most societies around the world, women are also becoming breadwinners in their families. This means that most families do not have time to go around shopping for items they need.
They prefer searching for the desired products online while at work or at home. They do not mind the distance because with improved transport means, geographical barriers have been eliminated. When Mercy Hospitals fails to go online, a patient in Florida may fly all the way to Illinois, Chicago, or Alabama for a treatment that would have been offered at this hospital.
Going online is therefore a move that any firm cannot ignore. Marketing is gaining a new approach in the current society. Immediately after the Second World War, most companies had huge markets in the developing countries. The level of competition was very low and firms only worried about production. Marketing was considered a unit in the production department.
Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours Learn More Most firms used an inside out approach as a technique of marketing. However, this has changed with the changing environmental factors. Going online has its pros and cons. When a firm makes the decision to go online, there would be extra charges that the firm would have to meet in order to be successful in managing online business.
The cost of hosting and maintaining a website is an extra cost that would have been used elsewhere if this option were not considered. Cyber crimes are other challenges that Mercy Hospital must be ready to deal with. Cyber criminals are increasingly becoming sophisticated. They use advanced technology to hack into sensitive information belonging to the organization.
This can result to massive distortion of information belonging to the firm. They can also add or delete some information on the website, leading to miscommunication between the firm and the targeted audience. Depending on the magnitude of the distortion, the impact would vary. This may injure the image of the firm in the corporate world.
The firm would be tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that the website is protected from intruders. Despite these challenges, online business has become increasingly important to firms, especially in developed countries such as the United States. Most citizens in this country have internet connectivity through their phones or personal computers.
Going online would help a firm reach out to customers who are beyond their immediate environment. It helps in marketing products to individuals around the world. Online business also eliminates the need for a physical facility in every part of the city. Clients could easily communicate with the firm online and then fly to the firm’s facility. Alternatively, a doctor could be sent as may be appropriate.
Current Online Competitor Assessment Baptist Health in South Florida is one of the rivals of Mercy Hospital. The market place has shifted attention to e-business as a way of expanding growth. Competition is so stiff in the market to an extent that any slight misstep may lead to a closure of a firm permanently. Firms are therefore forced to come up with mechanisms through which they could remain competitive in the market.
Just like Mercy Hospital, Baptist Health is sponsored by a church. This means that none of the two firms may claim to have a competitive edge over the other because of their sponsors. Other firms within this region boast of state-of-the-art facilities in their hospitals. The firms have gone online. In this regard, Baptist Health is keen on attracting online customers.
We will write a custom Proposal on Development of an Online Business Expansion for Mercy Hospital in Miami, Florida specifically for you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More With a phone or a personal computer with internet connectivity, a customer could easily get in touch with a doctor and get his case resolved. Mercy Hospital enjoys the fact that there are no other major hospitals in Miami marketing themselves to international clients. Narrowing down the region to Miami area leaves Mercy Hospital with three closest competitors.
The competitors are Shiners International, International Florida Hospital, and International Program Broward Health. The main economic activity in Miami is tourism. International tourists from various corners of the world always visit this city throughout the year. It is common that weather changes always have an impact on the health of tourists.
They therefore always try to ensure that they get a hospital where they could be attended to when in this city. Mercy Hospital operates internationally. The hospital has travel specialists who coordinate the entry of visitors into the country, assist patients to make bookings, conduct interpretation if there is need, and ensure that patients get up to date services in this hospital.
Mercy Hospital faces a challenge from three competitors who have developed their websites and can now reach out to the online clients. The firms include Shiners International, International Florida Hospital, and International Program Broward Health. International Florida Hospital has a website that explains various facts about the firm. Moreover, the customer could access the facility through the help of professionals.
However, it lacks a number of important ingredients. The website lacks enough graphics that could help convince clients to make the hospital their preferred choice. The case is the same with International Program Broward Health. However, Shiners international has made an effort to develop a good website that could attract clients. However, the facility only serves children.
The competitors of Mercy Hospitals are health facilities within the entire Florida, and more specifically in Miami. These firms share some the general objectives concerning conducting business online. The following are some of these objectives.
Ability to develop a strong social media marketing techniques
Ability of customers to pay for the products they plan to purchase online
Ability to have a system that is interactive with the customers
The need to grow and capture international markets
Online Marketing Suggestions and Strategies The target market for Mercy Hospital varies in their demographic qualities. Although the hospital has a large customer base from local residents of Miami and the larger Florida, a good number of customers of this hospital are travelers. The hospital receives a high number of travelers who come from various regions around the world and need medical attention while on vacation.
These clients are international patients who require care in the United States. Some of the areas where this firm has received a large number of international patients include cardiac complications, orthopedics, cancer, rehabilitation, and behavioral health. The firm has received an influx of international clients who believe that the hospital has the best capacity to offer them solutions to their problems.
Not sure if you can write a paper on Development of an Online Business Expansion for Mercy Hospital in Miami, Florida by yourself? We can help you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This hospital has decided to take care of patients in this area because they are the main customers of this facility. The services can also be marketed in the international market easily. Cardiac complication is very sensitive and various hospitals around the world have shied away from offering its treatment. It requires state-of-the-art machines in order to be successful.
This makes Mercy Hospital one of the few hospitals that offer this service. Cancer infections are also on the rise globally. Treatment of cancer is also delicate and very expensive. The management decided to focus on these complex diseases because of the limited facilities that offer its treatment. Most of the travelers who come to Miami have the capacity to pay for the expensive cost of treating these complex diseases.
Developing a competitive advantage is one of the important achievements in a business setting. It helps a business unit to show up above others implying that it would be perceived as an organization that has the capability to provide customers with pleasure in the best way possible. As stated above, the target audiences are travelers who come to Miami as travelers, as well as the residents of Florida.
The hospital targets the middle and upper class individuals who have the capacity to afford the high cost that the firm charges. Mercy Hospital has made an effort to ensure that it can attract potential clients from various regions across the world. Product proposition is always the best way that a firm could acquire a special niche in the market and stand out as the best firm.
To manage this, Mercy Hospital should focus on the quality of the services they provide other than the cost. It should use social media alongside mass media in reaching out to the customers. This way, it would be appealing to the middle and upper class clients who could pay premium prices for better healthcare. To improve customer experience, the management should consider offering recreational services to both the patients and their families when they visit the facility.
Miami is one of the most preferred recreational centers in the world. Patients and their families should experience this even when under medication. When making changes on the website, it is important to let customers and even non-customers know about it. They should be informed about the added quality following the changes made.
A number of online strategies that a firm could use to let customers know about these changes exist (Salehnia, 2002). Search engine optimization is one of the best online strategies that a firm could use to reach out to the customers with this news. In this strategy, the firm will need to create product-specific page with all the new features and the desired communication to the target audience.
The page should have necessary photos and various other features that are distinct from the previous website. The firm should ensure that the page is coded appropriately for search, with key words, header text, title tags, and unique URL. This would benefit the firm because those who would key-in the key words would be directed to this site, and this would be a form of advertisement.
To the customers, it would easily allow them access to important information about their firm without struggling to look for the changes. Another good approach is by using e-mail marketing. This strategy is appropriate when dealing with customers that have close relationship with the firm. In this strategy, the firm would develop appropriate messages concerning the changes made on the product.
The firm would then select customers and other specific individuals who should be receiving the message. The firm would then send a message to these individuals via their e-mails over the changes made on the website. This strategy is very beneficial to both the firm and the customers. To the firm, the management would be assured that the message would reach the target audience.
It also helps the firm assure its customers that it cares about them by sending them a message about changes made. The customer will benefit from the fact that the message will reach him or her promptly. Online advertising is another strategy that can be used to inform the target audience of the changes that could have taken place within the firm.
Such tools as Google Ad Words could be useful in reaching out to the target audience directly. This strategy is always very useful when the firm targets a large target audience. The marketing department should conduct a research and determine blogs, which are most widely read in that particular industry. The firm would benefit from this move because it would not only be developing a relationship with the customers, but also helping the firm develop a close relationship with the bloggers.
A social network form is another attractive strategy through which this firm could reach out to the target audience. The world is changing very fast due to the changes brought about by advanced technologies. Smartphone and personal computers have become basic items in the lives of many youths. Many youths visit various social sites on a daily basis.
Facebook has a fan base of more than one billion people. This cuts across various demographic spaces, with a majority being youths from various social statuses. YouTube has almost a similar number of users, with over eight hundred others on Tweeter. Various individuals use other social sites.
When a firm makes a decision to use this site, it would be certain that it would be in a position to reach out to a large number of people through these networks. Customers would also be able to reach out to this information with a lot of ease. They could get the message from friends who are also on Facebook.
Search Engine Consideration and Optimization Strategies Building of links is very important. According to Kidd and Stanford (2000), it is always important to understand the concept of link building in order to ensure that popularity of a link is upgraded instead of being degraded. It is important to ensure that the number and quality of links pointing towards the website are highly maintained.
The ultimate aim is to ensure that the traffic into the website is kept as high as could be possible. In order to increase popularity of a webpage, it would be important to consider raising the graph with the relevant search engine. Search engine optimization is very important. The ultimate aim of any firm across the world is to ensure that it is able to develop a webpage that could be accessed by a large number of people.
However, it is important to appreciate the fact that firms find it extremely difficult to obtain this attention on their website. For instance, the key word for this firm is Mercy Hospital. When an individual searches this key word through Google, various hospitals with the Name Mercy Hospital appears, including Mercy Medical Center in Springfield, Massachusetts.
Mercy Hospital in Miami, Florida would be concerned about the fact that Mercy Medical Center is given priority when one uses the key word Mercy Hospital. Using the key word Mercy Hospital would not direct an individual to the web page of this firm easily, unless one adds the word ‘Miami’. The question that concerned individuals at Mercy Hospital in Miami is how Mercy Medical Center has come to dominate the search engine.
By answering this question, it becomes easy for the firm to consider coming up with strategies for optimization of the search engine. The first strategy is to improve the suitability of the stuff that is directed to the readers. It is important to appreciate the fact that there are millions of websites available through various search engines.
The first determinant of whether or not there would be traffic to a certain website is the popularity of the stuff directed to the readers. The readers must find the stuff attractive to them in order to ignore other sites and visit this particular site. This means that the firm must first ensure that the product targeted to customers is attractive.
The firm should then use attractive key words to direct customers to their websites. Such words for Mercy Hospital may include ‘the best healthcare’, ‘world class treatment’ and many others. This would help in ensuring that that the firm’s website would always be found on the first or second page of search engines such as Google, Yahoo, and Bing. Once on the website, an individual should be able to find attractive content on the website.
This should include graphics that show the facilities and the team in this firm. To the company, the strategy would increase traffic on the site, making the firm known widely. To the customer, they would benefit from the fact that they would be able to access their desired site without having to navigate a large volume of irrelevant materials.
Another strategy would be to use social media websites to promote a firm’s own website. The ultimate aim of this firm is to ensure that as many people as possible will access the website. A potential client may not have the slightest idea that there is an excellent hospital in Miami called Mercy Hospital. Social media will provide an opportunity for the firm to make the name of the hospital be known.
Such social media websites as Facebook, YouTube, and Tweeter will provide the best opportunity for the firm to popularize itself to the target audience. Through these sites, it is possible for the firm to give the readers direct link to its website. The strategy is beneficial to the firm because it allows it to reach over one billion individuals who are on Facebook.
A client who was wondering where he or she could get the best treatment will be relieved when given the details of where to get the service. Using the referral strategy can also help a firm to get the attention needed in the search engines. The value of the referrals cannot be ignored if a firm expects success in drawing attention of viewers. Cyber crime has made people very weary of the information that is available in the search engines.
When a friend or a family member recommends a site, an individual will have a strong trust on the site. Such an individual will ignore any other sites, and focus on the specific site, which was recommended. Viral marketing is an important strategy that various firms have found to be relevant in the market today. This will allow the firm to get individuals who have a purpose of visiting the site.
Turning them into potential clients is easier than those who accidentally bumped into the site. To the firm, this strategy will have a direct bearing on increasing the number of customers. To the customers, the strategy is always trustworthy because a trusted individual has recommended it.
Social Media Integration Social media has become an important tool in marketing a brand and products of a firm. When Facebook was launched about six years ago, many corporate leaders never imagined that it could turn out to be of massive importance in the corporate sector. It was considered as a social network for youths, specifically those who had time to waste in the internet.
However, this perception changed as Facebook continued attractive massive number of people from all corners of the world. With the increased sophistication in the field of technology, most phones became internet enabled just to allow users to access Facebook. Personal computers also became cheaper. Other social media such of YouTube and Tweeter also became common and very popular.
Corporate leaders realized that they could no longer ignore the potential of the social media. They realized that the best way they could reach out for the customers would be through social media. Large multinational corporations such as Coca Cola and Apple moved with speed to reach out for the customers through social media. Social media has found new role other than the initial role it had.
Besides the role of social networking, social media has become a vital tool for firms to market their brands and products. It has enhanced viral marketing as a strategy of increasing customer base of a firm. Currently, a number of social media that firms use as a way of reaching out for the customers exist. They include Facebook, YouTube Tweeter, and MySpace among others.
Facebook has the highest number of subscribers of all the social networks. According to (Holden